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Sample records for factors including sex

  1. Sex Education and Student Rights: Including the Missing Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    In the West, sex education has always been a taboo subject that continues to challenge the public schools. Drawing on recent developments in some Canadian provinces, I argue that we cannot begin to address the issue of responsible sex education until we first acknowledge that students themselves have a moral and constitutional right to this kind…

  2. Factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica: a cross-sectional study.

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    Logie, Carmen H; Wang, Ying; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Jones, Nicolette; Ahmed, Uzma; Levermore, Kandasi; Neil, Ava; Ellis, Tyrone; Bryan, Nicolette; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A

    2017-04-06

    Transgender women are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Transgender women involved in sex work may experience exacerbated violence, social exclusion, and HIV vulnerabilities, in comparison with non-sex work-involved transgender women. Scant research has investigated sex work among transgender women in the Caribbean, including Jamaica, where transgender women report pervasive violence. The study objective was to examine factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica. In 2015, we implemented a cross-sectional survey using modified peer-driven recruitment with transgender women in Kingston and Ocho Rios, Jamaica, in collaboration with a local community-based AIDS service organization. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with paid sex and transactional sex. Exchanging oral, anal or vaginal sex for money only was categorized as paid sex. Exchanging sex for survival needs (food, accommodation, transportation), drugs or alcohol, or for money along with survival needs and/or drugs/alcohol, was categorized as transactional sex. Among 137 transgender women (mean age: 24.0 [SD: 4.5]), two-thirds reported living in the Kingston area. Overall, 25.2% reported being HIV-positive. Approximately half (n = 71; 51.82%) reported any sex work involvement, this included sex in exchange for: money (n = 64; 47.06%); survival needs (n = 27; 19.85%); and drugs/alcohol (n = 6; 4.41%). In multivariable analyses, paid sex and transactional sex were both associated with: intrapersonal (depression), interpersonal (lower social support, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, multiple partners/polyamory), and structural (transgender stigma, unemployment) factors. Participants reporting transactional sex also reported increased odds of incarceration perceived to be due to transgender identity, forced sex, homelessness, and lower resilience, in comparison with participants reporting

  3. Factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Findings reveal high HIV infection rates among transgender women in Jamaica. Sex work-involved participants experience social and structural drivers of HIV, including violence, stigma, and unemployment. Transgender women involved in transactional sex also experience high rates of incarceration, forced sex and homelessness in comparison with non-sex workers. Taken together, these findings suggest that social ecological factors elevate HIV exposure among sex work-involved transgender women in Jamaica. Findings can inform interventions to advance human rights and HIV prevention and care cascades with transgender women in Jamaica.

  4. Selling and buying sex: a longitudinal study of risk and protective factors in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E

    2012-06-01

    Engaging in trading sex is associated with many co-occurring problems, including elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections. Various dimensions of social support from parents, schools, and mentors may be protective against sex trading and may ameliorate the impact of risk factors. This study analyzes data from respondents to Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who had not participated in sex trading for money or drugs in Wave I so that risk and protective factors for first initiations of selling or buying sex could be examined longitudinally. About 2% of the study sample began selling sex and about 2% began buying sex between Wave I and Wave III. The respondent's sex, race/ethnicity, history of sexual abuse, shoplifting, marijuana use, and experiences of homelessness or running away were significant predictors of trading sex (p intervention for youth who experience sexual abuse or running away. Elements of school connectedness have a protective effect on selling and buying sex. Promoting school connectedness may advance public health goals.

  5. Factors in the Determination of Intimate Same-Sex Friendship

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    Knapp, Craig W.; Harwood, B. Thomas

    1977-01-01

    Five hundred unmarried male and female college students were administered a questionnaire and instructed to rate the importance of 39 variables in the formation of an intimate, same-sex friendship. Six factors emerged: Initial attraction, personableness, proximity, attitudinal similarity, intimate accessibility, and reciprocal candor. (BD)

  6. Determinant Factors of Attitude towards Quantitative Subjects: Differences between Sexes

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    Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, almost all curricula in the social sciences contain at least one course in statistics, given the importance of this discipline as an analytical tool. This work identifies the latent factors relating to students' motivation and attitude towards statistics, tests their covariance structure for samples of both sexes, and identifies the…

  7. A new marker based on the avian spindlin gene that is able to sex most birds, including species problematic to sex with CHD markers.

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    Dawson, Deborah A; Dos Remedios, Natalie; Horsburgh, Gavin J

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a new marker (Z43B) that can be successfully used to identify the sex of most birds (69%), including species difficult or impossible to sex with other markers. We utilized the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata EST microsatellite sequence (CK309496) which displays sequence homology to the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the avian spindlin gene. This gene is known to be present on the Z and W chromosomes. To maximize cross-species utility, the primer set was designed from a consensus sequence created from homologs of CK309496 that were isolated from multiple distantly related species. Both the forward and reverse primer sequences were 100% identical to 14 avian species, including the Z chromosome of eight species and the chicken Gallus gallus W chromosome, as well as the saltwater crocodile Crocodylus porosus. The Z43B primer set was assessed by genotyping individuals of known sex belonging to 61 non-ratite species and a single ratite. The Z and W amplicons differed in size making it possible to distinguish between males (ZZ) and females (ZW) for the majority (69%) of non-ratite species tested, comprising 10 orders of birds. We predict that this marker will be useful for obtaining sex-typing data for ca 6,869 species of birds (69% of non-ratites but not galliforms). A wide range of species could be sex-typed including passerines, shorebirds, eagles, falcons, bee-eaters, cranes, shags, parrots, penguins, ducks, and a ratite species, the brown kiwi, Apteryx australis. Those species sexed include species impossible or problematic to sex-type with other markers (magpie, albatross, petrel, eagle, falcon, crane, and penguin species). Zoo Biol. 35:533-545, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex

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    Williamson Avis J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

  9. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

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    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  10. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

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    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  11. Factors influencing HIV infection in men who have sex with men in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Lv Xu; Man-Hong Jia; Xiang-Dong Min; Ren-Zhong Zhang; Chun-Jie Yu; Jue Wang; You-Fang Li

    2013-01-01

    To identify risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and to provide a theoretical basis for prevention interventions.Between December 2011 and August 2012,a case-control study was conducted among MSM who underwent voluntary counselling and testing for HIV.Confirmed HIV-positive MSM were included in the case group,and HIV-negative MSM were included in the control group.Information on possible risk factors was collected by a survey questionnaire and a qualitative interview.The results of a conditional logistic regression showed that the following were influencing factors for H IV infection:average monthly income between 2001 and 3000 Yuan (odds ratio (0R)=6.341,95% Cl:1.714-12.544),only sometimes using condoms when having anal sex with men in the last 6 months (0R=7.601,95% CI:1.359-23.083),having HIV-positive sex partners (0R=5.273,95% Cl:1.572-17.691),rectal trauma with bleeding in the last 6 months (0R=2.947,95% CI:1.308-6.638),not using condoms at last sexual encounter (OR=1.278,95% CI:1.012-5.595),engaging in commercial sex (0R=5.925,95% CI:1.923-13.890) and having more than 16 sex partners in the last 6 months (0R=1.175,95% Cl:1.021-1.353).These seven factors were the risk factors of HIV infection (OR> 1).However,having anal sex less than 10 times in the previous 1 month (OR=0.002,95% CI:0.000-0.287) was a protective factor against HIV infection among MSM (OR<1),and insertive (0R=0.116,95% Cl:0.000-0.236) (OR<1) anal intercourse influenced HIV infection.Interventions should be targeted at MSM whose average monthly income is between 2001 and 3000 Yuan,and who engage in commercial sex.In addition,the importance of using condoms at every sexual encounter should be emphasised in health education,as should the treatment of rectal trauma with bleeding.Finally,MSM should decrease the number of sex partners and frequency of anal sex to decrease the rate of HIV infection.

  12. What is best practice in sex and relationship education? A synthesis of evidence, including stakeholders' views.

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    Pound, Pandora; Denford, Sarah; Shucksmith, Janet; Tanton, Clare; Johnson, Anne M; Owen, Jenny; Hutten, Rebecca; Mohan, Leanne; Bonell, Chris; Abraham, Charles; Campbell, Rona

    2017-07-02

    Sex and relationship education (SRE) is regarded as vital to improving young people's sexual health, but a third of schools in England lacks good SRE and government guidance is outdated. We aimed to identify what makes SRE programmes effective, acceptable, sustainable and capable of faithful implementation. This is a synthesis of findings from five research packages that we conducted (practitioner interviews, case study investigation, National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, review of reviews and qualitative synthesis). We also gained feedback on our research from stakeholder consultations. Primary research and stakeholder consultations were conducted in the UK. Secondary research draws on studies worldwide. Our findings indicate that school-based SRE and school-linked sexual health services can be effective at improving sexual health. We found professional consensus that good programmes start in primary school. Professionals and young people agreed that good programmes are age-appropriate, interactive and take place in a safe environment. Some young women reported preferring single-sex classes, but young men appeared to want mixed classes. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should take a 'life skills' approach and not focus on abstinence. Young people advocated a 'sex-positive' approach but reported this was lacking. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should discuss risks, but young people indicated that approaches to risk need revising. Professionals felt teachers should be involved in SRE delivery, but many young people reported disliking having their teachers deliver SRE and we found that key messages could become lost when interpreted by teachers. The divergence between young people and professionals was echoed by stakeholders. We developed criteria for best practice based on the evidence. We identified key features of effective and acceptable SRE. Our best practice criteria can be used to evaluate existing programmes

  13. Engagement in transactional sex among men who have sex with men in Latin America: A multilevel analysis of economic, sociodemographic, and psychosocial factors

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    Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Biello, Katie B.; Landers, Stewart J.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Novak, David S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess factors associated with engagement in transactional sex among MSM recruited from one of the largest Internet sites for men seeking social or sexual interactions with other men in Latin America. Methods Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed to assess factors associated with engagement in transactional sex in 17 Latin American countries. Results Of 24,051 respondents, 1,732 (7.2%) reported being paid for sex in the past 12 months. In a multivariable model, higher country-level unemployment was associated with increased odds of transactional sex (aOR 1.07 per 1-percent increase in unemployment, 95%CI 1.00-1.13). Individual or interpersonal factors associated with increased odds of engagement in transactional sex included self-reported HIV (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.04-1.69) or sexually transmitted infection (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.59), childhood sexual abuse history (aOR 1.75, 95%CI 1.48-2.06), intimate partner violence (past 5 years, aOR 1.68, 95%CI 1.45-1.95), and sexual compulsivity (aOR 1.77, 95%CI 1.49-2.11). Conclusions Structural-level economic interventions as well as those that address individual and interpersonal factors may improve HIV prevention efforts among MSM who engage in transactional sex. PMID:25790381

  14. Serum chemistry reference values in adult Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) including sex-related differences.

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    Scholtz, N; Halle, I; Flachowsky, G; Sauerwein, H

    2009-06-01

    Serum chemistry reference values may provide useful information about the physical condition of individuals, making them a useful tool in differentiating normal and healthy animals from abnormal or diseased states. For Japanese quail that are used for producing eggs and meat for human consumption and also as laboratory animals, we aimed to extend the available array of reference values and to compare 16-wk-old adult male versus female birds. In the present study, clinical chemistry data (albumin, total protein, glucose, uric acid, cholesterol, bilirubin, cholinesterase, creatinine, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase) in blood serum from up to 125 male and 151 female Japanese quail were established. Statistical comparisons were made between male and female birds. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholinesterase, and bilirubin values were higher (P sex-based differences were observed for creatinine and uric acid. The reference values provided are relevant in particular for the use of quail as laboratory animals when responses to specific treatments have to be monitored and appraised.

  15. Perinatal risk factors including malformation; Perinatale Risikofaktoren einschliesslich Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project `Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria` is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG). [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die haeufigsten in der Literatur beschriebenen Faktoren, die einen unguenstigen Einfluss auf den Schwangerschaftsverlauf ausueben koennen, gegeben. Ein Hauptgewicht liegt dabei auf der Beschreibung von solchen Faktoren, die mit der Induktion von Fehlbildungen in Zusammenhang gebracht werden koennen, so unter anderem auch der praenatalen Strahlenexposition. Diese Arbeit, die im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens `Strahlenbiologisches Umweltmonitoring Bayern` angefertigt wurde, bildet die Grundlage einer im Sinne einer umweltbezogenen Gesundheitsberichterstattung retro- bzw. prospektiv angelegten Auswertung der Saeuglingssterblichkeit, des Perinatalgeschehens und der Fehlbildungshaeufigkeit in Bayern, wobei neben der ionisierenden Strahlung als Risikofaktor auch andere im Rahmen einer oekologischen Studie erfassbare Risiken, wie beispielsweise Industrieansiedlungen, Muellverbrennungsanlagen und -deponien oder Urbanitaet beruecksichtigt werden sollen. (orig./MG).

  16. Occupational risk factors and frequency of sex chromosome disomy.

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    Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Paweł; Ulańska, Anna; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    Possible reproductive toxicants such as occupational factors may affect the normal disjunction of chromosomes during meiosis, thereby altering the number of chromosomes in sperm nuclei. The purpose of the present analysis was to determine whether exposure to occupational factors existing in a contemporary work setting affected sperm aneuploidy. The study population consisted of 212 men who attended the infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes. The men either had a normal semen concentration of 20-300 million/ml or slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration of 15-20 million/ml) ( WHO 1999 ). All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Sperm aneuploidy was assessed using multicolor FISH. After adjustment for potential confounders, positive associations were found between disomy XY18, 18, and sex chromosome disomy and exposure to mechanical vibrations (p = 0.03, p = 0.04, p = 0.03, respectively). In addition, sitting for more than 6 h at work increased X and Y disomy (p = 0.03, p = 0.04, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a significant effect of occupational factors on sperm aneuploidy. As such, the results need to be confirmed in larger studies.

  17. Adolescent Sex Offenders' Rankings of Therapeutic Factors Using the Yalom Card Sort

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    Sribney, Christine L.; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Following 11-98 weeks of inpatient residential treatment, 69 male adolescent sex offenders completed the 60-item, 12-factor Yalom Card Sort. The rank orders were compared to adult sex offenders and a psychiatric adult outpatient group. Relative to adult psychiatric outpatients, the adolescent sex offenders had rated Instillation of Hope three…

  18. Prevalence and associated factors of condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China

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    Cai, Yong; Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph TF; Li, Jinghua; Ma, Tiecheng; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, transgender women sex workers have a high prevalence of HIV and condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients (CRAIMC). We investigated the prevalence of CRAIMC and factors associated with CRAIMC among transgender women sex workers in China. Methods In 2014, we anonymously interviewed 220 transgender women sex workers face to face in Shenyang, China. Those who self-reported as HIV negative or as having unknown HIV serostatus were invited to take up free, anonymous HIV rapid testing (n=183); 90 did so. Using CRAIMC in the last month as the dependent variable, three types of associated factors were investigated, in addition to background factors: feminizing medical interventions, sex work and perceptions related to condom use. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results Of the participants, 16.8% self-reported as HIV positive and 9.1% were detected to be HIV positive through free HIV testing; 26.8% had had CRAIMC in the last month, 45.5% had performed sex work in other Chinese cities (last year), and 23.2% had had condomless anal intercourse with men who were non-clients. In the adjusted analysis, significant factors associated with CRAIMC (last month) included the following: 1) any feminizing medical intervention performed (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 2.22); 2) sex-work-related factors, including recruitment of male clients most often at hotels (AOR: 5.02) and charge per episode of transactional sex (201 to 400 RMB, AOR: 0.27; reference group: ≤100 RMB); and 3) perceptions related to condom use, including perceived transgender identity's impact on condomless sex such as wearing feminine attire, concern about exposing their status as a transgender woman to male clients (AOR: 1.20) and perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients (AOR: 0.56). Perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients fully mediated the association between perceived transgender identity's impact

  19. Integrating insulin-like growth factor 1 and sex hormones into neuroprotection: Implications for diabetes

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    Huffman, Jacob; Hoffmann, Christina; Taylor, George T

    2017-01-01

    Brain integrity and cognitive aptitude are often impaired in patients with diabetes mellitus, presumably a result of the metabolic complications inherent to the disease. However, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated the central role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and its relation to sex hormones in many neuroprotective processes. Both male and female patients with diabetes display abnormal IGF1 and sex-hormone levels but the comparison of these fluctuations is seldom a topic of interest. It is interesting to note that both IGF1 and sex hormones have the ability to regulate phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases-extracellular signal-related kinase signaling cascades in animal and cell culture models of neuroprotection. Additionally, there is considerable evidence demonstrating the neuroprotective coupling of IGF1 and estrogen. Androgens have also been implicated in many neuroprotective processes that operate on similar signaling cascades as the estrogen-IGF1 relation. Yet, androgens have not been directly linked to the brain IGF1 system and neuroprotection. Despite the sex-specific variations in brain integrity and hormone levels observed in diabetic patients, the IGF1-sex hormone relation in neuroprotection has yet to be fully substantiated in experimental models of diabetes. Taken together, there is a clear need for the comprehensive analysis of sex differences on brain integrity of diabetic patients and the relationship between IGF1 and sex hormones that may influence brain-health outcomes. As such, this review will briefly outline the basic relation of diabetes and IGF1 and its role in neuroprotection. We will also consider the findings on sex hormones and diabetes as a basis for separately analyzing males and females to identify possible hormone-induced brain abnormalities. Finally, we will introduce the neuroprotective interplay of IGF1 and estrogen and how androgen-derived neuroprotection operates through

  20. Risk Factors for Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease during Outbreak among Men who Have Sex with Men, New York City, New York, USA.

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    Ridpath, Alison; Greene, Sharon K; Robinson, Byron F; Weiss, Don

    2015-08-01

    Risk factors for illness during a serogroup C meningococcal disease outbreak among men who have sex with men in New York City, New York, USA, in 2012-2013 included methamphetamine and cocaine use and sexually transmitted infections. Outbreak investigations should consider routinely capturing information regarding drug use and sex-related risk factors.

  1. A profile of HIV risk factors in the context of sex work environments among migrant female sex workers in Beijing, China.

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    Yi, Huso; Mantell, Joanne E; Wu, Rongrong; Lu, Zhao; Zeng, Jing; Wan, Yanhai

    2010-03-01

    Migrant female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most at-risk populations for HIV in China. This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid regular partners (e.g. boyfriend or husband) (76%), and a sexually transmitted infection symptom (79%) last year. Only 22% of FSWs had been tested for HIV. Risk factors were compared by three types of sex work environments: (1) entertainment establishments, (2) personal services sectors, and (3) street-based venues, including roadside brothels. Street-based FSWs, compared to the other FSWs, were more likely to be older, married with children, migrate from rural areas, and be arrested by police, and less likely to be educated, have contact with prevention services, be knowledgeable about HIV, and be tested for HIV. The FSWs in entertainment establishments were more likely than street-based FSWs to have reported being physically, verbally, and/or sexually abused by clients. Multiple discriminant analysis distinguished a profile of two different groups of risk factors: (1) police arrest, lack of protection from violence, access to prevention and health care, and HIV knowledge, and (2) verbal and physical abuse and clients' refusal of condom use. In the massive internal migration in China, disadvantages in economic sectors drive women to become involved in sex work. HIV prevention strategies must target socio-structural factors embedded in sex work environments.

  2. Stress, sex, and addiction: potential roles of corticotropin-releasing factor, oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin.

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    Bisagno, Verónica; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2014-09-01

    Stress sensitivity and sex are predictive factors for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Life stresses are not only risk factors for the development of addiction but also are triggers for relapse to drug use. Therefore, it is imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between stress and drug abuse, as an understanding of this may help in the development of novel and more effective therapeutic approaches to block the clinical manifestations of drug addiction. The development and clinical course of addiction-related disorders do appear to involve neuroadaptations within neurocircuitries that modulate stress responses and are influenced by several neuropeptides. These include corticotropin-releasing factor, the prototypic member of this class, as well as oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin that play important roles in affiliative behaviors. Interestingly, these peptides function to balance emotional behavior, with sexual dimorphism in the oxytocin/arginine-vasopressin systems, a fact that might play an important role in the differential responses of women and men to stressful stimuli and the specific sex-based prevalence of certain addictive disorders. Thus, this review aims to summarize (i) the contribution of sex differences to the function of dopamine systems, and (ii) the behavioral, neurochemical, and anatomical changes in brain stress systems.

  3. Factors predicting the probability of initiating sexual intercourse by context and sex.

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    Grøntvedt, Trond Viggo; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Despite men initiating sex more than women there is considerable variance within the sexes. This study is the first to consider the impact of multiple predictors from the literature, and investigates how factors, such as relationship length, sociosexuality, and different aspects of self-perceived mate value among others, independently and interactively predict initiation of sexual intercourse in both short-term sexual and long-term romantic mating contexts, testing predictions from Sexual strategies theory. For long-term relationships, positive partner bond increased initiative to sexual intercourse for women. For men, self-perceived independence increased probability of taking the initiative, while relationship attachment decreased probability. For short-term relations, the desire component of the sociosexual orientation inventory increased probability of initiation for both sexes, while male initiative was increased by pleasure reasons for sex. The impact of individual predictors on initiating intercourse is influenced by being included in a multidimensional model, and relationship context affects the impact of the predictors.

  4. Condom use and associated factors among men who have sex with men in Togo, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakai, Tchaa Abalo; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Tchounga, Boris Kévin; Balestre, Eric; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbélénko; Goilibe, Kariyiare Benjamin; Kassankogno, Yao; Pitche, Vincent Palokinam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2011, the prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Togo was estimated at 19.6% compared to 3.4% in the general population. This study aimed to describe condom use and associated factors among MSM in Togo. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted using the snowball sampling method among MSM in Togo. This study enrolled MSM aged 18 years and above who reported having sexual contact with other men within the last 30 days. A standardized survey form was used for data collection, and multivariate analyses were performed. Results A total of 724 MSM were included in this study. The median age was 25 years [22-28], 90.3% had at least a secondary school level. The sexual practices during the last sexual encounter with another man included: insertive anal sex (62.2%), receptive anal sex (56.6%), oral sex (33.8%) and oral-anal sex (8.6%). A condom was used during the last insertive and receptive anal encounters in 78.4% and 81.2% of the time, respectively. In multivariate analysis, condom use was positively associated with previous participation in HIV/STD prevention activities (aOR=1.72; 95% CI=[1.09-2.71]), with the consideration of the last sexual partner as a casual one (aOR=1.87; 95% CI=[1.24-2.82]) and with having at least a secondary school level (aOR=2.40; 95% CI=[1.22-4.69]). Conclusion One out of five MSM did not use a condom during the last anal encounter with another man. HIV prevention programs in Africa should develop specific interventions targeting MSM to reduce the incidence of HIV in this hidden population. PMID:27279945

  5. Risk Factors for Domestic Child Sex Trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, Lisa; Williamson, Celia; Perdue, Tasha

    2016-07-27

    Despite increased effort to respond to human trafficking at national and state levels, very little empirical research has been conducted on domestic child sex trafficking. This study retrospectively examines associations between multiple risk factors and domestic child sex trafficking (i.e., entry into the commercial sex industry under the age of 18) in a sample of individuals aged 16 and older currently involved in the commercial sex industry (N = 273). Two primary research questions are addressed: (1) What set of risk factors, prior to entering the commercial sex industry, are associated with domestic child sex trafficking and (2) what group differences, if any, exist in risk factors between current or former domestic child sex-trafficking victims and non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry? A cross-sectional survey was administered using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) in five cities in one Midwestern state. Overall, 115 participants (48.3%) were identified as current or former domestic child sex-trafficking victims. Bivariate results suggest that childhood emotional and sexual abuse, rape, ever running away from home, having family members in sex work, and having friends who purchased sex were significantly associated with domestic child sex trafficking. Multivariate results indicate that domestic child sex trafficking victims were significantly more likely to have ever run away and to be a racial/ethnic minority than non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry. Findings can inform state-level policies on human trafficking and assist child protection and juvenile justice agencies in developing prevention and intervention responses to commercial sexual exploitation.

  6. Transactional sex among men who have sex with men in the French Antilles and French Guiana: frequency and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelschmidt, Justine; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Gontier, Barbara; Cabié, André; Hoen, Bruno; Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    The French Antilles (Martinique, Saint Martin and Guadeloupe) and French Guiana are the French territories most affected by the HIV epidemic. Some population groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM), especially those involved in transactional sex, are thought to be particularly vulnerable to HIV but few data exist to help characterize their health-related needs and thus implement relevant prevention interventions. To fill this knowledge gap, we used data collected from an HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey conducted in 2012 among MSM living in the French Antilles and French Guiana and recruited through snowball sampling. Our objectives were to compare social and demographic characteristics and sexual behaviours between MSM engaging in transactional sex and MSM not engaging in transactional sex and to identify factors associated with transactional sex involvement using a logistic regression model. A total of 733 MSM were interviewed, 21% of whom reported to undergo transactional sex. Their behaviour and social and demographic characteristics were different from other MSMs' and they were more exposed to factors that are recognized to potentiate HIV vulnerability, at the individual, community, network and structural levels. The variables positively associated with sex trade involvement were having ever consumed drug (OR = 2.84 [1.23-6.52]; p = .002), having a greater number of sex partners than the median (OR = 8.31 [4.84-14.30]; p < .001), having experienced intimate partner violence (OR = 1.72 [0.99-3.00]; p = .053) and having undergone physical aggression because of sexual orientation (OR = 2.84 [1.23-6.52]; p = .014). Variables negatively associated with sex trade involvement were being older (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.97] per year; p = .001), having a stable administrative situation (OR = 0.10 [0.06-0.19]; p < .001), having a stable housing (OR = 0.29 [0.15-0.55]; p < .001) and

  7. The cost of providing combined prevention and treatment services, including ART, to female sex workers in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Cianci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female Sex workers (FSW are important in driving HIV transmission in West Africa. The Yerelon clinic in Burkina Faso has provided combined preventative and therapeutic services, including anti-retroviral therapy (ART, for FSWs since 1998, with evidence suggesting it has decreased HIV prevalence and incidence in this group. No data exists on the costs of such a combined prevention and treatment intervention for FSW. This study aims to determine the mean cost of service provision per patient year for FSWs attending the Yerelon clinic, and identifies differences in costs between patient groups. METHODS: Field-based retrospective cost analyses were undertaken using top-down and bottom-up costing approaches for 2010. Expenditure and service utilisation data was collated from primary sources. Patients were divided into groups according to full-time or occasional sex-work, HIV status and ART duration. Patient specific service use data was extracted. Costs were converted to 2012 US$. Sensitivity analyses considered removal of all research costs, different discount rates and use of different ART treatment regimens and follow-up schedules. RESULTS: Using the top-down costing approach, the mean annual cost of service provision for FSWs on or off ART was US$1098 and US$882, respectively. The cost for FSWs on ART reduced by 29%, to US$781, if all research-related costs were removed and national ART monitoring guidelines were followed. The bottom-up patient-level costing showed the cost of the service varied greatly across patient groups (US$505-US$1117, primarily due to large differences in the costs of different ART regimens. HIV-negative women had the lowest annual cost at US$505. CONCLUSION: Whilst FSWs may require specialised services to optimise their care and hence, the public health benefits, our study shows that the cost of ART provision within a combined prevention and treatment intervention setting is comparable to providing ART to

  8. Experiential factors in sex differences on mental rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D; Jagarlamudi, Kavita; Lawrence, Erika; Shimabuku, Nicole

    2003-06-01

    Past research has shown that men score significantly higher than women on mental rotation tests. The present study examined the effects of a prior exposure to a mental rotation task, i.e., adapted Cube Comparison test, and to three-dimensional objects, i.e., Legos, on the performance on the Mental Rotation Test. 113 men and women were randomly divided into three conditions: control, exposure, or detailed instructions. On average, men outperformed women. Further analyses showed that sex differences were significant in the control condition but not in the other two, suggesting that a cuing effect may explain some of the robust sex differences in visuospatial tasks.

  9. Sex and Background Factors: Effect on ASAT Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Raymond J.

    1985-01-01

    Data sets from Australia were analyzed using a causal model to determine the possible causes of sex differences in ASAT scores. Observed differences could be explained in terms of differences in students' English scores, the time the students spent studying mathematics, and their confidence in success. (Author/MLW)

  10. Same- and Other-Sex Victimization : Are the Risk Factors Similar?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors for same- and other-sex victimization were examined in a longitudinal data set involving 9- to 14-year-old students. The findings regarding same-sex victimization supported the view that bullies select personally and interpersonally vulnerable targets in order to maximize their gains in

  11. Same- and Other-Sex Victimization : Are the Risk Factors Similar?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors for same- and other-sex victimization were examined in a longitudinal data set involving 9- to 14-year-old students. The findings regarding same-sex victimization supported the view that bullies select personally and interpersonally vulnerable targets in order to maximize their gains in

  12. Sex and stress hormone influences on the expression and activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, D L; Handa, R J

    2013-06-03

    The neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is recognized as a key component in the regulation of CNS ontogeny, homeostasis and adult neuroplasticity. The importance of BDNF in CNS development and function is well documented by numerous reports from animal studies linking abnormal BDNF signaling to metabolic disturbances and anxiety or depressive-like behavior. Despite the diverse roles for BDNF in nearly all aspects of CNS physiology, the regulation of BDNF expression, as well as our understanding of the signaling mechanisms associated with this neurotrophin, remains incomplete. However, links between sex hormones such as estradiol and testosterone, as well as endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs), have emerged as important mediators of BDNF expression and function. Examples of such regulation include brain region-specific induction of Bdnf mRNA in response to estradiol. Additional studies have also documented regulation of the expression of the high-affinity BDNF receptor Tropomyosin-Related Kinase B by estradiol, thus implicating sex steroids not only in the regulation of BDNF expression, but also in mechanisms of signaling associated with it. In addition to gonadal steroids, further evidence also suggests functional interaction between BDNF and GCs, such as in the regulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and other important neuropeptides. In this review, we provide an overview of the roles played by selected sex or stress hormones in the regulation of BDNF expression and signaling in the CNS.

  13. Transcription factors Mat2 and Znf2 operate cellular circuits orchestrating opposite- and same-sex mating in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Lin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen that undergoes a dimorphic transition from a unicellular yeast to multicellular hyphae during opposite sex (mating and unisexual reproduction (same-sex mating. Opposite- and same-sex mating are induced by similar environmental conditions and involve many shared components, including the conserved pheromone sensing Cpk1 MAPK signal transduction cascade that governs the dimorphic switch in C. neoformans. However, the homeodomain cell identity proteins Sxi1alpha/Sxi2a encoded by the mating type locus that are essential for completion of sexual reproduction following cell-cell fusion during opposite-sex mating are dispensable for same-sex mating. Therefore, identification of downstream targets of the Cpk1 MAPK pathway holds the key to understanding molecular mechanisms governing the two distinct developmental fates. Thus far, homology-based approaches failed to identify downstream transcription factors which may therefore be species-specific. Here, we applied insertional mutagenesis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and transcription analysis using whole genome microarrays to identify factors involved in C. neoformans differentiation. Two transcription factors, Mat2 and Znf2, were identified as key regulators of hyphal growth during same- and opposite-sex mating. Mat2 is an HMG domain factor, and Znf2 is a zinc finger protein; neither is encoded by the mating type locus. Genetic, phenotypic, and transcriptional analyses of Mat2 and Znf2 provide evidence that Mat2 is a downstream transcription factor of the Cpk1 MAPK pathway whereas Znf2 functions as a more terminal hyphal morphogenesis determinant. Although the components of the MAPK pathway including Mat2 are not required for virulence in animal models, Znf2, as a hyphal morphology determinant, is a negative regulator of virulence. Further characterization of these elements and their target circuits will reveal genes controlling biological

  14. Traumatic intrusion of permanent teeth. Part 2. A clinical study of the effect of preinjury and injury factors, such as sex, age, stage of root development, tooth location, and extent of injury including number of intruded teeth on 140 intruded permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Bakland, Leif K; Andreasen, Frances Meriam

    2006-04-01

    A prospective study of 140 intruded permanent teeth was done to evaluate the following healing complications: pulp necrosis (PN), root resorption (surface, inflammatory and replacement resorption) (RR) and defects in marginal periodontal healing (MA). These complications were related to various preinjury and injury factors. Age appeared to be related to all three healing complications in that patients younger than 12 years had the lowest complication rate. Stage of root formation at the time of the injury was very strongly related to PN and MA, with immature root formation (i.e. incomplete root formation or completed root formation with wide open apex) having better prognosis than more mature root development. Lateral incisors showed significantly more defects in MA, a finding possibly explained by the observation that lateral incisors were more often involved in multiple intrusions compared to other teeth and noting that multiple intrusions had a significantly higher frequency of MA. An associated crown fracture with exposed dentin resulted in more frequent PN, a finding possibly related to bacterial invasion through dentinal tubules into an ischemic pulp. The presence of a gingival laceration added to both PN and MA. The extent of intrusion (in mm) showed some relation to both RR with intrusion 1-3 mm having the lowest frequency of RR, whereas PN and MA showed no significant relation to the extent of intrusion. Finally, multiple adjacent intruded teeth were more frequently involved in a significantly greater loss of interproximal marginal bone (MA) than single intrusions. In conclusion, the relationship between healing complications and preinjury and injury factors could generally be explained by better healing possibilities in teeth with immature root formation. A possible explanation for that could be the softer bone surrounding the tooth, whereby trauma to the periodontium might be diminished.

  15. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H H; Tong, Terry Y Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.

  16. Sex differences in genetic and environmental risk factors for irrational fears and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Jacobson, K C; Myers, J; Prescott, C A

    2002-02-01

    For irrational fears and their associated phobias, epidemiological studies suggest sex differences in prevalence and twin studies report significant genetic effects. How does sex impact on the familial transmission of liability to fears and phobias? In personal interviews with over 3000 complete pairs (of whom 1058 were opposite-sex dizygotic pairs), ascertained from a population-based registry, we assessed the lifetime prevalence of five phobias and their associated irrational fears analysed using a multiple threshold model. Twin resemblance was assessed by polychoric correlations and biometrical model-fitting incorporating sex-specific effects. For agoraphobia, situational and blood/injury fear/phobia, the best fit model suggested equal heritability in males and females and genetic correlations between the sexes of less than +0.50. For animal fear/phobias by contrast, the best fit model suggested equal heritability in males and females and a genetic correlation of unity. No evidence was found for an impact of family environment on liability to these fears or phobias. For social phobias, twin resemblance in males was explained by genetic factors and in females by familial-environmental factors. The impact of sex on genetic risk may differ meaningfully across phobia subtypes. Sex-specific genetic risk factors may exist for agoraphobia, social, situational and blood-injury phobias but not for animal fear/phobia. These results should be interpreted in the context of the limited power of twin studies, even with large sample sizes, to resolve sex-specific genetic effects.

  17. Gender identity outcomes in children with disorders/differences of sex development: Predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakula, Dana M; Mullins, Alexandria J; Sharkey, Christina M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Mullins, Larry L; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2017-06-01

    Disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) comprise multiple congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, and/or anatomical sex are discordant. The prediction of future gender identity (i.e., self-identifying as male, female, or other) in children with DSD can be imprecise, and current knowledge about the development of gender identity in people with, and without DSD, is limited. However, sex of rearing is the strongest predictor of gender identity for the majority of individuals with various DSD conditions. When making decisions regarding sex of rearing biological factors (e.g., possession of a Y chromosome, degree and duration of pre- and postnatal androgen exposure, phenotypic presentation of the external genitalia, and fertility potential), social and cultural factors, as well as quality of life should be considered. Information on gender identity outcomes across a range of DSD diagnoses is presented to aid in sex of rearing assignment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk Factors of Condom Use among Clients of Commercial Sex Workers in Saunas and Beauty Parlors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan(张岩); WU Zunyou(吴尊友); LIU Wei(刘伟)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe and analyze risk factors associatedwith disuse of condoms during commercial sexual intercourseamong clients attending sauna and massage centers.Methods: Selected female sex workers from saunas andbeauty parlors were trained as interviewers. They surveyedclients during provision of sexual services. Informationcollected included customers' demographics, knowledge ofSTDs, rationale for and history of condom use. Risk factorsfor condom usage were assessed though logistical modeling.Results: A total of 50 clients were interviewed. The rates ofcondom usage for last sexual intercourse with commercial andnon-commercial partners were 57% and 53% for clients ofsauna centers and 30% and 40% for clients of beauty parlors,respectively. The choice to use a condom was influenced byclients 60.8% of the time, sex workers 30.4%, and otherfactors 8.8 %. The choice against using a condom was decidedupon by clients 69.7% of the time, sex workers 9.1%, andother factors 21.2%. Multivariate analysis showed thateducational level and perception of risk of infection werefactors for condom use. Clients with a high school educationhad a higher condom use rate than those with a middle schooleducation or less. Furthermore, clients who perceived risk ofdisease used condoms more frequently than those who did not.Conclusions: Clients played a significant role in decidingwhether or not to use a condom during commercial sex. Lackof perception of risk is a major factor for not using condoms.A program for promotion of prophylactics targeting bothcommercial sex workers and their clients is recommended.

  19. [Factors associated with commercial sexual behavior among men who have sex with men in Shenzhen, China, in 2011-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y M; Song, Y J; Liu, H; Hong, F C

    2016-11-06

    Objective: To investigate the status and factors associated with commercial sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shenzhen. Methods: A convenience sampling method was used to recruit MSM in Shenzhen from 2011 to 2015. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted on a one-on-one basis. Data were collected, including socio-demographic information, HIV testing history, history of blood donation and drug abuse in the last 2 years, self-reported sexual orientation, role in homosexual behavior, and experience serving as a male sex worker and/or as a client of male sex workers. Blood samples (5 ml) were taken and tested for treponema pallidum and HIV antibodies. The rate of MSM serving as male sex workers among different age groups was analyzed using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Factors associated with commercial sexual behavior were analyzed by univariate logistic regression and multivariate unconditional logistic regression. Results: Among the 3 040 MSM recruited, 341 (11.2%) reported having served as male sex worker. The prevalence rates of syphilis, HIV, and syphilis-HIV co-infection among all recruited MSM were 18.3% (556/3 040), 9.8% (297/3 040), and 5.1% (154/3 040), respectively. The prevalence rates of syphilis, HIV, and syphilis-HIV co-infection among those who served as male sex worker were 27.0% (92/341), 16.4% (56/341), and 8.8% (30/341), respectively, and the prevalence rates among MSM with no experience as male sex worker were 17.2% (464/2 699), 8.9% (241/2 699), and 4.6% (124/2 699), respectively. Compared with non-male sex worker MSM, male sex worker had a significantly higher prevalence rates of syphilis, HIV, and syphilis-HIV co-infection (with χ(2) values of 19.41, 19.28, and 11.12, and P-values of 30-year-old MSM or education level of college or above, reside in Shenzhen for 0.5-3.0 years or the living years above 3.0 years are less likely to serve as male sex worker compared with5 000 yuan, drug abuse history, experience as

  20. Health-related attitudes and risk factors for sexually transmitted infections of Chinese women who have sex with women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-fang; Jessie L. Norris; LIU Ying-jie; Kathleen H.Reilly; WANG Ning

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown evidence of health-related risk behaviors among women who have sex with women (WSW),such as sex with men,multiple bisexual partners,and drug use.Women who have sex with women have also been known to avoid routine physical examinations and conceal their same-sex history from physicians,which can affect their ability to receive an accurate diagnosis and treatment.No previous research has targeted women who have sex with women in China.We sought to describe women who have sex with women in China and explore risk factors for their reproductive tract infections (RTI)/sexually transmitted infections (STI).Methods Participants were recruited through outreach in venues and online for a cross-sectional study.Data were collected using interviews and laboratory tests.Results We recruited 224 women who have sex with women.In the year preceding their participation in the study,92% (206/224) of women reported sexual relations with women.The RTI rates were:gonorrhea (15.8%),chlamydia (3.5%),syphilis (0.5%),bacterial vaginosis (14.4%),hepatitis B virus (HBV) (0.9%),hepatitis C virus (HCV) (0.5%),and candidiasis (6.9%).No HIV or herpes simplex virus (HSV) positive cases were detected.Factors associated with gonorrhea infection were non-Beijing local residency (odds ratio (OR)=2.1,95% confidence interval (Cl):1.2-3.8) and genital-genital contact (OR=3.1,95% Cl:1.3-7.2); factors associated with curable STI (excluding bacterial vaginosis,candidiasis,HBV and HCV) were non-Beijing local residency (OR=1.9; 95% Cl:1.2-3.0) and bleeding during or after sex (OR=18.1; 95% CI:5.2-62.6); and the factor associated with RTI (including all the infections tested) was bleeding during or after sex (OR=37.8,95% Cl:11.2-127.4).Conclusions Behaviors that may cause RTI/STI exist among Chinese women who have sex with women.Researchers should consider these behaviors when planning corresponding prevention and interventions.

  1. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, J. C.; Winkler, T.W.; Kutalik, Z.; Berndt, S.I.; Jackson, A.U.; Monda, K.L.; Kilpelainen, T.O.; Esko, T; Magi, R.; Li, S.; Workalemahu, T; Feitosa,M. F.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F. R.; Fall, T.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previousl...

  2. Sex differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease: a study in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Helena CF

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil coronary heart disease (CHD constitutes the most important cause of death in both sexes in all the regions of the country and interestingly, the difference between the sexes in the CHD mortality rates is one of the smallest in the world because of high rates among women. Since a question has been raised about whether or how the incidence of several CHD risk factors differs between the sexes in Brazil the prevalence of various risk factors for CHD such as high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and cigarette smoking was compared between the sexes in a Brazilian population; also the relationships between blood cholesterol and the other risk factors were evaluated. Results The population presented high frequencies of all the risk factors evaluated. High blood cholesterol (CHOL and hypertension were more prevalent among women as compared to men. Hypertension, diabetes and smoking showed equal or higher prevalence in women in pre-menopausal ages as compared to men. Obesity and physical inactivity were equally prevalent in both sexes respectively in the postmenopausal age group and at all ages. CHOL was associated with BMI, sex, age, hypertension and physical inactivity. Conclusions In this population the high prevalence of the CHD risk factors indicated that there is an urgent need for its control; the higher or equal prevalences of several risk factors in women could in part explain the high rates of mortality from CHD in females as compared to males.

