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Sample records for factors increasing milk

  1. MILK WITH INCREASED CONCENTRATION OF MELATONIN PACKAGING FACTORS ON CONSUMER PURCHASE INTENTION

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    Maria Patricia Milagres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conjoint analysis of factors was used employed to develop a label for the packaging of milk with increased concentration of melatonin. Three factors were selected with three or two levels for the assembly of packaging: packaging design (“blue design with stars and pouring milk”, “white without drawing” and “blue stars with and without drawing”, name (“milk night “and” melatonin “ and informative text about getting natural melatonin by night milking, and the benefits of this compound (“with” and “without”. Twelve packaging designs were created based on a complete factorial arrangement. The designs were presented to 144 consumers who were asked to assess purchase intent of each package. For the joint analysis of factors, the ideal product or more likely to purchase for the most consumers would be blue with stars and packaging design of milk pouring, named milk night and in the presence of informational text, demonstrating that consumers like a package that brings the product and that contains information described. Therefore, the packaging has a major influence on consumer choice and can contribute positively or negatively to the acceptance of food.

  2. Milk consumption during pregnancy increases birth weight, a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization.

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    Melnik, Bodo C; John, Swen Malte; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-16

    Antenatal dietary lifestyle intervention and nutrition during pregnancy and early postnatal life are important for appropriate lifelong metabolic programming. Epidemiological evidence underlines the crucial role of increased birth weight as a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases of civilization such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Obstetricians and general practitioners usually recommend milk consumption during pregnancy as a nutrient enriched in valuable proteins and calcium for bone growth. However, milk is not just a simple nutrient, but has been recognized to function as an endocrine signaling system promoting anabolism and postnatal growth by activating the nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1. Moreover, pasteurized cow's milk transfers biologically active exosomal microRNAs into the systemic circulation of the milk consumer apparently affecting more than 11,000 human genes including the mTORC1-signaling pathway. This review provides literature evidence and evidence derived from translational research that milk consumption during pregnancy increases gestational, placental, fetal and birth weight. Increased birth weight is a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization thus involving key disciplines of medicine. With regard to the presented evidence we suggest that dietary recommendations promoting milk consumption during pregnancy have to be re-evaluated.

  3. The age of cows as a factor shaping the antioxidant level during a nutritional experiment with fish oil and linseed supplementation for increasing the antioxidant value of milk.

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    Puppel, Kamila; Nałecz-Tarwacka, Teresa; Kuczyńska, Beata; Gołebiewski, Marcin; Kordyasz, Marta; Grodzki, Henryk

    2012-09-01

    So far, in research studies, the age of cows has not been considered as a factor that may influence the changes in the content of milk ingredients with antioxidant properties modified by the feed supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of supplementation on the content of ingredients having antioxidant properties and to determine the influence of the age of cows taking part in the experiment on these changes. The experiment was conducted using 20 Polish Holstein Friesian cows, 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous. The combined supplementation of fish oil and linseed constituted the experimental factor. The milk of primiparous cows after 21 days of supplementation was characterised by a higher content of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, α-retinol, α-tocopherol and β-lactoglobulin compared to the milk of multiparous cows, in which a higher level of lactoferrin, C20:5 and β-carotene was recorded. In both groups an increase in the total antioxidant status was noted (a higher level in the milk of primiparous cows). Modification of the diet of cows with fish oil and linseed significantly influenced antioxidant properties of their milk; however, the response of multiparous and primaparous cows was noticeably different to the supplement introduced. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The effect of milk and milk proteins on risk factors of metabolic syndrome in overweight adolecents

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    Arnberg, Karina

    skimmed milk, whey, casein or water for three months. The background for the intervention is that milk is an important source of protein in the Western diet and epidemiological studies in children have shown that children drinking low amounts of milk have higher concentrations of the metabolic risk...... factors than children having a high milk intake. The aim of the intervention study was to examine whether it is beneficial for overweight adolescents with a habitual low milk intake to increase the consumption of low fat milk and whether a potential beneficial effect is caused by whey or casein. The data...... from the intervention study showed that skimmed milk, whey and casein increased the age-adjusted BMI despite that there were no changes in energy intake. Also, the whey and casein group had increased insulin secretion measured by the C-peptide concentration. The results also showed that a high intake...

  5. Is there a feeding strategy to increase milk casein content?

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    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Because more than 60% of milk produced in Italy is transformed into cheese, milk economical value strongly depends on cheese yield. Among the factors that influence cheese yield, milk casein and fat content plays a major role: when milk is converted into Grana Padano and Parmigiano reggiano, three grams of seasoned cheese are produced from one gram of milk casein.....

  6. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  7. Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk

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    Zrinka Čačić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC. Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activity and, milking. A farmer (milk producer himself can control a great number of environmental factors using good management practise and permanent education. Since SCC participate in creating the price of milk, it is necessary to inform milk producers how to organise their production so that they would produce maximum quantity of good hygienic quality milk.

  8. Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk

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    Rubporn Kittivachra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

  9. MILK CANDIES WITH INCREASED SHELF LIFE

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    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  10. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors.

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    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules (eg, lactoferrin) are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing.

  11. Derivation of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked three times daily

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    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked three times (3x) per d. Milk weights for all three milkings were recorded automatically by 8 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors on test-day. Following edits, 196,725...

  12. The effect of milk and milk proteins on risk factors of metabolic syndrome in overweight adolecents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina

    of type-2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Overweight children have higher concentrations of the metabolic syndrome risk factors than normal weight children and the pathological condition underlying cardiovascular diseases, called atherosclerosis, seems to start in childhood. A well...... in the adolescents. The analyses showed that increased physical activity was related to an improved arterial function whereas central adiposity and a high protein intake were related to increased arterial stiffness. In the intervention study, the adolescents with habitual low milk intakes were randomized to drink 1L...... factors than children having a high milk intake. The aim of the intervention study was to examine whether it is beneficial for overweight adolescents with a habitual low milk intake to increase the consumption of low fat milk and whether a potential beneficial effect is caused by whey or casein. The data...

  13. Emoticon use Increases Plain Milk and Vegetable Purchase in a School Cafeteria without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase.

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    Siegel, Robert M; Anneken, Amy; Duffy, Christopher; Simmons, Kenya; Hudgens, Michelle; Kate Lockhart, Mary; Shelly, Jessica

    2015-09-01

    Choosing poor-quality foods in school cafeterias is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Given the option, children often select chocolate milk over plain white milk. Efforts to increase plain white milk selection, such as banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias, increases plain white fat-free milk (PWFFM) purchase but decreases the overall milk purchase. The purpose of this study was to determine whether emoticon placement next to healthful foods would increase healthful purchases, particularly PWFFM. In an inner city elementary school with 297 children, "Green Smiley Face" emoticons were placed to encourage the purchase of healthful foods including an entrée with whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and PWFFM. Purchase data were obtained from cash register receipts. Differences were analyzed by χ(2) Care and Statistical Process Control (SPC) and Graphical Methods. Only 7.4% of students selected white milk at baseline compared with 17.9% after the emoticons were placed (P 8 points above the mean). The addition of emoticons increases the purchase of PWFFM and vegetables in a school cafeteria setting without adversely affecting total milk sales. Emoticons offer a practical, low-cost means to improve food selection by children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Income Optimization of Dairy Farm to Increase National Milk Production

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    Uka Kusnadi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The program to improve national milk production over the past years has not been well targeted. This is indicated by the slow increase of dairy population and milk production that could not meet the increasing demand. It should be apparently focus on income generation of dairy farmers to increase their welfare so that they are willing to improve their dairy business that will affect national milk production. Implementation of economical dairy management and technology, could increase milk production, hence improve the farmer’s income. This could be done through several ways, i.e.: economical dairy composition, optimization of dry period and improvement milk hygiene. All these aspects including technical aspect are discussed in this paper. Apart from above, income optimalization could also be done by reducing the price of feed concentrate, raising only productive dairy cows and managing milk cooperative efficiently.

  15. Milk immunoglobulins and complement factors.

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    Korhonen, H; Marnila, P; Gill, H S

    2000-11-01

    The importance of colostrum for the growth and health of newborn offspring is well known. In bovine colostrum, the antibody (immunoglobulin) complement system provides a major antimicrobial effect against a wide range of microbes and confers passive immunity until the calf's own immune system has matured. Bovine serum and lacteal secretions contain three major classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, IgM and IgA. The immunoglobulins are selectively transported from the serum into the mammary gland, as a result of which the first colostrum contains very high concentrations of immunoglobulins (40-200 mg/ml). IgG1 accounts for over 75 % of the immunoglobulins in colostral whey, followed by IgM, IgA and IgG2. All these immunoglobulins decrease within a few days to a total immunoglobulin concentration of 0.7-1.0 mg/ml, with IgG1 representing the major Ig class in milk throughout the lactation period. Together with the antibodies absorbed from colostrum after birth, the complement system plays a crucial role in the passive immunisation of the newborn calf. The occurrence of haemolytic or bactericidal complement activity in bovine colostrum and milk has been demonstrated in several studies. This review deals with the characteristics of bovine Igs and the complement system to be exploited as potential ingredients for health-promoting functional foods.

  16. Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase

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    Megan Emerson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led to increased selection of plain milk, but may compromise total milk purchased. In our study, we examined the effectiveness of small prizes as incentives to improve healthy food and beverage selection by elementary school students; (2 Methods: In a small Midwestern school district, small prizes were given to elementary school students who selected a “Power Plate” (PP, the healthful combination of a plain milk, a fruit, a vegetable and an entrée with whole grain over two academic school years; (3 Results: PP selection increased from 0.05 per student to 0.19, a 271% increase (p < 0.001. All healthful foods had increased selection with plain milk having the greatest increase, 0.098 per student to 0.255, a 159% increase (p < 0.001; (4 Total milk purchased increased modestly from 0.916 to 0.956 per student (p = 0.000331. Conclusion: Giving small prizes as a reward for healthful food selection substantially improves healthful food selection and the effect is sustainable over two academic years.

  17. Effects of milk type and consumer factors on the acceptance of milk among Korean female consumers.

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    Chung, Seo-Jin

    2009-08-01

    Despite an overall increase in the consumption of milk products, the consumption of plain processed milk in South Korea is decreasing. One of the major reasons for this phenomenon is that consumers in Korea find the taste of plain milk unpalatable. The principal objective of this study was to identify the internal and external drivers of liking for milk among Korean consumers. The results of descriptive analysis (Chung and others 2008) were correlated to the results of consumer taste tests to identify the sensory characteristics that positively and negatively affect consumers' liking of milk. Consumers' health and food-related attitudes were surveyed as well as their daily milk consumption patterns to investigate the effects of these attitudes and consumption patterns on the liking for various types of milk. Consumers' liking of milk samples was positively correlated with sweetness, sweet cream flavor, and smooth texture. Grassy odor, raw milk flavor, artificial milk flavor, and rancid flavor were the negative drivers of liking. Consumers who frequently drink plain processed milk, in particular, preferred the UHT-processed whole milk samples, whereas infrequent drinkers preferred lactose-free milk samples. Consumers with strong food neophobic tendency significantly rated lower than consumers with weak tendency for most of the liking categories and some of the attribute intensities. Finally, when the consumers were grouped based on their common preference for milk samples, plain processed milk consumption frequency was the major determinant affecting the preference for milk.

  18. Factors affecting Import Shares of Powdered Milk and other Milk Products and their Implications in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Bogahawatte, C.; Herath, Janaranjana

    2006-01-01

    Import shares of liquid milk, powdered milk, condensed milk and other milk products were estimated to determine their relative competitiveness. The change of import shares with changes of exchange rate and world price of milk. The analysis based on yearly data between 1975-2006 showed that relative CIF prices and incomes were important factors influencing the market shares of milk and milk products. The results also showed that imported milk powder is price inelastic and a weak substitute for...

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units.

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    Meneses, Tatiana Mota Xavier de; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira

    To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) by Poisson regression with robust variance. The final model included the variables associated with breast milk donation (p≤0.05). 7.3% of the mothers had donated breast milk. Having been encouraged to donate breast milk by healthcare professionals, relatives, or friends (APR=7.06), receiving information on breast milk expression by the primary health care unit (APR=3.65), and receiving help from the unit professionals to breastfeed (APR=2.24) were associated with a higher prevalence of donation. Admission of the newborn to the neonatal unit was associated with a lower prevalence of donation (APR=0.09). Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  20. Which factors in raw cow's milk contribute to protection against allergies?

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    van Neerven, R J Joost; Knol, Edward F; Heck, Jeroen M L; Savelkoul, Huub F J

    2012-10-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have shown that growing up in a farming environment is associated with a decreased risk of allergies. A factor that correlates strongly with this effect is the early ingestion of unheated cow's milk. Although, to date, no controlled studies on raw milk consumption have been performed to formally demonstrate this effect, several factors in bovine milk have been described that might explain how raw cow's milk consumption can decrease the risk of allergies. In addition, increasing knowledge on the immunologically active factors in breast milk have also contributed to our understanding of the effects of bovine milk in infants because many of the factors in bovine milk are expected to have functional effects in human subjects as well. Here we review these factors and their mechanisms of action and compare their presence in bovine milk and breast milk. A better understanding of these factors, as well as how to retain them, might ultimately lead to the development of mildly processed milk and infant nutrition products that could become a part of preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of allergic disease.

  1. Milking performance evaluation and factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels with flow simulator.

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    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yasunori; Watanabe, Aiko

    2017-08-01

    Milking performance of milking machines that matches the production capability of dairy cows is important in reducing the risk of mastitis, particularly in high-producing cows. This study used a simulated milking device to examine the milking performance of the milking system of 73 dairy farms and to analyze the factors affecting claw vacuum. Mean claw vacuum and range of fluctuation of claw vacuum (claw vacuum range) were measured at three different flow rates: 5.7, 7.6 and 8.7 kg/min. At the highest flow rate, only 16 farms (21.9%) met both standards of mean claw vacuum ≥35 kPa and claw vacuum range ≤ 7 kPa, showing that milking systems currently have poor milking performance. The factors affecting mean claw vacuum were claw type, milk-meter and vacuum shut-off device; the factor affecting claw vacuum range was claw type. Examination of the milking performance of the milking system using a simulated milking device allows an examination of the performance that can cope with high producing cows, indicating the possibility of reducing the risk of mastitis caused by inappropriate claw vacuum. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Derivation of factors to estimate daily fat, protein, and somatic cell score from one milking of cows milked twice daily

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    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily fat (F) and protein (P) yield or somatic cell score (SCS) when milk is sampled once for cows milked twice per d. Milk samples were collected for each milking on test-day by Dairy Herd Improvement personnel from herds recording milking times and m...

  3. Goat milk with and without increased concentrations of lysozyme improves repair of intestinal cell damage induced by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

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    Carvalho Eunice B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC causes diarrhea, malnutrition and poor growth in children. Human breast milk decreases disease-causing bacteria by supplying nutrients and antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Goat milk with and without human lysozyme (HLZ may improve the repair of intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC. This work investigates the effect of the milks on intestinal barrier function repair, bacterial adherence in Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells, intestinal cell proliferation, migration, viability and apoptosis in IEC-6 cells in the absence or presence of EAEC. Methods Rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6, ATCC, Rockville, MD were used for proliferation, migration and viability assays and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD and human larynx carcinoma (HEp-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD cells were used for bacterial adhesion assays. Goats expressing HLZ in their milk were generated and express HLZ in milk at concentration of 270 μg/ml . Cells were incubated with pasteurized milk from either transgenic goats expressing HLZ or non-transgenic control goats in the presence and absence of EAEC strain 042 (O44:H18. Results Cellular proliferation was significantly greater in the presence of both HLZ transgenic and control goat milk compared to cells with no milk. Cellular migration was significantly decreased in the presence of EAEC alone but was restored in the presence of milk. Milk from HLZ transgenic goats had significantly more migration compared to control milk. Both milks significantly reduced EAEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells and transgenic milk resulted in less colonization than control milk using a HEp-2 assay. Both milks had significantly increased cellular viability as well as less apoptosis in both the absence and presence of EAEC. Conclusions These data demonstrated that goat milk is able to repair intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC and that goat milk with a higher

  4. Epidermal growth factor in mammary glands and milk from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba

    1993-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF-immunoreact......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF......-immunoreactivity was revealed homogeneously in the cytoplasm of the secretory cells, which might suggest that EGF is present as a precursor molecule in the mammary glands. Altered glucose metabolism during lactation results in secondary hypoinsulinaemia in the lactating rat. As insulin is also known to affect lactation...... in several species, we treated normal lactating rats daily with insulin and studied the effect on the composition of milk. A significant increase in the content of total protein and milk fat was observed after a few days of insulin-treatment, as compared to a control group [total protein: 50 (36-97) g/l vs...

  5. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

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    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  6. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  7. Epidermal growth factor in rat milk is dependent on insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexo, E;

    1993-01-01

    decreased when compared to the control group. In contrast, the total protein concentration in milk from the untreated diabetic rats was similar to the concentration in milk from the control rats. Insulin-treatment of diabetic rats almost completely reversed the decrease in the milk volume......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was measured in milk from four groups of rats: untreated diabetic, insulin-treated diabetic, insulin-treated normal and control rats. In the untreated diabetic group the volume of milk, and the concentration of EGF and the total output of EGF were significantly...... of EGF from the mammary glands is dependent on insulin and that the decrement in milk-EGF from diabetic rats is selective when compared to the content of protein in milk....

  8. Derivation of factors to estimate daily yield from single milkings for Holsteins milked two or three times daily

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    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily yield when milk weights are recorded once when cows are milked twice (2x) or once or twice when cows are milked thrice (3x) per d. Data was from herds enrolled in DHI and automatically recording milking weights and times. Following edits, 83,690...

  9. Factors Influencing the Concentration of Certain Liposoluble Components in Cow and Goat Milk: A Review

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    Anamaria COZMA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat contains a large number of fatty acids (FA and other liposoluble components that exhibit various effects on human health. The present article reviews some of the factors affecting FA, vitamin A and cholesterol concentrations in milk from dairy cow and goat. Milk fat composition is linked to many factors, both intrinsic (animal species, breed, lactation stage and extrinsic (environmental. The effect of animal species on milk fat composition is important, as reflected by higher concentrations of short- and medium-chain FA, vitamin A and cholesterol in goat than in cow milk. In a given ruminant species, the effects linked to breed are significant but limited and they can only be achieved over long periods of time. The lactation stage has an important effect on milk FA composition, mainly linked to body fat mobilisation in early lactation, but it only lasts a few weeks each year. Furthermore, changes in feeding have a marked influence on milk fat composition. Changing the forages in the diet of ruminants, pasture in particular, or supplementing lipids to the diet, represent an efficient mean to modify milk fat composition by decreasing saturated FA and cholesterol, and increasing cis-9,trans-11-CLA and vitamin A. Nutrition therefore constitutes a natural strategy to rapidly modulate milk FA, vitamin A and cholesterol composition, with the overall aim of improving the long-term health of consumers.

  10. Responding to bioterror concerns by increasing milk pasteurization temperature would increase estimated annual deaths from listeriosis.

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    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Martin, Nicole; Laue, Shelley; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In a 2005 analysis of a potential bioterror attack on the food supply involving a botulinum toxin release into the milk supply, the authors recommended adopting a toxin inactivation step during milk processing. In response, some dairy processors increased the times and temperatures of pasteurization well above the legal minimum for high temperature, short time pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), with unknown implications for public health. The present study was conducted to determine whether an increase in high temperature, short time pasteurization temperature would affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially lethal foodborne pathogen normally eliminated with proper pasteurization but of concern when milk is contaminated postpasteurization. L. monocytogenes growth during refrigerated storage was higher in milk pasteurized at 82 °C than in milk pasteurized at 72 °C. Specifically, the time lag before exponential growth was decreased and the maximum population density was increased. The public health impact of this change in pasteurization was evaluated using a quantitative microbial risk assessment of deaths from listeriosis attributable to consumption of pasteurized fluid milk that was contaminated postprocessing. Conservative estimates of the effect of pasteurizing all fluid milk at 82 °C rather than 72 °C are that annual listeriosis deaths from consumption of this milk would increase from 18 to 670, a 38-fold increase (8.7- to 96-fold increase, 5th and 95th percentiles). These results exemplify a situation in which response to a rare bioterror threat may have the unintended consequence of putting the public at increased risk of a known, yet severe harm and illustrate the need for a paradigm shift toward multioutcome risk benefit analyses when proposing changes to established food safety practices.

  11. Variation in macronutrients in human bank milk: influencing factors and implications for human milk banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, K F; Skafte, L; Badsberg, J H;

    1990-01-01

    Protein (P), fat (F), and carbohydrate (C) concentration in expressed human bank milk was determined by infrared analysis of 2,554 samples from 224 mothers. The mean contents of P, F, C, and energy (E, calculated from P, F, and C) were 9.0 g/L, 39.0 g/L, 71.9 g/L, and 696 kcal/L, respectively...... with a high P content, we have developed a "high-protein" milk with a P content of about 12 g/L (true protein) and an E content of about 725 kcal/L. Thus, by continuous monitoring of macronutrient content in human bank milk it is possible to develop a "high-protein" milk with sufficient P and E content....... The main results were as follows: the P and F contents increased slightly with increasing body mass index of the mother, the P content decreased with increasing amounts of milk delivered to the milk bank, and the F content was higher in mothers delivering large amounts of milk. By selecting incoming milk...

  12. Human milk bactericidal properties: effect of lyophilization and relation to maternal factors and milk components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Jaime; Gormaz, Maria; López-Mendoza, Maria C; Nogarotto, Elisabetta; Silvestre, Dolores

    2015-04-01

    Lyophilization appears to be a viable method for storing human milk, assuring no microbiological contamination and preserving its health benefits and antibacterial properties. The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the effects of different storage methods (lyophilization and freezing at -20°C and -80°C) and maternal factors (gestational length or time postpartum) upon the microbiological contents and bactericidal activity of human milk. The possible relation between bactericidal activity and the content of certain nutrients and functional components is also investigated. Microbiological content, bactericidal activity, sialic acid, and ganglioside contents, as well as protein, fat, and lactose concentrations were assessed in 125 human milk samples from 65 healthy donors in the Human Milk Bank of La Fe (Valencia, Spain). Lyophilization and storage at -80°C significantly reduced the content of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and Staphylococcus epidermidis when compared with storage at -20°C. Bactericidal activity was not significantly modified by lyophilization when compared with freezing at either -20°C or -80°C. Bactericidal activity was not correlated with fat, protein, or lactose content, but was significantly correlated to ganglioside content. The bactericidal activity was significantly greater (P milk and in milk from women with term delivery than in milk from early lactation (days 1-7 postpartum) and milk from women with preterm delivery, respectively. Lyophilization and storage at -80°C of human milk yields similar results and are superior to storage at -20C with regard to microbial and bactericidal capacities, being a feasible alternative for human milk banks.

  13. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  14. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Hwan Lee; Yin-Shen Lin; Ching-Fu Tu; Chon-Ho Yen

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitat...

  15. PBDE levels in human milk: the situation in Germany and potential influencing factors - a controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, B.; Mielke, H.; Ostermann, B.; Ruediger, T. [Federal Inst. for Risk Assessment, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, T.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    An exponential increase of PBDE levels in breast milk from Sweden between 1972 and 1997 has been reported, which is in contrast to the continuous decline of other chlorinated POPs in breast milk. Also in blood samples from Germany, an increasing trend has been observed during the period from 1985 to 1999. The knowledge about human exposure pathways, which contribute to the PBDE body burden, is very limited. Consumption of food of animal origin, inhalation or ingestion of dust and further factors possibly influencing the PBDE levels in human matrices, like age, breast-feeding or smoking are under discussion. Only a few data on PBDE levels in breast milk from Germany have been published. To fill the data gaps, a controlled study was started in 2001 to characterise the PBDE levels in human milk from Germany with special efforts to identify and quantify deca-BDE-209. Furthermore, it was intended to verify potential factors possibly influencing PBDE levels. Two main hypotheses were proposed: (1) Are PBDE levels in breast milk from mothers consuming traditional food (omnivores) higher than those found in breast milk from mothers consuming vegetarian or vegan food? and (2) Are the PBDE levels found in human milk after a three-months period of breast-feeding lower than those detected at the beginning or does breast feeding result in a lower body burden, respectively? This paper summarises preliminary results. Further analytical data and results of data evaluation will be presented at the conference.

  16. The influence of various factors on milk clotting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pH (6.5 and 5.8, amount of added CaCl2 (0, 200 and 400 mg/l, coagulation temperature (30ºC and 35ºC and heat treatment of milk (65ºC/30 min and 87ºC/10 min on the rate of rennet induced milk coagulation (s were investigated. The time (s from rennet addition to onset of gelation (as indicated by the first visible floccules was measured. The milk samples heat-treated at 87ºC/10 min, with 400 mg/l added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 35ºC and pH 5.8, coagulated 23.28-fold faster than the same samples without added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The results of investigations related to the influence of particular coagulation factors on the coagulation rate of heat-treated milk showed that at pH 6.5 the most pronounced influence was demonstrated by the amount of Ca2+ and temperature of coagulation. At pH 5.8, different amounts of Ca2 and used temperatures of coagulation did not influence coagulation rate regardless of the used heat treatment of milk. The influence of used heat treatment of milk was particularly pronounced during coagulation of samples without added CaCl2 that coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The used heat treatment of milk practically did not influence the milk coagulation rate at pH 5.8. The greatest influence on milk coagulation rate was showed by pH. This influence was the most marked in coagulation of samples in which the coaggregates were formed, regardless of the amount of added Ca2+ and used coagulation temperatures.

  17. Effects of bovine mammary gland biopsy and increased milking frequency on post-procedure udder health, histology, and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J A M; Ruas, J R M; Vasconcelos, A C; Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Gheller, V A; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2016-05-01

    Sixteen cows in early lactation were randomly distributed into two groups in order to evaluate the effects of mammary biopsies and increased milking frequency on tissue characteristics, post-biopsy udder health and histology. One group was milked twice a day (2×) starting on the 2nd day after calving, until 28 days in milk (DIM). The other group was milked four times a day (4×) from two to 21 DIM, and twice a day (2×) from 22 to 28 DIM. On days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postpartum, one fragment of secretory tissue was collected from one mammary quarter at a time. Collections were alternated between the four mammary quarters per collection day. A total of 80 mammary tissue samples were collected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the tissues were conducted by histologic examination. Animal health was assessed by observation of feed intake behavior immediately after biopsy, and weight and body condition score before and one week after biopsy. Udder health was assessed daily from calving to 60 DIM with California Mastitis Test (CMT) and by noting alterations in the milk such as blood, milk clots, blood clots, clinical signs of mastitis. Milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) were analyzed before and after the biopsies. Milk production was evaluated before biopsy, on the day of biopsy, and after the biopsy. An average of 10 fields at 40× magnification was obtained from each sample. There were no evident changes in mammary morphology as a result of milking two or four times/day at any of the evaluated time points. Biopsy wounds healed rapidly without infection. Intramammary bleeding and CMT alterations were observed in 96% and 75% of the biopsied mammary quarters, respectively. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed in 12% of the biopsied quarters. Different milking frequencies had no effect on the frequency and duration of post-biopsy alterations. Milk production decreased after biopsies done on days 2 for 2× and 4× groups, but it returned to pre-biopsy values

  18. Multivariate factor analysis of Girgentana goat milk composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giaccone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of the several variables that contribute to defining milk quality is difficult due to the high degree of  correlation among them. In this case, one of the best methods of statistical processing is factor analysis, which belongs  to the multivariate groups; for our study this particular statistical approach was employed.  A total of 1485 individual goat milk samples from 117 Girgentana goats, were collected fortnightly from January to July,  and analysed for physical and chemical composition, and clotting properties. Milk pH and tritable acidity were within the  normal range for fresh goat milk. Morning milk yield resulted 704 ± 323 g with 3.93 ± 1.23% and 3.48±0.38% for fat  and protein percentages, respectively. The milk urea content was 43.70 ± 8.28 mg/dl. The clotting ability of Girgentana  milk was quite good, with a renneting time equal to 16.96 ± 3.08 minutes, a rate of curd formation of 2.01 ± 1.63 min-  utes and a curd firmness of 25.08 ± 7.67 millimetres.  Factor analysis was performed by applying axis orthogonal rotation (rotation type VARIMAX; the analysis grouped the  milk components into three latent or common factors. The first, which explained 51.2% of the total covariance, was  defined as “slow milks”, because it was linked to r and pH. The second latent factor, which explained 36.2% of the total  covariance, was defined as “milk yield”, because it is positively correlated to the morning milk yield and to the urea con-  tent, whilst negatively correlated to the fat percentage. The third latent factor, which explained 12.6% of the total covari-  ance, was defined as “curd firmness,” because it is linked to protein percentage, a30 and titatrable acidity. With the aim  of evaluating the influence of environmental effects (stage of kidding, parity and type of kidding, factor scores were anal-  ysed with the mixed linear model. Results showed significant effects of the season of

  19. Palmitic acid increased yields of milk and milk fat and nutrient digestibility across production level of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of palmitic acid supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, and metabolic and production responses were evaluated in dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (34.5 to 66.2 kg/d) in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (151 ± 66 d in milk) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet DM) with palmitic acid (PA; 99% C16:0) or control (SH; soyhulls). Treatment periods were 21 d, with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Immediately before the first treatment period, cows were fed the control diet for 21 d and baseline values were obtained for all variables (covariate period). Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as covariate. In general, no interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the response variables measured. The PA treatment increased milk fat percentage (3.40 vs. 3.29%) and yields of milk (46.0 vs. 44.9 kg/d), milk fat (1.53 vs. 1.45 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (44.6 vs. 42.9 kg/d), compared with SH. Concentrations and yields of protein and lactose were not affected by treatment. The PA treatment did not affect dry matter (DM) intake or body weight, tended to decrease body condition score (2.93 vs. 2.99), and increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DM intake; 1.60 vs. 1.54), compared with SH. The PA treatment increased total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (39.0 vs.35.7%) and organic matter (67.9 vs. 66.2%), but decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (61.2 vs. 71.3%). As total FA intake increased, total FA digestibility decreased (R(2) = 0.51) and total FA absorbed increased (quadratic R(2) = 0.82). Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was 11.7% for total FA and 16.5% for C16:0 plus cis-9 C16:1 FA

  20. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dohme-Meier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5. Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP. The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S, 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-oil (C or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC. All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1 or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments

  1. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohme-Meier, F; Bee, G

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5). Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP) on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP). The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S), 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-oil (C) or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC). All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1) or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments implies that

  2. Infant milk feeding practices in the Netherlands and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, C.I.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe infant feeding practices and associated factors, and to explore mothers' main reasons for starting and stopping breastfeeding. Methods: We performed a national inquiry into milk feeding practices among 9133 Dutch infants aged <7 mo by means of a

  3. Infant milk feeding practices in the Netherlands and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, Caren; Van Wouwe, JP; Reijneveld, SA

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe infant feeding practices and associated factors, and to explore mothers' main reasons for starting and stopping breastfeeding. Methods: We performed a national inquiry into milk feeding practices among 9133 Dutch infants aged = 38 wk of gestation, with a

  4. Infant milk feeding practices in the Netherlands and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, Caren; Van Wouwe, JP; Reijneveld, SA

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe infant feeding practices and associated factors, and to explore mothers' main reasons for starting and stopping breastfeeding. Methods: We performed a national inquiry into milk feeding practices among 9133 Dutch infants aged = 38 wk of gestation, with a bir

  5. Recombinant human factor IX produced from transgenic porcine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  6. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hwan Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa. The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX. The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  7. Using Reinforcer Pairing and Fading to Increase the Milk Consumption of a Preschool Child

    OpenAIRE

    Tiger, Jeffrey H; Hanley, Gregory P

    2006-01-01

    The present study replicates and extends previous research on the treatment of food selectivity by implementing pairing and fading procedures to increase a child's milk consumption during regularly scheduled preschool meals. The treatment involved mixing a small amount of chocolate syrup into a glass of milk and gradually eliminating the chocolate. The procedure and data collection were implemented by preschool teachers and resulted in increased milk drinking at school, which was maintained a...

  8. Why does the increase of plasmin worsen the coagulation properties of milk in dairy sheep?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Enne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of whole casein and fat are the factors which play the most important role in determining the cheese-making qualities of milk. Plasmin (PL is the main proteolytic enzyme in milk and has been found to be associated with enhanced casein hydrolysation.

  9. Effect of increasing the colloidal calcium phosphate of milk on the texture and microstructure of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, T; Horne, D; Lucey, J A

    2011-11-01

    The effect of increasing the colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) content on the physical, rheological, and microstructural properties of yogurt was investigated. The CCP content of heated (85°C for 30 min) milk was increased by increasing the pH by the addition of alkali (NaOH). Alkalized milk was dialyzed against pasteurized skim milk at approximately 4°C for 72 h to attempt to restore the original pH and soluble Ca content. By adjustment of the milk to pH values 7.45, 8.84, 10.06, and 10.73, the CCP content was increased to approximately 107, 116, 123, and 128%, respectively, relative to the concentration in heated milk. During fermentation of milk, the storage modulus (G') and loss tangent values of yogurts were measured using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Large deformation rheological properties were also measured. The microstructure of yogurt was observed using fluorescence microscopy, and whey separation was determined. Acid-base titration was used to evaluate changes in the CCP content in milk. Total Ca and casein-bound Ca increased with an increase in the pH value of alkalization. During acidification, elevated buffering occurred in milk between pH values 6.7 to 5.2 with an increase in the pH of alkalization. When acidified milk was titrated with alkali, elevated buffering occurred in milk between pH values 5.6 to 6.4 with an increase in the pH of alkalization. The high residual pH of milk after dialysis could be responsible for the decreased contents of soluble Ca in these milks. The pH of gelation was higher in all dialyzed samples compared with the heated control milk, and the gelation pH was higher with an increase in CCP content. The sample with highest CCP content (128%) exhibited gelation at very high pH (6.3), which could be due to alkali-induced CN micellar disruption. The G' values at pH 4.6 were similar in gels with CCP levels up to 116%; at higher CCP levels, the G' values at pH 4.6 greatly decreased. Loss tangent values at pH 5.1 were similar

  10. Derivation of factors to estimate daily, fat, protein, and somatic cell score from one milking of cows milked three times daily

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily fat (F) and protein (P) yield and somatic cell score (SCS) when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked three times (3x) per d. Daily milk weights were recorded automatically and samples were collected from 8 herds for each milking on test-day ...

  11. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETICAL FACTORS ON UREA CONTENT IN HOLSTEIN BREED COWS MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženko Budimir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper were to determine to which extent the environmental factors (order and stadium of lactation, age with the first calving, calving season, region and herd have the influence on the content of urea in milk, and connection of urea content in milk with other features of milk production with cows. The largest share of urea content in milk was recorded in the first lactation, in the period between 110 and 140 days, when it was around 23.6 mg/100 ml. In the end of the first lactation the average urea content in milk was around 21.6 mg/100 ml. The second lactation is chara¬cterized by somewhat bigger urea content, in the period immediately after calving when the highest values from all tracked lactations was recorded. The age of cows with their first calving also had an impact on urea con¬tent in milk. Cows that calved in the age from 24th to 26th month had the highest value of urea content, being 23.2 mg/100 ml for the stated period. The lowest value of urea content was recorded with cows that calved in the age of 18 months and it was below 20 mg/100 ml. Season of calving also influenced the urea content in milk. In winter season 2004 the lowest values of urea content in milk were recorded while in the autumn sea¬son of the same year the highest urea content in milk was measured (24 mg/100 ml. In the following calving season increase of urea content in milk followed. The differences in urea content in milk were determined between the counties. The highest value of heritabi-lity (0.08 was estimated by the model where, as a comparison group, the interaction between the herds and control day was used. In the research the share of variability was explained by the interaction herd-control day and it was 67%, while 25% of variability of urea con¬tent in milk remained unexplained. This model was used when estimating the breeding values. A model was also tested where the influence of herd was used as a comparison group, and by this

  12. Using Reinforcer Pairing and Fading to Increase the Milk Consumption of a Preschool Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study replicates and extends previous research on the treatment of food selectivity by implementing pairing and fading procedures to increase a child's milk consumption during regularly scheduled preschool meals. The treatment involved mixing a small amount of chocolate syrup into a glass of milk and gradually eliminating the…

  13. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING MILK PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Kurajdova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly informed, competitive and saturated market, a key to success of any business depends on knowing consumer and his consumption patterns and recognizing and understanding factors influencing his decision-making for the purpose of developing an attractive offer of products, supporting services, communication means and other marketing tools that would fit like a glue to customer’s needs. Study of consumer behaviour belongs to a group of very wide and strong subjects of marketing attention and its examination requires ongoing approach. Milk, as one category of dairy products, belongs to the group of basic daily-consumed products characterized by relatively high purchase frequency. On the other hand, its production and consumption is experiencing certain negative trend in Slovakia what inevitably calls for a scientific attention and examination in order to reverse this unfavourable development having a negative impact on the milk companies in Slovakia. Therefore, we focus our attention on studying various factors influencing consumers when purchasing this specific product. Our research in this stage resulted in the compilation of literature review on factors influencing consumers when purchasing milk and determination of boundaries and guidelines for our future research activity

  14. Interactions of climatic factors affecting milk yield and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.K.; Rodriguez, L.A.; Wilcox, C.J.; Collider, R.J.; Bachman, K.C.; Martin, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate effects of interactions of maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and solar radiation on milk yield and constituent traits. Effects of climate variables and their interactions were significant but small in most cases. Second order regression models were developed for several variables. Six were examined in detail: Holstein and Jersey milk yields, Holstein fat and Feulgen-DNA reflectance percent, and Jersey protein percent and yield. Maximum temperature had greatest influence on each response, followed by minimum relative humidity and solar radiation. Optimum conditions for milk production were at maximum temperatures below 19. 4/degree/C, increasing solar radiation, and minimum relative humidity between 33.4 and 78.2% (cool sunny days, moderate humidity). Maximum Holstein fat percent of 3.5% was predicted for maximum temperatures below 30.8/degree/C, minimum relative humidity below 89%, and solar radiation below 109 Langleys; actual mean Holstein fat percent was 3. 35%. Optimum climatic conditions for Jersey protein percent were at maximum temperature of 10.6/degree/C with solar radiation at 300 Langleys and relative humidity at 16% (cool sunny days, low humidity). Because noteworthy interactions existed between climate effects, response surface methodology was suitable for determining optimum climatic conditions for milk production.

  15. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in milk: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Lopes da Silva; Michele da Silva Pinto; Antônio Fernandes Carvalho; Ítalo Tuler Perrone

    2016-01-01

    Bovine milk and colostrum contain growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor IGF-I, IGF-II, transforming growth factor TGF-β1, TGF-β2, epidermal growth factor EGF, basic fibroblast growth factor bFGF and platelet-derived growth factor PDGF. In recent years, intense scientific interest has been focused on the identification of factors within bovine milk that may be relevant to improving human health. Then a number of methodologies for the extraction of milk growth factors from milk, col...

  16. Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2014-01-01

    Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study.

  17. Variation of milk urea in dairy cattle : a study on factors that affect the relationship between urea concentration in milk and urea excretion in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to increase the applicability of milk urea nitrogen concentration (MUN) as a predictor of urinary urea nitrogen excretion (UUN) by identifying and quantifying factors that can explain variation in MUN that is not related to UUN. A literature study was conducted in order to

  18. The dopamine antagonist domperidone increases prolactin concentration and enhances milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, P; Ollier, S

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies, our team showed that the inhibition of prolactin (PRL) secretion by the dopamine agonist quinagolide reduces milk production in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of administration of a dopamine antagonist on basal and milking-induced PRL concentrations in blood and on milk production during positive energy balance and feed restriction in dairy cows. Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein cows received daily s.c. injections of either domperidone (300 mg, DOMP, n=9) or the vehicle, canola oil (CTL, n=9), for 5 wk. During wk 5, all cows were fed at 65% of their dry matter intake in the previous week. Blood and milk samples were collected before (for blood) and during (for milk) the a.m. milking thrice weekly from d -9 to 41 (8d after the last injection). In addition, blood samples were collected during the a.m. milking on d -1 (before the first injection), and on d 1, 28, and 34. Basal PRL concentration was similar in both groups before the start of the treatments. Domperidone injections caused a gradual increase in basal PRL concentration. Feed restriction reduced basal PRL concentration in both the CTL and DOMP cows, but PRL concentration remained higher in the DOMP cows. Prolactin concentration remained elevated in the DOMP cows 7d after the last injection. The milk concentration of PRL increased during the DOMP treatment, but the increase was smaller than that observed in serum. In the CTL cows, the milking-induced PRL release above the premilking concentration was similar on d -1, 1, and 28 but was reduced during feed restriction. In the DOMP cows, the milking-induced PRL release was similar on d -1 and 1 but was reduced on d 28 and 34. Milk production was similar for both groups before the treatments started but was greater in the DOMP cows during the treatment period, at 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.6 kg/d greater during wk 3 and 4 of treatment, respectively. Milk production declined in both groups during feed

  19. Examining trust factors in online food risk information: The case of unpasteurized or 'raw' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillence, Elizabeth; Hardy, Claire; Medeiros, Lydia C; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-04-01

    The internet has become an increasingly important way of communicating with consumers about food risk information. However, relatively little is known about how consumers evaluate and come to trust the information they encounter online. Using the example of unpasteurized or raw milk this paper presents two studies exploring the trust factors associated with online information about the risks and benefits of raw milk consumption. In the first study, eye-tracking data was collected from 33 pasteurised milk consumers whilst they viewed six different milk related websites. A descriptive analysis of the eye-tracking data was conducted to explore viewing patterns. Reports revealed the importance of images as a way of capturing initial attention and foregrounding other features and highlighted the significance of introductory text within a homepage. In the second, qualitative study, 41 consumers, some of whom drank raw milk, viewed a selection of milk related websites before participating in either a group discussion or interview. Seventeen of the participants also took part in a follow up telephone interview 2 weeks later. The qualitative data supports the importance of good design whilst noting that balance, authorship agenda, the nature of evidence and personal relevance were also key factors affecting consumers trust judgements. The results of both studies provide support for a staged approach to online trust in which consumers engage in a more rapid, heuristic assessment of a site before moving on to a more in-depth evaluation of the information available. Findings are discussed in relation to the development of trustworthy online food safety resources.

  20. An effective increase in milk production through triticale feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbal, Nora; Benbelkacem, A; Dib, Y

    2014-01-01

    Since the first studies in Algeria in 1999, 2002 and 2005, triticale has been used in arid and semi-arid areas mainly for livestock production. Efforts have been done for the utilization of triticale as hay, silage and hole grain to feed dairy cattle and small ruminants (sheep). Studies have shown that triticale could be easily integrated in the existing crop-livestock system of northern Algeria. In spite of the good results in the yield performance and adaptation to diverse environments, decision makers are not giving the necessary attention to triticale. Dairy cattle holders that tested the crop have adopted it quickly and developed it in an informal way. Now, more than 90% of the triticale seed business is in the hands of private farmers without any help or subsidies nor a good price policy to develop strongly this crop. The utilization of triticale in Algeria is roughly as follow: human consumption 5%, forage crop (hay or silage) 60% and 30% as feed grain, the remaining 5% are kept for sowing seed. In our studies we have compared different feed sources (barley, triticale, concentrate diet and mixtures) to dairy cattle and sheep. Triticale showed highly significantly better results for meat production and gave also an amazing response for dairy and sheep milk production in Algeria. Milk production of animals fed with triticale over exceeded the other feed sources by 26% to 53%; mean weight gain exhibited the same rates.

  1. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk: Prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2017-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become the main pathogens causing bovine mastitis in recent years. A huge variation in species distribution among herds has been observed in several studies, emphasizing the need to identify subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors to improve our understanding of the differences in ecological and epidemiological nature between species. The use of bulk milk samples enables the inclusion of a large(r) number of herds needed to identify herd-level risk factors and increases the likelihood of recovering enough isolates per species needed for conducting subgroup- and, eventually, species-specific analyses at the same time. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of CNS species in bulk milk samples and to identify associated subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors. Ninety percent of all bulk milk samples yielded CNS. Staphylococcus equorum was the predominant species, followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A seasonal effect was observed for several CNS species. Bulk milk samples from herds with a loose-pack or a tiestall housing system were more likely to yield CNS species compared with herds with a freestall barn, except for S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus cohnii. In September, herds in which udders were clipped had lower odds of yielding Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, the CNS species assumed to be most relevant for udder health, in their bulk milk than herds in which udder clipping was not practiced. Bulk milk of herds participating in a monthly veterinary udder health-monitoring program was more likely to yield these 3 CNS species. Herds always receiving their milk quality premium or predisinfecting teats before attachment of the milking cluster had lower odds of having S. equorum in their bulk milk. Herds not using a single dry cotton or paper towel for each cow during premilking udder

  2. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R

    2007-04-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production.

  3. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (p<0.01), milk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  4. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-. alpha. in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Masaki; Wakai, Kae; Shizume, Kazuo (Research Institute for Growth Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)); Iwashita, Mitsutoshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical College (Japan)); Ohmura, Eiji; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Murakami, Hitomi; Onoda, Noritaka; Tsushima, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{alpha} and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-{alpha} was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-{alpha} was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-{alpha} and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-{alpha} was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-{alpha}. Although the physiological role of TGF-{alpha} in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants.

  5. The effective factors on the structure of butter and other milk fat-based products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2013-01-01

    Butter and other milk fat-based products are valuable products for the dairy industry due to their unique taste, their textural characteristics, and nutritional value. However, an increased consumer demand for low-fat-based products increases the need for an increased essential understanding...... of the effective factors governing the structure of milk fat-based products. Today, 2 manufacturing techniques are available: the churning method and the emulsification method. The first is typically used for production of butter with a globular structure, which has become increasingly popular to obtain low....... Parameters such as thermal treatment of cream prior to butter making, water content, and chemical composition influence not only crystal polymorphism, but also the number and sizes of fat crystals. The number of crystal–crystal interactions formed within the products is related to product hardness. During...

  6. Influence of dairy farming method and other production factors on lipid metabolism and quality parameters of cow's milk

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hoang Phuong Trinh

    2015-01-01

    Organic milk has been popularly developed in western dairy industry. This milk was believed to bring better health benefits than conventional milk and thus, receiving high attention from consumers in recent years. The chemical composition of organic milk versus conventional milk remains an attractive research direction in order to improve knowledge using advanced techniques such as metabolic profiling. On the other hand, milk constituents could vary with other production factors as well as pr...

  7. Increased Epstein-Barr virus in breast milk occurs with subclinical mastitis and HIV shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanosyan, Armen; Rutagwera, David G; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Bollore, Karine; Peries, Marianne; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nagot, Nicolas; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case-control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers.The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples of Zambian mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 trial. Mammary gland inflammation was defined as a breast milk sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K) greater than 0.6 and further subclassified as either "possible SCM" (Na/K ratio 0.6-1.0) or SCM (Na/K ratio ≥ 1.0). Breast milk interleukin 8 (IL-8) was measured as a surrogate marker of mammary gland inflammation.EBV DNA was detected in breast milk samples from 42 out of 83 (51%) participants and was associated with HIV-1 shedding in breast milk (P = 0.006). EBV DNA levels were higher in samples with SCM and "possible SCM" compared to non-SCM breast milk samples (P = 0.06; P = 0.007). An EBV DNA level of >200 copies/mL was independently associated with SCM and "possible SCM" (OR: 2.62; 95%: 1.13-6.10). In patients with SCM, higher EBV replication in the mammary gland was associated with a lower induction of IL-8 (P = 0.013). Resistance to DNase treatment suggests that EBV DNA in lactoserum is encapsidated.SCM and decreased IL-8 responses are associated with an increased EBV shedding in breast milk which may in turn facilitate HIV replication in the mammary gland.

  8. Fat content increases the lethality of ultra-high-pressure homogenization on Listeria monocytogenes in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig-Sagués, A X; Velázquez, R M; Montealegre-Agramont, P; López-Pedemonte, T J; Briñez-Zambrano, W J; Guamis-López, B; Hernandez-Herrero, M M

    2009-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes CCUG 15526 was inoculated at a concentration of approximately 7.0 log(10) cfu/mL in milk samples with 0.3, 3.6, 10, and 15% fat contents. Milk samples with 0.3 and 3.6% fat content were also inoculated with a lower load of approximately 3.0 log(10) cfu/mL. Inoculated milk samples were subjected to a single cycle of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) treatment at 200, 300, and 400 MPa. Microbiological analyses were performed 2 h after the UHPH treatments and after 5, 8, and 15 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Maximum lethality values were observed in samples treated at 400 MPa with 15 and 10% fat (7.95 and 7.46 log(10) cfu/mL), respectively. However, in skimmed and 3.6% fat milk samples, complete inactivation was not achieved and, during the subsequent 15 d of storage at 4 degrees C, L. monocytogenes was able to recover and replicate until achieving initial counts. In milk samples with 10 and 15% fat, L. monocytogenes recovered to the level of initial counts only in the milk samples treated at 200 MPa but not in the milk samples treated at 300 and 400 MPa. When the load of L. monocytogenes was approximately 3.0 log(10) cfu/mL in milk samples with 0.3 and 3.6% fat, complete inactivation was not achieved and L. monocytogenes was able to recover and grow during the subsequent cold storage. Fat content increased the maximum temperature reached during UHPH treatment; this could have contributed to the lethal effect achieved, but the amount of fat of the milk had a stronger effect than the temperature on obtaining a higher death rate of L. monocytogenes.

  9. Exposure of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis to Milk Oligosaccharides Increases Adhesion to Epithelial Cells and Induces a Substantial Transcriptional Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon W Kavanaugh

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the hypothesis that milk oligosaccharides may contribute not only to selective growth of bifidobacteria, but also to their specific adhesive ability. Human milk oligosaccharides (3'sialyllactose and 6'sialyllactose and a commercial prebiotic (Beneo Orafti P95; oligofructose were assayed for their ability to promote adhesion of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 to HT-29 and Caco-2 human intestinal cells. Treatment with the commercial prebiotic or 3'sialyllactose did not enhance adhesion. However, treatment with 6'sialyllactose resulted in increased adhesion (4.7 fold, while treatment with a mixture of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose substantially increased adhesion (9.8 fold to HT-29 intestinal cells. Microarray analyses were subsequently employed to investigate the transcriptional response of B. longum subsp. infantis to the different oligosaccharide treatments. This data correlated strongly with the observed changes in adhesion to HT-29 cells. The combination of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose resulted in the greatest response at the genetic level (both in diversity and magnitude followed by 6'sialyllactose, and 3'sialyllactose alone. The microarray data was further validated by means of real-time PCR. The current findings suggest that the increased adherence phenotype of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis resulting from exposure to milk oligosaccharides is multi-faceted, involving transcription factors, chaperone proteins, adhesion-related proteins, and a glycoside hydrolase. This study gives additional insight into the role of milk oligosaccharides within the human intestine and the molecular mechanisms underpinning host-microbe interactions.