  3. Human spermatogenic failure purges deleterious mutation load from the autosomes and both sex chromosomes, including the gene DMRT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal failure, along with early pregnancy loss and perinatal death, may be an important filter that limits the propagation of harmful mutations in the human population. We hypothesized that men with spermatogenic impairment, a disease with unknown genetic architecture and a common cause of male infertility, are enriched for rare deleterious mutations compared to men with normal spermatogenesis. After assaying genomewide SNPs and CNVs in 323 Caucasian men with idiopathic spermatogenic impairment and more than 1,100 controls, we estimate that each rare autosomal deletion detected in our study multiplicatively changes a man's risk of disease by 10% (OR 1.10 [1.04-1.16], p<2 × 10(-3, rare X-linked CNVs by 29%, (OR 1.29 [1.11-1.50], p<1 × 10(-3, and rare Y-linked duplications by 88% (OR 1.88 [1.13-3.13], p<0.03. By contrasting the properties of our case-specific CNVs with those of CNV callsets from cases of autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and intellectual disability, we propose that the CNV burden in spermatogenic impairment is distinct from the burden of large, dominant mutations described for neurodevelopmental disorders. We identified two patients with deletions of DMRT1, a gene on chromosome 9p24.3 orthologous to the putative sex determination locus of the avian ZW chromosome system. In an independent sample of Han Chinese men, we identified 3 more DMRT1 deletions in 979 cases of idiopathic azoospermia and none in 1,734 controls, and found none in an additional 4,519 controls from public databases. The combined results indicate that DMRT1 loss-of-function mutations are a risk factor and potential genetic cause of human spermatogenic failure (frequency of 0.38% in 1306 cases and 0% in 7,754 controls, p = 6.2 × 10(-5. Our study identifies other recurrent CNVs as potential causes of idiopathic azoospermia and generates hypotheses for directing future studies on the genetic basis of male infertility and IVF outcomes.

  4. Sex differences in risk factor management of coronary heart disease across three regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Graham, Ian; Grobbee, Diederick; Spiering, Wilko; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Woodward, Mark; Peters, Sanne Ae

    2017-10-01

    To investigate whether there are sex differences in risk factor management of patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD), and to assess demographic variations of any potential sex differences. Patients with CHD were recruited from Europe, Asia, and the Middle East between 2012-2013. Adherence to guideline-recommended treatment and lifestyle targets was assessed and summarised as a Cardiovascular Health Index Score (CHIS). Age-adjusted regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for women versus men in risk factor management. 10 112 patients (29% women) were included. Compared with men, women were less likely to achieve targets for total cholesterol (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.59), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.64), and glucose (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87), or to be physically active (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.81) or non-obese (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.90). In contrast, women had better control of blood pressure (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.44) and were more likely to be a non-smoker (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.67 to 2.22) than men. Overall, women were less likely than men to achieve all treatment targets (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.93) or obtain an adequate CHIS (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.91), but no significant differences were found for all lifestyle targets (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.02). Sex disparities in reaching treatment targets were smaller in Europe than in Asia and the Middle East. Women in Asia were more likely than men to reach lifestyle targets, with opposing results in Europe and the Middle East. Risk factor management for the secondary prevention of CHD was generally worse in women than in men. The magnitude and direction of the sex differences varied by region. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Environmental versus genetic sex determination: a possible factor in dinosaur extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Summers, Jonathan; Silber, Sherman

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the possibility that genetically based sex-determination mechanisms have evolved to ensure a balanced male/female ratio and that this temperature-independent checkpoint might have been unavailable to long-extinct reptiles, notably the dinosaurs. A review of the literature on molecular and phylogenetic relationships between modes of reproduction and sex determination in extant animals was conducted. Mammals, birds, all snakes and most lizards, amphibians, and some gonochoristic fish use specific sex-determining chromosomes or genes (genetic sex determination, GSD). Some reptiles, however, including all crocodilians studied to date, many turtle and tortoise species, and some lizards, use environmental or temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). We show that various modes of GSD have evolved many times, independently in different orders. Animals using TSD would be at risk of rapid reproductive failure due to a skewed sex ratio favoring males in response to sustained environmental temperature change and favoring the selection of sex-determining genes. The disadvantage to the evolving male sex-determining chromosome, however, is its decay due to nonrecombination and the subsequent loss of spermatogenesis genes. Global temperature change can skew the sex ratio of TSD animals and might have played a significant role in the demise of long-extinct species, notably the dinosaurs, particularly if the temperature change resulted in a preponderance of males. Current global warming also represents a risk for extant TSD species.

  6. Sex and death: the effects of innate immune factors on the sexual reproduction of malaria parasites.

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    Ricardo S Ramiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites must undergo a round of sexual reproduction in the blood meal of a mosquito vector to be transmitted between hosts. Developing a transmission-blocking intervention to prevent parasites from mating is a major goal of biomedicine, but its effectiveness could be compromised if parasites can compensate by simply adjusting their sex allocation strategies. Recently, the application of evolutionary theory for sex allocation has been supported by experiments demonstrating that malaria parasites adjust their sex ratios in response to infection genetic diversity, precisely as predicted. Theory also predicts that parasites should adjust sex allocation in response to host immunity. Whilst data are supportive, the assumptions underlying this prediction - that host immune responses have differential effects on the mating ability of males and females - have not yet been tested. Here, we combine experimental work with theoretical models in order to investigate whether the development and fertility of male and female parasites is affected by innate immune factors and develop new theory to predict how parasites' sex allocation strategies should evolve in response to the observed effects. Specifically, we demonstrate that reactive nitrogen species impair gametogenesis of males only, but reduce the fertility of both male and female gametes. In contrast, tumour necrosis factor-α does not influence gametogenesis in either sex but impairs zygote development. Therefore, our experiments demonstrate that immune factors have complex effects on each sex, ranging from reducing the ability of gametocytes to develop into gametes, to affecting the viability of offspring. We incorporate these results into theory to predict how the evolutionary trajectories of parasite sex ratio strategies are shaped by sex differences in gamete production, fertility and offspring development. We show that medical interventions targeting offspring development are more likely

  7. Risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases among sex workers in the interior of Piaui, Brazil

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    Jardeliny Corrêa da Penha

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for STD among female sex workers and the characteristics of this population, and to verify the association between condom use by their male partners and clients. METHOD: Cross-sectional and correlational study conducted with 73 sex workers registered at the Sex Workers´ Association of the municipality of Picos -PI, Brazil. Data were collected in September and October 2010 using a questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic information and the participants´ background in the sex industry. Ethical aspects were observed. RESULTS: There was no significant association between most of the sociodemographic variables and background in the sex industry and condom use by male partners or clients. However, there was a significant association with years in the sex industry (p = 0.029. Sex workers who had been in the industry for the longest used condoms for protection against sexually transmitted diseases. CONCLUSION: It is essential to create health promotion strategies that observe the real-life experiences of sex workers.

  8. Sex differences in cardiovascular risk factors and disease prevention.

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    Appelman, Yolande; van Rijn, Bas B; Ten Haaf, Monique E; Boersma, Eric; Peters, Sanne A E

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a men's disease for decades, however it is more common in women than in men. It is generally assumed in medicine that the effects of the major risk factors (RF) on CVD outcomes are the same in women as in men. Recent evidence has emerged that recognizes new, potentially independent, CVD RF exclusive to women. In particular, common disorders of pregnancy, such as gestational hypertension and diabetes, as well as frequently occurring endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age (e.g. polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and early menopause) are associated with accelerated development of CVD and impaired CVD-free survival. With the recent availability of prospective studies comprising men and women, the equivalency of major RF prevalence and effects on CVD between men and women can be examined. Furthermore, female-specific RFs might be identified enabling early detection of apparently healthy women with a high lifetime risk of CVD. Therefore, we examined the available literature regarding the prevalence and effects of the traditional major RFs for CVD in men and women. This included large prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies and registries, as randomised trials are lacking. Furthermore, a literature search was performed to examine the impact of female-specific RFs on the traditional RFs and the occurrence of CVD. We found that the effects of elevated blood pressure, overweight and obesity, and elevated cholesterol on CVD outcomes are largely similar between women and men, however prolonged smoking is significantly more hazardous for women than for men. With respect to female-specific RF only associations (and no absolute risk data) could be found between preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and menopause onset with the occurrence of CVD. This review shows that CVD is the main cause of death in men and women, however the prevalence is higher in women. Determination of the CV risk profile should take into

  9. Meningococcal carriage: prevalence and sex-related risk factors.

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    Tayal, S C; Rashid, S; Muttu, K M; Hildreth, A J

    1997-03-01

    A retrospective analysis was done to examine whether sexual behaviour was associated with meningococcal carriage. Over the 4 month period from January to April 1994, 136 (27.4%) of the 496 consecutive new/re-registered genito-urinary medicine clinic attenders showed meningococcal carriage. Two (15.4%) of 13 homosexual men compared with 134 (27.7%) of 484 heterosexual men and women had evidence of meningococcal carriage. Relative risk (RR) of meningococcal carriage was 1.8 with > 10 lifetime partners and 1.2 with 3-10 partners (P < 0.007). RR with age group of 16-25 was 4.2 and for 26-35 it was 3.5. There was no relationship with meningococcal carriage and pharyngeal symptoms, sexual orientation, intravenous drug use, number of partners per month and orogenital sex. Further longitudinal studies may be of value in order to determine whether a high number of sexual partners is a marker for meningococcal carriage. In addition, further study may show whether there is an increased risk of meningococcal carriage and disease in those who live with meningococcal carriers.

  10. Factors associated with sex work among at-risk female youth in Cambodia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Yi, Siyan

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV in the general population, reducing new HIV infections among young at-risk women remains a challenge. This study was designed to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors of sexually active female youth in Cambodia and to explore risk factors associated with engagement in transactional sex. We surveyed sexually active female youth aged 10-24 enrolled at risk "hotspots" in eight provinces in Cambodia. We collected data on demographic factors, sexual behavior, and factors hypothesized to be associated with transactional sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between demographic and sexual behavior and transactional sex. Of the 280 respondents, the mean age was 21.2, and 48.1% had been paid for sex in the past year. After adjustment, at-risk females who were never have been married (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-6.97), have completed less than 6 years of school (AOR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.60-6.66), have 1 or more parents who had died (AOR 4.34, 95% CI = 2.00-9.38), be a heavy alcohol drinker (AOR 3.58, 95% CI = 1.78-7.18), have used a condom with their boyfriend during last sexual encounter (AOR 3.50, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32), and have ever had an HIV test (AOR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32) were more likely to engage in sex work. Our findings suggest that prevention strategies for female youth at risk of engagement in sex work should include upstream structural interventions that aim to encourage girls' education and empowerment. In addition, tailored sex education and behavior change messaging about the risks of heavy drinking, condom use with romantic partners, and the importance of frequent HIV testing for at-risk youth and sex workers should be designed and delivered to youth currently engaging in sex work.

  11. Are autosomal sex-determining factors of the housefly (Musca domestica) spreading north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozielska, Magdalena; Feldmeyer, Barbara; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sex-determining factors have been found in natural populations of the housefly, Musca domestica. Their distribution seems to follow a geographical cline. The 'standard' system, with a male-determining factor, M, located on the Y chromosome, prevails at higher latitudes and altitudes. At low

  12. Sex-specific differences in risk factors for sarcopenia amongst community-dwelling older adults.

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    Tay, L; Ding, Y Y; Leung, B P; Ismail, N H; Yeo, A; Yew, S; Tay, K S; Tan, C H; Chong, M S

    2015-12-01

    With considerable variation including potential sex-specific differential rate of skeletal muscle loss, identifying modifiable factors for sarcopenia will be pivotal to guide targeted interventions. This study seeks to identify clinical and biological correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, with emphasis on the role of anabolic and catabolic stimuli, and special reference to gender specificity. In this cross-sectional study involving 200 community-dwelling and functionally independent older adults aged ≥50 years, sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Comorbidities, cognitive and functional performance, physical activity and nutritional status were routinely assessed. Biochemical parameters included haematological indices, lipid panel, vitamin D level, anabolic hormones [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), free testosterone (males only)] and catabolic markers [inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and myostatin]. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors for sarcopenia. Age was associated with sarcopenia in both genders. Malnutrition conferred significantly higher odds for sarcopenia in women (OR = 5.71, 95% CI 1.13-28.84.44, p = 0.035) while higher but acceptable range serum triglyceride was protective in men (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.52, p = 0.012). Higher serum myostatin independently associated with higher odds for sarcopenia in men (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.041). Serum IGF-1 was significantly lower amongst female sarcopenic subjects, with demonstrable trend for protective effect against sarcopenia in multiple regression models, such that each 1 ng/ml increase in IGF-1 was associated with 1% decline in odds of sarcopenia in women (p = 0.095). Our findings support differential pathophysiological mechanisms for sarcopenia that, if corroborated, may have clinical utility in guiding sex-specific targeted

  13. Factors associated with sexual violence against men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals in Karnataka, India.

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    Souradet Y Shaw

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of information on sexual violence (SV among men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals (MSM-T in southern India. As SV has been associated with HIV vulnerability, this study examined health related behaviours and practices associated with SV among MSM-T. DESIGN: Data were from cross-sectional surveys from four districts in Karnataka, India. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors related to SV. Multivariable negative binomial regression models examined the association between physician visits and SV. RESULTS: A total of 543 MSM-T were included in the study. Prevalence of SV was 18% in the past year. HIV prevalence among those reporting SV was 20%, compared to 12% among those not reporting SV (p = .104. In multivariable models, and among sex workers, those reporting SV were more likely to report anal sex with 5+ casual sex partners in the past week (AOR: 4.1; 95%CI: 1.2-14.3, p = .029. Increased physician visits among those reporting SV was reported only for those involved in sex work (ARR: 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1-2.7, p = .012. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate high levels of SV among MSM-T populations, highlighting the importance of integrating interventions to reduce violence as part of HIV prevention programs and health services.

  14. Sex differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the PERU MIGRANT study.

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    Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Benziger, Catherine Pastorius; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Although men and women have similar risk factors for cardiovascular disease, many social behaviors in developing countries differ by sex. Rural-to-urban migrants have different cardiovascular risk profiles than rural or urban dwellers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sex differences with specific cardiovascular risk factors in rural-to-urban migrants. We used the rural-to-urban migrant group of the PERU MIGRANT cross-sectional study to investigate the sex differences in specific cardiovascular risk factors: obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, as well as exposures of socioeconomic status, acculturation surrogates and behavioral characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to characterize strength of association between sex and our outcomes adjusting for potential confounders. The sample of migrants was 589 (mean age 46.5 years) and 52.4% were female. In the adjusted models, women were more likely to be obese (OR=5.97; 95%CI: 3.21-11) and have metabolic syndrome (OR=2.22; 95%CI: 1.39-3.55) than men, explaining the greatest variability for obesity and metabolic syndrome but not for hypertension. Our results suggest that interventions for CVD in Peru should be sex-specific and address the unique health needs of migrant populations living in urban shantytowns since the risk factors for obesity and metabolic syndrome differ between males and females.

  15. Factors associated with violence against female sex workers in ten Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Francisca Sueli da Silva; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar; Urdaneta, Margarita; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2017-03-30

    Few studies in Brazil have focused on violence against female sex workers, a theme that has attracted researchers' attention worldwide, especially due to possible associations with HIV. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of violence against female sex workers according to type and perpetrator and to identify associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with data on 2,523 female sex workers from ten Brazilian cities, and with the respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Prevalence of verbal violence was 59.5%, physical violence 38.1%, sexual violence 37.8%, intimate partner physical violence 25.2%, and violence by clients 11.7%. Factors associated with physical violence were age workers suffer a disproportional burden of violence. The identification of vulnerability factors is essential for interventions to safeguard human rights and control HIV.

  16. Female migrant sex workers in Moscow: gender and power factors and HIV risk.

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    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies.

  17. HIV infection, risk factors, and preventive services utilization among female sex workers in the Mekong Delta Region of Vietnam.

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    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSW are considerable drivers of HIV infections in Vietnam, especially transmission between high-risk and low-risk groups. We assessed HIV prevalence and its correlates among FSWs, and the use of preventive services among this community in the Mekong Delta region, southern Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1,999 FSWs was carried out in five provinces including Ben Tre, Hau Giang, Kien Giang, Tien Giang, and Vinh Long between June, 2006 and June, 2007. We interviewed participants face-to-face in order to elicit information about their lives and potential risk factors, and we tested their sera to determine their HIV status. We then performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to investigate factors associated with HIV infection. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of the participating FSWs were street-based sex workers (SSWs and the rest (83% were entertainment establishment-based sex workers (ESWs. Unprotected sex with regular and casual clients in the past month was frequent among study participants (40.5% and 33.5% respectively. However, few respondents (1.3% had ever injected drugs. Only 2.1% (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.6%-2.8% of FSWs were found to be infected with HIV. HIV prevalence among SSWs was greater than among ESWs (3.8% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.02, respectively. Increased risk for HIV infection was significantly associated with the number of clients per month (adjusted odd ratio (aOR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.26-5.59. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to reduce unsafe sex and drug injection, and to increase uptake of HIV testing among FSWs are necessary. Differences in HIV prevalence and its correlates by type of sex work emphasize the importance of constrained contexts in shaping risk behaviors among FSWs; that should be considered in designing HIV prevention programs.

  18. Confirmatory factor analysis of a Spanish version of the sex fantasy questionnaire: assessing gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Juan Carlos; Ortega, Virgilio; Zubeidat, Ihab

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the factor structure of Wilson's Sex Fantasy Questionnaire (SFQ; Wilson, 1978; Wilson & Lang, 1981) using a Spanish version. In order to do this, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis on two nonclinical samples containing 195 men and 315 women. Both groups were tested for the structure proposed by Wilson and also for some alternative models. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that four factors were reasonably distinct, especially for the men. We proposed shortened version of the instrument that would have sufficient psychometric guarantees for assessing sexual fantasies in both genders. This abridged version improved the fit of the four-factor oblique factor equally for both the samples of men and women. In the light of the results of the validation hypothesis established with some criterion variables (dyadic sexual desire, unconventional sex, homophobia), we discuss discrepancies between both versions.

  19. Sex differences in the impact of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease on cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T; Sun, X; Yuan, G; Zhou, X; Lu, H; Lin, X; Yu, X

    2017-01-01

    Information on sex differences in the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is scarce. We examined whether men exhibit greater differences in established CVD risk factors between NAFLD and non-NAFLD than women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using a cohort of 10761 apparently healthy Chinese adults who underwent comprehensive health checkups including abdominal ultrasonography. In the setting of NAFLD and non-NAFLD, although men had significantly higher levels of atherogenic lipids as indicated by higher levels of triglyceride, triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol, and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol and worsen renal function as indicated by higher levels of creatinine and lower levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) than female counterparts, men with NAFLD showed greater relative differences in atherogenic lipids and deteriorated renal function than women with NAFLD when compared with their non-NAFLD counterparts. The interactions between sex and NAFLD on triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, and eGFR were statistically significant (P triglyceride, and triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol in men compared with women. The greater adverse influence of NAFLD per se on HDL-C and eGFR in men compared with women probably related to the gender differences in TG levels. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High self-esteem among adolescents: longitudinal trends, sex differences, and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birndorf, Susan; Ryan, Sheryl; Auinger, Peggy; Aten, Marilyn

    2005-09-01

    To better characterize self-esteem and to identify factors in early adolescence associated with high self-esteem in later adolescence. The National Education Longitudinal Study provided a random, nationally representative sample of 8th grade adolescents who completed surveys in grades 8, 10, and 12 (n = 16,489). We measured changes in self-esteem, and high versus low self-esteem. By using the Developmental Assets Model, predictor variables were selected to include intrinsic developmental assets (e.g., decision making) and extrinsic assets (e.g., safety). Logistic regression with separate modeling for sex identified assets that were predictive of high self-esteem, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Boys versus girls were more likely to report high self-esteem in all grades (all p self-esteem in grade 12 were as follows: African-American (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06) or Hispanic (OR = 1.52) race/ethnicity, positive family communication (OR = 3.03), safety (OR = 1.50), and high self-esteem (OR = 3.03). For boys, factors were family income being above the federal poverty level (OR = 1.50), positive family communication (OR = 2.40), safety (OR = 1.41), religious community (OR = 1.21), and high self-esteem (OR = 3.01) (all p self-esteem. Adults may foster self-esteem in adolescents by providing positive communication through supportive and caring relationships.

  1. INTERGENERATIONAL SEX AS A RISK FACTOR FOR HIV AMONG YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: A SCOPING REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Marshall, Brandon D.L.; Stevenson, Benjamin; Gurm, Jasmine; Montaner, Gabriela; Small, Will; Roth, Eric A.; Lima, Viviane D.; Montaner, Julio S.G.; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    An emerging body of evidence suggests that intergenerational sexual partnerships may increase risk of HIV acquisition among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). However, no studies have comprehensively evaluated literature in this area. We applied a scoping review methodology to explore the relationships between age mixing, HIV risk behavior, and HIV seroconversion among YMSM. This study identified several individual, micro-, and meso-system factors influencing HIV risk among YMSM in the context of intergenerational relationships: childhood maltreatment, coming of age and sexual identity, and substance use (individual-level factors); family and social support, partner characteristics, intimate partner violence, connectedness to gay community (micro-system factors); and race/ethnicity, economic disparity, and use of the Internet (meso-system factors). These thematic groups can be used to frame future research on the role of age-discrepant relationships on HIV risk among YMSM, and to enhance public health HIV education and prevention strategies targeting this vulnerable population. PMID:24272070

  2. Multi-group covariance and mean structure modeling of the relationship between the WAIS-III common factors and sex and educational attainment in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, C.V.; Colom, R.; Abad, F.J.; Wicherts, J.M.; Hessen, D.J.; van de Sluis, S.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated sex effects and the effects of educational attainment (EA) on the covariance structure of the WAIS-III in a subsample of the Spanish standardization data. We fitted both first order common factor models and second order common factor models. The latter include general intelligence (g

  3. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  4. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Sam-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

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    Kathleen C Basile

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer.Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131 in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics.Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types.Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:329–340.

  5. Factors associated with forced sex among women accessing health services in rural Haiti: implications for the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Fawzi, M C; Lambert, W; Singler, J M; Tanagho, Y; Léandre, F; Nevil, P; Bertrand, D; Claude, M S; Bertrand, J; Louissaint, M; Jeannis, L; Mukherjee, J S; Goldie, S; Salazar, J J; Farmer, P E

    2005-02-01

    The goals of the current study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of forced sex among women accessing services at a women's health clinic in rural Haiti; and (2) examine factors associated with forced sex in this population. Based on data from a case-control study of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a cross-sectional analysis to examine factors associated with forced sex was performed. A number of factors related to gender inequality/socioeconomic vulnerability placed women in rural Haiti at higher risk of forced sex. The strongest factors associated with forced sex in multivariate analyses were: age, length of time in a relationship, occupation of the woman's partner, STD-related symptoms, and factors demonstrating economic vulnerability. The findings suggest that prevention efforts must go beyond provision of information and education to the pursuit of broader initiatives at both local and national levels. At the community level, policy-makers should consider advancing economic opportunities for women who are vulnerable to forced sex. Improving access to community-based income-generating activities may begin to address this problem. However, the viability of these local projects depends largely upon Haiti's 'macro-economic' situation. In order to ensure the success of local initiatives, external humanitarian and development assistance to Haiti should be supported. By broadening the definition of "prevention" interventions, we may begin to address the systemic problems that contribute to the occurrence of forced sex and the increasing incidence of HIV infection throughout the world, such as gender inequality and economic vulnerability. Taking into account factors influencing risk at the local level as well as the macro-level will potentially improve our capacity to reduce the risk of forced sex and the spread of STDs, including HIV infection, for millions of women living in poverty worldwide.

  6. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  7. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  8. Comparative Factor Analyses of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, John K.; Cunningham, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) as measures of androgyny. Results showed that femininty (Concern for Others) and masculinity (Dominance) accounted for most of the variance, but for PAQ, clusters of male- and female-valued items (i.e., Extroversion and Insecurity) formed subsidiary factors.…

  9. Sex-specific risk factors for childhood wheeze and longitudinal phenotypes of wheeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Sze Man; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Coull, Brent A; Litonjua, Augusto A; Oken, Emily; Gold, Diane R

    2016-12-01

    Although sexual dimorphism in wheeze and asthma prevalence are well documented, sex-specific risk factors for wheeze and longitudinal wheeze phenotypes have not been well elucidated. By using a large prebirth cohort, this study aimed to identify sex-specific risk factors for wheeze from birth through midchildhood and identify distinct longitudinal wheeze phenotypes and the sex-specific risk factors associated with these phenotypes. Mothers reported child wheeze symptoms over the past year approximately yearly on 9 occasions starting at age 1 year. We identified sex-specific predictors of wheeze, wheeze phenotypes, and sex-specific predictors of these phenotypes by using generalized estimating equations, latent class mixed models, and multinomial logistic analysis, respectively. A total of 1623 children had information on wheeze at 1 or more time points. Paternal asthma was a stronger predictor of ever wheezing in boys (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% CI, 1.74-2.66) than in girls (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.19-1.96; P for sex by paternal asthma interaction = .03), whereas being black or Hispanic, birth weight for gestational age z score, and breast-feeding duration had stronger associations among girls. We identified 3 longitudinal wheeze phenotypes: never/infrequent wheeze (74.1%), early transient wheeze (12.7%), and persistent wheeze (13.1%). Compared with never/infrequent wheeze, maternal asthma, infant bronchiolitis, and atopic dermatitis were associated with persistent wheeze in both sexes, but paternal asthma was associated with persistent wheeze in boys only (OR, 4.27; 95% CI, 2.33-7.83; P for sex by paternal asthma interaction = .02), whereas being black or Hispanic was a predictor for girls only. We identified sex-specific predictors of wheeze and longitudinal wheeze patterns, which might have important prognostic value and allow for a more personalized approach to wheeze and asthma treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  10. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  11. Factors Associated with Alcohol Use Before or During Sex Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Large Internet Sample from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Lim, Sin How; Koe, Stuart; Wei, Chongyi

    2016-04-01

    We explored factors associated with alcohol use before or during sex among a sample of 10,861 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia who were recruited online for the study. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that having sex under the influence of alcohol was associated with having multiple male partners, seeking partners primarily through gay bar/gym/dance party/friends, selling sex and using multiple drugs during the past 6 months, and unprotected anal sex. More efforts are needed to better assess alcohol use and misuse among MSM in Asia and understand contextual influences on alcohol use and HIV-related behaviors in order to implement culturally-specific interventions.

  12. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Randall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%, including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9 and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG, all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8, but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.

  13. 29 CFR 1620.22 - Employment cost not a “factor other than sex.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment cost not a âfactor other than sex.â 1620.22... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.22 Employment cost not a “factor other than sex.” A wage differential based on claimed differences between the average cost of employing workers of one sex as a group and the...

  14. A Profile of HIV Risk Factors in the Context of Sex Work Environments among Migrant Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Huso; Mantell, Joanne E.; Wu, Rongrong; Lu, Zhao; Zeng, Jing; Wan, Yanhai

    2010-01-01

    Migrant female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most at-risk populations for HIV in China. This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid regular partners (e.g., boyfriend or husband) (76%), and a STI symptom (79%) last year. Only 22% of FSWs had been tested for HIV. Risk ...

  15. Prevalence of Non-Volitional Sex Types and Associated Factors: A National Sample of Young People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers

    Full Text Available Non-volitional sex (NVS in young people continues to be a major public health problem with long-term negative health outcomes. For the first time, the prevalence of different types of NVS and associated factors are compared between young people with same-sex sexual activities and those who have not.We obtained data from 10,401 young women and men (aged 12 to 25 years who participated in a population study on sexual health, the Netherlands. We calculated and compared the prevalence of six types of NVS between women who had sex with men (yWSM or women (yWSW, and men who had sex with women (yMSW or men (yMSM. In sexually experienced participants (n = 5986 logistic regression analyses were applied to assess associations with NVS by assault or penetration. Analyses were weighted to represent the Dutch population.The prevalence of NVS ranged from 1% to 61%, depending on type. Prevalence was higher for young women (any: 40.6% than men (any: 20.4%, and highest for yMSM and yWSW. Prevalence of NVS by assault or penetration was related to a range of socio-demographic, behavioral and social factors, which were largely similar regardless of sex or same-sex-experiences. The NVS perpetrators were in over 70% of cases known to the victim; 1 in 4 cases of NVS by penetration were accompanied by violence.A substantial proportion of young people in the Netherlands have experienced NVS. Medical professionals, educators and caregivers should integrate services to continue to address NVS by targeting young people's multifaceted risk profiles and evidenced based interventions for doing so are needed.

  16. Influence of Parental Factors on Sex-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Unmarried Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian CUI; Min-xiang LI; Ai-ping TIAN; Li XIE; Shi-yuan LUO; Xiao-qin CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of parental factors on sexual and reproductive health awareness,attitudes to pre-marital sex, and pre-marital sexual activity among unmarried youth Methods Data were collected by anonymous self-completed questionnaire survey among eligible unmarried youth aged 15~22 in Chengdu City, Southwest China during 1998~1999 and the study comprised of 3 307 valid subjects.Results Awareness of safe sex and contraception among unmarried youth was limited and their attitudes towards pre-marital sexual activity appeared to be positive. Large proportions of dating subjects were sexually active and reported ever-using contraceptives, regular or appropriate use of contraceptives was likely to be limited. About two thirds of adolescents had communication with their parents frequently, but fewer had communicated with their parents on sex-related issues. But they did influence the sexual behaviours of adolescents. In fact, it appeared that coresidence and extensive communication with parents on sex-related issues could delay sexual activity among adolescents, and the sexually active youth co-resided with their parents were more likely to take contraceptive measures.Conclusion Programmes are needed not only for youth to encourage them to communicate with their parents on sex-related issues, but also for parents to know the current sexual health status of youth and realize the necessity to communicate with their adolescent children about sexual and reproductive health issues.

  17. Risk Assessment of Girls : Are There Any Sex Differences in Risk Factors for Re-offending and in Risk Profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Dekovic, Maja; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Langewouters, Femke E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  18. Risk assessment of girls: are there any sex differences in risk factors for reoffending and in risk profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Deković, M.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Langewouters, F.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  19. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on carotid intima–media thickness: sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łoboz-Rudnicka M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Łoboz-Rudnicka,1 Joanna Jaroch,1 Zbigniew Bociąga,1 Barbara Rzyczkowska,1 Izabella Uchmanowicz,2 Jacek Polański,3 Krzysztof Dudek,4 Andrzej Szuba,5 Krystyna Łoboz-Grudzień2   1Department of Cardiology, T. Marciniak Hospital, 2Public Health Department, Wroclaw Medical University, 3Private Practice, Na Biskupinie, Wroclaw, 4Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, 5Division of Angiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Background and purpose: There has been growing interest in the sex-related differences in the impact of cardiovascular (CV risk factors on carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT. Therefore, we aimed at examining the influence of CV risk factors on CIMT in men and women and identifying differences between males and females in the risk profiles affecting CIMT. Patients and methods: The study group consisted of 256 patients (mean age 54.7 years, including 134 females (52%, with the following CV risk factors: arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, nicotine addiction, overweight, and obesity. Subjects with the history of any overt CV disease were excluded. CIMT was measured through B-mode ultrasound examination of the right common carotid artery. In the analysis of CIMT values at different ages, the patients were divided into three age groups: 1 <45 years, 2 45–60 years, and 3 >60 years. Regression analysis was used to examine the influence of CV risk factors on CIMT in men and women. Results: CIMT increased with age in both men and women. Women had lower values of CIMT than men (0.54 mm vs 0.60 mm, P=0.011. The analysis in three age subgroups revealed that CIMT values were comparable in men and women in group 1 (0.48 mm vs 0.48 mm, P=0.861, but over the age of 45 years, CIMT values became significantly lower in women compared to men (group 2: 0.51 mm vs 0.63 mm, P=0.005; group 3: 0.63 mm vs 0.72 mm, P=0.020. Significant differences were observed

  20. Retention and risk factors for loss to follow-up of female and male sex workers on antiretroviral treatment in Ivory Coast: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuylsteke, Bea; Semdé, Gisèle; Auld, Andrew F; Sabatier, Jennifer; Kouakou, Joseph; Ettiègne-Traoré, Virginie; Buvé, Anne; Laga, Marie

    2015-03-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected sex workers is an important HIV prevention strategy. However, sex workers may have additional challenges for retention in ART care. The objectives of this study were to assess retention of sex workers on ART in a routine setting in Ivory Coast and identify risk factors for loss to follow-up (LTFU). The design was a retrospective cohort study. An analysis of clinic files was conducted in 2 sites providing ART services to sex workers in Ivory Coast. Demographic, behavior, and clinical data of female and male sex workers on ART were abstracted onto a standardized anonymous data collection form. Data collection took place between May 11 and 28, 2010. A total of 376 female and 38 male sex workers were included in the analysis. The retention probability was 75% at 6 months, 68% at 12 months, 55% at 24 months, and 47% at 36 months. Attrition was mainly because of LTFU. Factors significantly associated with LTFU in bivariate analysis were lower schooling level, later calendar year of starting ART, and not receiving initial adherence counseling. Later year of starting ART and not receiving adherence counseling at ART initiation remained significantly associated with LTFU in a multivariate Cox regression model. To improve the retention of sex workers on ART, there is a need for more in-depth investigation of the role of pre-ART counseling and the increasing rates of LTFU with each calendar year.

  1. A review of sex differences in sexual jealousy, including self-report data, psychophysiological responses, interpersonal violence, and morbid jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R

    2003-01-01

    The specific innate modular theory of jealousy hypothesizes that natural selection shaped sexual jealousy as a mechanism to prevent cuckoldry, and emotional jealousy as a mechanism to prevent resource loss. Therefore, men should be primarily jealous over a mate's sexual infidelity and women over a mate's emotional infidelity. Five lines of evidence have been offered as support: self-report responses, psychophysiological data, domestic violence (including spousal abuse and homicide), and morbid jealousy cases. This article reviews each line of evidence and finds only one hypothetical measure consistent with the hypothesis. This, however, is contradicted by a variety of other measures (including reported reactions to real infidelity). A meta-analysis of jealousy-inspired homicides, taking into account base rates for murder, found no evidence that jealousy disproportionately motivates men to kill. The findings are discussed from a social-cognitive theoretical perspective.

  2. Age, sex, and setting factors and labor force in athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E

    2011-01-01

    Occupation or occupational setting shifts might be occurring in the athletic training profession, and differences between sexes might exist; however, little evidence exists to confirm this supposition. To evaluate trends in male and female athletic training employment patterns in terms of age and occupational setting. Cross-sectional study. We requested demographic data from the National Athletic Trainers' Association (October 27, 2009) and obtained frequency totals of members by sex across the occupational life span by occupational setting. Our sample included 18 571 athletic trainers employed in the 3 largest classifications of occupational settings within the profession: college or university, clinical, and secondary school. We calculated frequencies and percentages to determine demographic and descriptive data. We analyzed the data using an analysis of variance to identify the differences between sexes across age and setting. We observed trends in occupational setting and sex across ages 22 to 67 years. We identified differences between sexes across the ages 22 to 67 years (F(1,18569) = 110818.080, P job duties might influence the exodus or shift in athletic training.

  3. Can We Distinguish Juvenile Violent Sex Offenders, Violent Non-Sex Offenders, and Versatile Violent Sex Offenders Based on Childhood Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Ward, Ashley K.; Cormier, Nicole S.; Day, David M.; Newman, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the developmental precursors of juvenile violent sex offending can contribute to the promotion of effective early intervention and prevention programs for high-risk children and youth. However, there is currently a lack of research on the early characteristics of adolescents who commit violent sex offenses. Drawing on the literature…

  4. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Sales, Allan Robson Kluser [Unidade de Reabilitação Cardiovascular e Fisiologia do Exercício - Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Natália Galito; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da, E-mail: anobrega@id.uff.br [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (p{sub sex} < 0.01). Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  5. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  6. Analysis of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, A; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Croisier, J L; Lair, M L; Theisen, D

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzed sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young athletes (n=256) from 12 sport disciplines practicing at the national or the international level in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Injury occurrence as a result of sport practice was analyzed retrospectively over the year 2006 using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Overall incidence was not different between girls and boys (1.20 and 1.21 injuries/1000 athlete-hours, respectively), but in the context of team sport competition girls tended to be at a greater risk (rate ratio 2.05, P=0.053). Girls had a higher proportion of injuries in the ankle/foot region compared with boys (34.8% vs 16.8%). No sex-related differences were found regarding injury severity. Multivariate logistic regression (controlling for age and practice volume) revealed that girls' team sports were associated with a greater injury risk compared with individual sports [odds ratio (OR) of 4.76], while in boys this was observed for racket sports (OR=3.31). Furthermore, physical or emotional stress tended to be a specific risk factor in girls. There was a tendency for injury outside sports to be coupled to a higher injury risk in girls and boys. Consideration of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors could be of importance for effective injury prevention.

  7. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS IN THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lapshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides guidelines for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α  (TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis  (axSpA, including ankylosing spondylitis. It gives data on the efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with non-radiographic axSpA. By using international and Russian guidelines, the authors lay down indications for this therapy and criteria for evaluation of its efficiency and safety.

  8. Predictive factors of unprotected sex for female sex workers: first study in French Guiana, the French territory with the highest HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Melle, Astrid Van; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009-2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. Female sex workers were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non-consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one's own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, and not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although a high proportion of female sex workers declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners.

  9. Are environmental factors responsible for geographic variation in the sex ratio of the Greenlandic seed-bug Nysius groenlandicus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2010-01-01

    Northeast Greenland, indicating that here the species reproduces asexually. This paper demonstrates that the differing sex distributions can be explained by climatic factors (temperature, precipitation) and that the degree of continentality (distance from the open sea) promotes female-biased sex ratios....

  10. FACTORS AND ATTITUDES AFFECTING SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND SEX PRACTICES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ENUGU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate factors and attitudes affecting sexual behaviour and sex practices of secondary school students, and to suggest changes necessary for preventing and/or reducing HIV transmission among them. 1009 multi-staged sampled secondary school students aged 10-20 years completed the anonymous interviews. 973(96.4% were Christians and 711(70.5% day students. Premarital sex was approved of by185(18.3% of the respondents while 596(59.1% claimed they would continue to abstain till they get married; 252(25.0% will abstain for some years while 136(13.5% will abstain for months. 181(17.9% believed that abstaining from sex is an abnormal behavior, that HIV/AIDS was a hoax. 573(56.8% agreed that HIV/AIDs is a disease from which they could protect themselves while 387(38.4% thought otherwise. Only 581(57.6% of the respondents would seek advice if they found they were HIV positive. 797(79% of the respondents were afraid of HIV infection while 520(351.5% said that someone in their family might become infected. Attitudinal factors showed statistically significant variation with gender, age, school and class of the respondents. A good number also practice homosexuality and lesbianism. Appropriate information about sexuality education and the negative consequences of early sexual exposure, STIs/HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy should be provided in public schools.

  11. Unusual sex differences in tuberculosis notifications across Pakistan and the role of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M S; Khan, M S; Hasan, R; Godfrey-Faussett, P

    2013-09-01

    In developing countries, only one-third of new tuberculosis cases notified are from women. It is not clear whether tuberculosis incidence is lower in women than men, or whether notification figures reflect under-detection of tuberculosis in women. Pakistan, however, presents an unusual pattern of sex differences in tuberculosis notifications. While 2 of the 4 provinces (Sindh and Punjab) report more notifications from men (female to male ratios 0.81 and 0.89 respectively in 2009), the other 2 provinces (Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan) consistently report higher numbers of smear-positive tuberculosis notifications from women than men (1.37 and 1.40). No other country is known to have such a large variation in the sex ratios of notifications across regions. Large variations in female to male smear-positive notification ratios in different settings across a single country may indicate that environmental factors, rather than endogenous biological factors, are important in influencing the observed sex differences in tuberculosis notifications.

  12. Daydreaming in the adolescent years: instrument development, factor analysis, and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P L; Fulcomer, M; Taylor, F Z

    1978-01-01

    The Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI), originally devised for college students, was revised for use with high school students. Nineteen of the original 28 IPI daydreaming scales were used and the response format was changed. The self-report instrument was completed by a racially diverse sample of 181 ninth through eleventh grade students. Reliable application of the Revised IPI to this population was demonstrated. Distinct sex differences, not previously reported, were found showing more acceptance of daydreaming for females and more guilt and fearfulness in daydreaming for males. Factor structures were similar to previous studies, but a generally higher level of daydreaming and less uncontrolled mind wandering was found for high school students than for college students. The research suggests that personality differences between men and women could be further explored by the daydreaming instrument and that sex differences must be taken into account in further research. Use of such daydreaming data is suggested in therapeutic intervention.

  13. Sex differences in parking are affected by biological and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Claudia C; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Oren, Beyza; Becker, Cordula; Hofstätter, Andrea; Bös, Christa; Popken, Markus; Thorstensen, Truls; Güntürkün, Onur

    2010-07-01

    The stereotype of women's limited parking skills is deeply anchored in modern culture. Although laboratory tests prove men's average superiority in visuospatial tasks and parking requires complex, spatial skills, underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Here, we investigated performance of beginners (nine women, eight men) and more experienced drivers (21 women, 27 men) at different parking manoeuvres. Furthermore, subjects conducted the mental rotation test and self-assessed their parking skills. We show that men park more accurately and especially faster than women. Performance is related to mental rotation skills and self-assessment in beginners, but only to self-assessment in more experienced drivers. We assume that, due to differential feedback, self-assessment incrementally replaces the controlling influence of mental rotation, as parking is trained with increasing experience. Results suggest that sex differences in spatial cognition persist in real-life situations, but that socio-psychological factors modulate the biological causes of sex differences.

  14. The roles of Dmrt (Double sex/Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor) genes in sex determination and differentiation mechanisms: Ubiquity and diversity across the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Marion Anne-Lise; Cosseau, Céline; Mouahid, Gabriel; Duval, David; Grunau, Christoph; Toulza, Ève; Allienne, Jean-François; Boissier, Jérôme

    2015-07-01

    The Dmrt (Double sex/Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor) genes have been intensively studied because they represent major transcription factors in the pathways governing sex determination and differentiation. These genes have been identified in animal groups ranging from cnidarians to mammals, and some of the genes functionally studied. Here, we propose to analyze (i) the presence/absence of various Dmrt gene groups in the different taxa across the animal kingdom; (ii) the relative expression levels of the Dmrt genes in each sex; (iii) the specific spatial (by organ) and temporal (by developmental stage) variations in gene expression. This review considers non-mammalian animals at all levels of study (i.e. no particular importance is given to animal models), and using all types of sexual strategy (hermaphroditic or gonochoric) and means of sex determination (i.e. genetic or environmental). To conclude this global comparison, we offer an analysis of the DM domains conserved among the different DMRT proteins, and propose a general sex-specific pattern for each member of the Dmrt gene family.

  15. Z' factor including siRNA design quality parameter in RNAi screening experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sławomir; Kozak, Karol

    2012-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) high-content screening (HCS) enables massive parallel gene silencing and is increasingly being used to reveal novel connections between genes and disease-relevant phenotypes. The application of genome-scale RNAi relies on the development of high quality HCS assays. The Z' factor statistic provides a way to evaluate whether or not screening run conditions (reagents, protocols, instrumentation, kinetics, and other conditions not directly related to the test compounds) are optimized. Z' factor, introduced by Zhang et al., ( 1) is a dimensionless value that represents both the variability and the dynamic range between two sets of sample control data. This paper describe a new extension of the Z' factor, which integrates bioinformatics RNAi non-target compounds for screening quality assessment. Currently presented Z' factor is based on positive and negative control, which may not be sufficient for RNAi experiments including oligonucleotides (oligo) with lack of knock-down. This paper proposes an algorithm which extends existing algorithm by using additional controls generetaed from on-target analysis.

  16. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  17. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and me...

  18. SEX DETERMINATION. A male-determining factor in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew Brantley; Basu, Sanjay; Jiang, Xiaofang; Qi, Yumin; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Biedler, James K; Sharakhova, Maria V; Elahi, Rubayet; Anderson, Michelle A E; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Sharakhov, Igor V; Adelman, Zach N; Tu, Zhijian

    2015-06-12

    Sex determination in the mosquito Aedes aegypti is governed by a dominant male-determining factor (M factor) located within a Y chromosome-like region called the M locus. Here, we show that an M-locus gene, Nix, functions as an M factor in A. aegypti. Nix exhibits persistent M linkage and early embryonic expression, two characteristics required of an M factor. Nix knockout with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 resulted in largely feminized genetic males and the production of female isoforms of two key regulators of sexual differentiation: doublesex and fruitless. Ectopic expression of Nix resulted in genetic females with nearly complete male genitalia. Thus, Nix is both required and sufficient to initiate male development. This study provides a foundation for mosquito control strategies that convert female mosquitoes into harmless males.

  19. Risk factors for domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kristen R

    2015-01-01

    Domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) is an important social and public health problem, but it has received little attention from healthcare professionals in research, practice, and policy. Prevention and early victim identification efforts for this population are severely limited or entirely absent. The aim of this study was to integrate evidence on risk factors for DMST and critically appraise the quality and quantity of nursing literature on DMST. This literature review was reported using PRISMA criteria. Three databases (CINAHL, PsychInfo, and PubMed) were searched using various terms for (a) human trafficking, (b) risk factors, and (c) children. Demographic factors were not important predictors of DMST. Childhood maltreatment trauma and running away from home were the most important risk factors for trafficking victimization. There was little nursing literature on the topic of DMST. Nurses and other healthcare professionals must engage in confronting DMST by improving early identification of victims and conducting high-quality research to inform practice.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors associated with HIV infection among men having sex with men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Le, Giang Truong; Detels, Roger

    2008-05-01

    To learn more about risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam and their prevalence of HIV, we conducted a study among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) to determine HIV-1 prevalence and behaviors associated with infection. This consisted of formative (35 MSM) and cross-sectional (600 MSM) studies at 72 sites, including 75 transvestites, 55 bisexuals, 10 sex workers, and 460 other MSM. Only 5.3% cohabited with a wife/girlfriend, but 30% reported ever having sex with a female. Prevalence of HIV was 8%, ranging from 33% in sex workers to 7% among transvestites and other MSM. Injecting drugs, selling sex, being 20-40 years old, having less than 6 years of education, and having more than five male anal sex partners in the past month were associated with being HIV-infected. MSM are an HIV bridge group, and should be included in sentinel surveillance. Targeted interventions should be implemented.

  1. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  2. A confirmatory factor analysis of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: an examination of sex and racial/ethnic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurka Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of clinical indices that signals increased risk for cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. The diagnosis of MetS is typically based on cut-off points for various components, e.g. waist circumference and blood pressure. Because current MetS criteria result in racial/ethnic discrepancies, our goal was to use confirmatory factor analysis to delineate differential contributions to MetS by sub-group. Research Design and Methods Using 1999–2010 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis of a single MetS factor that allowed differential loadings across sex and race/ethnicity, resulting in a continuous MetS risk score that is sex and race/ethnicity-specific. Results Loadings to the MetS score differed by racial/ethnic and gender subgroup with respect to triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. ROC-curve analysis revealed high area-under-the-curve concordance with MetS by traditional criteria (0.96, and with elevations in MetS-associated risk markers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.71, uric acid (0.75 and fasting insulin (0.82. Using a cut off for this score derived from ROC-curve analysis, the MetS risk score exhibited increased sensitivity for predicting elevations in ≥2 of these risk markers as compared with traditional pediatric MetS criteria. Conclusions The equations from this sex- and race/ethnicity-specific analysis provide a clinically-accessible and interpretable continuous measure of MetS that can be used to identify children at higher risk for developing adult diseases related to MetS, who could then be targeted for intervention. These equations also provide a powerful new outcome for use in childhood obesity and MetS research.

  3. Exploring sex differences in autistic traits: A factor analytic study of adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Rachel; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Wierda, Marlies; Begeer, Sander

    2016-11-02

    Research has highlighted potential differences in the phenotypic and clinical presentation of autism spectrum conditions across sex. Furthermore, the measures utilised to evaluate autism spectrum conditions may be biased towards the male autism phenotype. It is important to determine whether these instruments measure the autism phenotype consistently in autistic men and women. This study evaluated the factor structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form in a large sample of autistic adults. It also systematically explored specific sex differences at the item level, to determine whether the scale assesses the autism phenotype equivalently across males and females. Factor analyses were conducted among 265 males and 285 females. A two-factor structure consisting of a social behaviour and numbers and patterns factor was consistent across groups, indicating that the latent autism phenotype is similar among both autistic men and women. Subtle differences were observed on two social behaviour item thresholds of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form, with women reporting scores more in line with the scores expected in autism on these items than men. However, these differences were not substantial. This study showed that the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form detects autistic traits equivalently in males and females and is not biased towards the male autism phenotype.

  4. Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Willems, Sara M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S; Moreno, Luis A; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W G; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John B; Martin, Nicholas G; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D; Magnusson, Patrik K; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I; Nilsson, Peter M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain. PMID:26441569

  6. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Jankowiak Siuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI, and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behaviour. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behaviour and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male were studied using fMRI method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioural effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain.

  7. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens' faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain.

  8. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  9. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyan Yi

    Full Text Available Compared to the general population, men who have sex with men (MSM are at greater risk for HIV and less understood due to their more hidden and stigmatized nature. Moreover, the discrepancy in findings in the literature merits further investigations in MSM populations from different cultures and settings. We therefore conducted this study to explore factors associated with inconsistent condom use among high-risk MSM in Cambodia.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 367 MSM randomly selected from Battembang and Siem Reap using a two-stage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews to collect information on characteristics of respondents, HIV testing history, self-perception of HIV risk, substance use, sexual behaviors, mental disorders, and HIV knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use.On average, 62.3% of respondents reported that they always used condoms over the past three months. The rates varied with types of sexual partners; the proportion of respondents who reported always using condoms was 55.1%, 64.2%, 75.9%, 73.0%, 78.1%, and 70.3%, for sexual partners who were girlfriends, boyfriends, female sex workers, male sex workers, female clients, or male clients, respectively. After adjustment, inconsistent condom use was significantly associated with age of ≥25 (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.09-2.86, self-rated quality of life as good or very good (AOR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.79-5.67, self-perception of higher HIV risk compared to the general population (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.35-4.17, illicit drug use in the past three months (AOR = 5.76, 95% CI = 1.65-10.09, and reported consistent lubricant use when selling anal sex to men in the past three months (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.07-8.12.We found risky sexual behaviors to be considerably high among MSM in this study, especially among those who used

  10. Koppitz Bender Gestalt Scores in First-Grade Children as Related to Ethnocultural Background, Socioeconomic Class, and Sex Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuelzer, Margot B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated whether Koppitz Bender Gestalt Scores were related to ethnocultural, socioeconomic and sex factors when statistical controls for intelligence were used. When intelligence was controlled for, it eliminated many effects for these variables. Results are discussed. (NG)

  11. Study of genetic factors and temperature influence on sex determination and differentiation in turbot

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sex, as intuitive and simple as it may seem to us, poses some of the most interesting and complex questions when studying life. Sex is an intrinsic characteristic of most eukaryote species which eventually has led to the appearance of two differentiated adult phenotypes or sexes, males and females. This distinction rules a huge part of our lives and is the origin of important evolutionary processes based on intra-sex competition or inter-sex conflict due to sexual antagonism. Furthermore, sex...

  12. Sex Stereotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪媛

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the social phenomenon—sex stereotype.The paper illustrates the characteristics of stereotype and discusses about the factors which influence sex stereotypes and the reasons of its existence.And it also found the positive role that sex stereotype plays in the communication.

  13. A sex-specific transcription factor controls male identity in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Tracy; Collins, James J; Brubacher, John L; Zarkower, David; Newmark, Phillip A

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary transitions between hermaphroditic and dioecious reproductive states are found in many groups of animals. To understand such transitions, it is important to characterize diverse modes of sex determination utilized by metazoans. Currently, little is known about how simultaneous hermaphrodites specify and maintain male and female organs in a single individual. Here we show that a sex-specific gene, Smed-dmd-1 encoding a predicted doublesex/male-abnormal-3 (DM) domain transcription factor, is required for specification of male germ cells in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. dmd-1 has a male-specific role in the maintenance and regeneration of the testes and male accessory reproductive organs. In addition, a homologue of dmd-1 exhibits male-specific expression in Schistosoma mansoni, a derived, dioecious flatworm. These results demonstrate conservation of the role of DM domain genes in sexual development in lophotrochozoans and suggest one means by which modulation of sex-specific pathways can drive the transition from hermaphroditism to dioecy.

  14. Factors Affecting Growth of Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) Nestlings: Prey Abundance, Sex and Hatching Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárybnická, Markéta; Riegert, Jan; Brejšková, Lucie; Šindelář, Jiří; Kouba, Marek; Hanel, Jan; Popelková, Alena; Menclová, Petra; Tomášek, Václav; Šťastný, Karel

    2015-01-01

    In altricial birds, energy supply during growth is a major predictor of the physical condition and survival prospects of fledglings. A number of experimental studies have shown that nestling body mass and wing length can vary with particular extrinsic factors, but between-year observational data on this topic are scarce. Based on a seven-year observational study in a central European Tengmalm's owl population we examine the effect of year, brood size, hatching order, and sex on nestling body mass and wing length, as well as the effect of prey abundance on parameters of growth curve. We found that nestling body mass varied among years, and parameters of growth curve, i.e. growth rate and inflection point in particular, increased with increasing abundance of the owl's main prey (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles), and pooled prey abundance (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles, and Sorex shrews). Furthermore, nestling body mass varied with hatching order and between sexes being larger for females and for the first-hatched brood mates. Brood size had no effect on nestling body mass. Simultaneously, we found no effect of year, brood size, hatching order, or sex on the wing length of nestlings. Our findings suggest that in this temperate owl population, nestling body mass is more sensitive to prey abundance than is wing length. The latter is probably more limited by the physiology of the species.

  15. Morningness-eveningness, sex, and the Alternative Five Factor Model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana

    2009-08-01

    Recent research on personality and circadian typology indicates that evening-type subjects are more extraverted, impulsive, and novelty-seeking, while morning ones tend to be more introverted, conscientious, agreeable, and emotionally stable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between circadian typologies on the Zuckerman's Alternative Five Factor Model of personality (AFFM), which has a strong biological basis, controlling for sex and age. A sample of 533 university students (168 men) participated in the study. Results showed that morning-type subjects had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type subjects in Activity, and in its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. A significant interaction between circadian typology and sex was found for Neuroticism-Anxiety: morning-type men showed higher scores than evening-type and neither-type, who had the lowest scores. Women presented the opposite pattern: neither-type obtained the highest scores, while morning-type showed the lowest. This is the first time the AFFM has been used in the context of circadian rhythms research. The results suggest that activity is the only trait related to extraversion associated with morningness, while Neuroticism-Anxiety was modulated by sex. These results might help highlight previous results on the association between morningness-eveningness and other models of personality assessment, and they offer new data that calls for further research.

  16. Multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading among women living with HIV in Kazakhstan: A neglected key population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; Primbetova, Sholpan; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Bilokon, Yelena; Chubukova, Lyubov; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and risk factors associated with sex trading among HIV-positive women. A total of 242 HIV-positive women were recruited in five regions in Kazakhstan. These women completed a survey containing items on socio-demographics, HIV stigma, intimate partner violence, and partner risk behaviors. Multivariate regression was used to examine associations between risk factors and sex trading after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Fifty-six (23.1%) women reported trading sex in the past 90 days. Women who reported recent sex trading were more likely than women who did not trade sex in the past 90 days to experience intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-4.73), to have been homeless in the past 90 days (AOR: 4.12; 95% CI: 1.19-14.29), and to know or suspect a male partner had a sexually transmitted infection (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.07-4.53), had sex with another partner (AOR: 4.53; 95% CI: 2.25-9.14), or injected drugs in the past year (AOR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.64-6.65). These findings underscore the need for comprehensive HIV prevention and intervention programs that address the multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading for women infected with HIV.

  17. [Female sex is not an independent risk factor in mortality during myocardial revascularization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerone, S; Brscic, E; Comoglio, C; Aidala, E; Lascala, E; Pansini, S; Di Summa, M; Brusca, A

    1997-12-01

    To assess if female sex is an independent risk factor for perioperatory mortality and morbidity, we have evaluated 971 consecutive patients (16% women) undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery at the Cardiovascular Disease Institution of the University of Turin from 1988 to 1990. In this study at baseline women were older and more likely to have diabetes, lower ventricular score and body surface area than men. As compared to men, women underwent surgery with delay: the surgical mortality rate and prevalence of arrhythmias were higher, and the size of the left anterior descending was smaller. At univariate analysis perioperative risk factors were as follows: age, diabetes, clinical instability, low body surface area, perioperatory infarction, postoperative infections, extracorporeal circulation time and left coronary size. At multivariate analysis only diabetes, left ventricular score, left anterior descending coronary size and emergency surgery were independent risk factors while sex, age and body surface area were not predictors of perioperatory mortality and morbidity. It is concluded that gender is not the cause of worse outcome in women.

  18. DETERMINATION OF SOME ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATED TO SEX RATIO OF BROWN SWISS CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, I.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the environmental factors related to sex of calves born from Brown-Swiss cattlereared at Malya (M) and Konuklar (K) State Farms in Türkiye. A total of 7055 calves (1861 calves for K and 5194calves for M state farms) were used as animal material. Unlike previous studies, a new ratio called “Relative FemaleRatio (RFR)” (the superiority of female to male calves) was firstly suggested in this study for dairy cattle. The data onsex of all these calves, calving...

  19. [Analysis on the intention of marriage and the influence factors among unmarried men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Guong-Gui; Fan, Jing; Zhao, Xi-He; Li, Ke

    2012-10-01

    To understand the intention on marriage and the related influence factors among men who have sex with men (MSM). Using the snowball sampling method, an anonymous questionnaire survey was achieved by recruiting MSM. A total number of 308 people were included in this survey, the numbers of 'planning to get married' was 34.4%, intended not to get married accounted for 65.6%; and the average age of intending to marry was (28.1 ± 3.3) years old. The intended marriage partners were ordinary women accounted for 83.8%, while another 16.2% were lesbians. Reasons for getting married were under social pressure (65.1%), under family pressure (12.3%), and under personal desire (22.6%). Those who intended to remain contact with gay after marriage accounted for 66.7%, with 16.2% did not and those were not sure accounted for 17.1%. Using the multivariate analysis method, results showed that the independent factors for intention of marriage were: age, sexual orientation, registration for residency, cumulative numbers of regular sexual partners, number of anal sex in the last week, proportion of intention to get married was relatively low among those who were over 35 years of age and their residence of registration were in the city. However those who were bisexual, with uncertain sexual orientation, and with low cumulative numbers of regular sexual partners as well as less anal sex in the past week, occupied higher proportions. MSM population under our current study showed a high percentage on marriage intention which posed serious challenges to the society and families. AIDS prevention on this population seemed to be impacted by demographic characteristics and sexual behavior.

  20. Sex allocation and sex determination in squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapstra, E; Warner, D A

    2010-01-01

    Reptiles possess a wide variety of sex determining mechanisms, more so than any other vertebrate group. They offer outstanding opportunities to understand the evolutionary transitions between modes of sex determination. In this review, we argue that sex allocation theory is fundamental for understanding the selective causes of such shifts. Whether selection for biased sex allocation actually results in evolutionary shifts in sex determination depends on the overall strength, direction and consistency of selection and to what extent existing reproductive systems can establish novel links between factors causing sex-specific fitness and mechanisms of sex determination. Perhaps one of the most exciting advances in recent years has been the phylogenetically diverse range in reptile taxa that form the basis of research on the evolution of sex determination. The traditional use of long-lived oviparous species (especially turtles and crocodiles) is now expanded to include a range of short-lived taxa that exhibit both genetic sex determination and environment-/temperature-dependent sex determination (particularly agamid lizards), as well as a greater emphasis on viviparous species. If selection on differential sex allocation is a key selective pressure for the evolution of sex-determining mechanisms, these taxa will provide considerable insights into the integrated fields of sex allocation biology and sex determination. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Prognostic factors of infantile spasms: role of treatment options including a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Yu, Hee Jun; Lee, Munhyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide additional evidences on prognostic factors for infantile spasms and the possible role of a ketogenic diet. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with infantile spasms who had been followed up for more than 6months between January 2000 and July 2012 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). We analyzed the association between possible prognostic factors and seizure/developmental outcomes. Sixty-nine patients were included in this study and their mean follow-up duration was 52.5 (9-147) months. In the patients who had been followed up for more than 2years, 53.6% (n=30/57) remained seizure-free at the last visit. Sixty patients (86.9%) showed developmental delay at last follow-up. Forty-two patients (60.9%) became spasm-free with one or two antiepileptic drugs, one patient with epilepsy surgery for a tumor, and seven patients with a ketogenic diet after the failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. The etiology and age of seizure onset were the significant prognostic factors. In this study, about 60% of the patients became spasm-free with vigabatrin and topiramate. Ketogenic diet increased the rate by 10% in the remaining antiepileptic drug resistant patients. However, 86.9% of the patients showed developmental delay, mostly a severe degree. Early diagnosis and prompt application of treatment options such as antiepileptic drugs, a ketogenic diet or epilepsy surgery can improve outcomes in patients with infantile spasms. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  3. Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpression gives rise to sex differences in Alzheimer's disease-related signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, D A; Dong, H; Carroll, J; Plona, Z; Ding, H; Rodriguez, L; McKennan, C; Csernansky, J G; Seeholzer, S H; Valentino, R J

    2016-10-18

    Several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders share stress as a risk factor and are more prevalent in women than in men. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) orchestrates the stress response, and excessive CRF is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of these diseases. We previously found that the CRF1 receptor (CRF1) is sex biased whereby coupling to its GTP-binding protein, Gs, is greater in females, whereas β-arrestin-2 coupling is greater in males. This study used a phosphoproteomic approach in CRF-overexpressing (CRF-OE) mice to test the proof of principle that when CRF is in excess, sex-biased CRF1 coupling translates into divergent cell signaling that is expressed as different brain phosphoprotein profiles. Cortical phosphopeptides that distinguished female and male CRF-OE mice were overrepresented in unique pathways that were consistent with Gs-dependent signaling in females and β-arrestin-2 signaling in males. Notably, phosphopeptides that were more abundant in female CRF-OE mice were overrepresented in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathway. Phosphoproteomic results were validated by demonstrating that CRF overexpression in females was associated with increased tau phosphorylation and, in a mouse model of AD pathology, phosphorylation of β-secretase, the enzyme involved in the formation of amyloid β. These females exhibited increased formation of amyloid β plaques and cognitive impairments relative to males. Collectively, the findings are consistent with a mechanism whereby the excess CRF that characterizes stress-related diseases initiates distinct cellular processes in male and female brains, as a result of sex-biased CRF1 signaling. Promotion of AD-related signaling pathways through this mechanism may contribute to female vulnerability to AD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 18 October 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.185.

  4. Age and sex differences in factors associated with the onset of cannabis use: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Nebot, Manel; Ariza, Carles

    2007-05-11

    To investigate age and sex differences in factors associated with the onset of cannabis use among adolescents. A representative sample of schoolchildren from secondary schools in Barcelona (n=1056) was selected and followed-up from the first to the fourth year of secondary education (7-10th grades). The participants completed a self-administered lifestyle questionnaire each year. Multilevel logistic regression models were used for each year and sex to analyse predictors of cannabis use; the second level was adjusted by school. Onset of cannabis use during follow-up was associated with a prior history of tobacco smoking [odds ratio (OR)=7.7 in boys; OR=3.8 in girls], alcohol consumption (OR=6.4 in boys; OR=3.2 in girls), antisocial behavior (OR=2.8 in boys; OR=2.2 in girls), intention to use drugs (OR=3.5 in boys; OR=4.2 in girls), drug use among friends (OR=2.5 in boys; OR=3.7 in girls) and spending leisure time in bars or discos (OR=2.1 in boys; OR=3.8 in girls). Moreover, among girls, attending state schools (OR=2.9), low academic performance (OR=5.7) and living in a single-parent family (OR=2.0) also independently predicted cannabis use. This study reveals a wide array of predictive factors in cannabis use onset that largely differed by age and sex. The results support the role of tobacco and alcohol, as well as the influence of drug use among friends, and the importance of leisure time patterns as facilitators of cannabis use.

  5. The Anthropological Implications of Sex Role Differences: Class and Ethnic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jerome W.

    The implications of physical and biological sex differences on sex role behavior cannot be understood without analyzing the complementary role of the sociocultural meaning of sex roles. The normative aspect of gender role behavior is fluid and can be affected by culture, class, and ethnicity. All societies recognize differences between the sexes.…

  6. Sex, the brain and hypertension: brain oestrogen receptors and high blood pressure risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major contributor to worldwide morbidity and mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. There are important sex differences in the onset and rate of hypertension in humans. Compared with age-matched men, premenopausal women are less likely to develop hypertension. However, after age 60, the incidence of hypertension increases in women and even surpasses that seen in older men. It is thought that changes in levels of circulating ovarian hormones as women age may be involved in the increase in hypertension in older women. One of the key mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension in both men and women is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Brain regions important for the regulation of SNA, such as the subfornical organ, the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventral lateral medulla, also express specific subtypes of oestrogen receptors. Each of these brain regions has also been implicated in mechanisms underlying risk factors for hypertension such as obesity, stress and inflammation. The present review brings together evidence that links actions of oestrogen at these receptors to modulate some of the common brain mechanisms involved in the ability of hypertensive risk factors to increase SNA and blood pressure. Understanding the mechanisms by which oestrogen acts at key sites in the brain for the regulation of SNA is important for the development of novel, sex-specific therapies for treating hypertension. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  7. Sex, Receptors and Attachment: A Review of Individual Factors Influencing Response to Oxytocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai S Macdonald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As discussed in the larger review in this special issue (MacDonald and Feifel, intranasal oxytocin (IN OT is demonstrating a growing potential as a therapeutic agent in psychiatry. Importantly, research suggests that a variety of individual factors may influence a person’s response to OT. In this mini-review, I provides a review of three: (1 sex and hormonal status; (2 genetic variation in aspects of the OT system (i.e. OT receptors; and (3 attachment history. Each of these factors will be important to monitor as we strive to develop a richer understanding of OT's role in human development, brain-based disease, and the potential for individualized, OT-targeted treatments.

  8. Maternal factors associated with fetal growth and birthweight are independent determinants of placental weight and exhibit differential effects by fetal sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional and metabolic factors influence the developmental environment of the fetus. Virtually any nutritional factor in the maternal blood has to pass the placental membranes to reach the fetal blood. Placental weight is a commonly used measure to summarize placental growth and function. Placental weight is an independent determinant of fetal growth and birthweight and modifies the associations between maternal metabolic factors and fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal factors known to be related to fetal growth, newborn size and body composition are determinants of placental weight and that effects of maternal metabolic factors on placental weight differ between the genders. METHODS: The STORK study is a prospective longitudinal study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (parity, body mass index, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose of placental weight were explored by linear regression models, stratified by fetal sex. RESULTS: Parity, maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting glucose had positive effects on placental weight. There was a sex specific effect in these associations. Fasting glucose was significantly associated with placental weight in females but not in males. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors known to influence fetal growth, birthweight and neonatal body composition are determinants of placental weight. The effect of maternal factors on placental weight is influenced by sex as illustrated in the relation between maternal glucose and placental weight.

  9. Sex differences in prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bum; Kim, Kook Hyun; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Heo, Jun; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min; Lee, Yoon Suk; Cho, Kwang Bum; Lee, Dong Wook; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Ho Gak; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate sex difference in the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinees. Examinees who underwent examination through health promotion center at 5 hospitals of Daegu-Gyeongbuk province in 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. All examinees were checked for height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, and underwent laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis of cholelithiasis was made by ultrasound. Of the total of 30,544 examinees, mean age was 47.3 ± 10.9 years and male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Asymptomatic cholelithiasis was diagnosed in 1268 examinees with overall prevalence of 4.2%. In age below 40 years, females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males (2.7% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.020), whereas prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was higher in males than females older than 50 years (6.2% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.012). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age (≥50 years), obesity, and high blood pressure as risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in males and age, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and chronic hepatitis B infection in females (P < 0.05). Overall prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was 4.2% in Korean health screening examinees. Females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males younger than 40 years, whereas it was higher in males older than 50 years. Age and obesity were risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in both sexes. Males had additional risk factors of high blood pressure and females had hypertriglyceridemia and chronic hepatitis B infection. PMID:28353587

  10. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  11. Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nina; Hegay, Tatyana; Mennecier, Philippe; Georges, Myriam; Laurent, Romain; Whitten, Mark; Endicott, Philipp; Aldashev, Almaz; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Nasyrova, Firuza; Chichlo, Boris; Ségurel, Laure; Heyer, Evelyne

    2017-04-01

    Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers. We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups. Based on the haplogroup data, we observed that the Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-Mongolic-speaking populations have distinct genetic backgrounds. However, each population showed consistent mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups patterns. As expected in patrilocal populations, we found that the Y-STRs were more structured than the HVS1. While ethnicity strongly influenced the genetic diversity on the Y chromosome, geography better explained that of the mtDNA. Furthermore, when looking at various ethnic groups, we systematically found a genetic split time older than historical records, suggesting a cultural rather than biological process of ethnogenesis. This study highlights that, in Inner Asia, specific cultural behaviors, especially patrilineality and patrilocality, leave a detectable signature on the sex-specific genetic structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. xol-1, the master sex-switch gene in C. elegans, is a transcriptional target of the terminal sex-determining factor TRA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Balázs; Kutnyánszky, Vera; Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Steták, Attila; Csankovszki, Györgyi; Takács-Vellai, Krisztina; Vellai, Tibor

    2009-12-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, sex is determined by the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes: XX animals (2X:2A=1.0) develop as hermaphrodites and XO animals (1X:2A=0.5) develop as males. TRA-1, the worm ortholog of Drosophila Cubitus interruptus and mammalian Gli (Glioma-associated homolog) proteins, is the terminal transcription factor of the C. elegans sex-determination pathway, which specifies hermaphrodite fate by repressing male-specific genes. Here we identify a consensus TRA-1 binding site in the regulatory region of xol-1, the master switch gene controlling sex determination and dosage compensation. xol-1 is normally expressed in males, where it promotes male development and prevents dosage compensation. We show that TRA-1 binds to the consensus site in the xol-1 promoter in vitro and inhibits the expression of xol-1 in XX animals in vivo. Furthermore, inactivation of tra-1 enhances, whereas hyperactivation of tra-1 suppresses, lethality in animals with elevated xol-1 activity. These data imply the existence of a regulatory feedback loop within the C. elegans sex-determination and dosage-compensation cascade that ensures the accurate dose of X-linked genes in cells destined to adopt hermaphrodite fate.

  14. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pacheco Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. Objective: To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. Methods One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors, MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. Results: The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p 0.05. The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01. Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (psex < 0.01. Conclusions: Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  15. Gay identity-related factors and sexual risk among men who have sex with men in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Stephen A; Mansergh, Gordon; Marks, Gary; Guzman, Robert; Colfax, Grant

    2009-04-01

    This study explored the relationship between gay identity-related factors (gay community involvement, gay bar attendance, gay identity importance, and self-homophobia) and unprotected anal sex (UA) in the past 3 months among men who have sex with men (MSM) of three different race/ethnicity groups. Four hundred eighty-three MSM (mean age 34) were recruited in the San Francisco Bay Area (33% African American, 34% Latino and 33% White). Compared with White MSM, African American and Latino MSM were less likely to identify as gay, and to attend gay bars/clubs, and more likely to report self-homophobia. Just over one third of the sample reported UA (did not vary by race). Gay community involvement was associated with receptive UA with all partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR = 1.30, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.06-1.60). Gay bar attendance was associated with insertive UA with all partners (AOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.01-1.43) and with HIV-discordant partners (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.08-1.69). Implications for prevention include addressing community norms and encouraging alternatives to bars as settings in which to meet and socialize with other MSM.

  16. Factors Related to Pregnancy Among Female Sex Workers Living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernigliaro, Dana; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2016-10-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV are a vulnerable population for multiple health concerns and have been vastly understudied in public health literature. This study analyzes factors related to pregnancy among 268 FSWs living with HIV in the Dominican Republic. Results indicate that 34 % of participants had been pregnant since HIV diagnosis. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between pregnancy after HIV diagnosis and ART interruption (AOR 2.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 4.94), knowledge of mother-to-child transmission (AOR 2.12; 95 % CI 0.99, 4.55), serostatus disclosure to a sex partner (AOR 2.46; 95 % CI 1.31, 4.62), older age (AOR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.87, 0.95) and a more negative perception of their health provider (AOR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.34, 0.93). Results indicate noteworthy associations between having been pregnant and the health provider experience and ART interruption, indicating a significant need for further research on this population to ensure both maternal and child health.

  17. Factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica: a cross‐sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Logie, Carmen H; Wang, Ying; Lacombe‐Duncan, Ashley; Jones, Nicolette; Ahmed, Uzma; Levermore, Kandasi; Neil, Ava; Ellis, Tyrone; Bryan, Nicolette; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction : Transgender women are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Transgender women involved in sex work may experience exacerbated violence, social exclusion, and HIV vulnerabilities, in comparison with non‐sex work...

  18. Online newspapers: the impact of culture, sex, and age on the perceived importance of specified quality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley G. Hope

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a proliferation of online newspapers over recent years. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, factors affecting the quality of online newspapers remain only partially understood. Based on a two-factor model of hygiene and motivator factors, this paper examines quality for online newspapers giving attention to differences across culture, sex, and age. Hygiene factors are essential requirements whose absence causes dissatisfaction, while motivators are desirable elements that add value and increase user satisfaction. The paper presents findings from an empirical study of eighty-four Web users. Results show that hygiene factors for our respondents were: Timeliness, Content attractiveness, Content coverage, Usefulness, and Navigation, while motivators were: Writing style, Layout, Archives, Services, Interactivity, and Multimedia presentation. Four factors were borderline: Journalism ethics, Ease of use, Front page and headlines, and Locating information. However, the research reveals some differences in classification of factors across culture, sex, and age.

  19. Protective factors for HIV infection among Mexican American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mark A; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2010-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify potential themes for inclusion in effective HIV prevention interventions for Mexican American men who have sex with men (MSM). The authors used a phenomenological design to explore the lived experiences of Mexican American MSM who had grown up in Dallas, Texas, regarding protective factors for HIV infection. A total of 20 30- to 60-year-old Mexican American MSM participated in semistructured interviews. During data analysis, the following themes concerning protective behaviors for HIV emerged: (a) accepting one's sexuality; (b) machismo; (c) being in love; (d) respect for family, self, and life; and (e) having HIV-living now. Strategies for potential inclusion in HIV prevention interventions geared toward Mexican American MSM were identified based on these themes. The recommendations encompass modification of behavioral interventions and related social policies.

  20. RISK FACTORS FOR HTLV-II INFECTION IN PERUVIAN MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUNT, JOSEPH R.; LA ROSA, ALBERTO M.; PEINADO, JESÚS; LAMA, JAVIER R.; SUAREZ, LUIS; PUN, MONICA; CABEZAS, CESAR; SANCHEZ, JORGE

    2009-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-II (HTLV-II) infection is endemic in indigenous groups in the Americas and injection drug users (IDUs) worldwide. In Peru, HTLV-II infection was previously identified in two indigenous Amazonians. We examined risk factors for HTLV-II infection in 2,703 Peruvian men who have sex with men (MSM): 35 (1.3%) were HTLV-II positive. HTLV-II infection was associated with syphilis, HSV-2 infection, unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and older age. This is the first report of HTLV-II in a non-indigenous non-IDU population in Peru. Additional studies are needed to determine if HTLV-II is a sexually transmitted infection in this and other sexually active populations. PMID:16687704

  1. A study of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of three men with sex chromosome mosaicism including a 45,X cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Huong; Morel, Frederic; Bujan, Louis; May-Panloup, Pascale; De Braekeleer, Marc; Perrin, Aurore

    2015-06-01

    Meiotic segregation of mosaic males with a 45,X cell line has been little examined. In this study, we evaluated the risk of aneuploid gametes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA fragmentation in ejaculated spermatozoa of three men with sex chromosome mosaicism including a 45,X cell line. Triple- and dual-color FISH were performed. Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected using the TUNEL assay. A significantly increased frequency of XY disomic spermatozoa was observed for patients (P)1 and P2. A significant increase in diploidy and autosomal aneuploidy was found in P2 and P3, respectively. The rate of DNA fragmentation was not different from that observed in a control group. Data from the literature are scarce (only 3 cases reported), making comparison of the present data difficult, especially as the frequencies of the cell lines comprising the mosaicism differed between patients. Furthermore, the proportion of the different cell lines can differ from one tissue to another in the same patient. Whether the relative levels of the several cell lines present in the mosaicism can influence the rate of aneuploid spermatozoa remains unknown.

  2. Environmental sex reversal, Trojan sex genes, and sex ratio adjustment: conditions and population consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelkens, Rike B; Wedekind, Claus

    2010-02-01

    The great diversity of sex determination mechanisms in animals and plants ranges from genetic sex determination (GSD, e.g. mammals, birds, and most dioecious plants) to environmental sex determination (ESD, e.g. many reptiles) and includes a mixture of both, for example when an individual's genetically determined sex is environmentally reversed during ontogeny (ESR, environmental sex reversal, e.g. many fish and amphibia). ESD and ESR can lead to widely varying and unstable population sex ratios. Populations exposed to conditions such as endocrine-active substances or temperature shifts may decline over time due to skewed sex ratios, a scenario that may become increasingly relevant with greater anthropogenic interference on watercourses. Continuous exposure of populations to factors causing ESR could lead to the extinction of genetic sex factors and may render a population dependent on the environmental factors that induce the sex change. However, ESR also presents opportunities for population management, especially if the Y or W chromosome is not, or not severely, degenerated. This seems to be the case in many amphibians and fish. Population growth or decline in such species can potentially be controlled through the introduction of so-called Trojan sex genes carriers, individuals that possess sex chromosomes or genes opposite from what their phenotype predicts. Here, we review the conditions for ESR, its prevalence in natural populations, the resulting physiological and reproductive consequences, and how these may become instrumental for population management.

  3. Do routinely measured risk factors for obesity explain the sex gap in its prevalence? Observations from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garawi, Fatima; Ploubidis, George B; Devries, Karen; Al-Hamdan, Nasser; Uauy, Ricardo

    2015-03-17

    The prevalence of adult obesity is higher in women than men in most countries. However, the pathways that link female sex with excess obesity are still not fully understood. We examine whether socioeconomic and behavioural factors may mediate the association between sex and obesity in the Saudi Arabian setting where there is female excess in obesity. We performed a mediation analysis using a cross-sectional, national household survey from Saudi Arabia with 4758 participants (51% female). A series of multivariable regression models were fitted to test if socioeconomic position, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, and smoking mediate the association between sex and obesity (BMI >=30). The findings were confirmed using causal mediation analysis. Women in this sample were roughly twice as likely as men to be obese (crude OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.6-2.3). The odds ratio remained significantly higher for women compared to men in models testing for mediation (OR range 1.95-2.06). Our data suggest that indicators of socio-economic position, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, and smoking do not mediate the sex differences in obesity. Our analysis shows that most commonly measured risk factors for obesity do not explain the sex differences in its prevalence in the Saudi context. Further research is needed to understand what might explain the female excess in obesity prevalence. We discuss how data related to the lived experience of Saudi men and women may tap into underlying mechanisms by which the sex difference in obesity prevalence are produced.

  4. STRESS AS PREDISPOSING FACTOR OF SOME CHRONIC DISEASES INCLUDING PERIODONTAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi-Nurul M Dewi-Nurul

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is hypothesized as a common pathway for several related chronic diseases of man. Psychosocial stress as modified by perceptions and coping by patients can lead to physical processes. Psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI studies have suggested that psychosocial stress can alter immune function and increase vulnerability to illnesses. The patients also have high sensitivity to periodontal disease (PD. This article describes the association of stress as a physiological response to diseases such as PD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and inflammatory bowel disease. The psychosocial stress can lead to physiological processes through 1 the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis leading to glucocortico-steroid secretion; 2 the autonomic nervous system, resulting in the release of catecholamine; or 3 the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in the release of sex hormones. These processes may affect chronic diseases. It can be concluded that psychosocial stress in periodontal disease patients must be considered and social support must be provided in order to achieve an optimum periodontal therapy result.

  5. Sex, temperament, and family context: how the interaction of early factors differentially predict adolescent alcohol use and are mediated by proximal adolescent factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Linnea R; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Goldsmith, H Hill; Klein, Marjorie H; Strauman, Timothy J; Costanzo, Phillip; Essex, Marilyn J

    2011-03-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interaction with child sex, are less clear. Using a prospective community sample of 362 (190 girls), this study investigated sex differences in the joint influence of distal childhood and proximal adolescent factors on Grade 10 alcohol use. All risk factors and two-way early individual-by-context interactions, and interactions of each of these with child sex, were entered into the initial regression. Significant sex interactions prompted the use of separate models for girls and boys. In addition to the identification of early (family socioeconomic status, authoritative parenting style) and proximal adolescent (mental health symptoms, deviant friends) risk factors for both girls and boys, results highlighted important sex differences. In particular, girls with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished by the interaction of early temperamental disinhibition and exposure to parental stress; boys with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished primarily by early temperamental negative affect. Results have implications for the timing and type of interventions offered to adolescents.

  6. [Features and influencing factors of self-discrimination among HIV/AIDS patients according to sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, L H; Lyu, P; Xu, P; Chen, W Y; He, H J; Ma, L P

    2016-10-06

    Objective: To investigate the features and influencing factors of self-discrimination among patients with HIV/AIDS according to sex. Methods: A total of 2 432 HIV/AIDS patients were recruited in Yunnan, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shanxi, Jilin, and Inner Mongolia provinces by a multistage stratified cluster sampling method, based on HIV epidemic and transmission modes, from May 2013 to October 2013. All participants were ≥18 years old, and we excluded those with mental disorders, hearing loss or other factors that prevented them from properly answering questions, and those who were unwilling to participate. A self-designed questionnaire was conducted to collect information about self-discrimination features and social behavior changes among HIV/AIDS patients. Differences in performance and self-discrimination features between participants of different sexes were compared using the chi-squared test. Factors influencing self-discrimination were analyzed by sex, using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Of the 2 432 cases, 78.9%(1 918 cases)were male and 21.1%(514 cases)female. The proportion of self-discrimination overall was 76.1%(1 850 cases); this proportion among female HIV/AIDS patients was 80.5%(414 cases), which was higher than that among men(74.9%, 1 436 cases)(χ(2)=7.17, P=0.007). Of the 11 forms of self-discrimination performance, proportions of feeling guilt, shame, and self-abasement among participants were greater than 50%. Proportions of feeling shame, inferiority, and blaming others among females were 61.3%, 59.5%, and 45.3%, respectively, which were higher than these among males(49.8%, 50.0%, 28.4%, respectively)(Pdiscrimination among those with HIV confirmatory testing time ≥1 year was higher than those with HIV confirmatory testing time discrimination among male farm workers was higher(OR=1.62, 95% CI:1.03-2.54). The risks of self-discrimination in males who had been infected with HIV by transmission routes of blood transfusion or blood

  7. Factorization of Radiative Leptonic Decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ Mesons Including the Soft Photon Region

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ji-Chong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the radiative leptonic decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ mesons using factorization approach. Factorization is proved to be valid explicitly at 1-loop level at any order of $O(\\Lambda _{\\rm QCD}\\left/m_Q\\right.)$. We consider the contribution in the soft photon region that $E_{\\gamma} \\sim \\left. \\Lambda^2 _{\\rm QCD} /\\right. m_Q$. The numerical results shows that, the soft photon region is very important for both the $B$ and $D$ mesons. The branching ratios of $B\\to \\gamma e\

  8. Hormonal and nonhormonal factors affecting sex hormone-binding globulin levels in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, J H

    1988-01-01

    Researchers in Utrecht, the Netherlands have studied the effects of different factors, such as oral contraceptives (OCs), on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in blood. The SHBG levels in women who continuously used OCs consisting only of .05 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) rose as high as 260% + or - 25% of those in women not using OCs. Further, mean SHBG levels of women using combination OCs of EE2 and levonorgestrel were 10-60% higher than women not using OCs. SHBG levels were significantly higher than the use of a sequential OC containing decreasing amounts of EE2 and increasing amounts of levonorgestrel than those cause by use of a continuous combined OC with .03 mg and .15 mg respectively. As the dosage of EE2 increased in combination OCs with 2.5 mg lynestrenol, the SHBG increased from 20% (.05 mg EE2) to 150% (.75 mg EE2). SHBG levels after taking EE2 and cyproterone acetate increased significantly more (240%) than levels after EE2 and desogestrel (170%), or after EE2 and gestoden (140%) [p.001]. SHBG levels of women who took OCs containing only .03 mg of levonorgestrel daily decreased 35% (p.01). These levels fell by 30% in women who received 150 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscularly every 3 months (p.001). SHBG concentrations increased when estrogens were taken orally for noncontraceptive purposes, but they did not change when they were administered percutaneously. As body weight increased the SHBG levels decreased despite hormonal status or sex. Further, the lower the fat content of one's diet the higher the SHBG levels and vice versa. SHBG levels are higher in males with flaccid lungs than they are in males with healthy lungs.