  10. Transforming growth factor-beta is elevated in unpasteurized cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Diego G; Piacentini, Giorgio L; Bodini, Alessandro; Pigozzi, Roberta; Boner, Attilio L

    2009-02-01

    Unpasteurized milk consumption was associated with less atopy prevalence. Not only microbial load but also fatty acids and cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) may play a role on the effect of unpasteurized milk. Levels of TGF-beta(1) in different cow's milk samples were evaluated: we consider raw unpasteurized milk before and after boiling, commercial pasteurized and micro-filtrated cow's milk and different commercially available cow's milk formulas. TGF-beta(1) concentration in raw unpasteurized cow's milk was 642.0 +/- 52.9 pg/ml before boiling and decreased significantly after boiling (302.7 +/- 50.59 pg/ml) (p < 0.05). TGF-beta(1) concentrations were also significantly lower in commercial pasteurized milk (246.2 +/- 43.15 pg/ml) and in commercial micro-filtrated milk (213.0 +/- 31.6 pg/ml) in comparison to unpasteurized unboiled milk (p = 0.002). The levels of TGF-beta(1) in all formula samples were below the threshold of detectability for the assays. As TGF-beta(1) in the milk may contribute to the development of the immature gastrointestinal tract by influencing IgA production and oral tolerance induction, we suggest to consider not only the microbial compounds but also the cytokine patterns to explain the protective effect of unpasteurized cow's milk on allergic disorders.

  11. Effects of diet and physiological factors on milk fat synthesis, milk fat composition and lipolysis in the goat: A short review

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The current short review summarizes recent data on the specificities of goats compared with cows, of milk fatty acid (FA) secretion and milk fat lipolysis responses to physiological and nutritional factors. The influence of lactation stage on milk fat yield and FA composition is similar between goats and cows. In contrast, changes in milk fat yield and composition to diet, lipid supplements in particular, differs between the two ruminant species. In almost all cases, dietary lipid supplements...

  12. Impact of low concentration factor microfiltration on milk component recovery and Cheddar cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neocleous, M; Barbano, D M; Rudan, M A

    2002-10-01

    The effect of microfiltration (MF) on the composition of Cheddar cheese, fat, crude protein (CP), calcium, total solids recovery, and Cheddar cheese yield efficiency (i.e., composition adjusted yield divided by theoretical yield) was determined. Raw skim milk was microfiltered twofold using a 0.1-microm ceramic membrane at 50 degrees C. Four vats of cheese were made in one day using milk at lx, 1.26x, 1.51x, and 1.82x concentration factor (CF). An appropriate amount of cream was added to achieve a constant casein (CN)-to-fat ratio across treatments. Cheese manufacture was repeated on four different days using a randomized complete block design. The composition of the cheese was affected by MF. Moisture content of the cheese decreased with increasing MF CF. Standardization of milk to a constant CN-to-fat ratio did not eliminate the effect of MF on cheese moisture content. Fat recovery in cheese was not changed by MF. Separation of cream prior to MF, followed by the recombination of skim or MF retentate with cream resulted in lower fat recovery in cheese for control and all treatments and higher fat loss in whey when compared to previous yield experiments, when control Cheddar cheese was made from unseparated milk. Crude protein, calcium, and total solids recovery in cheese increased with increasing MF CF, due to partial removal of these components prior to cheese making. Calcium and calcium as a percentage of protein increased in the cheese, suggesting an increase in calcium retention in the cheese with increasing CF. While the actual and composition adjusted cheese yields increased with increasing MF CF, as expected, there was no effect of MF CF on cheese yield efficiency.

  13. Effect of dietary antioxidant and increasing corn oil inclusion on milk fat yield and fatty acid composition in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a dietary synthetic antioxidant on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components and milk fatty acids (FA), in combination with increasing concentrations of dietary corn oil to provide increasing rumen unsaturated fatty acid load (RUFAL) challenges. Twenty-six Holstein cows (177 ± 57 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were assigned to treatment in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were a control diet (CON; n=13 cows) or the same diet supplemented with a synthetic antioxidant (AOX; 6.1g/d; dry blend of ethoxyquin and propyl gallate, Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO; n=13 cows). In period 1 (21 d), no supplemental corn oil was fed; in periods 2, 3, and 4 (14 d each), corn oil was supplemented at 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8% of the diet [dry matter (DM) basis] to incrementally increase RUFAL. For all variables measured, no significant interactions were detected between treatment and period, indicating no differences between the CON and AOX treatments at all levels of oil inclusion. Intake of DM was lower for AOX compared with CON but AOX had no effect on milk yield or milk fat concentration and yield. Milk protein yield and feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/DM intake) tended to be greater for AOX compared with CON. Increasing dietary corn oil concentration (RUFAL) decreased DM intake, milk yield, milk fat concentration and yield, and feed efficiency. The AOX treatment increased the concentration and yield of 16-carbon milk FA, with no effect on de novo (16 carbon) milk FA. Milk FA concentration of trans-10 C18:1, trans-10,cis-12 C18:2, and trans-9,cis-11 C18:2 were unaffected by AOX but increased with increasing RUFAL. In conclusion, supplementation with AOX did not overcome the dietary-induced milk fat depression caused by increased RUFAL.

  14. Concentration Variations of Growth Factors in Colostrum and Normal Milk of Sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yao; SHAN An-shan; FENG Zi-ke

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the concentration variation of epidermal growth factors (EGF), include insulin-like growth factor - Ⅰ (IGF- I ), transforming growth factor-beta(TGF-β), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in colostrum and normal milk of sows within 35 days after parturition. The results showed that the concentration of EGF, IGF- I , TGF-β, bFGF was significantly higher in colostrum than that in normal milk. The concentration of these growth factors in colostrum was significantly decreased with the stage lapse of lactation, and then they remained stable in normal milk. Parity had a slight effect on the concentration of these growth factors.

  15. Late gestational hyperprolactinemia accelerates mammary epithelial cell differentiation that leads to increased milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanklompenberg, M K; Manjarin, R; Trott, J F; McMicking, H F; Hovey, R C

    2013-03-01

    The growth rate of piglets is limited by sow milk yield, which reflects the extent of epithelial growth and differentiation in the mammary glands (MG) during pregnancy. Prolactin (PRL) promotes both the growth and differentiation of the mammary epithelium, where the lactational success of pigs is absolutely dependent on PRL exposure during late gestation. We hypothesized that inducing hyperprolactinemia in primiparous gilts during late gestation by administering the dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOM) would increase MG epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, subsequent milk yield, and piglet growth. A total of 19 Yorkshire-Hampshire gilts were assigned to receive either no treatment (CON, n = 9) or DOM (n = 10) twice daily from gestation d 90 to 110. Serial blood sampling during the treatment period and subsequent lactation confirmed that plasma PRL concentrations were increased in DOM gilts on gestation d 91 and 96 (P milk production by these same gilts on d 14 (24%, P = 0.02) and 21 (32%, P Milk composition did not differ between the 2 groups on d 1 or 20 of lactation. Alveolar volume within the MG of DOM-treated gilts was increased during the treatment period (P hyperprolactinemia enhances lactogenesis within the porcine MG and increases milk production in the subsequent lactation.

  16. Breast milk macronutrient composition and the associated factors in urban Chinese mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Titi; Zhang Yumei; Ning Yibing; You Lili; Ma Defu; Zheng Yingdong; Yang Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background Infancy is a critical period of growth and physiological development,in which breast milk is the best source of nutrients.Compared to western countries,research on breast milk of Chinese population are limited.Thus,it is necessary to measure breast milk energy and macronutrient concentrations of healthy urban Chinese mothers at different lactation stages,to expand the database of milk composition of Chinese population,and to examine whether dietary or other maternal factors can affect the levels of macronutrients in breast milk.Methods Breast milk of full expression of one side breast from 436 urban Chinese lactating mothers at 5-11 days,12-30 days,31-60 days,61-120 days,and 121-240 days postpartum was obtained at 9:00 a.m.to 11:00 a.m.Total energy,lactose,protein,and fat contents were measured.24-hour dietary recall was surveyed,and maternal nutrient intakes were analyzed.Results Milk composition changed over the course of lactation and large individual variations were documented.The concentrations were 61.3 kcal/dl for total energy,7.1 g/dl for lactose,0.9 g/dl for protein,and 3.4 g/dl for fat in mature milk.Stage of lactation was a strong factor affecting milk composition.Minimal evidence was found for associations between maternal current dietary intake and milk macronutrient concentration,consistently with prior research.Maternal body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with milk fat content,to a greater extent than did dietary intake.All other maternal characteristics were not significant for milk composition.Conclusion These findings suggest that milk composition is generally weakly associated with maternal factors except for stage of lactation,and is likely to be more susceptible to long-term maternal nutritional status than short-term dietary fluctuation.

  17. Dietary linseed oil increases trans-10,cis-15 18:2 in caprine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Cívico, A; de la Fuente, M A; Juárez, M; Sánchez, N Núñez; Blanco, F Peña; Marín, A L Martínez

    2017-06-01

    Trans-10,cis-15 18:2 has been recently detected and characterized in digestive contents and meat and adipose tissue of ruminants, but its presence in milk and dairy products is hardly known. The aim of this study was to quantify trans-10,cis-15 18:2 in milk fat, better understand its metabolic origin, and help to elucidate the mechanisms of rumen biohydrogenation when the diet composition might affect ruminal environment. To address these objectives, 16 dairy goats were allocated to 2 simultaneous experiments (2 groups of goats and 2 treatments in each experiment). Experimental treatments consisted of basal diets with the same forage-to-concentrate ratio (33/67) and 2 starch-to-nonforage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ratios (0.8 and 3.1), which were supplemented or not with 30 g/d of linseed oil for 25 d in a crossover design. Trans-10,cis-15 18:2 contents in milk fat were determined by gas chromatography fitted with an extremely polar capillary column (SLB-IL111). Levels of trans-10,cis-15 18:2 in individual milk fat samples ranged from 0 to 0.2% of total fatty acids, and its content in milk fat increased 8 fold due to linseed oil supplementation, substantiating the predominant role of α-linolenic acid in its formation. The trans-10,cis-15 18:2 levels in milk fat were similar in both experiments, despite the fact starch-to-nonforage NDF ratio of their respective basal diets greatly differed. In conclusion, trans-10,cis-15 18:2 was clearly related to linseed oil supplementation, and its increase in milk fat was comparable when the basal diets were rich in either nonforage NDF or starch. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Linear relationship between increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet and milk fatty acid composition and butter properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud, C; Faucon, F; Couvreur, S; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet on milk fat yield, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, milk fat globule size, and butter properties. Thirty-six Prim'Holstein cows at 104 d in milk were sorted into 3 groups by milk production and milk fat globule size. Three diets were assigned: a total mixed ration (control) consisting of corn silage (70%) and concentrate (30%), or a supplemented ration based on the control ration but where part of the concentrate energy was replaced on a dry matter basis by 2.1% (LIN1) or 4.3% (LIN2) extruded linseed. The increased amounts of extruded linseed linearly decreased milk fat content and milk fat globule size and linearly increased the percentage of milk unsaturated FA, specifically alpha-linolenic acid and trans FA. Extruded linseed had no significant effect on butter color or on the sensory properties of butters, with only butter texture in the mouth improved. The LIN2 treatment induced a net improvement of milk nutritional properties but also created problems with transforming the cream into butter. The butters obtained were highly spreadable and melt-in-the-mouth, with no pronounced deficiency in taste. The LIN1 treatment appeared to offer a good tradeoff of improved milk FA profile and little effect on butter-making while still offering butters with improved functional properties.

  19. Factors affecting the antilisterial effects of nisin in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Meena; Veeramachaneni, Aparna; Shelef, Leora A

    2004-12-15

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to proliferate in milk and the antilisterial activities of nisin are well documented. Although milk fat was reported to reduce the antimicrobial activities of nisin, there is little information on the influence of milk fat on the antilisterial activities of nisin in refrigerated milk, and whether pasteurization and homogenization influence these activities. Fresh, pasteurized, and homogenized milk samples (0.1%, 2.0%, and 3.5% fat) were treated with nisin (0-500 IU/ml) and challenged with 10(4) CFU/ml L. monocytogenes strain Scott A. The organism was most sensitive to nisin in skim milk, showing rapid decline in cell numbers to milk was followed by regrowth of the organism. Loss of the antilisterial effects of nisin was confirmed in homogenized whole milk, whether raw or pasteurized, but not in raw or pasteurized whole milk that was not homogenized. Tween 80, a nonionic emulsifier, partially counteracted the loss of the antilisterial activity of nisin, whereas lecithin, an anionic emulsifier, had no effect. These results demonstrate that the chemical composition and treatment of foods may play an important role in the antilisterial effects of nisin.

  20. Influence of paragenetic factors on production and chemical composition of Paška sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the produced Paška sheep milk is entirely processed in Pag cheese, it is of great importance to ensure a uniform milk production of prescribed chemical composition and hygienic quality. In addition to genotype, as the most important factor, the production and quality of sheep milk is affected by numerous physiological factors, so the aim of this research was to determine the influence of paragenetic factors (stage and number of lactation on daily milk yield and chemical composition (total solids, milk fat, protein, casein, lactose, total solids non fat of Paška sheep milk. Three herds were chosen by random selection within the areas of Kolan and Caska, and survey was conducted on a total of 213 Paška sheep. Stage of lactation was divided to: the beginning (to 50th-day, the middle (from 51st till 100thday and the end (101st -day till dry out of lactation. Depending on the number of lactation, sheep were grouped into five groups (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and others. A significant influence of stage and number of lactation on average daily milk yield and analysed chemical composition parameters was determined. The Paška sheep had the highest daily milk production in the mid lactation (773 g, and the third lactation (712 g recorded. At the end of lactation, total solids, milk fat, protein, casein, total solids non fat in milk were significantly higher than at the beginning and middle of lactation. The highest share of total solids, milk fat, protein and casein was determined in Paška sheep milk at 5th lactation and other lactations. Between the individual parameters significantcorrelation coefficients were determined.

  1. Factors influencing chymosin-induced gelation of milk from individual dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, F.; Glantz, M; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes

    2014-01-01

    calcium content, phosphorous content and casein micelle size on chymosin-induced gelation was determined in milk from 98 Swedish Red cows. The study showed that protein content and total calcium content, ionic calcium concentration and casein micelle size were the most important factors explaining...... the variation of gelation properties in this sample set. Non-coagulating milk was suggested to have lower ionic and total calcium content as well as lower relative concentrations of β-lactoglobulin than coagulating milk. The lower total calcium content in non-coagulating milk poses a problem as the difference...

  2. Factors Effecting of Milk Productions in Select Herds of Slovak Spotted Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Bujko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was analyse factors effecting on the milk production in select breeding herds of the Slovak spotted breed. Data were analysed using the Statistical Analysis System version 9.3.1 and linear model with fixed effects of herd-year-season of calving, genetic group, father, number of lactation and cod of milk production. Average of traits of milk production was 5266.4 kg of milk, 222.19 kg of fat, 177.79 kg of proteins and 251.37 kg of lactose. The linear model to represent coefficient determination R2 = 0.598099 for milk production with all fixed effects. The analysis by the effect was the highest effect of herd-years-season of calving (0.3724 than effect of father (0.3017. Correlation coefficients between milk, fat, protein, lactose in kgs (r=0.90826, r= 0.98260, r= 0.98830, were statistically high significant.

  3. Which factors in raw cow's milk contribute to protection against allergies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Knol, E.F.; Heck, J.M.L.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have shown that growing up in a farming environment is associated with a decreased risk of allergies. A factor that correlates strongly with this effect is the early ingestion of unheated cow's milk. Although, to date, no controlled studies on raw milk consumption have

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk from cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles and fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, M; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Gibson, M L; Karges, K

    2008-07-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to ascertain the lactational response to feeding fish oil (FO), condensed corn distillers solubles (CDS) as a source of extra linoleic acid, or both. Diets contained either no FO or 0.5% FO and either no CDS or 10% CDS in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum consumption. The forage to concentrate ratio was 55:45 on a dry matter basis for all diets and the diets contained 16.2% crude protein. The ether extract concentrations were 2.86, 3.22, 4.77, and 5.02% for control, FO, CDS, and FOCDS diets, respectively. Inclusion of FO or CDS or both had no effect on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, and body condition scores compared with diets without FO and CDS, respectively. Yields of milk (33.3 kg/d), energy-corrected milk, protein, lactose, and milk urea N were similar for all diets. Feeding FO and CDS decreased milk fat percentages (3.85, 3.39, 3.33, and 3.12%) and yields compared with diets without FO and CDS. Proportions of trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid), cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.52, 0.90, 1.11, and 1.52 g/100 g of fatty acids), and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (0.07, 0.14, 0.13, and 0.16 g/100 g of fatty acids) in milk fat were increased by FO and CDS. No interactions were observed between FO and CDS on cis-9 trans-11 CLA although vaccenic acid tended to be higher with the interaction. The addition of CDS to diets increased trans-10 C18:1. Greater ratios of vaccenic acid to cis-9 trans-11 CLA in plasma than in milk fat indicate tissue synthesis of cis-9 trans-11 CLA in the mammary gland from vaccenic acid in cows fed FO or CDS. Feeding fish oil at 0.5% of diet dry matter with a C18:2 n-6 rich source such as CDS increased the milk CLA content but decreased milk fat percentages.

  5. A Milk Protein, Casein, as a Proliferation Promoting Factor in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Sang Jin; Chung, Moon Kee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite most epidemiologic studies reporting that an increase in milk intake affects the growth of prostate cancer, the results of experimental studies are not consistent. In this study, we investigated the proliferation of prostate cancer cells treated with casein, the main protein in milk. Materials and Methods Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and PC3), lung cancer cells (A459), stomach cancer cells (SNU484), breast cancer cells (MCF7), immortalized human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), and immortalized normal prostate cells (RWPE1) were treated with either 0.1 or 1 mg/mL of α-casein and total casein extracted from bovine milk. Treatments were carried out in serum-free media for 72 hours. The proliferation of each cell line was evaluated by an 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results α-Casein and total casein did not affect the proliferations of RWPE1, HEK293, A459, SNU484, MCF7, HEK293, or RWPE1 cells. However, PC3 cells treated with 1 mg/mL of α-casein and casein showed increased proliferation (228% and 166%, respectively), and the proliferation of LNCaP cells was also enhanced by 134% and 142%, respectively. The proliferation mechanism of α-casein in PC3 and LNCaP cells did not appear to be related to the induction of Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), since the level of IGF-1 did not change upon the supplementation of casein. Conclusions The milk protein, casein, promotes the proliferation of prostate cancer cells such as PC3 and LNCaP. PMID:25237656

  6. Sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) polymorphism and milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafikov, R A; Schoonmaker, J P; Korn, K T; Noack, K; Garrick, D J; Koehler, K J; Minick-Bormann, J; Reecy, J M; Spurlock, D E; Beitz, D C

    2013-04-01

    Milk is known to contain high concentrations of saturated fatty acids-such as palmitic (16:0), myristic (14:0), and lauric (12:0) acids-that can raise plasma cholesterol in humans, making their presence in milk undesirable. The main objective of our candidate gene study was to develop genetic markers that can be used to improve the healthfulness of bovine milk. The sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) known to regulate the transcription of lipogenic genes together with SREBF chaperone and insulin induced gene 1 were the candidate genes. The results showed significant association of the overall SREBF1 haplotypes with milk production and variations in lauric (12:0) and myristic (14:0) acid concentrations in milk. Haplotype H1 of SREBF1 was the most desirable to improve milk healthfulness because it was significantly associated with lower lauric (12:0) and myristic (14:0) acid concentrations compared with haplotype H3 of SREBF1, and lower lauric acid (12:0) concentration compared with haplotype H2 of SREBF1. Haplotype H1 of SREBF1, however, was significantly associated with lower milk production compared with haplotype H3 of SREBF1. We did not detect any significant associations between genetic polymorphisms in insulin induced gene 1 (INSIG1) and SREBF chaperone and milk fatty acid composition. In conclusion, genetic polymorphisms in SREBF1 can be used to develop genetic tools for the selection of animals producing milk with healthier fatty acid composition.

  7. Factors affecting breast milk composition and potential consequences for development of the allergic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munblit, D; Boyle, R J; Warner, J O

    2015-03-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to allergic sensitization and disease. The factors in breast milk which influence these processes are still unclear and under investigation. We know that colostrum and breast milk contain a variety of molecules which can influence immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of a neonate. This review summarizes the evidence that variations in colostrum and breast milk composition can influence allergic outcomes in the infant, and the evidence that maternal and environmental factors can modify milk composition. Taken together, the data presented support the possibility that maternal dietary interventions may be an effective way to promote infant health through modification of breast milk composition.

  8. Exposure of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis to Milk Oligosaccharides Increases Adhesion to Epithelial Cells and Induces a Substantial Transcriptional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Devon W.; O’Callaghan, John; Buttó, Ludovica F.; Slattery, Helen; Lane, Jonathan; Clyne, Marguerite; Kane, Marian; Joshi, Lokesh; Hickey, Rita M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that milk oligosaccharides may contribute not only to selective growth of bifidobacteria, but also to their specific adhesive ability. Human milk oligosaccharides (3′sialyllactose and 6′sialyllactose) and a commercial prebiotic (Beneo Orafti P95; oligofructose) were assayed for their ability to promote adhesion of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 to HT-29 and Caco-2 human intestinal cells. Treatment with the commercial prebiotic or 3′sialyllactose did not enhance adhesion. However, treatment with 6′sialyllactose resulted in increased adhesion (4.7 fold), while treatment with a mixture of 3′- and 6′-sialyllactose substantially increased adhesion (9.8 fold) to HT-29 intestinal cells. Microarray analyses were subsequently employed to investigate the transcriptional response of B. longum subsp. infantis to the different oligosaccharide treatments. This data correlated strongly with the observed changes in adhesion to HT-29 cells. The combination of 3′- and 6′-sialyllactose resulted in the greatest response at the genetic level (both in diversity and magnitude) followed by 6′sialyllactose, and 3′sialyllactose alone. The microarray data was further validated by means of real-time PCR. The current findings suggest that the increased adherence phenotype of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis resulting from exposure to milk oligosaccharides is multi-faceted, involving transcription factors, chaperone proteins, adhesion-related proteins, and a glycoside hydrolase. This study gives additional insight into the role of milk oligosaccharides within the human intestine and the molecular mechanisms underpinning host-microbe interactions. PMID:23805302

  9. Increase of calcium and reduction of lactose concentration in milk by treatment with kefir grains and eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Brenda L; Brun, Lucas R; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are the main source of calcium (Ca), but the loss of the consumption habit contributes to low consumption in adulthood, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Domestic use of kefir is straightforward and the eggshell is a natural discarded source of Ca. This paper proposes the development of an enriched Ca reduced lactose milk using eggshell and kefir. During the in vitro preparation, the pH, Ca and lactose contents were measured. Ca intestinal absorption of untreated milk and milk with kefir was compared. Finally, human volunteers consumed this dairy product and 24-h urine Ca was measured. Results showed that the beverage has lower lactose and higher Ca than untreated milk and milk with kefir. Intestinal Ca absorption was not different between both milks and an increase in urinary Ca excretion was observed in humans. This study provides a methodology to prepare at home a dairy product that could contribute to improve the Ca intake in adults.

  10. Milk production increase in a dairy farm under a six-year Brucellosis control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Enrique; Palomares, Gabriela; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén

    2008-12-01

    The present work aims to quantify milk production in a bovine dairy herd during a 6-year brucellosis control program in Hidalgo, Mexico, where bovine brucellosis is endemic. This 6-year longitudinal pilot study comprised 74 monthly samplings to determine the incidence of brucellosis and to quantify daily milk production. To determine the monthly incidence of brucellosis, an average of 346 Holstein cows was examined each month with the card and Rivanol tests. These animals had been vaccinated as calves with the normal dose of Brucella abortus RB51 and were revaccinated annually with a reduced dose. Brucellosis is endemic in Mexico, where the control programs include vaccination and diagnosis; nevertheless, it is uncommon to carry out other essential control practices, such as separation and elimination of positive cows. In this herd, the cows positive to the card and rivanol tests were separated in specific units, especially at the moment of delivery. These cows were placed at the end of the line for milking and were eliminated from the herd at the end of their productive cycle. In this dairy herd, cows were milked three times a day and there was a monthly average of 300 cows in production. At the beginning of this study the prevalence of brucellosis was 8.43%; from days 180-330 the incidence was from 0.51% to 0.90%. Between days 360-570, the incidence diminished to 0%; between days 600 to 1140, it increased to 4.46%; and from days 1440 to 2220 the incidence was kept beneath 1%. The average of dairy milk production for each cow per day started with 24 L, increasing in direct proportion to the decrease in the presence of new cases of brucellosis: in the subsequent years, the production increased successively to 25, 27, 28, 29, and 30 L. The daily average per year of milk production in the herd was also quantified: at the beginning of the study it was 7220 L and in subsequent years was 7470, 7710, 8340, 8790, 8970, and 9150 L, respectively. We conclude that a direct

  11. Factors affecting variations in the detailed fatty acid profile of Mediterranean buffalo milk determined by 2-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegolo, S; Stocco, G; Mele, M; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-04-01

    influence on the fatty acid profile of buffalo milk than that of cow milk, probably due to a shorter and less severe period of negative energy balance. Parity affected the profiles of a few traits and had the most significant effects on branched-chain fatty acids. This work provided a detailed overview of the fatty acid profile in buffalo milk including also those fatty acids present in small concentrations, which may have beneficial effects for human health. Our results contributed also to increase the knowledge about the effects of some of the major factors affecting buffalo production traits and fatty acid concentrations in milk, and consequently its technological and nutritional properties.

  12. A Case Study of Probit Model Analysis of Factors Affecting Consumption of Packed and Unpacked Milk in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Uzunoz, Meral; Akcay, Yasar

    2012-01-01

    This paper focused on the effects of some sociodemographic factors on the decision of the consumer to purchase packed or unpacked fluid milk in Sivas, Turkey. The data were collected from 300 consumers by using face-to-face survey technique. The sample size was determined using the possibility-sampling method. Probit model has been used to analyze the socioeconomic factors affecting milk consumption of households. Four estimators (household size, income, milk preferences reason, and milk pric...

  13. Nutritional and biochemical properties of human milk: II. Lipids, micronutrients, and bioactive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Palmero, M; Koletzko, B; Kunz, C; Jensen, R

    1999-06-01

    Human milk lipids contain preformed LCPUFA in considerable amounts, which serve as precursors for the formation of prostaglandins, prostacyclins, and other lipid mediators, as well as essential components in membrane-rich tissues (such as the brain and the retina), thus affecting functional outcomes. Besides a balanced nutrient composition and a number of conditionally essential nutrients, human milk provides different types and classes of bioactive factors, such as enzymes, hormones, and growth factors, many of which appear to have a role in supporting infantile growth and development. The bioactive agents include antimicrobial factors (e.g., secretory IgA, oligosaccharides, FA); anti-inflammatory agents; transporters (e.g., lactoferrin); and digestive enzymes (e.g., BSSL). Several nonpeptide hormones (thyroid hormones, cortisol, progesterone, pregnanediol, estrogens, and artificial contraceptive) and peptide hormones and growth factors (erythropoietin, hHG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, epidermal growth factor insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, nerve growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, gastrointestinal regulatory peptides and thyroid-parathyroid hormones) have been isolated and quantitated in human milk. Some of these components are also involved in the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract of the infant. In addition to the passive benefits provided by human milk, several data support the hypothesis that breastfeeding promotes the development of the infant's own immune system, which might confer long-term benefits for the newborn infant. The risk of IDDM, Crohn's disease, and atopic disease is lower in individuals who had been breastfed during infancy. Areas of major interest in human milk research include the study of human milk synthesis and the contributions of dietary composition and maternal metabolism to human milk composition, infantile utilization of human milk components, and the study of bioactive components, such as

  14. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β in milk: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lopes da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk and colostrum contain growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor IGF-I, IGF-II, transforming growth factor TGF-β1, TGF-β2, epidermal growth factor EGF, basic fibroblast growth factor bFGF and platelet-derived growth factor PDGF. In recent years, intense scientific interest has been focused on the identification of factors within bovine milk that may be relevant to improving human health. Then a number of methodologies for the extraction of milk growth factors from milk, colostrum or whey have been developed. Cation-exchange chromatography has been widely used because of the basic nature of the growth factors. Also, microfiltration has been used for the concentration of some growth factors from colostrum, while ultrafiltration was successful only in separating IGF-I from IGF-II in whey. Growth factor extracts from milk, colostrum or whey have been used as therapeutic preparations for wound healing and in the treatment of inflammatory gut disorders.

  15. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  16. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  17. Factors Effecting of the Milk Production in Select Herd of Slovak Spotted Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hric

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was analyse factors effecting on the milk production in select herd of the Slovak spotted breed. Data were analysed using the Statistical Analysis System version 9.3.1 and linear model with fixed effects of herdyear- season of calving, breeding type, father, number of lactation. Average of traits of milk production was 3 539.82 kg of milk, 143.59 kg of fat, 115.94 kg of proteins and 168.13 kg of lactose, 4.05 % fat, 3.28 % proteins and 4.75 % lactose. The linear model to represent coefficient determination R2 = 0.3783 for milk production with all fixed effects. The analysis by the effect was the highest effect of herd-yearsseason of calving (0.2515 than effect of number of lactation (0.1133. In assessing of individual various sources of variability on production traits had statistically most significant effect on milk production herd - year - season, father and order of lactation sources of variability P≤ 0.001. Statistically not significant impact had order of breeding type source P> 0.05. Correlation coefficients between kgs of milk and fat, kgs milk and proteins and kgs milk and lactose (r=0.90032, r= 0.97531, r= 0.98905, were statistically high significant.

  18. Identification and effect decomposition of risk factors for Brucella contamination of raw whole milk in china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbo Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of clear risk factor identification is the main reason for the persistence of brucellosis infection in the Chinese population, and there has been little assessment of the factors contributing to Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors affecting Brucella contamination of raw milk, and to evaluate effective measures for disease reduction in order to determine preventive strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A nationwide survey was conducted and samples were obtained from 5211 cows corresponding to 25 sampling locations throughout 15 provinces in China. The prevalence of Brucella in the raw milk samples averaged 1.07% over the 15 Chinese provinces, while the prevalence of positive areas within these regions ranged from 0.23-3.84% among the nine provinces with positive samples. The survey examined factors that supposedly influence Brucella contamination of raw whole milk, such as management style, herd size, abortion rate, hygiene and disease control practices. A binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the association between risk factors for Brucella and contamination of milk samples. Furthermore, a relative effect decomposition study was conducted to determine effective strategies for reducing the risk of Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. Our data indicate that disease prevention and control measures, abortion rate, and animal polyculture are the most important risk factors. Meanwhile, culling after quarantine was identified as an effective protective measure in the current Chinese dairy situation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that, although there is a low risk of contamination of milk with Brucella nationwide in China, there are individual regions where contamination is a significant problem. Controlling three factors-culling after quarantine, maintaining a low abortion rate, and avoiding mixing groups of cattle and small ruminants

  19. Some factors influencing the syneresis of bovine, ovine, and caprine milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M M; Balcones, E

    2000-08-01

    The influence of the species, fat, curd incubation temperature (25, 30, and 35 degrees C), heat treatment of milk (70 degrees C for 5 or 30 min), and milk pH on the initial volume drained, syneresis rate, and the loss of proteins in drainage was studied. The volume drained as a function of the curd incubation time (up to 60 min) was adjusted to a first-order kinetic reaction. The k values (drained rate) and the initial volume obtained applying the equation were compared to establish the possible influence of the studied factors. In general, for all the factors studied, the syneresis rate of curd from caprine and ovine milk did not differ from those described previously in the literature for the curds from bovine milk. However, for each studied factor the pattern of syneresis rate was significantly different among the species in most of the experiments.

  20. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. DESIGN: During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet...... through questionnaires and on covariates through telephone interviews and ascertained birth outcomes through registry linkages. Findings were adjusted for mother's parity, age, height, prepregnant BMI, gestational weight gain, smoking status, and total energy intake; father's height; and family...... and mean birth weight (P for trend women drinking >or=6 glasses/d with those drinking 0 glasses/d, the odds ratio for SGA was 0.51 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.65) and for LGA was 1.59 (1.16, 2.16); the increment in mean birth weight was 108 g (74, 143 g). We also found graded relations (P...

  1. Levels of innate immune factors in preterm and term mothers' breast milk during the 1st month postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Metcalfe, Jessica; Geddes, Donna T; Lai, Ching Tat; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Currie, Andrew

    2016-04-14

    There is a paucity of data on the effect of preterm birth on the immunological composition of breast milk throughout the different stages of lactation. We aimed to characterise the effects of preterm birth on the levels of immune factors in milk during the 1st month postpartum, to determine whether preterm milk is deficient in antimicrobial factors. Colostrum (days 2-5 postpartum), transitional milk (days 8-12) and mature milk (days 26-30) were collected from mothers of extremely preterm (preterm (28-preterm (32-preterm mothers had significantly higher concentrations of HBD1 and TGF-β2 in colostrum than term mothers did. After controlling for other variables in regression analyses, preterm birth was associated with higher concentrations of HBD1, LZ and sCD14 in milk samples. In conclusion, preterm breast milk contains significantly higher concentrations of some immune proteins than term breast milk.

  2. Short communication: artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Kaas, Poul; Burild, Anders; Jäpelt, Rie Bak

    2015-09-01

    The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We tested the ability of a specially designed UVB lamp to enhance the vitamin D3 content in milk from dairy cows housed indoors. This study included 16 cows divided into 4 groups. Each group was exposed daily to artificial UVB light simulating 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of summer sun at 56°N for 24 d, and the group with simulated exposure to 2 h of summer sun daily continued to be monitored for 73 d. We found a significant increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) levels in plasma as well as vitamin D3 and 25OHD3 levels in milk after daily exposure for 24 d in all treatment groups. Extending daily exposure to artificial UVB light to 73 d did not lead to an increase of vitamin D3 or 25OHD3 level in the milk. In conclusion, the change in production facilities for dairy cows providing cows with no access to pasture and sunlight causes a decrease of vitamin D levels in dairy products. This decrease may be prevented by exposing cows to artificial UVB light in the stable.

  3. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...... interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance....

  4. Excessive milk production during breast-feeding prior to breast cancer diagnosis is associated with increased risk for early events

    OpenAIRE

    Gustbée, Emma; Anesten, Charlotte; Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rose, Carsten; Ingvar, Christian; Jernström, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is a known protective factor against breast cancer. Breast-feeding duration is influenced by hormone levels, milk production, and lifestyle factors. The aims were to investigate how breast-feeding duration and milk production affected tumor characteristics and risk for early breast cancer events in primary breast cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 634 breast cancer patients in Lund, Sweden, took part in an ongoing prospective cohort study. Data were extracted from question...

  5. CLIMATE CHANGES AS THE RISK FACTOR IN MILK PRODUCTION IN WIELKOPOLSKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Chaberski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pilot researches were conducted in Wielkopolska. They aimed initial identifi cation of cows reaction on changing of THI, which are likened to temperature and humidity conditions of air. The subjected cows characterize with high productivity, exceeding 40kg of milk per day, independently from lactation stages. The results display that the day s production of raw milk, as well as fat and protein content, do not only depend on lactation stage but also on the value of THI factors. Higher THI is accompanied by loss in the weight of milk and drop in its technological utility. The climate warming may escalate the risk of production loss during the heats.

  6. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during lactation, whereas soybean oil supplementation resulted in severe BW loss.

  7. Artificial long-day photoperiod in the subtropics increases milk production in goats giving birth in late autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, M J; Flores, J A; Elizundia, J M; Mejía, A; Delgadillo, J A; Hernández, H

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether exposure to a photoperiod of artificial long days in autumn increased milk yield in subtropical goats milked once (Exp. I) or twice daily (Exp. II). In Exp. I, starting at d 10 of lactation, 1 group of does was kept under naturally decreasing photoperiod (DD1X; n = 8), whereas the other group was submitted to an artificial photoperiod of long days (LD1X; n = 8; 16 h light:8 h darkness). The kids were weaned 28 d after parturition, and dams were manually milked once daily. Milk yield and milk components (fat, protein, and lactose) were assessed up to 140 d of lactation. From d 0 to 28 of lactation (suckling phase), mean daily milk yield did not differ between DD1X and LD1X goats (2.3 ± 0.2 kg vs. 2.4 ± 0.2 kg; P = 0.717). However, between d 29 and 84 (early milking phase), mean daily milk yield was greater in LD1X does than in DD1X does (2.6 ± 0.1 kg vs. 2.1 ± 0.1 kg; P = 0.001). Finally, between d 85 and 140 (late milking phase), mean daily milk yield was greater in LD1X goats than in DD1X goats (P ≤ 0.05) only during the first 2 wk. In Exp. II, one group of goats was exposed to a photoperiod of naturally decreasing days (DD2X; n = 8) and another group was submitted to an artificial photoperiod of long days (LD2X; n = 7). In both groups, kids were weaned on d 28 of lactation and the dams were manually milked twice daily. During the nursing phase, mean daily milk yield did not differ between the DD2X and LD2X groups (2.5 ± 0.3 kg vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 kg; P = 0.767). In the early milking phase, mean daily milk yield was greater in LD2X than in DD2X goats (3.3 ± 0.2 kg vs. 2.8 ± 0.2 kg; P = 0.022), whereas during the late milking phase, milk yield did not differ between the 2 groups (P = 0.946). In both experiments, milk composition was not significantly influenced by exposure to long-day photoperiod. We conclude that, in subtropical female goats that start lactation in late autumn, exposure to an artificial long

  8. Inclusion of Oat in Feeding Can Increase the Potential Probiotic Bifidobacteria in Sow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabin Gyawali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (i investigate the impact of feeding oat on the population of bifidobacteria and (ii evaluate their probiotic potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementing sows’ gestation and lactation feed with 15% oat (prebiotic source on the levels of probiotic population in milk. We found that dietary inclusion of oat during lactation and gestation resulted in increased levels of bifidobacteria compared to lactobacilli in sow milk. Furthermore bifidobacteria within the sow milk samples were further evaluated for probiotic potential based on aggregating properties, and acid- and bile-tolerance after exposure to hydrochloric acid (pH 2.5 and bile salts (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0% and 2.0%. All isolates survived under the condition of low pH and bile 2.0%. Autoaggregation ability ranged from 17.5% to 73%. These isolates also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7.Together our results suggest that inclusion of oat in feeding systems could have the potential to improve the intestinal health of piglets by increasing the population of bifidobacteria.

  9. Inclusion of Oat in Feeding Can Increase the Potential Probiotic Bifidobacteria in Sow Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Rabin; Minor, Radiah C; Donovan, Barry; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of feeding oat on the population of bifidobacteria and (ii) evaluate their probiotic potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementing sows' gestation and lactation feed with 15% oat (prebiotic source) on the levels of probiotic population in milk. We found that dietary inclusion of oat during lactation and gestation resulted in increased levels of bifidobacteria compared to lactobacilli in sow milk. Furthermore bifidobacteria within the sow milk samples were further evaluated for probiotic potential based on aggregating properties, and acid- and bile-tolerance after exposure to hydrochloric acid (pH 2.5) and bile salts (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0% and 2.0%). All isolates survived under the condition of low pH and bile 2.0%. Autoaggregation ability ranged from 17.5% to 73%. These isolates also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7.Together our results suggest that inclusion of oat in feeding systems could have the potential to improve the intestinal health of piglets by increasing the population of bifidobacteria.

  10. Milk peptides increase iron dialyzability in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Konstantina; Tako, Elad; Miller, Dennis D; Glahn, Raymond P; Komaitis, Michael; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2009-02-25

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether these fractions (a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells and (b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Two milk peptide fractions that solubilize iron were isolated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration of a milk digest. These peptide fractions did not affect relative gene expression of DMT-1 when incubated with Caco-2 cells for 2 or 48 h. Dialyzability was measured after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. Both peptide fractions enhanced the dialyzability of iron from ferric chloride added to PIPES buffer, but had no effect on dialyzability from milk or a vegetable or fruit meal after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. However, dialyzability from milk was enhanced by the addition of a more concentrated lyophilized peptide fraction.

  11. Milk cortisol concentration in automatic milking systems compared with auto-tandem milking parlors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, L; Neuffer, I; Kaufmann, C; Hauser, R; Wechsler, B

    2006-09-01

    Milk cortisol concentration was determined under routine management conditions on 4 farms with an auto-tandem milking parlor and 8 farms with 1 of 2 automatic milking systems (AMS). One of the AMS was a partially forced (AMSp) system, and the other was a free cow traffic (AMSf) system. Milk samples were collected for all the cows on a given farm (20 to 54 cows) for at least 1 d. Behavioral observations were made during the milking process for a subset of 16 to 20 cows per farm. Milk cortisol concentration was evaluated by milking system, time of day, behavior during milking, daily milk yield, and somatic cell count using linear mixed-effects models. Milk cortisol did not differ between systems (AMSp: 1.15 +/- 0.07; AMSf: 1.02 +/- 0.12; auto-tandem parlor: 1.01 +/- 0.16 nmol/L). Cortisol concentrations were lower in evening than in morning milkings (1.01 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.13 nmol/L). The daily periodicity of cortisol concentration was characterized by an early morning peak and a late afternoon elevation in AMSp. A bimodal pattern was not evident in AMSf. Finally, milk cortisol decreased by a factor of 0.915 in milking parlors, by 0.998 in AMSp, and increased by a factor of 1.161 in AMSf for each unit of ln(somatic cell count/1,000). We conclude that milking cows in milking parlors or AMS does not result in relevant stress differences as measured by milk cortisol concentrations. The biological relevance of the difference regarding the daily periodicity of milk cortisol concentrations observed between the AMSp and AMSf needs further investigation.

  12. Contamination Level of Staphylococcus spp. in Raw Goat Milk and Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Taufik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the presence of pathogenic bacteria in raw goat milk by using Staphylococcus spp. as indicator bacteria, and also to evaluate the potential risk factors associated with them. Information regarding potential risk factors was collected by questionnaire. The conventional bacteriological method for bacterial isolation and the indirect test (California Mastitis Test (CMT for determining udder inflammation status were employed. A sample size of 300 udder halves milk samples from three commercial dairy goat farms in the Bogor District, West Java Province, Indonesia were investigated for counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria. Ten potential risk factors were also evaluated in relation to counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria. The results showed that the median value of indicator bacterial count from overall udder-half milk samples was 3.00 log cfu/ml. The indicator bacterial count from udder-half milk samples was significantly different (P<0.05 among farms. Overall prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. was 78.7%. As one of potential risk factors, udder inflammation status was found to be risk factor for Staphylococcus spp. contamination in milk. Udders with inflammation had significant association and a higher chance of having contaminated samples by Staphylococcus spp. as compared to udders without inflammation. Additionally, according to these study results, CMT can be used as an effective, reliable, cheap and “farm and farmer friendly test” for screening test of intramammary infection (IMI or sub clinical mastitis in dairy goats.

  13. Factors influencing variation of bulk milk antibiotic residue occurrence, somatic cell count, and total bacterial count in dairy sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; García-Jimeno, M C; Pérez-Bilbao, M; de la Fuente, L F

    2010-04-01

    To study the variations of bulk tank milk variables in dairy ewe flocks and to identify the main target practices and flock groups to improve milk quality and safety, a total of 71,228 records of antibiotic residue (AR) and milk yield and 68,781 records of somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) were obtained over 5 yr from the same 209 dairy ewe flocks of the Assaf breed belonging to the Consortium for Ovine Promotion of Castilla-León (Spain). Based on a logistic regression model, year, month, semester, SCC, TBC, dry therapy, and milk yield significantly contributed to AR variation. High SCC was associated with increased AR violations. When antibiotic dry therapy was implemented, AR occurrence was higher than when this practice was not used. A polynomial monthly distribution throughout the year was observed for AR occurrence; the highest values were in autumn, coinciding with low milk yields per flock. Yearly occurrences drastically diminished from 2004 (1.36%) to 2008 (0.30%), probably as a result of effective educational programs. The mixed-model ANOVA of factors influencing variation in SCC and TBC indicated that year, month, AR, dry therapy group, milking type, and year interactions were significant variation factors for SCC and TBC; mathematical model accounted for 74.1 and 35.4% of total variance for each variable, respectively. Differences in management and hygiene practice caused significant SCC and TBC variations among flocks and within flocks throughout the 5-yr study. Over time, continuously dry treated flocks showed lower logSCC (5.80) and logTBC (4.92) than untreated (6.10 and 5.18, respectively) or discontinuously dry treated (6.01 and 5.05, respectively) flocks. Continuously dry treated flocks had lower AR occurrences than did discontinuously dry treated flocks. As a whole, AR occurrence and SCC and TBC bulk tank milk variables can be used for monitoring mammary health and milk hygiene and safety in dairy sheep throughout time.

  14. Virulence factors and ability of staphylococci from bovine milk and the cowshed environment to biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, B; Binek, T; Piechota, M; Wolska, K M; Zdunek, E; Platkowska, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine virulence factors and the ability of S. aureus and CNS species isolated from milk of cows with mastitis to form biofilm, and to compare them with virulence factors of staphylococci from milk of cows without mastitis and cowshed environment. Most of S. aureus strains from cows with mastitis showed haemolytic activity (93.9%), among them 72.7% and 21.2% produced alpha- and beta-haemolysin, respectively. S. aureus from cows with mastitis symptoms produced proteases (above 48%) and esterase (42.4%). The highly significant relationship between the number of S. xylosus strains producing haemolysins (62%) and the origin of these strains from milk of cows with mastitis was observed. The ability to produce proteases was significantly associated with S. sciuri from milk of cows with mastitis. The ability of biofilm formation by staphylococcal strains from milk of cows with mastitis was greater than in strains from milk of cows without mastitis and the difference was significant (p < or = 0.05). The highest percentage of strains from milk of cows with mastitis were weak biofilm formers (48.6%), while 40% and 11.4% of strains were moderate and strong biofilm producers, respectively. S. xylosus showed the highest ability to form biofilm, while the lowest ability to form biofilm was observed in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In conclusion, production of exotoxins and enzymes, and ability of biofilm formation shown by many CNS isolated from milk of cows with mastitis symptoms indicates that these features are important in pathogenesis of this disease.

  15. Skim milk, whey, and casein increase body weight and whey and casein increase the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Jensen, Signe Marie; Trolle, Ellen; Larnkjær, Anni

    2012-12-01

    In adults, dietary protein seems to induce weight loss and dairy proteins may be insulinotropic. However, the effect of milk proteins in adolescents is unclear. The objective was to test whether milk and milk proteins reduce body weight, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment, plasma insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12-15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein/L. Before randomization, a subgroup of adolescents (n = 32) was studied for 12 wk before the intervention began as a pretest control group. The effects of the milk-based test drinks were compared with baseline (wk 0), the water group, and the pretest control group. Diet and physical activity were registered. Outcomes were BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZs), waist circumference, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and plasma C-peptide. We found no change in BAZ in the pretest control and water groups, whereas it was greater at 12 wk in the skim milk, whey, and casein groups compared with baseline and with the water and pretest control groups. The plasma C-peptide concentration increased from baseline to wk 12 in the whey and casein groups and increments were greater than in the pretest control (P milk or water group. These data suggest that high intakes of skim milk, whey, and casein increase BAZs in overweight adolescents and that whey and casein increase insulin secretion. Whether the effect on body weight is primary or secondary to the increased insulin secretion remains to be elucidated.

  16. A Case Study of Probit Model Analysis of Factors Affecting Consumption of Packed and Unpacked Milk in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Uzunoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on the effects of some sociodemographic factors on the decision of the consumer to purchase packed or unpacked fluid milk in Sivas, Turkey. The data were collected from 300 consumers by using face-to-face survey technique. The sample size was determined using the possibility-sampling method. Probit model has been used to analyze the socioeconomic factors affecting milk consumption of households. Four estimators (household size, income, milk preferences reason, and milk price in the probit model were found statistically significant. According to empirical results, consumers with lower household size and higher income levels tend to consume packed milk consumption. Our study findings suggest that consumers who were sensitive to price were less likely to consume packed milk and believe that packed milk price is expensive compared to unpacked milk price. Also, milk price was effective factor concerning packed and unpacked milk consumption behavior. The majority of consumers read the contents of packed fluid milk and are affected by safety food in their shopping preferences.

  17. Perinatal factors associated with the development of cow's milk protein allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Monjaraz, E M; Ramírez Mayans, J A; Cervantes Bustamante, R; Gómez Morales, E; Molina Rosales, A; Montijo Barrios, E; Zárate Mondragón, F; Cadena León, J; Cazares Méndez, M; López-Ugalde, M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has increased in recent years, and is associated with antimicrobial use during the perinatal period, prematurity, the type of childbirth, and the decrease in breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to analyze whether there is any association between these factors and the development of CMPA. A retrospective, comparative, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted by reviewing the case records of 101 children diagnosed with CMPA and seen at the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría within the time frame of January 2012 and August 2013. The following variables were included: age, sex, weeks of gestation, history of maternal infection and antimicrobial use during the pregnancy, type of delivery, and feeding with human milk, and its duration. Likewise, the case records of 90 children were reviewed as a control group on not having CMPA or any other allergy. The chi-square test was used for proportions, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparing means in the statistical analysis. The factors associated with CMPA were the use of antimicrobials during gestation and breastfeeding duration in months. Both factors were statistically significant (P<.001). No association was found between CMPA and gestational age or type of delivery. The statistically significant associated factors were breastfeeding duration and the use of antimicrobials during the gestational stage. These results underline the necessity for prospective studies. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and Testing of a Device to Increase the Level of Automation of a Conventional Milking Parlor through Vocal Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable wireless device with a “vocal commands” feature for activating the mechanical milking phase in conventional milking parlors was developed and tested to increase the level of automation in the milking procedures. The device was tested in the laboratory and in a milking parlor. Four professional milkers participated in the experiment. Before the start of the tests, a set of acoustic models with speaker-dependent commands defined for the project was acquired for each milker using a dedicated “milker training procedure”. Two experimental sessions were performed by each milker, with one session in the laboratory and a subsequent session in the milking parlor. The device performance was evaluated based on the accuracy demonstrated in the vocal command recognition task and rated using the word recognition rate (WRR. The data were expressed as %WRR and grouped based on the different cases evaluated. Mixed effects logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between the %WRR and explanatory variables. The results indicated significant effects due to the location where the tests were performed. Higher values of the %WRR were found for tests performed in the laboratory, whereas lower values were found for tests performed in the milking parlor (due to the presence of background noise. Nevertheless, the general performance level achieved by the device was sufficient for increasing the automation level of conventional milking parlors.