  9. Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW in a high HIV prevalence state of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhi Gajendra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors associated with the use of drugs among FSWs in this region. The objective of the paper was to describe the factors associated with history of drug use among FSWs in Dimapur, an important commercial hub of Nagaland, which is a high HIV prevalence state of India. Methods FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS, and were interviewed to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and HIV risk behaviours. Biological samples were tested for HIV, syphilis gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with drug use. Results Among the 426 FSWs in the study, about 25% (n = 107 reported having ever used illicit drugs. Among 107 illicit drug users, 83 (77.6% were non-injecting and 24 (22.4% were injecting drug users. Drug-using FSWs were significantly more likely to test positive for one or more STIs (59% vs. 33.5%, active syphilis (27.1% vs. 11.4% and Chlamydia infection (30% vs. 19.9% compared to their non-drug using peers. Drug-using FSWs were also significantly more likely to be currently married, widowed or separated compared with non-drug-using FSWs. In multiple logistic regression analysis, being an alcohol user, being married, having a larger volume of clients, and having sexual partners who have ever used or shared injecting drugs were found to be independently associated with illicit drug use. Conclusions Drug-using FSWs were more vulnerable to STIs including HIV compared to their non-drug using peers. Several important factors associated with being an FSW who uses drugs were identified in this study and this knowledge can be used to plan more effectively targeted harm reduction strategies

  10. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of th

  11. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  12. [Prevalence and associated factors related to disordered eating in student adolescents of Guadalajara across sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño-Gutiérrez, Bertha Lidia; Celis-de la Rosa, Alfredo; Unikel-Santoncini, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and associated factors to disordered eating (DE) in adolescents by sex. A transversal and analytic study was carried out with 1,134 first grade students at a public high school. Self esteem, impulsivity, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, entertainment, locus of control, relationship with father/ mother, stress and DE were assessed with previously validated and standardized scales. A prevalence of 7.2% of risky eating behaviors was obtained; 2.8% for men and 10.3% for women. In men in the risk analysis the association was maintained for impulsivity, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and stress. After the multivaried analysis only depression and stress showed any association. In women in the risk analysis, the association was maintained for impulsivity, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and stress, and after the multivaried analysis only impulsivity, suicidal ideation and stress maintained the association. The prevalence of DE was higher among women. The associated factors in men were depressive symptoms and stress, whilst for women was impulsivity, suicidal ideation and stress.

  13. Child sex tourism - prevalence of and risk factors for its use in a German community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Thula; Turner, Daniel; Neutze, Janina; Briken, Peer

    2017-04-20

    To investigate the prevalence of child sex tourism (CST) in a large German community sample, and to compare those who made use of CST with other child sexual abusers regarding established characteristics and risk factors for child sexual abuse. Adult German men were recruited through a German market research panel and questioned by means of an anonymous online survey. Group assignment was accomplished based on information on previous sexual contacts with children and previous use of CST. Characteristics and risk factors were compared between the groups using t- and Chi-square tests. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict CST. Data collection was conducted in 2013, data analysis in January 2015. Out of 8718 men, 36 (0.4%) reported CST use. The CST group differed from the nonCST group (n = 96; 1.1%) with regard to pedophilic sexual and antisocial behaviors as well as own experiences of sexual abuse. Social difficulties, pedophilic sexual interests, and hypersexuality were not distinct features in the CST group. Own experiences of sexual abuse, child prostitution use, and previous conviction for a violent offense predicted CST in a logistic regression model. This study is a first step to gain insight into the prevalence and characteristics of men using CST. Findings could help to augment prevention strategies against commercial forms of sexual abuse in developed as well as in developing countries by fostering the knowledge about the characteristics of perpetrators.

  14. Effect of sex-hormone levels, sex, body mass index and other host factors on human craniofacial bone regeneration with bioactive tricalcium phosphate grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabe, Christine; Mele, Aynur; Kann, Peter Herbert; Peleska, Barbara; Adel-Khattab, Doaa; Renz, Harald; Reuss, Alexander; Bohner, Marc; Stiller, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Little is known regarding the associations between sex-hormone levels, sex, body mass index (BMI), age, other host factors and biomaterial stimulated bone regeneration in the human craniofacial skeleton. The aim of this study was to elucidate the associations between these factors and bone formation after sinus floor augmentation procedures (SFA) utilizing a bioactive tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bone grafting material. We conducted a prospective study in a human population in which 60 male and 60 female participants underwent SFA and dental implant placement using a staged approach. BMI as well as levels of serum estradiol (E2), total testosterone (TT), and the free androgen index (FAI) were measured by radioimmunoassay and electrochemoluminescent-immunoassay. At implant placement, 6 months after SFA, bone biopsy specimens were harvested for hard tissue histology, the amount of bone formation was evaluated by histomorphometry and immunohistochemical analysis of osteogenic marker expression. The Wilcoxon rank-sum U test, Spearman correlations and linear regression analysis were used to explore the association between bone formation and BMI, hormonal and other host factors. BMI and log E2 were significantly positively associated with bone formation in male individuals (p BMI enhanced TCP stimulated craniofacial i.e. intramembranous bone repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors associated with chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-USA border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, O; Strathdee, S A; Martinez, G A; Lozada, R; Ojeda, V D; Staines-Orozco, H; Patterson, T L

    2010-07-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea was 13.0% and 6.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with chlamydia were younger age, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhoea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection were more closely associated with FSWs' drug use behaviours and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviours. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs.

  16. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  17. The N(H2/I(CO Conversion Factor: A Treatment that Includes Radiative Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento que explica mejor el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO y que incluye la transferencia radiativa. A primera vista, incluir la transferencia radiativa parece superfluo para una línea óptimamente gruesa como CO J = 1 0. No obstante, dado que el medio interestelar es inhomogéneo, los fragmentos de gas (es decir, grumos todavía pueden ser óptimamente delgadas hacia sus bordes y en las alas de los pérfiles de la línea. El tratamiento estadístico de Martin et al. (1984 de la transferencia radiativa a través una nube molecular con grumos se usa para derivar una expresión para el factor de conversión que su- pera los defectos de las explicaciones más tradicionales basadas en Dickman et al. (1986. Por un lado, el tratamiento presentado aquí posiblemente representa un avance importante al entender el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO pero, por otro lado, tiene sus propios defectos, que son discutidos aquí brevemente.

  18. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  19. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-10-01

    Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues.

  20. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  1. Risk Factors for Anal HPV Infection and Anal Precancer in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Lauren M.; Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Fetterman, Barbara; Tokugawa, Diane; Lorey, Thomas S.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Luhn, Patricia; Gage, Julia C; Darragh, Teresa M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause a large proportion of anal cancers. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HPV infection and anal cancer compared with HIV-negative men. We evaluated risk factors for HPV infection and anal precancer in a population of HIV-infected MSM.

  2. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  3. Sex Bias in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalk, Sue Rosenberg; And Others

    This study investigated children's sex biased attitudes as a function of the sex, age, and race of the child as well as a geographical-SES factor. Two attitudes were measured on a 55-item questionnaire: Sex Pride (attributing positive characteristics to a child of the same sex) and Sex Prejudice (attributing negative characteristics to a child of…

  4. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,72...

  5. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I; Jackson, Anne U; Monda, Keri L; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dimas, Antigone S; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Wendy L; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F; Chanock, Stephen J; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Gejman, Pablo V; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J L; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M; Price, Jackie F; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K; Chines, Peter S; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N A; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E; Strawbridge, Rona J; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W G; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; North, Kari E; Heid, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 i

  6. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I; Jackson, Anne U; Monda, Keri L; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dimas, Antigone S; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Wendy L; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F; Chanock, Stephen J; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Gejman, Pablo V; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J L; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M; Price, Jackie F; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K; Chines, Peter S; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N A; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E; Strawbridge, Rona J; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W G; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; North, Kari E; Heid, Iris M

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  7. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    explosion, and the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, such an approach may have helped to maintain the integrity of the designed provisions against major deviations resulting in these disasters. In order to make this paradigm operational, safety management and in particular risk assessment tools need to be refined....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...... Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...

  8. Bombyx mori P-element Somatic Inhibitor (BmPSI) Is a Key Auxiliary Factor for Silkworm Male Sex Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuqing; Zeng, Baosheng; James, Anthony A.; Tan, Anjiang; Huang, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    Manipulation of sex determination pathways in insects provides the basis for a wide spectrum of strategies to benefit agriculture and public health. Furthermore, insects display a remarkable diversity in the genetic pathways that lead to sex differentiation. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been cultivated by humans as a beneficial insect for over two millennia, and more recently as a model system for studying lepidopteran genetics and development. Previous studies have identified the B. mori Fem piRNA as the primary female determining factor and BmMasc as its downstream target, while the genetic scenario for male sex determination was still unclear. In the current study, we exploite the transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate a comprehensive set of knockout mutations in genes BmSxl, Bmtra2, BmImp, BmImpM, BmPSI and BmMasc, to investigate their roles in silkworm sex determination. Absence of Bmtra2 results in the complete depletion of Bmdsx transcripts, which is the conserved downstream factor in the sex determination pathway, and induces embryonic lethality. Loss of BmImp or BmImpM function does not affect the sexual differentiation. Mutations in BmPSI and BmMasc genes affect the splicing of Bmdsx and the female reproductive apparatus appeared in the male external genital. Intriguingly, we identify that BmPSI regulates expression of BmMasc, BmImpM and Bmdsx, supporting the conclusion that it acts as a key auxiliary factor in silkworm male sex determination. PMID:28103247

  9. Diabetes and male sex are key risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Wiklund, Urban

    2017-01-01

    males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes....

  10. Peers and delinquency among girls and boys: are sex differences in delinquency explained by peer factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, F.M.; Hoeve, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate sex differences in the relationship between peers and delinquency. We analyse to what extent peers have different effects on delinquency among girls and boys, and to what extent sex differences in the level of delinquency can be explained by differential exposure or v

  11. Peers and delinquency among girls and boys: are sex differences in delinquency explained by peer factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, F.M.; Hoeve, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate sex differences in the relationship between peers and delinquency. We analyse to what extent peers have different effects on delinquency among girls and boys, and to what extent sex differences in the level of delinquency can be explained by differential exposure or

  12. Peers and delinquency among girls and boys: are sex differences in delinquency explained by peer factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, F.M.; Hoeve, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate sex differences in the relationship between peers and delinquency. We analyse to what extent peers have different effects on delinquency among girls and boys, and to what extent sex differences in the level of delinquency can be explained by differential exposure or v

  13. A Factor Analysis of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namok; Jenkins, Stephen J.

    This study investigated the dimensions of sex role orientation measured by the revised Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; S. Bem, 1974) and the revised Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; J. Spence, R. Helmreich, and J. Strapp, 1975). Participants were 651 undergraduates in introductory psychology courses. The sample was approximately 50% male and…

  14. Possible risk factors for Down syndrome and sex chromosomal aneuploidy in Mysore, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Suttur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome (DS and sex chromosomal aneuploidy (SA are common chromosomal anomalies causing congenital malformations and mental retardation in humans. The well-established risk factor, advanced maternal age, was not found in many of the DS and SA cases in India, while the other possible risk factors have not been well studied. In view of this, the present study has been made. Materials and Methods: During the last 5 years, 150 clinically suspected DS and 25 SA cases were referred to our laboratory for chromosome investigation from major hospitals of Mysore city. Chromosome preparations were made from these patients after informed consent was obtained. Well-spread G-banded metaphase plates were analyzed by automated LEICA KARYO software. Two hundred and 100 randomly selected families belonging to different religions were used as controls for the DS and SA cases, respectively. Statistical analysis was carried out using logistic regression Results: Out of the 150 cases of DS, 122 had free trisomy 21, two were mosaic trisomy 21, and one had translocation. Logistic regression of case-control study of DS children revealed that the odds ratio of uncle-niece marriages, or second cousin marriages, or parents lived in rural region, or exposure of the parents to chemicals, or parents education status, or habits (tobacco/ alcohol used of father, or mother not undergone prenatal scanning, or mothers with previous abortions were significant when all the variables of that category were used one at a time. Exposure of the parents to chemicals, parents′ educational status, habits (tobacco/alcohol use of the father, mother not undergone prenatal scanning, and history of previous abortions were significant when all the variables of that category were used one at a time. Similarly, except for consanguinity, history of previous abortions, and mother not undergone prenatal scanning, all other factors showed significant odds ratios in SA cases

  15. Factors of the HIV Transmission in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Suizhou City from 2009 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: HIV continues to spread rapidly among MSM in Suizhou City. The high-risk behavior among MSM remains a hindrance to HIV prevention. Innovative intervention approaches are essential for HIV surveillance and prevention among MSM in Suizhou City. Yang F, Shi X, He W, Wu S, Wang J, Zhao K, Yuan H, Martin K, and Zhang H. Factors of the HIV transmission in men who have sex with men in Suizhou City from 2009 to 2013. Sex Med 2015;3:24–31.

  16. Contribution of Environmental Risk Factors Including Lifestyle to Inequalities Noncommunicable (Chronic Diseases such as Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Grochowska Niedworok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health inequalities: differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Some health inequalities are attributable to biological variations or free choice and others are attributable to the external environment and conditions mainly outside the control of the individuals concerned. 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2012 an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a normal body weight can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Risk factors: 1. Age- the prevalence of diabetes rises steeply with age: *one in twenty people over the age of 65 have diabetes, *and this rises to one in five people over the age of 85 years. The diagnosis of diabetes may be delayed in older people, with symptoms of diabetes being wrongly attributed to ageing. 2. Ethnic: type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in people of South Asian descent and up to three times more common in those of African and African-Caribbean descent then in the white population. It is also more common in people of Chinese descent and other non-Caucasian groups. 3. Gender: the frequency of diabetes usually is higher in men than in women. This may be because gender compounds other aspects of inequality- women often bear the brunt of poverty, and socio-economic differences in the prevalence of diabetes are more marked for women, probably because of differences in smoking rates, food choices and the prevalence of obesity. 4. Overweight/Obesity: every 1 kg/m2 more causes increase risk: cardiovascular diseases 2%, coronary artery disease- 3% , myocardial infarction- 5% , heart failure- 5% , peripheral vascular disease- 5%. Health inqualities important in diabetes -- modifiable:  social

  17. Sex determination

    OpenAIRE

    McCullagh, W. McK. H.

    2013-01-01

    How the sex of offspring is determined has puzzled philosophers and scientists for millennia. Modern science has identified both genetic and environmental factors, but the question is still not yet fully answered.

  18. Risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections among HIV infected men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ping; Wei, Ye; Xia, Hongli; Jiang, Wenjie; Yang, Changqing; Meng, Xiaojun; Peng, Peng; Yang, Yue; Jiang, Liying; Chu, Minjie; Zhuang, Xun

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the factors associated with sexually transmitted infection and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (STI-HIV) co-infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). A total of 357 HIV-infected participants (84 STI-HIV co-infection and 273 HIV infections only) were recruited from Jiangsu, China. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the related factors associated with STI-HIV co-infection. Marginal structural models were adopted to estimate the effect of transmission drug resistance (TDR) on STI-HIV co-infection. For all participants, logistic regression analyses revealed that those who diagnosed with HIV-1 for longer duration (≥1.8 years) were significantly associated with reduced STI-HIV co-infection risk (OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.32–0.96, P = 0.036). In further stratification analysis by antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with longer duration showed consistent significant associations with STI-HIV co-infection risk (OR = 0.46, 95%CI: 0.26–0.83, P = 0.010) among MSM with ART-naïve status. In addition, significant reduced risk for STI-HIV co-infection (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96–0.99, P = 0.010) were observed in younger (under the average age of 31.03) MSM of the same group. Interestingly, we also found TDR was significantly associated with an increased risk of STI-HIV co-infection risk (OR = 3.84, 95%CI: 1.05–14.03, P = 0.042) in ART-naïve group. Our study highlights a pattern of STI-HIV co-infection among MSM in China and indicates that targeted interventions aimed at encouraging TDR monitoring in MSM with early HIV infection are warranted. PMID:28158317

  19. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  20. Practices of receptive and insertive anal sex among transgender women in relation to partner types, sociocultural factors, and background variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Bödeker, Birte; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria

    2014-04-01

    It is urgent to develop efficacious HIV prevention programs to curb the reported extremely high HIV prevalence and incidence among transgender women (male-to-female transgender persons) who reside in large cities in the USA. This study aimed to describe unprotected receptive anal sex (URAS) and unprotected insertive anal sex (UIAS) among high-risk transgender women in relation to partner types, psychosocial factors, and background variables. Based on purposive sampling from the targeted communities and AIDS service organizations in San Francisco and Oakland, a total of 573 transgender women who had a history of sex work were recruited and individually interviewed using a structured survey questionnaire. Significant correlates with URAS with primary, casual, and commercial sex partners were found (e.g., needs for social support, frequency of social support received, exposure to transphobia, self-esteem, economic pressure, norms toward practicing healthy behaviors, and self-efficacy toward practicing safe sex). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that transgender women who had engaged in URAS with commercial partners were more likely to have higher levels of transphobia or lower levels of the norms or self-efficacy to practice safe sex. Among the participants who did not have vaginoplasty (preoperative transgender women), 16.4% had engaged in insertive anal sex (IAS) with commercial partners in the past 30 days. The participants who were HIV positive and had engaged in IAS were more likely to be African-American or Caucasians, coinfected with sexually transmitted infections, or identified themselves as homosexual. Practices of IAS among transgender women have not been thoroughly investigated in relation to sexual and gender identity. UIAS with homosexual and bisexual men in addition to URAS may be a cause for high HIV incidence among transgender women. An HIV prevention intervention study must be developed and evaluated, which aims to reduce HIV

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Birkegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    among rural Kenyans. BP and pulse rate (PR) were measured while sitting and fasting blood samples were taken for analysis of standard lipid profile. Standard anthropometric measurements were collected. Physical activity energy expenditure was obtained objectively and lifestyle data were obtained using......The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertaken...... questionnaires. In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p ...

  2. Measuring social desirability across language and sex: A comparison of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale factor structures in English and Mandarin Chinese in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, A Solomon; Drescher, Christopher F; Chin, Eu Gene; Johnson, Laura R

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Gay-Related Rejection Sensitivity as a Risk Factor for Condomless Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Pachankis, John E

    2016-04-01

    Gay-related rejection sensitivity has been linked to numerous adverse health outcomes, but its relationship to condomless sex remains unexamined. The present study investigated the role of gay-related rejection sensitivity as a predictor of condomless sex. Gay and bisexual men completed questionnaires measuring rejection sensitivity and condom use self-efficacy as well as a timeline followback interview regarding past 90-day sexual behaviors. Gay-related rejection sensitivity was positively associated with the number of condomless anal sex acts with casual partners, and condom use self-efficacy mediated this association. These findings have important implications for effective HIV prevention efforts among this at-risk population.

  4. [Structural analysis for psychosocial factors including health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) associated with lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Ogino, K; Ooshita, Y; Tsukahara, S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify psychosocial characteristics associated with preventive health behavior for lifestyle-related diseases. The author performed objective health examinations and gave questionnaires to 289 men (39.7 +/- 11.8 years, mean +/- SD) and 80 women (32.8 +/- 10.4 years) engaged in office work. Psychosocial factors included lifestyle and perceived stress, as well as the health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) as newly developed indicators for health behavior. The principal component analysis for men did not extract lifestyle from the psychosocial structures. Multiple regression analysis showed that internal HLC (IHLC), chance HLC (CHLC), professional HLC (PHLC) and stress significantly contributed to SOC. Principal component analysis using psychosocial factors in women showed two psychosocial structures, i.e. the second principal (high SOC, high lifestyle, and low stress) and the 4th principal components (high supernatural HLC, and high PHLC). Both components were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. SOC was recognized to be negatively associated with age, stress, and total cholesterol, and positively with IHLC, FHLC, lifestyle, and gamma-GTP using multiple regression analysis for women. These results indicated a distinguishable sex difference regarding the involvement of psychosocial factors including HLC and SOC in objective health. SOC seems likely to be involved not in objective health, but closely with stress, suggesting a direct influence on mental health. Lifestyle should be divided into more detailed categories such as smoking and salt intake. Structural analysis of women suggests that SOC is involved directly or indirectly through lifestyle in objective health, different from men. To further clarify causal relationships between psychosocial factors and risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases, a longitudinal study is necessary based on these results.

  5. Sex Factors in the Metabolic Syndrome as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghwan Suh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic syndrome (MetS is a condition characterized by a cluster of metabolic disorders and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This study analyzed data from the Korean Health and Genome Study to examine the impact of MetS on CVD.MethodsA total of 8,898 subjects (4,241 males and 4,657 females, 40 to 69 years of age, were enrolled and evaluated for the development of new onset CVD from 2001 to 2012 (median 8.1 years of follow-up.ResultsThe prevalence of MetS at baseline was 22.0% (932/4,241 and 29.7% (1,383/4,657 in males and females, respectively. MetS was associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD; hazard ratio [HR], 1.818; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.312 to 2.520 in males; HR, 1.789; 95% CI, 1.332 to 2.404 in females and CVD (HR, 1.689; 95% CI, 1.295 to 2.204 in males; HR, 1.686; 95% CI, 1.007 to 2.192 in females. Specifically, MetS was associated with risk of future stroke in females only (HR, 1.486; 95% CI, 1.007 to 2.192. Among MetS components, abdominal obesity and hypertension were independent predictors of both CHD and CVD. In addition, a higher number of MetS components correlated with higher CVD risk.ConclusionMetS is a significant risk factor for the development of CVD although its impact varies between sexes.

  6. Sex Determination Mechanisms in Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quanqi; SUN Xiaohua; QI Jie; WANG Zhigang; WANG Xinglian; WANG Xubo; ZHAI Teng

    2009-01-01

    In fish, sex determination (SD) system shows high variation. The SD mechanisms include environmental and genetic regulation. The research on SD system and related genes in intensively studied fish species was reviewed. Although some genes have been described as sex-related, only DMRTlbY can be considered as a master sex determination gene and none of them has been util-ized in aquaculture. The variation of fish SD system, the importance of sex-related genes in evolution research and the relations be-tween environmental factors and sex-related genes were also discussed. The fish sex determination mechanism remains largely un-known. Further research needs to be done considering the significance of fish SD studies in basic and applied aspects.

  7. Sex, Race, and the Quality of Life Factors Most Important to Patients’ Well-Being Among Those Seeking Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Roger B.; Jones, Dan B.; Apovian, Caroline A.; Chiodi, Sarah; Huskey, Karen W.; Hamel, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests obesity-related social stigma and impairment in work function may be the two most detrimental quality of life (QOL) factors to overall well-being among patients seeking weight loss surgery (WLS); whether the relative importance of QOL factors varies across patient sex and race/ethnicity is unclear. Methods We interviewed 574 patients seeking WLS at two centers. We measured patient’s health utility (preference-based well-being measure) as determined via standard gamble scenarios assessing patients’ willingness to risk death to achieve weight loss or perfect health. Multivariable models assessed associations between patients’ utility and five weight-related QOL domains stratified by gender and race: social stigma, self-esteem, physical function, public distress (weight stigma), and work life. Results Depending on patients’ sex and race/ethnicity, mean utilities ranged from 0.85 to 0.91, reflecting an average willingness to assume a 9–15 % risk of death to achieve their most desired health/weight state. After adjustment, African Americans (AAs) reported higher utility than Caucasians (+ 0.054, p=0.03), but utilities did not vary significantly by sex. Among Caucasian and AA men, impairment in physical functioning was the most important factor associated with diminished utility; social stigma was also a leading factor for Caucasian men. Among Caucasian women, self-esteem and work function appeared equally important. Social stigma was the leading contributor to utility among AA women; QOL factors did not appear as important among Hispanic patients. Conclusion AAs reported higher utilities than Caucasian patients. Individual QOL domains that drive diminished well-being varied across race/ethnicity and sex. PMID:26630951

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of unprotected anal intercourse with regular male sex partners among HIV negative men who have sex with men in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Li

    Full Text Available The HIV prevalence and incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM in China are high. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI with a regular male sex partner (RP, a significant predictor of HIV sero-conversion, was high yet under-emphasized among MSM having RP (MSMRP. The present cross-sectional survey interviewed 307 HIV negative MSMRP recruited through convenient sampling from multiple sources, including venue-based outreaching, online recruitment, and referrals made by peers, in Beijing and Chengdu, China. Among MSMRP, the prevalence of UAI with RP in the last three months was 52.4%. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that trust and intimacy within the relationship with RP and presence of clinical depression symptoms were positively associated with UAI with RP in the last three months. Other associated scalar factors derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior were related to perceptions on condom use, including positive attitudes toward condom use (a negative association, subjective norm of the perception that MSM do not usually use condoms during anal intercourse with RP (a positive association, perceived behavioral control over condom use with RP (a negative association, and behavioral intention to use condoms with RP in the coming three months (a negative association. It is seen that MSMRP were at high risk of HIV/STD transmission. The associated factors hence involved those related to perceptions about condom use, mental health, and interpersonal relationship. Future interventions should take these multi-dimensional factors into account. In particular, future research to test the efficacy of couple-based interventions that include mental health elements needs to be conducted, as trust and intimacy within the relationship were associated with UAI among MSMRP, and mental health problems may exist for both the MSMRP and their RP.

  9. Early life status epilepticus and stress have distinct and sex-specific effects on learning, subsequent seizure outcomes, including anticonvulsant response to phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2015-02-01

    Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event. 3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16. Rats were tested on Barnes maze (PN16-19), or lithium-pilocarpine SE (PN19) or flurothyl seizures (PN32). The anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg/rat, intraperitoneally) pretreatment were tested on flurothyl seizures. FluoroJadeB staining assessed hippocampal injury. 3KA-SE or separation on PN4-6 caused more transient learning delays in males and did not alter lithium-pilocarpine SE latencies, but aggravated its outcomes in females. Anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital were preserved and potentiated in specific groups depending on sex, type, and age at EL event. Early life 3KA-SE and maternal separation cause more but transient cognitive deficits in males but aggravate the consequences of subsequent lithium-pilocarpine SE in females. In contrast, on flurothyl seizures, EL events showed either beneficial or no effect, depending on gender, type, and age at EL events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Social-Context Factors, Refusal Self-Efficacy, and Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in a social or individual context can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social-context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSW...

  11. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included…

  12. Internalizing Symptoms and Safe Sex Intentions among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment: Personal Factors as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Meredith C.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Dattadeen, Jodi-Ann; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about why some adolescents with internalizing symptoms engage in sexual behaviors that increase their risk for HIV. This study tested a mediation model of internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Self-efficacy for HIV prevention, HIV knowledge, and worry about HIV were hypothesized to mediate associations between internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among sexually active and non-active adolescents receiving mental health treatment (N = 893, M age = 14.9). Significant indirect effects from internalizing symptoms to safe sex intentions varied according sexual experience: for sexually non-active adolescents, HIV worry and knowledge mediated this link, whereas for sexually active adolescents, HIV self-efficacy was the significant mediator. Increasing both HIV knowledge and self-efficacy for HIV prevention are important targets for HIV prevention with adolescents with internalizing symptoms, and careful attention should be paid towards targeting these interventions to sexually experienced and inexperienced youth. PMID:25284921

  13. Environmental factors influencing adult sex ratio in Poecilia reticulata: laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, A E; Hendry, A P

    2011-10-01

    The potential causes of adult sex ratio variation in guppies Poecilia reticulata were tested in laboratory experiments that evaluated the mortality rates of male and female P. reticulata exposed to potential predators (Hart's rivulus Rivulus hartii and freshwater prawns Macrobrachium crenulatum) and to different resource levels. Poecilia reticulata mortality increased in the presence of R. hartii and M. crenulatum, and low resource levels had an effect on mortality only in the presence of M. crenulatum. Rivulus hartii preyed more often on male than on female P. reticulata, and this sex-biased predation was not simply the result of males being smaller than females. In contrast, no sex-biased mortality was attributable to M. crenulatum or low resource levels.

  14. Medical Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Female Sex Workers and Their Occupational Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna T. Nakagawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tendency for female sex workers to seek health care is highly influenced by physician attitudes and behavior. By identifying medical students' attitudes toward female sex workers and assessing their knowledge of barriers to seeking care, we can focus medical training and advocacy efforts to increase access to care and improve public health outcomes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students from various countries were invited to participate in an online survey with close-ended questions and Likert scale statements. Responses were quantified and knowledge and attitude scores were assigned based on knowledge of barriers to seeking care and agreement with positive and negative attitude statements. Results: A total of 292 medical students from 56 countries completed the survey, of whom 98.3% agreed that it will be their job to provide treatment to patients regardless of occupation. Self-identified religious students conveyed more negative attitudes toward female sex workers compared to those who did not identify themselves as religious (p<0.001. Students intending to practice in countries where prostitution is legal conveyed more positive attitudes compared to those intending to practice in countries where prostitution is illegal (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical students largely agreed on the importance of providing care to female sex workers as a vulnerable group. In addition to addressing knowledge gaps in medical education, more localized studies are needed to understand the religious and legal influences on attitudes toward female sex workers. Such information can help focus the efforts in both medical education and communication training to achieve the desired behavioral impacts, reconciling the future generations of health care providers with the needs of female sex workers.

  15. Risk factors for late-life cognitive decline and variation with age and sex in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Lipnicki

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An aging population brings increasing burdens and costs to individuals and society arising from late-life cognitive decline, the causes of which are unclear. We aimed to identify factors predicting late-life cognitive decline. METHODS: Participants were 889 community-dwelling 70-90-year-olds from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study with comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at baseline and a 2-year follow-up and initially without dementia. Cognitive decline was considered as incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia, as well as decreases in attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, and global cognition. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health and medical factors were determined. RESULTS: All cognitive measures showed decline and 14% of participants developed incident MCI or dementia. Across all participants, risk factors for decline included older age and poorer smelling ability most prominently, but also more education, history of depression, being male, higher homocysteine, coronary artery disease, arthritis, low health status, and stroke. Protective factors included marriage, kidney disease, and antidepressant use. For some of these factors the association varied with age or differed between men and women. Additional risk and protective factors that were strictly age- and/or sex-dependent were also identified. We found salient population attributable risks (8.7-49.5% for older age, being male or unmarried, poor smelling ability, coronary artery disease, arthritis, stroke, and high homocysteine. DISCUSSION: Preventing or treating conditions typically associated with aging might reduce population-wide late-life cognitive decline. Interventions tailored to particular age and sex groups may offer further benefits.

  16. Blood, sex, personality, power, and altruism: factors influencing the validity of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Corr, Philip

    2012-02-01

    It is argued that the generality of strong reciprocity theory (SRT) is limited by the existence of anonymous spontaneous cooperation, maintained in the absence of punishment, despite free-riding. We highlight how individual differences, status, sex, and the legitimacy of non-cooperation need to be examined to increase the internal and ecological validity of SRT experiments and, ultimately, SRT's external validity.

  17. Male Adolescent Birth Control Behavior: The Importance of Developmental Factors and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Donald D.; Rose, Ryda D.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of sex and birth control behavior of 51 male adolescents aged 15-17 was conducted using structured interviews. Based on research with teenage females, three social influences were examined for their possible impact on male birth control behavior. (Author/BW)

  18. Exploring Sex Differences in Autistic Traits: A Factor Analytic Study of Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Rachel; Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Wierda, Marlies; Begeer, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Research has highlighted potential differences in the phenotypic and clinical presentation of autism spectrum conditions across sex. Furthermore, the measures utilised to evaluate autism spectrum conditions may be biased towards the male autism phenotype. It is important to determine whether these instruments measure the autism phenotype…

  19. Parent-Teen Communication about Premarital Sex: Factors Associated with the Extent of Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia J.; Gordon, Vivian V.

    2000-01-01

    This study explored topic-specific reservations about discussing sex and birth control among inner-city African American mothers and their 14- to 17-year-olds. Findings showed that reservations predicted communication behavior beyond that predicted by general family environment variables. Interaction effects suggested differential impact of…

  20. Factors Associated with Sex under the Influence of Alcohol among Adolescents with Divorced Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Carratala, Elena; Carballo, Jose L.; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the association of diverse individual variables, traditionally associated with sexual risk practices in the general population, with sex under the influence of alcohol in adolescents with divorced parents. A sample of 132 adolescents provided information about their knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and sexual risk…

  1. Male Adolescent Birth Control Behavior: The Importance of Developmental Factors and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Donald D.; Rose, Ryda D.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of sex and birth control behavior of 51 male adolescents aged 15-17 was conducted using structured interviews. Based on research with teenage females, three social influences were examined for their possible impact on male birth control behavior. (Author/BW)

  2. Sex Differences in Contraception Non-Use among Urban Adolescents: Risk Factors for Unintended Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casola, Allison R.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Patterson, Freda

    2017-01-01

    Background: Contraception non-use among sexually active adolescents is a major cause of unintended pregnancy (UP). Methods: In this cross-sectional study we sought to identify overall and sex-specific correlates of contraception non-use using the 2015 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) (N = 9540). Multivariate regression models were…

  3. Explaining the Rapid Increase in Nigeria's Sex Ratio at Birth: Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    for this development are: historical fluctuations of sex ratio at birth; geography and ethnicity; male preference/chasing a son; Age of parents; high death rates of male infants and males in general; and wealth/socioeconomic .... younger than most countries in Africa, with over ...... kinds of benefits that accrue from children born.

  4. Sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia: a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azage, Muluken; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonnen, Alemtsehay

    2014-07-16

    Sex trafficking is a contemporary issue in both developed and developing countries. The number of trafficked women and young girls has increased globally. Females aged 18-25 are the most targeted group of trafficking. Although the problem is evident in Ethiopia, there are no studies that explored sex trafficking awareness among females. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from February 1st-30th 2012 from a total of 417 youth females. The participants in the study were selected using systematic random sampling techniques. A structured Amharic questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe data. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with sex trafficking awareness. Two hundred forty-nine (60%) of the participants reported that they had heard or read about sex trafficking. Television (64%), friends (46%) and radio (39%) were the most frequently mentioned sources of information about sex trafficking. About 87% and 74% of the participants mentioned friends and brokers respectively as mediators of sex trafficking. Having TV at home (AOR = 2. 19, 95% CI: 1.31-3.67), completing grade 10 or more (AOR = 2. 22, 95% CI: 1.18-4.17), taking training on gender issues (AOR = 3. 59, 95% CI: 2.11-6.10) and living together with parents (AOR = 3. 65, 95% CI: 1.68-7.93) were factors found associated with sex trafficking awareness. In this study, sex trafficking awareness was low among youth females. Having TV at home, living together with someone and being trained on gender issues were predictors of sex trafficking awareness. Therefore, providing education about sex trafficking will help to increase sex trafficking awareness among youth females.

  5. Chronic stress induces sex-specific alterations in methylation and expression of corticotropin-releasing factor gene in the rat.

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    Linda Sterrenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the higher prevalence of depression in women than in men is well known, the neuronal basis of this sex difference is largely elusive. METHODS: Male and female rats were exposed to chronic variable mild stress (CVMS after which immediate early gene products, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF mRNA and peptide, various epigenetic-associated enzymes and DNA methylation of the Crf gene were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, oval (BSTov and fusiform (BSTfu parts of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and central amygdala (CeA. RESULTS: CVMS induced site-specific changes in Crf gene methylation in all brain centers studied in female rats and in the male BST and CeA, whereas the histone acetyltransferase, CREB-binding protein was increased in the female BST and the histone-deacetylase-5 decreased in the male CeA. These changes were accompanied by an increased amount of c-Fos in the PVN, BSTfu and CeA in males, and of FosB in the PVN of both sexes and in the male BSTov and BSTfu. In the PVN, CVMS increased CRF mRNA in males and CRF peptide decreased in females. CONCLUSIONS: The data confirm our hypothesis that chronic stress affects gene expression and CRF transcriptional, translational and secretory activities in the PVN, BSTov, BSTfu and CeA, in a brain center-specific and sex-specific manner. Brain region-specific and sex-specific changes in epigenetic activity and neuronal activation may play, too, an important role in the sex specificity of the stress response and the susceptibility to depression.

  6. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

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    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  7. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Dinno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. CONCLUSION: A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  8. Social and structural factors associated with consistent condom use among female entertainment workers trading sex in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E; Hernandez, Laufred I; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-02-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers' condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use.

  9. Factors associated with HIV infection among a respondent-driven sample of men who have sex with men in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignol, Sandra; Kerr, Ligia; Amorim, Leila Denise; Dourado, Inês

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to disproportionately affect men who have sex with men (MSM); therefore, we investigated the sociodemographic, biological, and sexual behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection in the city of Salvador, Bahia. This study is part of the national survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among men who have sex with men in 10 Brazilian Cities, which is a cross-sectional survey whose participants were selected by means of the respondent-driven sampling. Exact logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of potential risk factors with HIV infection due to an HIV prevalence lower than 10% and a small sample size (383). The prevalence of HIV was 6.3% (95%CI 3.9-8.8) and the risk factors associated with HIV infection in our adjusted final model included having never been tested for syphilis (OR = 3.1; 95%CI 1.3 - 7.3) and having more than eight sexual partners (OR = 3.3; 95%CI 1.4 - 8.1). This study highlights the high prevalence of HIV among MSM in the sample compared with the general population and confirms the importance of testing for syphilis in the context of the HIV epidemic as early detection may provide opportunities to prevent sexually transmitted diseases.

  10. Age- and Sex-Specific Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to 5 Major and Modifiable Risk Factors in 10 Asian Countries of the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Wang, Xin; Peters, Sanne A E; Mamun, Abdullah; Woodward, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, causing an estimated 18 million deaths annually. Much of the burden of CVD resides in lower- and middle-income countries, particularly those Asian countries comprising the Western Pacific Region. Epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that up to 90% of all CVD can be explained by a small number of modifiable risk factors, including blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, total cholesterol and excess body weight. However, the relationship between these risk factors and coronary artery disease and stroke often differ by age and sex, and yet these differences are often overlooked in burden of disease estimations. As such, that can result in either an over- or under-estimation of the disease burden in specific population subgroups, which may affect resource allocation of healthcare. In this review, we derive the most reliable and previously unpublished estimates of the age- and sex-specific burden of vascular disease attributable to the aforementioned risk factors for 10 of the most populous Asian countries in the Western Pacific Region. Understanding how the burden of vascular disease is distributed within and between populations is crucial for developing appropriate health policies and effective treatment strategies, particularly in resource-poor settings.

  11. Street workers and internet escorts: contextual and psychosocial factors surrounding HIV risk behavior among men who engage in sex work with other men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Tinsley, Jake P; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Sex work has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. This mixed methods study examined sexual risk among MSM sex workers in Massachusetts, collecting formative data on HIV risk behavior by sex worker type in order to gain a better understanding of how to tailor prevention interventions to this unique and high-risk subgroup of MSM. Two groups of MSM sex workers were recruited between January and March 2008: street workers (n=19) and internet escorts (n=13). Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview and quantitative psychosocial assessment battery; interviews were conducted until redundancy in responses was achieved. Almost one third (31%) were HIV-infected. The majority of participants (69%) reported at least one episode of unprotected serodiscordant anal sex (either insertive or receptive) with a mean of 10.7 (SD=42.2) male sex partners of an unknown or different HIV serostatus in the past 12 months. Salient findings included: (a) internet sex workers reported being paid substantially more for sex than street sex workers; (b) inconsistent condom use, high rates of unprotected sex, and low rates of HIV status disclosure with sex work partners for both internet and street workers; general perceptions of a lack of trust on the part of sex work partners (i.e., telling them what they want to hear), offers of more money for unprotected sex; (c) contextual differences in risk taking: internet sex workers reported that they are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking with noncommercial sex partners than sex partners who pay; (d) HIV status and STI history: two street workers became infected in the context of sex work, and 25% of the entire sample had never been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI); and (e) motivations and reasons for doing sex work, such as the "lucrativeness" of sex work, as a means to obtain drugs, excitement, power, "why not?" attitude, and because

  12. Risk factors for HIV and unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men (MSM in Almaty, Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Berry

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV infection. MSM in Central Asia, however, are not adequately studied to assess their risk of HIV transmission. METHODS: This study used respondent driven sampling methods to recruit 400 MSM in Almaty, the largest city in Kazakhstan, into a cross-sectional study. Participation involved a one-time interviewer-administered questionnaire and rapid HIV screening test. Prevalence data were adjusted for respondent network size and recruitment patterns. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the association between HIV and selected risk factors, and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI and selected risk factors. RESULTS: After respondent driven sampling (RDS weighted analysis, 20.2% of MSM were HIV-positive, and 69.0% had unprotected sex with at least one male partner in the last 12 months. Regression analysis showed that HIV infection was associated with unprotected receptive anal sex (AOR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.04-3.84. Having unprotected anal intercourse with male partners, a measure of HIV risk behaviors, was associated with being single (AOR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.23-0.64; very difficult access to lubricants (AOR: 11.08; 95% CI: 4.93-24.91; STI symptoms (AOR: 3.45; 95% CI: 1.42-8.40; transactional sex (AOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.66-6.22; and non-injection drug use (AOR: 3.10; 95% CI: 1.51-6.36. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a high HIV prevalence among MSM in Almaty, and a population of MSM engaging in multiple high-risk behavior in Almaty. Greater access to HIV education and prevention interventions is needed to limit the HIV epidemic among MSM in Almaty.

  13. SEX EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  14. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  15. Estrous cycle and sex as regulating factors of baseline brain oxidative metabolism and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor González-Pardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of sex differences in brain function is still today a controversial issue, and contradictory results are reported in the scientific literature. Part of this controversy would be solved by taken into consideration the rhythmic changes in the levels of circulating gonadal steroids during the menstrual or estrous cycle in females as compared to males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in oxidative metabolism of limbic brain regions in male and female rats at two different stages of estral cycle (estrous and diestrous. Cytochrome oxidase activity was used as a reliable marker of neuronal oxidative metabolism. We found the highest levels of oxidative metabolism during the diestrous phase in several brain regions, when estrogen levels are high. Males displayed similar cytochrome oxidase activity as compared to females in estrous phase. Our results support behavioral and neurobiological studies reporting sex differences in rodents and humans.

  16. Hormones and Sex-Specific Transcription Factors Jointly Control Yolk Protein Synthesis in Musca domestica

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    Christina Siegenthaler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the housefly Musca domestica, synthesis of yolk proteins (YPs depends on the level of circulating ecdysteroid hormones. In female houseflies, the ecdysterone concentration in the hemolymph oscillates and, at high levels, is followed by expression of YP. In male houseflies, the ecdysterone titre is constantly low and no YP is produced. In some strains, which are mutant in key components of the sex-determining pathway, males express YP even though their ecdysterone titre is not significantly elevated. However, we find that these males express a substantial amount of the female variant of the Musca doublesex homologue, Md-dsx. The dsx gene is known to sex-specifically control transcription of yp genes in the fat body of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data suggest that Md-dsx also contributes to the regulation of YP expression in the housefly by modulating the responsiveness of YP-producing cells to hormonal stimuli.

  17. An analysis of factors affecting attitudes toward same-sex marriage: do the media matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Tsung; Hicks, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of more than 5,000 American consumers, this study examines connections between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and media consumption. A positive attitude is predicted by being liberal and less religious, supporting gender and racial equality, willing to try anything once, considering television the primary form of entertainment, watching political talk shows, and reading blogs. The theoretical and methodological contributions and real-world implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Risk Factors Associated With HIV Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Isabel; Reina-Ortiz, Miguel; Johnson, Ayesha; Rosas, Carlos; Sharma, Vinita; Teran, Santiago; Naik, Eknath; Salihu, Hamisu M; Teran, Enrique; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2016-05-08

    The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS estimates that between 0.3% and 0.7% of adults aged 15 to 49 years were living with HIV in Ecuador in 2013. However, very little is known about the HIV prevalence rate among men who have sex with men (MSM) in that country. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding HIV/AIDS as well as to estimate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in one of the cities with high HIV prevalence rates in Ecuador. In this study, questionnaires were administered to 307 adult MSM. An HIV prevalence of 10% was observed. Knowledge about HIV was high; 91% of participants could identify how HIV is transmitted. Although consistent condom use for anal sex was relatively high (89%) among participants who reported having pay-for-service clients, only 64% reported using a condom during oral sex with a client. Participants who had multiple male sexual partners (i.e., their stable male partners plus other partner[s]) had 3.7 times higher odds of testing positive for HIV compared with those who did not. They also had reduced odds of condom use. Participants who were forced to have anal receptive sex had 3 times higher odds of testing positive for HIV. Despite the finding that participants exhibited high knowledge about HIV/AIDS, a high prevalence rate of HIV was observed, which warrants targeted behavioral interventions. These data are consistent with MSM being one of the highest at-risk population groups for HIV in this region of Ecuador.

  19. Maternal socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with the sex ratio at birth in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Bang Nguyen; Adair, Timothy; Hill, Peter S

    2010-11-01

    In recent years Vietnam has experienced a high sex ratio at birth (SRB) amidst rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes. However, little is known about the differentials in SRB between maternal socioeconomic and demographic groups. The paper uses data from the annual Population Change Survey (PCS) in 2006 to examine the relationship of the sex ratio of the most recent birth with maternal socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the number of previous female births. The SRB of Vietnam was significantly high at 111.4 (95% CI 109.7-113.1) for the period 1st April 2000 to 31st March 2006. Multivariate analysis reveals that sex of the most recent birth is strongly related with the number of previous female births. This association is consistent across different socioeconomic and demographic groups of women. Given the high SRB in Vietnam, further research into the reasons for high SRB in these groups is required, as are intervention programmes such as those raising the public awareness of its negative consequences.

  20. Male adolescent birth control behavior: the importance of developmental factors and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D D; Rose, R D

    1984-06-01

    A survey of sex and birth control behavior of 51 male adolescents aged 15-17 was conducted utilizing a structured interview protocol. The sample was drawn from 3 community agencies. The respondents resided in a major northeastern metropolitan part of Pennsylvania. The purpose of the study was to describe male adolescent birth control behavior incorporating developmental issues, and to interpret the findings in light of what is known about female birth control behavior. Based on research with teenage females, 3 social influences were examined for their possible impact on male birth control behavior. An interview schedule was undertaken to form the basis of the demographic items, the description of the social network, history of sex and birth control behavior, pregnancy history and communication about sex and birth control. A questionnaire, designed to measure the influence of significant others on females' birth control behavior, formed the basis of the items concerning the expectations of others about contraceptive behavior. Thirdly, questions on perceived power relations with girlfriends were used to determin the influence of teenage females' self-perceptions of power in dyadic relationships on their own contraceptive usage. A new operational definition of male effective birth control usage involving the effectiveness of the method and the consistency of its usage was developed. Findings similar to those obtained in the research on females suggest that adolescent sexual partners may be the only direct social influence on adolescents' birth control usage. Results indicating differences from research with females suggest that in general: male birth control behavior is primarily self-oriented, males are more likely to be effective contraceptors with casual partners than with girlfriends, males are more likely to communicate about sex and birth control with similar age peers than with family members and/or other adults, and that teen males view sex and birth control

  1. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: prevalence, genotypes, risk factors and association with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although cervical cancer is the leading cancer in Cambodia, most women receive no routine screening for cervical cancer and few treatment options exist. Moreover, nothing is known regarding the prevalence of cervical HPV or the genotypes present among women in the country. Young sexually active women, especially those with multiple sex partners are at highest risk of HPV infection. We examine the prevalence and genotypes of cervical HPV, as well as the associated risk factors among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 220 young women (15–29 years) engaged in sex work in different venues including brothels or entertainment establishments, and on a freelance basis in streets, parks and private apartments. Cervical specimens were collected using standard cytobrush technique. HPV DNA was tested for by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping using type-specific probes for 29 individual HPV types, as well as for a mixture of 10 less common HPV types. All participants were also screened for HIV status using blood samples. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess risk factors for any or multiple HPV infection. Results The prevalence of cervical HPV 41.1%. HPV 51 and 70 were the most common (5.0%), followed by 16 (4.6%), 71 (4.1%) and 81 (3.7%). Thirty-six women (16.4%) were infected with multiple genotypes and 23.3% were infected with at least one oncogenic HPV type. In multivariate analyses, having HIV infection and a higher number of sexual partners were associated with cervical HPV infection. Risk factors for infection with multiple genotypes included working as freelance female sex workers (FSW) or in brothels, recent binge use of drugs, high number of sexual partners, and HIV infection. Conclusions This is the first Cambodian study on cervical HPV prevalence and genotypes. We found that HPV infection was common among young FSW, especially among women

  2. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: prevalence, genotypes, risk factors and association with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couture Marie-Claude

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is the leading cancer in Cambodia, most women receive no routine screening for cervical cancer and few treatment options exist. Moreover, nothing is known regarding the prevalence of cervical HPV or the genotypes present among women in the country. Young sexually active women, especially those with multiple sex partners are at highest risk of HPV infection. We examine the prevalence and genotypes of cervical HPV, as well as the associated risk factors among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 220 young women (15–29 years engaged in sex work in different venues including brothels or entertainment establishments, and on a freelance basis in streets, parks and private apartments. Cervical specimens were collected using standard cytobrush technique. HPV DNA was tested for by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and genotyping using type-specific probes for 29 individual HPV types, as well as for a mixture of 10 less common HPV types. All participants were also screened for HIV status using blood samples. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess risk factors for any or multiple HPV infection. Results The prevalence of cervical HPV 41.1%. HPV 51 and 70 were the most common (5.0%, followed by 16 (4.6%, 71 (4.1% and 81 (3.7%. Thirty-six women (16.4% were infected with multiple genotypes and 23.3% were infected with at least one oncogenic HPV type. In multivariate analyses, having HIV infection and a higher number of sexual partners were associated with cervical HPV infection. Risk factors for infection with multiple genotypes included working as freelance female sex workers (FSW or in brothels, recent binge use of drugs, high number of sexual partners, and HIV infection. Conclusions This is the first Cambodian study on cervical HPV prevalence and genotypes. We found that HPV infection was common among young FSW

  3. Human Sex Determination at the Edge of Ambiguity: INHERITED XY SEX REVERSAL DUE TO ENHANCED UBIQUITINATION AND PROTEASOMAL DEGRADATION OF A MASTER TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Joseph D; Chen, Yen-Shan; Yang, Yanwu; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2016-10-14

    A general problem is posed by analysis of transcriptional thresholds governing cell fate decisions in metazoan development. A model is provided by testis determination in therian mammals. Its key step, Sertoli cell differentiation in the embryonic gonadal ridge, is initiated by SRY, a Y-encoded architectural transcription factor. Mutations in human SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis leading to XY female development (Swyer syndrome). Here, we have characterized an inherited mutation compatible with either male or female somatic phenotypes as observed in an XY father and XY daughter, respectively. The mutation (a crevice-forming substitution at a conserved back surface of the SRY high mobility group box) markedly destabilizes the domain but preserves specific DNA affinity and induced DNA bend angle. On transient transfection of diverse human and rodent cell lines, the variant SRY exhibited accelerated proteasomal degradation (relative to wild type) associated with increased ubiquitination; in vitro susceptibility to ubiquitin-independent ("default") cleavage by the 20S core proteasome was unchanged. The variant's gene regulatory activity (as assessed in a cellular model of the rat embryonic XY gonadal ridge) was reduced by 2-fold relative to wild-type SRY at similar levels of mRNA expression. Chemical proteasome inhibition restored native-like SRY expression and transcriptional activity in association with restored occupancy of a sex-specific enhancer element in principal downstream gene Sox9, demonstrating that the variant SRY exhibits essentially native activity on a per molecule basis. Our findings define a novel mechanism of impaired organogenesis, accelerated ubiquitin-directed proteasomal degradation of a master transcription factor leading to a developmental decision poised at the edge of ambiguity.

  4. Somatic sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkower, David

    2006-02-10

    C. elegans occurs in two natural sexes, the XX hermaphrodite and the XO male, which differ extensively in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. All somatic differences between the sexes result from the differential activity of a "global" sex determination regulatory pathway. This pathway also controls X chromosome dosage compensation, which is coordinated with sex determination by the action of the three SDC proteins. The SDC proteins control somatic and germline sex by transcriptional repression of the her-1 gene. HER-1 is a secreted protein that controls a regulatory module consisting of a transmembrane receptor, TRA-2, three intracellular FEM proteins, and the zinc finger transcription factor TRA-1. The molecular workings of this regulatory module are still being elucidated. Similarity of TRA-2 to patched receptors and of TRA-1 to GLI proteins suggests that parts of the global pathway originally derived from a Hedgehog signaling pathway. TRA-1 controls all aspects of somatic sexual differentiation, presumably by regulating a variety of tissue- and cell-specific downstream targets, including the cell death regulator EGL-1 and the male sexual regulator MAB-3. Sex determination evolves rapidly, and conservation of sexual regulators between phyla has been elusive. An apparent exception involves DM domain proteins, including MAB-3, which control sexual differentiation in nematodes, arthropods, and vertebrates. Important issues needing more study include the detailed molecular mechanisms of the global pathway, the identities of additional sexual regulators acting in the global pathway and downstream of TRA-1, and the evolutionary history of the sex determination pathway. Recently developed genetic and genomic technologies and comparative studies in divergent species have begun to address these issues.

  5. Effect of including genetic Progress in milk yield on evaluating the use of sexed semen and other reproduction strategies in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan F.; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the importance of including genetic progress in milk yield when evaluating different reproductive strategies in a dairy herd by simulation modeling. The model used in this study was SimHerd V, a dynamic and mechanistic Monte Carlo simulation model...... effect with regard to postponing first insemination. This study has proven that it is important to include genetic progress in decisions on reproduction strategies in a dairy herd....

  6. Sexual maldevelopment and sex reversal, chromosomal causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magenis, R Ellen

    2006-01-01

    The SRY gene on the Y chromosome is the testis determining factor (TDF). It is therefore the initial male determining factor. However, phenotypic sex determination includes a cascade of genes located on autosomes as well as sex chromosomes. Aberrations of these genes may cause sexual maldevelopment or sex reversal. Abnormalities may include single gene mutations and gene loss or gain-changes may involve only sex organs or may be part of syndromes. These changes may also arise as chromosome abnormalities involving contiguous genes. Eight cases with chromosomal abnormalities involving different causative mechanisms are described herein. The most common cause is nondisjunction, including loss or gain of sex chromosomes. Less common causes are mispairing and crossing over in meiosis, chromosome breaks with repair, nonhomologous pairing due to low copy repeats and crossing over, and translocation (familial or de novo) with segregation. Cases include: [see: text].

  7. Sex Differences in Stroke Subtypes, Severity, Risk Factors, and Outcomes Among Elderly Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changshen eYu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the age-specific incidence and mortality of stroke is higher among men, stroke has a greater clinical effect on women. However, the sex differences in stroke among elderly patients are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the sex differences in stroke among elderly stroke patients.Methods: Between 2005 and 2013, we recruited 1,484 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients (≥75 years old from a specialized neurology hospital in Tianjin, China. Information regarding their stroke subtypes, severity, risk factors, and outcomes at 3 and 12 months after stroke were recorded.Results: Comparing with men, women had a significantly higher prevalence of severe stroke (17.20% vs. 12.54%, hypertension (76.42% vs. 66.39%, dyslipidemias (30.35% vs. 22.76%, and obesity (18.40% vs. 9.32%, P < 0.05. Comparing with women, men had a significantly higher prevalence of intracranial artery stenosis (23.11% vs. 17.45%, current smoking (29.60% vs. 13.05%, and alcohol consumption (12.15% vs. 0.47%, P < 0.05. Moreover, dependency was more common among women at 3 and 12 months after stroke, although the sex difference disappeared after adjusting for stroke subtypes, severity, and risk factors. Conclusions: Elderly women with acute ischemic stroke had more severe stroke status and worse outcomes at 3 and 12 months after stroke. Thus, elderly female post-acute ischemic stroke patients are a crucial population that should be assisted with controlling their risk factors for stroke and changing their lifestyle.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  9. Molecular Sex Differences in Human Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Ramsey (Jordan); E. Schwarz (Emanuel); P.C. Guest (Paul); N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico); F.M. Leweke (Marcus); M. Rothermundt (Matthias); B. Bogerts (Bernhard); J. Steiner (Johann); L. Ruta (Liliana); S. Baron-Cohen (Simon); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females c

  10. Is a sex-determining gene(s) necessary for sex-determination in amphibians? Steroid hormones may be the key factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians have 2 genetic sex-determining systems, one with male (XX/XY) and one with female (ZZ/ZW) heterogamety. While the ancestral state of sex-determination is thought to be female heterogamety, male and female heterogametic types were probably once interchangeable. The Japanese frog Rana rugosa has both XX/XY and ZZ/ZW systems within a single species in certain local populations. However, steroid hormones can alter the phenotypic sex epigenetically. In R. rugosa, steroidogenic enzyme expression starts before sex-determination in the indifferent gonad, and these enzymes become active in both male and female tadpoles. Androgens are produced in the indifferent gonad of male tadpoles at high levels, whereas estrogens are synthesized in females. In this regard, the observed enhanced expression of the hormone-metabolizing genes, CYP19 in the female gonad and CYP17 in males, may be crucial for sex-determination. Moreover, with FSH known to increase estrogen synthesis in the vertebrate ovary, observed upregulation of FSH receptor (FSHR) expression in the indifferent gonad of female tadpoles is intriguing. These data suggest that steroid hormones could be crucial for sex-determination in R. rugosa, with the consequence that upregulation of CYP19 and FSHR expression is necessary for female and CYP17 for male sex-determination.

  11. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for HIV‐1 infection among female commercial sex workers in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, C T; Sanchez, J L; Montano, S M; Laguna‐Torres, A; Suarez, L; Sanchez, J; Campos, P; Gallardo, C; Mosquera, C; Villafane, M; Aguayo, N; Avila, M M; Weissenbacher, M; Ramirez, E; Child, R; Serra, M; Aponte, C; Mejia, A; Velazques, N; Gianella, A; Perez, J; Olson, J G; Carr, J K

    2006-01-01

    Objective Assessment of HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviours among female commercial sex workers (FCSW) across major cities in South America. Methods Seroepidemiological, cross sectional studies of 13 600 FCSW were conducted in nine countries of South America during the years 1999–2002. Participants were recruited in brothels, massage parlours, hotels, and streets where anonymous questionnaires and blood samples were collected. HIV infection was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening and western blot confirmatory tests. Results The overall HIV seroprevalence was 1.2% (range 0.0%–4.5%). The highest HIV seroprevalences were reported in Argentina (4.5%) and Paraguay (2.6%); no HIV infected FCSW were detected in Venezuela and Chile. Consistent predictors of HIV seropositivity were: (1) a previous history of sexually transmitted infections (STI, AORs = 3.8–8.3), and (2) 10 years or more in commercial sex work (AORs = 2.2–24.8). In addition, multiple (⩾3) sexual contacts (AOR = 5.0), sex with foreigners (AOR = 6.9), use of illegal drugs (AOR = 3.2), and marijuana use (AOR = 8.2) were associated with HIV seropositivity in Southern Cone countries. Conclusions Consistently low HIV seroprevalences were detected among FCSW in South America, particularly in the Andean region. Predictors of HIV infection across the continent were STI and length of commercial sex work; however, use of illegal drugs, especially marijuana, and sexual contacts with foreigners were also found to be associated risk factors in the Southern Cone region. Interventions for the control of HIV and other STI need to be region and country specific; drug use appears to have an ever increasing role in the spread of HIV among heterosexually active populations. PMID:16877581

  12. Analysis of factors associated with same-sex relationships (gays and lesbians in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallego Villa, Oscar Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research characterizes the same sex couple relationships in Bogota’s context by comparing a group of people with current partner and one without a partner. Using a non-probabilistic convenience sampling through a snowball design a in-depth interview was a applied to a sample of 60 homosexual (30 men, 30 women. They were asked about aspects of the affective experience (formation of the relationship, satisfaction, conflict management. The results show the participants have a positive view of their couple’s life, without significant differences in the perception of the two groups in the aspects evaluated

  13. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire: A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Bosscher, Ruud J.; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire) particularly served this purpose. The DBIQ consists of 35 items and five subscales: body acceptance, sexual fulfillment, physical contact, vitality, and self-aggrandizement. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ-NL) in a non-clinical sample. Methods The psychometric properties of the DBIQ-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 988 respondents aged between 18 and 65. We investigated the subscales' internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In order to establish construct validity we evaluated the association with a related construct, body cathexis, and with indices of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The factor structure of the DBIQ-NL was examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The equivalence of the measurement model across sex and age was evaluated by multiplegroup confirmatory factor analyses. Results Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure in accordance with the original scale, where model fit was improved significantly by moving one item to another subscale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age demonstrated partial strong invariance. Internal consistency was good with little overlap between the subscales. Temporal reliability and construct validity were satisfactory. Conclusion Results indicate that the DBIQ-NL is a reliable and valid instrument for non-clinical subjects. This provides a sound basis for

  14. Comparing risk factors of HIV among hijra sex workers in Larkana and other cities of Pakistan: an analytical cross sectional study

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    Altaf Arshad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, Pakistan was first labeled as a country with concentrated epidemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. This was revealed through second generation surveillance conducted by HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP. While injection drug users (IDUs were driving the epidemic, subsequent surveys showed that Hijra (transgender sex workers (HSWs were emerging as the second most vulnerable group with an average national prevalence of 6.4%. An exceptionally high prevalence (27.6% was found in Larkana, which is a small town on the right bank of river Indus near the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro in the province of Sindh. This paper presents the risk factors associated with high prevalence of HIV among HSWs in Larkana as compared to other cities of the country. Methods Data were extracted for secondary analysis from 2008 Integrated behavioral and biological survey (IBBS to compare HSWs living in Larkana with those living in other cities including Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh; Lahore and Faisalabad in Punjab; and Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces. After descriptive analysis, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors. P value of 0.25 or less was used to include factors in multivariate analysis. Results We compared 199 HSWs from Larkana with 420 HSWs from other cities. The average age of HSWs in Larkana was 26.42 (±5.4 years. Majority were Sindhi speaking (80%, uneducated (68% and unmarried (97%. In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher prevalence of HIV in Larkana included younger age i.e. 20–24 years (OR: 5.8, CI: 2.809–12.15, being unmarried (OR: 2.4, CI: 1.0–5.7, sex work as the only mode of income (OR: 5.5, CI: 3.70–8.2 and longer duration of being involved in sex work 5–10 years (OR: 3.3, CI: 1.7–6.12. In multivariate logistic regression the HSWs from Larkana were more likely to lack knowledge regarding preventive measures against HIV (OR 11.9, CI: 3.4–41.08 and

  15. Sex-differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K; Willemsen, G; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2003-01-01

    pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....

  16. Factors affecting incubation patterns and sex roles of black oystercatchers in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Caleb S.; Haig, Susan M.; Goldstein, Michael I.; Huso, Manuela M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of human disturbance on avian parental behavior and reproductive success are fundamental to bird conservation. However, many such studies fail to also consider the influence of natural threats, a variable environment, and parental roles. Our work examines interactive relationships of cyclical (time of day, tide, temperature, seasonality) and stochastic (natural/human disturbance) processes with incubation patterns (attendance, bout lengths, recess rates) of the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), a shorebird of conservation concern. We used 24-hour-per-day video monitoring of 13 molecularly-sexed breeding pairs to systematically examine incubation, revealing previously undocumented information that may inform conservation practices for the genus. Seven of 22 video-monitored nests failed, primarily from egg depredation by nocturnally-active mammals. Analyses of 3177 hrs of video footage indicated a near doubling of incubation bout lengths at night, corresponding to the increased risk of nighttime egg predation. Females had higher overall nest attendance (54% vs. 42%) and longer mean incubation bout lengths than males (88 min vs. 73 min). Uninterrupted incubation bouts were over twice as long as bouts interrupted by disturbance. Incubating males departed nests substantially more frequently due to nest-area disturbances than females in one, but not both, years of our study. Our findings suggest that sexes exhibit different, but complimentary, incubation patterns, facilitating efficient egg care in a dynamic environment with several nest threats. We emphasize the importance of considering natural influences when evaluating human threats to shorebird reproductive behavior and success.

  17. Analysis of Factors That Affects the Capital Structure within Companies Included In the Index of LQ45 During 2011 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominica Rufina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors of ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size affecting Capital Structure. The population in this study is the companies included in the Index LQ45 Indonesia Stock Exchange from the period 2011 to 2013, the data of a total of 270 listed companies in LQ45 during that period, only 90 corporate data that successively included in the index LQ45. The data used in this study uses secondary data from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website www.idx.co.id. In the process of data analysis and testing the assumptions of classical hypothesis testing using multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS v20.00. The results showed that partially variable ROA, Asset Structure, and Firm Size has a significant influence on the Capital Structure, Growth Sales whereas variable has no influence on the Capital Structure. Simultaneously ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size effect on Capital Structure.

  18. Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) and personality traits: the modifying effect of season of birth and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, A; Gaysina, D; Kutlumbetova, Yu; Kanzafarova, R; Malykh, S; Lobaskova, M; Khusnutdinova, E

    2015-01-02

    Personality traits are complex phenotypes influenced by interactions of multiple genetic variants of small effect and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is involved in personality traits. Season of birth (SOB) has also been shown to affect personality traits due to its influences on brain development during prenatal and early postnatal periods. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BDNF on personality traits; and the modifying effects of SOB and sex on associations between BDNF and personality traits. A sample of 1018 young adults (68% women; age range 17-25years) of Caucasian origin from the Russian Federation was assessed on personality traits (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-transcendence) with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). Associations between personality traits and 12 BDNF SNPs were tested using linear regression models. The present study demonstrated the effect of rs11030102 on Persistence in females only (PFDR=0.043; r(2)=1.3%). There were significant interaction effects between Val66Met (rs6265) and SOB (PFDR=0.048, r(2)=1.4%), and between rs2030323 and SOB (PFDR=0.042, r(2)=1.3%), on Harm Avoidance. Our findings provide evidence for the modifying effect of SOB on the association between BDNF and Harm Avoidance, and for the modifying effect of sex on the association between BDNF and Persistence.

  19. Embryonic transcription factor expression in mice predicts medial amygdala neuronal identity and sex-specific responses to innate behavioral cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischinsky, Julieta E; Sokolowski, Katie; Li, Peijun; Esumi, Shigeyuki; Kamal, Yasmin; Goodrich, Meredith; Oboti, Livio; Hammond, Timothy R; Krishnamoorthy, Meera; Feldman, Daniel; Huntsman, Molly; Liu, Judy; Corbin, Joshua G

    2017-01-01

    The medial subnucleus of the amygdala (MeA) plays a central role in processing sensory cues required for innate behaviors. However, whether there is a link between developmental programs and the emergence of inborn behaviors remains unknown. Our previous studies revealed that the telencephalic preoptic area (POA) embryonic niche is a novel source of MeA destined progenitors. Here, we show that the POA is comprised of distinct progenitor pools complementarily marked by the transcription factors Dbx1 and Foxp2. As determined by molecular and electrophysiological criteria this embryonic parcellation predicts postnatal MeA inhibitory neuronal subtype identity. We further find that Dbx1-derived and Foxp2+ cells in the MeA are differentially activated in response to innate behavioral cues in a sex-specific manner. Thus, developmental transcription factor expression is predictive of MeA neuronal identity and sex-specific neuronal responses, providing a potential developmental logic for how innate behaviors could be processed by different MeA neuronal subtypes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21012.001 PMID:28244870

  20. Sex in the brain: hormones and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Jordan; McEwen, Bruce S

    2016-12-01

    Contrary to popular belief, sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Many neural and behavioral functions are affected by estrogens, including mood, cognitive function, blood pressure regulation, motor coordination, pain, and opioid sensitivity. Subtle sex differences exist for many of these functions that are developmentally programmed by hormones and by not yet precisely defined genetic factors, including the mitochondrial genome. These sex differences, and responses to sex hormones in brain regions and upon functions not previously regarded as subject to such differences, indicate that we are entering a new era in our ability to understand and appreciate the diversity of gender-related behaviors and brain functions.

  1. Effect of including genetic progress in milk yield on evaluating the use of sexed semen and other reproduction strategies in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, M K

    2010-01-01

    Herd simulation modelling has been recognized as a relevant method to study reproduction management strategies in a dairy herd (Dijkhuizen et al., 1997; Marsh et al., 1987; Østergaard et al., 2005a). These models estimate the technical and economic effects of certain replacement and breeding...... strategies based on the phenotypical states of the individual animals over a number of years. Typically, the genetic levels of replacement heifers in these models are not different from those of the culling candidates in the herd; continuous genetic improvement in the population is ignored. The importance...... of including genetic progress when evaluating reproductive strategies with simulation models has not been explored. Improved reproductive efficiency does allow a higher selection intensity of which cows to stay in the herd and give birth to own young stock....

  2. Prevalence, Incidence, and Clearance of Anogenital Warts in Kenyan Men Reporting High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Including Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neme, Santiago; Wahome, Elizabeth; Mwashigadi, Grace; Thiong'o, Alexander N.; Stekler, Joanne D.; Wald, Anna; Sanders, Eduard J.; Graham, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes a spectrum of disease, ranging from warts to cancer. Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with anogenital warts in East African men are unknown. Methods. Kenyan men reporting high-risk sexual behavior were inspected for anogenital warts at enrollment and follow-up visits. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations with anogenital warts at baseline. Cox regression was performed to analyze predictors of incident anogenital warts, and Kaplan–Meier curves were used to estimate clearance. Results. Baseline anogenital wart prevalence in 1137 men was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0%–4.0%) overall, 2.0% in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected men, and 9.4% in HIV-1-infected men (adjusted odds ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.03–11.29). Over a median of 1.4 years, anogenital wart incidence among 1104 men was 5.3 (95% CI, 4.3–6.5) per 100 person-years. Having HIV-1 infection at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01–2.72) or a genital syndrome during follow-up (aHR, 4.78; 95% CI, 3.03–7.56) was associated with increased wart incidence. Wart clearance was lower in HIV-1-infected men (log-rank Pwart prevalence and incidence were increased in HIV-1-infected men, and anogenital warts co-occurred with other genital syndromes. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination should be recommended for young men in settings with high HIV-1 prevalence. PMID:26110169

  3. Cross-sex hormone treatment in male-to-female transsexual persons reduces serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Hellweg, Rainer; Van Caenegem, Eva; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K; T'Sjoen, Guy; Auer, Matthias K

    2015-01-01

    Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are reduced in male-to-female transsexual persons (MtF) compared to male controls. It was hypothesized before that this might reflect either an involvement of BDNF in a biomechanism of transsexualism or to be the result of persistent social stress due to the condition. Here, we demonstrate that 12 month of cross-sex hormone treatment reduces serum BDNF levels in male-to-female transsexual persons independent of anthropometric measures. Participants were acquired through the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). Reduced serum BDNF in MtF thus seems to be a result of hormonal treatment rather than a consequence or risk factor of transsexualism.

  4. Gonorrhoea among Sex Workers in China: Prevalence,Risk Factors, and Resistance to Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study gonorrhoea among sex workers in China as to prevalence, riskfactors, and resistance to antibioticsSubjects & Methods From March 1998 to October 1999, 966 sex workers fromGuangzhou were recruited into a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) care and pre-vention programme through various outreach activities. Data collection was standard-ized. Cervical samples were tested for the presence of Neisseria (N. ) gonorrhoea byculture. The agar dilution method was performed to determine susceptibilities of 85isolates to penicillin, ciprofloxacin , spectinomycin and ceftriaxone. The production ofB-lactamase was determined by paper acidometric testing.Results The prevalence of gonorrhoea was 9%. Independent predictors for thedisease were inconsistent condom use, lack of regular salary, absence of a previousSTD check-up in the preceding 12 months, and a concurrent trichomoniasis or chlamy-dial infection. Dysuria, vaginal malodour, and the presence of (muco) purulent dis-charge at genital examination were also independently associated with gonorrhoea. Ofthe 85 N. gonorrhoea isolates, 3. 5% was penicillinase producing (PPNG) and 7%plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistant (TRNG). Of the non-PPNG strains 74% wasinsensitive to penicillin, while 52% and 47% were resistant or less susceptible tociprofloxacin, respectively. One strain exhibited decreased susceptibility to ceftriax-one. All strains were susceptible to spectinomycin.Conclusion A high level of resistance to penicillin and ciprofloxacin was seen, butstrains were sensitive to ceftriaxone and spectinomycin. Several personal or medicalcharacteristics were independently associated with the presence of gonorrhoea. Womendiagnosed with gonorrhoea should receive concurrent treatment for chlamydialinfection.

  5. Sex dependent risk factors for mortality after myocardial infarction : individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Hanna M.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Anselmino, Matteo; Carney, Robert M.; Denollet, Johan; Doyle, Frank; Freedland, Kenneth E.; Grace, Sherry L.; Hosseini, Seyed H.; Parakh, Kapil; Pilote, Louise; Rafanelli, Chiara; Roest, Annelieke M.; Sato, Hiroshi; Steeds, Richard P.; Kessler, Ronald C.; de Jonge, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although a number of risk factors are known to predict mortality within the first years after myocardial infarction, little is known about interactions between risk factors, whereas these could contribute to accurate differentiation of patients with higher and lower risk for mortality. T

  6. Type of female sex worker and other risk factors of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselinda Roselinda

    2016-03-01

    Treponema pallidumbacteria that can cause disability in patients and babies born. This analysis aims at looking at the relationship typeand work duration as Female Sex Workers (FSW and the syphilis cases within 7 cities in Indonesia.Methods: The data was taken from Survey on FSW using a structured questionnaire in 7 cities (Kupang,Samarinda, Pontianak, Yogyakarta, Timika, Makassar and Tangerang in Indonesia in 2007, the crosssectionaldesign and respondents are selected by cluster random sampling directly and indirectly towardsthe WPS who fulfill the operational definition criteria. Syphilis diagnosis was confirmed by laboratorytests Rapid Plasma Reagents (RPR and Treponema pallidum Haemaglutination Assay (TPHA.Results: There were 1750 respondents who participated in the study and about 12.2% were infected withthe syphilis. Makassar has the highest prevalence about 55.2%. The WPS who are located outside of Javahave the syphilis infection risk about 3.16 times higher than the WPS located in Java (adjusted relative risk(RRa = 3.16; P = 0.000. The indirect WPS had 46% more risk for syphilis infection compared to directWPS (RRa = 1.46; P = 0.002, whereas the FSW who seek treatment from doctor have a risk about 58%tmore risk compared to the direct health facilities treatment [RRa = 1.58; P = 0.006.Conclusion: The location of FSW which is outside of Java, the FSW does not directly have a higher riskof being infected with syphilis. Female sex workers who seek the doctor treatment are able to be indicatedearlier rather than they are who seek treatment to other health care facilities. (Health Science Journal ofIndonesia 2015;6:132-6Keyword: Syphilis, Female Sex Worker, Indonesia

  7. Risk Factors for the presence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV+ men who have sex with men.

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    Olivier Richel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN is present in the majority of HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM and routine AIN-screening is subject of discussion. In this study we analysed a wide range of potential risk factors for AIN in order to target screening programs. METHODS: We screened 311 HIV+ MSM by high resolution anoscopy, with biopsies of suspect lesions. HIV-parameters, previous sexual transmitted infections (STI's, anal pathology, sexual practices and substance use were analysed in relation to AIN by uni- and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: AIN (any grade was found in 175/311 MSM (56%, high grade (HGAIN in 30%. In the univariable analysis, years since HIV diagnosis, years of antiretroviral therapy (cART and anal XTC use decreased AIN risk, while a history of anogenital warts and use of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid increased this risk. In the multivariable analysis three parameters remained significant: years of cART (OR=0.92 per year, p=0.003, anal XTC use (OR=0.10, p=0.002 and GHB use (OR=2.60, p=0.003. No parameters were significantly associated with HGAIN, but there was a trend towards increased risk with anal enema use prior to sex (>50 times ever; p=0.07 and with a history of AIN (p=0.06. CD4 count, STI's, anal pathology, smoking, number of sex partners and anal fisting were not associated with (HGAIN. CONCLUSION: GHB use increases the risk for AIN, while duration of cART and anal XTC use are negatively correlated with AIN. Given the high prevalence of AIN in HIV+ MSM, these associations are not helpful to guide a screening program.

  8. Risk Factors for the Presence of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV+ Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richel, Olivier; De Vries, Henry J. C.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Van Noesel, Carel J. M.; Prins, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN) is present in the majority of HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM) and routine AIN-screening is subject of discussion. In this study we analysed a wide range of potential risk factors for AIN in order to target screening programs. Methods We screened 311 HIV+ MSM by high resolution anoscopy, with biopsies of suspect lesions. HIV-parameters, previous sexual transmitted infections (STI’s), anal pathology, sexual practices and substance use were analysed in relation to AIN by uni- and multivariable logistic regression. Results AIN (any grade) was found in 175/311 MSM (56%), high grade (HG)AIN in 30%. In the univariable analysis, years since HIV diagnosis, years of antiretroviral therapy (cART) and anal XTC use decreased AIN risk, while a history of anogenital warts and use of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) increased this risk. In the multivariable analysis three parameters remained significant: years of cART (OR=0.92 per year, p=0.003), anal XTC use (OR=0.10, p=0.002) and GHB use (OR=2.60, p=0.003). No parameters were significantly associated with HGAIN, but there was a trend towards increased risk with anal enema use prior to sex (>50 times ever; p=0.07) and with a history of AIN (p=0.06). CD4 count, STI’s, anal pathology, smoking, number of sex partners and anal fisting were not associated with (HG)AIN. Conclusion GHB use increases the risk for AIN, while duration of cART and anal XTC use are negatively correlated with AIN. Given the high prevalence of AIN in HIV+ MSM, these associations are not helpful to guide a screening program. PMID:24367625

  9. A new prognostic model for cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy including pretreatment thrombocytosis and standard pathological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Renninger, Markus; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

    2012-12-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (cohort series) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Preoperative thrombocytosis has been identified as a predictor of poor outcome in various cancer types. However, the prognostic role of platelet count in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy is unknown. The present study demonstrates that preoperative thrombocytosis is an independent risk factor for decreased cancer-specific survival after radical treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We developed a new prognostic scoring model for cancer-specific outcomes after radical cystectomy including platelet count and established pathological risk factors. Consideration of platelet count in the final model increased its predictive accuracy significantly. Thrombocytosis may be a useful parameter to include within established international bladder cancer nomograms. •  To investigate the oncological significance of preoperative thrombocytosis in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, as it has been reported as a marker for aggressive tumour biology in a variety of solid tumours. •  The series comprised 258 patients undergoing radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2010 in whom different clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed. •  Elevated platelet count was defined as >450 × 10(9) /L. •  Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariable analysis a new weighted scoring model was developed to predict cancer-specific outcomes. •  The median follow-up was 30 months (6-116). •  Of the 258 patients, 26 (10.1%) had elevated and 232 (89.9%) had normal platelet count. The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with normal and elevated platelet count was 61.5% and 32.7%, respectively (P thrombocytosis (2.68, 1.26-5.14; P= 0.011). •  The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with a score 0 (low risk), 1-2 (intermediate risk) and 3

  10. Risk Factors for HIV-1 seroconversion among Taiwanese men visiting gay saunas who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yen-Ju

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men having sex with men (MSM accounts for 33.6% of all reported cases of HIV-1 infection in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection among MSM in gay saunas in Taiwan. Methods Patrons of 5 gay saunas were recruited for a weekly volunteer counseling and testing program from 2001 to 2005. Questionnaires were collected for a risk factor analysis. HIV-1 subtypes were determined using DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Results HIV-1 prevalence rates among MSM in gay saunas in 2001 through 2005 were 3.4%, 5.1%, 8.9%, 8.5%, and 8.3%, respectively. In total, 81 of 1, 093 (7.4% MSM had HIV-1 infection. Fifty-two HIV-1 strains were genotyped, and all of them were subtype B. HIV-seropositive men were significantly younger than the seronegatives. Only 37.1% used condoms every time during sexual intercourse. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors for HIV-1 were being uncircumcised (odds ratio (OR = 2.19; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.08~4.45; having sexual intercourse with at least 2 partners during each sauna visit (≥ 2 vs. ≤ 1, OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.02~2.89; and the role played during anal intercourse (versatile vs. an exclusively insertive role, OR = 2.76; 95% CI, 1.42~5.36. Conclusions Overall, 7.4% Taiwanese MSM participating in this study had HIV-1 subtype B infection. Uncircumcised, being versatile role during anal intercourse, and having sex with more than one person during each sauna visit were main risk factors for HIV-1 infection.

  11. Factors influencing capture of invasive sea lamprey in traps baited with a synthesized sex pheromone component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10−12 M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20–40 %) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low.

  12. Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil.

  13. Prevalence and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking in people living with HIV by sex, in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna d’Arc Lyra Batista

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. The prevalence of smoking is higher in people infected with HIV than in the general population. Although it is biologically plausible that smoking increases the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS, few studies in developing countries have analyzed the determinants and consequences of smoking in HIV infected people. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify the socioeconomic factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation in patients with HIV by sex. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with baseline data, obtained from an ongoing prospective cohort study of patients with HIV attending two referral centers in Recife, Northeast Region of Brazil, between July 2007 and October 2009. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 28.9%. For both sexes, smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol drinking and marijuana use. Among women, smoking was associated with living alone, not being married and illiteracy; and among men, being 40 years or older, low income and using crack. Compared with ex-smokers, current smokers were younger and more likely to be unmarried, heavy drinkers and marijuana users. Conclusions: It is important to incorporate smoking cessation interventions for the treatment of heavy alcohol drinkers and marijuana users with HIV/AIDS, which may increase life expectancy and quality of life, as smoking is related to risk of death, relapse of tuberculosis, and non communicable diseases.

  14. The effect of vitamin C on growth factors, survival, reproduction and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Mehrad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, AA ongrowth factors, survival, reproductive performance and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulataPeters,1859. Guppies were divided into 5 treatments with triplicate groups and fed with one of 5 dietsfor 20 weeks. The experimental vitamin C diets were formulated to contain 400, 800, 1200 and 2000 mgAA kg-1 (treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively with 1 control group. The data obtained from the trial weresubjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA to test for effects of dietary treatments. In vitamin Ctreatments the body weight increase (BWI, percent body weight increase (PBWI, specific growth rate(SGR, daily growth rate (DGR and reproductive performance of guppies were increased significantlywith increasing the levels of vitamin C (P<0.05 and highest BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR were observed intreatment 4. There were no significant differences in sex ratio observed between the treatments. Insurvival rate there was significant difference between treatment 2 with treatments 1, 3 and control(P<0.05. This study indicates that BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR and reproductive performance can beimproved by dietary vitamin C supplementation and also may be concluded that the vitamin Crequirement of guppies fish for optimum growth and reproductive performance is 2000 mg/kg of drydiet.

  15. Sex and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  16. Age and Sex Specific Reference Intervals for Modifiable Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases for Gujarati Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sibasis; Shah, Komal H; Konat, Ashwati R; Sharma, Kamal H; Tripathi, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to establish age and sex specific percentile reference data for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI in apparently healthy and disease-free Gujarati population. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 3265 apparently healthy and disease-free individuals of both genders residing in Gujarat state. Fasting samples of blood were used for biochemical estimations of lipids and sugar. The measurement of BMI and blood pressure was also done according to the standard guidelines. Age and gender specific 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were obtained. Results. The mean values of lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI were significantly (p Gujarati Indian population with a propensity of developing dyslipidemia, diabetes, blood pressure, and obesity.

  17. Sex determination. foxl3 is a germ cell-intrinsic factor involved in sperm-egg fate decision in medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Sato, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Watakabe, Ikuko; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Suyama, Mikita; Kobayashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Minoru

    2015-07-17

    Sex determination is an essential step in the commitment of a germ cell to a sperm or egg. However, the intrinsic factors that determine the sexual fate of vertebrate germ cells are unknown. Here, we show that foxl3, which is expressed in germ cells but not somatic cells in the gonad, is involved in sperm-egg fate decision in medaka fish. Adult XX medaka with disrupted foxl3 developed functional sperm in the expanded germinal epithelium of a histologically functional ovary. In chimeric medaka, mutant germ cells initiated spermatogenesis in female wild-type gonad. These results indicate that a germ cell-intrinsic cue for the sperm-egg fate decision is present in medaka and that spermatogenesis can proceed in a female gonadal environment.

  18. Characterization and restriction analysis of the P sex factor and the cryptic plasmid of Vibrio cholerae strain V58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartowsky, E J; Morelli, G; Kamke, M; Manning, P A

    1987-07-01

    The P plasmid of Vibrio cholerae is a derepressed sex factor restricted to V. cholerae and has been shown to express surface exclusion. We have isolated the plasmids of strain V58 and have found that in addition to P, two further cryptic plasmids are also present. P has a size of 68 kb as determined by both electron microscopy and restriction endonuclease analysis. These other plasmids are 34 and 4.7 kb in size. Restriction maps of P and the larger cryptic plasmid have been determined. It has been demonstrated that P differs from the standard Inc group test plasmids and also expresses a surface exclusion system. The ability of the type Inc plasmids to be transferred to V. cholerae by either liquid or filter matings and the stability of these plasmids in V. cholerae have also been examined.