  19. S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in human milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human milk contains a wide variety of nutrients that contribute to the fulfillment of its functions, which include the regulation of newborn development. However, few studies have investigated the concentrations of S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF in human milk. The associations of the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF with maternal factors are not well explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF in human milk and characterize the maternal factors associated with their levels in human milk, human milk samples were collected at days 3, 10, 30, and 90 after parturition. Levels of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF, and their mRNAs in the samples were detected. Then, these concentrations were compared with lactation and other maternal factors. S100B protein levels in human milk samples collected at 3, 10, 30, and 90 d after parturition were 1249.79±398.10, 1345.05±539.16, 1481.83±573.30, and 1414.39±621.31 ng/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BDNF concentrations in human milk samples were 10.99±4.55, 13.01±5.88, 13.35±6.43, and 2.83±5.47 µg/L, while those of GDNF were 10.90±1.65, 11.38±1., 11.29±3.10, and 11.40±2.21 g/L for the same time periods. Maternal post-pregnancy body mass index was positively associated with S100B levels in human milk (r = 0.335, P = 0.030<0.05. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the levels of S100B protein and BDNF (z = 2.09, P = 0.037<0.05. Delivery modes were negatively associated with the concentration of GDNF in human milk. CONCLUSIONS: S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF are present in all samples of human milk, and they may be responsible for the long term effects of breast feeding.

  20. Factors affecting the milk production of dairy cattle in northern rural areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Begum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted to observe the factors affecting the productive performance of dairy cattle from northern rural areas of Bangladesh during July and September 2013. Data of 105 cows, 85 (80.95% from local and 20 (19.05% cows from cross breed, were randomly selected for the study. A binary logistic regression, expressed by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, was done to determine the association of daily milk production categorized into ≤ 2 and > 2 liters (L, based on median, with the significant explanatory variables of body weight, age at first calving, lactation period, vitamin use, type of floor and milking person. The result demonstrated that the probability of milk production of >2 L was 6.16, 4.5, 20.65 and 5.7 times higher from the with animal body weight of >140 kg, age at first calving of >36 m, lactation period of >8 m and vitamin use than that of body weight of 140 kg, age at first calving of ≤36 m, lactation period of ≤ 8 m, and not vitamin used respectively. The chance of milk production of > 2 L was 0.25 and 0.22 times lower for mud floor, and owner milking than that of brick floor and gowala (professional milking person respectively.

  1. Human milk arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents increase following supplementation during pregnancy and lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A.; Dijick-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Doornbos, Bennard; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Schaafsma, Anne; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Djick-Brouwer, D.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are important for neurodevelopment. Maternal diet influences milk DHA, whereas milk AA seems rather constant. We investigated milk AA, DHA and DHA/AA after supplementation of AA plus DHA, or DHA alone during pregnancy and lactation.

  2. The continuing debate over increasing consumption of raw (unpasteurised) milk: is it safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, K. N.; Hunt, K.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The debate on the consumption of raw (unpasteurised) milk continues. On one side there is the risk of illness associated with pathogenic bacteria that may be in the milk, a risk that can be mitigated by pasteurisation of the milk prior to consumption. On the other side, there are those who believ...

  3. Milk-specific immunoglobulin free light chain secretion is increased in children with eosinophilic esophagitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chehade, Mirna; Vos, Arjan P.; Kleinjan, Marije; Garssen, Johan; Redegeld, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an esophageal inflammatory disease caused by multiple food triggers. The mechanism by which foods trigger EoE is unknown. Milk is by far the most common trigger. Standard allergy tests to milk (skin prick tests, atopy patch tests, and serum milk-specific

  4. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilliard, Y; Ferlay, A; Rouel, J; Lamberet, G

    2003-05-01

    Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses of milk yield and composition (fat and protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content increases with almost all studied fat supplements in goats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats and cows supplemented with either protected or unprotected lipid supplements. Goat milk CLA content increases sharply after either vegetable oil supplementation or fresh grass feeding, but does not change markedly when goats receive whole untreated oilseeds. Important interactions are observed between the nature of forages and of oil supplements on trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1 and CLA. Peculiarities of goat milk FA composition and lipolytic system play an important role in the development of either goat flavor (release of branched, medium-chain FA) or rancidity (excessive release of butyric acid). The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, although lower in goat than in cow milk, is more bound to the fat globules and better correlated to spontaneous lipolysis in goat milk. The regulation of spontaneous lipolysis differs widely between goats and cows. Goat milk lipolysis and LPL activity vary considerably and in parallel across goat breeds or genotypes, and are low during early and late lactation, as well as when animals are underfed or receive a diet supplemented with protected or unprotected vegetable oils. This could contribute to decreases in the specific flavor of goat dairy products with diets rich in fat.

  5. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  6. Risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Part 1: overall risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoslemany, A M; Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Jayarao, B M

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine on-farm risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank raw milk quality was evaluated on all Prince Edward Island dairy herds (n = 235) over a 2-yr period (March 2005 to March 2007). Biweekly total bacterial, preliminary incubation, laboratory pasteurization, and coliform counts were conducted using a Petrifilm culture system. For the assessment of risk factors, a case-control study was conducted from January 2006 to May 2007. Case and control herds were defined based on the last 6 analyses of bulk tank bacterial counts before on-farm evaluation. Cases were herds that had multiple elevated counts for any of the parameters measured. A total of 69 herds (39 cases and 30 control herds) were evaluated. Data collection included 1) observation and questionnaire on basic hygiene and farm management practices; 2) complete wash analysis of the milking equipment, monitoring the presence of bacterial films on equipment and evaluation of cooling system function; and 3) environmental and cow hygiene scoring. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The results of the final model indicated that high alkalinity in the wash water and poor teat-end cleanliness were associated with high bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 12 and 5.3, respectively). It was also observed that high water temperature of detergent wash and the use of a water softener were associated with low bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 0.87 and 0.11, respectively). A significant association between udder hair clipping and teat-end cleanliness was also observed. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of udder hygiene and milking system washing factors on hygienic quality of bulk tank milk.

  7. Palmitic acid feeding increases ceramide supply in association with increased milk yield, circulating nonesterified fatty acids, and adipose tissue responsiveness to a glucose challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Mathews, A T; Lovett, J; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Reduced insulin action is a key adaptation that facilitates glucose partitioning to the mammary gland for milk synthesis and enhances adipose tissue lipolysis during early lactation. The progressive recovery of insulin sensitivity as cows advance toward late lactation is accompanied by reductions in circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and milk yield. Because palmitic acid can promote insulin resistance in monogastrics through sphingolipid ceramide-dependent mechanisms, palmitic acid (C16:0) feeding may enhance milk production by restoring homeorhetic responses. We hypothesized that feeding C16:0 to mid-lactation cows would enhance ceramide supply and ceramide would be positively associated with milk yield. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows were randomly assigned to a sorghum silage-based diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45 d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration dry matter (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44 d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Liver and skeletal muscle tissue were biopsied at d 47 of treatment. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. The plasma and tissue concentrations of ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield, energy-corrected milk, and milk fat yield. The most abundant plasma and tissue sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide (GlcCer), and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and GlcCer decreased as lactation advanced, and ceramide and GlcCer were elevated in cows fed PALM

  8. New approach to optimize near-infrared spectra with design of experiments and determination of milk compounds as influence factors for changing milk over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Lorenzo; Huck, Christian

    2016-12-01

    The optimization of near-infrared spectroscopic parameters was realized via design of experiments. With this new approach objectivity can be integrated into conventional, rather subjective approaches. The investigated factors are layer thickness, number of scans and temperature during measurement. Response variables in the full factorial design consisted of absorption intensity, signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility of the spectra. Optimized factorial combinations have been found to be 0.5mm layer thickness, 64 scans and 25°C ambient temperature for liquid milk measurements. Qualitative analysis of milk indicated a strong correlation of environmental factors, as well as the feeding of cattle with respect to the change in milk composition. This was illustrated with the aid of near-infrared spectroscopy and the previously optimized parameters by detection of altered fatty acids in milk, especially by the fatty acid content (number of carboxylic functions) and the fatty acid length.

  9. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  10. Short-term administration of rhGH increases markers of cellular proliferation, but not milk protein gene expression in normal lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth hormone is one of few pharmacologic agents known to augment milk production in humans. We hypothesized that recombinant human GH (rhGH) increases the expression of cell proliferation and milk protein synthesis genes. Sequential milk and blood samples collected over four days were obtained fro...

  11. Short-term administration of rhGH increases markers of cellular proliferation but not milk protein gene expression in normal lactating women

    OpenAIRE

    Maningat, Patricia D.; Sen, Partha; Rijnkels, Monique; Hadsell, Darryl L.; Bray, Molly S.; Haymond, Morey W.

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone is one of few pharmacologic agents known to augment milk production in humans. We hypothesized that recombinant human GH (rhGH) increases the expression of cell proliferation and milk protein synthesis genes. Sequential milk and blood samples collected over four days were obtained from five normal lactating women. Following 24 h of baseline milk and blood sampling, rhGH (0.1 mg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously once daily for 3 days. Gene expression changes were determine...

  12. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377

  13. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; McGregor, Robin A; D'Souza, Randall F; Thorstensen, Eric B; Markworth, James F; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-10-21

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring (13)C₆ phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  14. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J. Mitchell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8 or whey protein (n = 8 while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001 to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810. FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  15. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hanks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk. If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? METHODS: In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP were compared year to date. RESULTS: Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01. Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001, 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. CONCLUSIONS: Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  16. Time resolved bovine host reponse to virulence factors mapped in milk by selected reaction monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Codrea, Marius Cosmin

    TIME RESOLVED BOVINE HOST RESPONSE TO VIRULENCE FACTORS, MAPPED IN MILK BY SELECTED REACTION MONITORING S.L. Bislev1, U. Kusebauch2, M.C. Codrea1, R. Moritz2, C.M. Røntved1, E. Bendixen1 1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark; 2...... Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington, USA Mastitis is beyond doubt the largest health problem in modern milk production. Many different pathogens can cause infections in the mammary gland, and give rise to severe toll on animal welfare, economic gain as well as on excessive use of antibiotics...... in food production. Rapid diagnostic methods are still not available, and particularly pathogen-specific biomarkers would be highly valuable, as these may allow correct antibiotic treatment to be applied shortly after an udder infection has been observed. Moreover, with automatic milking systems and on...

  17. Time resolved bovine host reponse to virulence factors mapped in milk by selected reaction monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Codrea, Marius Cosmin

    in food production. Rapid diagnostic methods are still not available, and particularly pathogen-specific biomarkers would be highly valuable, as these may allow correct antibiotic treatment to be applied shortly after an udder infection has been observed. Moreover, with automatic milking systems and on-line....... Furthermore, this SRM approach provides a strong tool for investigating these proteins in very large scale experiments, particularly with the scope to investigate whether these candidate biomarkers are suited for monitoring animal health in milk production.......TIME RESOLVED BOVINE HOST RESPONSE TO VIRULENCE FACTORS, MAPPED IN MILK BY SELECTED REACTION MONITORING S.L. Bislev1, U. Kusebauch2, M.C. Codrea1, R. Moritz2, C.M. Røntved1, E. Bendixen1 1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark; 2...

  18. Factors influencing the gelation and rennetability of camel milk using camel chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2016-01-01

    and decreasing pH. For all samples gelation was initiated at levels of camel milk κ-CN hydrolysis >95%. The gelation time (Tg) of camel milk was significantly reduced (from 717 to 526 s) at 30 °C when the concentration of chymosin was increased, but was independent of chymosin concentration at 40 °C. Reducing p......H also reduced Tg. The gel firmness increased at 40 °C (58 Pa) compared with 30 °C (44 Pa) and effect of CaCl2 addition on the gelation properties of camel milk was found to be dependent on pH; a significant improvement was only found at pH 6.3....

  19. Skim Milk, Whey, and Casein Increase Body Weight and Whey and Casein Increase the Plasma C-Peptide Concentration in Overweight Adolescents12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2012-01-01

    insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12–15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein...... and with the water and pretest control groups. The plasma C-peptide concentration increased from baseline to wk 12 in the whey and casein groups and increments were greater than in the pretest control (P ... that high intakes of skim milk, whey, and casein increase BAZs in overweight adolescents and that whey and casein increase insulin secretion. Whether the effect on body weight is primary or secondary to the increased insulin secretion remains to be elucidated....

  20. Viral and immunological factors associated with breast milk transmission of SIV in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresh Lynn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The viral and host factors involved in transmission of HIV through breastfeeding are largely unknown, and intervention strategies are urgently needed to protect at-risk populations. To evaluate the viral and immunological factors directly related to milk transmission of virus, we have evaluated the disease course of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV in lactating rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta as a model of natural breast milk transmission of HIV. Results Fourteen lactating macaques were infected intravenously with SIV/DeltaB670, a pathogenic isolate of SIV and were pair-housed with their suckling infants throughout the disease course. Transmission was observed in 10 mother-infant pairs over a one-year period. Two mothers transmitted virus during the period of initial viremia 14–21 days post inoculation (p.i. and were classified as early transmitters. Peak viral loads in milk and plasma of early transmitters were similar to other animals, however the early transmitters subsequently displayed a rapid progressor phenotype and failed to control virus expression as well as other animals at 56 days p.i. Eight mothers were classified as late transmitters, with infant infection detected at time points in the chronic stage of the maternal SIV disease course (81 to 360 days. Plasma viral loads, CD4+ T cell counts and SIV-specific antibody titers were similar in late transmitters and non-transmitters. Late breast milk transmission, however, was correlated with higher average milk viral loads and more persistent viral expression in milk 12 to 46 weeks p.i. as compared to non-transmitters. Four mothers failed to transmit virus, despite disease progression and continuous lactation. Conclusion These studies validate the SIV-infected rhesus macaque as a model for breast milk transmission of HIV. As observed in studies of HIV-infected women, transmission occurred at time points throughout the period of lactation. Transmission during the

  1. Fibroblast growth factor 21 in breast milk controls neonatal intestine function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaldà-Navarro, Aleix; Hondares, Elayne; Giralt, Marta; Mampel, Teresa; Iglesias, Roser; Villarroya, Francesc

    2015-09-02

    FGF21 is a hormonal factor with important functions in the control of metabolism. FGF21 is found in rodent and human milk. Radiolabeled FGF21 administered to lactating dams accumulates in milk and is transferred to neonatal gut. The small intestine of neonatal (but not adult) mice highly expresses β-Klotho in the luminal area. FGF21-KO pups fed by FGF21-KO dams showed decreased expression and circulating levels of incretins (GIP and GLP-1), reduced gene expression of intestinal lactase and maltase-glucoamylase, and low levels of galactose in plasma, all associated with a mild decrease in body weight. When FGF21-KO pups were nursed by wild-type dams (expressing FGF21 in milk), intestinal peptides and digestive enzymes were up-regulated, lactase enzymatic activity was induced, and galactose levels and body weight were normalized. Neonatal intestine explants were sensitive to FGF21, as evidenced by enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Oral infusion of FGF21 into neonatal pups induced expression of intestinal hormone factors and digestive enzymes, lactase activity and lactose absorption. These findings reveal a novel role of FGF21 as a hormonal factor contributing to neonatal intestinal function via its presence in maternal milk. Appropriate signaling of FGF21 to neonate is necessary to ensure optimal digestive and endocrine function in developing intestine.

  2. Deficiency in milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 exacerbates organ injury and mortality in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura W; Khader, Adam; Yang, Weng-Lang; Jacob, Asha; Chen, Tracy; Nicastro, Jeffrey M; Coppa, Gene F; Prince, Jose M; Wang, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a systemic inflammation occurring in neonates because of a proven infection within the first 28days of birth. It is the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborns. The mechanism(s) underlying the systemic inflammation in neonatal sepsis has not been completely understood. We hypothesize that the deficiency of milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8), a protein commonly found in human milk, could be responsible for the increased inflammatory response leading to morbidity and mortality in neonatal sepsis. Male and female newborn mice aged 5-7days were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9mg/g body weight cecal slurry (CS). At 10h after CS injection, they were euthanized, and blood, lungs and gut tissues were obtained for further analyses. Control newborn mice underwent similar procedures with the exception of the CS injection. In duplicate newborn mice after CS injection, they were returned to their respective cages with their mothers and were closely monitored for 7days and survival rate recorded. At 10h after CS injection, serum LDH in the MFG-E8 knockout (KO) newborn mice was significantly increased by 58% and serum IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in the MFG-E8KO newborn mice were also significantly increased by 56%, 65%, and 105%, respectively, from wild type (WT) newborn mice. There were no significant difference between WT control and MFG-E8 control newborn mice. The lung architecture was severely damaged and a significant 162% increase in injury score was observed in the CS MFG-E8KO newborn mice. The MPO, TUNEL staining, and cytokine levels in the lungs and the intestine in CS MFG-E8KO newborn mice were significantly increased from CS WT newborn mice. Similarly, intestinal integrity was also compromised in the CS MFG-E8KO newborn mice. In a survival study, while the mortality rate within 7days was only 29% in the CS WT newborn mice, 80% of the CS MFG-E8KO newborn mice died during the same time period with the

  3. Milk-based phospholipids increase morning cortisol availability and improve memory in chronically stressed men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Melanie; Contreras, Carina; Franz, Nadin; Hellhammer, Juliane

    2011-06-01

    Phospholipids (PLs) have been shown to dampen the activity and reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). To further investigate stress protective effects of PL, 75 chronically stressed men aged 30 to 51 years were enrolled in a randomized and placebo-controlled trial. The subjects received a bovine milk drink with either 0.5% PL, 1% PL, or a placebo for 42 days to test the hypothesis that supplementation with specific phospholipids would normalize the cortisol response of the HPAA. For determining HPAA activity, the cortisol awakening response was studied before and after treatment. In addition, participants were exposed to an acute stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, to assess treatment effects on stress reactivity and stress-related memory impairment. After receiving PL-enriched milk, both PL groups showed a delayed decline from peak levels in morning salivary cortisol, suggesting a prolonged availability of free cortisol. Treatment with 0.5% PL additionally resulted in a stronger increase of cortisol after awakening, whereas no such differences could be observed in the 1% PL group and the placebo group, respectively. The acute stress response did not significantly differ among placebo and PL groups. An exploratory data analysis further revealed that elderly participants receiving the higher PL dosage had a significant better memory performance after the Trier Social Stress Test as compared with elderly participants from the placebo and low-PL dosage group; no such difference was observed at baseline. Our results suggest that PL may increase the availability of cortisol in chronically stressed men and may attenuate stress-induced memory impairments. Results of the present study are discussed within the context of previous research and current state of knowledge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Yield gap analyses to estimate attainable bovine milk yields and evaluate options to increase production in Ethiopia and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Dianne; Ash, Andrew; Prestwidge, Di; Godde, Cécile M; Henderson, Ben; Duncan, Alan; Blummel, Michael; Ramana Reddy, Y; Herrero, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Livestock provides an important source of income and nourishment for around one billion rural households worldwide. Demand for livestock food products is increasing, especially in developing countries, and there are opportunities to increase production to meet local demand and increase farm incomes. Estimating the scale of livestock yield gaps and better understanding factors limiting current production will help to define the technological and investment needs in each livestock sector. The aim of this paper is to quantify livestock yield gaps and evaluate opportunities to increase dairy production in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, using case studies from Ethiopia and India. We combined three different methods in our approach. Benchmarking and a frontier analysis were used to estimate attainable milk yields based on survey data. Household modelling was then used to simulate the effects of various interventions on dairy production and income. We tested interventions based on improved livestock nutrition and genetics in the extensive lowland grazing zone and highland mixed crop-livestock zones of Ethiopia, and the intensive irrigated and rainfed zones of India. Our analyses indicate that there are considerable yield gaps for dairy production in both countries, and opportunities to increase production using the interventions tested. In some cases, combined interventions could increase production past currently attainable livestock yields.

  5. Immune factors and fatty acid composition in human milk from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant.

  6. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  7. Genetic analyses of HIV-1 env sequences demonstrate limited compartmentalization in breast milk and suggest viral replication within the breast that increases with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Carlsson, Jacquelyn; Heath, Laura; Bull, Marta E; Shetty, Avinash K; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Musingwini, Georgina; Woelk, Godfrey; Zijenah, Lynn S; Katzenstein, David A; Mullins, James I; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2010-10-01

    The concentration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is generally lower in breast milk than in blood. Mastitis, or inflammation of the breast, is associated with increased levels of milk HIV-1 and risk of mother-to-child transmission through breastfeeding. We hypothesized that mastitis facilitates the passage of HIV-1 from blood into milk or stimulates virus production within the breast. HIV-1 env sequences were generated from single amplicons obtained from breast milk and blood samples in a cross-sectional study. Viral compartmentalization was evaluated using several statistical methods, including the Slatkin and Maddison (SM) test. Mastitis was defined as an elevated milk sodium (Na(+)) concentration. The association between milk Na(+) and the pairwise genetic distance between milk and blood viral sequences was modeled using linear regression. HIV-1 was compartmentalized within milk by SM testing in 6/17 (35%) specimens obtained from 9 women, but all phylogenetic clades included viral sequences from milk and blood samples. Monotypic sequences were more prevalent in milk samples than in blood samples (22% versus 13%; P = 0.012), which accounted for half of the compartmentalization observed. Mastitis was not associated with compartmentalization by SM testing (P = 0.621), but Na(+) was correlated with greater genetic distance between milk and blood HIV-1 populations (P = 0.041). In conclusion, local production of HIV-1 within the breast is suggested by compartmentalization of virus and a higher prevalence of monotypic viruses in milk specimens. However, phylogenetic trees demonstrate extensive mixing of viruses between milk and blood specimens. HIV-1 replication in breast milk appears to increase with inflammation, contributing to higher milk viral loads during mastitis.

  8. Effect of microfiltration concentration factor on serum protein removal from skim milk using spiral-wound polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, S L; Barbano, D M

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of concentration factor (CF) on the removal of serum protein (SP) from skim milk during microfiltration (MF) at 50 °C using a 0.3-μm-pore-size spiral-wound (SW) polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Pasteurized (72°C for 16 s) skim milk was MF (50 °C) at 3 CF (1.50, 2.25, and 3.00×), each on a separate day of processing starting with skim milk. Two phases of MF were used at each CF, with an initial startup-stabilization phase (40 min in full recycle mode) to achieve the desired CF, followed by a steady-state phase (90-min feed-and-bleed with recycle) where data was collected. The experiment was replicated 3 times, and SP removal from skim milk was quantified at each CF. System pressures, flow rates, CF, and fluxes were monitored during the 90-min run. Permeate flux increased (12.8, 15.3, and 19.0 kg/m(2) per hour) with decreasing CF from 3.00 to 1.50×, whereas fouled water flux did not differ among CF, indicating that the effect of membrane fouling on hydraulic resistance of the membrane was similar at all CF. However, the CF used when microfiltering skim milk (50°C) with a 0.3-μm polymeric SW PVDF membrane did affect the percentage of SP removed. As CF increased from 1.50 to 3.00×, the percentage of SP removed from skim milk increased from 10.56 to 35.57%, in a single stage bleed-and-feed MF system. Percentage SP removal from skim milk was lower than the theoretical value. Rejection of SP during MF of skim milk with SW PVDF membranes was caused by fouling of the membrane, not by the membrane itself and differences in the foulant characteristic among CF influenced SP rejection more than it influenced hydraulic resistance. We hypothesize that differences in the conditions near the surface of the membrane and within the pores during the first few minutes of processing, when casein micelles pass through the membrane, influenced the rejection of SP because more pore size narrowing and plugging occurred at

  9. Increasing palmitic acid intake enhances milk production and prevents glucose-stimulated fatty acid disappearance without modifying systemic glucose tolerance in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, A T; Rico, J E; Sprenkle, N T; Lock, A L; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Feeding saturated fatty acids may enhance milk yield in part by decreasing insulin sensitivity and shifting glucose utilization toward the mammary gland. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of palmitic acid (C16:0) on milk production and insulin sensitivity in cows. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows received a common sorghum silage-based diet and were randomly assigned to a diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration DM (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield by wk 7. Furthermore, PALM increased milk fat yield and energy-corrected milk at wk 3 and 7. Changes in milk production occurred in parallel with enhanced energy intake. Increased milk fat yield during PALM treatment was due to increased C16:0 and C16:1 incorporation; PALM had no effect on concentration of milk components, BW, or body condition score. Two weeks posttreatment, energy-corrected milk and milk fat yield remained elevated in PALM-fed cows whereas yields of milk were similar between treatments. Increased milk fat yield after PALM treatment was due to increased de novo lipogenesis and uptake of preformed fatty acids. The basal concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma increased by d 4, 6, and 8 of PALM treatment, a response not observed thereafter. Although PALM supplementation did not modify insulin, glucose, or triacylglycerol levels in plasma, total cholesterol in plasma was elevated by wk 3. Estimated insulin sensitivity was lower during the

  10. The human milk study, HUMIS. Presentation of a birth cohort study which aims to collect milk samples from 6000 mothers, for the assessment of persistent organic pollutants (POPS), relating it to exposure factors and health outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggesboe, M.; Stigum, H.; Becher, G.; Magnus, P. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Polder, A.; Skaare, J.U. [The Norwegian School of Veterinay Science, Oslo (Norway); Lindstroem, G. [Orebro Univ., Orebro (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Although PCB has been forbidden for more than 20 years now, and its levels in human milk is declining, it remains among the chemicals in human milk causing most concern with regard to its possible detrimental effects on the fetus and the breastfed child. Due to our industry, amongst others, the Norwegian population has been rather heavily exposed to PCB. Furthermore, new environmental toxicants are steadily entering the scene, such as the Brominated flame retardants. The level of Brominated flame retardants in human milk has shown an exponential increase during the last ten years, and this group of chemicals, are causing increasingly more concern. Studies from Sweden has shown that the levels differ greatly between individuals, however, for reasons yet unknown. In Norway, the highest levels of Brominated flame retardants ever measured in the world was reported from fish in Mjoesa. Surprisingly few attempts has been made to identify dietary habits or other life style factors that are associated with the levels of these toxicants in human milk. Such knowledge is needed in order for accurate prophylactic measures to be taken by the population and of special importance to women before and during child bearing age, in order to keep the levels in human milk as low as possible. Furthermore, there is great need for more knowledge of the effects of these toxicants on child health. The need for more research in this field, especially the need for prospective exposure data and the need for interdisciplinary approaches has been specifically targeted. Therefore a research initiative was taken in Norway to establish a prospective birth cohort which aims to recruit 6000 mother/child pairs, in whom human milk samples are collected in infancy and information on health outcomes are collected throughout the child's first seven years of life. The aim of this presentation is to describe this project in more detail and to give some preliminary results.

  11. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in milk and risk factors analysis of seroprevalence in pregnant women at Sharkia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba A. Ahmed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases worldwide. Infection is not only acquired by contact with the definitive host, but also by ingestion of raw milk and milk products. The aim of the study was to detect T. gondii DNA in milk samples, and to estimate anti-T. gondii antibodies in pregnant women for the analysis of the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study involved molecular examination of 150 milk samples collected from rural settings at Sharkia, Egypt. Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined in 100 pregnant women by indirect haemagglutination test. The analysis of risk factors associated with seropositive results was assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: T. gondii DNA was detected in 8% and 2% of goat and sheep milk samples, respectively, while none of cow milk samples were positive. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in pregnant women was 82%, anti-T. gondii-IgG and anti-T. gondii-IgM were detected in 63% and 11% serum samples, respectively. The results showed a significant correlation between the seroprevalence and the contact with cats and consumption of raw milk and homemade cheese. Conclusion: The role of raw milk in transmission of T. gondii cannot be excluded. Contact with cats remains the main risk factor for acquiring T. gondii infection; also consumption of raw milk and milk products is considered an important risk factor. Further large scale studies are recommended to clarify the association of T. gondii seroprevalence with different risk factors.

  12. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING MILK PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klaudia Kurajdova; Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2015-01-01

    In today’s highly informed, competitive and saturated market, a key to success of any business depends on knowing consumer and his consumption patterns and recognizing and understanding factors influencing...

  13. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  14. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  15. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  16. Milk peptides increase iron solubility in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our objectives were to investigate whether these fractions a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Peptid...

  17. Multivariate factor analysis of detailed milk fatty acid profile: Effects of dairy system, feeding, herd, parity, and stage of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, M; Macciotta, N P P; Cecchinato, A; Conte, G; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the potential of using multivariate factor analysis to extract metabolic information from data on the quantity and quality of milk produced under different management systems. We collected data from individual milk samples taken from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows farmed in 85 traditional or modern herds in Trento Province (Italy). Factor analysis was carried out on 47 individual fatty acids, milk yield, and 5 compositional milk traits (fat, protein, casein, and lactose contents, somatic cell score). According to a previous study on multivariate factor analysis, a variable was considered to be associated with a specific factor if the absolute value of its correlation with the factor was ≥0.60. The extracted factors were representative of the following 12 groups of fatty acids or functions: de novo fatty acids, branched fatty acid-milk yield, biohydrogenation, long-chain fatty acids, desaturation, short-chain fatty acids, milk protein and fat contents, odd fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids, linoleic acid, udder health, and vaccelenic acid. Only 5 fatty acids showed small correlations with these groups. Factor analysis suggested the existence of differences in the metabolic pathways for de novo short- and medium-chain fatty acids and Δ(9)-desaturase products. An ANOVA of factor scores highlighted significant effects of the dairy farming system (traditional or modern), season, herd/date, parity, and days in milk. Factor behavior across levels of fixed factors was consistent with current knowledge. For example, compared with cows farmed in modern herds, those in traditional herds had higher scores for branched fatty acids, which were inversely associated with milk yield; primiparous cows had lower scores than older cows for de novo fatty acids, probably due to a larger contribution of lipids mobilized from body depots on milk fat yield. The statistical approach allowed us to reduce a large number of variables to a few latent factors with biological

  18. Short-term effects of replacing milk with cola beverages on insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin–glucose metabolism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Kristensen, Mette; Boiesen, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    to reflect the trend of replacing milk with carbonated beverages in young men and to study the effects of this replacement on IGF-I, IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), IGF-I:IGFBP-3 and glucose–insulin metabolism. A randomised, controlled crossover intervention study, in which eleven men aged 22–29 years were......In the Western world, a trend towards increased consumption of carbonated soft drinks combined with a decreasing intake of milk is observed. This may affect circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and fasting insulin, as seen in pre-pubertal children. The present study was designed...

  19. Short communication: Effects of increasing protein and energy in the milk replacer with or without direct-fed microbial supplementation on growth and performance of preweaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Ward, S H; Williams, C C; Rude, B J; Cabrera, C J; Kalestch, K N; Voelz, B E

    2014-11-01

    Forty-four Holstein calves were fed a direct-fed microbial (DFM) and 1 of 2 milk replacers to evaluate calf performance and growth. Treatments were (1) a control milk replacer [22:20; 22% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat], (2) an accelerated milk replacer (27:10; 27% CP and 10% fat), (3) the control milk replacer with added DFM (22:20+D), and (4) the accelerated milk replacer with added DFM (27:10+D). Dry matter intake, rectal temperatures, respiration scores and rates, and fecal scores were collected daily. Body weight, hip and withers height, heart girth, blood, and rumen fluid samples were collected weekly. Effects of treatment, sex, week, and their interactions were analyzed. Calves fed an accelerated milk replacer, regardless of DFM supplementation, consumed more CP and metabolizable energy in the milk replacer. No treatment differences were found for starter intake or intake of neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber in the starter. Calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had greater preweaning and weaning body weight compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Average daily gain was greater during the preweaning period for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but the same pattern did not hold true during the postweaning period. Feed efficiency did not differ among treatments. Hip height tended to be and withers height and heart girth were greater at weaning for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Fecal scores were greatest in calves fed DFM. Overall acetate, propionate, butyrate, and n-valerate concentrations were lower in calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but DFM did not have an effect. Rumen pH was not different. Blood metabolites were unaffected by DFM supplementation, but calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had increased partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate, and total bicarbonate in the blood. Direct-fed microbial supplementation did not appear to benefit the calf

  20. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M

    2013-09-01

    The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE.

  1. Beta-palmitate - a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicekova, Zuzana; Jesenak, Milos; Banovcin, Peter; Kuchta, Milan

    2016-03-17

    The composition and function of human milk is unique and gives a basis for the development of modern artificial milk formulas that can provide an appropriate substitute for non-breastfed infants. Although human milk is not fully substitutable, modern milk formulas are attempting to mimic human milk and partially substitute its complex biological positive effects on infants. Besides the immunomodulatory factors from human milk, research has been focused on the composition and structure of human milk fat with a high content of β-palmitic acid (sn-2 palmitic acid, β-palmitate). According to the available studies, increasing the content of β-palmitate added to milk formulas promotes several beneficial physiological functions. β-palmitate positively influences fatty acid metabolism, increases calcium absorption, improves bone matrix quality and the stool consistency, and has a positive effect on the development of the intestinal microbiome.

  2. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing

  3. SCHOOL MILK DEMAND – INTERACTION BETWEEN POLICY AND OTHER FACTORS: SOME PRELIMINARY FINDINGS OF A REGIONAL PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph, Inken B.; Peter, Guenter; Rothe, Andrea; Salamon, Petra; Weber, Sascha A.; Weible, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent steadily declining consumption of school milk in Germany, a research project was set up by the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, in affiliation with other institutions, to retrieve quantifiable information on the different influencing factors and to provide approaches for improving the school milk demand. Main objectives are to evaluate impacts of factors like price, attitudes and habits (especially consumption habits), social background, g...

  4. Effect of increased intake of skimmed milk, casein, whey or water on body composition and leptin in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

     weeks before start of intervention. Outcomes included leptin and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. The effects of the milk-based drinks on body composition and leptin were compared with baseline, pre-test control and water. RESULTS: Lean mass index (LMI) increased compared to baseline (all 95...... and leptin in overweight adolescents. METHODS: Subjects (n = 193) aged 12-15 years were randomized to drink 1 L d(-1) of skimmed milk, whey, casein (all milk-based drinks 35 g protein L(-1) ) or water for 12 weeks. Twenty participants dropped out. A pre-test control group of 32 adolescents was examined 12......% confidence intervals 0.05-0.50 kg m(-2) , all P ≤ 0.009) and the pre-test control group (0.044-0.247 kg m(-2) , P ≤ 0.002) for all four test drinks. Fat mass index (FMI) increased only for milk-based drink groups compared with baseline (0.15-0.67 kg m(-2) , P 

  5. CONDUCTIVITY OF DONKEY MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity (EC of milk is considered as one of the most important parameters which supports the diagnosis of mastitis in cows.Milk ions have a considerable influence on EC and their concentrations vary depending on animal species, season, lactation stage, etc. Some components of milk can change the EC, e.g. lactose. A negative correlation between EC values and the concentration of lactose is noticed, as a consequence of the inverse relation between this disaccharide and the chlorine content in milk. Fat and casein contents exert some influence on the EC, too. This study provides preliminary results on the physiological EC values in donkey milk and aims to highlight any correlation with some of its chemical-physical parameters and Somatic Cell Count (SCC. Mean EC value in donkey milk was found to be 3.57 mS. Statistically significant correlations were found between EC and SCC (r = 0.57 , p < 0.01 and between EC and (r = 0.30 , p < 0.05. The EC and lactose were not correlated although a reduction of EC was often observed when the lactose content increased, as reported in the literature for bovine milk. According to the EC can be considered as a reliable parameter to identify any breast disorder, taking into account the physiological factors that influence EC.

  6. The effect of UHT processed dairy milk on cardio-metabolic risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Kromann; Klingenberg, Lars; Larsen, Lotte Bach

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of death worldwide. Whereas dairy generally is associated with a neutral or a beneficial CVD effect, the consumption of ultra-high temperature (UHT)-treated milk has been reported to increase levels of low-density lipoprote...... of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.22....

  7. Exploring the characteristics and dynamics of Ontario dairy herds experiencing increases in bulk milk somatic cell count during the summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, D A; LeBlanc, S J; Leslie, K E; Hand, K; Godkin, M A; Coe, J B; Kelton, D F

    2015-06-01

    Regionally aggregated bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) data from around the world shows a repeatable cyclicity, with the highest levels experienced during warm, humid seasons. No studies have evaluated this seasonal phenomenon at the herd level. The objectives of this study were to define summer seasonality in BMSCC on an individual herd basis, and subsequently to describe the characteristics and dynamics of herds with increased BMSCC in the summer. The data used for this analysis were from all dairy farms in Ontario, Canada, between January 2000 and December 2011 (n≈4,000 to 6,000 herds/yr). Bulk milk data were obtained from the milk marketing board and consisted of bulk milk production, components (fat, protein, lactose, other solids), and quality (BMSCC, bacterial count, inhibitor presence, freezing point), total milk quota of the farm, and milk quota and incentive fill percentage. A time-series linear mixed model, with random slopes and intercepts, was constructed using sine and cosine terms as predictors to describe seasonality, with herd as a random effect. For each herd, seasonality was described with reference to 1 cosine function of variable amplitude and phase shift. The predicted months of maximal and minimal BMSCC were then calculated. Herds were assigned as low, medium, and high summer increase (LSI, MSI, and HSI, respectively) based on percentiles of amplitude in BMSCC change for each of the 4 seasons. Using these seasonality classifications, 2 transitional repeated measures logistic regression models were built to assess the characteristics of MSI and HSI herds, using LSI herds as controls. Based on the analyses performed, a history of summer BMSCC increases increased the odds of experiencing a subsequent increase. As herd size decreased, the odds of experiencing HSI to MSI in BMSCC increased. Herds with more variability in daily BMSCC were at higher odds of experiencing MSI and HSI in BMSCC, as were herds with lower annual mean BMSCC. Finally

  8. Goat Milk Yoghurt by Using Lacto-B Culture Modulates the Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-10 in Malnourished Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandarina, BJ. Istiti; Kusuma, Sari; Trisnasari, Yunita Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Total spleen lymphocytes, lymphocyte proliferation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in spleen lymphocyte culture were studied in malnourished Wistar rats fed with goat milk yoghurt. Malnourished rats were created by using standard feed restriction as much as 50% of normal rats for 21 d. Goat milk yoghurt containing three types of microorganism e.g., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Sterptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium longum derived from Lacto-B culture in powder form. After 21 d, the rats continued to receive restricted feeding and supplemented with goat milk yoghurt for 7 d. Total splenocytes were counted by hemocytometer. Splenocytes proliferation was expressed as stimulation index, whereas the TNF-α and IL-10 of spleen lymphocyte culture were measured by ELISA technique. The total number of splenocytes and stimulation index of splenocytes in moderate malnourished and normal rats supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was not significantly different. The level of TNF-α in the rat supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was lower (pyoghurt was higher (pyoghurt supplementation in malnourished rats could decrease TNF-α as a representation of the proinflammatory cytokine, while it increases IL-10 as a representation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine. PMID:26760750

  9. Concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in milk from healthy and naturally infected quarters of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slebodziński, A B; Malinowski, E; Lipczak, W

    2002-02-01

    The effect of naturally acquired bacterial infection of the bovine udder on the activity of 5'-thyroxine monodeiodinase (5'-MD), and on the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in milk, from healthy (control) and inflamed quarters, was determined. The diagnostic procedure included history and clinical examination of the udder, macroscopic evaluation of secretions, the Californian Mastitis Test, determination of somatic cell counts and bacteriological examination of milk. It has been found that the milk triiodothyronine (T3) content and the 5'-MD activity from inflamed quarters were decreased when compared with controls. The decrease in the milk T3 from subclinical mastitic quarters was manifested when somatic cell counts were > 10(6) ml(-1). TNF-alpha was on average 2-fold higher in infected milk, and the concentration of IL-6 was unchanged. These results suggest that the decreased T3 content in mammary secretions during naturally occurring mastitis is associated with the severity of inflammation, increased TNF-alpha concentration and impaired enzymatic activity of 5'-MD.

  10. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  11. Whey protein gel composites in the diet of goats increased the omega-3 and omega-6 content of milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, J A; Taylor, S J; Rosenberg, M; DePeters, E J

    2016-08-01

    Previously, feeding whey protein gels containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduced their rumen biohydrogenation and increased their concentration in milk fat of Holstein cows. Our objective was to test the efficacy of whey protein isolate (WPI) gels produced in a steam tunnel as a method to alter the fatty acid (FA) composition of the milk lipids. Four primiparous Lamancha goats in midlactation were fed three diets in a 3 × 4 Latin square design. The WPI gels were added to a basal concentrate mix that contained one of three lipid sources: (i) 100% soya bean oil (S) to create (WPI/S), (ii) a 1:1 (wt/wt) mixture of S and linseed (L) oil to create (WPI/SL), or (iii) 100% L to create (WPI/L). Periods were 22 days with the first 10 days used as an adjustment phase followed by a 12-day experimental phase. During the adjustment phase, all goats received a rumen available source of lipid, yellow grease, to provide a baseline for milk FA composition. During the experimental phase, each goat received its assigned WPI. Milk FA concentration of C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 reached 9.3 and 1.64 g/100 g FA, respectively, when goats were fed WPI/S. Feeding WPI/SL increased the C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 concentration to 6.22 and 4.36 g/100 g FA, and WPI/L increased C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 to 3.96 and 6.13 g/100 g FA respectively. The adjusted transfer efficiency (%) of C18:3 n-3 to milk FA decreased significantly as dietary C18:3 n-3 intake increased. Adjusted transfer efficiency for C18:2 n-6 did not change with increasing intake of C18:2 n-6. The WPI gels were effective at reducing rumen biohydrogenation of PUFA; however, we observed a change in the proportion increase of C18:3 n-3 in milk FA suggesting possible regulation of n-3 FA to the lactating caprine mammary gland.

  12. Nutrient digestibility and milk production responses to increasing levels of palmitic acid supplementation vary in cows receiving diets with or without whole cottonseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; de Souza, J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2017-01-01

    Our study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of a palmitic acid-enriched supplement in basal diets with or without the inclusion of whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility and production responses of dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (149 ± 56 days in milk) were used in a split plot Latin square design experiment. Cows were blocked by 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) and allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, = 8) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, = 8) that was fed throughout the experiment. A palmitic acid-enriched supplement (PA 88.5% C16:0) was fed at 0, 0.75, 1.50, or 2.25% of ration DM in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square design within each basal diet group. Periods were 14 d with the final 4 d used for data collection. PA dose increased milk fat content linearly, and cubically affected yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. The PA dose did not affect milk protein and lactose contents, BW, and BCS, but tended to increase yields of milk, milk protein, and milk lactose. Also, PA dose reduced DMI and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically, and increased 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically. There were no effects of basal diet on the yield of milk or milk components, but DMI tended to decrease in CS compared with SH, increasing feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI). Compared with SH, CS diets increased yield of preformed milk fatty acids and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility, and tended to decrease 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility. We observed basal diet × PA dose interactions for yields of milk and milk protein and for 16-carbon and total fatty acid digestibility, as well as tendency for yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. Also, there was a tendency for an interaction between basal diet and PA dose for NDF digestibility, which increased more for CS with increasing PA than for SH. PA dose linearly decreased digestibility of total fatty acids in SH diets but did not affect it in CS diets Results demonstrate

  13. Mineral compositions in breast milk of healthy Chinese lactating women in urban areas and its associated factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ai; Ning Yibing; Zhang Yumei; Yang Xiaoguang; Wang Junkuan; Li Wenjun; Wang Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimal mineral intakes are important for infant growth and development.However,data on mineral compositions of breast milk in Chinese women are scarce,and most were acquired before 1990.The objectives of this study were three-fold:(1) to investigate the mineral compositions of Chinese healthy mothers' breast milk in different lactation stages; (2) to explore correlations among mineral concentrations in breast milk; and (3) to explore the associated factors affecting mineral compositions in breast milk.Methods The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze mineral concentrations in breast-milk of 444 healthy lactating women from three cities in China.A questionnaire was used to survey sociodemographic characteristics and pregnancy history.Food intakes by lactating women were measured using both food frequency questionnaire and one cycle of 24-hour dietary recall.Results Mineral compositions of breast milk varied in different regions.Concentrations of most minerals were higher in the first one or two months of lactation,and then decreased with time,except for magnesium and iron.Inter-mineral correlations existed among several minerals.The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio was above 2:1 in each lactation stage.Women with caesarean section had higher concentration of iodine in the transitional milk (349.9 μg/kg) compared to women with natural delivery (237.5 μg/kg,P<0.001).Dietary mineral intakes,supplements,food intake frequencies in the recent 6 months,maternal age and maternal BMI did not show significant correlations with concentrations of milk minerals (all P >0.05).Conclusions Milk minerals decreased with time,and changed most rapidly in the first one or two months of lactation.Caesarean section might affect the iodine level in transitional milk.

  14. Mineral compositions in breast milk of healthy Chinese lactating women in urban areas and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ai; Ning, Yibing; Zhang, Yumei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Junkuan; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    Optimal mineral intakes are important for infant growth and development. However, data on mineral compositions of breast milk in Chinese women are scarce, and most were acquired before 1990. The objectives of this study were three-fold: (1) to investigate the mineral compositions of Chinese healthy mothers' breast milk in different lactation stages; (2) to explore correlations among mineral concentrations in breast milk; and (3) to explore the associated factors affecting mineral compositions in breast milk. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze mineral concentrations in breast-milk of 444 healthy lactating women from three cities in China. A questionnaire was used to survey socio-demographic characteristics and pregnancy history. Food intakes by lactating women were measured using both food frequency questionnaire and one cycle of 24-hour dietary recall. Mineral compositions of breast milk varied in different regions. Concentrations of most minerals were higher in the first one or two months of lactation, and then decreased with time, except for magnesium and iron. Inter-mineral correlations existed among several minerals. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio was above 2:1 in each lactation stage. Women with caesarean section had higher concentration of iodine in the transitional milk (349.9 µg/kg) compared to women with natural delivery (237.5 µg/kg, P mineral intakes, supplements, food intake frequencies in the recent 6 months, maternal age and maternal BMI did not show significant correlations with concentrations of milk minerals (all P > 0.05). Milk minerals decreased with time, and changed most rapidly in the first one or two months of lactation. Caesarean section might affect the iodine level in transitional milk.

  15. Penicillamine Increases Free Copper and Enhances Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Toxic Milk Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Pu; Zhang, Wei; Li, Fu-Rong; Liang, Xiu-Ling; Li, Xun-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by the accumulation of copper arising from a mutation in the ATP7B gene. Penicillamine (PA) makes 10–50% of the patients with neurologic symptoms neurologically worse at the early stage of administration. The aim of this study was to determine how the copper metabolism changes and whether the change impairs the brain of toxic milk (tx) mice, an animal model of WD, during the PA administration. The free copper and protein-bound copper concentrations in the serum, cortex and basal ganglia of tx mice with PA administration for 3 days, 10 days and 14 days, respectively, were investigated. The expression of copper transporters, ATP7A and CTR1,was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot. Then SOD, MDA and GSH/GSSG were detected to determine whether the oxidative stress changed correspondingly. The results revealed the elevated free copper concentrations in the serum and brain, and declined protein-bound copper concentrations in the brain of tx mice during PA administration. Meanwhile, transiently increased expression of ATP7A and CTR1 was observed generally in the brain parenchyma by immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. Additionally, ATP7A and CTR1 were observed to locate mainly at Golgi apparatus and cellular membrane respectively. Intense staining of ATP7A in the choroid plexus was found in tx mice on the 3rd and 10th day of PA treatment, but rare staining of ATP7A and CTR1 in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Decreased GSH/GSSG and increased MDA concentrations were also viewed in the cortex and basal ganglia. Our results suggested the elevated free copper concentrations in the brain might lead to the enhanced oxidative stress during PA administration. The increased free copper in the brain might come from the copper mobilized from brain parenchyma cells but not from the serum according to the ATP7A and CTR1 expression analysis. PMID:22629446

  16. Fermented milk for hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-04-18

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance. To investigate whether fermented milk or similar products produced by lactobacilli fermentation of milk proteins has any blood pressure lowering effect in humans when compared to no treatment or placebo. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), English language databases, including MEDLINE (1966-2011), EMBASE (1974-2011), Cochrane Complementary Medicine Trials Register, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985-2011), Food science and technology abstracts (1969-2011). Randomised controlled trials; cross over and parallel studies evaluating the effect on blood pressure of fermented milk in humans with an intervention period of 4 weeks or longer. Data was extracted individually by two authors, afterwards agreement had to be obtained before imputation in the review. A modest overall effect of fermented milk on SBP was found (MD -2.45; 95% CI -4.30 to -0.60), no effect was evident on DBP (MD -0.67; 95% CI -1.48, 0.14). The review does not support an effect of fermented milk on blood pressure. Despite the positive effect on SBP the authors conclude, for several reasons, that fermented milk has no effect on blood pressure. The effect found was very modest and only on SBP, the included studies were very heterogeneous and several with weak methodology. Finally, sensitivity and subgroup analyses could not reproduce the antihypertensive effect. The results do not give notion to the use of fermented milk as treatment for hypertension or as a lifestyle intervention for pre-hypertension nor would it influence population blood pressure.