  19. Bem Sex-Role Inventory and Jackson's Personality Rating Factors Scores on Students in Tennis and Fencing Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferek, M. J.; And Others

    As the traditional bipolar sex-role stereotypes are being reconsidered, psychometric instruments are being developed to assess the alternative sex-role models and to allow the new concepts to be operationalized. Androgyny is an increasingly accepted framework that departs from the traditional bipolar sex-role model. This study was conducted to:…

  20. Seasonal changes in the gonadossomatic index, allometric condition factor and sex ratio of an auchenipterid catfish from eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonal pattern of the gonadosomatic index (GSI, condition factor (K, and sex ratio in the catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae as an approach to identify its reproductive period. A total of 589 A. longimanus specimens (251 males and 338 females were captured in the rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest, in the Brazilian state of Pará, between July, 2008 and July, 2009. Among the male specimens, 171 were classified as adults and 80 as juveniles, while there were 249 adults and 89 juvenile females. Using a sinusoidal equation, analysis of the GSI revealed a reproductive asynchrony between the genders, with males attaining their highest GSI values in January, while females peaked in March. For males, the sinusoidal regression for GSI values was significant only when used the complete data set (P=0.001, wears no trend was identified for bimonthly means (P=0.136. For females, by contrast, significant values were obtained for both the complete data set (P=0.012 and bimonthly GSI means (P=0.026. For the condition factor, the sinusoidal equation returned significant seasonal variation in both raw data (P=0.02 and with mean values (P=0.00 for males, but only with raw data for females (P=0.04, which appears to reflect variation in the energy budget between genders. With regard to the sex ratio, more reproductive females were captured than males in January and March, 2009, which suggests a pattern of segregation related to the reproductive process. These parameters are fundamental to the assessment, protection, and management of natural fish stocks, as well as providing guidelines for the development of conservation strategies.

  1. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women : reanalysis of 13 studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Key, T. J.; Appleby, P. N.; Reeves, G. K.; Roddam, A. W.; Helzlsouer, K. J.; Alberg, A. J.; Rollison, D. E.; Dorgan, J. F.; Brinton, L. A.; Overvad, K.; Kaaks, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Panico, S.; Duell, E. J.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Rinaldi, S.; Riboli, E.; Fentiman, I. S.; Dowsett, M.; Manjer, J.; Lenner, P.; Hallmans, G.; Baglietto, L.; English, D. R.; Giles, G. G.; Hopper, J. L.; Severi, G.; Morris, H. A.; Koenig, K.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Arslan, A. A.; Toniolo, P.; Shore, R. E.; Krogh, V.; Micheli, A.; Berrino, F.; Muti, P.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Laughlin, G. A.; Kabuto, M.; Akiba, S.; Stevens, R. G.; Neriishi, K.; Land, C. E.; Cauley, J. A.; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R.; Gunter, M. J.; Rohan, T. E.; Strickler, H. D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concen

  2. Social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors determine consistent condom use among rural-to-urban migrant female sex workers in Shanghai China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xiuxia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine potential social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors that may result in motivating female sex workers (FSWs, who are rural-to-urban migrants, and their paying partners in Shanghai, China to promote consistent condom use (CCU. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain 20 geographic sites, which consisted of 1 or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. Five hundred four FSWs from 132 Xitou Fang (shampoo wash rooms, massage parlors, and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the perceptions and behaviors of individuals associated with a risk for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(HIV/AIDS,self-efficacy at negotiating safe sex,and the physical, social, and policy environment of the establishments where they worked. Results The percentage of FSWs who reported consistent condom use with their paying partners was 63.3%. Controlling for socio-demographic characteristics in multivariate analyses, environmental-structural support (OR, 3.96; CI, 2.52–6.22 for condom use was the most significant positive predictor of CCU among FSWs and their regular paying partners. A high perception of susceptibility and risk of HIV/AIDS (OR, 1.96; CI, 1.25–3.01, a high perception of benefits on condom use to protect themselves (OR, 2.06; CI, 1.32–3.22, and high safe sex self-efficacy (OR, 2.52; CI, 1.64–3.85 also play important roles on CCU based on multivariate analyses. Conclusions Environmental-structural factor support for condom use, in addition to social, psychological, and individual cognitive factors are significant predictors of CCU among FSWs, which should be

  3. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma.

  4. Socioeconomic status and geographical factors associated with active listing in primary care: a cross-sectional population study accounting for multimorbidity, age, sex and primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranstad, Karin; Midlöv, Patrik; Halling, Anders

    2017-06-09

    Socioeconomic status and geographical factors are associated with health and use of healthcare. Well-performing primary care contributes to better health and more adequate healthcare. In a primary care system based on patient's choice of practice, this choice (listing) is a key to understand the system. To explore the relationship between population and practices in a primary care system based on listing. Cross-sectional population-based study. Logistic regressions of the associations between active listing in primary care, income, education, distances to healthcare and geographical location, adjusting for multimorbidity, age, sex and type of primary care practice. Population over 15 years (n=123 168) in a Swedish county, Blekinge (151 731 inhabitants), in year 2007, actively or passively listed in primary care. The proportion of actively listed was 68%. Actively listed in primary care on 31 December 2007. Highest ORs for active listing in the model including all factors according to income had quartile two and three with OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.70), and those according to education less than 9 years of education had OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.70). Best odds for geographical factors in the same model had municipality C with OR 0.85 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.86) for active listing. Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) was 124 801 for a model including municipality, multimorbidity, age, sex and type of practice and including all factors gave AIC 123 934. Higher income, shorter education, shorter distance to primary care or longer distance to hospital is associated with active listing in primary care.Multimorbidity, age, geographical location and type of primary care practice are more important to active listing in primary care than socioeconomic status and distance to healthcare. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Why sex differences in schizophrenia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rena Li; Xin Ma; Gang Wang; Jian Yang; Chuanyue Wang

    2016-01-01

    Clinical observation shows that men and women are different in prevalence, symptoms, and responses to treatment of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. While the etiology of gender differences in schizophrenia is only partially understood, recent genetic studies suggest significant sex-specific pathways in the schizophrenia between men and women. More research is needed to understand the causal roles of sex differences in schizophrenia in order to ultimately develop sex-specific treatment of this seri-ous mental illness. In the present review, we will out-line the current evidence on the sex-related factors in-teraction with disease onset, symptoms and treatment of schizophrenia, and discuss the potential molecular mechanisms that may mediate their cooperative actions in schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  6. HIV prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Nyeong Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite men who have sex with men (MSM being a key population for HIV programming globally, HIV epidemiologic data on MSM in Central Africa are sparse. We measured HIV and syphilis prevalence and the factors associated with HIV infection among MSM in Cameroon. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-two and 239 MSM aged ≥18 from Douala and Yaoundé, respectively, were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS for this cross-sectional surveillance study in 2011. Participants completed a structured questionnaire and HIV and syphilis testing. Statistical analyses, including RDS-weighted proportions, bootstrapped confidence intervals and logistic regressions, were used. Results: Crude and RDS-weighted HIV prevalence were 28.6% (73/255 and 25.5% (95% CI 19.1–31.9 in Douala, and 47.3% (98/207 and 44.4% (95% CI 35.7–53.2 in Yaoundé. Active syphilis prevalence in total was 0.4% (2/511. Overall, median age was 24 years, 62% (317/511 of MSM identified as bisexual and 28.6% (144/511 identified as gay. Inconsistent condom use with regular male partners (64.1%; 273/426 and casual male and female partners (48.5%; 195/402 was common, as was the inconsistent use of condom-compatible lubricants (CCLs (26.3%; 124/472. In Douala, preferring a receptive sexual role was associated with prevalent HIV infection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.02–5.32]. Compared to MSM without HIV infection, MSM living with HIV were more likely to have ever accessed a health service targeting MSM in Douala (aOR 4.88, 95% CI 1.63–14.63. In Yaoundé, MSM living with HIV were more likely to use CCLs (aOR 2.44, 95% CI 1.19–4.97. Conclusions: High HIV prevalence were observed and condoms and CCLs were used inconsistently indicating that MSM are a priority population for HIV prevention, treatment and care services in Douala and Yaoundé. Building the capacity of MSM community organizations and improving the delivery and scale-up of multimodal interventions

  7. Analysis on Factors Influencing Unmarried Adolescent Sex Behavior in Shanghai City under the Multilevel Model%上海市未婚青少年性行为影响因素多水平模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 楼超华; 高尔生

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore influencing factors of sex behavior among unmarried adolescent in Shanghai under the multilevel model. Methods We chose unmarried adolescents aged 15 to 24 among 60 neighborhood/village committees in Shanghai through stratified random sampling. Then a model of 2 levels logistic was fitted. Results The prev-alence of sex behavior among unmarried adolescents was 12. 9% , including 16. 7% for male and 8. 9% for female. According to the results of the 2 level logistic model analysis, we learn that the protective factors of sex be-havior among unmarried adolescent were education, student status and the score of school sex information respectively. The risk factors were age,gen-der , score of dangerous behavior, score of peer or media sex information, sex pressure from peer and pornographic information contacting. Conclu-sion According to the analysis of influencing factors of sex behavior a-mong unmarried adolescent under the multilevel model, customized inter-vention measures based on these factors could be designed for adolescents.%目的 通过建立多水平模型,探讨上海市未婚青少年性行为现况及影响因素.方法 采用分层随机抽样方法选取上海市辖区内60个居/村委会15 ~24岁青少年进行调查,并对数据进行两水平logistic模型拟合.结果 上海市未婚青少年性行为发生率为12.9%,其中男性l6 7%,女性8 9%.未婚青少年性行为影响因素两水平logistic回归模型结果显示,文化程度、在读学生和学校性信息评分是青少年性行为保护因素;年龄、性别、危险行为评分、同伴和媒体性信息评分、同伴性压力和黄色信息是性行为危险因素.结论 可根据多水平模型对上海市未婚青少年性行为影响因素的分析,对青少年开展有针对性的生殖健康干预.

  8. A predictive relationship between population and genetic sex ratios in clonal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLetchie, D. Nicholas; García-Ramos, Gisela

    2017-04-01

    Sexual reproduction depends on mate availability that is reflected by local sex ratios. In species where both sexes can clonally expand, the population sex ratio describes the proportion of males, including clonally derived individuals (ramets) in addition to sexually produced individuals (genets). In contrast to population sex ratio that accounts for the overall abundance of the sexes, the genetic sex ratio reflects the relative abundance of genetically unique mates, which is critical in predicting effective population size but is difficult to estimate in the field. While an intuitive positive relationship between population (ramet) sex ratio and genetic (genet) sex ratio is expected, an explicit relationship is unknown. In this study, we determined a mathematical expression in the form of a hyperbola that encompasses a linear to a nonlinear positive relationship between ramet and genet sex ratios. As expected when both sexes clonally have equal number of ramets per genet both sex ratios are identical, and thus ramet sex ratio becomes a linear function of genet sex ratio. Conversely, if sex differences in ramet number occur, this mathematical relationship becomes nonlinear and a discrepancy between the sex ratios amplifies from extreme sex ratios values towards intermediate values. We evaluated our predictions with empirical data that simultaneously quantified ramet and genet sex ratios in populations of several species. We found that the data support the predicted positive nonlinear relationship, indicating sex differences in ramet number across populations. However, some data may also fit the null model, which suggests that sex differences in ramet number were not extensive, or the number of populations was too small to capture the curvature of the nonlinear relationship. Data with lack of fit suggest the presence of factors capable of weakening the positive relationship between the sex ratios. Advantages of this model include predicting genet sex ratio using

  9. Risk Factors for HIV Diagnosis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Results of a Case-Control Study in One Sample of Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongrong; Huang, Zhaohui; Dong, Zhengquan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Sichao; Wu, Nanping; Jin, Meihua

    2016-12-01

    Substantial increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been reported worldwide in recent years, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted a matched case-control study to examine the factors associated with HIV diagnosis among MSM in one sample of eastern China. Between February 2012 and December 2014, we used surveillance records to identify MSM diagnosed with HIV (case participants); we also recruited MSM who did not have HIV (controls) and then matched them (2:1) with control cases in terms of age (±3 years). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the factors associated with HIV diagnosis. According to a multivariate analysis using logistic regression model involving 101 cases and 202 matched controls, a lack of comprehensive knowledge of HIV (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.18, 0.89), a monthly income of ≥4,000 RMB (adjusted OR = 2.99; 95% CI = 1.45, 6.16), having at least two male sexual partners in the past 6 months (adjusted OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.28, 6.31), participating in at least four anal sex experiences with a man in the past month (adjusted OR = 3.56; 95% CI = 1.64, 7.73), and having a current syphilis infection (adjusted OR = 3.30; 95% CI = 1.06, 10.25) were associated with an increased risk for HIV diagnosis. MSM with a comprehensive knowledge of HIV were at reduced risk of HIV diagnosis, whereas those with more male sexual partners, more male anal sexual experiences (including receptive or/and insertive anal intercourse, rimming, and fisting), and a current syphilis infection were at increased risk of HIV diagnosis. Focus on protection and safer sex behaviors during male sexual activity (i.e., consistent condom use, pre-exposure prophylaxis, closed sexual networks among MSM) would likely be effective for reducing the HIV transmission rate.

  10. Suppression of initiation-negative strains of Escherichia coli by integration of the sex factor F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, E F; Nandadasa, H G; Pritchard, R H

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented suggesting that the most critical factor determining whether an Hfr dnaAts strain can synthesize deoxyribonucleic acid and form colonies at temperatures that are nonpermissive for corresponding F- strains is neither the site of insertion of F nor the presence of additional mutations in the F particle or the chromosome; it is whether the particle is capable of autonomous replication at the temperature used. Consequently, suppression of the DnaA phenotype in Hfr strains occurs at 40 C but not, in most of them, at 42 C without the occurrence of additional mutations. The site of insertion of F may also be important since it is shown that in one Hfr dnaA strain partial suppression does occur at 42 C. In addition, it is shown that strains exhibiting suppression by integration of F at 40 C on minimal agar plates do not do so at this temperature on nutrient agar plates. PMID:1089635

  11. Age and Sex Specific Reference Intervals for Modifiable Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases for Gujarati Asian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibasis Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to establish age and sex specific percentile reference data for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI in apparently healthy and disease-free Gujarati population. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 3265 apparently healthy and disease-free individuals of both genders residing in Gujarat state. Fasting samples of blood were used for biochemical estimations of lipids and sugar. The measurement of BMI and blood pressure was also done according to the standard guidelines. Age and gender specific 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were obtained. Results. The mean values of lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI were significantly (p<0.001 higher in males as compared to female population. Age-wise distribution trends showed increase in the risk factors from the 2nd decade until the 5th to 6th decade in most of the cases, where loss of premenopausal protection in females was also observed. Specific trends according to gender and age were observed in percentile values of various parameters. Conclusion. The outcome of current study will contribute significantly to proposing clinically important reference values of various lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI that could be used to screen the asymptomatic Gujarati Indian population with a propensity of developing dyslipidemia, diabetes, blood pressure, and obesity.

  12. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors with Premenopausal Sex Hormones in Women with Very Low Breast Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C. Houghton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer incidence rates are low but rising in urban Mongolia. We collected reproductive and lifestyle factor information and measured anthropometrics and serum sex steroid concentrations among 314 premenopausal women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Mean differences in hormone concentrations by these factors were calculated using age-adjusted quadratic regression splines. Estrone and estradiol in college-educated women were, respectively, 18.2% (p = 0.03 and 23.6% (p = 0.03 lower than in high-school-educated women. Progesterone concentrations appeared 55.8% lower (p = 0.10 in women residing in modern housing compared with women living in traditional housing (gers, although this finding was not statistically significant. Testosterone concentrations were positively associated with adiposity and central fat distribution; 17.1% difference (p = 0.001 for highest vs. lowest quarter for body mass index and 15.1% difference (p = 0.005 for waist-to-height ratio. Estrogens were higher in the follicular phase of women who breastfed each child for shorter durations. A distinct hormonal profile was associated with an urban lifestyle in premenopausal, Mongol women. In particular, heavier, more-educated women living in urban dwellings had higher testosterone and lower estrogen and progesterone levels. Higher breast cancer incidence in urban compared with rural women suggest that the hormonal profile associated with a more traditional lifestyle may be protective among Mongol women.

  13. Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were

  14. Sex Differences in Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Hugh

    1976-01-01

    Sex differences in cognitive skills, grouped into motor, spatial and linguistic areas, are assessed in relation to current theories of cerebral lateralization. Few convincing sex differences exist, either overall, or in interactions with functional localization. Qualifying criteria include age, birth order, culture, sex of experimenter and sex…

  15. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  16. SOCIAL FACTORS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF MEN HAVING SEX WITH MEN ATTENDING STI CLINIC OF TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasuki Shanmugam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Men having sex with men are recognised as high-risk group in view of STI/HIV (sexually transmitted infection/human deficiency virus transmission. In India, HIV estimations of the year 2015, reaffirm the country’s success story in responding to HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. India has successfully achieved the 6th Millennium Development Goal of Halting and Reversing the HIV epidemic. As per National AIDS Control Organization Technical Report at national level, the adult HIV prevalence has continued to show a steady decline, the same scenario in MSM also. Reduction of HIV new infections is testimony of impact of prevention programs. The aim of the study is to know the social factors influencing behavioural pattern and prevalence of HIV/STI among MSM attending STI clinic in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted in a STI Clinic attached to a tertiary care hospital of South India. MSM attending the STI Clinic between October 2015-December 2016, who have consented were included in this study. This includes direct walk-in MSM clients who disclose their behaviour on routine counseling done at STI Clinic and line listed MSMs brought by TI NGO (targeted intervention, non-governmental organization. After getting consent, a detailed history taking clinical examination and serological tests for HIV and STI were done. RESULTS Most of the participants are unmarried (72% with school level education (65.5%, half of the participants are skilled workers and professionals. Practicing unsafe sex remains the same among educated and uneducated persons of study group, only 34% of participants practice safe sex. 21.8% of participants presented with clinical manifestations of significance. Among STI, syphilis was common. CONCLUSION MSM are important in the context of STI/HIV prevention. Prevalence of STI and inconsistent condom use among MSM of this study group indicates the need of

  17. Factors Associated with Primary Headache According to Diagnosis, Sex, and Social Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis V

    2016-01-01

    . To be a student was associated with the highest risk of migraine (OR 6.6; 95% CI 4.2-10.4) and TTH (OR 3.6; 95% СI 2.7-4.8). Low physical activity (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.4) and family history of headache (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5-2.9) were associated only with migraine. Current smoking and BMI > 25 were negatively...... was associated with TTH (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.0) and in females consumption of light alcoholic beverages was associated with migraine (OR 3.49; 2.03-6.02) and TTH (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.93-4.66). Low physical activity was associated with migraine in females (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.2). (3) According to social group...... group: consumption of strong alcoholic beverages was associated with TTH in blood donors (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1), low physical activity was associated with migraine in students (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.04-3.74) and with TTH in workers (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.7). CONCLUSION: Most of the associated factors were...

  18. Fetal growth restriction alters transcription factor binding and epigenetic mechanisms of renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in a sex-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajwinderjit; Hale, Merica A.; Bares, Allyson; Yu, Xing; Callaway, Christopher W.; McKnight, Robert A.; Lane, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of serious adult morbidities such as hypertension. In an IUGR rat model of hypertension, we reported a persistent decrease in kidney 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) mRNA and protein levels from birth through postnatal (P) day 21. This enzyme deficiency can lead to hypertension by limiting renal glucocorticoid deactivation. In the present study, we hypothesized that IUGR affects renal 11β-HSD2 epigenetic determinants of chromatin structure and alters key transcription factor binding to the 11β-HSD2 promoter in association with persistent downregulation of its mRNA expression. To test this hypothesis, we performed bilateral uterine artery ligation on embryonic day 19.5 pregnant rats and harvested kidneys at day 0 (P0) and P21. Key transcription factors that can affect 11β-HSD2 expression include transcriptional enhancers specificity protein 1 (SP1) and NF-κB p65 and transcriptional repressors early growth response factor (Egr-1) and NF-κB p50. Our most important findings were as follows: 1) IUGR significantly decreased SP1 and NF-κB (p65) binding to the 11β-HSD2 promoter in males, while it increased Egr-1 binding in females and NF-κB (p50) binding in males; 2) IUGR increased CpG methylation status, as well as modified the pattern of methylation in several CpG sites of 11β-HSD2 promoter at P0 also in a sex-specific manner; and 3) IUGR decreased trimethylation of H3K36 in exon 5 of 11β-HSD2 at P0 and P21 in both genders. We conclude that IUGR is associated with altered transcriptional repressor/activator binding in connection with increased methylation in the 11β-HSD2 promoter region in a sex-specific manner, possibly leading to decreased transcriptional activity. Furthermore, IUGR decreased trimethylation of H3K36 of the 11β-HSD2 gene in both genders, which is associated with decreased transcriptional elongation. We speculate that alterations in transcription factor binding and

  19. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Andersen, Anders D.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months...

  20. Depression and anxiety in patients with and without same-sex attraction: differences in clinical expression, lifestyle factors, and vulnerability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Boschloo, L.; Schoevers, R.A.; Sandfort, T.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare clinical expressions (severity and loneliness), lifestyle factors (substance use), and vulnerability indicators (stressful childhood experiences) in patients with any same-sex attraction versus heterosexual patients diagnosed with depression and/or an

  1. Gender and School Choice: Factors Influencing Parents When Choosing Single-Sex or Co-Educational Independent Schools for Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carolyn; Bisset, Moray

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores factors influencing parents' choices of single-sex or co-educational schools in the independent sector. In doing so, it explores two relatively under-researched aspects of school choice by focusing upon gender and upon the middle classes. The paper draws upon research conducted in three independent schools--a boys' school, a…

  2. Depression and anxiety in patients with and without same-sex attraction : differences in clinical expression, lifestyle factors, and vulnerability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare clinical expressions (severity and loneliness), lifestyle factors (substance use), and vulnerability indicators (stressful childhood experiences) in patients with any same-sex attraction versus heterosexual patients diagnosed with depression and/or an

  3. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  4. The sex factor: epidemiology and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Pat G; Chaudhry, Munaza; Platt, Howard; Roch, Michael; Road, Jeremy; Sin, Donald; Levy, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women have been predicted to overtake that of men within the next decade. These predictions are based in part on data from surveys using self-reports of a COPD diagnosis. Whether these predictions have been realized is unknown. The prevalence and mortality of men and women in British Columbia were compared from fiscal years 1992/1993 to 2003/2004 using administrative health services data. Case definitions for COPD were developed using International Classification of Diseases ninth and 10th revision (ICD-9/10) codes applied to medical and hospital data. Individuals 45 years and older, who had at least two physician visits or one hospitalization for specified COPD ICD-9/10 codes within a 365-day window, were considered to be cases. Cases were ascertained from 1992 to 2004. In 2003/2004, men had a greater prevalence (4.7% versus 4.0% in women) and a higher all-cause mortality rate (5.4% versus 4.1% in women) than women. Both men and women with COPD had low COPD medication use (45%) and low referral for lung function testing (55%). Including the ICD-9 code for 'bronchitis, not specified as acute or chronic' (ICD-9 490) in the case definition resulted in a greater prevalence of COPD in women than in men overall, and in the 45 to 64 year age group. Prevalence and mortality measured with administrative health data do not show evidence of relative increase in the prevalence of COPD for women in British Columbia. However, further analysis of ICD-9 490 may identify an early 'at-risk' group, specifically in women.

  5. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Esfahani Mohammad Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1.

  6. Risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection type 16 among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alexandra L.; Efird, Jimmy T.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Berry, J. Michael; Jay, Naomi; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of anal cancer compared with the general population. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly HPV 16, is causally associated with anal cancer. However, risk factors for anal HPV 16 infection are poorly understood. We determined the prevalence and risk factors for anal HPV 16 infection in a population of HIV-positive MSM, most of whom were being treated with antiretroviral therapy. Design Cross-sectional data from the baseline visit of a 4-year prospective cohort study. Methods 348 HIV-positive MSM were recruited in San Francisco and received a detailed sexual behavior risk-factor questionnaire. An anal swab was used to collect specimens for HPV type-specific DNA testing using L1 HPV DNA PCR. We used log-binomial multivariable models to determine risk factors for anal HPV 16 infection. Results 92% of HIV-positive MSM had at least one anal HPV type, 80% had at least one oncogenic HPV type and 42% had HPV 16. Non-Hispanic white race and higher level of education were associated with a decreased risk of HPV 16 infection. A higher number of total male partners was associated with HPV 16 (RR: 1.6, 95%CI 1.1–2.4, p=0.01) for 201–1000 partners compared with 1–200. Injection drug use (IDU) was independently associated with anal HPV 16 infection (RR: 1.5, 95%CI 1.2–1.9, p=0.003). Conclusions The prevalence of anal HPV infection, including HPV 16, is high in HIV-positive MSM. HIV-positive MSM should be counseled about the risk associated with increased partners and IDU. PMID:23614994

  7. Examining the prevalence rate of Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Doroodgar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of head louse infestation among elementary students, and examine the associated factors with infection in the city of Aran and Bidgol. Methods: A total of 19 boys’ and girls’ primary schools were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. Overall, 3 590 students were examined for head lice infestation in urban areas of Aran and Bidgol during 2008. The diagnosis was based on live louse or nit on the scalp of students. The students were screened by standard questionnaire and demographic data in addition to related information were obtained by interview and observation. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results: The mean age of students was (8.68依1.58 years ranging between 6-12 years. The total prevalence of head louse infestation was 0.47%. This rate was 0.42% and 0.05% in female and male, respectively. There was a significant association between pediculosis and sex, father’s job, mother’s education, access to bathroom in home, prior infection, drug use and nationality, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions: The results showed that pediculosis was not a major health priority among primary school in city of Aran and Bidgol. However, enhancing the knowledge of students about head lice infestation and the existence of health teachers in schools can play a significant role in disease control.

  8. Deduction of bond length changes of symmetric molecules from experimental vibrational progressions, including a topological mass factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wei, Fan; Schwarz, W H E; Li, Jun

    2012-12-20

    The change ΔR(x) of bond length R(x) for atom X in a molecule upon electronic transition can be derived from the intensities I(i) of the vibrational stretching progression v = 0 → i of the electronic absorption or emission spectrum. In many cases, a simple model is sufficient for a reasonable estimate of ΔR(x). For symmetric molecules, however, conceptual problems in the literature of many decades are evident. The breathing modes of various types of symmetric molecules X(n) and AX(n) (A at the center) are here discussed. In the simplest case of a harmonic vibration of the same mode in the initial and final electronic states, we obtain ΔR(x) ≈ [2S/(ωm(x))](1/2)/w(1/2) (all quantities in atomic units). ω and S are respectively the observed vibrational quanta and the Huang-Rhys factor (corresponding, e.g., to the vibrational intensity ratio I(1)/I(0) ≈ S), m(x) is the mass of vibrating atom X, and w is a topological factor for molecule X(n) or AX(n). The factor 1/w(1/2) in the expression for ΔR(x) must not be neglected. The spectra and bond length changes of several symmetric molecules AX(n) and X(n) are discussed. The experimental bond length changes correctly derived with factor 1/w(1/2) are verified by reliable quantum chemical calculations.

  9. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  10. Exploring the context of trafficking and adolescent sex industry involvement in Tijuana, Mexico: consequences for HIV risk and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Silverman, Jay G; Engstrom, David; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Usita, Paula; Rolón, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-04-01

    Coerced and adolescent sex industry involvement are linked to serious health and social consequences, including enhanced risk of HIV infection. Using ethnographic fieldwork, including interviews with 30 female sex workers with a history of coerced or adolescent sex industry involvement, we describe contextual factors influencing vulnerability to coerced and adolescent sex industry entry and their impacts on HIV risk and prevention. Early gender-based violence and economic vulnerability perpetuated vulnerability to coercion and adolescent sex exchange, while HIV risk mitigation capacities improved with increased age, control over working conditions, and experience. Structural interventions addressing gender-based violence, economic factors, and HIV prevention among all females who exchange sex are needed.

  11. Hypothetical Rectal Microbicide Acceptability and Factors Influencing It among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Tianjin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Zhang

    Full Text Available To measure potential acceptability of rectal microbicides and to explore factors likely to affect their acceptability among men who have sex with men (MSM.Cross-sectional and retrospective surveys were conducted in this study. A questionnaire and a scale were used to measure the acceptability score for physical and functional characteristics of hypothetical rectal microbicides. We also evaluated the involvement of other factors such as sexual behaviors, social context, etc.MSMs we interviewed showed a high acceptability to rectal microbicides, indicated by the mean acceptability score of 2.92 (SD, 0.54, scale of 1-4. The results also suggested that microbicides were preferred in a cream form that can moisten and lubricate the rectum, prevent HIV infection and go unnoticed by their partners. Multivariate analysis showed that the microbicides acceptability varied significantly by education level (β = 0.135; P = 0.028, having casual partners (β = 0.174; P = 0.007, frequency of lubricant use (β = 0.134; P = 0.031, history of HIV test (β = 0.129; P = 0.036, willingness to use lubricant (β = 0.126; P = 0.045, locus of control by partners regarding STI infection (β = 0.168; P = 0.009.A positive response to rectal microbicides among MSMs was found in our study, suggesting that rectal microbicides might have a potential market in MSMs and they might play an important role in HIV/STIs prevention as a supplement. Further studies may be considered to combine the acceptability study with clinical research together to understand the true feelings of MSMs when they use the products.

  12. The effect of a joint communication campaign on multiple sex partners in Mozambique: the role of psychosocial/ideational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Maria Elena; Kincaid, D Lawrence; Hurley, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Mozambique is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa most affected by the HIV epidemic. Multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships (MSP/CP) have been recognized as one of the key drivers in the rapid spread of HIV in the region. Though HIV prevention programs have been successful in increasing condom use and HIV testing, reducing the practice of MSP/CP has been more difficult. Grounding their interventions in social and behavior change theory, four organizations in Mozambique joined efforts to implement a year-long, multimedia national campaign for HIV prevention with emphasis on the reduction of MSP/CP. Evaluating its impact and identifying the factors that hinder or contribute to its success are critical to building effective programs in the future. With data from a 2011 population-based survey of 1427 sexually active women and men, multivariate causal attribution (MCA) analysis was used to estimate the impact of the campaign in the four regions of Mozambique with the highest levels of HIV prevalence. The analysis tested the psychosocial pathways through which the campaign was expected to affect MSP. The results indicate that exposure (recall) was high; 81.2% of the respondents could recall one or more of the communication campaign components. The campaign had a significant indirect impact on MSP through its negative effect on attitudes that favor MSP, and its positive effect on knowledge and discussion of MSP risk with sex partner. This study demonstrates the value of identifying appropriate psychosocial factors and using them to design the campaign communication strategy, and evaluate the causal pathways by which it has an impact. The campaign was successful in changing MSP behavior by working through two psychosocial variables.

  13. Sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy in non-diabetic men and women: The Tromso Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, G.; Peto, T.; Lindekleiv, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in a nondiabetic population. Methods: The study population included 5869 participants without diabetes aged 38-87years from the TromsO Eye Study, a substudy of the population-based TromsO Study in Norway. Retinal images from bo...

  14. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Results: Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%. The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%, clout/influence of the client (45%, risk of losing client (27%, and forced sex (1.2%. Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98% while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

  15. Postnatal visual deprivation in rats regulates several retinal genes and proteins, including differentiation-associated fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Meyer zu Hoerste, Melissa; Mertsch, Sonja; Stupp, Tobias; Thanos, Solon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the retinal cellular basis of amblyopia, which is a developmental disease characterized by impaired visual acuity. This study examined the retinal transcripts associated with experimentally induced unilateral amblyopia in rats. Surgical tarsorrhaphy of the eyelids on one side was performed in pups prior to eye opening at postnatal day 14, thereby preventing any visual experience. This condition was maintained for over 2 months, after which electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded, the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) arrangement and number were determined using neuroanatomical tracing, the retinal transcripts were studied using microarray analysis, regulated mRNAs were confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, and proteins were stained using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. An attenuated ERG was found in eyes that were deprived of visual experience. Retrograde neuroanatomical staining disclosed a larger number of RGCs within the retina on the visually deprived side compared to the non-deprived, control side, and a multilayered distribution of RGCs. At the retinomic level, several transcripts associated with retinal differentiation, such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), were either up- or downregulated. Most of the transcripts could be verified at the mRNA level. To unravel the role of a differentiation-associated protein, we tested FGF-2 in dissociated postnatal retinal cell cultures and found that FGF-2 is a potent factor triggering ganglion cell differentiation. The data suggest that visual experience shapes the postnatal retinal differentiation, whereas visual deprivation induces changes at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within the retina.

  16. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  17. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  18. Is being female a risk factor for shallow anterior chamber? The associations between anterior chamber depth and age, sex, and body height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cherng Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: To analyze the association between anterior chamber depth (ACD and age, sex, and body height (BH. Materials and Methods: One thousand four hundred eighty eyes of 1480 adults 40 years of age and older receiving preoperative evaluation for cataract surgery were recruited consecutively from June 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010. ACD was measured with the Zeiss IOLMaster. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the correlations, and receiving operator characteristic (ROC curves and the area under the curve (AUC were used for evaluating the predictability of an ACD less than 2.70 mm. Results: ACD was negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with BH in both univariate and multivariate regression analysis (P < 0.001. Sex was associated with ACD in univariate analysis, but not after adjustment with age and BH. In predicting an ACD less than 2.70 mm, the AUCs of ROC curves for ′age and sex′, ′age and BH′, and ′age, sex, and BH′ were 0.687, 0.689, and 0.689, respectively. Conclusion: Age and BH were independent associating factors of ACD; however, sex was not. Older people and shorter ones likely had shallower ACD, and therefore were predisposed to Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG. The predictability of ACD by age and BH solely was low, and adding sex did not increase it.

  19. Sex reversal in Betta splendens Regan with emphasis on the problem of sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, T P; Larkin, J R

    1975-01-01

    To gain insight into the sex-determining mechanism of the Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, sex-reversed individuals were bred and the ratios of the spawnings were examined. Sex-reversal of 245 females was undertaken by ovariectomizing them; of these, 104 became sex-reversed. Twenty-three of these latter fish were mated to normal females and eleven spawnings were raised to maturity. These spawnings resulted in all female broods or mixed broods. Were the male fish heterogametic, a view currently held by some authors, no males would be produced in these spawnings. Thus, male heterogamety was not substaintiated in this study. Contrary to other studies, the experimental sex reversal of females is not a rare event since nearly two-thirds of the fish that survived the surgery became sex-reversed. Gross dissection and histological observation of sex-reversed fish revealed a regenerated, unpaired duct which remained after the ovaries had been removed. The tissue of the regenerate was testicular and contained active spermatogenesis. Some alterative methods of sex determination which may apply to the Betta are examined. These include the possibility of two different sex-determining races, the effects of exogenous factors, and a polygenic system of sex determination.

  20. Sex determination in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masahisa

    2009-05-01

    The heterogametic sex is male in all mammals, whereas it is female in almost all birds. By contrast, there are two heterogametic types (XX/XY and ZZ/ZW) for genetic sex determination in amphibians. Though the original heterogametic sex was female in amphibians, the two heterogametic types were probably interchangeable, suggesting that sex chromosomes evolved several times in this lineage. Indeed, the frog Rana rugosa has the XX/XY and ZZ/ZW sex-determining systems within a single species, depending on the local population in Japan. The XY and ZW geographic forms with differentiated sex chromosomes probably have a common origin as undifferentiated sex chromosomes resulted from the hybridization between the primary populations of West Japan and Kanto forms. It is clear that the sex chromosomes are still undergoing evolution in this species group. Regardless of the presence of a sex-determining gene in amphibians, the gonadal sex of some species can be changed by sex steroids. Namely, sex steroids can induce the sex reversal, with estrogens inducing the male-to-female sex reversal, whereas androgens have the opposite effect. In R. rugosa, gonadal activity of CYP19 (P450 aromatase) is correlated with the feminization of gonads. Of particular interest is that high levels of CYP19 expression are observed in indifferent gonads at time before sex determination. Increases in the expression of CYP19 in female gonads and CYP17 (P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase) in male gonads suggest that the former plays an important role in phenotypic female determination, whereas the latter is needed for male determination. Thus, steroids could be the key factor for sex determination in R. rugosa. In addition to the role of sex steroids in gonadal sex determination in this species, Foxl2 and Sox3 are capable of promoting CYP19 expression. Since both the genes are autosomal, another factor up-regulating CYP19 expression must be recruited. The factor, which may be located on the X or W

  1. Complex analysis of Askaryan radiation: A fully analytic treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jordan C.; Connolly, Amy L.

    2017-05-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from high-energy cascades in dense media with a collective charge. We present an analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the cascade, and quantum mechanical cascade elongation via the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect. These calculations, and the associated open-source code, allow the user to avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo cascade simulations. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan-based detectors benefit from computational speed, because scans of Askaryan parameter-space are required to match neutrino signals. The Askaryan field is derived from cascade equations verified with Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, instructive cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for correlations with event candidates.

  2. Complex Analysis of Askaryan Radiation: A Fully Analytic Treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Jordan C

    2016-01-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from the collective charge within high-energy cascades in dense media. We present the first fully analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the electromagnetic cascade and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect. Analytic calculations avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulations of the cascades. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan- based detectors benefit from computational speed, because neutrino event parameters affect the shape of the electromagnetic field, requiring scans of parameter space. The Askaryan field is derived and verified against Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, two special cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain, analytically. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for phase ...

  3. [Type of partner, socio-economic factors and risk practices in men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch Gallén, Àngel; Tomás Aznar, Concepción; Rubio Aranda, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) perform risk practices that pose a challenge to prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between receptive and insertive unprotected anal intercourse (RUAI and IUAI) according to the type of partner and the practice of barebacking with socioeconomic factors. A descriptive study was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire distributed by a software tool in social networks and non-governmental organizations from June-2014 to January-2015. Participants consisted of 601 people living in Spain. Pearson's χ(2) test and logistic regression models were applied with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). In stable couples, the risk of RUAI increased in individuals with a medium income (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.14-2.80) and in those who lived together (OR: 2.94; 95%CI: 1.74-4.98) and IUAI increased in individuals living with a partner (OR: 5.58; 95%IC: 3.24-9.59). When the partner was a friend, the risk of RUAI was higher among individuals with secondary education (OR: 2.20; 95%CI: 1.44-3.36) and those who were retired (OR: 3.6; 95%CI: 1.25-10.37), while living with a partner was a protective factor (OR: 0.56; 95%CI: 0.32-0.98). The risk of barebacking was greater in younger men (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 1.27-5.28), in those with secondary education (OR: 1.51; 95%CI: 0.99-2.29) and in those living with a partner (OR: 3.64; 95%CI: 2.12-6.24). There is a need to reduce vulnerability due to socioeconomic factors that influence engagement in risk practices and to highlight the importance of barebacking, mainly in young MSM. Partner-based interventions and harm reduction strategies should be incorporated into preventive strategies. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. A Latent Class Analysis of Risk Factors for Acquiring HIV Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Implications for Implementing Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Rose, Jennifer; Maher, Justine; Benben, Stacey; Pfeiffer, Kristen; Almonte, Alexi; Poceta, Joanna; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Parker, Sharon; Marshall, Brandon Dl; Lally, Mickey; Mayer, Kenneth; Mena, Leandro; Patel, Rupa; Nunn, Amy S

    2015-11-01

    Current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for prescribing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV transmission are broad. In order to better characterize groups who may benefit most from PrEP, we reviewed demographics, behaviors, and clinical outcomes for individuals presenting to a publicly-funded sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Providence, Rhode Island, from 2012 to 2014. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify subgroups of men who have sex with men (MSM) at highest risk for contracting HIV. A total of 1723 individuals presented for testing (75% male; 31% MSM). MSM were more likely to test HIV positive than heterosexual men or women. Among 538 MSM, we identified four latent classes. Class 1 had the highest rates of incarceration (33%), forced sex (24%), but had no HIV infections. Class 2 had 10 anal sex partners in the previous 12 months (69%), anonymous partners (100%), drug/alcohol use during sex (76%), and prior STDs (40%). Class 4 had similar characteristics and HIV prevalence as Class 2. In this population, MSM who may benefit most from PrEP include those who have >10 sexual partners per year, anonymous partners, drug/alcohol use during sex and prior STDs. LCA is a useful tool for identifying clusters of characteristics that may place individuals at higher risk for HIV infection and who may benefit most from PrEP in clinical practice.

  5. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pyoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  6. HIV, syphilis, and behavioral risk factors among female sex workers before and after implementation of harm reduction programs in a high drug-using area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of harm reduction programs on HIV and syphilis infection and related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs in a drug trafficking city in Southwest China. DESIGN: Before and after harm reduction program study. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among FSWs before and after harm reduction programs were launched in Xichang city, Sichuan province. The first and second cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2010, respectively. Temporal changes in odds of HIV, syphilis, and behavioral risk factors were assessed by multivariable logistic regression while controlling for socio-demographics. RESULTS: The 2004 and 2010 cross-sectional surveys recruited 343 and 404 FSWs, respectively. From 2004 to 2010, the odds of syphilis infection decreased by 35% and was of borderline statistical significance (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.41-1.03, while odds of HIV infection rose, but not significantly (AOR: 4.12, 95% CI: 0.76-22.45. Although odds of unprotected sex with primary sex partners did not significantly change over time (AOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.61-1.50, odds of unprotected sex with clients declined significantly and remarkably (AOR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.09-0.21. Notably, the odds of reporting ≥10 new sex partners in the previous month increased by 37% (AOR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.98-1.90. CONCLUSIONS: Harm reduction strategies may be an effective means of reducing unprotected sex with clients among FSWs. Future research is needed to better target both FSWs and IDUs and interrupt bridging networks for HIV transmission in high drug-using areas of China.

  7. HIV, Syphilis, and Behavioral Risk Factors among Female Sex Workers before and after Implementation of Harm Reduction Programs in a High Drug-Using Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Stephen W.; Song, Benli; Liu, Qianping; Xu, Yunan; Dong, Hui; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of harm reduction programs on HIV and syphilis infection and related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) in a drug trafficking city in Southwest China. Design Before and after harm reduction program study. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among FSWs before and after harm reduction programs were launched in Xichang city, Sichuan province. The first and second cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2010, respectively. Temporal changes in odds of HIV, syphilis, and behavioral risk factors were assessed by multivariable logistic regression while controlling for socio-demographics. Results The 2004 and 2010 cross-sectional surveys recruited 343 and 404 FSWs, respectively. From 2004 to 2010, the odds of syphilis infection decreased by 35% and was of borderline statistical significance (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.41–1.03), while odds of HIV infection rose, but not significantly (AOR: 4.12, 95% CI: 0.76–22.45). Although odds of unprotected sex with primary sex partners did not significantly change over time (AOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.61–1.50), odds of unprotected sex with clients declined significantly and remarkably (AOR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.09–0.21). Notably, the odds of reporting ≥10 new sex partners in the previous month increased by 37% (AOR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.98–1.90). Conclusions Harm reduction strategies may be an effective means of reducing unprotected sex with clients among FSWs. Future research is needed to better target both FSWs and IDUs and interrupt bridging networks for HIV transmission in high drug-using areas of China. PMID:24416319

  8. Exchange of Sex for Drugs or Money in Adolescents and Young Adults: An Examination of Sociodemographic Factors, HIV-Related Risk, and Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Cherrie B; Greenberg, Lauren; Chutuape, Kate; Walker, Bendu; Monte, Dina; Kirk, Jennifer; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this research was to examine associations among sociodemographic factors, HIV risk, and community context (e.g., economic insecurity, job training, housing instability, crime victimization, and perceived community norms) in adolescents and young adults who ever exchanged sex for drugs or money. Anonymous survey data were collected using ACASIs at community venues where adolescents and young adults congregate in resource-challenged, STI prevalent, urban, US neighborhoods. Conventional descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact tests, and generalized estimating equations approaches were used to examine associations. Participants (1818, 95.5 % of those screened eligible) were, on average, aged 21.0 years; 42.2 % were males, and 4.6 % were transgender. Almost one-third (32.1 %) identified as gay or lesbian, 18.1 % identified as bisexual; 66.2 % were Black and 21.0 % were Hispanic; 1.3 % was 'living on the street'. A sizeable proportion reported HIV-related risk: 16.3 % exchanged sex, 12.6 % had sex with someone they knew to be HIV-infected, 7.8 % had sex with someone who injected drugs, and 1.3 % injected drugs. Multivariate comparisons identified a number of variables (e.g., being male or transgender, homelessness, sex with a partner who has HIV, STI history, unemployment, job training access, housing instability, crime victimization, perceived community norms) that were significantly associated with exchange of sex (p young adults, particularly as it relates to community context. Longitudinal studies to describe the trajectory of social, health, and physical risks and consequences are needed for development of effective evidence-based prevention strategies.