  17. Comparison of the levels of the growth factors in umbilical cord serum and human milk and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Satish; Patki, Ujjwala; Patil, Rajendra; Indumathi, S; Kaingade, Pankaj; Bulbule, Akshata; Nikam, Amar; Pishte, Amit

    2012-08-01

    The process of the growth of the fetus begins in the uterus and gets further accelerated following the birth, especially during initial few months. The role of the growth factors in the physiology of the cellular growth is already well established. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) seem to be imperative for angiogenesis, cell development and proliferation as well as maintenance of the tissues. The levels of these factors in the maternal serum during pregnancy as well as during postpartum period are insignificant. Consequently, we hypothesized that the fetus receives moderate supply of these growth factors from the placenta during its stay in the uterus. This supply gets further augmented during the postpartum period through the different source, i.e. mother's milk. To study this physiological transition of the source of the growth factors from the placenta to the breast milk, the concentrations of VEGF and HGF in the cord serum of full term neonates and that in the breast milk of the corresponding mothers were analyzed during ELISA. The human milk, especially the colostrum revealed significantly higher levels of VEGF and HGF (1541.759 ± 119.349 pg/ml and 7129.249 ± 273.472 pg/ml) than cord serum (16.632 ± 0.773 pg/ml and 2581.6 ± 108.275 pg/ml) respectively. The multifold higher levels of VEGF observed in colostrum probably correlates with its high neonatal requirement for the maturation of the gastrointestinal epithelium following birth. The higher levels of both the growth factors in the breast milk than those observed in the cord serum probably explain their higher needs by the neonates for immunological protection, protein synthesis and neurocognitive development. The observations of the present study strengthen the policy of the colostrum feeding, which is promoted by organizations like World Health Organization (WHO). This study further documents the fact that the commercial milk formulae cannot replace the human

  18. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  19. Immunological factors in milk from Brazilian mothers delivering small-for-date term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumach, A S; Carmona, R C; Lazarotti, D; Ribeiro, M A; Rozentraub, R B; Racz, M L; Weinberg, A; Carneiro-Sampaio, M M

    1993-03-01

    Breast milk samples from three groups of Brazilian women were evaluated: G1, mothers delivering term babies of low birth weight (n = 16); G2, mothers delivering preterm babies of appropriate birth weight (n = 20); G3, mothers delivering term babies of appropriate birth weight (n = 30). Milk samples were obtained at 48 h and on the 7th, 15th, 30th and 60th days after delivery and they were analyzed for lysozyme and total IgA levels and for the presence of specific antibodies against Poliovirus types I, II, III, Rotavirus, Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster and Cytomegalovirus. The groups were not statistically different in relation to mother's age, parity, type of delivery or socio-economic levels. IgA levels were higher in both low-birth-weight groups (G1 & G2) compared to the control group (G3) throughout the study period. Lysozyme levels decreased up to the 15th day, increasing thereafter up to the 60th day in all groups. Specific antibodies were detected throughout the study period, with no differences among groups. We conclude that breast milk composition of mothers delivering low-birth-weight babies (G1 & G2) was similar despite the different gestational ages.

  20. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  1. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human and murine milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Erick R; Ciferri, Claudio; Phung, Wilson; Sandoval, Wendy; Matsumoto, Marissa L

    2016-08-01

    Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8), as its name suggests, is a major glycoprotein component of milk fat globules secreted by the mammary epithelium. Although its role in milk fat production is unclear, MFG-E8 has been shown to act as a bridge linking apoptotic cells to phagocytes for removal of these dying cells. MFG-E8 is capable of bridging these two very different cell types via interactions through both its epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain(s) and its lectin-type C domains. The EGF-like domain interacts with αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins on the surface of phagocytes, whereas the C domains bind phosphatidylserine found on the surface of apoptotic cells. In an attempt to purify full-length, recombinant MFG-E8 expressed in either insect cells or CHO cells, we find that it is highly aggregated. Systematic truncation of the domain architecture of MFG-E8 indicates that the C domains are mainly responsible for the aggregation propensity. Addition of Triton X-100 to the conditioned cell culture media allowed partial recovery of non-aggregated, full-length MFG-E8. A more comprehensive detergent screen identified CHAPS as a stabilizer of MFG-E8 and allowed purification of a significant portion of non-aggregated, full-length protein. The CHAPS-stabilized recombinant MFG-E8 retained its natural ability to bind both αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins and phosphatidylserine suggesting that it is properly folded and active. Herein we describe an efficient purification method for production of non-aggregated, full-length MFG-E8.

  2. Production and milk quality of Pag sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Vukašinović

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available eep milk production and processing in last ten years show significant increase in Croatia. Market has recognized the product quality of sheep milk, so today even more number of cheese producers is interested for obtaining the protected geographical indication of products. Because of specific climate conditions on island Pag, as well as specific herbal cover, numerous aromatic plant varieties, milk, i.e. cheese, has specific taste and smell which consumers recognize, search and appreciate. Because of milk production increase and achieving better quality, production regularly controls and chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of sheep milk are conducted. In that propose during 2003 and 2004 years, research was carried out, which had for aim to explore milk quality of Pag sheep and to determine influence of paragenetic factors (year - climate on production, chemical composition (milk fat and proteins content and hygiene milk quality (number of somatic cells count, in two herds (A and B. Climate characteristics in 2003 and 2004 were different, regarding precipitations quantity and vegetation. Milking capacity control was carried out according to AT method. Chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of milk was carried out with infrared spectrometry and fluoro-opto-electronic method. During milking period in 2004, on island Pag, there were considerably more precipitations and due to the fact, vegetation was exuberant, which influenced on bigger total milk production in lactation (P<0.01 regarding to 2003. Average milk fat content (% in milk was in 2003 on family farm A, higher regarding on family farm B (P<0.01. However, because of higher quantities of produced milk on family farm B, total yield of milk fat (9.43 kg was higher (P<0.01 regarding to family farm A (7,93 kg. During 2004, differences in milk fat yield were very small and were not significant. Average daily milk quantity was from 689 mL (year 2003 to 940 mL (year 2004 on

  3. Pair housing and enhanced milk allowance increase play behavior and improve performance in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    -housed calves could perform social play behavior (play fighting), and the duration of this was greater on d 15 and 29 than on d 43 [8.3, 10.7 and 3.5 (±1.3) corresponding to 69, 115 and 12 s/24 h for d 15, 29, and 43]. Among calves on enhanced milk, pair-housed animals had a greater concentrate intake than...... observed no effect of pair versus individual housing [810 and 840 (±40) g/d]. In conclusion, greater durations of play behavior in enhanced-fed calves suggest an animal welfare benefit of this feeding method. Enhanced-fed calves consumed less concentrate, but pair housing stimulated concentrate intake......To investigate the effects of social housing and milk feeding on play behavior and performance, 48 Holstein-Friesian male and female calves were either individually or pair housed in straw-bedded pens (3.0 m × 4.5 m). Half of the calves in each housing treatment were fed a standard milk allowance...

  4. Cows’ milk composition and regularities of fat, protein and lactose synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Tsiupko

    2012-01-01

    Changes in fat, protein and lactose content in cows’ milk depending on several factors were studied.  Common patterns of synthesis of the milk major components are under consideration on the basis of those changes. The syntheses of lactose and casein have no close connection. Increased milk yield during lactation dominant and its decrease in late lactation are accompanied by a noticeable change of lactose concentration in the milk. The volume of milk produced is determined by the amount of la...

  5. Occurrence, genotyping, shiga toxin genes and associated risk factors of E. coli isolated from dairy farms, handlers and milk consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadallah, M A; Ahmed, H A; Merwad, A M; Selim, M A

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. coli in dairy farms, workers and milk consumers and to evaluate risk factors associated with contamination of milk in dairy farms. Molecular characterization of shiga toxin associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) finger printing of E. coli from different sources were also studied. Paired milk samples and rectal swabs from 125 dairy cows, rectal swabs from 82 calves and hand swabs from 45 dairy workers from five dairy farms were collected. In addition, 100 stool samples from 70 diarrheic and 30 healthy humans were collected and examined for the presence of E. coli. E. coli was isolated from milk (22.4%), dairy cattle feces (33.6%), calf feces (35.4%), dairy worker hand swabs (11.1%) and stools of milk consumers (2%, from diarrheic patients only). Only stx1 was identified in seven of 12 E. coli O125 isolated from different sources. High genetic diversity was determined (Simpson's index of diversity, D = 1) and E. coli O125 isolates were classified into 12 distinct profiles, E1-E12. The dendrogram analysis showed that two main clusters were generated. Mastitis in dairy cows was considered a risk factor associated with contamination of the produced milk with E. coli. The isolation of E. coli from rectal swabs of dairy cows and calves poses a zoonotic risk through consumption of unpasteurized contaminated dairy milk. Educational awareness should be developed to address risks related to consumption of raw milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash, often around the mouth Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A true milk allergy differs from milk ... Question ingredients when ordering in restaurants. Sources of milk products Obvious sources of allergy-causing milk proteins ...

  7. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE CAEV INFECTION IMPACT ON THE MILK YIELD AND MILK SCC OF POLISH DAIRY GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Pławińska-Czarnak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Goats’ milk is an attractive product for producers and consumers, because of its health benefits and chemical composition. But there arestill no strict regulations according to specific hygienic rules for this milk safety. Somatic cells number, which is the basic parameter for bovine milk (SCC vary in goats and it is affected by many factors, e.g. age, estrous phase, type of milking, but also by infectious factors. In our experiment we had analyzed the potential influence of CAEV infection on dairy goats productivity and milk SCC. The experiment was conducted on 24 individuals (12 seropositive/12 seronegative , with milk samples analysis during subsequent lactations (from 2nd to 5th. The results have shown the impact of viral infection on early and late lactations, with decreased milk yield & increased number of somatic cells in milk. We conclude that it could be correlated with infection progression and the efficiency of goats’ immune system.

  9. Seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in Cattle, Molecular Characterization in Milk, and the Analysis of Associated Risk Factors with Seroprevalence in Humans, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Diasty, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Heba A; Sayour, Ashraf E; El Hofy, Fatma I; Tahoun, Asmaa B M B; Shafik, Saleh M

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in humans and cattle at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. In addition, identification of Brucella spp. in milk samples by PCR and culture with the evaluation of the risk factors associated with Brucella spp. seroprevalence in humans were carried out. Overall, the seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in the examined cattle was 23.8%, while in human participants it was 21%. The examination of 205 milk samples using PCR revealed that 6.3% were positive for B. abortus biovar 1 and the results were confirmed by culture methods. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, occupational contact with animals, and knowledge about the disease are risk factors associated with infection in humans. This study documented the endemic status of brucellosis in Egypt. Hygienic measures and increased awareness about the disease are recommended to minimize the spread of infection from animals to humans.

  10. Breastfeeding Trends in Cambodia, and the Increased Use of Breast-Milk Substitute—Why Is It a Danger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophonneary Prak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0–5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS during 0–5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0% from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6–23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%. 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0–5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%, and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%. These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia.

  11. Milk consumption and the prepubertal somatotropic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamoto Erika K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrients, hormones and growth factors in dairy foods may stimulate growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, and raise the ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein, IGFBP-3. We conducted pilot studies in Mongolia and Massachusetts to test the extent to which milk intake raised somatotropic hormone concentrations in prepubertal children. Methods In Ulaanbaatar, we compared plasma levels before and after introducing 710 ml daily whole milk for a month among 46 10–11 year old schoolchildren. In a randomized cross-over study in Boston, we compared plasma hormone levels of 28 6–8 year old girls after one week of drinking 710 ml lowfat (2% milk with their hormone levels after one week of consuming a macronutrient substitute for milk. Results After a month of drinking whole milk, Mongolian children had higher mean plasma levels of IGF-I (p th percentile of GH levels (p = 0.005. After a week of drinking lowfat milk, Boston girls had small and non-significant increases in IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and GH. Conclusion Milk drinking may cause increases in somatotropic hormone levels of prepubertal girls and boys. The finding that milk intake may raise GH levels is novel, and suggests that nutrients or bioactive factors in milk may stimulate endogenous GH production.

  12. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population. © 2015 UICC.

  13. Effect of increasing dietary canola meal inclusion on lactation performance, milk composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, D E; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of increasing dietary canola meal in substitution for soybean meal in lactation sow diets. Forty-five sows with an average parity of 1.8 (SD = 0.83) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments ( = 15) consisting of a corn-based control diet and 2 diets with 15% and 30% canola meal formulated by replacing soybean meal with canola meal. Diets were formulated to be similar in standardized ileal digestible AA content and NE value and to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for lactating sows. Sows were moved to farrowing on d 111 of gestation and fed the experimental diets until weaning on d 21. Sows were fed 3.0 kg/d from d 111 of gestation until parturition. After farrowing, feed was gradually increased through d 6 after which the diets were offered on an ad libitum basis until weaning. Sows were weighed and backfat thickness measured on d 111 of gestation and also on d 0, 7, and 21 postfarrowing. Litters were weighed on d 0, 7, and 21. Weaning to estrus interval in sows was also recorded. Blood and milk samples were collected 2 h postfeeding from sows on d 0, 7, and 21 and analyzed for plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and milk composition. Fecal samples were collected on d 10, 11, and 12 postfarrowing to determine energy and nutrient digestibility. There were no dietary effects on lactation feed intake, sow BW and backfat change, weaning to estrus interval, and milk fat, protein, lactose, and urea composition. Also, there were no dietary effects on piglet ADG ( 0.10). Sows fed diets containing 15% and 30% canola meal had lower (linear, sow and suckling piglet performance.

  14. Research of Somatic Cell Count Associated Factors and Its Relationship with Milk Composition%牛奶中体细胞数相关因素及与乳成分相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆民; 张艳; 冯万宇; 徐馨; 黄健

    2016-01-01

    为了解奶中体细胞数相关因素及其与乳成分的相关性,本试验随机选取齐齐哈尔市某规模化奶牛场375份乳样,探讨奶中体细胞数与产奶量、不同胎次、不同泌乳期、感染乳区、奶损失之间的变化规律及与牛奶主要成分的相关性。结果表明,体细胞数越高,产奶量下降越明显;胎次增加,牛奶中体细胞数呈上升趋势;随着产后时间的延长,体细胞数也会增多;体细胞数与乳脂率、乳糖率和乳蛋白率之间没有显著相关性;乳区的感染越严重,牛奶中体细胞数越高,同时产奶量的损失越大。%To understand the somatic cell count in milk and milk-related factors and the correlation between body composition, totally 375 milk samples of a large-scale dairy farm in Qiqihar were randomly selected to investigate the relationship between somatic cell count in milk and milk yeild, different parity, different lactation, related infections breast area, variation between milk losses and major components. The results showed that with the somatic cell count increased, the milk production declined more signiifcantly. With the increased parity, somatic cell count in milk is rising. With the extended postpartum period, the number of somatic cells also increased. There was no signiifcant correlation between somatic cell count and milk fat, lactose rate and milk protein percentage. The more serious infection of the breast area, the higher the number of somatic cells in milk, while the larger the loss of milk production.

  15. Increased rheumatoid factor and deep venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Olesen, Christine L; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    in the general population. METHODS: We included 54628 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1981-83) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (2004-12), all with a measured concentration of IgM rheumatoid factor and without autoimmune rheumatic disease or venous thromboembolism. The main outcome...... was incident deep venous thrombosis. There were no losses to follow-up. RESULTS: During 368381 person-years, 670 individuals developed deep venous thrombosis. A rheumatoid factor concentration ≥ vs ... ratios of 9.0 (95% CI 3.1-26) for 1-year follow-up, 4.3 (2.2-8.5) for 5-year follow-up, and 3.1 (1.7-5.6) for up to 32 years of follow-up. Compared with rheumatoid factor concentrations

  16. Ultrafiltration of skimmed goat milk increases its nutritional value by concentrating nonfat solids such as proteins, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Goat milk has been reported to possess good nutritional and health-promoting properties. Usually, it must be concentrated before fermented products can be obtained. The aim of this study was to compare physicochemical and nutritional variables among raw (RM), skimmed (SM), and ultrafiltration-concentrated skimmed (UFM) goat milk. The density, acidity, ash, protein, casein, whey protein, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn values were significantly higher in UFM than in RM or SM. Dry extract and fat levels were significantly higher in UFM than in SM, and Mg content was significantly higher in UFM than in RM. Ultrafiltration also increased the solubility of Ca and Mg, changing their distribution in the milk. The higher concentrations of minerals and proteins, especially caseins, increase the nutritional value of UFM, which may therefore be more appropriate for goat milk yogurt manufacturing in comparison to RM or SM.

  17. Lipid-Encapsulated Echium Oil (Echium plantagineum) Increases the Content of Stearidonic Acid in Plasma Lipid Fractions and Milk Fat of Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Lock, Adam L; Kraft, Jana

    2015-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of feeding lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO) on animal performance and milk fatty acid profile. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design with 14 day periods. Treatments were a control diet (no supplemental fat), 1.5% dry matter (DM) as EEO and 3.0% DM as EEO. Treatments had no negative effect on animal performance (dry matter intake, milk yield, and fat yield). The milk fat content of total n-3 fatty acids and stearidonic acid (SDA) increased with EEO supplementation (P fat was 3.4 and 3.2% for the 1.5 and 3% EEO treatments, respectively. In conclusion, EEO increases the content of n-3 fatty acids in milk fat; however, the apparent transfer efficiency was low.

  18. Associations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 levels with biomarker-calibrated protein, dairy product and milk intake in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Jeannette M; Gunter, Marc J; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Prentice, Ross L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Vitolins, Mara Z; Strickler, Howard D

    2014-03-14

    It is well established that protein-energy malnutrition decreases serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels, and supplementation of 30 g of whey protein daily has been shown to increase serum IGF-I levels by 8 % after 2 years in a clinical trial. Cohort studies provide the opportunity to assess associations between dietary protein intake and IGF axis protein levels under more typical eating conditions. In the present study, we assessed the associations of circulating IGF axis protein levels (ELISA, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) with total biomarker-calibrated protein intake, as well as with dairy product and milk intake, among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (n 747). Analyses were carried out using multivariate linear regression models that adjusted for age, BMI, race/ethnicity, education, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity and hormone therapy use. There was a positive association between milk intake and free IGF-I levels. A three-serving increase in milk intake per d (approximately 30 g of protein) was associated with an estimated average 18·6 % higher increase in free IGF-I levels (95 % CI 0·9, 39·3 %). However, total IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were not associated with milk consumption and nor were there associations between biomarker-calibrated protein intake, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, and free IGF-I, total IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels. The findings of the present study carried out in postmenopausal women are consistent with clinical trial data suggesting a specific relationship between milk consumption and serum IGF-I levels, although in the present study this association was only statistically significant for free, but not total, IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels.

  19. Factors influencing casein micelle size in milk of individual cows: Genetic variants and glycosylation of k-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.; Vries, de R.F.M.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Huppertz, T.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The average casein micelle size varies widely between milk samples of individual cows. The factors that cause this variation in size are not known but could provide more insight into casein micelle structure and into the physiology of casein micelle formation. The objective of this research was ther

  20. Risk factors for Coxiella burnetii antibodies in bulk tank milk from Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to identify risk factors associated with Coxiella burnetii antibody positivity in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from 100 randomly selected Danish dairy cattle herds. Antibody levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Before testing the herds, the farm managers were...

  1. Intake of milk with added micronutrients increases the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet to reduce body weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Caamaño, Maria Del C; Martínez, Guadalupe; Gutiérrez, Jessica; García, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with an increase in fat deposition and body weight; thus, adding them to low-fat milk may facilitate weight loss when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the intake of low-fat milk and low-fat milk with added micronutrients on anthropometrics, body composition, blood glucose levels, lipids profile, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure of women following an energy-restricted diet. A 16-week randomized, controlled intervention study. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (aged 34±6 years) from five rural communities in Querétaro, Mexico. Women followed an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal) and received in addition one of the following treatments: 250 mL of low-fat milk (LFM) three times/day, 250 mL of low-fat milk with micronutrients (LFM+M) three times/day, or a no milk control group (CON). Weight, height, and hip and waist circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, and blood analysis were done at baseline and at the end of the 16 weeks. Changes in weight and body composition. One-factor analysis of variance, adjusted by age, baseline values, and community random effects. After the 16-week intervention, participants in the LFM+M group lost significantly more weight (-5.1 kg; 95% CI: -6.2 to -4.1) compared with LFM (-3.6 kg; 95% CI: -4.7 to -2.6) and CON (-3.2 kg; 95% CI: -4.3 to -2.2) group members (P=0.035). Body mass index change in the LFM+M group (-2.3; 95% CI: -2.7 to -1.8) was significantly greater than LFM group members (-1.5; 95% CI: -2.0 to -1.1) and CON group members (-1.4; 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.9) (P=0.022). Change in percent body fat among LFM+M group members (-2.7%; 95% CI: -3.2 to -2.1) was significantly higher than LFM group members (-1.8%; 95% CI: -2.3 to -1.3) and CON group members (-1.6%; 95% CI: -2.2 to -1.0) (P=0.019). Change in bone mineral content was

  2. Evolution of increased competitiveness in cows trades off with reduced milk yield, fertility and more masculine morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Cristina; Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Mantovani, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    In some species females compete for food, foraging territories, mating, and nesting sites. Competing females can exhibit morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations typical of males, which are commonly considered as secondary sexual traits. Competition and the development of traits increasing competitiveness require much energy and may exert adverse effects on fecundity and survival. From an evolutionary perspective, positive selection for increased competitiveness would then result in evolution of reduced values for traits related to fitness such as fecundity and survival. There is recent evidence for such evolutionary trade-offs involving male competition, but no study has considered competing females so far. Using data from competitions for dominance in cows (Bos taurus), we found negative genetic correlations between traits providing success in competition, that is, fighting ability and fitness traits related to milk production and with fertility (the inverse of parity-conception interval). Fighting ability also showed low but positive genetic correlations with "masculine" morphological traits, and negative correlations with "feminine" traits. A genetic change in traits over time has occurred due to selection on competitiveness, corresponding to an evolutionary process of "masculinization" counteracting the official selection for milk yield. Similar evolutionary trade-off between success in competition and fitness components may be present in various species experiencing female competition.

  3. Increased feeding frequency increased milk fat yield and may reduce the severity of subacute ruminal acidosis in higher-risk cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, K; Gao, X; Oba, M

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding behavior is different between cows at higher or lower risk for subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and whether increasing feeding frequency could be used to reduce the severity of SARA in higher-risk cows. In preliminary studies, 16 ruminally cannulated lactating cows were fed high-grain diets once per day to increase the risk of SARA. After a 17-d diet adaptation, ruminal pH was measured every 30 s over 24 h. Cows were classified as higher-risk (n = 7) or lower-risk (n = 9) for SARA based on an acidosis index (area of pH Feeding behavior was recorded every 5 min over the same 24 h. The 24-h observation period was analyzed in 3 periods of 8 h after feeding. Although there was no significant difference in overall dry matter intake, higher-risk cows spent more time eating in the first 8-h period after feeding than lower-risk cows (186 vs. 153 min) and less time eating in the third 8-h period (19 vs. 43 min). In the primary experiment, 8 ruminally cannulated lactating cows were fed a high-grain diet once per day (1×; 0800 h) or 3 times per day (3×; 0800, 1500, and 2000 h) in a crossover design with 21-d periods (16 d of treatment adaptation and 5 d of data collection). Rumen pH and feeding behavior were measured over 72 h. Behavior data were summarized separately for the 3 periods (0800 to 1500, 1500 to 2200, and 2200 to 0800 h). Four cows were categorized as higher-risk and 4 as lower-risk, based on their acidosis index. The 3× feeding reduced eating time between 0800 and 1500 h (99 vs. 145 min) and increased eating time between 2200 and 0800 h (76 vs. 43 min) for all cows, regardless of category, compared with 1× feeding. For higher-risk cows, 3× feeding reduced the area below pH 5.8 (51 vs. 98 pH × min/d), but it did not affect rumen pH for the lower-risk cows. Milk yield was not different between groups, but 3× feeding increased milk fat yield (1.22 vs. 1.08 kg/d) for all cows, regardless of

  4. Multivariate analysis on effect factors of the parturient milk secretion%影响母婴分离产妇乳汁分泌的多因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛圆; 雪丽霜; 覃桂荣; 刘素娥; 李娉霞; 凌静; 徐明; 晏洁梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the various factors that influence the parturient milk secretion, and to find out the best method of promoting milk secretion. Method 212 cases of parturient that hospitalized in Guangxi medical u-niversity Obstetrics department during July to December of 2012 was observed and recorded. The index including initial time of breast milk secretion, different time of breast milk secretion volume was analyzed in order to investigate the various factors that influence the parturient milk secretion and use the univariate, multivariate method to analyze the relationship between the parturient milk secretion and the influence factors. Result By single factors analysis, natural childbirth, stimulation of the nipples in postpartum 2h, the increase in the number of milking in 24h, milking time continued 10-30 min, milking 1-3 times in night and depression value (EPDSX9 were in favor of parturient milk secretion, There was significant diffence(P<0. 05). Multivariate analysis showed that the influence factors on milk secretion size sort as follows: stimulation of the nipples in postpartum 2h, mode of delivery, 24h milking number, and depression value. Conclusion Stimulation of the nipples or milking in the early postpartum, milking number increasing and reducing the postpartum anxiety and depression of maternal separation women can contribute to milk secretion and early secretion and to promote the breastfeeding and the maternal and child's health.%目的 分析影响母婴分离产妇乳汁分泌的各种因素,寻找促进乳汁分泌的最佳方法.方法 对2011年7月~12月在广西医科大学第一附属医院产科住院的212例母婴分离产妇进行观察记录,运用单因素和多因素方法分析影响母要分离产妇乳汁分泌的相关因素.结果 单因素分析:自然分娩、产后2h内刺激乳头、24 h挤奶次数的增加、挤奶时间10~30 min、夜间挤奶1~3次、抑郁值(EPDS)<9分者,利于母婴分离产妇乳汁

  5. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-10-19

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk.

  6. The bovine ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 Tyr581Ser single-nucleotide polymorphism increases milk secretion of the fluoroquinolone danofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Jon A; Real, Rebeca; de la Fuente, Álvaro; Prieto, Julio G; Marqués, Margarita; Álvarez, Ana I; Merino, Gracia

    2013-03-01

    The bovine adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein) polymorphism Tyr581Ser (Y581S) has recently been shown to increase in vitro transepithelial transport of antibiotics. Since this transporter has been extensively related to the active secretion of drugs into milk, the potential in vivo effect of this polymorphism on secretion of xenobiotics in livestock could have striking consequences for milk production, the dairy industry, and public health. Our purpose was to study the in vivo effect of this polymorphism on the secretion of danofloxacin, a widely used veterinary antibiotic, into milk. Danofloxacin (1.25 mg/kg) was administered to six Y/Y 581 homozygous and six Y/S 581 heterozygous lactating cows, and plasma and milk samples were collected and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. No differences were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of danofloxacin in plasma between the two groups of animals. In contrast, Y/S heterozygous cows showed a 2-fold increase in danofloxacin levels in milk. In addition, the pharmacokinetic elimination parameters, mean residence time and elimination half-life, were significantly lower in the milk of the animals carrying the Y/S polymorphism. These in vivo results are in agreement with our previously published in vitro data, which showed a greater capacity of the S581 variant in accumulation assays, and demonstrate, for the first time, an important effect of the Y581S single-nucleotide polymorphism on antibiotic secretion into cow milk. These findings could be extended to other ABCG2 substrates, and may be relevant for the treatment of mastitis and for the design of accurate and novel strategies to handle milk residues.

  7. The trade-offs between milk production and soil organic carbon storage in dairy systems under different management and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Schipper, Louis A; Mudge, Paul L; Rutledge, Susanna; Puche, Nicolas J B; Campbell, David I

    2017-01-15

    A possible agricultural climate change mitigation option is to increase the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC). Conversely, some factors might lead to inadvertent losses of SOC. Here, we explore the effect of various management options and environmental changes on SOC storage and milk production of dairy pastures in New Zealand. We used CenW 4.1, a process-based ecophysiological model, to run a range of scenarios to assess the effects of changes in management options, plant properties and environmental factors on SOC and milk production. We tested the model by using 2years of observations of the exchanges of water and CO2 measured with an eddy covariance system on a dairy farm in New Zealand's Waikato region. We obtained excellent agreement between the model and observations, especially for evapotranspiration and net photosynthesis. For the scenario analysis, we found that SOC could be increased through supplying supplemental feed, increasing fertiliser application, or increasing water availability through irrigation on very dry sites, but SOC decreased again for larger increases in water availability. Soil warming strongly reduced SOC. For other changes in key properties, such as changes in soil water-holding capacity and plant root:shoot ratios, SOC changes were often negatively correlated with changes in milk production. The work showed that changes in SOC were determined by the complex interplay between (1) changes in net primary production; (2) the carbon fraction taken off-site through grazing; (3) carbon allocation within the system between labile and stabilised SOC; and (4) changes in SOC decomposition rates. There is a particularly important trade-off between carbon either being removed by grazing or remaining on site and available for SOC formation. Changes in SOC cannot be fully understood unless all four factors are considered together in an overall assessment.

  8. The effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio on sow metabolism, milk production, and litter growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathe, A V; Bruun, T S; Zerrahn, J-E; Tauson, A-H; Hansen, C F

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio (Val:Lys) for lactating sows weaning more than 12 piglets. Five hundred fifty-eight sows (parity 1 to 4) were allotted to 6 dietary treatments from 2 d postpartum, when litters were standardized to 14 piglets. Diets were analyzed to have a total dietary Val:Lys of 0.84, 0.86, 0.88, 0.90, 0.95, or 0.99:1. On all 558 sows, BW, back fat thickness (BF), and litter weight were registered at d 108 of gestation and d 2 and 25 (weaning) postpartum. On a subsample of 72 sows, additional measurements were made: sow BW and BF were measured on d 17 and litter weight was measured on d 10 and 17, and blood and urine samples were collected weekly. The litter size at weaning was not affected by the dietary Val:Lys ( = 0.23) and, on average, the sows weaned 13.0 ± 1.1 piglets. Average daily gain of the litter (2.93 ± 0.53 kg/d; = 0.84), litter weight at weaning ( = 0.67), the average milk yield (11.3 ± 1.4 kg/d; = 0.49), and milk contents of fat ( = 0.57), protein ( = 0.18), and lactose ( = 0.20) were not affected by the dietary Val:Lys. Increasing the dietary Val:Lys increased the milk concentration of Val ( 0.05). During lactation, sows, on average, had a BW and back fat loss of 22.1 ± 12.7 kg and 2.9 ± 1.7 mm, respectively. Plasma concentrations of glucose ( = 0.26), lactate ( = 0.95), urea N ( = 0.84), NEFA ( = 0.24), and creatinine ( = 0.42); urine concentration of creatinine ( = 0.57); and concentrations of AA in whole blood ( > 0.05) were not affected by the dietary Val:Lys. In conclusion, there was no effect of increasing the total dietary Val:Lys above 0.84:1 on sow metabolism and litter performance during lactation.

  9. The interaction between milk and beef production and emissions from land use change – critical considerations in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Two most critical factors to address in environmental system analysis of future milk production are 1) the link between milk and beef production, and 2) the competition for land, possibly leading to land use change (LUC) with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and loss of biodiversity as important...... implications. Different methodological approaches concerning these factors, in studies on environmental impacts of dairy production, sometimes lead to contradictory results. Increasing milk yield per cow is often one of the solutions discussed in order to reduce GHG emissions from milk production. However......, when also accounting for other systems affected (e.g. beef production) it is not certain that an increase in milk yield per cow leads to a reduction in total GHG emissions per kg milk. In the present study the correlation between carbon footprint (CF) of milk and the amount of milk delivered per cow...

  10. Decreased level of epidermal growth factor in milk from diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Nexø, Ebba; Raaberg, Lasse

    1994-01-01

    and in the concentration of EGF in milk from untreated diabetic rats compared with an insulin-treated diabetic group and a control group. Thus, the total output of EGF in milk from diabetic rats was considerably decreased. The concentrations of total protein and haptocorrin, a cobalamin (vitamin B12)-binding protein...

  11. Factors Affecting Milk Yield, Composition and Udder Health of Najdi Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although Najdi milk has been historically utilized by bedouins to process traditional dairy products, no published studies have been focused on their milk productivity and quality traits. This study was planned to investigate the effects of litter size, sex of lamb and lamb’s birth weight on milk yield, compositions and udder health during suckling and milking periods. A total of 30 multiparous ewes were utilized in this study. Litter size and sex of lambs did not produce any effects (p>0.05 on milk yield, fat, protein, lactose, total solids and Somatic Cell Counts (SCC; whereas, lamb’s birth weight significantly (p0.05 to attain 1.88±0.18 L in the 9th week of lactation. Average milk yield were 2.17 and 1.71 L.d-1, for ewes that gave birth to lambs weighing >5 and 0.05 and had a mean value of 9.95×105 cells/mL. It is concluded that the indigenous Najdi ewes have a noticeable potential for milk production, but milk compositions were lower in comparison to other international dairy sheep.

  12. Kelp meal (Ascophyllum nodosum) did not improve milk yield or mitigate heat stress but increased milk iodine in mid lactation organic Jersey cows during the grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelp meal (KM) made from dry and ground Ascophyllum nodosum, a brown algae, is often used as a mineral supplement on northeastern organic dairy farms. Twenty (12 primiparous and 8 multiparous) organic Jersey cows with an initial BW of 410 kg (SD ± 39) and DIM of 135 (SD ± 52) were blocked by milk yi...

  13. Contextualizing online human milk sharing: structural factors and lactation disparity among middle income women in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Doehler, Kirsten

    2014-12-01

    Women in the U.S. face significant structural constraints in attempting to breastfeed as recommended in the first six months of their child's life. Internet-facilitated human milk sharing is an emergent response to breastfeeding challenges. Little is known about the demographic characteristics of milk sharing donors and recipients and the ways structural factors circumscribe the biocultural context of lactation in milk sharing practices. Data regarding demographic characteristics, reproductive history, lactation history, and levels of social support and health care provider support for breastfeeding were collected via an online survey September 2013-March 2014. Statistical tests were executed to ascertain whether significant differences exist between donors and recipients. A total of 867 respondents (661 donors, 206 recipients) met the eligibility criteria for the study. Respondents were U.S. residents and primarily White, middle-class, well educated, and employed women. Both donors and recipients reported higher than the national average for household income, maternal educational attainment, breastfeeding exclusivity 0-6 months, and breastfeeding duration. Differences in lactation sufficiency and breastfeeding outcomes between donors and recipients were associated with both structural and biocultural factors. Donors reported significantly higher income, education, and support for breastfeeding from spouse/partner, other family, employers, and pediatricians. Donors also reported significantly higher rates of full term birth for child of most recent lactation. This study provides a foundation for understanding how milk sharing reflects a broader political economy of breastfeeding in the U.S.

  14. Hepatic accumulation of intestinal cholesterol is decreased and fecal cholesterol excretion is increased in mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with milk phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weir Jacquelyn M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk phospholipids (PLs reduce liver lipid levels when given as a dietary supplement to mice fed a high-fat diet. We have speculated that this might be due to reduced intestinal cholesterol uptake. Methods Mice were given a high-fat diet for 3 or 5 weeks that had no added PL or that were supplemented with 1.2% by wt PL from cow's milk. Two milk PL preparations were investigated: a a PL-rich dairy milk extract (PLRDME, and b a commercially-available milk PL concentrate (PC-700. Intestinal cholesterol uptake was assessed by measuring fecal and hepatic radioactivity after intragastric administration of [14C]cholesterol and [3H]sitostanol. Fecal and hepatic lipids were measured enzymatically and by ESI-MS/MS. Results Both PL preparations led to significant decreases in total liver cholesterol and triglyceride (-20% to -60%, P 14C]cholesterol was significantly less (-30% to -60%, P 14C]cholesterol and unlabeled cholesterol was significantly higher in PL-supplemented mice (+15% to +30%, P 14C]cholesterol (P 14C]cholesterol (P P P Conclusion These results indicate that milk PL extracts reduce hepatic accumulation of intestinal cholesterol and increase fecal cholesterol excretion when given to mice fed a high-fat diet.

  15. High DMBT1 concentrations in breast milk correlate with increased risk of infection in preterm and term neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronellenfitsch, Sebastian; Weiß, Christel; Frommhold, David

    2012-01-01

    by Western blotting and its concentration was quantified by ELISA in 95 breast milk samples collected from mothers of preterm and term neonates during the first four weeks after delivery. Possible effects of maternal or neonatal parameters were analyzed by different statistical tests. Results: The mean DMBT1......-regulated in the breast milk from mothers with newborns suffering from neonatal infection. Thus, breast milk DMBT1 may be part of the innate immunity similar to secretory IgA....

  16. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Robin A McGregor; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Sally D. Poppitt; David Cameron-Smith

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biops...

  17. Demographic and lifestyle factors associated with dioxin-like activity (CALUX-TEQ) in human breast milk in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E A S; Hui, L L; Wong, T W; Hedley, A J

    2006-03-01

    Maternal exposure to dioxins and related compounds before conception may affect the health of the fetus. To identify factors affecting dioxin body load in Hong Kong, in 2002, total dioxin-like activity was estimated in 250 individual milk samples at 2-6 weeks postpartum, from a representative group of primiparous mothers, aged 18-42 years (mean 29 +/- 5 years), by a chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) bioassay. Associations between the CALUX-TEQ and 20 socio-demographic and dietary variables were examined separately in mothers younger than 30 years (n = 114) and 30 years or older (n = 119), by multiple linear regression analysis. CALUX-TEQ (mean 14.5 +/- 5.8 pg/g fat) significantly increased by 0.4-0.5 pg/g fat for every year of the mother's age. Mothers born in Guangdong province of China had a significantly higher CALUX-TEQ. Higher seafood consumption (older mothers; p = 0.07) and having a female baby (younger mothers; p = 0.002) were associated with a higher maternal CALUX-TEQ level. Age was the strongest factor affecting human dioxin levels in Hong Kong. Birthplace and residence are important indicators of variations in exposure to environmental pollution in the Asia Pacific region. Temporal trends in body loads of dioxins remain to be established and continuous monitoring of dioxins in humans and foods is necessary as a precautionary approach to guide environmental control measures and prevent exposure to infants.

  18. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding.

  19. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne van der Vorst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems on dairy farms in TheNetherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms withconventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cellcount, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count are foundin the first six months after introduction. After this period the milk quality slightly improves to a more stable level.Risk factors related with milk quality concern general farm characteristics, animal health, AM-system, cleaning and cooling,housing, management skills of the farmer and the hygiene on the farm. Total plate count was significantly relatedto milk yield of the herd, cleaning of the area around the AM-system and the overall hygiene on the farm. Bulk milksomatic cell count appeared to be significantly related to milk yield of the herd and the number of milkings before replacementof the liners. An increased milking frequency is not the only explanation of increased free fatty acid levels. Technicalfactors related to free fatty acids mainly concerned the air inlet in the teat cups, bubbling (excessive air inlet and a toolong post run time of the milk pump. However, several questions regarding the causes of increased free fatty acid levelsremained unclear.

  20. 影响荷斯坦奶牛305d产奶量的因素分析%Analysis of Factors Influencing 305-days Milk Yield of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶东东; 张孔杰; 热西提·阿不都热合曼; 黄锡霞; 张再国; 邓江玲; 张桂芬

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] In order to investigate factors influencinf; 305 - days milk yield of Holstein cow. [ Method]The effects of SA58 . 1 CLM on 305 - days milk yield were analyzed. [ Result]Effect of different years on 305 - days milk yield was highly significant ( P < 0.01) ; Effect of calving season on 305 - days milk yield was highly significant ( P < 0.01) , 305 - days milk yield was the highest in winter, the lowest in summer; Effect of different parities on 305 - days milk yield was highly significant ( P < 0.01) , the 305 - days milk yield increased by the parity increased, decreased after the fifth parity; Effect of different first calving month age on 305 - days milk yield was highly significant ( P < 0.01) , the 305 - days milk yield was the highest when first calving age during 24 -26 months. [ Conclusion] Year, calving season, parity and first calving month age were the main factors influencing 305 - days milk yield .%[目的]探讨各因素对荷斯坦奶牛305 d产奶量的影响.[方法]采用SAS8.1软件对影响305 d产奶量的因素进行最小二乘方差分析.[结果]不同年度对305 d产奶量的影响极显著(P<0.01);不同产犊季节对305 d产奶量有极显著的影响(P<0.01),冬季产奶量最高,夏季产奶量最低;不同胎次对305 d产奶量有极显著的影响(P<0.01),305 d产奶量随着奶牛胎次的增加产奶量也逐渐增加,5胎后开始下降;不同初产月龄对305 d产奶量有极显著的影响(P<0.01),当初产年龄在24-26月龄间产奶量最高.[结论]年度、产犊季节、胎次和初产月龄均是影响荷斯坦奶牛305 d产奶量的主要因素.

  1. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  2. The causes of milk deposit formation on the walls of the heat exchangers during the heat treatment of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Matijević

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on finding the causes and preventing the formation of milk deposit are described in this paper.During the heat treatment of milk, an unwanted phenomenon occurs; the formation of milk deposit on heating surfaces of heat exchangers. This phenomenon causes the decrease of heat transfer coefficient as well as the pressure drop, it restricts the flow of milk, and causes additional production costs and increases production loss.The formation of milk deposit is a result of complex processes caused by thermal treatment of proteins and mineral substances in milk. Factors which cause milk deposit are: pH - value, the amount of proteins and mineral substances in milk, dissolved gases in milk, characteristics of heating surface, the difference in temperatures of milk and heating surfaces, and the regime of milk circulation. The chemical composition of milk can not be influenced, but the standards of heat treatment in order to minimise this phenomenon can, and that is precisely the topic of the latest researches.

  3. Measuring stress level of dairy cows during milking using by geometric indices of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Kovács

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHeart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV were investigated in cows (n=32, age: 3.86 years, milk production: 35±2.5 kg, DIM: 150±15 milked in a parallel milking parlour. Geometric parameters of HRV (SD1 and SD2 were calculated using Poincare graphs. HRV indices of resting 1 h after midday milking (reference period were compared to those measured during the different phases of the evening milking (driving; in the holding pen; udder preparation; milking; after milking in the milking stall. There was no difference between the reference period and the different phases of milking in animal welfare terms. During the reference period SD2 (198.5 ms was significantly higher (p<0.05 than every other measured period suggesting an increasing parasympathetic tone after milking. This parasympathetic predominance decreased with time of the day (1.5 h after milking. SD2 was significantly affected by parity, by the breeding bull (p<0.01 and by milk production (p<0.05. SD2 was notably higher (102.8 ms in multiparous cows than in primiparous cows (p<0.017; α=0.005 during resting and milking. Results suggested that a conventional milking process is not really stressful for cows. Primiparous cows were more susceptible of milking process than multiparous ones. SD2 is a good marker of vagus activity and affected by several independent factors.

  4. Effects of dietary amino acid balance on the response of dairy cows to an increase of milking frequency from twice to three times daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeo, J M; Knight, Christopher Harold; Chamberlain, D G

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine how the response of dairy cows to a change from twice to three times-daily milking is affected by deficiencies in the dietary supplies of three amino acids, His, Met, and Lys. Six cows were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square with 14-d periods. The three dietary tr...... of rumen-undegradable protein for which the protein was of better amino acid balance (fish meal), the increased frequency of milking led to increased yield of milk and milk protein....... treatments were: grass silage and a cereal-based supplement containing feather meal as the sole protein supplement; the same silage-cereal diet supplying similar amounts of metabolizable and rumen-undegradable protein but with additional amounts of His, Met, and Lys in the form of fish meal; and the fish...... meal diet with additional metabolizable energy in the form of an additional 2 kg/d of sugar beet pulp. Within each of these dietary treatments, the cows were milked twice and three times daily, making a total of six treatments. When cows were given the feather meal diet, even though dietary...

  5. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  6. FACTORS LIVESTOCK AND MILKING ASSOCIATED WITH RISK OF MASTITIS IN CATTLE DAIRY FARMS IN ABOVEGROUND OF THE TUNISIA COASTAL SEMI-ARID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Sahel of Tunisia (Monastir region on a sample covering 40 cattle herd’s type above ground. We deduced the mastitis risk factors during the survey during visits for breeding and milking as well as from morphological and hygienic cow’s assessments. The data’s descriptive analysis has highlighted some significant effect factors on cellular levels and the risk of developing mastitis. For individual cell count (ICC, the significant effect factors (P <0.05 are: free stall, milking machine cleaning with only water, the poor condition of the piping, not elimination of the first milk jets and bad cleanliness of udders and the back legs of cows, whereas the herd cell count (HCC, the significant factors (P <0.05 are: cleaning the milking machine with water only, the frequency pulse (FP is too high or low.

  7. Supraphysiological oxytocin increases the transfer of immunoglobulins and other blood components to milk during lipopolysaccharide- and lipoteichoic acid-induced mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Samantha K; Wellnitz, Olga; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Ahmadpour, Amir; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial mastitis causes pathogen-dependent changes of the blood-milk barrier, and these changes can influence the differential transfer of blood components to milk. It is well known that gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli can cause a greater activation of the immune system and thus a more comprehensive transfer of blood components including IgG than gram-positive pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Supraphysiological doses of oxytocin (OT) have been shown to increase the permeability of the blood-milk barrier; however, the effect of OT during experimentally induced mastitis has not been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine if intravenous administration of OT during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced mastitis could influence the transfer of blood components to milk. The hypothesis was that OT could induce a greater transfer of blood components during mastitis. Twenty-seven dairy cows were injected via the teat canal with LPS, LTA, or a saline control followed by an intravenous injection of OT 2h following intramammary challenge. Milk samples were collected every half hour and analyzed for somatic cell count (SCC), IgG, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and serum albumin (SA). Due to the chosen dosage of LPS and LTA, there was no difference in SCC between quarters challenged with only LPS or LTA. Quarters challenged with LPS and OT had a higher SCC and a greater transfer of IgG, LDH, and SA compared with quarters challenged with only LPS. Quarters challenged with LTA and OT had a greater transfer of IgG, LDH, and SA, whereas the SCC increase did not differ from quarters only treated with LTA. In quarters treated only with OT, SCC, LDH, and SA increased, but no difference was observed in IgG concentration from untreated control quarters. In conclusion, there are pathogen-specific changes in the blood-milk barrier and OT can induce a greater transfer of blood components to milk in both LPS- and

  8. Short communication: Artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2015-01-01

    The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We tes...

  9. Effects of increasing amounts of corn dried distillers grains with solubles in dairy cow diets on methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Julien, C; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of including corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diet at the expense of corn and soybean meal on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion (in sacco and apparent total-tract digestibility), N balance, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a triplicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) and fed (ad libitum intake) a total mixed ration containing (dry matter basis) 0, 10, 20, or 30% DDGS. Dry matter intake increased linearly, whereas apparent-total tract digestibility of dry matter and gross energy declined linearly as DDGS level in the diet increased. Increasing the proportion of DDGS in the diet decreased the acetate:propionate ratio, but this decrease was the result of reduced acetate concentration rather than increased propionate concentration. Milk yield increased linearly (up to +4kg/d) with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet and a tendency was observed for a quadratic increase in energy-corrected milk as the proportion of DDGS in the diet increased. Methane production decreased linearly with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet (495, 490, 477, and 475 g/d for 0, 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively). When adjusted for gross energy intake, CH4 losses also decreased linearly as DDGS proportion increased in the diet by 5, 8, and 14% for 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively. Similar decreases (up to 12% at 30% DDGS) were also observed when CH4 production was corrected for digestible energy intake. When expressed relative to energy-corrected milk, CH4 production declined linearly as the amount of DDGS increased in the diet. Total N excretion (urinary and fecal; g/d) increased as the amount of DDGS in the diet increased. Efficiency of N utilization (milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake) declined linearly with increasing inclusion of DDGS in the diet. However, productive N increased linearly with

  10. Bovine mastitis: prevalence, risk factors and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy herds at Hawassa milk shed, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Rahmeto; Hatiya, Hagere; Abera, Mesele; Megersa, Bekele; Asmare, Kassahun

    2016-12-03

    Mastitis is a disease of major economic importance in dairy industry worldwide. It is of particular concern in developing countries like Ethiopia, where milk and milk products are scarce. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of mastitis, identify the cow-and herd-level potential risk factors and isolate Staphylococcus aureus, one of etiological agents for contagious mastitis, from cows positive for mastitis. A total of 529 lactating cows selected randomly from 95 herds were screened by California mastitis test (CMT) for sub-clinical mastitis. Also 172 milk samples collected from CMT positive cows were cultured for isolation of S. aureus. Based on CMT result and clinical examination, the prevalence of mastitis at herd-level was 74.7% (95% CI: 64.5, 82.8). The corresponding cow-level prevalence was 62.6% (95% CI: 58.3, 66.7), of which 59.2 and 3.4% were sub-clinical and clinical mastitis cases, respectively. S. aureus was isolated from 51.2% of the milk samples cultured and 73.2% of the herds affected with mastitis. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the herd-level factors significantly associated (p mastitis were herd size, bedding material, and milking mastitic cows last, while at cow-level, breed, parity, stage of lactation, udder and leg hygiene, and teat end shape were noted to have a significant effect on mastitis occurrence. The very high prevalence of mastitis, more importantly the sub-clinical one, in the herds examined revealed the huge potential economic loss the sector suffers. Perhaps this was attributed to lack of implementation of the routine mastitis prevention and control practices by all of the herd owners. The findings of this study warrants the need for strategic approach including dairy extension that focus on enhancing dairy farmers' awareness and practice of hygienic milking, regular screening for sub-clinical mastitis, dry cow therapy and culling of chronically infected cows.

  11. High intakes of skimmed milk, but not meat, increase serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in eight-year-old boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Mølgaard, C; Juul, A

    2004-01-01

    To examine whether a high protein intake (PI) from either milk or meat, at a level often seen in late infancy, could increase s-IGF-I and s-IGF-I/s-IGFBP-3 in healthy, prepubertal children. IGF-I levels are positively associated with growth velocity in children and some studies suggest that a high...

  12. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-02-16

    Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS. However, milking frequency is dependent on many factors, including the social structure of the herd, the farm layout design, the type of traffic imposed to cows, the type of flooring, the health status of the cow (especially lameness, but also mastitis, metritis, among others), the stage of lactation, the parity, and the type of ration fed at the feed bunk and the concentrate offered in the AMS. Uneven milk frequency has been associated with milk losses and increased risk of mastitis, but most importantly it is a lost opportunity for milking the cow and generating profit. On the other hand, the opportunity from AMS resides in the possibility of milking more frequently and feeding cows more precisely or more closely to their nutrient needs on an individual basis, potentially resulting in a more profitable production system. But, feeding cows in the parlor or AMS has many challenges. On one side, feeding starchy, highly palatable ingredients in large amounts may upset rumen fermentation or alter feeding behavior after milking, whereas feeding high-fiber concentrates may compromise total energy intake and limit milking performance. Nevertheless, AMS (and some milking parlors, especially rotary ones) offer the possibility of feeding the cows to their estimated individual nutrient needs by combining different feeds on real time with the aim of maximizing profits rather

  13. The abundant free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, increases the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in milk and orange juice

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Jenny; Griekspoor Berglund, Petra; Olsen, Björn; Ellström, Patrik; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of human bacterial diarrhea in most parts of the world. Most C. jejuni infections are acquired from contaminated poultry, milk, and water. Due to health care costs and human suffering, it is important to identify all possible sources of infection. Unpasteurized milk has been associated with several outbreaks of C. jejuni infection. Campylobacter has been identified on fresh fruit, and other gastrointestinal pathogens such as Salmonella, E. co...

  14. A low-molecular-weight factor in human milk whey promotes iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Paz; Miller, Dennis D; Glahn, Raymond P

    2004-01-01

    The iron bioavailability of human milk (HM) is substantially greater than that of cow's milk (CM), but the factor responsible for this high bioavailability is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of various HM and CM fractions on iron bioavailability. Milk was separated into fat, casein and whey fractions by ultracentrifugation. Whey was further fractionated by ultrafiltration with a 10-kDa membrane to produce a 10-kDa retentate (10kR) and a 10-kDa filtrate (10kF). Samples were prepared by mixing various combinations of the fractions, bringing the samples to prefractionation weight with minimum essential medium (MEM), and adding iron (10 micro mol/L) as ferrous sulfate. Samples were divided into two aliquots: one was subjected to in vitro digestion, the other was not. Bioavailability was assessed by applying the samples to Caco-2 cell monolayers and incubating for 24 h. Ferritin formation in the cells was used as an index of iron uptake. Removing the fat from undigested HM samples doubled the ferritin formation, but removing the whey or casein had no effect. Results with digested HM samples were similar, except that removing the whey decreased ferritin formation by 48%. Removing the fat from digested CM samples had no effect, but removing the casein doubled the ferritin formation. Removing the 10kF from HM reduced ferritin formation by 60%, but removing the 10kR had no effect. These data suggest that a low-molecular-weight factor (milk enhances iron absorption.

  15. Determinants of attitude and buying intention of organic milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Faletar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of organic milk is increasing rapidly. However, the behaviour of organic milk consumers is still not enough investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine variables which influence the attitude towards organic milk consumption, as well as variables which influence the buying intention of organic milk. Thereat, factors such as positive opinion toward organic milk and food related lifestyle, as well as level of trust in home as in EU organic food label, objective knowledge and gender of respondents showed to have a significant influence on organic milk buying intention. More precisely, a significant and positive influence on buying intention of organic milk was observed considering the belief in positive aspects of organic milk, subjective knowledge, objective knowledge, and attitude towards buying organic milk. According to the results of this study recommendations for marketing practice and especially for communication policy might be created. Communication directed to female population should use classic advertising based on functional information, while the one directed to male population should use more emotional advertising. By using classic advertising education of consumers should be performed in order to promote benefits of organic milk in regards to conventional milk.

  16. Factors influencing chymosin-induced gelation of milk from individual dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, F.; Glantz, M; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Optimisation of cheese yield is crucial for cheese production; a previous study showed large variations in chymosin-induced coagulation in milk from the second most common Swedish dairy breed, Swedish Red. In the present study, the effect of gross composition, protein composition, total and ionic...... was, theoretically, four times larger than the amount of calcium that is normally added in cheese processing......Optimisation of cheese yield is crucial for cheese production; a previous study showed large variations in chymosin-induced coagulation in milk from the second most common Swedish dairy breed, Swedish Red. In the present study, the effect of gross composition, protein composition, total and ionic...

  17. Differential expression of insulin like growth factor I and other fibroblast mitogens in porcine colostrum and milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, T.J.; Simmen, R.C.M.; Simmen, F.A.

    1987-05-01

    Sow mammary secretions contain at least 3 distinct growth factor activities, distinguished by their size and relative abundance in colostrum or later milk. Gel filtration of colostrum in Sephadex G-200 columns, followed by acid-ethanol extraction and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) revealed high levels of this factor in the 150K and 50K MW regions, characteristic of IGF-I: binding protein complexes. Acid treatment of these fractions yielded free IGF-I peptide (7.5K). Parallel mitogen assays with a fibroblast cell line (AKR-2B) demonstrated a predominant peak of high MW activity (sow colostral growth factor-I, SCGF-I) eluting near the column void volume (MW > 150K). Treatment of SCGF-I with 1M acetic acid resulted in a size reduction of the mitogenic activity (MW < 10K), suggesting association of SCGF-I with a binding protein. The SCGF-I peptide was noncompetitive in IGF-I RIA, was distinct in MW from free IGF-I, and was not mitogenic for chick embryo fibroblasts. Sow milk contains less IGF-I and SCGF-I but does display a predominant peak of small MW (approx. 3K) AKR-2B activity. The changes in expression of these growth factors during lactation may reflect differing roles in lactogenesis and/or neonatal growth and development.

  18. Risk factors for isolation of Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus dysgalactiae from milk culture obtained approximately 6 days post calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterås, Olav; Whist, Anne Cathrine; Sølverød, Liv

    2008-02-01

    Milk culture results at approximately 6 d post calving were assessed in a 2-year retrospective single-cohort study in 178 Norwegian herds. A combined teat dipping and selective antibiotic therapy trial was performed in these herds where cows with composite milk somatic cell count (CMSCC) >100,000 cells/ml before drying-off (geometric mean of the last three CMSCC test-days) and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus dysgalactiae were selected for either short-acting lactation antibiotic treatment or long-acting dry cow antibiotic treatment. Milk culture results at approximately 6 d post-calving were available from 437 treated cows and 3061 non-treated cows before drying-off and separate multivariable logistic regression models were ran for these two groups. Risk factors associated with isolation of Staph. aureus 6 d post calving for non-treated cows were CMSCC >400,000 cells/ml before drying-off v. 200,000 cells/ml before drying-off v. 50,000 cells/ml compared with teat disinfection (PMTD) did not influence the isolation of Staph. aureus 6 d post calvin, but it was less likely to isolate Str. dysgalactiae 6 d post calving if iodine PMTD was used regularly rather than irregularly. The external teat sealant had no effect on either of the two bacteria. This study indicates that the CMSCC limit for sampling cows before drying-off can be reduced to 50,000 cells/ml in herds with a Str. dysgalactiae problem. Iodine PMTD should also be recommended in these herds. Cows with a CMSCC > 400,000 cells/ml prior to drying-off should receive long-acting dry cow formula irrespective of the milk result.

  19. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  20. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus GG alleviated DSS-induced colitis in mice and activated epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoyo Yoda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was assessed for its ability to alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice and activate epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study mice were treated with DSS to induce colitis and they were given Lactobacillus GG fermented milk to assess the effect of probiotic on colitis. Lactobacillus GG fermented milk significantly reduced the colitis associated changes suggesting a protective effect against DSS induced colitis.

  1. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  2. Milk Collection in the Rat Using Capillary Tubes and Estimation of Milk Fat Content by Creamatocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather A; Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2015-12-16

    Milk, as the sole source of nutrition for the newborn mammal, provides the necessary nutrients and energy for offspring growth and development. It also contains a vast number of bioactive compounds that greatly affect the development of the neonate. The analysis of milk components will help elucidate key factors that link maternal metabolism and health with offspring growth and development. The laboratory rat represents a popular model organism for maternal studies, and rat milk can be used to examine the effect of various maternal physiological, nutritional, and pharmacological interventions on milk components, which may then impact offspring health. Here a simple method of manually collecting milk from the lactating rat that can be performed by a single investigator, does not require specialized vacuum or suction equipment, and provides sufficient milk for subsequent downstream analysis is described. A method for estimating the fat content of milk by measuring the percentage of cream within the milk sample, known as the creamatocrit, is also presented. These methods can ultimately be used to increase insight into maternal-child health and to elucidate maternal factors that are involved in proper growth and development of offspring.

  3. Adverse effects of cow's milk in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2007-01-01

    The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss, which occurs in about 40% of normal infants during feeding of cow's milk. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after 1 year of age. A third factor is calcium and casein provided by cow's milk in high amounts. Calcium and casein both inhibit the absorption of dietary nonheme iron. Infants fed cow's milk receive much more protein and minerals than they need. The excess has to be excreted in the urine. The high renal solute load leads to higher urine concentration during the feeding of cow's milk than during the feeding of breast milk or formula. When fluid intakes are low and/or when extrarenal water losses are high, the renal concentrating ability of infants may be insufficient for maintaining water balance in the face of high water use for excretion of the high renal solute. The resulting negative water balance, if prolonged, can lead to serious dehydration. There is strong epidemiological evidence that the feeding of cow's milk or formulas with similarly high potential renal solute load places infants at an increased risk of serious dehydration. The feeding of cow's milk to infants is undesirable because of cow's milk's propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.

  4. The abundant free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, increases the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in milk and orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Jenny; Berglund, Petra Griekspoor; Olsen, Björn; Ellström, Patrik; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of human bacterial diarrhea in most parts of the world. Most C. jejuni infections are acquired from contaminated poultry, milk, and water. Due to health care costs and human suffering, it is important to identify all possible sources of infection. Unpasteurized milk has been associated with several outbreaks of C. jejuni infection. Campylobacter has been identified on fresh fruit, and other gastrointestinal pathogens such as Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and Cryptosporidium have been involved in fruit juice outbreaks. C. jejuni is sensitive to the acidic environment of fruit juice, but co-cultures with the amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, have previously been shown to protect C. jejuni at low pH. To study the influence of A. polyphaga on the survival of C. jejuni in milk and juice, the bacteria were incubated in the two products at room temperature and at 4°C with the following treatments: A) C. jejuni preincubated with A. polyphaga before the addition of product, B) C. jejuni mixed with A. polyphaga after the addition of product, and C) C. jejuni in product without A. polyphaga. Bacterial survival was assessed by colony counts on blood agar plates. Co-culture with A. polyphaga prolonged the C. jejuni survival both in milk and juice. The effect of co-culture was most pronounced in juice stored at room temperature. On the other hand, A. polyphaga did not have any effect on C. jejuni survival during pasteurization of milk or orange juice, indicating that this is a good method for eliminating C. jejuni in these products. Amoebae-associated C. jejuni in milk and juice might cause C. jejuni infections.

  5. The abundant free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, increases the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in milk and orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Olofsson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of human bacterial diarrhea in most parts of the world. Most C. jejuni infections are acquired from contaminated poultry, milk, and water. Due to health care costs and human suffering, it is important to identify all possible sources of infection. Unpasteurized milk has been associated with several outbreaks of C. jejuni infection. Campylobacter has been identified on fresh fruit, and other gastrointestinal pathogens such as Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and Cryptosporidium have been involved in fruit juice outbreaks. C. jejuni is sensitive to the acidic environment of fruit juice, but co-cultures with the amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, have previously been shown to protect C. jejuni at low pH. Methods: To study the influence of A. polyphaga on the survival of C. jejuni in milk and juice, the bacteria were incubated in the two products at room temperature and at 4°C with the following treatments: A C. jejuni preincubated with A. polyphaga before the addition of product, B C. jejuni mixed with A. polyphaga after the addition of product, and C C. jejuni in product without A. polyphaga. Bacterial survival was assessed by colony counts on blood agar plates. Results: Co-culture with A. polyphaga prolonged the C. jejuni survival both in milk and juice. The effect of co-culture was most pronounced in juice stored at room temperature. On the other hand, A. polyphaga did not have any effect on C. jejuni survival during pasteurization of milk or orange juice, indicating that this is a good method for eliminating C. jejuni in these products. Conclusion: Amoebae-associated C. jejuni in milk and juice might cause C. jejuni infections.

  6. Biochemical characterization of LR769, a new recombinant factor VIIa bypassing agent produced in the milk of transgenic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreux, G; Tilly, N; Leblanc, Y; Ramon, C; Faid, V; Martin, M; Dhainaut, F; Bihoreau, N

    2017-07-01

    The bypassing agent factor VII (FVIIa) is a first-line therapy for the treatment of acute bleeding episodes in patients with haemophilia and high-titre inhibitors. FVIIa is a highly post-translationally modified protein that requires eukaryotic expression systems to produce a fully active molecule. A recombinant FVIIa was produced in the milk of transgenic rabbits to increase expression and provide an efficient, safe and affordable product after purification to homogeneity (LR769). To present the biochemical and functional in vitro characteristics of LR769. Mass spectrometric analyses of the intact protein and of heavy and light chains revealed a fully activated, mature and properly post-translationally modified protein notably regarding N/O-glycosylations and γ-carboxylation. Primary structure analysis, performed by peptide mapping, confirmed 100% of the sequence and the low level or absence of product-derived impurities such as oxidized, deamidated and glycated forms. Low levels of aggregates and fragments were observed by different chromatographic methods. Higher order structure investigated by circular dichroism showed appropriate secondary/tertiary structures and conformational change in the presence of Ca(2+) ions. Finally, activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin generation assays showed the ability of LR769 to decrease coagulation time and to generate thrombin in haemophiliac-A-plasmas, even in the presence of inhibitors. The innovative expression system used to produce LR769 yields a new safe and effective rhFVIIa for the treatment of haemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors. © 2017 LFB Biotechnologies. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. An evaluation of casein hydrolyzate in combination with antibiotic for bacterial cure and subsequent increase in milk yield in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silanikove Nissim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A 3-yr study examined whether prepartum treatment with casein hydrolyzate in combination with antibiotic, as routinely used in Israel for dry cow therapy, improved bacterial cure and increased milk yield in subsequent lactations in comparison with treatment with antibiotic alone. The vast majority of bacterial isolates in samples collected prior to drying-off comprised coagulase-negative staphylococci, mostly as Staph. chromogenes. Results Bacterial cure associated with the combined treatment was 73.8% in cows, significantly higher than the 51.7% cure recorded when cows were treated only with antibiotic. During the study, the annual milk yield of non-casein hydrolyzate treated and treated control cows increased at ~2% per year, which is consistent with the national annual increase attributed to genetic selection. In cows treated with casein hydrolyzate the increase was 9% (above the 2% expected in the first lactation after the treatment, and 6.3% (above the 4% expected for 2 years in the second lactation after treatment. These increases were significantly higher than those in the controls and those expected through genetic improvement. Conclusions Treatment with casein hydrolyzate at dry-off was shown to be a viable mean to eliminate existing environmental bacterial infection, and to improve milk yield in the next lactation.

  8. Isolation of inhibitory factor in raw milk whey active against propionibacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamuthu, E R; Washam, C J; Reinbold, G W

    1971-10-01

    Preparative isolation of the active component(s) in skim milk whey inhibitory for propionibacteria was made by using (NH(4))(2)SO(4) salt fractionation. The crude preparation was further purified by Sephadex G-100 column separation. Disc-gel electrophoresis of the active peak from the Sephadex elution pattern (peak I) showed that this fraction contained almost all of the immune globulin in the column sample. The biologically inactive peaks did not contain any immune globulin. Starch-gel electrophoresis of the active peak revealed the presence of three separate immune globulin fractions. A correlation was also observed between hemolytic reaction of propionibacterial strains and relative resistance to whey inhibition. The investigation showed that one of the immune globulins of milk, pseudoglobulin, was mainly responsible for the suppressive activity of whey.

  9. Breast milk transmission of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduati, R; John, G

    1995-12-01

    Breast milk provides infants and children immunologic, nutritional, and child spacing benefits. Yet it also transmits some viruses, for example, HIV-1. The World Health Organization recommends that, in conditions with poor access to breast milk substitutes, HIV-positive women should still breast feed due to the nutritional and infectious risk of artificial feeding. It appears that breast fed infants experience a slower progression of AIDS and death. Vertical transmission of HIV-1 may occur during pregnancy, at delivery, or through breast milk. The HIV-1 transmission rate via breast milk from acutely infected women is estimated to be 29-36%. A meta-analysis of case reports and small case series of women with chronic HIV-1 infection indicated a breast feeding transmission rate of 14%. Studies suggest that the likelihood of HIV-1 transmission via breast milk increases as duration of breast feeding increases. Infants with detectable HIV-1 DNA tend to have mothers whose absolute CD4 counts are less than 400 and have severe vitamin A deficiency. Breast milk has HIV-1 specific immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM). It appears that HIV-1 elicits a local immune response. Breast milk of HIV-1 positive mothers with non-infected children tends to still have IgM and IgA until 18 months. Potential risk factors for breast milk transmission of HIV-1 include cracked nipples and mastitis in the mother; oral thrush, malnutrition, inflammation of the lips, and mucosal compromise in the infant; and vigorous suction of the neonate and use of the wrong equipment for suctioning. Inhibiting factors of HIV-1 in breast milk are bovine and human lactoferrin and a membrane associated protein that attaches to the CD4 receptor and thus prevents attachment of the HIV antigen gp120 to the CD4 receptor on T-cells.

  10. Feeding rumen-protected methionine pre- and post-partum increases milk protein content and yield in early lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to evaluate the effects of feeding rumen-protected methionine (MET) from 23 d (±12) before calving until 98 days in milk (DIM) on lactation performance, dry matter intake (DMI), body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) change of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 223) ...

  11. An increase in milk IgA correlates with both pIgR expression and IgA plasma cell accumulation in the lactating mammary gland of PRM/Alf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumahrou, Nisrine; Chevaleyre, Claire; Berri, Mustapha; Martin, Patrice; Bellier, Sylvain; Salmon, Henri

    2012-12-01

    In mice, during late pregnancy and lactation, maternal precursors of IgA-containing cells (cIgA-cells) are primed in the gut and home to the mammary gland where they secrete IgA. In turn, the ensuing increase in milk IgA mediates immune protection of the newborn gastrointestinal tract. PRM/Alf is an inbred mouse strain which exhibits a substantial post-natal intestinal lengthening which develops throughout the neonatal suckling period, suggesting that the availability of cIg-A cells and the level of protective IgA in milk might also be increased. We confirmed that PRM/Alf milk contains higher amounts of IgA than C57BL/6J throughout lactation, concomitantly with an increase of pIgR on epithelial cells and a higher density of cIgA-cells in the PRM/Alf mammary gland. Furthermore, a search for variations in cellular and humoral factors implicated in regulating cIgA-cell migration towards the mammary gland, including the vascular addressins MAdCAM-1 (mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1) and VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) as well as the mucosal epithelial chemokine CCL28, did not reveal any quantitative differences in expression between PRM/Alf and C57BL/6J mice strains. Thus our results indicate that these factors are not limiting in the recruitment of cIgA-cells released from the elongated gut of PRM/Alf mice. In the context of intestinal lengthening, these findings strengthen the notion of an entero-mammary gland link, where the neonatal gut is protected by the maternal gut through the immune function of the mammary gland.

  12. Cows’ milk composition and regularities of fat, protein and lactose synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tsiupko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in fat, protein and lactose content in cows’ milk depending on several factors were studied.  Common patterns of synthesis of the milk major components are under consideration on the basis of those changes. The syntheses of lactose and casein have no close connection. Increased milk yield during lactation dominant and its decrease in late lactation are accompanied by a noticeable change of lactose concentration in the milk. The volume of milk produced is determined by the amount of lactose synthesized in the mammary gland.

  13. Increasing intake of essential fatty acids from milk replacer benefits performance, immune responses, and health of preweaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Shin, J H; Schlaefli, A; Greco, L F; Maunsell, F P; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding increasing amounts of essential fatty acids (FA) in milk replacer (MR) during the first 60 d of life on growth, health, and immunity of Holstein calves. Calves were born from dams fed low concentrations of total and essential FA during the lasT2 mo of pregnancy. Newborn calves were blocked by sex and parity of the dam and assigned randomly to receive 1 of 4 MR treatments (T). Hydrogenated coconut oil and soybean oil were mixed with emulsifier and commercial MR powder to prepare the following 4 MR containing 0.119 and 0.007 (T1), 0.187 and 0.017 (T2), 0.321 and 0.036 (T3), and 0.593 and 0.076 (T4) g of intake per kg of metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. At 30 d of life, concentrations of essential FA (linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) in liver increased, whereas concentrations of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, and C20:3n-9 decreased linearly with increasing intake of essential FA. Body weight gain and feed efficiency were optimized when male calves consumed T2, whereas gain by female calves tended to increase linearly with increasing intake of essential FA during the first 30 d of age. However, these responses to treatment were not maintained after initiation of concentrate feeding at 31 d of life. Over the 60-d preweaning period, wither and hip heights were improved in both sexes as intake of essential FA increased up to T3. Some measures of health and immunity were affected by replacing some coconut oil with soybean oil. Severity of diarrhea tended to decrease linearly; plasma concentrations of haptoglobin during diarrhea were lower in T2, T3, and T4; phagocytosis by blood neutrophils tended to peak for calves fed T2; in vitro proliferation of stimulated blood lymphocytes was greater for calves fed T2; in vitro stimulated blood cells produced more IFN-γ (up to T3 for males and T2 for females), concentrations of serum IgG against ovalbumin injections were increased in

  14. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time...... efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis...... for daily fat and protein corrected yield. Both traits were moderate to highly heritable and closely correlated (ra = 0.85). The two traits differed by milking efficiency being correlated to yield (ra = 0.48). Residual box time was closely correlated to milking time (ra = 0.93) compared to milking...

  15. Milk fat threshold determination and the effect of milk fat content on consumer preference for fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K S; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    drinkers. The findings of this study provide insights on sensory characteristics of milk fat in fluid milk and consumer sensory perception of these properties. These results also provide insights on how the industry might adjust milk fat references for adjusting milk sensory properties to increase milk preference and remain within the standards of identity of milk.

  16. [Influence of milking technique, milking hygiene and environmental hygiene parameters on the microbial contamination of milking machines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, M; Zimmermann, A; Hoedemaker, M

    2006-07-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of various factors of the milking technique, milking hygiene and environment on microbial contamination of the milking machine. In 31 dairy herds, the degree of bacterial contamination was examined by taking swabs at four locations (teat cup liner, claw, short and long milk tube) before the milking procedure was started using a standardized protocol (DIN ISO 6887-1:1999). Furthermore, the total germ count was determined in the first milk entering the bulk tank as well as in the bulk tank milk following milking. For each farm, the quality of the milking process and the condition of the milking machine as well as of various environmental factors were recorded. A subjective evaluation of the status of the milking cluster or other parts of the milking machine ("good" or "moderate-poor") gave more information about bacterial contamination than the determination of age and type of material used. A temperature of the rinsing water of teat cleaning before milking or of postmilking teat disinfection did not affect the contamination of the milking machine and the bulk tank milk with environmental bacteria. Furthermore, type of bedding material affected bacterial contamination of milking clusters and bulk tank milk. In conclusion, our results suggest that the microbial contamination of the milking machine is not only influenced by the sanitation pro-

  17. Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor 8 (MFG-E8) Is a Novel Anti-inflammatory Factor in Rheumatoid Arthritis in Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, Elise; Sinningen, Kathrin; Winzer, Maria; Thiele, Sylvia; Baschant, Ulrike; Hannemann, Anke; Fantana, Julia; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Grossklaus, Sylvia; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Udey, Mark C; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rauner, Martina

    2016-03-01

    Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is an anti-inflammatory glycoprotein that mediates the clearance of apoptotic cells and is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Because MFG-E8 also controls bone metabolism, we investigated its role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), focusing on inflammation and joint destruction. The regulation of MFG-E8 by inflammation was assessed in vitro using osteoblasts, in arthritic mice and in patients with RA. K/BxN serum transfer arthritis (STA) was applied to MFG-E8 knock-out mice to assess its role in the pathogenesis of arthritis. Stimulation of osteoblasts with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α downregulated the expression of MFG-E8 by 30% to 35%. MFG-E8-deficient osteoblasts responded to LPS with a stronger production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, MFG-E8 mRNA levels were 52% lower in the paws of collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) mice and 24% to 42% lower in the serum of arthritic mice using two different arthritis models (CIA and STA). Similarly, patients with RA (n = 93) had lower serum concentrations of MFG-E8 (-17%) compared with healthy controls (n = 140). In a subgroup of patients who had a moderate to high disease activity (n = 21), serum concentrations of MFG-E8 rose after complete or partial remission had been achieved (+67%). Finally, MFG-E8-deficient mice subjected to STA exhibited a stronger disease burden, an increased number of neutrophils in the joints, and a more extensive local and systemic bone loss. This was accompanied by an increased activation of osteoclasts and a suppression of osteoblast function in MFG-E8-deficient mice. Thus, MFG-E8 is a protective factor in the pathogenesis of RA and subsequent bone loss. Whether MFG-E8 qualifies as a novel biomarker or therapeutic target for the treatment of RA is worth addressing in further studies.

  18. Full Open Access Journals Have Increased Impact Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to report the increase of the impact factors of MDPI journals during 2007 and 2008. In 2005 and part of 2006, the use of a two tier publication system, whereby we offered full Open Access publication to those authors willing to contribute financially to support this option, while providing the alternative choice of free publication without Open Access for those authors who preferred not to pay, resulted in the obviously decreased impact factors seen in 2006 [...

  19. Milk production parameters in early lactiation: potential risk factors of cystic ovarian disease in Dutch dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, G.A.; Oijen, van M.A.A.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to investigate whether the incidence of cystic ovarian disease (COD) in dairy cows was related to milk production parameters (milk yield, milk fat and protein) in early lactation with special emphasis on the negative energy balance (NEB). The diagnosis of COD was made

  20. “Associations of Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-I) and IGFBP-3 Levels Biomarker-Calibrated Protein, Dairy, and Milk Intake in the Women's Health Initiative”1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Gunter, Marc J.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Prentice, Ross L.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Strickler, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well-established that protein-energy malnutrition decreases serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) levels, and supplementation of 30 grams of whey protein daily increased serum IGF-1 levels by 8% after 2 years in a clinical trial(1). Cohort studies provide the opportunity to assess associations between dietary protein intake and the IGF-axis under more typical eating conditions. We studied the associations of circulating IGF-axis protein levels (ELISA, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) with total biomarker-calibrated protein intake, as well as dairy and milk intake, among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (n=747). Analyses were conducted using multivariate linear regression models that adjusted for age, BMI, race/ethnicity, education, biomarker-calibrated energy, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and hormone therapy use. There was a positive association between milk intake and free-IGF-1. A 3 serving increase in milk intake per day (~30 grams of protein) was associated with an estimated average 18.6% higher increase in free IGF-1 (95% CI 0.9% to 39.3%). Total IGF-I and IGFBP-3, however, were not associated with milk consumption, nor were there associations between biomarker-calibrated protein intake, biomarker-calibrated energy, and free IGF-I, total IGF-I, or IGFBP-3. This study of postmenopausal women is consistent with clinical trial data suggesting a specific relationship between milk consumption and serum IGF-I levels; albeit, in our dataset, this association was only statistically significant for free, but not total, IGF-I nor IGFBP-3. PMID:24094144

  1. World production and quality of cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  2. Research on Influencing Factors of Milk Aqueous Solution Fluorescence Spectrum%牛奶水溶液荧光光谱影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾春峰; 兰秀风; 于银山; 卢礼萍

    2012-01-01

    研究了纯牛奶、高钙奶、高钙低脂奶和过期约10天的纯牛奶水溶液的三维荧光光谱特征.实验结果表明,牛奶水溶液的荧光峰随着激发波长的增长而红移;当激发波长大于340 nm时,荧光光谱上出现次级荧光峰,且该峰也随激发波长的增加而红移.通过对比研究发现,牛奶的浓度对牛奶水溶液荧光光谱的影响不大,而牛奶品种对其荧光光谱影响较大,尤其是高钙低脂奶.过期的牛奶水溶液在较长或者较短波长激发光激励下,荧光峰强度高于未过期的同类牛奶.初步分析了在一定激发波长下高钙低脂奶、过期牛奶的荧光强度比其他样品荧光强度强的原因.研究结果可为利用荧光光谱技术检测牛奶品质提供参考.%Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of pure milk, milk with high calcium, milk with high calcium and low fat, and pure milk expiring by about 10 days are researched. The experiment indicates that the fluorescence peak of milk aqueous solution shows red shift with the increase of stimulation wavelength. When the stimulation wavelength is longer than 340 nm, a secondary fluorescence peak appears in the fluorescence spectrum, and it also shows red shift with the increase of stimulation wavelength. By comparison it is found that the concentration has little effect on fluorescence spectrum of milk aqueous solution, while the species of milk has greater impact, especially the milk with high calcium and low fat. The reason why the fluorescence intensities of the milk with high calcium and low fat and the expired milk are stronger under certain stimulation wavelength is analyzed preliminary. The findings may provide reference when using the fluorescence spectrum to identify milk quality.

  3. Levels of dichloro-dyphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) metabolites in maternal milk and their determinant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Arreola, L; López-Carrillo, L; Torres-Sánchez, L; Cebrián, M; Rueda, C; Reyes, R; López-Cervantes, M

    1999-01-01

    To document the levels and the determinants of dichloro-dyphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) metabolites in maternal milk, we conducted a cohort study of 50 adult females who lived in Mexico City. We measured social and dietary characteristics via interview. Levels of DDT metabolites were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The mean values (lipid milk basis) were 0.162 ppm p,p'-DDT; 0.138 ppm o,p'-DDT; and 0.594 ppm 2,2(bis)p-chlorophyenyl-1-1-dichloroethylene (DDE). The main determinants of DDT metabolites were maternal age, lifetime lactation, history of living in an agricultural area, and consumption of salted meat and fish. We estimated that 6.0% of the breast-fed babies had daily intakes of DDT above the level of 0.005 mg/kg d recommended by the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (WHO/FAO). Health-outcomes research among children is needed, and investigators should design or adjust current surveillance programs.

  4. Adoption of milk cooling technology among smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Factors influencing adoption of milk cooling technology were studied with data for 90 smallholder dairy farmers who were randomly selected from seven dairy cooperative societies in Kiambu County, Kenya. Logistic regression identified the age of the household head, daily household milk consumption......, freehold land ownership, fodder production area, number of female calves, cooperative membership and cooperative services as significant factors influencing farmers’ willingness to invest in milk cooling technology. These findings offer an entry point for increased interventions by policy makers...... and various dairy sector stakeholders in promoting milk cooling technology with the aim of significantly reducing post-harvest losses and increasing the sector’s competitiveness....

  5. What factors are driving increasing demand for community nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Daniel; Legg, Alison

    2017-01-02

    Demand for district nursing services is increasing significantly. With increasing economic pressures, services are struggling to meet increases in demand, and are looking to become more proactive in planning for future demand. Traditional quantitative forecasting methods have limited use, because of the complexity of inter-linking factors that potentially drive demand for community services. Qualitative system dynamics approaches can be useful to model the complex interplay of causal factors leading to an effect, such as increased demand for services, and identify particular areas of concern for future focus. We ran a facilitated qualitative system dynamics workshop with representatives working across community nursing services in Cornwall. The generated models identified 7 key areas of concern that could be significantly contributing to demand for district nursing services. We outline the identified problem areas in this paper, and discuss potential recommendations to reduce their effects based on causal links identified in the models.

  6. Nutritional and Hygienic Quality of Raw Milk in the Mid-Northern Region of Algeria: Correlations and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumeya Adjlane-Kaouche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the overall quality of raw milk in the mid-northern region of Algeria. The analysis results showed a decrease in the average temperature for the delivery of 1,54°C with P0.05 was observed in almost all the physical and nutritional parameters studied (pH, fat content, and protein content between M1 and M2. The average contamination by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB, coliforms, yeasts, molds, and different pathogens in samples taken at M1 showed significant changes at M2. This was confirmed by the decrease of reduction time of methylene blue (RTMB, about 54%. The variation was described as follows: (P>0.05 for yeasts and (P<0.05 for molds in M1 and M2, (P<0.05 for TMAB in M1, and (P<0.001 for TC, FC, and TMAB in M2. The analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. showed no contamination in all samples tested, while antibiotic residues were detected in 35% of milks delivered. In conclusion, several risk factors have been identified in this study, namely, the effect of the season and the distance between the farm and the dairy unit.

  7. Nutritional and Hygienic Quality of Raw Milk in the Mid-Northern Region of Algeria: Correlations and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjlane-Kaouche, Soumeya; Benhacine, Rafik; Ghozlane, Faiçal; Mati, Abderrahmane

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the overall quality of raw milk in the mid-northern region of Algeria. The analysis results showed a decrease in the average temperature for the delivery of 1,54°C with P0.05) was observed in almost all the physical and nutritional parameters studied (pH, fat content, and protein content) between M1 and M2. The average contamination by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), coliforms, yeasts, molds, and different pathogens in samples taken at M1 showed significant changes at M2. This was confirmed by the decrease of reduction time of methylene blue (RTMB), about 54%. The variation was described as follows: (P>0.05) for yeasts and (P<0.05) for molds in M1 and M2, (P<0.05) for TMAB in M1, and (P<0.001) for TC, FC, and TMAB in M2. The analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. showed no contamination in all samples tested, while antibiotic residues were detected in 35% of milks delivered. In conclusion, several risk factors have been identified in this study, namely, the effect of the season and the distance between the farm and the dairy unit. PMID:25374932

  8. Changes in cisternal udder compartment induced by milking interval in dairy goats milked once or twice daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Such, X

    2004-01-01

    intervals, cisterns of goats milked 1x did not become larger than cisterns of goats milked 2x after 5 wk of treatment. The highest correlation between cisternal area and cisternal milk was detected at 8 h after milking (r = 0.74). Primiparous goats had smaller cisternal areas and less cisternal milk than...... milking. Nevertheless, cisternal size did not increased after 1x milking, probably because of lesser milk yield. Multiparous goats had larger cisterns than primiparous goats and were able to store more milk in their cisterns at all milking intervals. Because of the high capacity of goat cisterns, no milk...

  9. Factors affecting the oxidative stability of omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Omega-3 fatty acids are prone to lipid oxidation due to their unsaturated nature. In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used and the structure at the interface are therefore expected to be of great...... importance for the resulting oxidation. This presentation will give an overview of parameters that are expected to change the properties and structure of milk protein components at the interface of 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions. Results from three different studies will be included. The first study...... compared the effect of two different high pressure homogenizers on oxidation in caseinate and whey protein isolate emulsions. The second study evaluated the effect of homogenization pressure and temperature on emulsions prepared either with whey proteins or a combination of caseinate and β...

  10. Human milk is the feeding strategy to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Diana; Schanler, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred diet for preterm infants as it protects against a multitude of NICU challenges, specifically necrotizing enterocolitis. Infants who receive greater than 50% of mother's own milk (MOM) in the 2 weeks after birth have a significantly decreased risk of NEC. An additional factor in the recent declining rates of NEC is the increased utilization of donor human milk (DHM). This creates a bridge until MOM is readily available, thus decreasing the exposure to cow milk protein. Preterm infants are susceptible to NEC due to the immaturity of their gastrointestinal and immune systems. An exclusive human milk diet compensates for these immature systems in many ways such as lowering gastric pH, enhancing intestinal motility, decreasing epithelial permeability, and altering the composition of bacterial flora. Ideally, preterm infants should be fed human milk and avoid bovine protein. A diet consisting of human milk-based human milk fortifier is one way to provide the additional nutritional supplements necessary for adequate growth while receiving the protective benefits of a human milk diet.

  11. AGU journals increase in importance according to 2010 Impact Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bill

    2011-07-01

    AGU journals continue to rank highly in many categories in the 2010 Journal Citation Report (JCR), which was released by Thomson Reuters on 28 June. JCR reports on several measures of journal usage, including a journal's Eigenfactor score, its Article Influence score, its Impact Factor, and its rank within a cohort of similar journals. According to the 2010 statistics, AGU again has outperformed its larger competitors. Four different AGU titles are ranked in the top three journals in six different cohorts. The Impact Factor of several AGU journals increased significantly over the previous year.

  12. The influence of environmental factors on daily milk yield and fat and protein content in Istrian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Špehar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of stage of lactation, parity, litter size, and lambing season on daily milk production and fat and protein content in Istrian sheep. Data included9.533 test-day records of 2.024 ewes for the period from October 2005 to May 2009. Daily milk yield and fat and protein content were determined during monthly milking controls using AT4 method. The stage of lactation, described by Wilmink lactation curve, had significant effect (P<0.001 on all studied milk traits of Istrian sheep. The peak of daily milk production was achieved between the 20th and 30th day of lactation and gradually decreased towards the end of lactation. Lactation curves for fat and protein content had opposite shape compared to the daily milk yield lactation curve. Parity affected (P<0.05 the daily milk yield and protein content. Daily milk yield and protein content were the lowest in the first and the highest in the third parity. Statistically significant influence of litter size (P<0.05 was determined for daily milk yield and fat content. A higher daily milk yield and lower fat content was observed in ewes lambing twins compared to ewes lambing singles. Differences in daily milk yield and contents were observed for the lambing season effect (P<0.001. Istrian ewes lambed in December and November (first lambing season had the highest daily milk production, while the lowest daily milk yield had ewes lambed in February.

  13. Milk and growth in children: effects of whey and casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølgaard, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of cow's milk is recommended in many countries. Observational and intervention studies show that cow's milk most likely has a positive influence on growth in children. The strongest evidence comes from observational studies and intervention studies in low-income countries, but there are also observational studies from high-income countries showing positive associations between milk intake and growth. Milk seems thus to have a specific stimulating effect on linear growth, not only in developing countries with high rates of malnutrition, but also in industrialized countries. However, it is not known which components in milk stimulate growth. Possible components are proteins, minerals, vitamins or combinations of these. Cow's milk proteins have a high protein quality, and whey has a slightly higher quality than casein, according to some indices based on amino acid composition. Studies, mainly from sport medicine, have suggested that whey protein also has the potential to increase muscle mass. Whether whey improves body composition to a larger extent than other milk proteins is not clear. The mechanism behind a possible growth-stimulating effect of milk and milk components is likely to be through a stimulation of insulin-like growth factor-I synthesis and maybe insulin secretion. In conclusion, there is strong evidence that milk stimulates linear growth. The mechanism is not yet clear, and more intervention studies are needed to understand which components in milk are responsible for the growth stimulation. The effects of milk on linear growth and adult height may have both positive and negative long-term implications.

  14. Short-term effects of replacing milk with cola beverages on insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-glucose metabolism: a 10 d interventional study in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Kristensen, Mette; Boiesen, Marlene; Kudsk, Jane; Fleischer Michaelsen, Kim; Mølgaard, Christian

    2009-10-01

    In the Western world, a trend towards increased consumption of carbonated soft drinks combined with a decreasing intake of milk is observed. This may affect circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and fasting insulin, as seen in pre-pubertal children. The present study was designed to reflect the trend of replacing milk with carbonated beverages in young men and to study the effects of this replacement on IGF-I, IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), IGF-I:IGFBP-3 and glucose-insulin metabolism. A randomised, controlled crossover intervention study, in which eleven men aged 22-29 years were given a low-Ca diet in two 10 d periods with 10 d washout in between. In one period, they drank 2.5 litres of Coca Cola(R) per day and the other period 2.5 litres of semi-skimmed milk. Serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3 (RIA), insulin (fluoro immunoassay) and glucose (Cobas) were determined at baseline and end point of each intervention period. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were calculated with the homeostasis model assessment. A decrease in serum IGF-I was observed in the cola period compared with the milk period (P cola over a 10 d period decreases total IGF-I compared with a high intake of milk, with no effect on glucose-insulin metabolism in adult men. It is unknown whether this is a transient phenomenon or whether it has long-term consequences.

  15. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population. Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.

  16. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elewa, Usama; Fernandez-Fernandez, Beatriz; Alegre, Raquel; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio; Perez-Gomez, Maria Vanessa; El-Fishawy, Hussein; Belal, Dawlat; Ortiz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV) was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV) - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population). Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.

  17. Milk Thistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Milk Thistle Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about milk thistle—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  18. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Milk Allergy Allergy to cow’s milk is the most common ...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF MILK CONSUMPTION AND MARKETING ANALYSIS OF ITS DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Habánová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of most households is to eliminate the negative effects of economic changes related mainly to the economic crisis by mobilizing available resources and reducing costs, but which cloud lead to a decrease in food consumption and changes in consumption patterns. Pensions and prices are factors that shape the demand for food and other estates. Both of these factors guarantee the economic viability of nutrition. Paper analyzes the development of the of milk consumption and level of its substitution by milk products. There was quantified the elasticity of demand and  estimated own price elasticity and income elasticity. For the past 17 years, consumption of milk, except cheese, cottage cheese, sour milk products and butter, decreased. Expressed by linear regression model in recent years (since 1995 in Slovakia occurred overall reduction in the consumption of milk and dairy products by an average of 0.988 kg per capita per year. This development was mainly conditioned by the annual descent of demand for milk, as its consumption with little variation in average decreased annually by up to 1.88 kg per capita. This development is largely due to the increase of milk prices and especially the increasing supply of a wide range of quality and flavored sour milk and cheese products. Acidified milk product consumption in recent observed years increased and is expressed by the average growth factor of 0.6748 kg per capita per year. Prognosis with a five percent risk of error of estimate could increase their consumption up to 13.936 kg per capita in 2014. Consumption of cheese and curd should the increase the current trend by an average of 0.0476 kg per person and would be able to achieve the level of consumption of 11.03 kg per capita in 2014.doi:10.5219/236

  20. Cuantificación de factores de riesgo para mastitis, quistes ováricos, hipocalcemia y cetosis usando regresión logística en ganado Holstein Quantification of risk factors for mastitis, ovarian cyst, milk fever and ketosis (in Holstein cattle using logistic regression in Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. URIBE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Métodos intensivos de producción de leche se han asociado con un incremento de problemas de salud del rebaño. Un aumento en producción de leche, ya sea por genética o manejo, no siempre parece ir acompañado por un aumento de rentabilidad de la empresa lechera. Se ha indicado que vacas de mayor producción tienen mayores demandas en mano de obra y una mayor frecuencia de enfermedades. El objetivo de este trabajo fue cuantificar algunos de los factores de riesgo en la incidencia de mastitis, quistes ováricos, hipocalcemia y cetosis. Casos clínicos, registrados como presentes o ausentes, fueron examinados usando regresión logística para cuantificar la asociación entre las enfermedades y las variables consideradas como factores de riesgo. Se estimaron las razones de riesgo y sus intervalos de confianza. Los datos fueron 8.391 observaciones en vacas Holstein canadienses. Los factores de riesgos considerados fueron: número de parto, estación de parto, año de parto, días en lactancia y producción de leche, grasa y proteína. Número de parto fue un factor de riesgo en todas las enfermedades estudiadas. Estación de parto y producción de leche fueron significativamente importantes para quistes ováricos e hipocalcemia. Producción de grasa y proteína no estuvieron asociadas con ninguna de las enfermedades. Días de lactancia estuvieron asociados con quistes ováricos, pero no está claro si días en lactancia es una causa o un efecto de quistes ováricosIntensive milk production methods have been related to an increase in health disorders. Milk yield improvement, either by genetics or management, is not always accompanied by a proportional increase in profits for dairy farmers. Cows with high milk yield have greater hand labour demands and a higher frequency of health disorders. The aim of this work was to asses some of the important risk factors in the incidence of mastitis, ovarian cyst, milk fever and ketosis. Clinical cases

  1. Impact of the removal of chocolate milk from school milk programs for children in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Phillips, Theodosia; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Studies in the United States report inclusion of flavoured milk in the diets of children and youth improves nutrient intakes. No research has investigated the contribution of flavoured milk to overall milk intake or the milk preferences of Canadian children. The objective of the study was to measure milk consumption (plain milk and flavoured milk) by children in an elementary school environment and investigate factors contributing to milk choice. A mixed-method research design was applied across 6 schools for 12 weeks. Milk waste was measured in grades 1-8 for 12 weeks. Weeks 1-4 (phase 1) and 9-12 (phase 3) provided both plain milk and flavoured milk as chocolate milk while weeks 5-8 (phase 2) provided plain milk only. Beverage Frequency Questionnaires were used in each phase (in grades 5-8 only) to assess usual beverage consumption. Statistical nutrient modelling was conducted to determine the effects of removing chocolate milk during phase 2 as a milk choice. Later, focus groups were conducted with students in grades 5-8 to determine what influences them to choose/not choose to drink milk. Total milk intake decreased by 12.3% when chocolate milk was removed from the schools (26.6% ± 5.2% to 14.31% ± 1.6%, p chocolate milk is more cost-efficient and convenient at providing nutrients than alternative food/drink combinations.

  2. Contamination with Escherichia coli of fresh butter produced by cow’s milk in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    ENVER BAJRAMI; KAPLLAN SULAJ

    2014-01-01

    Processing of milk may produce undesirable effects and some microorganisms produce food infections carrying the pathogens that will increase the likelihood of infection of the consumer`s food. Contamination of milk and milk products is largely due to human factor and unhygienic conditions. Fresh butter is usually contaminated with different kinds and levels of pathogens. In Kosovo fresh butter is produced in home conditions and sometimes in not appropriate hygienic conditions. Sixty two butte...

  3. Association of some milking parameters with milk quality of smallholder dairy farms in Samsun region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Savas; Erdem, Huseyin; Demiryurek, Kursat

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the association between some milking factors and milk quality in dairy cows. While questionnaires collected from a total of 50 smallholder farms in Bafra and Samsun, number of milkers (NM), milking duration (MD), care frequency for milking machine (CMM) and age of milking machine (AMM) were used as milking parameters. Milk quality was measured by somatic cell count (SCC) of milk by direct microscopy. Milk parameters were assessed in two groups according to SCC: 400,000 cells ml(-1), respectively. Data were analyzed by SPSS, and no statistical difference was found in each parameter by SCC thresholds. However, significant (Pmilking activity. The results of the study suggest that dairy farmers should focus on milking factors to obtain more quality milk.

  4. A meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased net energy intake in Scandinavian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Schei, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    and according to stage of lactation; either DIM 1 to 100 (Early) or DIM 101 to 200 (Mid). All analyzed ration characteristics were calculated from NorFor principles or estimated from NorFor feed table values. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects model with trials as random effect. Residuals were......The objectives of this analysis were to develop empirical prediction models for milk yield based on cow characteristics and dry matter intake (DMI) or net energy intake (NEL) and to evaluate the effect of breed, parity, stage of lactation and the additional prediction value of using NEL estimates...... versus DMI estimates for incorporation in future economical optimization models of the energy level in dairy cow rations. Previous Danish response models are outdated due to higher yield capacity of cows and the use of the new Nordic feed evaluation system NorFor since 2011. A data set with 195 treatment...

  5. Effect of season on milk temperature, milk growth hormone, prolactin, and somatic cell counts of lactating cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igono, M. O.; Johnson, H. D.; Steevens, B. J.; Hainen, W. A.; Shanklin, M. D.

    1988-09-01

    Monthly fluctuations in milk temperature, somatic cell counts, milk growth hormone and prolactin of lactating cows were measured in milk samples over a 1 year period. The seasonal patterns in milk temperature, somatic cell count and milk prolactin concentration showed a positive trend with increasing environmental temperatures. Milk growth hormone concentration increased with lactation level and declined significantly during summer heat. Milk temperature and the measured hormonal levels may serve as indicators of the impact of the climatic environment on lactating cattle.

  6. Factors associated with milk producer's awareness and practices in relation to zoonoses in northern Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanly Fon Tebug

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many diseases are known to be naturally transmissible between vertebrate animals, including cattle and humans. Currently, much effort is being made to promote dairy farming in Malawi but there is limited information about zoonotic diseases including public awareness and practices. This study was designed to determine factors associated with dairy producer's awareness and practices with regard to zoonoses in Northern Region of Malawi. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 140 randomly selected dairy producers between January and June 2011. Level of awareness and practices with respect to zoonotic infections was evaluated using a score ranging from 0 to 11. Chi-squared test followed by a multivariable logistic model were used to assess potential factors associated farmer's awareness and practices. Results: Awareness and practice level was unsatisfactory. Significantly higher number of respondents (75.7 vs. 32.9%,x2 = 51.81, df =1, p< 0.001 had satisfactory level of awareness when compared to those who practiced preventive measures. Awareness of the existence of zoonotic infections and practices was higher in farmers who acquired animals through loan (p =0.008, farmers with above primary education (p = 0.002 and farmers with more than six years of dairy farming experience (p= 0.010. Most farmers (59.3% received information about zoonoses through Agricultural extension services. Conclusion: Awareness and practices with respect to zoonotic infections was dependent on farmer's formal educational level, dairy farming experience and means of acquiring parent stock. Regular disease surveillance and promotion of education on the risk associated with zoonotic infections through dairy extension and medical services should result in increased awareness and efficient control of zoonoses in Malawi. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 249-253

  7. Preterm milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, J D

    1980-03-01

    This editorial addresses the question of how best to feed the low birth weight infant. A study by Atkinson et al. on the composition of preterm mothers' milk found the nitrogen concentration in preterm milk to be considerably higher than in term milk. Preterm milk may be uniquely suited to the growth requirements of preterm infants. With the exception of calcium and phosphorus, preterm milk fits the requirements for preterm infant growth. Because of the difficulties of sustaining lactation without the infant sucking at the breast, partly due to the mother's motivation in the face of all the difficulties of having a baby in a Special Care Baby Unit, and partly due to the associated socioeconomic disadvantages, it is not possible for all mothers who deliver preterm babies to sustain their lactation. The composition of preterm milk should be used as a guide for the preparation of a human milk formula built from human milk products from a milk bank. The development of a human milk formula must take into account variations in the absorption of nutrients in low birth weight infants which may be affected by the processing of the milk, and variations in fat absorption in preterm infants which occur even when they are fed their mothers' fresh unprocessed milk.

  8. Innovative application of bar coding technology to breast milk administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Ellen K

    2013-01-01

    Hospitalized infants often receive expressed breast milk, either from their mother or from banked milk. Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for infants but because it is a body fluid it carries the risk of disease transmission. Therefore, administering the correct breast milk to hospitalized infants is essential. Bar coding technology, used in hospitals to prevent errors related to medication administration, can be proactively applied to prevent breast milk administration errors. Bar coding systems offer advantages over manual verification processes, including decreasing errors due to human factors and providing for automated entry of feedings in the electronic health record. However, potential barriers to successful implementation must be addressed. These barriers include equipment and training costs, increased time to perform the additional steps with bar coding, and work-arounds.

  9. Analysis on factors affecting plasmin activity of raw milk quality%影响原料乳品质的纤溶酶活性的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书文; 刘鹭; 孙洁; 李红娟; 崔文明; 芦晶; 吕加平

    2014-01-01

    Plasmin(PL) is by far the predominant and most completely studied endogenous protease in bovine milk. PL activity level is an important factor affecting dairy product quality and its processing characteristics. Raw milk with a high PL level can have detrimental effects on the quality of pasteurized milk and UHT milk, causing undesirable flavor, precipitation and gelation, and shortening the shelf life of the product. Considerable research has focused on minimizing the activity of PL in fluid milk. Many factors, such as pH, mineral content, whey proteins, and storage temperature can influence the kinetics of the PL-induced hydrolysis. However, according to China’s current raw milk production situatioin, the objective of this study is to determine how such factors such as cattle breed, parity, dairy farming mode, and milking time affect PL activity in milk; thermal stability of plasmin is also studied. The results show that the PL activity between dairy farming mode, parity, and cow breeds are significant (P0.05). PL activity of raw milk gradually decreases with increasing thermal treatment temperature. However, the thermal treatment associated with pasteurization of milk (75℃, 15 sec) has been shown to increase PL levels. This increase in PL activity has long been attributed to inactivation of plasmin inhibitors(PI) and plasminogen activator inhibitors(PAI), but plasminogen activators (PA)is even more heat stable than PIand PAIduring pasteurization and UHT. In this temperature range, plasminogen (PG) loses its naturally occurring tertiary structure, but is not yet inhibited. On the contrary, PG becomes more accessible to the action of PA by unfolding of its kringles. Activation of PG is enhanced upon pasteurization heating. Further heat treatment has been shown to reduce PL levels. PL activity only decreases 25 percent after pasteurized (75℃, 15 sec) treatment. The effects of cysteine addition and heat treatment on PL activity is also studied. The results show

  10. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content.