  9. Hepatitis A outbreak among MSM linked to casual sex and gay saunas in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazick, A; Howitz, Michael Frantz; Rex, S

    2005-01-01

    .2-26.9). Eleven of 18 cases and 14/62 controls had sex in gay saunas (ORMH 4.2, 95% CI 1.5-11.5). Sex at private homes appeared to be protective (ORMH 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Casual sex including sex in gay saunas was an important risk factor for the spread of HAV among MSM in Copenhagen. The results...

  10. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motykova, Eva; Zlatohlavek, Lukáš; Prusikova, Martina; Lanska, Vera; Ceska, Richard; Vasickova, Ludmila; Vrablik, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased inflammation which represents a link to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent marker of inflammation and atherosclerosis risk. To assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic markers of atherosclerosis including Lp-PLA2 we examined a group of Czech non-diabetic obese/overweight children exposed to a lifestyle intervention. Fourty unrelated overweight/obese non-diabetic Czech children (13.7 ± 2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 29.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2) underwent 4 weeks of lifestyle modification (reduction of energy intake to age matched optimum and supervised physical activity). Anthropometrical and biochemical variables were determined at baseline and after the intervention. Lp-PLA2 mass concentration was assessed using the ELISA kit. Wilcocson's rank test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A significant decrease of BMI and waist circumference was associated with significant changes of plasma lipoprotein and glycaemia levels. Mass concentration of Lp-PLA2 at the baseline was 402 ± 94 μg/ml, after the intervention 368 ± 105 μg/ml (p=0.008). Change in Lp-PLA2 was associated with triglyceride level decrease (p=0.009). Intensive lifestyle modification leading to body weight decrease results in significant changes of plasma lipoprotein levels and, also, a drop of Lp-PLA2 levels in paediatric obese patients. However, even after the intervention Lp-PLA2 concentrations in this patient group remain elevated suggesting possible increased atherosclerosis risk in later life. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  11. Progress in studies of sex determination mechanisms and sex control techniques in Cynoglossus semilaevis (half-smooth tongue sole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian ZHOU,Songlin CHEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cynoglossus semilaevis (half-smooth tongue sole is a marine flatfish of great commercial value for fisheries and aquaculture in China. It has a female heterogametic sex determination system (ZW/ZZ and environmental factors can induce sex-reversal of females to phenotypic males, suggesting that it is a promising model for the study of sex determination mechanisms. Additionally, females grow much faster than males and it is feasible to improve the aquaculture production through sex control techniques. This paper reviews the progress in research on sex determination mechanisms research in our laboratory. We have completed whole-genome sequencing and revealed the genome organization and sex chromosome evolution of C. semilaevis. A putative male determining gene dmrt1 was identified and DNA methylation was verified as having a crucial role in the sex reversal process. Genetic maps and sex-specific biomarkers have been used in a marker-assisted selection breeding program and for differentiation of the fish sex. Development and improvement of sex control technologies, including artificial gynogenesis and production of breeding fry with high proportion of females, is also reviewed. These research advances have provided insight into the regulation of sex determination and enabled efficient sex management in artificial culturing of C. semilaevis.

  12. Molecular sex differences in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical

  13. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth: serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone in 109 males with 47,XXY, 47,XYY, or sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY)-positive 46,XX karyotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Juul, A.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abnormal chromosome constitution for longitu...

  14. Sex differences in epidemiology and risk factors of acute coronary syndrome in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: a long-term prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gang Duan

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS are at higher risk of poor outcome than are non-diabetic patients with ACS. Few studies have focused on sex-related ACS incidence, ACS-related mortality or risk factors to affects sex specific ACS in Chinese with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Based on a hospital-based cohort of Chinese patients with T2DM, we aimed to investigate whether there was sex difference in ACS or ACS-related mortality or risk factors of ACS.Totally 2,135 Hong Kong Chinese with T2DM were recruited during 1994-1996 and followed up until August 2012. We systematically analyzed sex-related ACS incidence and ACS-related mortality and risk factors with χ2-squared test, descriptive statistics and survival analysis.Regular follow-up was completed in 2,105 subjects (98.6%, with a median period of 14.53 years. The occurrence of ACS was recorded among 414 patients (19.7% and ACS-related death among 104 patients (4.9%. ACS incidences increased with age in both men and women, and men had a higher prevalence of ACS than women across different age categories and different follow-up periods (log rank χ2=20.32, P<0.001. The transition of ACS incidences from slow to rapid increase were about 5 years earlier in men (at 51-55 years than in women (55-60 years. Among ACS patients, cumulative ACS-related mortalities was similar between men and women (log rank χ2=0.063, P=0.802. Besides age and albuminuria, different profiles of risk factors accounted for the occurrence of ACS between men and women.Our findings demonstrated sex differences in ACS incidence and risk factors, but not in ACS-related mortality in Chinese patients withT2DM. These findings suggest that screening and prevention campaigns should be optimized for men and women, which may help to identify diabetic patients at higher risk of coronary heart disease.

  15. Sex Differences in Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Long-Term Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian Gang; Chen, Xiang Yan; Wang, Li; Lau, Alex; Wong, Adrian; Thomas, G. Neil; Tomlinson, Brian; Liu, Roxanna; Chan, Juliana C. N.; Leung, Thomas W.; Mok, Vincent; Wong, Ka Sing

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at higher risk of poor outcome than are non-diabetic patients with ACS. Few studies have focused on sex-related ACS incidence, ACS-related mortality or risk factors to affects sex specific ACS in Chinese with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Based on a hospital-based cohort of Chinese patients with T2DM, we aimed to investigate whether there was sex difference in ACS or ACS-related mortality or risk factors of ACS. Methods Totally 2,135 Hong Kong Chinese with T2DM were recruited during 1994-1996 and followed up until August 2012. We systematically analyzed sex-related ACS incidence and ACS-related mortality and risk factors with χ2-squared test, descriptive statistics and survival analysis. Results Regular follow-up was completed in 2,105 subjects (98.6%), with a median period of 14.53 years. The occurrence of ACS was recorded among 414 patients (19.7%) and ACS-related death among 104 patients (4.9%). ACS incidences increased with age in both men and women, and men had a higher prevalence of ACS than women across different age categories and different follow-up periods (log rank χ2=20.32, P<0.001). The transition of ACS incidences from slow to rapid increase were about 5 years earlier in men (at 51-55 years) than in women (55-60 years). Among ACS patients, cumulative ACS-related mortalities was similar between men and women (log rank χ2=0.063, P=0.802). Besides age and albuminuria, different profiles of risk factors accounted for the occurrence of ACS between men and women. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated sex differences in ACS incidence and risk factors, but not in ACS-related mortality in Chinese patients withT2DM. These findings suggest that screening and prevention campaigns should be optimized for men and women, which may help to identify diabetic patients at higher risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:25830291

  16. Behavioral risk factors and prevalence of HIV and other STIs among female sex workers in Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qyra, Shp Tim; Basho, Moza; Bani, Roland; Dervishi, Marjeta; Ulqinaku, Dritan; Bino, Silva; Kakarriqi, Eduart; Alban, Ylli; Simaku, Artan; Vasili, Adela; Rjepaj, Klodjan; Pipero, Pellumd; Duro, Vjollca; Byku, Betim; Koraqi, Andi

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the research and a comparative analysis of findings on key indicators for the study population. The study instrument was a standardized behavior study questionnaire provided in the Family Health International published manual (Family Health International, 2000). The target group was female sex workers working in Tirana. The prevalence of biological infections was low. HIV was detected in one case. Syphilis and Hepatitis B rates resulted to be respectively 6.5% and 7.6%. The median age of the study participants is 28 years. Almost 38% of the participants were illiterate, and more than half belong to the Roma community. Almost 50% of the respondents had received money in exchange of sex for the first time 18 years earlier. Almost 65% of respondents reported two or more different sex partners in the last seven days, while almost 30% referred five or more. Condom use at last sex with a paying client was reported by almost 68%. Consistent condom use with paying clients in the last month was reported by almost 35% of the respondents.

  17. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    2013-01-01

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  18. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  19. Status Hierarchy, Attractiveness Hierarchy and Sex Ratio: Three Contextual Factors Explaining the Status-Aggression Link among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene

    2013-01-01

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys ("N" = 1,665) and girls ("N" = 1,637) ("M" age = 13.60). In line with the…

  20. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Relation to Addictive Behaviors: A Moderated-Mediation Analysis of Personality Risk Factors and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research has shown that those with ADHD have an increased risk for addiction disorders like alcoholism and substance abuse. What is less clear is the mechanism(s whereby ADHD gives rise to increased engagement in addictive behaviors, and whether there are sex differences in the ADHD-addiction propensity. Both ADHD and addictions have also been associated with personality traits such as impulsivity, reward seeking, anxiousness, and negative affect. In this study, we tested a moderator-mediation model which predicted that both sex and ADHD-symptom status would make independent contributions to the variance in personality risk and in addictive behaviors, with males, and those with diagnosed ADHD, scoring higher on both dependent variables. Our model also predicted that the effect of sex and ADHD-symptom status on addictive behaviors would be via the mediating or intervening influence of personality risk factors. Methods: A community-based sample of young men and women took part in the study. Among these individuals, 46 had received a life-time diagnosis of ADHD. The non-diagnosed participants were dichotomized into a high-ADHD symptom group (n=83 and a low-symptom group (n=84. Results: We found that a high-risk personality profile may, in part, account for the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and the use/abuse of a broad range of addictive behaviors. However,we found no sex differences in personality risk for addiction or in the use of addictive behaviors; nor did sex moderate the relationships we assessed. Conclusions: While ADHD Status showed a strong relationship with both dependent variables in the model, we found no difference between those who had been diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulants, and their high-symptom non-diagnosed/non-treated counterparts. These results add support to claims that the treatment of ADHD with stimulant medication neither protects nor fosters the risk for substance abuse disorders.

  1. Factors Associated with Use of Latex Condom-Compatible Lubricants by Men Who Have Sex with Men in India: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Yadav, Diwakar; George, Bitra; Sen, Shrabanti; Rachakulla, Harikumar; Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2013-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and type of rectal lubricants use and factors associated with exclusive use of latex-condom compatible lubricants (water-based lubricants) among men who have sex with men (MSM) using data from a large-scale cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009/10 in three Indian states. Using time-location cluster sampling, 3880 MSM were recruited from cruising sites. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the association between type of lubricants used and sociodemographic and programmatic indicators. Among those who reported using lubricants (64%) more than half (53%) exclusively used water-based lubricants, less than one-tenth used exclusively oil-based lubricants, and nearly 40% used both water-based and oil-based lubricants. Factors associated with exclusive use of water-based lubricants were exposure to HIV prevention interventions (AOR: 6.18, 95% CI 4.82 to 7.92) and kothi-identified MSM-feminine/anal-receptive (AOR: 2.56, 95% CI 2.12 to 3.10). Targeted HIV interventions among MSM need to promote and distribute latex condom-compatible lubricants for use during anal sex-irrespective of their presumed or stated sexual role in anal sex, and educate them not to use oil-based lubricants with condoms.

  2. Intensive sex partying amongst gay men in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Michael; Prestage, Garrett

    2009-08-01

    Intensive sex partying is a framework developed to analyse specific frequent behaviours amongst a small minority of gay men in Sydney, Australia. The behaviours included a higher frequency of dance party attendance, more frequent sex, more anal sex, multiple sex partners, more unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners and more frequent drug taking. These occur at a contextual intersection between a sub-group of sexually adventurous gay men and 'party boys'. The men appear to be involved in both high-risk, adventurous sex practices and a specific form of partying distinguishable from dance partying and 'clubbing'. Sex partying occurs on multiple sites (domestic spaces; within dance parties; sex parties; sex-on-premises venues) and appears to be geared to the maximisation of sexual pleasure. Intensive sex partying describes this coincidence of factors and locates them in relation to the multiple pleasures offered by sex partying. It emphasises the importance of 'intensity' in order to understand better the relations between sex, drug use, pleasure, care and risk in some gay men's lives.

  3. Predictors of safer sex intentions and protected sex among heterosexual HIV-negative methamphetamine users: an expanded model of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausbach, Brent T; Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) for predicting safe sex behavior in a sample of 228 HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users. We hypothesized that, in addition to TPB constructs, participants' amount of methamphetamine use and desire to stop unsafe sex behaviors would predict intentions to engage in safer sex behaviors. In turn, we predicted that safer sex intentions would be positively correlated with participants' percentage of protected sex. Hierarchical linear regression indicated that 48% of the total variance in safer sex intentions was predicted by our model, with less negative attitudes toward safer sex, greater normative beliefs, greater control beliefs, less methamphetamine use, less intent to have sex, and greater desire to stop unsafe sex emerging as significant predictors of greater safer sex intentions. Safer sex intentions were positively associated with future percent protected sex (p<0.05). These findings suggest that, among heterosexual methamphetamine users, the TPB is an excellent model for predicting safer sex practices in this population, as are some additional factors (e.g., methamphetamine use). Effective interventions for increasing safer sex practices in methamphetamine user will likely include constructs from this model with augmentations to help reduce methamphetamine use.

  4. Risk Factors Such as Male Sex, Smoking, Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Fatty Liver Do Not Justify Screening Colonoscopies Before Age 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Yun, Kyung Eun; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Park, Dong Il

    2016-04-01

    Recently, many studies have reported that male sex, smoking, fatty liver, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity are risk factors for colorectal neoplasia (CRN). However, current guidelines recommend that persons at average risk of colorectal cancer begin screening colonoscopy at age 50 years without consideration of those risk factors. To investigate an appropriate time to start screening colonoscopies in persons with risk factors for CRN. We performed a cross-sectional study on 27,894 Korean aged ≥30 years who underwent a first colonoscopy as part of a health screening program. To compare the efficacy of colonoscopic screening for the detection of advanced CRN among age groups with risk factors, we calculated the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify 1 patient with advanced CRN. The NNS for those 30-39 years old with all risk factors, male gender, smoking (≥10 pack-years), MetS, obesity, and fatty liver, was higher than that for ≥50-year-old female subjects (55.4 vs. 26.4). The NNS for those 40-44 years old with all risk factors (37.1) was also higher than that for ≥50-year-old female subjects. However, the NNS for those 45-49 years old with risk factors (16.9-22.9) was lower than that for ≥50-year-old women. The efficacy of colonoscopic screening in people 30-44 years old with multiple risk factors is lower than that in ≥50-year-old women. Risk factors such as male sex, smoking, MetS, obesity, and fatty liver do not justify starting screening colonoscopies before age 45.

  5. Calmodulin-dependent nuclear import of HMG-box family nuclear factors: importance of the role of SRY in sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Delluc-Clavieres, Aurelie; Poon, Ivan K H; Forwood, Jade K; Glover, Dominic J; Jans, David A

    2010-08-15

    The HMG (high-mobility group)-box-containing chromatin-remodelling factor SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) plays a key role in sex determination. Its role in the nucleus is critically dependent on two NLSs (nuclear localization signals) that flank its HMG domain: the C-terminally located 'beta-NLS' that mediates nuclear transport through Impbeta1 (importin beta1) and the N-terminally located 'CaM-NLS' which is known to recognize the calcium-binding protein CaM (calmodulin). In the present study, we examined a number of missense mutations in the SRY CaM-NLS from human XY sex-reversed females for the first time, showing that they result in significantly reduced nuclear localization of GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SRY fusion proteins in transfected cells compared with wild-type. The CaM antagonist CDZ (calmidazolium chloride) was found to significantly reduce wild-type SRY nuclear accumulation, indicating dependence of SRY nuclear import on CaM. Intriguingly, the CaM-NLS mutants were all resistant to CDZ's effects, implying a loss of interaction with CaM, which was confirmed by direct binding experiments. CaM-binding/resultant nuclear accumulation was the only property of SRY found to be impaired by two of the CaM-NLS mutations, implying that inhibition of CaM-dependent nuclear import is the basis of sex reversal in these cases. Importantly, the CaM-NLS is conserved in other HMG-box-domain-containing proteins such as SOX-2, -9, -10 and HMGN1, all of which were found for the first time to rely on CaM for optimal nuclear localization. CaM-dependent nuclear translocation is thus a common mechanism for this family of important transcription factors.

  6. Hepatitis A and hepatitis B infection prevalence and associated risk factors in men who have sex with men, Bangkok, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkins, Robert W; Chonwattana, Wannee; Holtz, Timothy H; Wasinrapee, Punneeporn; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Varangrat, Anchalee; Tongtoyai, Jaray; Mock, Philip A; Curlin, Marcel E; Sirivongrangson, Pachara; van Griensven, Frits; McNicholl, Janet M

    2013-09-01

    Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines, little is known about prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among Thai men who have sex with men. The prevalence of HAV and HBV infection among men who have sex with men cohort in Bangkok was assessed. Baseline blood specimens were drawn and demographic and behavioral data were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors for prevalent HAV and HBV infection. One thousand two hundred ninety-nine Thai men who have sex with men 18 years and older were enrolled. Among those with results, 349/1,291 (27.0%) had evidence of past or current hepatitis A infection. Of the 1,117 (86.5%) men with unambiguous HBV test results, 442 (39.6%) had serologic evidence of past/current infection, 103 (9.2%) were immune due to hepatitis B vaccination, 572 (51.2%) had no evidence of immunological exposure to HBV or vaccine. Of those with past/current HBV infection, 130 (29.4%) were HIV positive. Age >35 years was independently associated with both HAV and HBV infection. University education was protective against both HAV and HBV infection. Increased alcohol consumption, number of lifetime male sexual partners ≥10, and prevalent HIV infection were also independently associated with HBV infection. The prevalence of past/current HAV and HBV infection was high in Bangkok men who have sex with men. Age-cohorts with a higher prevalence of hepatitis B vaccine induced immunity may be expected in the future. Hepatitis A and B vaccination is recommended.

  7. Analysis of peer-related factors influencing on premarital sex behaviors among adolescents%同伴因素对青少年婚前性行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 高尔生; 楼超华; 林涛; 孙乔

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨同伴因素对青少年婚前性行为的影响。方法采用多阶段分层整群抽样的方法选取上海市辖区内15~24岁未婚青少年进行问卷调查。结果青少年婚前性行为发生率为12.7%,其中男性16.8%,女性8.7%。青少年性行为同伴影响因素 COX 回归模型显示,同伴性信息评分(HR =1.112,P <0.01),“多数同伴是否有婚前性行为(HR =2.583,P <0.01)”,同伴危险行为评分(HR =1.122,P <0.01),“是否需要发生性行为来迎合朋友(HR =1.804,P <0.01)”,危险行为同伴压力评分(HR =1.255,P <0.01)以及“每周与同伴在一起闲逛时间(HR =1.303,P <0.01)”等变量对青少年婚前性行为有影响。结论同伴因素对青少年婚前性行为发生有着很大的影响作用。充分发挥同伴教育在对性行为做出健康决定的影响力,使青少年建立正确的性行为价值取向和行为准则。%Objective To explore effect of Peer-related factors influencing on premarital sex behaviors among ado-lescents.Methods Unmarried adolescents aged 15 to 24 among communities in Shanghai City were selected through multi-staged stratified cluster sampling.Results The prevalence of sex behavior among unmarried adolescent of Shanghai was 12.7%,including 16.8% for male and 8.7% for female.According to the results of COX model analysis,the sex behavior of unmarried adolescent were associated with peer-related factors such as peer sex information (HR =1.112,P <0.01), peer having or not premarital sex behavior (HR =2.583,P <0.01 ),peer dangerous behaviors (HR =1.255,P <0.01),having sex for catering to peer (HR =1.804,P <0.01),pressure of peer dangerous behaviors (HR =1.255,P<0.01)and the time of lounging with friends (HR =1.303,P <0.01).Conclusion Premarital sex behavior of adoles-cents was remarkably influenced by peer-related factors.It is important to use

  8. Impact on total population health and societal cost-effectiveness of including tumour necrosis factor- antagonists in management of ankylosing spondylitis: a dynamic population modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tran-Duy (An); A. Boonen (Annelies); M.A.F.J. van de Laar (Martin); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background: Sequential treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that includes tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF agents) has been applied in most of the Western countries. Existing cost-effectiveness (CE) models almost exclusively presented the incremental

  9. Sex Away from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Harold

    1971-01-01

    The reasons why people who are normally truthful to their spouses engage in sex away from home are discussed. These reasons can include loneliness, ego building or the opportunity to have homosexual relations. Sex away from home is likely to increase since the number of people traveling is increasing. (Author/CG)

  10. Sex, sexual orientation, and sexism: what influence do these factors have on verdicts in a crime-of-passion case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragatz, Laurie L; Russell, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of defendant sex, sexual orientation, and participant sex on perceptions of a crime-of-passion. An online sample of 458 individuals read a scenario describing a homicide and provided judgments of verdict, sentence length, legal elements, and sexism. We hypothesized heterosexual female defendants would most likely receive a verdict of manslaughter, be found less guilty, and receive shorter sentences. We were also interested in whether benevolent sexism would contribute to defendant culpability decisions. Lastly, perceptions of legal elements for manslaughter (e.g., great provocation) and murder (e.g., intentionality of actions) were explored. Results demonstrated heterosexual female defendants were less guilty and received the shortest sentences. Also, heterosexual defendants were most likely to meet the manslaughter legal elements. Benevolent sexism contributed significantly to guilt perceptions.

  11. Body Esteem as a Common Factor of a Tendency Toward Binge Eating and Sexual Dissatisfaction Among Women: The Role of Dissociation and Stress Response During Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Ricca, Valdo; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2017-08-01

    Several studies have suggested a relevant overlap between eating disorders and sexual dysfunction involving the emotional component of body image esteem and dissociative experiences. To evaluate the common maintaining factors of sexual dysfunction and vulnerability to pathologic eating behaviors and their relation to a physiologic stress response. In the present cross-sectional study, we evaluated a non-clinical sample of 60 heterosexual women (25-35 years old) for dissociation during sex with a partner, body image disturbance, and tendency toward pathologic eating behaviors. We also evaluated the stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation in response to a sexual stimulus and its association with binge eating and dissociation. Participants completed the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale, the Sexual Satisfaction Scale-Women, the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults, and the Eating Attitudes Test Short Version. Furthermore, we assessed cortisol levels before, during, and after exposure to explicit sexual stimuli shown within a laboratory setting. Dysfunctional body image esteem and a tendency toward binge-eating behaviors were associated with greater sexual distress in women. In particular, body esteem was significantly associated with greater dissociation during sex with a partner. Moreover, women who reported greater dissociation during sex with a partner and a tendency toward binge-eating behaviors showed higher levels of cortisol in response to sexual stimuli. These results support further research based on trans-diagnostic treatments targeted to dissociation and body image esteem, which could lessen sexual dysfunction and vulnerability to pathologic eating behaviors. Despite the small sample and self-reported questionnaires, this is the first study to consider the association of the stress response during sexual stimuli with sexual distress and with pathologic eating behaviors adopting a dimensional approach. Body

  12. Gas-phase and Ar-matrix SQM scaling factors for various DFT functionals with basis sets including polarization and diffuse functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábri, Csaba; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2011-05-12

    Scaling factors for Pulay's scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) scheme have been determined for four different widely used DFT functionals (PBE, B3LYP, B3PW91, and M06-2X) and for two basis sets (6-31++G** and aug-cc-pVTZ) by fitting computed results to 347 fundamental experimental vibrational frequencies of 33 molecules. Measurements in the gas phase and in solid argon matrices were used independently in the fitting procedure in order to provide a simple method of estimating matrix shifts. The accuracy of the new scaling factors is demonstrated on test molecules including hydrogen-bonded systems and molecules containing chlorine and sulfur atoms.

  13. Relationship Factors Associated with Sexual Risk Behavior and High-Risk Alcohol Consumption Among Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men: Challenges and Opportunities to Intervene on HIV Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Omar; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Levine, Ethan C; Starks, Tyrel; Dolezal, Curtis; Dodge, Brian; Icard, Larry; Moya, Eva; Chavez-Baray, Silvia; Rhodes, Scott D; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2016-09-15

    The HIV epidemic continues to be a major public health concern, affecting communities with varying prevention and treatment needs. In the U.S., Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV incidence. While recent studies have highlighted the relevance of relationship factors for HIV transmission among MSM generally, the unique needs and experiences of Latino MSM have received relatively little attention. Consequently, associations between relationship factors and HIV risk among Latino MSM remain unknown. This mixed-method study examined relationship status and dynamics and potential HIV-related risk behaviors among Latino MSM. Quantitative analyses with 240 Latino MSM investigated associations between relationship status and engagement in condomless anal intercourse (CAI). Focus groups with 20 Latino male couples and 10 health service providers explored the impact of relationship dynamics on sexual behaviors, as well as opportunities to intervene on HIV risk. The majority of participants were predominantly Spanish speaking, most screened positive for high-risk alcohol consumption in the past month, more than half engaged in CAI in the past 3 months, and a majority reported multiple sexual partners in this period. Among participants in same-sex relationships (n = 175), approximately half reported multiple partners in the previous 3 months and more than two-thirds reported CAI in this time period. Being in a same-sex relationship was positively associated with high-risk alcohol consumption and being age 30 or older and negatively associated with having multiple partners. Moreover, being in a same-sex relationship significantly increased the likelihood that participants would report engaging in CAI. Qualitative analyses identified themes related to relationship dynamics and sexual behavior, as well as opportunities to intervene on HIV risk. Despite the challenges encountered by Latino male couples, most participants expressed

  14. Risk Factors for HIV/Syphilis Infection and Male Circumcision Practices and Preferences among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate factors associated with HIV infection and the frequency and willingness of male circumcision among men who have sex with men (MSM in Chengdu city, China. Methods. A cross-sectional survey provided information on participants' demographics, risk behaviors, circumcision, and uptake of HIV prevention services. Results. Of 570 participants, 13.3% were infected with HIV and 15.9% with syphilis. An estimated 43.0% of respondents reported having unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and 58.9% reported having ≥2 male sexual partners in the past 6 months. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that syphilis, more male sex partners, predominantly receptive anal intercourse, and exclusively receptive male sex were associated with HIV infection. Higher level of education and peer education service were inversely associated with HIV infection. Nearly a fifth (18.0% of participants were circumcised. More than half of uncircumcised participants expressed willingness to be circumcised. Conclusion. This study reveals a high prevalence of HIV and syphilis among MSM in Chengdu province of China. The frequency of unprotected receptive anal intercourse and multiple male sexual partnerships highlight the urgency for an effective comprehensive HIV prevention strategy. Although the willingness to accept male circumcision (MC is high, further research is needed to assess the protective effective of MC among MSM.

  15. One's sex, sleep, and posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Ihori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women are approximately twice as likely as men to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD after trauma exposure. Mechanisms underlying this difference are not well understood. Although sleep is recognized to have a critical role in PTSD and physical and psychological health more generally, research into the role of sleep in PTSD sex differences has been only recent. In this article, we review both animal and human studies relevant to sex differences in sleep and PTSD with an emphasis on the roles of sex hormones. Sleep impairment including insomnia, trauma-related nightmares, and rapid-eye-movement (REM sleep fragmentation has been observed in individuals with chronic and developing PTSD, suggesting that sleep impairment is a characteristic of PTSD and a risk factor for its development. Preliminary findings suggested sex specific patterns of sleep alterations in developing and established PTSD. Sleep maintenance impairment in the aftermath of trauma was observed in women who subsequently developed PTSD, and greater REM sleep fragmentation soon after trauma was associated with developing PTSD in both sexes. In chronic PTSD, reduced deep sleep has been found only in men, and impaired sleep initiation and maintenance with PTSD have been found in both sexes. A limited number of studies with small samples have shown that sex hormones and their fluctuations over the menstrual cycle influenced sleep as well as fear extinction, a process hypothesized to be critical to the pathogenesis of PTSD. To further elucidate the possible relationship between the sex specific patterns of PTSD-related sleep alterations and the sexually dimorphic risk for PTSD, future studies with larger samples should comprehensively examine effects of sex hormones and the menstrual cycle on sleep responses to trauma and the risk/resilience for PTSD utilizing various methodologies including fear conditioning and extinction paradigms and animal models.

  16. Evaluating Public Health Interventions: 5. Causal Inference in Public Health Research-Do Sex, Race, and Biological Factors Cause Health Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glymour, M Maria; Spiegelman, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Counterfactual frameworks and statistical methods for supporting causal inference are powerful tools to clarify scientific questions and guide analyses in public health research. Counterfactual accounts of causation contrast what would happen to a population's health under alternative exposure scenarios. A long-standing debate in counterfactual theory relates to whether sex, race, and biological characteristics, including obesity, should be evaluated as causes, given that these variables do not directly correspond to clearly defined interventions. We argue that sex, race, and biological characteristics are important health determinants. Quantifying the overall health effects of these variables is often a natural starting point for disparities research. Subsequent assessments of biological or social pathways mediating those effects can facilitate the development of interventions designed to reduce disparities.

  17. Delayed application of condoms with safer and unsafe sex: factors associated with HIV risk in a community sample of gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan; Xu, Kunyong; Myers, Ted; Aguinaldo, Jeffrey; Calzavara, Liviana; Maxwell, John; Burchell, Ann; Remis, Robert S

    2009-06-01

    While condom use remains one of the most effective measures to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV, decreasing attention appears to be given to its importance and techniques of effective use relative to potential biomedical technologies. This paper focuses on delayed condom application (DCA), one practice which has been implicated in HIV transmission among gay and bisexual men. It examines the prevalence of the practice within a gay community and explores factors associated with condom use among those who practice only safer sex and those who report at least some unprotected anal sex. Data were taken from an anonymous, cross-sectional study of a self-identified sample of gay and bisexual men (N=5080). Among 2614 men who responded to relevant questions, multivariate polytomous logistic regressions were used to identify variables associated with DCA. Nearly, half of the men reported delayed condom application for insertive anal intercourse in the previous 12 months. While the majority of this group also reported episodes of unprotected anal sex, more than 25% of those who reported delayed application only reported safer sexual practices. Most socio-demographic variables found to be associated with unsafe sex in other studies were not associated with DCA. Negative condom use experiences such as tearing, splitting and slippage were associated with delayed application among the two groups. DCA, which may be considered by men as an effective harm reduction strategy requires attention. Interventions to address this behavior need to consider the physical issues of condom use along with the complex array of social, structural, psychological, and interpersonal issues.

  18. Studies on Escherichia coli sex factors: evidence that covalent circles exist within cells and the general problem of isolation of covalent circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, D; Folkmanis, A; Kirschner, I

    1971-03-01

    We examined in detail conditions necessary for making reproducible and for maximizing the amount of deoxyribonucleic acid obtained from a sex factor-containing cell as covalent circles. The results argue that under optimal conditions covalent circles are neither created nor lost during the isolation procedure. The causes of the culture-to-culture variation in recovery of covalent circular deoxyribonucleic acid were investigated but an understanding of this is not yet at hand. Some commonly used conditions which drastically reduce the recovery of covalent circles are described.

  19. The influence of gender and sex steroids on craniofacial nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Brian E

    2007-02-01

    Several pain conditions localized to the craniofacial region show a remarkable sex-related difference in their prevalence. These conditions include temporomandibular disorders and burning mouth syndrome as well as tension-type, migraine, and cluster headaches. The mechanisms that underlie sex-related differences in the prevalence of these craniofacial pain conditions remain obscure and likely involve both physiological and psychosocial factors. In terms of physiological factors relevant to the development of headache, direct evidence of sex-related differences in the properties of dural afferent fibers or durally activated second-order trigeminal sensory neurons has yet to be provided. There is, however, evidence for sex-related differences in the response properties of afferent fibers and second-order trigeminal sensory neurons that convey nociceptive input from other craniofacial tissues associated with sex-related differences in chronic pain conditions, such as those that innervate the masseter muscle and temporomandibular joint. Further, modulation of craniofacial nociceptive input by opioidergic receptor mechanisms appears to be dependent on biological sex. Research into mechanisms that may contribute to sex-related differences in trigeminal nociceptive processing has primarily focused on effect of the female sex hormone estrogen, which appears to alter the excitability of trigeminal afferent fibers and sensory neurons to noxious stimulation of craniofacial tissues. This article discusses current knowledge of potential physiological mechanisms that could contribute to sex-related differences in certain craniofacial pain conditions.

  20. Unprotected Sex with Injecting Drug Users among Iranian Female Sex Workers: Unhide HIV Risk Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs in Iran. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 144 FSWs who were interviewed as a part of Unhide HIV Risk Study, a national behavioral survey focusing on various high-risk populations, including IDUs, FSWs, and Men who have Sex with Men (MSMs in 2009. The survey was conducted in eight provinces in Iran using respondent-driven sampling. Participants’ sociodemographic status, HIV knowledge, and HIV attitude were analyzed via logistic regression to determine the predictors of unprotected sex with IDU(s during the past month. Results. Nineteen percent of FSWs reported at least one occasion of unprotected sex with IDU(s in the month preceding the study. Higher educational level (OR=−0.653, 95%CI=-1.192 to −0.115, perceived HIV risk (OR=−1.047, 95%CI=-2.076 to −0.019, and perceived family intimacy during childhood (OR=−1.104, 95%CI=-1.957 to −0.251 were all independently associated with lower odds of having unprotected sex with IDU(s in the month preceding the study. Age, marital status, living condition, HIV knowledge, and perceived behavioral control did not affect the odds of FSWs having sex with IDUs. Conclusion. Perceived HIV risk, which is a modifiable factor, seems to be a promising target for harm reduction interventions amongst Iranian female sex workers. Data presented here may aid in reducing or eliminating the role of sex workers as a bridge for HIV transmission from IDUs to the general population in Iran.

  1. Sex difference in the effects of sociocultural status on diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican Americans. The San Antonio Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M P; Rosenthal, M; Haffner, S M; Hazuda, H P; Franco, L J

    1984-12-01

    The authors postulated that as Mexican Americans became more affluent and/or acculturated to "mainstream" United States life-style they would progressively lose their "obesity-related" pattern of cardiovascular risk factors which were defined as: obesity, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. This hypothesis was tested in 1979-1982 in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study on 1,288 Mexican Americans and 929 Anglos living in three San Antonio neighborhoods: a low-income barrio, a middle-income transitional neighborhood, and a high-income suburb. The study population comprised 25-65-year-old men and nonpregnant women. In Mexican American women, all of the "obesity-related" risk factors fell sharply with rising socioeconomic status. In Mexican American men, by contrast, diabetes was the only "obesity-related" risk factor which fell with rising socioeconomic status. Moreover, it fell less steeply, there being an approximately twofold difference in diabetes prevalence between the barrio and the suburbs in men compared to a fourfold difference in women. Also, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol rose with rising socioeconomic status in Mexican American men, but not in Mexican American women. "Obesity-related" risk factors were generally higher in Mexican Americans of both sexes than in their Anglo neighbors who were of similar socioeconomic status. These results suggest that cultural factors exert a stronger influence on diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican Americans than do purely socioeconomic factors.

  2. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex…

  3. [HIV infection and syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men receiving voluntary counseling and testing appointed through a web-based registering system and related factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiongmiao; Cheng, Weibin; Zhong, Fei; Xu, Huifang; Liu, Qi; Lin, Peng

    2015-05-01

    To understand the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status and syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) receiving voluntary counseling and testing appointed through a web-based registering system and related factors. The MSM receiving web appointed HIV counseling and testing from 2011 to 2012 in Guangzhou were recruited and a questionnaire survey was conduct among them to obtain the information about their demographic characteristics and sexual behavior. Binary and multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify the factors associated with HIV infection or syphilis prevalence. A total of 4,904 MSM were enrolled in the study, the average age of the MSM was (28.77±7.24) years, and 70.3% of them had high education level; the unmarried MSM accounted for 72.7%. The HIV infection rate and syphilis prevalence were 8.7% and 4.4% respectively. The co-infection rate of HIV and Treponema pallidum was 1.2% (59/4 904). About one in three MSM did not use condom at latest homosexual behavior, 43.5% did not use condoms at each homosexual behavior in the past three months. Lower education level, occupation (worker or farmer), non-consistent condom use at each sex with men in the past three months, receiving HIV test or not and Treponema pallidum infection were associated with HIV infection. Age≥40 years, lower education level, multi male sex partners in the past three months and HIV infection were associated with Treponema pallidum infection. MSM receiving web appointed HIV counseling and testing had high prevalence of risk behaviors and high HIV infection rate, but had low previous HIV testing rate. It is necessary to strengthen the promotion of HIV test through web based appointment and conduct target behavior intervention in older MSM with lower education level.

  4. Sex Differences in Demographics, Risk Factors, Presentation, and Noninvasive Testing in Stable Outpatients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Insights from the PROMISE Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemal, Kshipra; Pagidipati, Neha J.; Coles, Adrian; Dolor, Rowena J.; Mark, Daniel B.; Pellikka, Patricia A.; Hoffmann, Udo; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Daubert, Melissa A.; Shah, Svati H.; Ariani, Kevin; Bullock-Palmer, Renee; Martinez, Beth; Lee, Kerry L.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether presentation, risk assessment, testing choices, and results differ by sex in stable symptomatic outpatients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Background Although established CAD presentations differ by sex, little is known about stable, suspected CAD. Methods Characteristics of 10,003 men and women in the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) trial were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Sex differences in test selection and predictors of test positivity were examined using logistic regression. Results Women were older (62.4 years vs. 59.0) and more likely to be hypertensive (66.6% vs. 63.2%), dyslipidemic (68.9% vs. 66.3%), and to have a family history of premature CAD (34.6% vs. 29.3) (all p-values<0.005). Women were less likely to smoke (45.6% vs. 57.0%; p<0.001), while diabetes prevalence was similar (21.8% vs. 21.0%; p=0.30). Chest pain was the primary symptom in 73.2% of women vs. 72.3% of men (p=0.30) and was characterized as “crushing/pressure/squeezing/tightness” in 52.5% of women vs. 46.2% of men (p<0.001). Compared to men, all risk scores characterized women as lower risk, and providers were more likely to characterize women as having low (<30%) pre-test probability for CAD (40.7% vs. 34.1%; p<0.001). Compared with men, women were more often referred to imaging tests (adjusted OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.01–1.44) than non-imaging tests. Women were less likely to have a positive test (9.7% vs. 15.1%; p<0.001). Although univariate predictors of test positivity were similar, in multivariable models, age, BMI, and Framingham risk score were predictive of a positive test in women, while Framingham and Diamond and Forrester risk scores were predictive in men. Conclusion Patient sex influences the entire diagnostic pathway for possible CAD, from baseline risk factors and presentation to noninvasive test outcomes. These differences highlight the

  5. Factors Associated with Use of Latex Condom-Compatible Lubricants by Men Who Have Sex with Men in India: Implications for HIV Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreena Ramanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the prevalence and type of rectal lubricants use and factors associated with exclusive use of latex-condom compatible lubricants (water-based lubricants among men who have sex with men (MSM using data from a large-scale cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009/10 in three Indian states. Using time-location cluster sampling, 3880 MSM were recruited from cruising sites. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the association between type of lubricants used and sociodemographic and programmatic indicators. Among those who reported using lubricants (64% more than half (53% exclusively used water-based lubricants, less than one-tenth used exclusively oil-based lubricants, and nearly 40% used both water-based and oil-based lubricants. Factors associated with exclusive use of water-based lubricants were exposure to HIV prevention interventions (AOR: 6.18, 95% CI 4.82 to 7.92 and kothi-identified MSM—feminine/anal-receptive (AOR: 2.56, 95% CI 2.12 to 3.10. Targeted HIV interventions among MSM need to promote and distribute latex condom-compatible lubricants for use during anal sex—irrespective of their presumed or stated sexual role in anal sex, and educate them not to use oil-based lubricants with condoms.

  6. Social monogamy vs. polyandry: ecological factors associated with sex roles in two closely related birds within the same habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, W; Makomba, M; Urasa, F; Schwabl, I

    2015-07-01

    Why mainly males compete and females take a larger share in parental care remains an exciting question in evolutionary biology. Role-reversed species are of particular interest, because such 'exceptions' help to test the rule. Using mating systems theory as a framework, we compared the reproductive ecology of the two most contrasting coucals with regard to sexual dimorphism and parental care: the black coucal with male-only care and the biparental white-browed coucal. Both species occur in the same lush habitat and face similar ecological conditions, but drastically differ in mating system and sexual dimorphism. Black coucals were migratory and occurred at high breeding densities. With females being obligatory polyandrous and almost twice as heavy as males, black coucals belong to the most extreme vertebrates with reversed sexual dimorphism. Higher variance in reproductive success in fiercely competing females suggests that sexual selection is stronger in females than in males. In contrast, resident white-browed coucals bred at low densities and invariably in pairs. They were almost monomorphic and the variance in reproductive success was similar between the sexes. Black coucals were more likely to lose nests than white-browed coucals, probably facilitating female emancipation of parental care in black coucals. We propose that a combination of high food abundance, high population density, high degree of nest loss and male bias in the adult sex ratio represent ecological conditions that facilitate role reversal and polyandry in coucals and terrestrial vertebrates in general. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Creating Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Laqueur’s influential yet controversial study Making Sex has, in many ways, revolutionized our understanding of sexuality in antiquity. Yet, most of Laqueur’s critics and supporters stressed the one-sex body, while the crux of his argument is the primacy of gender. Moreover, a systematic...