  11. Finding of coagulase negative staphylococci in the herd with an increased number of somatic cells in milk and their antimicrobial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are generally considered to be opportunistic pathogens. Controlling CNS mastitis is difficult because the epidemiology is not clear, and the CNS group consists of about 40 different Staphylococcus species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coagulasenegative staphylococci in milk of the cows with subclinical mastitis, as well as to determine different CNS species isolated from quarter milk samples for their susceptibility to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. On the farm where there was found an increase of somatic cells in bulk milk, 112 dairy cows were examined by mastitis test. From 52 udder quarters where mastitis test showed an increase of somatic cells, milk samples were taken for bacteriological examination. For isolating the causes of mastitis there was used blood agar. Identification of the causative agents of mastitis was carried out on the basis of colony appearance on blood agar and their physiological characteristics. Coagulasepositive staphylococci sensitivity which cause mastitis was tested by Kirby Bauer method. For susceptibility testing there were used commercially produced discs containing: 10 IU penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (20 +10 μg, cloxacillin 25 μg, 30 μg amoxicillin, cephalexin 30 μg, ceftiofur 30 μg, 15 μg lincomycin, gentamicin and tetracycline 30 μg. The sensitivity of microorganisms was evaluated on the basis of inhibition zone diameter recommended by the manufacturer and was labeled as sensitive (S moderately sensitive (I or resistant (R. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 61.53% of samples from cows with subclinical mastitis, making them the most common cause of subclinical mastitis. The highest resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to penicillin G (58.33% of isolates. Full sensitivity of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (100% of

  12. Inhibition of natriuretic factors increases blood pressure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Banday, Anees Ahmad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F.

    2009-01-01

    Renal dopamine and nitric oxide contribute to natriuresis during high-salt intake which maintains sodium and blood pressure homeostasis. We wanted to determine whether concurrent inhibition of these natriuretic factors increases blood pressure during high-sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: 1) vehicle (V)-tap water, 2) NaCl-1% NaCl drinking water, 3) 30 mM l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an oxidant, 4) BSO plus NaCl, and 5) BSO plus NaCl with 1 mM t...

  13. Some Factors Trigger Increasing Foodborne Diseases Cases of Livestock Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Kusumaningsih

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is an essential need for various human body activities. Consequently, food must be guaranteed to be free from biological, chemical, and physical contaminants and other hazardous substances that can obstruct health. The presence of various hazardous contaminants in food may result in the appearance of foodborne diseases, i.e. human diseases spread through contaminated food and drinks. Biological contaminants in food can be bacteria, viruses, parasites, moulds, or fungi. The most dangerous biological contaminants that may cause an epidemic disease in human are pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter sakazakii, Shigella, etc. Researchers believe that there are several factors that can be the trigger that increase of foodborne diseases cases such as community demography by increasing the individual groups that are more susceptible to pathogenic foodborne infections, human behaviour related to the changes in the community life style and consumption, the advances in industrial and technological sectors through the increase of large scale food industries concentrated in one location, the global trade or travel, and increasing bacterial resistances against antimicrobials as the result of the increasing the uses of antimicrobials for disease prevention and cure in animals and humans.

  14. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  15. Human Milk Fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population.

  16. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam P. Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT of camel milk was significantly higher than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The camel, cow and buffalo milk samples showed negative alcohol stability. The rate of acidity was increased propositionally with time in camel milk with no curd formation and weaker body.

  17. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

    2013-10-01

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of (137)Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the (137)Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10(-1) and 1.8 × 10(-1) for (137)Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of (137)Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10(-2) d L(-1) and 4.6 × 10(-2) d L(-1), respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10(-2) d L(-1) for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10(-3) d L(-1) for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of (137)Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for (137)Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content ((40)K and stable K) in

  18. Prevalence of E. coli Virulence Factors in Raw Bulk Tank Milk from U.S. Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle are known reservoirs of zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and several outbreaks of disease have been associated with the consumption of raw milk or raw milk products. A national survey of US.. dairies was conducted during the National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) Dairy 2007 study to ...

  19. Increase in colonic diverticular hemorrhage and confounding factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ken Kinjo; Toshiyuki Matsui; Takashi Hisabe; Hiroshi Ishihara; Shinichiro Maki; Kenta Chuman; Akihiro Koga; Kensei Ohtsu; Noritaka Takatsu; Fumihito Hirai; Kenshi Yao; Masakazu Washio

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To classify changes over time in causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding(LGIB) and to identify factors associated with changes in the incidence and characteristics of diverticular hemorrhage(DH).METHODS: A total of 1803 patients underwent colonoscopy for overt LGIB at our hospital from 1995 to 2013. Patients were divided into an early group(EG, 1995-2006, n = 828) and a late group(LG, 2007-2013, n = 975), and specific diseases were compared between groups. In addition, antithrombotic drug(ATD) use and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug(NSAID) use were comparedbetween patients with and without DH. RESULTS: Older patients(≥ 70 years old) and those with colonic DH were more frequent in LG than in EG(P < 0.01). Patients using ATDs as well as NSAIDs, male sex, obesity(body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2), smoking, alcohol drinking, and arteriosclerotic diseases were more frequent in patients with DH than in those without. CONCLUSION: Incidence of colonic DH seems to increase with aging of the population, and factors involved include use of ATDs and NSAIDs, male sex, obesity, smoking, alcohol drinking, and arteriosclerotic disease. These factors are of value in handling DH patients.

  20. Control of Raw Milk Quality and Influencing Factors%原料奶质量的控制及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 张耀荔; 陈静

    2013-01-01

    介绍我国奶源的质量安全现状.通过文献查阅、实地调研,结合鱼骨图对影响我国奶源质量安全的主要因素及存在的问题进行了分析,主要有奶牛养殖模式及环境、饲料、饲养管理、挤奶及收购、贮存及运输6个影响因素.最后,提出了要建立规模化的奶源基地、改善奶牛饲养环境、加强奶牛饲料管理、建立奶源HACCP质量控制体系和第三方检测机制等控制措施和建议.%The quality safety status of milk supply was introduced. Through literature reviewing, field investigation, combing with fishbone diagram, main influencing factors for milk quality safety and existing problems were analyzed, including six factors: raising modes and environment of cows, feed, raising management, milking and purchasing, stocking, transportation. Several countermeasures were put forward, such as establishing scaled milk supply base, improving cow raising environment, strengthening feed management, building HACCP quality control system of cow supply and third-party detection mechanism.

  1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CYTOLOGICAL QUALITY AND COMPOSITION OF MILK AND THE EFFECT OF SOME ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE FREQUENCY OF RECURRENT MASTITIS IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna SAWA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on somatic cell counts (SCC in test-day milkings of 63621 cows from the active population of the Pomerania and Kujawy regions were analysed for the years 1998–2002. A negative correlation was found between SCC and milk yield (r= -0.19xx and lactose content (r= -0.38xx and a positive correlation was found between SCC and fat (r= 0.07xx and protein content (r= 0,25xx. The chi2 test revealed significant (p≤0.01 differences in the frequency of cows with recurrent mastitis according to all the factors analysed (age of cows (lactation 1, 2, 3 and 4+, milk yield of the herd (<4 000, 4 001–5 000, 5 001–6 000 and >6 000 kg milk, herd size (<10, 10.1–20, 20.1–100, 100.1–200 and >200 cows and year of calving (1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002. Age of cows was the most differentiating factor.

  2. 影响牛乳脂肪酸组成的因素分析%Influencing Factors Analysis of the Milk Fatty Acids Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘演景; 朱婧

    2014-01-01

    Milk is rich in nutrients, fatty acids is one important part of this article, the factors influencing milk fatty acids composition were reviewed including environment, breed, parity and lactation period, diet composition and so on. The factors influencing milk fatty acids were analyzed in this paper to provide a certain basis for dairy cow breeding, management, and help to the development and production of functional food for dairy processing enterprises to promote raw milk quality.%牛乳营养丰富,脂肪酸就是其中重要的组成部分。影响牛乳中脂肪酸组成的因素较多,主要包括环境、品种、胎次与泌乳期、日粮组成、瘤胃环境等。本文对上述主要影响因素逐一进行分析,以期为奶牛生产提供指导,提高牛奶品质。

  3. Relationship among specific bacterial counts and total bacterial and somatic cell counts and factors influencing their variation in ovine bulk tank milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Garnica, M L; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; De La Fuente, L F; García-Jimeno, M C; Santos, J A; Gonzalo, C

    2013-02-01

    To analyze the relationship among the counts of different organisms and total bacterial count (BTTBC) and somatic cell count (BTSCC) as determined in dairy laboratories in ovine bulk tank milk, 751 bulk tank milk samples from 205 dairy sheep flocks belonging to Consortium for Ovine Promotion (CPO) were collected between January and December 2011. Four samplings were carried out in each flock, once per season, throughout 1 yr. Variables analyzed were bulk tank counts of thermoduric, psychrotrophic, coliform, and gram-positive catalase-negative cocci (GPCNC) bacterial groups. Thermoduric, psychrotrophic, and coliform species were significantly related to BTTBC, whereas GPCNC were correlated with both BTTBC and BTSCC variables. Highest counts were for psychrotroph and coliform groups, and a moderate to high correlation (r=0.51) was found between both variables, indicating that poor cleaning practices in the flocks tend to select for less-resistant organisms, such as gram-negative rods. In addition, BTTBC correlated with BTSCC (r=0.42). Some variation factors for specific bacterial counts, such as breed, season, milking type, dry therapy, and milk yield, were also analyzed. Flock information was collected from flock books, annual audits, and the CPO traceability system. Psychrotrophs and coliforms had elevated counts in winter, whereas GPCNC were higher in summer and in hand-milked flocks. Dry therapy contributed to the reduction in psychrotrophic bacteria; therefore, some strains of mammary pathogens could also be psychrotrophic bacteria. Results of this study would be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality problems and developing premium payment systems in dairy sheep.

  4. Clastogenic Factors as Potential Biomarkers of Increased Superoxide Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Emerit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of clastogenic factors (CF and their damaging effects are mediated by superoxide, since superoxide dismutase is regularly protective. CF are produced via superoxide and stimulate the production of superoxide by monocytes and neutrophils. This results in a selfsustaining and longlasting process of clastogenesis, which may exceed the DNA repair system and ultimately lead to cancer (Emerit, 1994. An increased cancer risk is indeed observed in conditions accompanied by CF formation. These include irradiated persons, patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, HIV-infected persons and the chromosomal breakage syndromes ataxia telangiectasia, Bloom’s syndrome and Fanconi’s anemia. Biochemical analysis has identifi ed lipid peroxidation products, arachidonic acid metabolites, nucleotides of inosine and cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor alpha, as the clastogenic and also superoxide stimulating components of CF. Due to their chromosome damaging effects, these oxidants can be detected with classical cytogenetic techniques. Their synergistic action renders the CF-test particularly sensitive for the detection of a pro-oxidant state. Correlations were observed between CF and other biomarkers of oxidative stress such as decreases in total plasma thiols or increases in TBARS or chemiluminescence. Correlations between CF and disease activity, between CF and radiation exposure, suggest the study of CF for monitoring these conditions. CF may also be useful as biochemical markers and intermediate endpoints for the evaluation of promising antioxidant drugs. CF formation represents a link between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Prophylactic use of superoxide scavengers as anticarcinogens is therefore suggested.

  5. Progress on Chemical Reactions and Interaction Factors During Milk Storage and Processing%导致乳粉贮藏加工劣变的主要化学反应和物化因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; Leif H Skibsted; 蒋东华

    2012-01-01

    The safety of dairy products has been an increasing public concern in China, especially that of milk powder. At present, the main factors of deterioration are three types of chemical reactions: Lipid oxidation, Maillard reaction and lactose crystallization during milk' s processing and storage. Their interaction mechanism is not clear. In this paper, research progress on the chemical changes and their impact factors, determination methods and the inter- action are reviewed, research direction of chemical reactions in milk powder storage are prospected. This research will provide the theory in further study of the quality and safety control of milk powder.%我国乳制品安全日益受到大众的关注,其中乳粉是焦点之一。目前乳粉贮藏加工中引起质量劣变的因素主要为三类化学反应——脂质氧化,美拉德反应和乳糖结晶,它们之间存在相互作用,但机理尚未明确。文中针对乳粉贮藏加工中的重要化学变化和它们的影响因素、测定方法和相互作用的研究进展进行了综述,并对乳粉贮藏中化学反应的研究方向提出了展望,为进一步从机理上研究乳粉劣变并确保乳粉质量安全提供依据。

  6. Patterns of milk macronutrients and bioactive molecules across lactation in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) and a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Michael L; Schulkin, Jay; Drought, Heather; Milligan, Lauren A; Murtough, Katie L; Bernstein, Robin M

    2017-03-01

    In addition to nutrients, milk contains signaling molecules that influence offspring development. Human milk is similar in nutrient composition to that of apes, but appears to differ in other aspects such as immune function. We examine the longitudinal patterns across lactation of macronutrients, the metabolic hormone adiponectin, the growth factors epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2), and two receptors for these growth factors (EGF-R and TGF-β2-RIII) in milk samples collected between days 175 and 313 postpartum from a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and between days 3 and 1,276 from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and compare the results with human data from the literature. Milk macronutrients and hormones were measured using standard nutritional assays and commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits. Ape milk fat content was lower than human milk values, but protein and sugar were similar. Concentrations of all bioactive molecules were consistently detectable except for TGF-β2 in orangutan milk. Concentrations of adiponectin, EGF, and TGF-β2 in both ape milks were lower than found in human breast milk. Concentrations declined with infant age in orangutan milk; in gorilla milk concentrations were high in the first months, and then declined to stable levels until 2-3 years after birth when they increased. However, when expressed on a per energy basis milk constituent values did not differ with age for orangutan and the variation was reduced at all ages in gorilla. In orangutan milk, the ratio of EGF-R to EGF was constant, with EGF-R at 7.7% of EGF; in gorilla milk the EGF-R concentration was 4.4 ± 0.2% of the EGF concentration through 3 years and then increased. These data indicate that potent signaling molecules such as EGF and adiponectin are present in ape milk at physiological concentrations. However, human breast milk on average contains higher concentrations.

  7. [Milk fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M

    1989-05-01

    Infectious complications following delivery were, in the past, attributed to "milk fever": these were milk congestion, milk deposits, rancid milk, etc., that were held responsible. The milk was reabsorbed into the blood of the patient and settled in the peritoneum ("milk peritonitis"), in the broad ligaments (pelvic abscess), in the thighs (phlebitis) and also in the breasts (breast abscess). This belief, originated by Aristotle, was accepted by excellent authors like Andre Levret (1703-1780), one of the most famous French obstetricians and Nicolas Puzos, at the same time. More recently, authors alluded to it and blamed "milk fever" for being at the origin of dramatic pictures which they described in their novels, like Victor Hugo and Guy de Maupassant, for instance.

  8. Several factors increased job dissatisfaction among medical doctors in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastaman Basuki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Beberapa faktor stresor kerja dapat meningkatkkan ketidakpusasan kerja. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasi beberapa faktor dominan terkait dengan ketidakpusasan kerja.Metode: Studi potong lintgang dengan sampling purposif yang dilakukan pada bulan April-Juli 2011. Subyek terdiri dari mahasiswa pascasarjana dan dosen Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia. Regresi linier digunakan untuk menganalisis data. Hasil: Peserta terdiri dari 306 subyek, berusia 23-47 tahun, mayoritas perempuan (61,4%, menikah, dan tidak pernah mengikuti pelatihan manajemen stres. Sedangkan pekerjaan saat ini/sebelumnya adalah dalam pelayanan kesehatan, atau pejabat pemerintah. Tingkat ketidakpuasan kerja berkaitan dengan tujuh faktor: yang tertinggi ialah kurangnya dukungan dari atasan, dan yang terendah ialah melakukan layanan di luar jam kerja. Satu poin kurang dukungan atasan akan meningkatkan ketidakpuasan kerja sebesar 1,26 [koefisien regresi (β = 1,26, P = 0,000; satu poin untuk menyediakan layanan di luar jam kerja akan meningkatkan 0,61 poin ketidakpuasan kerja (β= 0,6, P = 0,001. Kesimpulan: Kurangnya dukungan atasan dan interaksi dengan rekan kerja, peran organisasi ambiguitas, prosedur birokrasi, memberikan pelayanan di luar jam kerja, dan umpan balik yang tidak memadai dari pasien akan meningkatkan ketidakpuasan kerja. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:11-6Kata kunci:ketidakpuasan kerja, stresor kerja, dokterAbstractBackground:Several factors of work stressors may increase a person’s job dissatisfaction level. This study aimed to identify several dominant factors related to job dissatisfaction among medical doctors. Methods: A cross-sectional study with purposive sampling was conducted in April-July 2011. Subjects consisted of postgraduate students and faculty members of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia. Linear regression was used to analyze the data. Results: The participants consisted of 306 subjects, aged

  9. Exercise increases serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cuevas-Ramos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 increases glucose uptake. It is unknown if FGF21 serum levels are affected by exercise. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a comparative longitudinal study. Anthropometric and biochemical evaluation were carried out before and after a bout of exercise and repeated after two weeks of daily supervised exercise. The study sample was composed of 60 sedentary young healthy women. The mean age was 24±3.7 years old, and the mean BMI was 21.4±7.0 kg/m². The anthropometric characteristics did not change after two weeks of exercise. FGF21 levels significantly increased after two weeks of exercise (276.8 ng/l (142.8-568.6 vs. (460.8 (298.2-742.1, p<0.0001. The delta (final-basal log of serum FGF21, adjusted for BMI, showed a significant positive correlation with basal glucose (r = 0.23, p = 0.04, mean maximal heart rate (MHR (r = 0.54, p<0.0001, mean METs (r = 0.40, p = 0.002, delta plasma epinephrine (r = 0.53, p<0.0001 and delta plasma FFAs (r = 0.35, p = 0.006. A stepwise linear regression model showed that glucose, MHR, METs, FFAs, and epinephrine, were factors independently associated with the increment in FGF21 after the exercise program (F = 4.32; r² = 0.64, p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Serum FGF21 levels significantly increased after two weeks of physical activity. This increment correlated positively with clinical parameters related to the adrenergic and lipolytic response to exercise. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01512368.

  10. Dietary linseed oil with or without malate increases conjugated linoleic acid and oleic acid in milk fat and and gene expression in mammary gland and milk somatic cells of lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Z; Choi, S H; Yan, C G; Shin, J S; Smith, S B

    2016-08-01

    Supplementary dietary plant oils have the potential to alter milk fatty acid composition in ruminants as a result of changes in the amount and kind of fatty acid precursors. We hypothesized that linseed oil in combination with malate (a key propionate precursor in the rumen) would increase ∆9 unsaturated fatty acids and specific gene expression in somatic cells and mammary glands of lactating goats. Twelve lactating goats were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Treatments included the basal diet (CON), the CON plus 4% linseed oil (LO), and the CON plus 4% linseed oil and 2% -malate (LOM). Relative to CON, the LO and LOM supplements increased the daily intake of palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1-9), linoleic (18:2-6), α-linolenic (18:3-3), and γ-linolenic acids (18:2-6); α-linolenic acid intake was increased over 9-fold, from 6.77 to over 51 g/d ( oils on gene expression in goat mammary tissue.

  11. Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Barbara Meyers

    2009-07-01

    The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

  12. The influence of some non-genetic factors on the production and quality of East Friesian sheep milk in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Antunac

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the herd (A and B, stage of lactation (0-60th day; 61st-150th day and 151st - drying off and number of lactation (I., II. III. IV. and other on daily milk yield, physicalchemical properties and the hygienic quality of East Friesian sheep milk. The study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 years on a 100 sheep sample. The milk samples were taken during morning and evening milking after weaning, every 30 days during lactation. The physical-chemical properties and the hygienic quality of milk were determined by reference and standard methods. The collected data were statistically analysed by the PROC ANOVA, SAS programme. The East Friesian sheep in the lactation of 217 days, produced in average 1040 mL milk/day. A significant effect (P < 0,001 of the herd was determined on the daily milk yield, dry matter non fat, freezing point, protein content (P < 0,01 and pH value (P < 0,01. The stage of lactation had a significant effect (P < 0,001 on all analyzed parameters except on somatic cell count. The highest content of fat (6.53 %, proteins (5.44 %, dry matter (17.45 % and dry matter non fat (10.98 % were determined at the end of lactation, while the content of lactose (4.61 % was the lowest. Significant coefficient of correlations (P<0,05 were also determined between daily milk yield and: the content of dry matter (-0,46, milk fat (-0,51, proteins (-0,39, lactose (0,51, dry matter non fat (-0,28, pH value (0,14. From the results, it can be concluded that the herd, stage and number of lactation have significant influence on the most analyzed parameters.

  13. Inhibition of natriuretic factors increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Anees Ahmad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2009-08-01

    Renal dopamine and nitric oxide contribute to natriuresis during high-salt intake which maintains sodium and blood pressure homeostasis. We wanted to determine whether concurrent inhibition of these natriuretic factors increases blood pressure during high-sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: 1) vehicle (V)-tap water, 2) NaCl-1% NaCl drinking water, 3) 30 mM l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an oxidant, 4) BSO plus NaCl, and 5) BSO plus NaCl with 1 mM tempol (antioxidant). Compared with V, NaCl intake for 10 days doubled sodium intake and increased urinary dopamine level but reduced urinary nitric oxide content. NaCl intake also reduced basal renal proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity with no effect on blood pressure. However, NaCl intake in BSO-treated rats failed to reduce basal Na-K-ATPase activity despite higher urinary dopamine levels. Also, dopamine failed to inhibit proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity and these rats exhibited reduced urinary nitric oxide levels and high blood pressure. Tempol supplementation in NaCl plus BSO-treated rats reduced blood pressure. BSO treatment alone did not affect the urinary nitric oxide and dopamine levels or blood pressure. However, dopamine failed to inhibit proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity in BSO-treated rats. BSO treatment also increased basal protein kinase C activity, D1 receptor serine phosphorylation, and oxidative markers like malondialdehyde and 8-isoprostane. We suggest that NaCl-mediated reduction in nitric oxide does not increase blood pressure due to activation of D1 receptor signaling. Conversely, oxidative stress-provoked inhibition of D1 receptor signaling fails to elevate blood pressure due to presence of normal nitric oxide. However, simultaneously decreasing nitric oxide levels with NaCl and inhibiting D1 receptor signaling with BSO elevated blood pressure.

  14. Discrepancies in Evaluating Farm Management Routines as Risk Factors of Raw Milk and Udder Hygiene in Selected Dairy Farms of Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi MOHEBBI-FANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The management practices relevant to bulk tank milk quality were studied in 29 dairy farms of Fars Province, Iran. Farm management practices were obtained by completion of a questionnaire and direct observation. Bulk milk was evaluated by performing standard plate count (SPC, preliminary incubation count (PIC, laboratory pasteurization count (LPC, coliform count (CC, somatic cell count (SCC and detection of the contagious mastitis agents. The farms were divided into low and high SPC groups (below and above 100,000 CFU/mL based on Iranian standards. Comparisons of the laboratory results between groups were done using two independent samples t-test. The relationships between the laboratory results were studied by Pearson’s correlation coefficients, all after logarithmic transformation. Associations of managerial risk factors (obtained by the questionnaire and one time of observation with laboratory results were investigated using two independent samples t-test. P-values 0.05. Strong correlations were detected between SPC and PIC, SPC and CC, and PIC and CC, but many of the well explained risk factors of undesired milk quality lacked any relation with high bacterial counts of raw milk. This could be due to the small number of the studied farms, almost similar faults in the farms, wrong answers of the employees to the questions and modification of the milking practices in the presence of an inspector. Infections with Staphylococcus aureus and Mycoplasma bovis could be potential problems in the studied farms, contributing to the elevation of SCC and/or SPC levels. Veterinary interventions could not be based on the questionnaire results. Direct and frequent observations of farm routines could be recommended.

  15. Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia--an evaluation of parameters on incidence risk, diagnosis, risk factors and biological effects as input for a decision support system for disease control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, H; Østergaard, S; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2001-01-01

    of risk factors is outlined. The clinical symptoms of milk fever are highly specific and the disease level may thus be determined from recording of treatments. Diagnosis of subclinical hypocalcaemia needs to include laboratory examinations or it may be determined by multiplying the incidence of milk fever...... strategy. Several studies have been carried out revealing an incidence of milk fever most often in the level of 5-10%. Few studies indicate that the incidence of subclinical hypocalcaemia is several times higher than milk fever. The diagnosis based on clinical or laboratory methods or based on presence...... concerning incidence, diagnosis, risk factors and effects seems sufficient for a systematic inclusion in a decision support system. A model on milk fever should take into consideration the variation in biological data and individual herd characteristics. The inclusion of subclinical hypocalcaemia would...

  16. Intestinal blood loss as an aggravating factor of iron deficiency in infants aged 9 to 12 months fed whole cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sandra Maria Rodrigues; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2008-02-01

    To verify the occurrence of occult intestinal blood loss and iron deficiency in infants aged 9 to 12 months. A consecutive sample of 98 infants of the Pediatric Public Health Primary Care Unit in the town of Arapongas, Parana State, Brazil was involved in this cross-sectional study. Dietary history, hemoglobin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and an occult fecal blood loss investigation, by the immune chromatographic method specific for human hemoglobin were performed. Presence of occult intestinal blood occurred in 8/23 of the breast-fed (plus complementary feed) infants and in 30/64 of the infants who were fed with cow's milk (plus complementary feed) (P=0.449). The comparison of body iron indicators in accordance to positive or negative occult fecal blood, did not show any significant difference in the 23 breast-fed infants. Serum ferritin (median=4.2 ng/mL) was significantly lower (P=0.004) in infants who received whole cow's milk and had positive occult fecal blood, than in those infants who received whole cow's milk but were without occult fecal blood (median=12.1 ng/mL). In breast-fed infants with negative occult fecal blood, iron deficiency severity is not greater than in those with positive results. In infants fed whole cow's milk, occult fecal blood loss is an aggravating factor of iron deficiency.

  17. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Chagunda, G G

    2011-01-01

    Holsteins, Red Danes, and Jerseys in parities 1, 2, and 3. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model, with cow-lactation as a random effect and assuming heterogeneous residual variance over the lactation. Cow-lactation variance was fitted using linear spline functions with 5 knot-points. Residual...... variance was generally greatest in early lactation and declined thereafter. Accordingly, animal-related variance tended to increase with progression of lactation. Milking frequency (the reverse of milking interval) was found to be moderately repeatable throughout lactation. Daily milk yield expressed per...

  18. Feeding strategies to design the fatty acid profile of sheep milk and cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Nudda; Gianni Battacone; Oscar Boaventura Neto; Antonello Cannas; Ana Helena Dias Francesconi; Alberto Stanislao Atzori; Giuseppe Pulina

    2014-01-01

    The majority of sheep milk produced in the world is transformed into cheese. Feeding is a major factor affecting the quality of sheep milk and, therefore, of sheep cheese. Because fat is the main compound of cheese, this review gives an update on the effects of feeding and nutrition on milk fat content and deeply discusses feeding strategies aimed at increasing the levels of healthy fatty acids (FA), such as conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 FA, in milk and cheese in the human diet. In add...

  19. Taste of milk from inflamed breasts of breastfeeding mothers with mastitis evaluated using a taste sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Michiko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Kumagai, Masanori; Muto, Hajime; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-03-01

    The refusal of infants to suckle from a breast that is inflamed with mastitis suggests that the taste of the milk has changed. However, the taste of milk from a breast with mastitis has never been empirically determined. The present study compares the taste of milk from breastfeeding mothers with or without mastitis and identifies specific changes in the taste of milk from mothers with mastitis. The intensity of four basic tastes (sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and umami) of breastmilk from 24 healthy mothers at 3-5 days and at 2-3, 4-5, and 8-10 weeks postpartum and from 14 mothers with mastitis was determined objectively using a taste sensor. The intensity of each basic taste and the concentrations of main taste substances in milk were compared between the inflamed breasts and the normal breasts of control mothers or the contralateral asymptomatic breast of mothers with unilateral mastitis. The transition from colostrum to mature milk was accompanied by changes in the taste of the milk, such as decreased saltiness and umami and increased bitterness and sourness. Umami and saltiness increased in milk from inflamed breasts. Contents of sodium, glutamate, and guanosine monophosphate increased in milk from inflamed breasts. Tastes that were specifically associated with inflamed breasts appeared to include an increase in umami and saltiness, which might have resulted from an increased content in factors associated with umami and sodium.

  20. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Bovine Mastitic Milk: Serogroups, Virulence Factors, and Antibiotic Resistance Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Hassan; Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad; Taktaz, Taghi; Rezvani, Amir; Yarali, Sajad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the virulence factors, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, by using 268 bovine mastitic milk samples which were diagnosed using California Mastitis Test. After E. coli identification, PCR assays were developed for detection of different virulence genes, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance genes of Escherichia coli. The antibiotic resistance pattern was studied using disk diffusion method. Out of 268 samples, 73 (27.23%) were positive for Escherichia coli, and, out of 73 positive samples, 15 (20.54%) were O26 and 11 (15.06%) were O157 so they were the highest while O111 was not detected in any sample so it was the lowest serogroup. Out of 73 STEC strains, 11 (15.06%) and 36 (49.31%) were EHEC and AEEC, respectively. All of the EHEC strains had stx1, eaeA, and ehly, virulence genes, while in AEEC strains stx1 had the highest prevalence (77.77%), followed by eaeA (55.55%). Totally, aadA1 (65.95%) had the highest while blaSHV (6.38%) had the lowest prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes. The disk diffusion method showed that the STEC strains had the highest resistance to penicillin (100%), followed by tetracycline (57.44%), while resistance to cephalothin (6.38%) was the lowest. PMID:23213293

  1. Serum milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 elevation may subdivide systemic lupus erythematosus into two pathophysiologically distinct subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Yamaguchi, H; Ohmura, K; Yokoyama, T; Yoshifuji, H; Yukawa, N; Kawabata, D; Fujii, T; Morita, S; Nagata, S; Mimori, T

    2014-04-01

    Impaired clearance of apoptotic cells is a potential trigger of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) plays an important role in the clearance of dying cells. Previously, we reported serum MFG-E8 was elevated in some SLE patients. Here we further investigated the prevalence of MFG-E8 in active SLE and other autoimmune diseases and also tried to clarify the characteristics of MFG-E8-positive and -negative SLE. Serum MFG-E8 was measured in 40 active non-treated SLE patients, 104 disease controls and 104 healthy controls by ELISA. Clinical characteristics and serum cytokine profiles were compared between MFG-E8-positive and MFG-E8-negative SLE patients. Prevalence of MFG-E8 was significantly higher in SLE patients (40%) than in various controls (p clinical features, the one with stronger immunological response and the other with stronger inflammatory response, and those two groups may be two distinct subtypes of SLE driven by different mechanisms. Further, MFG-E8 could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity in certain SLE patients.

  2. Analysis of the N-glycans of recombinant human Factor IX purified from transgenic pig milk

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Geun-Cheol; Velander, William H.; Van Cott, Kevin E

    2008-01-01

    Glycosylation of recombinant proteins is of particular importance because it can play significant roles in the clinical properties of the glycoprotein. In this work, the N-glycan structures of recombinant human Factor IX (tg-FIX) produced in the transgenic pig mammary gland were determined. The majority of the N-glycans of transgenic pig-derived Factor IX (tg-FIX) are complex, bi-antennary with one or two terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) moieties. We also found that the N-glycan stru...

  3. Ethical Factors of Social Capital Increasing in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors’ definition of social capital as an institutional and ethical category, determined by the structure of moral and ethical features of economic agents is considered. It is shown that the level of social capital directly depends on the prevalence of such features of economic agents as honesty, fairness, responsibility, humanity, patriotism. Despite the fact that the level of social capital is currently evaluated through qualitative (personal, expert methods, it is possible to identify its impact on specific economic indicators. For the analysis based on the elements of social capital and other indicators of socio-economic development the authors used Russian official statistics, international organizations data and sociological surveys results. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of correlation and regression analysis and mathematical methods in Economics in general, the authors set the task not to construct a multifactor model of economic and non-economic indicators interrelation, but to confirm their close ties according to the purpose to substantiate the necessity of the government social and economic policy improvement by taking into account the influence of institutional and ethical factors that have long been investigated outside the pure economic science. Key factors of social capital increasing include honesty, trust, fairness, but their level in Russia remains extremely low due to cultural and historical peculiarities of national development, that can be proven by economic crimes and the shadow economy statistics. Great attention is also paid to social responsibility and patriotism, which are of particular importance in the current geopolitical environment and can be combined in the sense of national economic responsibility.

  4. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield.

  5. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Su Yi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the mil...

  6. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  7. Automatic milking and milk quality: effects of system and teat cleaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaghuis, B.A.; Verstappen-Boerekamp, J.A.M.; Ferwerda, R.T.; Bos, C.H.; Schuiling, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    With the introduction of automatic milking (AM) systems, some increases in total bacterial count (TBC) and of free fatty acids (FFA) in milk were observed. Contamination of milk, resulting in elevated TBC, originates from four main sources: inside of the udder, outside of the udder, the milking

  8. Risk Factors Associated with Increased Morbidity in Living Liver Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido, Helry L.; da Fonseca, Eduardo A.; Feier, Flávia H.; Pugliese, Renata; Benavides, Marcel A.; Silva, Enis D.; Gordon, Karina; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Canet, Jaume; Chapchap, Paulo; Neto, Joao Seda

    2015-01-01

    Living donor liver donation (LDLD) is an alternative to cadaveric liver donation. We aimed at identifying risk factors and developing a score for prediction of postoperative complications (POCs) after LDLD in donors. This is a retrospective cohort study in 688 donors between June 1995 and February 2014 at Hospital Sírio-Libanês and A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, in São Paulo, Brazil. Primary outcome was POC graded ≥III according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Left lateral segment (LLS), left lobe (LL), and right lobe resections (RL) were conducted in 492 (71.4%), 109 (15.8%), and 87 (12.6%) donors, respectively. In total, 43 (6.2%) developed POCs, which were more common after RL than LLS and LL (14/87 (16.1%) versus 23/492 (4.5%) and 6/109 (5.5%), resp., p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that RL resection (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.01; p = 0.008), smoking status (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.35 to 7.56; p = 0.012), and blood transfusion (OR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.45 to 6.84; p = 0.004) were independently associated with POCs. RL resection, intraoperative blood transfusion, and smoking were associated with increased risk for POCs in donors. PMID:26788361

  9. Innovation Factor in Increase of Competitiveness of the Ukrainian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papp Vasiliy V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article establishes that competitiveness is a synthesis of a number of economic categories. It applies a general approach to the study of competitiveness of various objects from common system and methodical positions and notions of its essence. It lists main factors that influence the level of competitiveness. It considers theoretical and practical issues of formation of conditions of stable competitiveness of the national economy. It identifies main obstacles of formation of competitiveness of the Ukrainian economy. It considers the barest necessity of formation of the rating of Global Competitiveness. It outlines the most important criteria of expediency of entering the market, identifies conditions of achievement of a higher level of competitiveness by countries. It focuses on the conduct of a more active state innovation policy in achievement and holding strong market positions of the domestic economy and offers possible strategic landmarks of the further state economic policy of Ukraine on increase of the level of competitiveness for the nearest future.

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Increased Morbidity in Living Liver Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helry L. Candido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Living donor liver donation (LDLD is an alternative to cadaveric liver donation. We aimed at identifying risk factors and developing a score for prediction of postoperative complications (POCs after LDLD in donors. This is a retrospective cohort study in 688 donors between June 1995 and February 2014 at Hospital Sírio-Libanês and A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, in São Paulo, Brazil. Primary outcome was POC graded ≥III according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Left lateral segment (LLS, left lobe (LL, and right lobe resections (RL were conducted in 492 (71.4%, 109 (15.8%, and 87 (12.6% donors, respectively. In total, 43 (6.2% developed POCs, which were more common after RL than LLS and LL (14/87 (16.1% versus 23/492 (4.5% and 6/109 (5.5%, resp., p<0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that RL resection (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.01; p=0.008, smoking status (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.35 to 7.56; p=0.012, and blood transfusion (OR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.45 to 6.84; p=0.004 were independently associated with POCs. RL resection, intraoperative blood transfusion, and smoking were associated with increased risk for POCs in donors.

  11. Effect of milking interval on alveolar versus cisternal milk accumulation and milk production and composition in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKusick, B C; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M; Marnet, P G

    2002-09-01

    Cisternal and alveolar milk fractions were measured in East Friesian crossbred dairy ewes (n = 32) after 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, or 24 h of milk accumulation in a 6 x 6 Latin square design by administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist for recuperation of cisternal milk followed by injection of oxytocin to remove the alveolar fraction. Less than half (38 to 47%) of the total milk yield was stored within the cistern for the first 12 h of udder filling compared with up to 57% after 24 h of udder filling. Subsequent milk yield was significantly reduced following the 16-, 20-, and 24-h treatments. Cisternal milk fat percentage, but not milk protein percentage, was lower than in alveolar milk (4.49 vs. 7.92% milk fat, respectively), indicating that casein micelles pass more freely from the alveoli to the cistern between milkings compared with fat globules. Alveolar compared to cisternal somatic cell count was higher for the 16-, 20-, and 24-h treatments. Significant increases in cisternal milk yield and milk composition observed for the 24-h compared with the 20-h treatment demonstrated the importance of the cistern as a storage space when the alveoli and small intramammary ducts became full. The main difference between cisternal and alveolar milk fractions is the poor fat content of cisternal milk, which is an important reason for the milk ejection reflex to be present during machine milking of dairy ewes. In a second experiment, milking every 16 h compared with every 12 h during mid- to late-lactation did not effect milk yield, milk composition, and quality, or lactation length; however, a 25% savings in labor was achieved with the longer milking interval.

  12. Guidelines for establishing a donor human milk depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Sheela R; List, Betsy A; Morrow, Georgia B

    2010-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred choice for infant feeding. When a sick or premature infant's own mother's milk is unavailable, donor human milk is becoming more widely used. Many potential milk donors do not live within close proximity to the 10 North American not-for-profit milk banks. Transporting milk via commercial carriers can be inconvenient and costly for recipient banks. A network of donor human milk depots is one practical way to increase the quantity of available donor human milk. This article provides guidelines and practical suggestions for establishing a donor human milk depot.

  13. Prepubertal exposure to cow's milk reduces susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Khan, Galam; Davis, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk contains high levels of estrogens, progesterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), all of which are associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether prepubertal milk exposure affects mammary gland development and carcinogenesis in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were given either...... whole milk or tap water to drink from postnatal day (PND) 14 to PND 35, and thereafter normal tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administering 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on PND 50. Milk exposure increased circulating E2 levels on PND 25 by 10-fold (p vaginal...... or apoptosis were seen. IGF-1 mRNA levels were reduced on PND 50 in the mammary glands of rats exposed to milk at puberty. Our results suggest that drinking milk before puberty reduces later risk of developing mammary cancer in rats. This might be mediated by a reduction in the number of TEBs and lower...

  14. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  15. The role of fermented milk in complementary feeding of young children: lessons from transition countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, F; Rossi, L

    2002-12-01

    Probiotic bacteria are used for production of fermented dairy products. The use of probiotic bacteria has the potential to replenish the natural intestinal flora of the body. These bacteria competitively inhibit the growth and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Breastmilk is the best food for babies, also from a probiotic point of view. Human milk, in fact, contains many substances that stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in vitro and in the small intestine of infants. Improvement of lactose digestion and avoidance of symptoms of intolerance in lactose malabsorbers are the most profoundly studied health-relevant effects of fermented milk. In fact fermented milks are nutritionally similar to unfermented milk, except that some of lactose is broken down to glucose and galactose. The role of fermented milk in complementary feeding and in particular for the prevention of anaemia is an innovative theme, recently focused. Iron deficiency in infants and young children is widespread and has serious consequences for child health. Prevention of iron deficiency should therefore be given high priority. The too-early introduction of unmodified cow's milk and milk products is an important nutritional risk factors for the development of iron-deficiency anaemia. Fermented milks represent an excellent source of nutrients such as calcium, protein, phosphorus and riboflavin. During the fermentation of milk, lactic acid and other organic acids are produced and these increase the absorption of iron. If fermented milk is consumed at mealtimes, these acids are likely to have a positive effect on the absorption of iron from other foods.

  16. Analysis of the N-glycans of recombinant human Factor IX purified from transgenic pig milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Geun-Cheol; Velander, William H; Van Cott, Kevin E

    2008-07-01

    Glycosylation of recombinant proteins is of particular importance because it can play significant roles in the clinical properties of the glycoprotein. In this work, the N-glycan structures of recombinant human Factor IX (tg-FIX) produced in the transgenic pig mammary gland were determined. The majority of the N-glycans of transgenic pig-derived Factor IX (tg-FIX) are complex, bi-antennary with one or two terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) moieties. We also found that the N-glycan structures of tg-FIX produced in the porcine mammary epithelial cells differed with respect to N-glycans from glycoproteins produced in other porcine tissues. tg-FIX contains no detectable Neu5Gc, the sialic acid commonly found in porcine glycoproteins produced in other tissues. Additionally, we were unable to detect glycans in tg-FIX that have a terminal Galalpha(1,3)Gal disaccharide sequence, which is strongly antigenic in humans. The N-glycan structures of tg-FIX are also compared to the published N-glycan structures of recombinant human glycoproteins produced in other transgenic animal species. While tg-FIX contains only complex structures, antithrombin III (goat), C1 inhibitor (rabbit), and lactoferrin (cow) have both high mannose and complex structures. Collectively, these data represent a beginning point for the future investigation of species-specific and tissue/cell-specific differences in N-glycan structures among animals used for transgenic animal bioreactors.

  17. Increasing awareness among fluid milk processors of the economic feasibility of energy efficiency projects, and encouraging their adoption through access to benchmarking and other decision-support tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study done by Thoma et al. (2010) the energy used in fluid milk processing in the United States of America is responsible for approximately 2 million metric tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the total life cycle of milk. These emissions come from electricity use (about 75 perc...

  18. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  19. Stability in Organic Milk Farm Prices: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Ye; Brown, Scott; Cook, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The organic milk pay price is more stable year round and increases every year. However, the conventional milk price varies within the year and from year to year. As an emerging segment of the milk industry, consumer demand for organic milk is increasing rapidly. The growth in demand relative to supply provides organic milk producers and processors large premiums over the conventional milk price. Many conventional dairy farms have converted to organic operations for the more stable price. The ...

  20. Midlife Cardiovascular Risk Factors May Increase Chances of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This study supports the importance of controlling vascular risk factors like high blood pressure early in life in an effort to prevent ... agreement with previous studies, an analysis of vascular risk factors showed ... or high blood pressure, also called hypertension, had a higher chance of ...

  1. Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhone, Tryness A; Matope, Gift; Saidi, Petronella T

    2011-12-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log₁₀ TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (Pcounts amongst the schemes could be attributed to differences in milking hygiene where farms with more access to training and monitoring of microbiological quality of milk had lower counts. Linear regression analysis revealed dairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities on-farm will improve the microbiological quality and safety of milk.

  2. 奶牛乳腺中乳成分前体物对乳成分合成影响的研究进展%Effects of Milk Component Precursors on Milk Composition Synthesis in the Mammary Gland of Dairy Cows: a Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐利枝; 闫素梅; 生冉; 敖长金

    2011-01-01

    Concentration and composition of milk directly affect milk quality. In order to provide a reference for the increasing of milk fat and protein yield and the improvement of milk quality, this paper primarily reviews effects of milk component precursors on milk lactose, milk fat and milk protein synthesis in the mammary gland of dairy cows and their influential factors.%乳成分的含量及组成直接影响牛乳的品质.本文主要综述了乳腺中乳成分前体物对乳糖、乳蛋白质和乳脂等合成的影响,为进一步提高乳脂和乳蛋白质产量,改善牛乳品质提供参考.

  3. Modulation of fibroblast growth factor 19 expression by bile acids, meal replacement and energy drinks, milk, and coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Styer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The enterohepatic pathway involving the fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19 and bile acids (BA has been linked with the etiology and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery. Specifically, diabetic patients had lower FGF19 circulating levels but postoperative FGF19 and BA levels were higher in diabetic patients that experience remission of T2D, as compared to non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients that do not experience remission. It has been proposed that this may be due to the direct flow of digestate-free bile acids into the ileum benefiting mostly T2D patients without severe diabetes. METHODS/RESULTS: We used a human colorectal cell line (LS174T that endogenously expresses FGF19, real time PCR, and Elisas for precise quantitation of FGF19 mRNA and secreted protein levels. We report here that BA and fractions of BA stimulated FGF19 in vitro but this effect was partially blocked when BA were pre-incubated with a lipoprotein mix which emulates digested food. In addition, we show that FGF19 mRNA was stimulated by meal replacement drinks (Ensure, Glucerna, SlimFast, non-fat milk, and coffee which has been linked with reduced risk for developing diabetes. Pure caffeine and the 5-hour Energy drink, on the other hand, decreased FGF19 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, FGF19 expression in vitro is modifiable by popular drinks suggesting that such approaches could potentially be used for modulating FGF19 expression in humans.

  4. Restoration of Circulating MFGE8 (Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor 8) Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Through Inhibition of Akt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ke-Qiong; Li, Jing; She, Zhi-Gang; Gong, Jun; Cheng, Wen-Lin; Gong, Fu-Han; Zhu, Xue-Yong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhihua; Li, Hongliang

    2017-10-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to numerous stimuli like neurohumoral stress, pressure overload, infection, and injury, and leads to heart failure. Mfge8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8) is a secreted protein involved in various human diseases, but its regulation and function during cardiac hypertrophy remain unexplored. Here, we found that circulating MFGE8 levels declined significantly in failing hearts from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Correlation analyses revealed that circulating MFGE8 levels were negatively correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in affected patients. Deleting Mfge8 in mice maintained normal heart function at basal level but substantially exacerbated the hypertrophic enlargement of cardiomyocytes, reprogramming of pathological genes, contractile dysfunction, and myocardial fibrosis after aortic banding surgery. In contrast, cardiac-specific Mfge8 overexpression in transgenic mice significantly blunted aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Whereas MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways were unaffected in either Mfge8-knockout or Mfge8-overexpressing mice, the activated Akt/PKB (protein kinase B)-Gsk-3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway after aortic banding was significantly potentiated by Mfge8 deficiency but suppressed by Mfge8 overexpression. Inhibition of Akt with MK-2206 blocked the prohypertrophic effects of Mfge8 deficiency in angiotensin II-treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Finally, administering a recombinant human MFGE8 in mice in vivo alleviated cardiac hypertrophy induced by aortic banding. Our findings indicate that Mfge8 is an endogenous negative regulator of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and may, thus, have potential both as a novel biomarker and as a therapeutic target for treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The milk of human kindness: the story of the Mothers Milk Bank at Austin

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson-Clay Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Increased scientific study of human milk and awareness of the special nutritional needs of the premature infant have stimulated interest in human donor milk banking. Yet only three donor human milk banks existed in the United States in 1998. Having observed better outcomes in human milk-fed neonatal intensive care patients, two neonatologists in Austin, Texas, founded The Mothers Milk Bank at Austin (MMBA). Since opening in 1999, the MMBA has expanded rapidly as the result of careful...

  6. Factor V Leiden is associated with increased sperm count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mens, T E; Joensen, U N; Bochdanovits, Z; Takizawa, A; Peter, J; Jørgensen, N; Szecsi, P B; Meijers, J C M; Weiler, H; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Repping, S; Middeldorp, S

    2017-09-12

    Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. FVL has a high prevalence in Caucasians despite detrimental health effects. Carriers have been shown to have higher fecundity, which might partly explain this evolutionary paradox. We determined FVL status in two cohorts (Dutch, n = 627; Danish, n = 854) of consecutively included men without known causes for spermatogenic failure, and performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of these two cohorts together with one previously published (Dutch, n = 908) cohort. We explored possible biological underpinnings for the relation between sperm count and FVL, by use of a FVL-mouse model and investigations of genetic linkage. Participants were male partners of subfertile couples (two Dutch cohorts) and young men from the general population (Danish cohort): FVL carrier rate was 4.0%, 4.6% and 7.3%, respectively. There were differences in smoking, abstinence time and age between the cohorts. We corrected for these in the primary analysis, which consisted of a mixed linear effects model, also incorporating unobjectified population differences. In public haplotype data from subjects of European descent, we explored linkage disequilibrium of FVL with all known single nucleotide polymorphisms in a 1.5 MB region around the F5 gene with an R2 cutoff of 0.8. We sequenced exons of four candidate genes hypothesized to be linked to FVL in a subgroup of FVL carriers with extreme sperm count values. The animal studies consisted of never mated 15-18-week-old C57BL/J6 mice heterozygous and homozygous for FVL and wild-type mice. We compared spermatogenesis parameters (normalized internal genitalia weights, epididymis sperm content and sperm motility) between FVL and wild-type mice. Human FVL carriers have a higher total sperm

  7. Structured products are milk with vegetable fillings

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Golubeva; O. I. Dolmatova; E. I. Bocharova; G. S. Dolmatova

    2012-01-01

    Organized work on creation of new technology outline keeping of milk product, containing milk dried fat-free, substitute dried cream, water drinking, stabilizer, BAD “Shlemnik’s extract", sugar or sugar replacer. Got outline keeping of milk products differ the good organileptic factors, are characterized by high food value and original composition of the fillers.

  8. Structured products are milk with vegetable fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organized work on creation of new technology outline keeping of milk product, containing milk dried fat-free, substitute dried cream, water drinking, stabilizer, BAD “Shlemnik’s extract", sugar or sugar replacer. Got outline keeping of milk products differ the good organileptic factors, are characterized by high food value and original composition of the fillers.

  9. Milk flow traits of buffalo cows in intensive farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zucali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The particular morphology of buffalo udder is associated to milking difficulties. To better understandthe characteristics of milk ejection in buffaloes, a study was conducted in an intensive farm in Lombardy, Italy. Atotal of 184 milk flow profiles were measured with an electronic flow meter. The results showed that during the first3 minutes of milking 73% of total milk yield was milked; lag time of milk ejection (1.94 min ± 1.57 was very longand increased significantly with the increasing of lactation stage. The overmilking phase has also a long duration(33% of total milking time, on average. Administration of oxytocin before milking did not significantly affect milkflow parameters and machine on-time. The results suggested that proper pre-milking stimulation and prompt clustertakeoff could improve milking efficiency, ensuring good milk letdown and protecting teat conditions.

  10. Chromatography methods and chemometrics for determination of milk fat adulterants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbović, D.; Petronijević, R.; Đorđević, V.

    2017-09-01

    Milk and milk-based products are among the leading food categories according to reported cases of food adulteration. Although many authentication problems exist in all areas of the food industry, adequate control methods are required to evaluate the authenticity of milk and milk products in the dairy industry. Moreover, gas chromatography (GC) analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) or fatty acid (FA) profiles of milk fat (MF) in combination with multivariate statistical data processing have been used to detect adulterations of milk and dairy products with foreign fats. The adulteration of milk and butter is a major issue for the dairy industry. The major adulterants of MF are vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, groundnut, coconut, palm and peanut oil) and animal fat (cow tallow and pork lard). Multivariate analysis enables adulterated MF to be distinguished from authentic MF, while taking into account many analytical factors. Various multivariate analysis methods have been proposed to quantitatively detect levels of adulterant non-MFs, with multiple linear regression (MLR) seemingly the most suitable. There is a need for increased use of chemometric data analyses to detect adulterated MF in foods and for their expanded use in routine quality assurance testing.

  11. Milk Price Volatility and its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Gould, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    The classified pricing of fluid milk under the Federal Milk Marketing Orders (FMMO) system combined with the cash settlement feature of Class IIII milk futures contracts generate a unique volatility pattern of these futures markets in the sense that the volatility gradually decreases as the USDA price announcement dates approaching in the month. Focusing on the evolution of volatility in Class III milk futures market, this study quantifies the relative importance of a set of factors driving m...

  12. Mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion eBoutinaud

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk is produced in the udder by mammary epithelial cells (MEC. Milk contains MEC, which are gradually exfoliated from the epithelium during lactation. Isolation of MEC from milk using immunomagnetic separation may be a useful non-invasive method to investigate transcriptional regulations in ruminants’ udder. This review aims to describe the process of isolating MEC from milk, to provide an overview on the studies that use this method to analyze gene expression by qRT PCR and to evaluate the validity of this method by analysing and comparing the results between studies. In several goat and cow studies, consistent reductions in alpha-lactalbumin mRNA levels during once-daily milking (ODM and in SLC2A1 mRNA level during feed restriction are observed. The effect of ODM on alpha-lactalbumin mRNA level was similarly observed in milk isolated MEC and mammary biopsy. Moreover, we and others showed decreasing alpha-lactalbumin and increasing BAX mRNA levels with advanced stages of lactation in dairy cows and buffalo. The relevance of using the milk-isolated MEC method to analyze mammary gene expression is proven, as the transcript variations were also consistent with milk yield and composition variations under the effect of different factors such as prolactin inhibition or photoperiod. . However, the RNA from milk-isolated MEC is particularly sensitive to degradation. This could explain the differences obtained between milk-isolated MEC and mammary biopsy in two studies where gene expression was compared using qRT-PCR or RNA Sequencing analyses. As a conclusion, when the RNA quality is conserved, MEC isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary mRNA to study various factors that impact milk yield and composition (ODM, feeding level, endocrine status, photoperiod modulation and stage of lactation.

  13. Associations of risk factors with somatic cell count in bulk tank milk on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M; Richert, R; Ruegg, P L; Stiglbauer, K E; Schukken, Y H

    2013-06-01

    In the past decade, the demand for organic agricultural products has increased rapidly in the United States and worldwide. Milk quality research is of major interest to both consumers and dairy farmers alike. However, scientific data on milk quality, herd management methods, and animal welfare on organic farms in the United States has been lacking before the research from this study. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of bulk tank milk somatic cell count (SCC) with management characteristics on organic and conventional dairy farms in New York, Oregon, and Wisconsin. Data from similarly sized organic farms (n=192), conventional nongrazing farms (n=64), and conventional grazing farms (n=36) were collected at a single farm visit. Of the 292 farms visited, 290 bulk tank milk samples were collected. Overall, no difference in SCC was observed between the conventional and organic grazing systems. Two models were created to assess the effects of various management and herd characteristics on the logarithmic transformation of the SCC (LSCC), one using data from all herds and one using data from organic herds only. From the total herd model, more grain fed per cow per day was negatively associated with LSCC, whereas a positive bulk tank culture for Staphylococcus aureus and years that a farmer reported being in the dairy business were both positively associated with LSCC. In the organic herd model, a seasonal effect indicated that LSCC tended to increase in the summer and decrease in the winter. Grain fed per cow per day, the use of anionic salts in transition-cow diets, the use of gloves during milking, and regular use of a quarantine unit at milking were all negatively associated with LSCC. Similar to the total herd model, a Staph. aureus-positive bulk tank culture was positively associated with LSCC in the organic model. Standard plate count was also positively associated with LSCC in the organic model. Several variables that were associated with

  14. The Norwegian human milk study HUMIS variations in levels of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and PBDEs in Norwegian breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polder, A.; Loeken, K. [The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Thomsen, C.; Becher, G.; Eggesboe, M. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, J.U. [National Veterinary Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated, -dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have been found to accumulate in human breast milk. Because nursing children are exposed to these chemicals through the contaminated breast milk, health authorities worldwide are concerned for the infants' intake and therefore human milk monitoring programs are performed in many countries. While restrictions and bans resulted in a decline of organochlorines (OCs) in human milk during the last decades, an increasing trend has been found for PBDEs. The main goals of ''The Norwegian Human Milk Study, HUMIS'' are: to elucidate the human exposure in Norway to POPs, to identify dietary habits and other lifestyle factors that are associated with high levels of POPs in human milk, and to study the impact of exposure to the these contaminants on child health. This study reports preliminary results of recent levels of POPs in human milk in 4 different counties in Norway.

  15. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count in bulk milk of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): descriptive statistics, correlations, and factors of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faye, B; Marko, O; Thomas, S; Wernery, U; Juhasz, J

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to monitor the microbiological quality and somatic cell count (SCC) of bulk tank milk at the world's first large-scale camel dairy farm for a 2-yr period, to compare the results of 2 methods for the enumeration of SCC, to evaluate correlation among milk quality indicators, and to determine the effect of specific factors (year, season, stage of lactation, and level of production) on milk quality indicators. The study was conducted from January 2008 to January 2010. Total viable count (TVC), coliform count (CC), California Mastitis Test (CMT) score, and SCC were determined from daily bulk milk samples. Somatic cell count was measured by using a direct microscopic method and with an automatic cell counter. In addition, production parameters [total daily milk production (TDM, kg), number of milking camels (NMC), average milk per camel (AMC, kg)] and stage of lactation (average postpartum days, PPD) were recorded for each test day. A strong correlation (r=0.33) was found between the 2 methods for SCC enumeration; however, values derived using the microscopic method were higher. The geometric means of SCC and TVC were 394×10(3) cells/mL and 5,157 cfu/mL during the observation period, respectively. Somatic cell count was >500×10(3) cells/mL on 14.6% (106/725) and TVC was >10×10(3) cfu/mL on 4.0% (30/742) of the test days. Both milk quality indicators had a distinct seasonal pattern. For log SCC, the mean was lowest in summer and highest in autumn. The seasonal pattern of log TVC was slightly different, with the lowest values being recorded during the spring. The monthly mean TVC pattern showed a clear difference between years. Coliform count was <10 cfu/mL in most of the samples (709/742, 95.6%). A positive correlation was found between log SCC and log TVC (r=0.32), between log SCC and CMT score (r=0.26), and between log TVC and CC in yr 1 (r=0.30). All production parameters and stage of lactation showed strong seasonal

  16. A longitudinal study of factors influencing the result of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis antibody ELISA in milk or dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, S.W.F.; Veldman, E.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Koets, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of milk yield and milk composition on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by milk ELISA in the context of the total IgG secretion patterns in milk throughout lactation and serum concentrations were investigated. A 2-yr trial was performed in which 1,410 dai

  17. Increased systemic inflammation is a risk factor for COPD exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Groenewegen (Karin); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.L.M.L. Wielders (Pascal); N.J.J. Schlösser (Noel); E.F.M. Wouters (Emiel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: COPD is characterized by episodic increases in respiratory symptoms, so-called exacerbations. COPD exacerbations are associated with an increase in local and systemic inflammation. Data of a previously published study in a well-characterized COPD cohort were analyzed to defin

  18. Increased systemic inflammation is a risk factor for COPD exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Karin H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Hop, Wim C. J.; Wielders, Pascal L. M. L.; Schlosser, Noel J. J.; Wouters, Entiel F. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: COPD is characterized by episodic increases in respiratory symptoms, so-called exacerbations. COPD exacerbations are associated with an increase in local and systemic inflammation. Data of a previously published study in a well-characterized COPD cohort were analyzed to define predictive

  19. Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia--an evaluation of parameters on incidence risk, diagnosis, risk factors and biological effects as input for a decision support system for disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houe, H; Østergaard, S; Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Larsen, T; Sørensen, J T; Agger, J F; Blom, J Y

    2001-01-01

    The present review analyses the documentation on incidence, diagnosis, risk factors and effects of milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia. It is hereby evaluated whether the existing documentation seems sufficient for further modelling in a decision support system for selection of a control strategy. Several studies have been carried out revealing an incidence of milk fever most often in the level of 5-10%. Few studies indicate that the incidence of subclinical hypocalcaemia is several times higher than milk fever. The diagnosis based on clinical or laboratory methods or based on presence of risk factors is outlined. The clinical symptoms of milk fever are highly specific and the disease level may thus be determined from recording of treatments. Diagnosis of subclinical hypocalcaemia needs to include laboratory examinations or it may be determined by multiplying the incidence of milk fever by a certain factor. From the documentation on risk factors, it is very complex to predict the incidence from the exposure level of the risk factors. Due to uncertainty, sensitivity analyses over a wide range of values for each parameter are needed. The documentation of cow characteristics, nutrition, environment and management as risk factors are described. Among cow characteristics, parity or age, body condition and production level were found to be important. Risk factors associated with nutrition included most importantly dietary cation-anion difference and calcium level whereas the importance of general feeding related factors like type of feed stuff and feeding level were less clear. Environment and management included season, climate, housing, pasturing, exercise, length of dry period and prepartum milking. Several of the parameters on environment and management were confounded among each other and therefore firm conclusions on the importance were difficult. The documentation of the effect of milk fever includes the downer cows, reproductive disorders, occurrence of

  20. Reduced nursing frequency during prolonged lactation in the mouse decreases milk production and increases mammary expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), but does not accelerate mammary gland remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have observed that lactating mouse dams nursed 4 times per day (4X) maintained lactation, but had lower milk yields by the weigh-suckle-weigh method, than dams nursed ad libitum (AL). Therefore, we hypothesized that decreased nursing frequency would also decrease lactation persistence, increase m...

  1. A review of factors influencing milk urea concentration and its relationship with urinary urea excretion in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Duinkerken, van G.; Bannink, A.

    2013-01-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration in dairy cows may serve as an on-farm indicator to guide nutritional strategies and to help reduce emissions of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Excretion of urinary urea nitrogen (UUN) is positively related to MUN, but the relationship is highly variable. The

  2. Short communication: Antioxidant activity of calf milk replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, M A; Liu, R H; Cherney, D J R

    2012-05-01

    A calf milk replacer (CMR) is designed to replace whole, saleable milk as a lower cost nutrient source for calves while striving to nourish a newborn calf, reduce calf mortality, strengthen immunity, and increase animal life span and productivity. Antioxidants (AO) can enhance immune defense by reducing oxidative damage, but CMR are traditionally not formulated for AO activity. The objective of this study was to compare total AO activities of bovine milk and 6 CMR (A to F) that vary in the amount and source of fat and protein. Calf milk replacers were donated by Milk Products LLC (Chilton, WI). Milk was obtained from the Cornell Dairy Research Farm bulk tank, representing milk produced within 24h by 455 cows. Milk replacers were mixed to 150 g/L with 40°C purified water. All samples were extracted in triplicate. Following hexane lipid extraction, both milk and CMR samples were extracted 5 times with ethyl acetate and then evaporated and reconstituted with 70% methanol:water. Samples were assessed for total AO activity using the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity assay where each sample was diluted to 5 descending concentrations, plated in triplicate. Ascorbic and gallic acids were standards for each plate. Type of protein (soy) had a positive effect on AO activity for CMR A, which exhibited the highest total AO activity. Natural bovine milk had the second highest AO activity. Many factors may explain the difference in AO activity between natural milk and formulated CMR, including fat, vitamin, and mineral contents, enzymatic AO, phenolics, flavonoids, fatty acid profile, and AA composition. When comparing AO activity of CMR, it is important to consider the diversity in feeding recommendations, which will alter the vitamin and mineral content, thus influencing AO activity. The opportunity exists to enhance AO activity of CMR to more closely mimic that of bovine milk. Future research is warranted to compare a broader range of CMR using methods that account for

  3. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lactoferrin, lactulose non-dairy creamers whey, whey hydrolysate Vegan foods are made without animal products, such as eggs or milk. You can buy vegan products at health food stores. Be careful to ...

  4. Exposure of fluid milk to LED light negatively affects consumer perception and alters underlying sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole; Carey, Nancy; Murphy, Steven; Kent, David; Bang, Jae; Stubbs, Tim; Wiedmann, Martin; Dando, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption per capita in the United States has been steadily declining since the 1940s. Many factors have contributed to this decline, including the increasing consumption of carbonated beverages and bottled water. To meet the challenge of stemming the decline in consumption of fluid milk, the dairy industry must take a systematic approach to identifying and correcting for factors that negatively affect consumers' perception of fluid milk quality. To that end, samples of fluid milk were evaluated to identify factors, with a particular focus on light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure, which negatively affect the perceived sensory quality of milk, and to quantify their relative effect on the consumer's experience. Fluid milk samples were sourced from 3 processing facilities with varying microbial postprocessing contamination patterns based on historical testing. The effect of fat content, light exposure, age, and microbiological content were assayed across 23 samples of fluid milk, via consumer, descriptive sensory, and instrumental analyses. Most notably, light exposure resulted in a broad negative reaction from consumers, more so than samples with microbiological contamination exceeding 20,000 cfu/mL on days approaching code. The predominant implication of the study is that a component of paramount importance in ensuring the success of the dairy industry would be to protect fluid milk from all sources of light exposure, from processing plant to consumer.

  5. Short communication: Feeding linseed oil to dairy goats with competent reticular groove reflex greatly increases n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Carrión Pardo, D; Núñez Sánchez, N; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2013-01-01

    A crossover experiment was designed to compare the effects of 2 ways of feeding linseed oil on milk fat fatty acid (FA) composition. Ten lactating goats, trained to keep competent their inborn reticular groove reflex, received a daily dose of linseed oil (38 g/d) either with their solid (concentrate) feed (CON) or emulsified in skim milk and bottle-fed (BOT). Two groups of 5 goats received alternative and successively each of the treatments in two 15-d periods. α-Linolenic acid in milk fat rose up to 13.7% in the BOT versus 1.34% in the CON treatment. The n-6 to n-3 FA ratio was significantly reduced in goats receiving bottle-fed linseed oil (1.49 vs. 0.49). Contents of rumen biohydrogenation intermediates of dietary unsaturated FA were high in milk fat of goats under the CON treatment but low in those in the BOT treatment. These results point to a clear rumen bypass of the bottle-fed linseed oil. This strategy allows obtaining milk fat naturally very rich in n-3 FA and very low in trans FA. Translating this approach into practical farm conditions could enable farmers to produce milk enriched in specific FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PRELIMINARY RESULTS USING ANEW METHOD TO OPTIMIZE A SPRAY DRYER PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY MILK POWDER FROM COW, GOAT AND SHE-ASS MILK CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Altieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As quality is a very important factor in milk powder produced by drying, the optimal process must protect both nutritional and sensorial properties. Although heat damage indices (namely the insolubility index (IINS, thermal damage (IDT, protein denaturation could be used to evaluate the correct processing of milk, they are very time-consuming. Hence a chemical marker, like vitamin C, is proposed for rapid assessment of the overall damage to the quality of the produced milk powder. Trials were carried out on milk concentrates from cow, goat and she-ass so as to optimize the process performance of the spray dryer, for each kind of milk, at three inlet temperatures (120, 150, 185 °C; the feed flow rate was set at 0.5 dm3/h with outlet air RH% in the range 10-40%; raw milk was concentrated using a low pressure evaporator until an average level of 23% dry matter was reached. As expected, the thermal damage of the milk powder increased as the inlet air temperature increased; the outlet powder RH% was 96-98% poorly correlated with the mass flow rate of the concentrate inlet. Moreover, the destruction kinetic of vitamin C was found highly correlated with the thermal damage to the milk powder. At 175 °C inlet air temperature the overall thermal treatment on the she-ass milk concentrate, which is very heat-sensitive due to its high lactose content, was “weak” (IDT<80 and the milk powder of “premium or extra” quality (IINS<1.25ml and lactic acid = 0.07% < 0.15% ADMI. The titratable acidity values are uncorrelated with the process air temperature but depend uniquely from the raw milk freshness.

  7. The biology of milk synthesis from a proteomics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Large variation in bovine milk composition of Dutch Holstein cows has been observed. The factors influencing the milk synthesis and secretion process in the mammary gland and the variations in this process lead to variation in milk composition. The understanding of milk synthesis was improved during

  8. The biology of milk synthesis from a proteomics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Large variation in bovine milk composition of Dutch Holstein cows has been observed. The factors influencing the milk synthesis and secretion process in the mammary gland and the variations in this process lead to variation in milk composition. The understanding of milk synthesis was improved during

  9. Rapid identification of adulterated cow milk by non-linear pattern recognition methods based on near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Guo; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Li-Jun; Xue, Zhi-Bin; Gu, Xin; Huang, Shi-Xin

    2014-02-15

    More than 800 representative milk samples, which consisted of 287 raw cow milk samples from different pastures surrounding Shanghai of China and 526 adulteration milk samples containing different pseudo proteins and thickeners, were collected and designed to demonstrate a method for rapidly discriminating adulterated milks based on near infrared (NIR) spectra. The NIR classification models were built by two non-linear supervised pattern recognition methods of improved support vector machine (I-SVM) and improved and simplified K nearest neighbours (IS-KNN). Uniform design theory was applied to optimize the parameters of SVM and thus the computation amount was reduced 90%. Both two methods exhibit good adaptability in discriminating adulterated milks from raw cow milks. Further investigation showed that the correction ratio for discriminating milk samples increased with the increasing of adulteration solutions' level in the adulterated milk. The concentration of adulterants is an important factor of influencing milk discrimination results of the NIR pattern recognition models. The results demonstrated the usefulness of NIR spectra combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods as an objective and rapid method for the authentication of complicated raw cow milks.

  10. Increased cow's milk protein-specific IgG4 levels after oral desensitization in 7- to 12-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyuk; Kim, Won-Seop; Kim, Heon; Hahn, Youn-Soo

    2013-12-01

    Cow's milk protein (CMP)-specific IgG4 responses and the efficacy of oral desensitization in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) warrant more clarification. To explore whether CMP-specific IgG4 responses develop during infancy and whether regular CM exposure is efficacious for inducing a CMP-specific IgG4 response accompanying CM desensitization in 7- to 12-month-old infants. CM-specific IgE and CMP (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and casein)-specific IgG4 levels were measured in 262 CM-sensitized children. Of these, 31 infants 7 to 12 months old with challenge-proved CMA were randomly assigned to oral desensitization or an elimination diet and evaluated 6 months later. CMP-specific IgG4 levels in 7- to 12-month-old infants were higher than in those younger than 6 months but comparable to those in children older than 12 months. CMP-specific IgG4 levels in 7- to 12-month-old infants with CMA were significantly lower than in those without CMA. Fourteen of 16 patients receiving oral desensitization could accept daily doses of 200 mL of CM, whereas all but 3 dropout patients receiving the elimination diet still showed allergic symptoms at the follow-up food challenge. In patients who became desensitized, CM-specific IgE levels were lower than at baseline, whereas CMP-specific IgG4 levels were significantly increased. In patients receiving the elimination diet, CM-specific IgE and CMP-specific IgG4 levels remained unchanged. CMP-specific IgG4 responses did not develop sufficiently in 7- to 12-month-old infants with CMA. Oral desensitization in 7- to 12-month-old infants with CMA was associated with the upregulation of CMP-specific IgG4 responses accompanying the alleviation of CMA symptoms. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Milk Banking-Facts and Issues to Resolve

    OpenAIRE

    Willemijn E. Corpeleijn; Vermeulen, Marijn J.; Ineke van Vliet; I. Caroline Kruger; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2010-01-01

    The number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their mother’s milk are well documented, less is known about the effects of feeding these infants with pasteurized donor milk. We propose a randomized trial comparing the effects of a 100% human milk-based diet (human milk supplemented with a human milk-derived fortifier) and a diet (partially) based on bovine milk. In theory, human milk has a beneficial effect on various ...

  12. Testing Potential Effect of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors in Cow Milk on Reproductive Index in Female Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG-MING LI; DAVAASAMBUU GANMAA; LI-QIANG QIN; AKIO SATO

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of endocrine disruptor chemicals in cow milk on female reproductive system. Methods A two-generation reproduction was conducted according to U. S. FDA standard. Milk was fed in special bottle to Wistar rats of both sexes through two successive generations (F0 and F1) in the milk group while artificial milk was fed to rats in the control group. Twenty-four rats of each sex were mated in each group. Measurements were made according to this guideline. Results Reproductive parameters in the milk group such as fertility index, gestation index, weights of uterus and ovary, days of vaginal opening, estrous cycles, histological morphological changes were comparable to those in the control group. However, the means of body weight had some differences. The body weight gains increased significantly in the milk-treated group in F1 and F2 generation compared with those in the control group. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in blood in the milk group was comparable to that in the control group, but the standard deviation changed greatly in the milk-treated rats. Conclusion Endocrine disruptor chemicals in milk have no severe effects on the female reproductive system.

  13. Plant-based milk alternatives an emerging segment of functional beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Swati; Tyagi, S K; Anurag, Rahul K

    2016-09-01

    Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developing countries and in places, where cow's milk supply is insufficient. Though numerous types of innovative food beverages from plant sources are being exploited for cow milk alternative, many of these faces some/any type of technological issues; either related to processing or preservation. Majority of these milk alternatives lack nutritional balance when compared to bovine milk, however they contain functionally active components with health promoting properties which attracts health conscious consumers. In case of legume based milk alternatives, sensory acceptability is a major limiting factor for its wide popularity. New and advanced non-thermal processing technologies such as ultra high temperature treatment, ultra high pressure homogenization, pulsed electric field processing are being researched for tackling the problems related to increase of shelf life, emulsion stability, nutritional completeness and sensory acceptability of the final product. Concerted research efforts are required in coming years in functional beverages segment to prepare tailor-made newer products which are palatable as well as nutritionally adequate.

  14. Evaluating the links between intake of milk/dairy products and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carlos E A; Rogero, Marcelo M; Martini, Lígia A

    2012-05-01

    Milk and dairy products are widely recommended as part of a healthy diet. These products, however, can contain hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1, and some studies have suggested that a high intake of milk and dairy products may increase the risk of cancer. This review examines recent studies on this topic, with the evidence suggesting that the recommended intake of milk and dairy products (3 servings/day) is safe and, importantly, does not seem to increase the risk of cancer. On the basis of the studies included in this review, cultured milk, yogurt, and low-fat dairy products should be preferred as the milk and dairy products of choice.

  15. Circulating serum trefoil factors increase dramatically during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Milman, N

    2008-01-01

    in pregnant women carrying trisomy 21 foetuses and in women with normal pregnancies, throughout pregnancy and postpartum. Material and methods. Employing ELISA methods, serum collected at gestational weeks (GW) 18, 32, 39 and 8 weeks postpartum from women carrying normal foetuses (n = 141) was analysed...... comparable to concentrations previously measured in non-pregnant women. TFF1 concentrations rose throughout pregnancy and postpartum, being 1.5 times higher postpartum compared to 18 GW. No differences in the levels of TFFs were observed between women carrying trisomy 21 and those with healthy foetuses......Objective. Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are 7-12 kDa peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces, with changing levels of expression reflected in serum concentrations. The genes for the peptides are located on chromosome 21, the chromosome duplicated in trisomy 21. We studied the levels of circulating TFFs...

  16. Use of somatic cells from goat milk for dynamic studies of gene expression in the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutinaud, M; Rulquin, H; Keisler, D H; Djiane, J; Jammes, H

    2002-05-01

    Somatic cells are present in the milk throughout lactation and consist of leukocytes and epithelial cells exfoliated from the mammary epithelium. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of using somatic cells from goat milk for dynamic studies of gene expression in the mammary gland. Over a 4-wk interval, cells were isolated from daily morning milk samples and samples taken 30 min after milking. They were characterized by direct cell counts and by flow cytometry analysis after immunostaining with antibodies directed against cytokeratin and CD45, a common leukocyte antigen. Epithelial cell counts within the morning milk ranged from 15 to 45% of total milk somatic cells. After-milking samples contained twice as many cells as did morning milk samples. The RNA was extracted from the somatic cells of both types of milk samples with equivalent efficiency (a mean of 1.2 microg RNA/mL of milk). Four mRNA variants of the alpha-S1 casein gene were detected by Northern blot analysis and the amount of each mRNA in milk cells was related to protein concentration in milk. The comparison between mRNA from the mammary gland and from congruently collected milk cells showed that relative amounts of mRNA for each milk-protein (alpha-S1 and kappa-casein and alactalbumin) were conserved. In a third experiment, daily milk cell RNA preparations were extracted to assess the effect of growth hormone (GH) on mammary gene expression; four goats were separated into two groups in order to perform a switch-back design consisting of three treatment weeks: Control, GH-Control or GH-Control-GH. In this study, treatment of goats with GH increased milk yields by 5%. Throughout the control and GH treatments, the expression of the three milk-protein genes studied were highly and significantly correlated (r = 0.949 and r = 0.958, P milk-protein mRNA abundances increased with the same pattern. In conclusion, the opportunity to use milk somatic cells for RNA preparation and analysis provides a

  17. Increasing Physical Activity Decreases Hepatic Fat and Metabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Tanya L; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I; Davis, Jaimie N

    2012-04-01

    This study assessed the changes in time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammation. Longitudinal data were generated from 66 Hispanic adolescents (15.6±1.1 yr; BMI percentile 97.1±3.0) who participated in a 16-wk nutrition or nutrition+exercise intervention. There were no effects of the intervention on PA, but there were inter-individual changes in PA. For purposes of this analysis, all intervention groups were combined to assess how changes in PA during 16 wk affected changes in adiposity, insulin action, and markers of inflammation. MVPA was assessed by 7-day accelerometry, total body fat via DXA, liver fat by MRI, and insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR via a fasting blood draw. A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of MVPA on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammatory markers. Sixty-two percent of participants increased MVPA (mean increase, 19.7±16.5 min/day) and 38% decreased MVPA (mean decrease, 10.7±10.1 min/day). Those who increased MVPA by as little as 20 min per day over 16 wk, compared to those who decreased MVPA, had significant reductions in liver fat (-13% vs. +3%; P=0.01), leptin levels (-18% vs. +4%; P=0.02), and fasting insulin (-23% vs. +5%; P=0.05). These findings indicate that a modest increase in MVPA can improve metabolic health in sedentary overweight Hispanic adolescents.

  18. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    factors. However, approximately one-third of patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis ... diarrhoea, refusal of food and/or vomiting); iron deficiency anaemia. (due to occult or .... predictive of positive milk challenge. Cohort age. CaP- ...

  19. Technology advancement: a factor in increasing resource use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.; Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2001-01-01

    The specter of mineral resource scarcity has been repeatedly raised as a concern because ever-growing populations with seemingly insatiable appetites for minerals place claims against a finite resource endowment. This report analyzes how technology has helped to ease resource constraints, and uses case studies of aluminum, copper, potash, and sulfur minerals to identify the effects of technology on resource supply. In spite of heightened demand for and increased loss of resources to environmental policy and urbanization, mineral producers historically have been able to continually expand production and lower costs. Specific production increases for the years 1900-98 were: aluminum (3,250 percent), copper (2,465 percent), potash (3,770 percent), and sulfur (6,000 percent). For the same period, constant-dollar (1998) prices decreased: aluminum (90 percent), copper (75 percent), potash (94 percent), and sulfur (89 percent). The application of technology has made available mineral deposits that were previously overlooked or considered non-viable. Using technology, producers can meet the demand for stronger, energy-efficient, more environmentally safe products with less physical material. Technologies have been developed to increase the amount of materials recycled and remanufactured. Technology development can occur in breakthroughs, but most often advances incrementally. Technological development is driven by the profit motive.

  20. Milk: the new sports drink? A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Brian D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There has been growing interest in the potential use of bovine milk as an exercise beverage, especially during recovery from resistance training and endurance sports. Based on the limited research, milk appears to be an effective post-resistance exercise beverage that results in favourable acute alterations in protein metabolism. Milk consumption acutely increases muscle protein synthesis, leading to an improved net muscle protein balance. Furthermore, when post-exercise milk consump...

  1. Physicochemical properties of acidified skim milk gels containing cocoa flavanols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, César; Grover, Mollie K

    2011-06-22

    The physicochemical properties of acidified milk gels after the addition of cocoa flavanols were studied. As the flavanol level increased (from 0 to 2.5 mg/g), syneresis and gel elasticity (tan δ) were found to significantly increase and decrease, respectively. Flavanol addition reduced the stress at fracture, with no changes in fracture strain, suggesting that the bond type (i.e., covalent vs noncovalent) was the underlying factor explaining the ease of fracture. Gels made from recombined milks containing the casein fraction of heated milk and the serum of heated flavanol/milk mixtures showed the lowest values of G' and fracture stress. It was concluded that whey proteins/flavanol interactions were responsible for the poor mechanical properties of flavanol-added acidified milk gels. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of milk sera showed that 60% of the total available monomeric flavanols was found in the serum phase from which 75% was non-associated to whey proteins. Concomitantly, >70% of flavanols with degree of polymerization >3 were found to be associated with the casein fraction.

  2. Factor V Leiden is associated with increased sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mens, T E; Joensen, U N; Bochdanovits, Z

    2017-01-01

    ) of consecutively included men without known causes for spermatogenic failure, and performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of these two cohorts together with one previously published (Dutch, n = 908) cohort. We explored possible biological underpinnings for the relation between sperm count and FVL......, by use of a FVL-mouse model and investigations of genetic linkage. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Participants were male partners of subfertile couples (two Dutch cohorts) and young men from the general population (Danish cohort): FVL carrier rate was 4.0%, 4.6% and 7.3%, respectively...... FVL carriers have a higher total sperm count than non-carriers, with an adjusted mean difference of 31 × 106 (95%CI 0.2-61.7; P = 0.048). Mice with the FVL mutation do not have increased spermatogenesis as compared to wildtype mice. None of the studied polymorphisms was in linkage disequilibrium...

  3. The Research Progress of Raw Milk Quality Safety and its Influencing Factors%生乳的质量安全及其影响因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梅

    2012-01-01

    生乳的质量安全一直以来是人们关注的焦点,加强生乳质量安全监管,确保生乳质量安全,保障消费者身体健康显得尤为重要.作者对优质安全生乳的内涵、影响因素、管理与控制措施等方面进行了综述,以期为生产和管理提供参考.%The quality and safety of raw milk is always the focus of attention,strengthen the quality and safety of raw milk supervision,to ensure the quality and safety of raw milk, the protective consumer health is particularly important. The author summarized connotation of raw milk quality safety, influencing factors and control measures, etc, in order to provide reference for the production and management.

  4. 乳酸菌制剂牛奶凝固力实验的影响因素研究%Study on the Influence Factors of Milk Coagulation Experiments of Lactic Acid Bacteria Preparations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘永琦; 朱斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence factors of milk coagulation experiments of Lactic Acid Bacteria Preparations.Meth-ods:The solidification phenomenon, protein content and pH value of the culture media prepared by different sources of milk were test in different sterilization conditons.Results:The culture medium sample of sterile milk powder did not produce solidification phenome-non, and had nothing to do with the protein content and pH value.Conclusion:Different milk production and milk culture medium sterilization conditions are the main factors led to the differences in milk coagulation.%目的:考察乳酸菌制剂牛奶凝固力实验的影响因素。方法:测定不同来源牛奶培养基在不同灭菌条件下的凝固现象、蛋白质含量和pH值。结果:使用灭菌奶粉培养基的供试品不能正常凝固,且这一现象与蛋白质含量及pH值无关。结论:不同牛奶的生产工艺以及牛奶培养基的灭菌条件是导致牛奶凝固力实验现象存在差异的主要因素。

  5. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

  6. Prion protein in milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Franscini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions are known to cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE after accumulation in the central nervous system. There is increasing evidence that prions are also present in body fluids and that prion infection by blood transmission is possible. The low concentration of the proteinaceous agent in body fluids and its long incubation time complicate epidemiologic analysis and estimation of spreading and thus the risk of human infection. This situation is particularly unsatisfactory for food and pharmaceutical industries, given the lack of sensitive tools for monitoring the infectious agent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed an adsorption matrix, Alicon PrioTrap, which binds with high affinity and specificity to prion proteins. Thus we were able to identify prion protein (PrP(C--the precursor of prions (PrP(Sc--in milk from humans, cows, sheep, and goats. The absolute amount of PrP(C differs between the species (from microg/l range in sheep to ng/l range in human milk. PrP(C is also found in homogenised and pasteurised off-the-shelf milk, and even ultrahigh temperature treatment only partially diminishes endogenous PrP(C concentration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In view of a recent study showing evidence of prion replication occurring in the mammary gland of scrapie infected sheep suffering from mastitis, the appearance of PrP(C in milk implies the possibility that milk of TSE-infected animals serves as source for PrP(Sc.

  7. 乳脂肪酸及其影响因素的研究进展%Milk Fatty Acids and its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晋辉; 周凌云; 张军民; 卜登攀; 李珊珊; 袁廷杰; 孙鹏

    2011-01-01

    脂肪酸在生命活动中具有非常重要的作用,而乳是许多脂肪酸的天然来源.乳中脂肪酸既可以由乳腺从头合成,也可直接来自于血液,这个过程受遗传、饲料、泌乳阶段、年龄、季节、养殖方式、畜群效应等多方面因素的影响.作者介绍了乳中脂肪酸的合成及各脂肪酸间的相关性,并对影响脂肪酸组成各种因素进行了综述.%Milk is a natural source of kinds of fatty acids, which play important roles in the process of metabolism. FA in milk originated from de novo synthesis in mammary gland and blood directly. It varied with many factors,such as genetic, feedt lactation stage and age, season, farming, flock effect, etc. This article has reviewed fatty acids synthesis and correlation among them, of course, factors affected FA were also included.

  8. Transforming growth factor β1 increases p27 levels via synthesis and degradation mechanisms in the hyperproliferative gastric epithelium in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P Z P Fiore

    Full Text Available Throughout postnatal development, the gastric epithelium expresses Transforming Growth Factor beta1 (TGFβ1, but it is also exposed to luminal peptides that are part of milk. During suckling period, fasting promotes the withdrawal of milk-born molecules while it stimulates gastric epithelial cell proliferation. Such response can be reversed by exogenous TGFβ1, as it directly affects cell cycle through the regulation of p27 levels. We used fasting condition to induce the hyperproliferation of gastric epithelial cells in 14-day-old Wistar rats, and evaluated the effects of TGFβ1 gavage on p27 expression, phosphorylation at threonine 187 (phospho-p27Thr187 and degradation. p27 protein level was reduced during fasting when compared to suckling counterparts, while phospho-p27Thr187/p27 ratio was increased. TGFβ1 gavage reversed this response, which was confirmed through immunostaining. By using a neutralizing antibody against TGFβ1, we found that it restored the p27 and phosphorylation levels detected during fasting, indicating the specific role of the growth factor. We noted that neither fasting nor TGFβ1 changed p27 expression, but after cycloheximide administration, we observed that protein synthesis was influenced by TGFβ1. Next, we evaluated the capacity of the gastric mucosa to degrade p27 and we recorded a higher concentration of the remaining protein in pups treated with TGFβ1, suggesting augmented stability under this condition. Thus, we showed for the first time that luminal TGFβ1 increased p27 levels in the rat gastric mucosa by up- regulating translation and reducing protein degradation. We concluded that such mechanisms might be used by rapidly proliferating cells to respond to milk-born TGFβ1 and food restriction.

  9. Fatores ambientais que afetam a produção e a composição do leite em rebanhos assistidos por cooperativas no Rio Grande do Sul Effects of environmental factors on milk yield and composition of dairy herds assisted by cooperatives in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Noro

    2006-06-01

    composition. Milk yield including all observations averaged 19.36 L/cow/day. Greater milk yield was observed in cows varying from 5 to 6 years of age at calving, at the first 60 days of lactation, in the winter months and in herds with longer time in dairy control. Increased somatic cells count was associated to reduction in milk yield. Lower contents of milk fat and milk protein and greater somatic cells number were observed at the first 60 days of lactation. Concentration of milk lactose decreased with both the increment in somatic cells count and age at calving. Somatic cells count increased as the age of cows advanced and as lactation progressed. Milk contents of protein, fat and lactose all increased during the winter months possibly because of feeding temperate grasses. Results from this study showed that is important taking into account the effects of environmental factors on milk composition.

  10. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Artegoitia

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L. In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L, which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively, with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78. Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  11. Feeding strategies to design the fatty acid profile of sheep milk and cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nudda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of sheep milk produced in the world is transformed into cheese. Feeding is a major factor affecting the quality of sheep milk and, therefore, of sheep cheese. Because fat is the main compound of cheese, this review gives an update on the effects of feeding and nutrition on milk fat content and deeply discusses feeding strategies aimed at increasing the levels of healthy fatty acids (FA, such as conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 FA, in milk and cheese in the human diet. In addition, the use of alternative feed resources such as by-products, aromatic plants, and phenolic compounds in the sheep diet and their effects on milk and cheese FA composition are also discussed. Among feeding strategies, grazing and the use of supplements rich in oils seem to be the best and the cheapest strategies to improve the nutritional value of the fatty acid profile in sheep cheese.

  12. Milk Enzyme Activities and Subclinical Mastitis Among Women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lill Brith Wium; Hartvig, Ditte Luise; Kæstel, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    Background: Subclinical mastititis (SCM) is a condition with raised milk concentration of sodium and milk immune factors. The milk enzymes N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (AcP), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) have attracted attention in dairy...... research as indicators of SCM, udder health, and milk quality. Study Design: To investigate if milk enzyme activities and the inflammatory interleukin 8 (IL-8) level are increased in women with SCM, we measured sodium, potassium, NAGase, LDH, AcP, AP, and IL-8 in breastmilk samples collected at 2 months...... in univariate linear regression (p enzymes and IL-8). Conclusions: A positive association between the Na/K ratio and the breastmilk enzymes NAGase, LDH, AcP, and AP was found. Breastmilk enzymes have not previously been investigated in relation to SCM in women, and further...

  13. Biosynthesis of milk fat, protein, and lactose: roles of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Johan S; Lohakare, Jayant; Bionaz, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The demand for high-quality milk is increasing worldwide. The efficiency of milk synthesis can be improved by taking advantage of the accumulated knowledge of the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in the synthesis of fat, protein, and lactose in the mammary gland. Research in this area is relatively new, but data accumulated in the last 10 years provide a relatively clear picture. Milk fat synthesis appears to be regulated, at least in bovines, by an interactive network between SREBP1, PPARγ, and LXRα, with a potential role for other transcription factors, such as Spot14, ChREBP, and Sp1. Milk protein synthesis is highly regulated by insulin, amino acids, and amino acid transporters via transcriptional and posttranscriptional routes, with the insulin-mTOR pathway playing a central role. The transcriptional regulation of lactose synthesis is still poorly understood, but it is clear that glucose transporters play an important role. They can also cooperatively interact with amino acid transporters and the mTOR pathway. Recent data indicate the possibility of nutrigenomic interventions to increase milk fat synthesis by feeding long-chain fatty acids and milk protein synthesis by feeding amino acids. We propose a transcriptional network model to account for all available findings. This model encompasses a complex network of proteins that control milk synthesis with a cross talk between milk fat, protein, and lactose regulation, with mTOR functioning as a central hub.

  14. State of the art of automatic milking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.; Hogewerf, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Milking cows two or three times a day for 7 days a week is time-consuming and a heavy load for the farmer. Many high-yielding cows enter the milking parlour with heavy udders. To be able to increase the milking frequency and to decrease the physical labour requirements automatic milking systems are

  15. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count in bulk milk of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): descriptive statistics, correlations, and factors of variation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagy, P; Faye, B; Marko, O; Thomas, S; Wernery, U; Juhasz, J

    2013-01-01

    ...) of bulk tank milk at the world's first large-scale camel dairy farm for a 2-yr period, to compare the results of 2 methods for the enumeration of SCC, to evaluate correlation among milk quality...

  16. Influence of milking number and frequency on milk production in Martina Franca breed asses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martemucci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in Martina Franca asses in order to study milk yield and udder healthy conditions in relation to daily milking number and frequency. Experiment I - A total of 15 asses were subdivided into three groups (N.5 corresponding to: one milking per day, after a 3 hour interval from foal separation by dams (Group A; three milkings per day with 3 hour frequency (Group B; three milkings per day with 2 hour frequency (Group 3M. Experiment II - Evaluation was made of the effect of a schedule of 6 milkings per day with frequency of 2 hours on milk yield (Group 6M; N. 5, compared to Group 3M. Healthy udder conditions in relation to the number of milking per day was monitored in 3M and 6M Groups, by somatic cell count. Average yield per milking was highest (P<0.01 following 3 rather 1 milkings per day and with milking frequency of 3 hours rather than 2 hours (P<0.01. A schedule of six milkings per day did not improve mean milk yield and determined an increase in somatic cell count compared to 3 daily milkings regimen (63.2 vs 17.5 x 1000/mL; P<0.05.

  17. Relationship between somatic cell count and lactose content in milk of various species of mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC is an indicator of mammary gland health state. Lactose (L can be reduced with mastitis and SCC increase. Mammary gland health is an essential factor of milk quality. Monitoring of mammary gland health is important for prevention and treatment of milk secretion disorders. The goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between SCC and L in various biological species. 7 sets of individual and bulk milk samples (MSs were analysed (n = 479, 479, 345, 80, 90 and 102 for SCC and L content. 3 sets were with cow (C milk and 1 set with goat (G, 1 with sheep (S and 1 with human (H MSs. The relations in C milk were used as reference. SCC geometric means were markedly lower in C milk (62, 99 and 81 103 . ml−1 and H milk (103 103 . ml−1 as compared to small ruminants (G 3 509 and S 609 103 . ml−1. The mean L values were lower in small ruminants (G 4.36% and S 4.42% as compared to C milk (4.95%, 4.97% and in 1st lactation 5.10% and higher in H milk (5.77%. L contents in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein correlated negatively to SCC (log SCC in all lactations (−0.36 P < 0.001 and −0.33 P < 0.001. L content in 1st lactation correlated with SCC markedly narrower than in cows for all lactations (−0.49 P < 0.001. The SCC×L relationship in G (White short–haired milk (−0.35 P < 0.01 was in good relation to C milk and in S (Tsigai milk (−0.51 P < 0.001 was markedly narrower as in C and G milk. Lower mean SCC in H milk as compared to G and S milk and comparable to C milk did not show significant negative relationship to L which was 0.08 (P > 0.05 for original SCC values. Surprisingly there was not found the SCC×L relationship in H milk which could be comparable to other mammal species milk. It could be caused by bacteriologically negative results in MSs with higher SCC (> 300 103 . ml−1. As well as at C milk also at G and S milk and in contrast to H milk it is possible to use the SCC×L relationship

  18. [Milk and dairy products for human nutrition: contribution of technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubois, Jean-Louis

    2008-04-01

    The complex composition of milk has led to the development of innovative technological processes such as membrane separation. The dairy industry is now able to offer consumers safe classical products (liquid milk, raw-milk cheeses) with little or no heat treatment. Indeed, heat treatment undermines the organoleptic qualities and bioactivity of many molecules found in milk. New technologies, and especially membrane microfiltration, have allowed researchers to identify two groups of milk proteins in terms of their human absorption kinetics: slow micellar casein and fast whey proteins. The highly purified products thus obtained are used for infant foods and slimming aids, and as functional ingredients. The same technologies have been applied to colostrum, yielding a sterile "serocolostrum" containing biologically active immunoglobulins, growth factors, and polypeptides. Combined with other separation techniques, membrane technologies should soon allow the separation and purification of minor milk proteins described as having essential roles in bone calcium uptake and vitamin transport, for example. The use of enzymatic membrane reactors has led to the identification of several bioactive peptides, such as--kappa-caseinomacropeptide, which induces CCK (cholecystokinin) secretion and thus regulates food intake and lipid assimilation,--alpha(S1) CN (91-100), a compound with benzodiazepine activity,-- kappaCN (106-116), which has anti-thrombotic activity by inhibiting blood platelet binding to fibrinogen, and--alpha(S) and beta casein phosphopeptides, which are thought to increase iron and calcium absorption.

  19. An analysis of the relationship between bulk tank milk quality and wash water quality on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, N R; Kelton, D F; Hand, K J; MacNaughton, G; Berke, O; Leslie, K E

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify regions at high risk for bacterial water or milk contamination, as well as risk factors associated with high bacteria counts in raw milk in Ontario, Canada. Between 2003 and 2004, the Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) tested water samples from 5,421 farms in Ontario for the presence of Escherichia coli and coliforms. The water samples were collected as "point-of-use" samples, meaning that each sample was taken from a tap or water hose in the milk house as soon as the water was turned on. Routine, monthly raw milk bacterial counts were determined by DFO using BactoScan (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark). BactoScan data were retrieved from DFO for all of the farms with water test results. The prevalence of samples with E. coli and coliforms in water and elevated bacteria counts in raw milk was 13.6, 53.8, and 2.8%, respectively. The spatial analysis, using a scan statistic, revealed 1 coliform and 3 E. coli clusters of contaminated water, but no clusters of elevated milk bacteria counts in raw milk in southern Ontario. The coliform water contamination cluster was the largest, with a radius of approximately 200 km. Regression analysis indicated that risk factors associated with the occurrence of high levels of bacteria in raw milk were elevated average monthly somatic cell count, increased total milk production, cooler seasons of the year, and the presence of E. coli in wash water.

  20. Dynamics of the proteome in human and farm animal milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    The milk proteome changes due to many factors, such as lactation, individual, health status, processing, and species differences. The objective of the work described in this thesis was to increase our

  1. Dynamics of the proteome in human and farm animal milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    The milk proteome changes due to many factors, such as lactation, individual, health status, processing, and species differences. The objective of the work described in this thesis was to increase our understan

  2. Effect of milking frequency on DHI performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J W; Ely, L O; Graves, W M; Gilson, W D

    2002-12-01

    Increasing production by increasing milking frequency (MF) is a management option available to dairy producers. This study examined effects of MF and interactions with region and herd size on measures of herd performance. Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) Holstein herd summary records (n = 10,754, 10,550, and 10,438) for the years 1998, 1999, and 2000 were classified by MF: two times a day (2X) milking vs three times a day (3X); herd size: small ( or = 250 cows); and region: North and South. Percentage of herds milking 3X by year were 7.0, 6.7, and 7.1. Rolling herd average milk production was 16, 16, and 15% higher for herds milking 3X than herds milking 2X for the respective years. Herds milking 3X in the North region outproduced herds milking 3X in the South region. Milk fat and protein percentages were lower for herds milking 3X during all 3 yr. Differences in energy-corrected milk production between herds milking 3X and herds milking 2X were 14.5, 13.4, and 13.4% during the respective 3 yr as a result of lower component percentages for herds milking 3X. Herds milking 3X had more days open and higher actual calving intervals than herds milking 2X. Services per pregnancy for herds breeding primarily by artificial insemination were higher for herds milking 3X than for herds milking 2X. Somatic cell scores and weighted somatic cell counts were lower for herds milking 3X than herds milking 2X. Herds milking 3X had a higher percentage of somatic cell scores in the low range (0 to 3) and a lower percentage in the high range (7 to 9). Mean percentages of cows entering and leaving the herd were higher for herds milking 3X during all 3 yr.

  3. Health promoting factors from milk of cows fed green plant material-The role of phytanic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Che, Brita Ngum

    2012-01-01

    muscles, and to elucidate the total content of PA and the distribution of its diastereomers in milk as affected by feed composition. In this project, we established primary porcine myotubes as an efficient skeletal muscle model for metabolic studies. Satellite cells (SC) derived from porcine muscles were...... cultured to generate differentiated primary porcine myotubes. Viability studies were performed to determine which concentrations or length of treatments could be tolerated by the myotubes under glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and FA oxidation (FAO) experiments. Optimization of glucose uptake assay...

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli in Cheese Made from Unpasteurized Milk in Three Cities in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laryssa Freitas; Barbosa, Mayhara Martins Cordeiro; Pinto, Fernanda de Rezende; Maluta, Renato Pariz; Oliveira, Mônica Costa; de Souza, Viviane; de Medeiros, Maria Izabel Merino; Borges, Lucimara Antonio; do Amaral, Luiz Augusto; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2016-09-01

    The production of cheeses from unpasteurized milk is still widespread in Brazil, even with a legal ban imposed on its marketing. The manufacture of this cheese is a public health problem, due to the use of raw milk and the poor hygienic conditions throughout the supply chain process. Contamination may occur from several sources and involve several different pathogenic microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli. The latter can cause different clinical manifestations depending on the pathotype involved. Furthermore, some isolates manifest antimicrobial resistance and may be a risk for public health. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli in raw-milk cheese in Brazil and their possible risk to public health. A total of 83 cheeses were collected from three different cities and 169 E. coli isolates were characterized for the presence of enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigatoxigenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) virulence genes, phylogenetic type, antimicrobial resistance, O serogroup, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The number of samples positive for E. coli was highest in Aracaju (90.32%, 28/31). The prevalence of samples positive for potential ExPEC genes was similar for Uberaba and Aracaju (23.07%); the most prevalent ExPEC virulence genes were tsh, iucD, and papC. Isolates from Uberaba had a higher prevalence of resistance to tetracycline (38.46%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (58.85%), and ampicillin (61.54%) than the other cities. Overall, antimicrobial resistance genes tetB, blaTEM, and blaCMY-2 were the most prevalent genes (26.32%, 15.79%, and 28.95%, respectively) and the most prevalent serotypes were O4 (8%), 018 (12%), and O23 (8%). Clones originating from the same regions and from different regions were observed. These results emphasize the presence of a potential danger for humans in the consumption of raw-milk cheeses in three cities in Brazil due to

  5. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decreases milk production but increases n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFLAX) on milk yield and fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112 ± 68 da...

  6. Development of Vegetable Based Milk from Decorticated Sesame (Sesamum Indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad M. Quasem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Decorticated sesame seed can supply us with nutritious, functional and healthy meals with relatively low cost. These properties make sesame a valuable source of protein and other nutrients to be utilized in imitated dairy products, which could be used for infant and adults with lactose intolerance as well as for vegetarian or others who like to eat dairy products free from cholesterol. Additionally, the production of sesame-based dairy products can overcome the problems that limit consumption of soy-based dairy products such as antinutritional factors, flavor and flatulence. The major challenges in developing dairy analogs from plant sources are: unacceptable flavor, low solids yield and low dispersion stability. Approach: The following factors were investigated to increase/optimize the sesame milk yield, dispersion stability and sensory acceptance: pretreatment of sesame seed with simple physical treatments (soaking in water, boiling, pressure cooking, steaming and combination treatments and heat treatment of sesame milk (pasteurization or sterilization. Results: Heat treatments during all steps of processing proved to be the most important factor in determining the yield and quality of sesame milk. The best treatment was pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min with 12% initial sesame seed concentration (previously dried at 170°C for 5 sec and formulated with the addition of 2% sucrose. Conclusion: The developed procedure for sesame milk production resulted in high yield, excellent dispersion stability and good sensory acceptability.

  7. A compilation of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways and the suggested default values for the RESRAD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; Yu, C.

    1993-08-01

    The ongoing development and revision of the RESRAD computer code at Argonne National Laboratory requires update of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways. Default values for these transfer factors used in published radiological assessment reports are compiled and compared with values used in RESRAD. The differences among the reported default values used in different radiological assessment codes and reports are also discussed. In data comparisons, values used in more recent reports are given more weight because more recent experimental work tends to be conducted under better-defined laboratory or field conditions. A new default value is suggested for RESRAD if one of the following conditions is met: (1) values used in recent reports are an order of magnitude higher or lower than the default value currently used in RESRAD, or (2) the same default value is used in several recent radiological assessment reports.

  8. Milk Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s leading food company has expanded its business into the dairy industry A combined financial venture between China’s largest agricultural trading and processing company and a private equity firm formed to milk profits from the dairy business has led to

  9. The decrease in milk yield during once daily milking is due to regulation of synthetic activity rather than apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Chedly, H; Lacasse, P; Marnet, P-G; Boutinaud, M

    2013-01-01

    Once daily milking (ODM) is a management practice that can improve working conditions and reduce production costs in dairy farming compared with twice daily milking (TDM). However, ODM is associated with a decrease in milk yield. Previous research indicated that disruption of tight junctions in the mammary gland may be one of the regulatory factors involved in the milk yield decrease observed during ODM. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of mammary epithelium disruption in the regulation of the activity and dynamics of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) during 5 weeks of ODM in goats. Twelve alpine goats (producing 3.67 ± 0.64 kg/day and 47 ± 1.6 days in milk) were assigned to two groups that were milked once or twice a day during 5 weeks and then switched back to TDM. Mammary biopsies were collected before and on days 2 and 16 of both ODM and TDM switchback periods. Milk purified epithelial cells were collected before and on days 1, 7, 21 and 28 during ODM as well on days 1 and 7 of the TDM switchback period. The mRNA levels of genes involved in the regulation of synthetic activity and apoptosis were analysed by RT-PCR in milk MEC and mammary biopsies. ODM decreased yields of milk (-23%), lactose (-23%) and casein (-16%). Lactose synthesis was regulated at the transcriptional level by downregulation of α-lactalbumin mRNA levels in both biopsy samples (-30%) and milk MEC (-74%). TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling) staining of mammary gland biopsies did not show any increase in cell apoptosis after 2 and 16 days of ODM (0.8% and 1%, respectively) despite upregulation of Bax mRNA levels in milk MEC. This suggests that the decrease in milk yield observed during ODM is attributable to a decrease in synthetic activity rather than to induction of MEC cell death. ODM induced the disruption of tight junctions in the mammary gland only on the first day of the treatment as indicated by increased blood

  10. Target cell availability, rather than breast milk factors, dictates mother-to-infant transmission of SIV in sooty mangabeys and rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Chahroudi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mother-to-infant transmission (MTIT of HIV is a serious global health concern, with over 300,000 children newly infected in 2011. SIV infection of rhesus macaques (RMs results in similar rates of MTIT to that of HIV in humans. In contrast, SIV infection of sooty mangabeys (SMs rarely results in MTIT. The mechanisms underlying protection from MTIT in SMs are unknown. In this study we tested the hypotheses that breast milk factors and/or target cell availability dictate the rate of MTIT in RMs (transmitters and SMs (non-transmitters. We measured viral loads (cell-free and cell-associated, levels of immune mediators, and the ability to inhibit SIV infection in vitro in milk obtained from lactating RMs and SMs. In addition, we assessed the levels of target cells (CD4+CCR5+ T cells in gastrointestinal and lymphoid tissues, including those relevant to breastfeeding transmission, as well as peripheral blood from uninfected RM and SM infants. We found that frequently-transmitting RMs did not have higher levels of cell-free or cell-associated viral loads in milk compared to rarely-transmitting SMs. Milk from both RMs and SMs moderately inhibited in vitro SIV infection, and presence of the examined immune mediators in these two species did not readily explain the differential rates of transmission. Importantly, we found that the percentage of CD4+CCR5+ T cells was significantly lower in all tissues in infant SMs as compared to infant RMs despite robust levels of CD4+ T cell proliferation in both species. The difference between the frequently-transmitting RMs and rarely-transmitting SMs was most pronounced in CD4+ memory T cells in the spleen, jejunum, and colon as well as in central and effector memory CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood. We propose that limited availability of SIV target cells in infant SMs represents a key evolutionary adaptation to reduce the risk of MTIT in SIV-infected SMs.

  11. OFF-FLAVOURS IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is the main factor determining the purchase of food and it also effects to consumer preferences. Therefore, flavour problems usually come to light as a result of consumers' complaints, and flavour defects in food are a major cause of consumer rejection of the food product including milk and milk products. Flavour and off-flavour in milk and milk products have been the subject of active research in the last decade; there have been developments in the analytical techniques used to monitor flavour development, flavour and off-flavour compounds in many dairy product have now been investigated. The chemicals responsible for unacceptable flavours in milk and milk products can originate incidental contamination from environmental sources, from animal feeding, from chemical reactions occuring within the food material itself and from other sources. The objectives of this paper comprise, after definitions, summarizing the possible sources and specific compounds of off-flavours, and discussing different approaches for off-flavour concept in milk and dairy products.

  12. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Su Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8 is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the milk fat globule. Previously, a number of studies have reported that MFG-E8 contributes to various biological functions including the phagocytic removal of damaged and apoptotic cells from tissues, the induction of VEGF-mediated neovascularization, the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and the promotion of mucosal healing. Recently, emerging studies have reported that MFG-E8 plays a role in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. This review describes the characteristics of MFG-E8-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes recent findings supporting the roles of MFG-E8 in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, and discusses MFG-E8 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy for the development of anti-inflammatory/autoimmune disease drugs.

  13. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young-Su

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the milk fat globule. Previously, a number of studies have reported that MFG-E8 contributes to various biological functions including the phagocytic removal of damaged and apoptotic cells from tissues, the induction of VEGF-mediated neovascularization, the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and the promotion of mucosal healing. Recently, emerging studies have reported that MFG-E8 plays a role in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. This review describes the characteristics of MFG-E8-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes recent findings supporting the roles of MFG-E8 in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, and discusses MFG-E8 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy for the development of anti-inflammatory/autoimmune disease drugs.

  14. A Social Marketing Approach to 1% Milk Use: Resonance Is the Key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, Karla Jaye; John, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend low-fat milk consumption, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) programs follow these guidelines to develop health education programs for SNAP recipients. This study evaluated a multilevel media intervention promoting low-fat milk use among Oklahoma SNAP recipients, a population often missed. Behavior change was measured with pre- and postintervention telephone interviews with SNAP recipients ( n = 860). Immediately following the intervention, self-reported purchases of 1% milk, the focus of behavior change, significantly increased to 7.9% from 4.1%-a relative improvement of 92.7%, χ(2)(1, n = 824) = 5.8, p = .02. Milk nutrition knowledge scores significantly improved as well, t(846) = 2.9, p = .004, and low-fat milk users exhibited more milk nutrition knowledge than high-fat milk users, t(437) = 4.0, p = .000. The intervention, which resonated with the priority audience, was well received ( Mdn = 6, 1, 7). Factors contributing to its success included a gain-based message strategy and clearly articulating the desired behavior. Salient messages personalized the issues and concerns raised by the priority audience-all the vitamins and minerals without the fat. Findings suggest that matching gender and ethnicity mediated the effect among those most resistant to substituting low-fat for high-fat milk.

  15. MILK IN CHILDREN’S AND ADULTS’ DIET: BENEFICIAL EFFECTS AND POTENTIAL RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.F. Lukushkina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow’s milk is used for the nutrition of children and adults since ancient times; its favorable effects are described in medical and popular literature. During the last years, some unfavorable effects of extensive use of milk in nutrition of infants were revealed. First of all, cow’s milk is strong risk factor of iron-deficient anemia in infants. Besides, the study of big group of children who received big volumes of milk during first 6–24 months of life showed that that type of diet increase the risk of obesity and related pathological states in older age. Comparison of compound and effects of cow’s and breast milk is presented. Authors reviewed literature data on influence of cow’s milk on the risk of acne. The question of the use of cow’s milk in adults’ diet is still under discussion.Key words: children, milk, diet, safety, efficacy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 140–144

  16. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  17. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  18. MICRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF BREAST MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering that in exclusively breast - fed infants , breast milk is the sole source of the nutrition for the first few months of life , it is important to have accurate data on its composition. Various studies have been done on factors affecting the concentration of microelements in breast milk. Through this article we tried to address the iron , zinc , copper content of breast milk wh ich is most essential micronutrients for growth of infant. A wide range of values for iron in the breast milk (0.1 – 1.6 mg/l , Zn and Cu were 625 (475 - 889 microgram/l and 239 (200 - 296 microgram/l respectively have been reported in the literature in all s tages of lactation. Concentration of micronutrients is high in colostrum and decreases during the lactation period. Maternal serum levels of microelements have no correlation with those in breast milk. Various studies have shown mineral , multivitamin , supp lementation or maternal diet does not affect breast milk micronutrient concentration. Mother’s age , parity , anthropometry , smoking habits , socioeconomic status , residing area(rural/urban , environment , use of oral contraceptive do not have an influence on the micronutrient content of the mother’s milk .

  19. Thyroid hormones in donkey blood and milk: correlations with milk yield and environmental temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Todini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (TH are the primary endocrine stimulators of non-shivering thermogenesis and are known to stimulate lactation. Triiodothyronine (T3 is the bioactive form, mainly derived by deiodination of thyroxine (T4, and the free quote (unbound to plasma proteins is immediately bioavailable. This study aimed to evaluate potential relationships among TH in the blood, triiodothyronine in the milk (T3M, milk yield and environmental temperature in March to July for 8 lactating donkeys. Milk yield and blood TH concentrations changed significantly over time, whereas T3M was rather stable among individuals and not affected by time of sampling. Free T3 was not correlated with free T4 or with total TH in the blood, but it was weakly correlated with T3M. No relationship was found between blood TH and milk yield, which was negatively correlated with T3M. Thus, the absolute quantity of bioactive hormone in milk secretion is maintained. Milk yield was positively correlated with the free/total T3 and free T3/free T4 ratios, thus in turn with the relative quote of the circulating bioactive hormone. Circulating T3/T4 ratios were negatively correlated with environmental temperature. It is concluded that environmental temperature, in the range of the present study (-2 to 35°C, does not significantly entrain thyroid gland activity, which is affected more by other factors, such as inter-individual variations and physiological status (i.e., stage of lactation. However, increases in environmental temperature most likely induce decreases in deiodinase activity at the peripheral tissue level, as indicated by the decrease in the T3/T4 ratios in the blood.

  20. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate...... the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children....

  1. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcumamangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milkprotein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomizeddesign was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcumazeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. Thecollected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects wastested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbssignificantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreasedmastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  3. Soy- and rice-based processed complementary food increases nutrient intakes in infants and is equally acceptable with or without added milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Keriann H; Dickin, Katherine L; Ali, Nadra S; Monterrosa, Eva C; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2008-10-01

    Processed complementary foods (PCF) might mitigate several complementary feeding barriers in developing countries. Efficacy trials, however, have not shown substantial improvements in child growth, possibly due to inadequate formative research to assess acceptability and identify pitfalls. Milk powder might improve palatability of PCF but incurs a higher cost. We compared the acceptability of an instant soy-rice PCF without (SR) and with (SRM) milk powder. Best practices for formative evaluation of PCF are not established. We therefore compared findings from randomized trials of SR vs. SRM in 1-d sensory tests (n = 71 mother-infant dyads) vs. Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs), a 2-wk in-home mixed methods evaluation (n = 54 dyads). TIPs included interviews, disappearance rates, observations, and 24-h dietary recalls to assess acceptance, consumption of the 50 g/d ration, and impact on diet. Although mothers preferred SRM to SR in the sensory tests, children in the TIPs consumed >50 g/d of SR (87 +/- 9 g/d) and SRM (89 +/- 8 g/d) with no difference between the foods (P = 0.55). Despite some replacement of family food, energy (574 kJ/d; P sensory tests that proved insignificant in TIPs. However, TIPs uncovered new concerns of overconsumption and food safety. We found milk did not improve the acceptability of the soy-rice PCF and recommend TIPs as a useful tool for formative research of PCF interventions.

  4. Immunology of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Palmeira

    Full Text Available Summary In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk’s immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant’s ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant’s secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  5. Management practices as risk factors for the presence of bulk milk antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in Irish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Doherty, E; Berry, D P; O' Grady, L; Sayers, R

    2014-06-01

    A survey of management practices in 309 Irish dairy herds was used to identify risk factors for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in extensively managed unvaccinated dairy herds. A previous study documented a herd-level seroprevalence in bulk milk of 49%, 19% and 86% for Salmonella, Neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, respectively in the unvaccinated proportion of these 309 herds in 2009. Association analyses in the present study were carried out using multiple logistic regression models. Herds where cattle were purchased or introduced had a greater likelihood of being positive to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (PNeospora caninum (PNeospora caninum possibly due to limited access of dogs to infected materials including afterbirths. The information from this study will assist in the design of suitable control programmes for the diseases under investigation in pasture-based livestock systems.

  6. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (pchocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  7. Recombinant human milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Human milk provides proteins that benefit newborn infants. They not only provide amino acids, but also facilitate the absorption of nutrients, stimulate growth and development of the intestine, modulate immune function, and aid in the digestion of other nutrients. Breastfed infants have a lower prevalence of infections than formula-fed infants. Since many women in industrialized countries choose not to breastfeed, and an increasing proportion of women in developing countries are advised not to breastfeed because of the risk of HIV transmission, incorporation of recombinant human milk proteins into infant foods is likely to be beneficial. We are expressing human milk proteins known to have anti-infective activity in rice. Since rice is a normal constituent of the diet of infants and children, limited purification of the proteins is required. Lactoferrin has antimicrobial and iron-binding activities. Lysozyme is an enzyme that is bactericidal and also acts synergistically with lactoferrin. These recombinant proteins have biological activities identical to their native counterparts. They are equally resistant to heat processing, which is necessary for food applications, and to acid and proteolytic enzymes which are needed to maintain their biological activity in the gastrointestinal tract of infants. These recombinant human milk proteins may be incorporated into infant formulas, baby foods and complementary foods, and used with the goal to reduce infectious diseases.

  8. Socioeconomic and technical assistance factors related to total bacteria count and somatic cell count of milk from bulk tanks in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gomes Paixão

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the socioeconomic and technical assistance profiles of dairy farmers from six districts in the south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and to identify the possible risk factors associated with total milk bacteria count (TBC above 43,000 CFU mL-1 and bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC above 595,000 cells mL-1. Most of the producers were between 41 and 60 years of age (48.9%, 74.2% did not reach high school, and 72.3% of the respondents were satisfied with their profession, although 63% would not recommend dairy farming to their children. Only 34.7% used periodic technical assistance, but 59.1% consulted it in cases of doubt. The risk factors found in the final multivariable regression models were: TBC (Did not consult technical assistance in case of doubt, OR 3.97, P=0.030; Retirement, OR 9.32, P=0.041 and BMSCC (Producer does not reside on farm, OR 4.06, P=0.046; Presence of technical assistance OR 3.29, P=0.041. It can be concluded that the search for emergency technical assistance, as reported by farmers, was effective against the TBC problems; however, it was ineffective for controlling mastitis in the herd and reducing BMSCC levels. The 10 step mastitis control program from the National Mastitis Council needs to be included on the surveyed farms, especially the permanent advisory technical assistance from veterinarians, aiming towards the establishment of goals for udder health status, reviews and records.

  9. Pregnancy test via milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemes, H.; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Determining a pregnancy through the milk. Wageningen University is researching the possibilities. The first steps have been taken. Researchers have identified five milk proteins that release a signal of a pregnancy. A pregnancy test via the milk comes within sight.

  10. 不同预处理方法对豆浆中抗营养因子的影响%Impact of Pretreatments on Anti-nutritional Factor Retention in Soy Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓倩; 许钰麒; 范志红

    2012-01-01

    豆类中除营养成分外也含有多种抗营养因子,制作豆浆时不同预处理方法可能影响到豆浆中抗营养因子的残留量。本文就浸泡、萌发和去皮3种不同预处理方法对豆浆中胰蛋白酶抑制剂、植酸、单宁等抗营养成分的影响进行综述。与干豆制浆相比,浸泡和萌发处理均可降低所制豆浆中抗营养因子的含量,其中萌发大豆处理去除抗营养因子的效果最佳。%In addition to nutrients, legumes also contain a variety of anti-nutritional factors and different pretreatments of soy milk production may affect the retention of anti-nutritional factors. The effect of soaking, germination and dehulling on soy trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, tannins, saponins and other components was reviewed. Compared with the soy milk made by dry beans, the contents of anti-nutritional factors in soy milk made by soaked and germinated beans both decreased considerably. Germination treatment might be the most effective pretreatments with regard to reducing the content of anti-nutritional factor in soy milk.

  11. Different chronological patterns of appearance of blood derived milk components during mastitis indicate different mechanisms of transfer from blood into milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellnitz, Olga; Zbinden, Christina; Lüttgenau, Johannes; Bollwein, Heinrich; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to describe chronological patterns of changes of various candidate blood components in milk during the acute phase of a mammary immune response in detail. Eight dairy cows were challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in one udder quarter. Milk from challenged and control quarters and blood samples were taken before, and 1 and 2 h after challenge and then every 15 min until 5 h after challenge. The SCC, serum albumin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, IgG2, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and L-lactate in milk and blood, and α-lactalbumin in blood were analysed. All selected parameters in milk increased in challenged quarters but did not increase in control quarters. Milk IgG1, IgG2, serum albumin, and LDH were already significantly increased at 2 h after challenge whereas a significant increase of SCC was detectable at 2.75 h and L-lactate was increased at 2.25 h after challenge. In blood L-lactate was increased at 3.75 h after challenge, however, other factors in blood did not change significantly within the 5 h of experiment. In conclusion, the increase of blood components in milk during inflammation follows two different patterns: There is a rapid increase for IgG1, IgG2, or LDH, before the increase of SCC, and their concentrations reach a plateau within 3 h. On the other hand, SCC and L-lactate show a slower but consistent increase not reaching a plateau within 5 h after LPS challenge. L-lactate increases to higher concentrations in milk than in blood. This clearly shows that the increase of blood components follows different patterns and is therefore a controlled and compound-specific process and not exclusively an unspecific type of leakage.

  12. Milking hygiene: new issues and opportunities from automatic milking

    OpenAIRE

    Lotte Bach Larsen; Morten Dam Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Automatic milking offers the opportunity of in-line measurements of milk components, check of milking and cleaning procedures,and surveillance through the management program. These advantages may directly benefit the milk quality.Diversion of abnormal milk at time of milking is critical to the milk quality. It is proposed to define abnormal milk as milkbeing visibly changed in homogeneity or colour from that of normal milk. Several enzymes and other milk componentsmay be involved in the forma...

  13. Rennet coagulation of heated milk concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Regina; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The high temperature heating of cheese milk is a useful tool for preventing late fermentation during cheese ripening if the renneting properties remain unchanged. The aim of the investigations was to find heating conditions which guarantee the inactivation of clostridia spores but still enable rennet coagulation of the heated milk and milk concentrates respectively. The gel strength of the rennet gels increased the more the casein content increased. The native whey pro...

  14. Dynamic headspace gas chromatography of volatile compounds in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, G

    1987-08-28

    A method is described for investigating volatile compounds in milk. The volatiles are removed from milk by a stream of helium swept at 100 ml/min over the surface of the milk at 70 degrees C. They are trapped on 40 mg of NIOSH charcoal and then desorbed by heat and re-trapped on the front of a chromatographic column of Tenax-GC coated with 1% OV-275, the column being maintained at room temperature during trapping. An amount of 40 mg NIOSH charcoal under these conditions traps over 90% of the total quantity of the lowest boiling compounds swept from the milk, such as acetaldehyde and ethanol, and retains 100% of the total quantity of acetone, propanol and higher boiling compounds from the gas stream. The volume of milk and its temperature affect the ratios of volatiles collected and these factors are useful in increasing the proportion of a volatile of particular interest. The addition of potassium carbonate increases the yield of volatiles from 100 ml aqueous phase but not from 10 ml.

  15. Effects of consumption of oat milk, soya milk, or cow's milk on plasma lipids and antioxidative capacity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onning, G; Akesson, B; Oste, R; Lundquist, I

    1998-01-01

    A drink based on oats has been developed with new technology. In this study the effects of this oat milk, soya milk and cow's milk on plasma lipid, glucose, insulin, and antioxidant status (measured as the ability of serum to suppress the formation of the radical cation ABTS*+) were compared in 24 healthy men and women. Half of the subjects (group A) consumed 0.75-1 liters/day of oat milk and soya milk for 4 weeks each, and the other half (group B) consumed oat milk and cow's milk for two 4-week periods. In the combined groups A plus B the oat milk regimen resulted in decreased plasma cholesterol (4%) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (9%) levels as compared with baseline, but no changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglyceride values were observed. Also soya milk consumption resulted in decreased LDL cholesterol concentrations. The only significant plasma lipid change observed during consumption of cow's milk was an increase in HDL cholesterol. No consistent changes in body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and antioxidant status occurred after consumption of any milk regimen. A significant correlation between baseline antioxidant status and total plasma cholesterol was found (r = -0.56). It is proposed that the high content of beta-glucans in oat milk was responsible for the decreased plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations, but the effect could also be due to a replacement of saturated fat in the customary diet by unsaturated fat. It is concluded that oat milk can be used as an alternative to other milk drinks by subjects who would benefit from reduced LDL cholesterol values.

  16. Effects of Rumen Protected Methionine on Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Earlier Lactating Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Manji; SHAN Anshan

    2008-01-01

    A total of 12 mature healthy Holstein dairy cows of the nearly body weight (580±30) kg, milk yield (22.5±2.8) kg in the early stages of lactation were selected in this experiment. The cows were randomly divided into 2 groups, every group had 6 cows, every group had 6 repeats, and every repeat had I cow. Added 20 g protected methionine in earlier lactating cow food every day. The results showed that protected methionine increased milk yield by 10.83%, testing group milk yield was significantly different than that of control (P<0.05);protected methionine increased milk fat by 5.98%, testing group milk fat was significantly different than that of control (P<0.05);Milk protein increased by 2.15%, but had insignificantly different (P>0.05);dry matter of milk had the tendency of decrease, but had insignificant difference (P>0.05).

  17. Effects of additional milk replacer feeding on calf health, growth, and selected blood metabolites in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, J D; Wolfe, T A; Elsasser, T H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to evaluate effects of increased milk replacer feeding on growth, intake, feed efficiency, and health parameters in stressed calves. Holstein bull calves (n = 120; approximately 3 to 8 d of age) were purchased from sale barns and dairy farms and housed in fiberglass hutches. In addition, wood shavings contaminated with coronavirus were mixed with clean shavings and added to each hutch before the start of the experiment. Calves were fed either a fixed amount (454 g/d) of a 20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat milk replacer to weaning at 28 d or a variable amount (454, 681, 908, and 454 g/d on d 0 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 31, and 32 to 41, respectively) of a milk replacer containing 28% CP and 17% fat without or with added dietary supplement containing bovine serum. Calves were also fed commercial calf starter and water ad libitum. Plasma IgG concentration in most calves on arrival at the facility was feed efficiency, morbidity and mortality, and selected plasma metabolites were determined. Body weight at 28 d, 56 d, daily body weight gain, intake of milk replacer, fecal scores, days with diarrhea, and days treated with antibiotics were increased with feeding variable amount of milk replacer over the 56-d study. Starter intake from d 1 to 56 was reduced from 919 to 717 g/d in calves fed fixed and variable amounts of milk replacer, respectively. Morbidity, measured as the number of days that calves had diarrhea, was increased by 53% when a variable amount of milk replacer was fed. Calves fed variable milk replacer were treated with antibiotics for 3.1 d compared with 1.9 d for calves fed 454 g of milk replacer/d. Concentrations of plasma glucose, urea N, and insulin-like growth factor-I were increased when calves were fed variable amount of milk replacer. Dietary supplement containing bovine serum had no effect on any parameter measured. There was no effect of milk replacer feeding on concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, total

  18. Modification of the analysis of parathyroid hormone-related protein in milk and concentrations of this protein in commercial milk and milk products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, K; Yamaguchi, M; Ohashi, M; Sato, R; Ochiai, H; Iriki, T; Wada, Y

    2010-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), which causes hypercalcemia associated with malignant tumors, is known to be present in milk. Gene expression of PTHrP in the mammary gland increases markedly during parturition and with the onset of lactation. Even when circulating PTHrP levels are extremely low or below the detection limit, milk PTHrP levels are remarkably high. Parathyroid hormone-related protein derived from the mammary gland is assumed to play a role in maintaining the maternal calcium homeostasis and calcium transport from blood to milk. In previous studies that determined the PTHrP concentrations in milk, the pretreatments and diluent composition were not standardized. Here, we investigated the effect of various pretreatment procedures and diluent constitutions and the consequent PTHrP concentrations in commercial milk and milk products in Japan. Significant differences were found in PTHrP concentrations in raw milk samples subjected to different combinations of pretreatments (mixing, centrifugation, acidification, and heating) and diluents (0pM standard solution of PTHrP, plasma treated with protease inhibitors, and original diluent). We measured the PTHrP concentrations in normal liquid milk, processed milk, milk drinks, formulated milk powders, and skim milk powder by using the appropriate combination of pretreatment (acidification) and diluent (plasma treated with protease inhibitors). The PTHrP concentration in normal liquid milk, processed milk, and skim milk powder was as high as that in raw milk (>5nM), whereas that in milk drinks differed considerably. The PTHrP concentration in infant formulas (PTHrP is ingested when milk and milk products are consumed. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification.

  20. Potential estimation of titratable acidity in cow milk using mid-infrared spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Colinet, Frédéric; Soyeurt, Hélène; Anceau, Christine; Vanlierde, Amélie; Keyen, Nicolas; Pierre DARDENNE; Gengler, Nicolas; Sindic, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Milk coagulation has a direct effect on cheese yield. Several factors influence the milk coagulation kinetics. In addition to calcium and milk protein concentrations, titratable acidity influences all the phases of milk coagulation. The objective of this research was to study the feasibility of prediction of titratable acidity directly in bovine milk using mid-infrared spectrometry. In order to maximize the variability in the measurements of titratable acidity, milk samples were collected on ...

  1. Effects of Prolactin and Leptin on Gene Expressions of Milk Proteins and Key Factors Related to Milk Protein Synthesis of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells%催乳素和瘦素对奶牛乳腺上皮细胞乳蛋白及乳蛋白合成信号通路关键因子基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜瑞平; 王春艳; 张兴夫; 高民

    2015-01-01

    protein synthesis of bovine mammary epithelial cells under pri-mary culture condition. The primary bovine mammary epithelial cells ( pBMECs) were cultured by collagenase digestion. The epithelial origin of pBMECs was identified by morphological observation, growth curve assay and specific milk protein gene expressions detection. There were four treatments with four concentrations of prolactin (0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0μg/mL, respectively), leptin concentration was the same (100 ng/mL), and each treatment had six replicates. Thiazole blue ( MTT) assay was used to detected the effects of prolactin and leptin on cells proliferation, and real time PCR was used to assay the effects of prolactin and leptin on gene ex-pressions of main milk proteins [α-casein,β-casein,κ-casein andβ-lactoglobulin (β-LGB) ] , Janus kinase 2 ( JAK2) , signal transduction and transcription activator 5 ( STAT5 ) and mammalian target of rapamycin ( mTOR) . The results showed that based on certain concentration of leptin ( 100 ng/mL ) , compared with 0 μg/mL prolactin treatment: the treatments of 0.1 and 1.0 μg/mL prolactin significantly promoted pBMECs proliferation (P<0.05); the treatments of 0.1 and 10.0 μg/mL prolactin significantly decreased the gene ex-pressions of αs1-casein, αs2-casein, β-casein and β-LGB(P<0.05); the treatment of 1.0 μg/mL prolactin significantly increased the gene expressions ofαs1-casein,κ-casein,β-LGB ( P<0.05);all supplemental treat-ments of prolactin exerted promotion effects on JAK2 gene expression ( P<0. 05 ); only the treatment of 1.0 μg/mL prolactin significantly increased STAT5 and mTOR gene expressions ( P<0. 05 ) . In conclusion, based on 100 ng/mL leptin in culture medium, positive effects of prolactin on gene expressions of milk pro-teins and key factors related to milk protein synthesis are observed, but the concentration should be limited in a certain range (0.1 to 1.0 μg/mL), and reverse inhibition effects emerge with high or low concentration

  2. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  3. Milk: the new sports drink? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Brian D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been growing interest in the potential use of bovine milk as an exercise beverage, especially during recovery from resistance training and endurance sports. Based on the limited research, milk appears to be an effective post-resistance exercise beverage that results in favourable acute alterations in protein metabolism. Milk consumption acutely increases muscle protein synthesis, leading to an improved net muscle protein balance. Furthermore, when post-exercise milk consumption is combined with resistance training (12 weeks minimum, greater increases in muscle hypertrophy and lean mass have been observed. Although research with milk is limited, there is some evidence to suggest that milk may be an effective post-exercise beverage for endurance activities. Low-fat milk has been shown to be as effective, if not more effective, than commercially available sports drinks as a rehydration beverage. Milk represents a more nutrient dense beverage choice for individuals who partake in strength and endurance activities, compared to traditional sports drinks. Bovine low-fat fluid milk is a safe and effective post exercise beverage for most individuals, except for those who are lactose intolerant. Further research is warranted to better delineate the possible applications and efficacy of bovine milk in the field of sports nutrition.

  4. Milk: the new sports drink? A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Brian D

    2008-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the potential use of bovine milk as an exercise beverage, especially during recovery from resistance training and endurance sports. Based on the limited research, milk appears to be an effective post-resistance exercise beverage that results in favourable acute alterations in protein metabolism. Milk consumption acutely increases muscle protein synthesis, leading to an improved net muscle protein balance. Furthermore, when post-exercise milk consumption is combined with resistance training (12 weeks minimum), greater increases in muscle hypertrophy and lean mass have been observed. Although research with milk is limited, there is some evidence to suggest that milk may be an effective post-exercise beverage for endurance activities. Low-fat milk has been shown to be as effective, if not more effective, than commercially available sports drinks as a rehydration beverage. Milk represents a more nutrient dense beverage choice for individuals who partake in strength and endurance activities, compared to traditional sports drinks. Bovine low-fat fluid milk is a safe and effective post exercise beverage for most individuals, except for those who are lactose intolerant. Further research is warranted to better delineate the possible applications and efficacy of bovine milk in the field of sports nutrition.

  5. Estimation of the antioxidant activity of the commercially available fermented milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Free radicals are connected with the increased risk of certain diseases, especially cancers. There is some scientific evidence that antioxidant-rich diet may inhibit the negative impact of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to analyse the antioxidant capacity of the selected commercial natural and flavoured fermented milks offered in Poland, derived from different producers. Material and methods. The following commercially available natural fermented milks: 12 yoghurts, 12 kefirs, 2 butter milks, 2 cultured milks, Turkish yoghurt drink (ayran and the following flavoured fermented milks: 22 yoghurts, 2 acidophillus milks, 2 kefirs, butter milk and vegetable flavoured fermented milk were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The antioxidant capacity was assessed, in two replicates and twice for each product, by means of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging ability (expressed as ARP – anti radical power methods. Results. Among all analysed plain products, yoghurts and kefirs were characterised by the highest antioxi- dant activity. The presence of probiotic Lactobacillus casei strains in the product positively affected both FRAP and ARP values. Antioxidant capacity of the flavoured fermented milks was primarily affected by the type and quality (e.g. fruit concentration of the added flavouring preparation. The most valuable regarding the estimated parameters were chocolate, coffee, grapefruit with green tea extract as well as bilberry, forest fruits, strawberry and cherry with blackcurrant fillings. Conclusions. Protein content, inclusion of probiotic microflora as well as type and quality of flavouring preparations are the main factors affecting antioxidant properties of fermented milks.

  6. Breast milk sharing via the internet: the practice and health and safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; McNamara, Kelly A; Jayadeva, Chenali M; Braun, Ashlea C; Dillon, Chelsea E; Geraghty, Sheela R

    2014-08-01

    To characterize the practice of breast milk sharing via the internet in the US and examine factors associated with participants' communication regarding potential health and safety risks. This cross-sectional study examined all original postings (n = 254) placed during 1 week in 2011 on four websites to facilitate the sharing of breast milk. Postings were characterized for intent and health and safety topics (i.e., selling vs. donating milk, hygiene/handling practices, infectious disease screening, diet/exercise habits, substance and pharmaceutical use, milk quality claims, price) communicated between milk providers and recipients. Approximately 69% of postings were providing milk and 31% were seeking milk; 47% included identifiers. Few provider postings reflected measures to potentially reduce risks to recipients: 20% mentioned using a healthy handling/hygiene practice, 11% offered specifics about infectious disease screening, 51% mentioned limiting/abstaining from 1+ substances. The presence of indications about handling/hygiene, diet/exercise, and abstaining from substances were strongly positively associated with each other (ORs 7.42-13.80), with the odds of selling (ORs 6.03-∞), and with making quality claims (ORs 3.14-13.54), but not with disease screening. One-fifth of recipients sought milk for a child with a medical condition or poor birth outcome. Most recipients (90%) did not specify any health and safety practices of a provider in their posting. Health behaviors and screening for diseases that may affect milk safety are not prominent topics in postings seeking to share milk. This lack of communication may exacerbate the health risks to recipient infants, especially infants at increased risk due to pre-existing health conditions.

  7. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  8. DETERMINANTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DOMESTIC MARKET OF MILK UNDER CONDITIONS OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemova E. I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study does a comprehensive analysis of the milk market in Russia and Krasnodar territory under conditions of a food embargo; defines the influence of the food embargo on the possibility of import substitution of milk and dairy products , and does an assessment of factors affecting the increase in the efficiency and competitiveness of the dairy sector, including the quality characteristics of the products, the possibilities of using natural milk substitutes, the environmental safety of raw milk. The study gives the estimation of milk self-sufficiency in Russia and identifies the opportunities to compensate for the missing volume. There has been done a comparative analysis of the subjects of the Russian Federation in terms of development indexes in the industry of dairy cattle breeding in the agricultural organizations, which found competitive advantages of Leningrad Region in milk yield per cow and Vologda region in feed conversion. The study reveals poorly equipped genetic testing laboratories and animal breeding quality control of milk in most regions of the Russian Federation . It states that the economic crisis in Russia has caused acceleration of inflation and a rise in prices for milk and dairy products in the consumer market; the purchasing power of incomes of the population (commercial equivalent - drinking milk has declined. In order to develop the milk market and the implementation of policies of import substitution it is necessary to improve the system of state regulation of the agrarian sector, including the creation of favorable conditions for the development of public-private partnership, ensuring the availability of credit resources, the adaptation of the regulatory framework governing the market relations in the agrarian sector, support for high-performance production sites, as well as the implementation of the policy of agricultural protectionism.

  9. Milk yield differences between 1x and 4x milking are associated with changes in mammary mitochondrial number and milk protein gene expression, but not mammary cell apoptosis or "SOCS" gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milking frequency is known to affect milk production and lactation persistence in dairy cows. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying this effect are only partially understood. Previous work in dairy cows examining increases in milk yield due to increased milking frequency have identified changes in...

  10. Study on Variation and Effect Factors of Milk Protein Percentage by DHI Data%利用DHI数据对奶牛乳蛋白率变化规律及影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁春玲; 刘太红; 李馨

    2015-01-01

    The milk yield, milk fat percentage and milk protein percentage are the main indicators to evaluate milk performance of cows and they are the key effect factors to the economic beneifts of large-scale dairy farms. Being an important component of affecting the milk quality, milk protein percentage is inlfuenced by multiple factors. In our study, we analyzed the effects of the individual and the environmental factors on the milk protein percentage using the least square method by investigating 4864 DHI data of cows of Zhaoyuan dairy farm in Daqing from 2010 to 2013. The results indicated that the milk protein percentage for the dairy herd was 3.27±0.48%,and 72.4% individual cows milk protein percentage were higher than 2.95%.The natural months, calving season, lactation and parity could signiifcantly inlfuence milk protein percentage (P<0.05). It was positively correlated with somatic cell score (SCS) (r=0.196), but was inversely related to daily milk yield (r=-0.647). Our results may provide the scientiifc basis for the feeding and management of dairy farm and the monitoring of milk quality.%奶牛的产奶量、乳脂率和乳蛋白率是衡量其泌乳性能的主要指标,也是规模化奶牛场获取高效益的关键。乳蛋白率是决定牛奶品质的重要指标,受许多因素的影响。本研究通过调查大庆肇源某奶牛场2010年-2013年奶牛个体4864条DHI数据,利用最小二乘法估计了奶牛群体平均乳蛋白率及其个体分布,分析了个体和环境因素对乳蛋白率的影响。结果表明,牛群的平均乳蛋白率为3.27±0.48%,72.4%的奶牛个体乳蛋白率高于2.95%,自然月份、季节、泌乳阶段和胎次对乳蛋白率影响显著(P<0.05)。乳蛋白率与体细胞评分呈正相关(r=0.196),与日产奶量呈负相关(r=-0.647)。

  11. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope trophic enrichment factors for Steller sea lion vibrissae relative to milk and fish/invertebrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Craig A.; Christ, Aaron M.; Wunder, Michael B.; Doll, Andrew C.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Rosen, David A. S.; Scherer, R. D.; Tollit, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional constraints have been proposed as a contributor to population declines in the endangered Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in some regions of the North Pacific. Isotopic analysis of vibrissae (whiskers) is a potentially useful approach to resolving the nutritional ecology of this species because long-term (up to 8 yr) dietary information is sequentially recorded and metabolically inert once formed. Additionally, vibrissae are grown in utero, potentially offering indirect inference on maternal diet. However, diet reconstruction using isotopic techniques requires a priori knowledge of trophic enrichment factors (TEFs), which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. In this study, we provide new TEF estimates for (1) maternal relative to pup vibrissae during both gestation and nursing and (2) adult vibrissae relative to a complex diet. Further, we refine vibrissa-milk TEFs based on an additional 76 animals with an age distribution ranging from 1 to 20 mo. Mother-pup vibrissae TEF values during gestation and nursing were near zero for δ13C and averaged 0.8 and 1.6‰, respectively, for δ15N. In contrast, vibrissa-fish/invertebrate TEFs averaged 3.3 (± 0.3 SD) and 3.7‰ (±0.3) for lipid-free δ13C and δ15N, respectively. Average lipid-free δ13C and δ15N vibrissa-milk TEFs were 2.5 (±0.9) and 1.8‰ (±0.8), respectively, and did not differ among metapopulations. Empirically determined TEFs are critical for accurate retrospective diet modeling, particularly for evaluating the hypothesis of nutritional deficiency contributing to the lack of Steller sea lion population recovery in some regions of Alaska.

  12. Nonprofit Human Milk Banking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegrove, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Human milk, widely understood to be beneficial for infants, can be lifesaving for preterm neonates, especially in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Donor human milk (DHM) is an option when mothers are unable to provide milk or have an inadequate supply for their infants. Nonprofit donor human milk banks are established to provide safe, processed human milk from milk donated by healthy lactating mothers who have undergone a rigorous screening process. These milk banks, operating under the auspices of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America, obtain, process, and dispense human milk under strict guidelines set by the association. Increasing the supply of donor human milk to meet a dramatic increase in demand poses a significant challenge for nonprofit milk banks. Efforts to increase supply nationwide include education of providers, use of social media to engage potential donors, and outreach to news media. In parallel, milk banks are establishing regional depots to collect donations, and additional milk banks are being developed. This article describes the current nonprofit milk bank industry in the United States, its challenges, and its future prospects. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  13. Milk and dairy products: a unique micronutrient combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins, which contribute to multiple and different vital functions in the organism. The mineral fraction is composed of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl) and oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). From a physicochemical point of view, the chemical forms, the associations with other ions or organic molecules, and the location of macroelements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl in milk are relatively well described and understood. Thus, it is admitted that these macroelements are differently distributed into aqueous and micellar phases of milk, depending on their nature. K, Na, and Cl ions are essentially in the aqueous phase, whereas Ca, P, and Mg are partly bound to the casein micelles. About one third of the Ca, half of the P, and two thirds of the Mg are located in the aqueous phase of milk. Dairy products are more or less rich in these different minerals. In cheeses, mineral content depends mainly on their processing. The Ca content is strongly related to the acidification step. Moreover, if acidification is associated with the draining step, the Ca content in the cheese will be reduced. Thus, the Ca content varies in the following increasing order: milks/fermented milks/fresh cheeses dairy products are important sources of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Se. The vitamin fraction of milk and dairy products is composed of lipophilic (A, D, E, and K) and hydrophilic (B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(8), B(9), B(12), and C) vitamins. Because of their hydrophobic properties, the lipophilic vitamins are mainly in the milk fat fraction (cream, butter). The hydrophilic vitamins are in the aqueous phase of milk. For one part of these vitamins, the concentrations described in the literature are not always homogenous and sometimes not in accordance between them; these discrepancies are due to the difficulty of the sample preparation and the use of appropriate methods for their quantification. However, there is no

  14. 母乳中胰岛素水平及其影响因素%Insulin level in human milk and its associated factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗亚平; 孙秀静; 王丹华

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究正常产妇、妊娠期糖尿病(gestational diabetes mellitus,GDM)和妊娠期糖耐量受损(gestational impaired glucose tolerance,GIGT)产妇母乳中的胰岛素水平,分析其可能的相关因素,探讨母乳胰岛素水平对新生儿体格生长发育的影响. 方法收集148例正常产妇、46例GDM/GIGT产妇的初乳及产后42 d成熟乳,放射免疫法测定胰岛素的浓度.胰岛素浓度采用中位数(M)和百分位数间距(P25~P75)表示,组间胰岛素水平比较采用配对资料的Wilcoxon符号秩检验. 结果 (1)GDM/GIGT组初乳胰岛素浓度为28.81μU/ml(13.84~43.14μU/ml),显著低于成熟乳胰岛素浓度,为57.50μU/ml(36.70~82.73μU/ml)(Z=-4.828,P<0.05),正常组成熟乳胰岛素浓度为35.88μU/ml(25.91~46.85μU/ml),低于GDM/GIGT组成熟乳胰岛素浓度(Z=-2.874,P<0.05);(2)剖宫产者初乳胰岛素浓度为23.64μU/ml(14.90~38.51 μU/ml),显著低于阴道分娩者初乳胰岛素浓度,为38.89μU/ml(23.14~65.54μU/ml)(Z=-4.510,P<0.05);(3)混合喂养者的成熟乳胰岛素浓度为42.58μU/ml(26.60~73.06μU/ml),明显高于纯母乳喂养者的成熟乳胰岛素浓度,为36.32μU/ml(26.00~46.16μU/ml)(Z=-2.377,P<0.05).(4)初乳和成熟乳胰岛素浓度分别与产妇孕前/产前/产后体重指数呈正相关(P<0.05). 结论分娩方式影响了初乳中胰岛素水平.GDM或GIGT以及喂养方式对成熟乳胰岛素水平有显著影响;母乳的胰岛素水平与产妇的BMI呈正相关.%Objective To determine the human milk insulin(HMI) concentrations of healthy,gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) lactating mothers and their correlative factors and to explore the effect of HMI on growth and development of neonates. Methods HMI of colostrum and mature milk collected from 148 healthy lactating mothers and 46 GDM/GIGT mothers were determined by radioimmnuoassay. The intergroup HMI levels were compared by Wilcoxon test

  15. Step behaviour and autonomic nervous system activity in multiparous dairy cows during milking in a herringbone milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kézér, F L; Kovács, L; Tőzsér, J

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural and cardiac responses of multiparous dairy cows (n=24) during milking in a 2×4 stall herringbone milking system were evaluated in this study. Heart rate (HR), parasympathetic tone index (high frequency component, HF) of heart rate variability and sympathovagal balance indicator LF/HF ratio (the ratio of the low frequency (LF) and the HF component) were analysed. Measurement periods were established as follows: (1) standing calm (baseline), (2) udder preparation, (3) milking, (4) waiting after milking in the milking stall and (5) in the night (2 h after milking). Step behaviour was recorded and calculated per minute for the three phases of the milking process (udder preparation, milking and waiting after milking). HR was higher during udder preparation and milking compared with baseline (P=0.03, 0.027, respectively). HF was significantly lower than baseline levels during waiting in the milking stall after milking (P=0.009), however, during udder preparation, milking and 2 h after milking did not differ from baseline (P>0.05, in either case). LF/HF during the three phases of the milking process differed neither from baseline levels nor from each other. Steps occurred more often during waiting after milking than during udder preparation (P=0.042) or during milking (23; P=0.017). Our results suggest that the milking procedure itself was not stressful for these animals. After milking (following the removal of the last teat cup and before leaving the milking stall), both decreased parasympathetic tone (lower HF) and increased stepping rate indicated a sensitive period for animals during this phase.

  16. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  17. State support as factor of increase of innovative activity of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Bondarenko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted research of factors of increase of innovative activity of enterprise, the indexes of innovative activity of industrial enterprises are analysed in Ukraine, the necessity of creation of attractive terms is grounded for development of innovative activity and increase of innovative activity of management subjects at state level, the forms of state support as factor of increase of innovative activity of industrial enterprises are considered.

  18. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

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    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  19. Transfer of dietary zinc and fat to milk--evaluation of milk fat quality, milk fat precursors, and mastitis indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiking, L; Larsen, T; Sehested, J

    2008-04-01

    The present study demonstrated that the zinc concentration in bovine milk and blood plasma is significantly affected by the intake of saturated fat supplements. Sixteen Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4 periods of 12 d, and 4 dietary treatments were conducted. A total mixed ration based on corn silage, grass-clover silages, and pelleted sugar beet pulp was used on all treatments. A high de novo milk fat diet was formulated by adding rapeseed meal and molasses in the total mixed ration [39 mg of Zn/kg of dry matter (DM)], and a low de novo diet by adding saturated fat, fat-rich rapeseed cake, and corn (34 mg of Zn/kg of DM). Dietary Zn levels were increased by addition of ZnO to 83 and 80 mg of Zn/kg of DM. Treatments did not affect daily DM intake, or yield of energy-corrected milk, milk fat, or milk protein. The high de novo diet significantly increased milk fat percentage and milk content of fatty acids with chain length from C6 to C16, and decreased content of C18 and C18:1. Treatments did not influence milk free fatty acids at 4 degrees C at 0 or 28 h after milking. The average diameter of milk fat globules was significantly greater in milk from cows offered low de novo diets. Furthermore, the low de novo diet significantly increased the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and d-beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood plasma, the latter was also increased in milk. Treatments did not affect the enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase in milk or the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in blood plasma. The low de novo diet significantly increased plasma Zn and milk Zn content, whereas dietary Zn level did not in itself influence these parameters. This indicates that the transfer of fat from diet to milk might facilitate transfer of Zn from diet to milk.

  20. Neural prediction of cows' milk yield according to environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Piotr

    data were used to create a neural prediction model evaluating the cows' milk yield under ... At the same ... The numerical data, that is, the number of milking cows and the ..... selected factors on the milk yield, somatic cells content and chemical.

  1. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  2. Effect of Camel's Milk on Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Swiss Albino Mice

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    Mohamed M.E. Afifi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nephrotoxicity is a major complication and a dose limiting factor for cisplatin therapy. Cisplatin mediated nephrotoxicity is remarkably documented by reactive oxygen species. Camel's milk has good nutritive value, antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of camel's milk against Cisplatin-induced renal oxidative stress in mice. Approach: Forty mal Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10. Group I, control group. Group II was received cisplatin (12 mg kg-1 for 5 alternate days. Group III was received camel's milk (33 mL kg-1 for consecutive 30 days. Group IV was received camel's milk (33 mL kg-1 for consecutive 30 days before administration of Cisplatin. Results: Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress was indicated by increased level of tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA, serum creatinine and urea, decreased the concentration of reduced Glutathione (GSH, Vitamin C (Vit. C and Vitamin E (Vit. E and decreased both activities and gene expression of Superoxid Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT, Glutathione Raductase (GR and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx. Camel's milk reduced these biochemical changes and counteracted the deleterious effects of cisplatin Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the renoprotective potential of camel's milk against cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in mice. Hence, camel's milk has a potential to be used as therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

  3. Human milk banking-facts and issues to resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpeleijn, Willemijn E; Vermeulen, Marijn J; van Vliet, Ineke; Kruger, Caroline; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2010-07-01

    The number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their mother's milk are well documented, less is known about the effects of feeding these infants with pasteurized donor milk. We propose a randomized trial comparing the effects of a 100% human milk-based diet (human milk supplemented with a human milk-derived fortifier) and a diet (partially) based on bovine milk. In theory, human milk has a beneficial effect on various aspects of human physiology, most of which become apparent after infancy. We therefore propose an extensive follow-up program that takes this aspect into consideration. Other issues concerning the practice of human milk banks need to be addressed as well as optimization of the feeding strategies for preterm infants.

  4. Human Milk Banking–Facts and Issues to Resolve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijn E. Corpeleijn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their