  8. Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  9. Sex and gender differences in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Seeland, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Sex and gender differences in frequent diseases are more widespread than one may assume. In addition, they have significant yet frequently underestimated consequences on the daily practice of medicine, on outcomes and effects of therapies. Gender medicine is a novel medical discipline that takes into account the effects of sex and gender on the health of women and men. The major goal is to improve health and health care for both, for women as well as for men. We give in this chapter an overview on sex and gender differences in a number of clinical areas, in cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, gastroenterology and hepatology, in nephrology, autoimmune diseases, endocrinology, hematology, neurology. We discuss the preferential use of male animals in drug development, the underrepresentation of women in early and cardiovascular clinical trials, sex and gender differences in pharmacology, in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, in management and drug use. Most guidelines do not include even well-known sex and gender differences. European guidelines for the management of cardiovascular diseases in pregnancy have only recently been published. Personalized medicine cannot replace gender-based medicine. Large databases reveal that gender remains an independent risk factor after ethnicity, age, comorbidities, and scored risk factors have been taken into account. Some genetic variants carry a different risk in women and men. The sociocultural dimension of gender integrating lifestyle, environment, stress, and other variables cannot be replaced by a sum of biological parameters. Because of this prominent role of gender, clinical care algorithms must include gender-based assessment.

  10. Sex differences in prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinee: A retrospective analysis of a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bum; Kim, Kook Hyun; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Heo, Jun; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min; Lee, Yoon Suk; Cho, Kwang Bum; Lee, Dong Wook; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Ho Gak; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sex difference in the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinees.Examinees who underwent examination through health promotion center at 5 hospitals of Daegu-Gyeongbuk province in 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. All examinees were checked for height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, and underwent laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis of cholelithiasis was made by ultrasound.Of the total of 30,544 examinees, mean age was 47.3 ± 10.9 years and male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Asymptomatic cholelithiasis was diagnosed in 1268 examinees with overall prevalence of 4.2%. In age below 40 years, females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males (2.7% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.020), whereas prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was higher in males than females older than 50 years (6.2% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.012). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age (≥50 years), obesity, and high blood pressure as risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in males and age, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and chronic hepatitis B infection in females (P cholelithiasis was 4.2% in Korean health screening examinees. Females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males younger than 40 years, whereas it was higher in males older than 50 years. Age and obesity were risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in both sexes. Males had additional risk factors of high blood pressure and females had hypertriglyceridemia and chronic hepatitis B infection.

  11. Viewing of Internet-Based Sexually Explicit Media as a Risk Factor for Condomless Anal Sex among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Four U.S. Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W Schrimshaw

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in the availability of sexually explicit media (SEM on the Internet. Men who have sex with men (MSM report near universal use of SEM. However, this widespread use of SEM among MSM may contribute to more condomless anal sex. To examine the association of viewing SEM on the Internet and the number of condomless anal sex encounters among MSM, in 2012, an online survey was conducted of 265 MSM from New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, or Washington D.C. who reported viewing SEM online in the past 3 months. Analyses were performed using negative binomial regression. Nearly all men reported viewing SEM featuring anal sex with (91% or without (92% condoms in the past 3 months. Neither viewing more hours of SEM per week or compulsively viewing SEM were associated with more condomless anal sex encounters. Rather, viewing a greater proportion of SEM containing condomless anal sex was associated with engaging in more condomless anal encounters (IRR = 1.25, while viewing a greater proportion of SEM containing anal sex where condoms were used was associated with fewer condomless anal sex encounters (IRR = 0.62. MSM reported that viewing SEM caused changes in their sexual fantasies, desires, and behaviors. These findings provide important insights for health policy and the design of interventions addressing SEM and condomless sex among MSM. The findings suggest that condom use by SEM performers may benefit not only actor health, but also have health implications for SEM viewers.

  12. Viewing of Internet-Based Sexually Explicit Media as a Risk Factor for Condomless Anal Sex among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Four U.S. Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrimshaw, Eric W; Antebi-Gruszka, Nadav; Downing, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in the availability of sexually explicit media (SEM) on the Internet. Men who have sex with men (MSM) report near universal use of SEM. However, this widespread use of SEM among MSM may contribute to more condomless anal sex. To examine the association of viewing SEM on the Internet and the number of condomless anal sex encounters among MSM, in 2012, an online survey was conducted of 265 MSM from New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, or Washington D.C. who reported viewing SEM online in the past 3 months. Analyses were performed using negative binomial regression. Nearly all men reported viewing SEM featuring anal sex with (91%) or without (92%) condoms in the past 3 months. Neither viewing more hours of SEM per week or compulsively viewing SEM were associated with more condomless anal sex encounters. Rather, viewing a greater proportion of SEM containing condomless anal sex was associated with engaging in more condomless anal encounters (IRR = 1.25), while viewing a greater proportion of SEM containing anal sex where condoms were used was associated with fewer condomless anal sex encounters (IRR = 0.62). MSM reported that viewing SEM caused changes in their sexual fantasies, desires, and behaviors. These findings provide important insights for health policy and the design of interventions addressing SEM and condomless sex among MSM. The findings suggest that condom use by SEM performers may benefit not only actor health, but also have health implications for SEM viewers.

  13. The Role of Geographic and Network Factors in Racial Disparities in HIV Among Young Men Who have Sex with Men: An Egocentric Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa M; Latkin, Carl A; Muth, Stephen Q

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize and compare individual and sexual network characteristics of Black, White, and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as potential drivers of racial disparities in HIV. Egocentric network interviews were conducted with 175 diverse YMSM who described 837 sex partners within 167 sexual-active egos. Sexual partner alter attributes were summarized by ego. Descriptives of ego demographics, sexual partner demographics, and network characteristics were calculated by race of the ego and compared. No racial differences were found in individual engagement in HIV risk behaviors or concurrent sexual partnership. Racial differences were found in partner characteristics, including female gender, non-gay sexual orientations, older age, and residence in a high HIV prevalence neighborhood. Racial differences in relationship characteristics included type of relationships (i.e., main partner) and strength of relationships. Network characteristics also showed differences, including sexual network density and assortativity by race. Most racial differences were in the direction of effects that would tend to increase HIV incidence among Black YMSM. These data suggest that racial disparities in HIV may be driven and/or maintained by a combination of racial differences in partner characteristics, assortativity by race, and increased sexual network density, rather than differences in individual's HIV risk behaviors.

  14. Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: evidence from Mombasa, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Mannava

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. RESULTS: From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education. CONCLUSIONS: We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.

  15. Association between Cerebral Amyloid Deposition and Clinical Factors Including Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression: Pilot Study Using Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Geum; Kong, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Eun-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Koo, Bon-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebral amyloid deposition and overall clinical factors including cognitive functions in geriatric depression by using 18F-florbetaben positron emission tomography. Thirteen subjects aged over 60 years who had a history of major depressive disorder and also had subjective memory complaint were included. Of all subjects, 3 subjects judged as amyloid positive, and the others judged as amyloid negative. Their memory, visuospatial functions and attention abilities were negatively correlated with amyloid deposition in specific brain regions, but their language and recognition abilities were not correlated with any region. The amyloid deposition of the whole brain region was significantly negatively correlated with immediate memory. PMID:27776391

  16. Early age at first sex: associations with sexual health and sociodemographic factors among a sample of young music festival attendees in Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Alyce M; Agius, Paul A; Bowring, Anna L; Hellard, Margaret E; Lim, Megan S C

    2014-09-01

    Background Age at first sex (AFS) is associated with adverse outcomes. We explore associated factors and correlates of 'early' AFS (<16 years). In 2009-11, participants (16-29 years) were recruited. Multivariate Cox regression explored correlates of AFS. Logistic regression analysis explored associations between early AFS and risk behaviours. Of 3563 participants, 79% were sexually active. Median AFS was 17 years. Compared with those aged 25-29 years, younger participants reported younger AFS [16-17 years: adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=1.87, P<0.01; 18-19 years: AHR=1.47, P<0.01, 20-24 years: AHR=1.19, P<0.01]. Of those sexually active, 29% reported early AFS. Early AFS was associated with being male [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.25, P<0.05], being younger (16-17 years: AOR=11.10, P<0.01; 18-19 years: AOR=3.60, P<0.01; 20-24 years: AOR=1.83, P<0.01; compared with 25-29 years), having no education after high school (AOR=1.52, P<0.01), living alone (AOR=1.84, P<0.01) or with a partner (AOR=1.57, P=0.01), having more than five lifetime sex partners (AOR=3.22, P=0.01), inconsistent condom use in the past 12 months (AOR=1.43, P<0.01), ever using illicit drugs (AOR=1.69, P<0.01) and ever injecting drugs (AOR=3.45, P<0.01). The results highlight the importance of comprehensive sex education.

  17. Is there a need to include HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the Saudi premarital screening program on the basis of their prevalence and transmission risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, F M; O'Brien, S J

    2010-11-01

    In January 2008, the Saudi Arabian health authority included mandatory testing for HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the premarital screening program. Epidemiologically, there were few justifications for their inclusion as disease prevalences and distributions are poorly understood in the population. This study aims to provide information about HBV, HCV and HIV prevalences and risk factors for disease transmission and so produce evidence for informed decision-making on the inclusion of these infectious diseases in the screening program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74,662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540). The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses. The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.

  18. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  19. Heterosexual Women's Anal Sex Attitudes and Motivations: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kimberly R

    2017-08-10

    Focus group methods were used to explore heterosexual women's receptive anal sex attitudes and motivations. Behaviors under investigation included penile-anal intercourse (PAI), manual-anal stimulation, oral-anal contact, and the use of sex toys. A total of 33 self-identified heterosexual women ages 18 to 30 recruited from two metropolitan areas in the Midwestern United States participated in one of six focus groups. The findings suggest that women viewed heterosexual anal sex as an emerging norm. Attitudes and motivations were complex and varied by behavior. Dominant themes included curiosity, pain, pleasure, and stigma. Relational factors, including acquiescence, coercion, and consent, were also salient among participants. Factors that influence anal sexual behaviors may not be entirely distinct from those that influence other sexual behaviors; however, factors that influence anal intercourse may be distinct from those that influence nonintercourse anal sex. Improved understanding will allow scientists to better understand the integration of anal sex behaviors into the broader sexual repertoire.

  20. Neural Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Treated with Sex Steroid Hormones and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Parivar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are several factors, like environmental agents, neurotrophic factors, serotonin and some hormones such as estrogen, affecting neurogenesis and neural differentiation. Regarding to importance of proliferation and regeneration in central nervous system, and a progressive increase in neurodegenerative diseases, cell therapy is an attractive approach in neuroscience. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of sex steroid hormones and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF on neuronal differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was established in Kharazmi University. BM was isolated from the bones of femur and tibia of 4-6-week old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice, and the cells were cultured. The cells were divided into following 4 groups based on the applied treatments: I. control (no treatment, II. steroid hormones (β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, III. bFGF and IV. combination of steroid hormones and bFGF. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometery analyses were applied for beta III-tubulin (β-III tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins-2 (MAP-2 in 4 days of treatment for all groups. Results: The cells treated with combination of bFGF and steroid hormones represented more expressions of neural markers as compared to control and to other two groups treated with either bFGF or steroid hormones. Conclusion: This study showed that BM-MSCs can express specific neural markers after receiving bFGF pretreatment that was followed by sex steroid hormones treatment. More investigations are necessary to specify whether steroid hormones and bFGF can be considered for treatment of CNS diseases and disorders.

  1. Social and structural factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers who inject drugs in the Mexico-US border region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffanie A Strathdee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FSWs who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs can acquire HIV through high risk sexual and injection behaviors. We studied correlates of HIV infection among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where sex work is quasi-legal and syringes can be legally obtained without a prescription. METHODS: FSW-IDUs>18 years old who reported injecting drugs and recent unprotected sex with clients in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez underwent surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression identified correlates of HIV infection. RESULTS: Of 620 FSW-IDUs, prevalence of HIV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomonas, syphilis titers ≥1:8, or any of these infections was 5.3%, 4%, 13%, 35%, 10% and 72%, respectively. Compared to other FSW-IDUs, HIV-positive women were more likely to: have syphilis titers ≥1:8 (36% vs. 9%, p<0.001, often/always inject drugs with clients (55% vs. 32%, p = 0.01, and experience confiscation of syringes by police (49% vs. 28%, p = 0.02. Factors independently associated with HIV infection were syphilis titers ≥1:8, often/always injecting with clients and police confiscation of syringes. Women who obtained syringes from NEPs (needle exchange programs within the last month had lower odds of HIV infection associated with active syphilis, but among non-NEP attenders, the odds of HIV infection associated with active syphilis was significantly elevated. CONCLUSIONS: Factors operating in both the micro-social environment (i.e., injecting drugs with clients and policy environment (i.e., having syringes confiscated by police, attending NEPs predominated as factors associated with risk of HIV infection, rather than individual-level risk behaviors. Interventions should target unjustified policing practices, clients' risk behaviors and HIV/STI prevention through NEPs.

  2. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  3. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  4. Postneedling soreness after deep dry needling of a latent myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle: Characteristics, sex differences and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel Luis; Fernandez-Carnero, Josue

    2016-04-27

    Postneedling soreness is considered the most frequent secondary effect associated to dry needling. A detailed description of postneedling soreness characteristics has not been previously reported. (1) to assess the intensity and duration of postneedling soreness and tenderness after deep dry needling of a trapezius latent myofascial trigger point (MTrP), (2) to evaluate the possible differences in postneedling soreness between sexes and (3) to analyze the influence on postneedling soreness of factors involved in the dry needling process. Sixty healthy subjects (30 men, 30 women) with latent MTrPs in the upper trapezius muscle received a dry needling intervention in the MTrP. Pain and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were assessed during a 72 hours follow-up period. Repeated measures analysis of covariance showed a significant effect for time in pain and in PPT. An interaction between sex and time in pain was obtained: women exhibited higher intensity in postneedling pain than men. The pain during needling and the number of needle insertions significantly correlated with postneedling soreness. Soreness and hyperalgesia are present in all subjects after dry needling of a latent MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle. Women exhibited higher intensity of postneedling soreness than men.

  5. Sex-Differences in Renal Expression of Selected Transporters and Transcription Factors in Lean and Obese Zucker Spontaneously Hypertensive Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Babelova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sex-dependent expression of renal transporter mRNA in lean and obese Zucker spontaneously hypertensive fatty (ZSF1 rats and to investigate the interaction of the most altered transporter, organic anion transporter 2 (Oat2, with diabetes-relevant metabolites and drugs. Higher incidence of glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and protein casts in Bowman’s space and tubular lumen was detected by PAS staining in obese male compared to female ZSF1 rats. Real-time PCR on RNA isolated from kidney cortex revealed that Sglt1-2, Oat1-3, and Oct1 were higher expressed in kidneys of lean females. Oct2 and Mrp2 were higher expressed in obese males. Renal mRNA levels of transporters were reduced with diabetic nephropathy in females and the expression of transcription factors Hnf1β and Hnf4α in both sexes. The highest difference between lean and obese ZSF1 rats was found for Oat2. Therefore, we have tested the interaction of human OAT2 with various substances using tritium-labeled cGMP. Human OAT2 showed no interaction with diabetes-related metabolites, diabetic drugs, and ACE-inhibitors. However, OAT2-dependent uptake of cGMP was inhibited by furosemide. The strongly decreased expression of Oat2 and other transporters in female diabetic ZSF1 rats could possibly impair renal drug excretion, for example, of furosemide.

  6. Verification of sex from harvested sea otters using DNA testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, K.T.; Green, B.A.; Gorbics, C.; Bodkin, J.

    2005-01-01

    We used molecular genetic methods to determine the sex of 138 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) harvested from 3 regions of Alaska from 1994 to 1997, to assess the accuracy of post-harvest field-sexing. We also tested each of a series of factors associated with errors in field-sexing of sea otters, including male or female bias, age-class bias, regional bias, and bias associated with hunt characteristics. Blind control results indicated that sex was determined with 100% accuracy using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using primers that co-amplify the zinc finger-Y-X gene, located on both the mammalian Y- and X-chromosomes, and Testes Determining Factor (TDF), located on the mammalian Y-chromosome. DNA-based sexing revealed that 12.3% of the harvested sea otters were incorrectly sexed in the field, with most errors (13 of 17) occurring as males incorrectly reported as females. Thus, female harvest was overestimated. Using logistic regression analysis, we detected no statistical association of incorrect determination of sex in the field with age class, hunt region, or hunt type. The error in field-sexing appears to be random, at least with respect to the variables evaluated in this study.

  7. The many costs of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Jennions, Michael D; Kokko, Hanna

    2012-03-01

    Explaining the evolution of sex is challenging for biologists. A 'twofold cost' compared with asexual reproduction is often quoted. If a cost of this magnitude exists, the benefits of sex must be large for it to have evolved and be maintained. Focusing on benefits can be misleading, as this sidelines important questions about the cost of sex: what is the source of the twofold cost: males, genome dilution or both? Does the cost deviate from twofold? What other factors make sex costly? How should the costs of sex be empirically measured? The total cost of sex and how it varies in different contexts must be known to determine the benefits needed to account for the origin and maintenance of sex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. National sex work policy and HIV prevalence among sex workers: an ecological regression analysis of 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Steele, Sarah; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Amato-Gauci, Andrew; Semenza, Jan C

    2017-03-01

    Sex workers are disproportionately affected by HIV compared with the general population. Most studies of HIV risk among sex workers have focused on individual-level risk factors, with few studies assessing potential structural determinants of HIV risk. In this Article, we examine whether criminal laws around sex work are associated with HIV prevalence among female sex workers. We estimate cross-sectional, ecological regression models with data from 27 European countries on HIV prevalence among sex workers from the European Centre for Disease Control; sex-work legislation from the US State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices and country-specific legal documents; the rule of law and gross-domestic product per capita, adjusted for purchasing power, from the World Bank; and the prevalence of injecting drug use among sex workers. Although data from two countries include male sex workers, the numbers are so small that the findings here essentially pertain to prevalence in female sex workers. Countries that have legalised some aspects of sex work (n=17) have significantly lower HIV prevalence among sex workers than countries that criminalise all aspects of sex work (n=10; β=-2·09, 95% CI -0·80 to -3·37; p=0·003), even after controlling for the level of economic development (β=-1·86; p=0·038) and the proportion of sex workers who are injecting drug users (-1·93; p=0·026). We found that the relation between sex work policy and HIV among sex workers might be partly moderated by the effectiveness and fairness of enforcement, suggesting legalisation of some aspects of sex work could reduce HIV among sex workers to the greatest extent in countries where enforcement is fair and effective. Our findings suggest that the legalisation of some aspects of sex work might help reduce HIV prevalence in this high-risk group, particularly in countries where the judiciary is effective and fair. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Copyright

  9. 江苏省部分地区暗娼人群性病感染率及相关危险因素分析%Prevalence of sexually transmitted disease and risk factors among female sex workers in Jiangsu province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩倩; 还锡萍; 羊海涛; 肖占沛; 周建波; 孙林; 赵金扣; 傅更锋

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解江苏省暗娼人群性病、艾滋病感染状况、行为学特征及梅毒、沙眼衣原体性病感染的危险因素.方法:采用方便抽样,对娱乐场所暗娼人群进行匿名问卷调查,每个调查对象采集5ml静脉血和2支宫颈拭子检测性病、艾滋病,采用SPSS 13.0进行统计分析.结果:本次共调查1 806例暗娼,年龄中位数25岁,最近1年有37.0%的调查对象出现过性病相关症状或体征,梅毒、沙眼衣原体、淋球菌和HIV感染率分别为8.4%、14.7%、5.4%和0.3%;教育水平低、来源场所档次低为梅毒感染的危险因素;年龄小、教育水平高、最近1个月与客人发生过无保护性行为是沙眼衣原体感染的危险因素.结论:江苏省性病感染率高,感染性病的危险因素大量存在,下一步的干预工作中,应对暗娼人群给予重点关注.%Objective:To examine the prevalences of sexually transmitted disease and HIV,and sex behavior among female sex workers as well as the risk factors associated with the treponema pallidum (TP) and chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections in Jiangsu province. Methods; The subjects were recruited by convenient sampling. Demographic and behavioral information was obtained using face-to-face questionnaire interview. Blood sample and cervical swab were collected for the tests of TP,HTV,CT and neisseria gonor-rhoeae(NG). Data analyses were performed using SPSS13.0. Results: A total of 1 806 subjects were recruited with questionnaire information,and blood samples were collected. The median age was 25 years old. The prevalences of TP,CT,NG and HIV were 8.4%, 14.7%,5.4% and 0.3% respectively. Risk factors for TP included lower education level and working in the lower class venues. Risk factors for CT included being younger,higher education level,having unprotected sex with clients during the past month. CondnsioD: High STD prevalence and widespread risk behaviors are identified among female sex workers in

  10. Prevalence study and risk factor analysis of selected bacterial, protozoal and viral, including vector-borne, pathogens in cats from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Sarvani, Elpida; Knowles, Toby G; Mengi, Sena; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-03-13

    Feline infectious agent studies are lacking in Cyprus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for various feline infectious agents, including feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP), in cats from Cyprus. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was performed on 174 feline samples [138 owned and 36 shelter-feral, including both healthy (43) and non-healthy (131), cats] from private veterinary clinics from all six districts of Cyprus. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (CMt). The population was tested for four FVBP including Bartonella henselae and Leishmania spp. using qPCR, while conventional PCR assays were used to detect Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Hepatozoon spp. Serological assays were performed to detect Leishmania infantum antibodies, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed to test associations and possible risk factors between variables and infectious agents. Ninety-six (55.2%) of the 174 cats were PCR-positive for at least one infectious agent. Forty-six cats (26.4%) were haemoplasma positive, including 13 (7.5%) for Mhf, 36 (20.7%) for CMhm and 12 (6.9%) for CMt. Sixty-six cats (37.9%) were positive for Hepatozoon spp., while 19 (10.9%) were positive for B. henselae, four (2.3%) for Leishmania spp. and one (0.6%) for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. Sequencing revealed the presence of Hepatozoon felis, L. infantum and Anaplasma platys. Of the 164 cats that underwent retroviral serology, 10 (6.1%) were FeLV-positive and 31 (18.9%) were FIV-positive, while L. infantum serology was positive in 7 (4.4%) of the 160 cats tested. Multivariable logistic regression revealed significant associations for various infectious agents including L. infantum with each of Hepatozoon spp. and CMt

  11. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  12. Health-related quality of life in current smokers with COPD: factors associated with current smoking and new insights into sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheruvu VK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinay K Cheruvu,1 Lorriane A Odhiambo,1 Dana S Mowls,2 Melissa D Zullo,1 Abdi T Gudina1 1Department of Biostatistics, Environmental Health Sciences, and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 2Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Abstract: Findings from studies that examined the association between health-related ­quality of life (HRQOL and smoking status among COPD patients have been mixed. Moreover, factors associated with current smoking in COPD patients and differences by sex have not been fully elucidated. Data from the 2011 and 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used in this study. Four HRQOL indicators were examined in this study: general health, physical health, mental health, and activity limitations. General health was dichotomized into two groups: “excellent/very good/good” and “fair/poor”, and the other three HRQOL indicators were dichotomized into <14 (infrequent and ≥14 (frequent unhealthy days in the past 30 days. To examine HRQOL indicators in association with current versus former smoking and identify factors associated with current smoking, logistic regression models were used. Sex differences were explored. In COPD patients, current smokers compared to former smokers had significantly poor HRQOL on all subdomains: “fair/poor” general health (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.2 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.1–1.5]; poor physical health (AOR: 1.3 [CI: 1.1–1.5]; poor mental health (AOR: 1.8 [CI: 1.4–2.2]; and poor activity limitations (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.3–1.9]. HRQOL subdomains affected by current smoking differed by sex except activity limitations. General health (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.1–2.0] and activity limitations (AOR: 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2–2.2] in males and physical health (AOR: 1.3 [CI: 1.0–1.6], mental health (AOR: 2.1 [CI: 1.7–2.6], and activity

  13. Sex Differences in the Determination of Adolescent Aspirations: A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Margaret Mooney

    1978-01-01

    Factors influencing levels of adolescent aspiration are reviewed, including socioeconomic background, academic ability, number of siblings, parental encouragement, mother's employment, academic performance, peer aspirations, dating, and participation in school activities. Although sex differences affect the formation of both educational and…

  14. [Negotiating safer sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G; Charnock, D

    1991-01-01

    Women have generally assumed responsibility for contraception since the appearance of oral contraceptives and IUDs. But AIDS prevention programs are now asking women to assume responsibility for safer sex through use of condoms, a male method. Women are being asked to carry condoms, to negotiate their use each time they have sex, and to insist if the partner resists. The problem with this strategy is that frequently it is the male partner who makes sexual decisions, and women have less negotiating power. Women are considered feminine if they assume a passive role in sexual activity. This work suggests strategies to improve the negotiating power of women. Options and problems of speaking about safer sex vary in accordance with the nature of the relationship. A woman with a new partner can try to ascertain his sexual history, but may gain no information on his probable health even if he tells her the truth. It may be easier to convince him to use a condom at least in the beginning of the romance. Women working in the sex industry often have greater trouble convincing their friends and lovers to use a condom than their clients. Some family planning workers have begun to speak of safer sex with all their clients. Role playing and workshops or discussions with small groups of women having similar problems may help women overcome their reticence about discussing sexual topics. Some general suggestions to help women negotiate safer sex include choosing an opportune moment and planning in advance what to say; daring to speak directly without beating around the bush (the partner may also be gathering courage to speak); practicing placing condoms on objects and if necessary placing one on the partner without speaking; being honest with the partner about sex, love, and fidelity; and remembering that protection from condoms is mutual given that it is not possible to know who is infected. Until now, programs to help women practice safer sex have concentrated on sex industry

  15. Study on the social maturity, self-perception, and associated factors, including motor coordination, of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumiko; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of social maturity and self-perception in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to elucidate associated factors, including motor coordination. The subjects were 15 children (14 boys and 1 girl, in elementary school grades 3 to 6). Their characteristics were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), the Japanese version of the Social Maturity Scale-R (S-M scale), and Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). The results of the study suggested that most of the subjects had some degree of motor problem and delay of social maturity. They also suggested an association between social maturity and static-dynamic balance, which was one of the indices of motor coordination.

  16. Sex and ovarian steroids modulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in rat hippocampus under stressful and non-stressful conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Tamara B; Perrot-Sinal, Tara S

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with major depression, a disorder with a higher incidence in women than men. Stress affects BDNF levels in various brain regions and thus, a heightened stress response in females could contribute to the development of depression. As well, ovarian hormones directly affect brain levels of BDNF mRNA and protein. Two experiments were performed to investigate the effects of stress and sex and gonadal hormones on BDNF protein levels in CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) subregions of the hippocampus. In the first experiment, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to one hour of restraint stress or control handling prior to sacrifice. In the second experiment, fifty-one female rats were ovariectomized and separated into stress and control conditions, as described for the first experiment. Stressed and handled groups received a single injection of estrogen (E; 53h prior to stress), estrogen and progesterone (EP; E given at 53h and P given 5h prior to stress), or vehicle (OVX). In both experiments BDNF protein was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme assay (ELISA) in micropunches of hippocampus. Gonadally intact females had significantly higher levels of BDNF in CA3, but significantly lower levels in DG, relative to males. In CA3, stress significantly decreased BDNF in both males and females. In DG of ovariectomized female rats, the effects of stress were significantly different following EP vs. vehicle treatment. Thus, stress increased BDNF levels in EP-treated rats but decreased BDNF levels in vehicle-treated rats. Reduced trophic support in DG in the presence of estrogen and progesterone could jeopardize neurogenesis and under certain conditions could be a contributing factor to the hippocampal atrophy associated with stress-induced affective disorders. These results emphasize the need to consider sex, gonadal steroids, and hippocampal subregion when examining the

  17. Risk factors for bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: A focus on antimicrobials including cefepime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Teena; Marchaim, Dror; Johnson, Paul C; Chalana, Indu K; Tamam, Zeinab; Mohammed, Mazin; Alkatib, Shatha; Tansek, Ryan; Chaudhry, Khawar; Zhao, Jing J; Pogue, Jason M; Kaye, Keith S

    2015-07-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens represent increasing challenges to physicians because of rising prevalence, high mortality, and challenging treatment. Identifying high risks and early appropriate therapy is critical to favorable outcomes. This is a 5-year retrospective case-case-control study performed at the Detroit Medical Center on adult patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae, each compared with uninfected controls. Data were collected from December 2004-August 2009. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Participants included 103 patients with BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens and 79 patients with BSI caused by pathogens that did not produce ESBLs. The mean age of patients in the ESBL group was 67 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 77% were black, and 38% (n = 39) died in hospital. The mean age of patients in the non-ESBL group was 58 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 92% were black, and 22% (n = 17) died in hospital. On multivariate analysis, predictors of BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens included central venous catheter (odds ratio [OR], 29.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-288.3), prior β-lactam-/β-lactamase-inhibitor therapy (OR, 28.1; 95% CI, 1.99-396.5), and prior cefepime therapy (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 2.7-192.4). The only risk factor for BSI caused by non-ESBL-producing pathogens was urinary catheter insertion (OR, 18.2; 95% CI, 3.3-100.3). Prior antimicrobial therapy, particularly with β-lactam, was the strongest unique risk factor for BSI caused by ESBL-producing E coli or K pneumoniae. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Cognitive and neurological aspects of sex chromosome aneuploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, David S; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-03-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies are a common group of disorders that are characterised by an abnormal number of X or Y chromosomes. However, many individuals with these disorders are not diagnosed, despite established groups of core features that include aberrant brain development and function. Clinical presentations often include characteristic profiles of intellectual ability, motor impairments, and rates of neurological and psychiatric disorders that are higher than those of the general population. Advances in genetics and neuroimaging have substantially expanded knowledge of potential mechanisms that underlie these phenotypes, including a putative dose effect of sex chromosome genes on neuroanatomical structures and cognitive abilities. Continuing attention to emerging trends in research of sex chromosome aneuploidies is important for clinicians because it informs appropriate management of these common genetic disorders. Furthermore, improved understanding of underlying neurobiological processes has much potential to elucidate sex-related factors associated with neurological and psychiatric disease in general.

  19. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies.

  20. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  1. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Miaoxuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  2. The prevalence of human papillomavirus infections and associated risk factors in men-who-have-sex-with-men in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Etienne E; Rebe, Kevin; Chirwa, Tobias F; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James; Lewis, David A

    2016-08-22

    We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated behavioural risk factors in men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) attending a clinical service in Cape Town, South Africa. MSM were enrolled at the Ivan Toms Centre for Men's Health in Cape Town. A psychosocial and sexual behavioral risk questionnaire was completed for each participant and urine, oro-pharyngeal and anal swabs were collected for HPV testing using the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine sexual risk factors associated with HPV infection at the three anatomical sites. The median age of all 200 participants was 32 years (IQR 26-39.5), of which 31.0 % were black, 31.5 % mixed race/coloured and 35.5 % white. The majority of the participants (73.0 %) had completed high school, 42.0 % had a tertiary level qualification and 69.0 % were employed. HPV genotypes were detected in 72.8 % [95 % CI: 65.9-79.0 %], 11.5 % [95 % CI: 7.4-16.8 %] and 15.3 % [95 % CI: 10.5-21.2 %] of anal, oro-pharyngeal and urine specimens, respectively. Prevalence of high-risk (HR)-HPV types was 57.6 % [95 % CI: 50.3-64.7 %] in anal samples, 7.5 % [95 % CI: 4.3-12.1 %] in oro-pharyngeal samples and 7.9 % [95 % CI: 4.5-12.7 %] in urine, with HPV-16 being the most common HR-HPV type detected at all sites. HPV-6/11/16/18 was detected in 40.3 % [95 % CI: 33.3-47.6 %], 4.5 % [95 % CI: 2.1-8.4 %] and 3.2 % [95 % CI: 1.2-6.8 %] of anal, oro-pharyngeal and urine samples, respectively. Multiple HPV types were more common in the anal canal of MSM while single HPV types constituted the majority of HPV infections in the oropharynx and urine. Among the 88 MSM (44.0 %) that were HIV positive, 91.8 % [95 % CI: 83.8-96.6 %] had an anal HPV infection, 81.2 % [95 % CI: 71.2-88.8 %] had anal HR-HPV and 85.9 % [95 % CI: 76.6-92.5 %] had multiple anal HPV types. Having sex with men only, engaging in group sex in lifetime, living with HIV and

  3. Superovulation and embryo transfer in dairy cattle – effect of management factors with emphasis on sex-sorted semen

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkola, Marja

    2017-01-01

    Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) has been established in cattle breeding since the 1970s. It is an efficient means to increase the number of offspring from genetically superior females. Despite nearly 50 years of development, the average number of transferable embryos recovered in a single embryo collection has remained nearly constant at approximately six embryos per donor. Several animal-related, environmental and management factors contribute to the outcome of superovulation a...

  4. Sex-Related Differences in GI Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusator, Dawn K; Chang, Lin

    2017-02-24

    Epidemiological studies indicate sex-related differences among functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) wherein females are more likely to receive a diagnosis than their male counterparts. However, the mechanism by which females exhibit an increased vulnerability for development of these pathophysiologies remains largely unknown, and therapeutic treatments are limited. The current chapter focuses on clinical research outlining our current knowledge of factors that contribute to the female predominance among FGID patients such as the menstrual cycle and sex hormones. In addition, we will discuss progress in preclinical research, including animal models, which serve as valuable tools for the investigation of the development and long term manifestation of symptoms observed within the patient population. Although much progress has been made, additional longitudinal studies in both clinical and preclinical research are necessary to identify more specific mechanisms underlying sex-related differences in FGIDs as well as targets for improved therapeutic approaches.

  5. The translation initiation factor eIF4E regulates the sex-specific expression of the master switch gene Sxl in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Graham

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In female fruit flies, Sex-lethal (Sxl turns off the X chromosome dosage compensation system by a mechanism involving a combination of alternative splicing and translational repression of the male specific lethal-2 (msl-2 mRNA. A genetic screen identified the translation initiation factor eif4e as a gene that acts together with Sxl to repress expression of the Msl-2 protein. However, eif4e is not required for Sxl mediated repression of msl-2 mRNA translation. Instead, eif4e functions as a co-factor in Sxl-dependent female-specific alternative splicing of msl-2 and also Sxl pre-mRNAs. Like other factors required for Sxl regulation of splicing, eif4e shows maternal-effect female-lethal interactions with Sxl. This female lethality can be enhanced by mutations in other co-factors that promote female-specific splicing and is caused by a failure to properly activate the Sxl-positive autoregulatory feedback loop in early embryos. In this feedback loop Sxl proteins promote their own synthesis by directing the female-specific alternative splicing of Sxl-Pm pre-mRNAs. Analysis of pre-mRNA splicing when eif4e activity is compromised demonstrates that Sxl-dependent female-specific splicing of both Sxl-Pm and msl-2 pre-mRNAs requires eif4e activity. Consistent with a direct involvement in Sxl-dependent alternative splicing, eIF4E is associated with unspliced Sxl-Pm pre-mRNAs and is found in complexes that contain early acting splicing factors--the U1/U2 snRNP protein Sans-fils (Snf, the U1 snRNP protein U1-70k, U2AF38, U2AF50, and the Wilms' Tumor 1 Associated Protein Fl(2d--that have been directly implicated in Sxl splicing regulation.

  6. The translation initiation factor eIF4E regulates the sex-specific expression of the master switch gene Sxl in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Graham

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In female fruit flies, Sex-lethal (Sxl turns off the X chromosome dosage compensation system by a mechanism involving a combination of alternative splicing and translational repression of the male specific lethal-2 (msl-2 mRNA. A genetic screen identified the translation initiation factor eif4e as a gene that acts together with Sxl to repress expression of the Msl-2 protein. However, eif4e is not required for Sxl mediated repression of msl-2 mRNA translation. Instead, eif4e functions as a co-factor in Sxl-dependent female-specific alternative splicing of msl-2 and also Sxl pre-mRNAs. Like other factors required for Sxl regulation of splicing, eif4e shows maternal-effect female-lethal interactions with Sxl. This female lethality can be enhanced by mutations in other co-factors that promote female-specific splicing and is caused by a failure to properly activate the Sxl-positive autoregulatory feedback loop in early embryos. In this feedback loop Sxl proteins promote their own synthesis by directing the female-specific alternative splicing of Sxl-Pm pre-mRNAs. Analysis of pre-mRNA splicing when eif4e activity is compromised demonstrates that Sxl-dependent female-specific splicing of both Sxl-Pm and msl-2 pre-mRNAs requires eif4e activity. Consistent with a direct involvement in Sxl-dependent alternative splicing, eIF4E is associated with unspliced Sxl-Pm pre-mRNAs and is found in complexes that contain early acting splicing factors--the U1/U2 snRNP protein Sans-fils (Snf, the U1 snRNP protein U1-70k, U2AF38, U2AF50, and the Wilms' Tumor 1 Associated Protein Fl(2d--that have been directly implicated in Sxl splicing regulation.

  7. Local offspring density and sex ratio affect sex allocation in the great tit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Nicolaus, Marion; van der Velde, Marco; Radersma, Reinder; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Komdeur, Jan; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2013-01-01

    The expected fitness gain for offspring of a given sex may depend on local population sex ratio and density. Knowing the influence of such social factors on brood sex ratios may contribute considerably to the understanding of sex allocation in higher vertebrates. For 3 consecutive years, we

  8. Local offspring density and sex ratio affect sex allocation in the great tit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Nicolaus, Marion; van der Velde, Marco; Radersma, Reinder; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Komdeur, Jan; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2013-01-01

    The expected fitness gain for offspring of a given sex may depend on local population sex ratio and density. Knowing the influence of such social factors on brood sex ratios may contribute considerably to the understanding of sex allocation in higher vertebrates. For 3 consecutive years, we manipula

  9. Sex education in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  10. AIDS and sex tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.

  11. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles.......Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles....

  12. Toward an understanding of the context of anal sex behavior in ethnic minority adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Roye, Carol F

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the context of anal sex behavior among ethnic minority adolescent women has public health implications for behavioral sexual health promotion and risk reduction interventions. African-American (n = 94) and Mexican-American (n = 465) women (14-18 years of age) enrolled in a clinical trial completed semi-structured interviews to assess psychosocial and situational factors and relationships to sexual risk behavior, substance use, sexually transmitted infection/HIV acquisition, and violence. Bivariate analyses with comparisons by anal sex experiences identified differences by ethnicity and higher self-reported histories of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, violence, and stressful psychosocial and situational factors among adolescent women experiencing anal sex. Predictors of anal sex identified through logistic regression included Mexican-American ethnicity, ecstasy use, methamphetamine use, childhood sexual molestation, oral sex, and sex with friends for benefits.

  13. Random sex determination: When developmental noise tips the sex balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    Sex-determining factors are usually assumed to be either genetic or environmental. The present paper aims at drawing attention to the potential contribution of developmental noise, an important but often-neglected component of phenotypic variance. Mutual inhibitions between male and female pathways make sex a bistable equilibrium, such that random fluctuations in the expression of genes at the top of the cascade are sufficient to drive individual development toward one or the other stable state. Evolutionary modeling shows that stochastic sex determinants should resist elimination by genetic or environmental sex determinants under ecologically meaningful settings. On the empirical side, many sex-determination systems traditionally considered as environmental or polygenic actually provide evidence for large components of stochasticity. In reviewing the field, I argue that sex-determination systems should be considered within a three-ends continuum, rather than the classical two-ends continuum.

  14. Including the spatial variability of metal speciation in the effect factor in life cycle impact assessment: Limits of the equilibrium partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, Clara; Bulle, Cécile; Deschênes, Louise

    2017-03-01

    In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach. Alternatively, the TBLM (Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model) has been used to determine an EF that accounts for speciation, but is not available for metals; hence it cannot be consistently applied to metals in an LCA context. This paper proposes an approach to include metal speciation by regionalizing the EqP method for Cu, Ni and Zn with a geochemical speciation model (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model 7.0), for 5213 soils selected from the Harmonized World Soil Database. Results obtained by this approach (EF(EqP)regionalized) are compared to the EFs calculated with the conventional EqP method, to the EFs based on available terrestrial data and to the EFs calculated with the TBLM (EF(TBLM)regionalized) when available. The spatial variability contribution of the EF to the overall spatial variability of the characterization factor (CF) has been analyzed. It was found that the EFs(EqP)regionalized show a significant spatial variability. The EFs calculated with the two non-regionalized methods (EqP and terrestrial data) fall within the range of the EFs(EqP)regionalized. The EFs(TBLM)regionalized cover a larger range of values than the EFs(EqP)regionalized but the two methods are not correlated. This paper highlights the importance of including speciation into the terrestrial EF and shows that using the regionalized EqP approach is not an

  15. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT WITH THE INHIBITORS OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR OF THE CHRONIC UVEITIS REFRACTORY TO THE BASIC THERAPY (INCLUDING AN ASSOCIATED WITH JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rudakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy of chronic uveitis refractory to the basic treatment, in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a very complex problem in pediatrics. Substantial progress in this area resulted after the implementation in practice of inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, as the most effective in such clinical situation drugs adalimumab and infliximab are considered (although infliximab was not officially approved in JIA. Objective. To estimate the cost effectiveness of TNF inhibitors — adalimumab, and infliximab in chronic uveitis, refractory to the basic therapy (including associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. A modeling on the basis of a comparative prospective cohort clinical study was carried out. The analysis was performed by the method «cost–effectiveness» from a position of health and social accounting perspective. Results. It was shown that the frequency and time of remission did not differ when treatment with infliximab (5 mg/kg at 0–2–6 weeks and further once in 6–8 weeks and adalimumab (24 mg/m2 once in 2 weeks. Adalimumab provides a long-term maintenance of remission (no recurrence in 60% of patients within 40 months of observation, whereas 1 year after the treatment with infliximab the frequency of exacerbations was returned to that observed before therapy. The proportion of patients without relapse in the treatment with infliximab for 40 months was 18.8%. Similar results were obtained in a subset of patients with chronic uveitis associated with JIA (with follow-up of 20 months of in a group of infliximab number patients without relapse was 11.1%, with adalimumab therapy — 63.6%. In the general population of patients with refractory chronic uveitis the factor «cost–effectiveness» calculated for a patient with the maintenance of remission for 3 years with adalimumab therapy was in 2,1–2,8 times less than in the treatment with infliximab. In chronic uveitis associated with JIA, the coefficient of

  16. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, among urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, M A; Boyer, C B

    1991-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of multiple psychosocial and knowledge-related antecedent factors that may predict sexual and alcohol and drug use behaviors that are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection. Five hundred forty-four ninth-grade urban high school students were surveyed regarding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to STDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that higher levels of STD and AIDS knowledge were associated with lower levels of STD and AIDS anxiety (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), fewer negative attitudes toward people with AIDS (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), stronger perceptions of self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.03; p less than 0.01), and stronger peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.05). Negative attitudes toward people with AIDS were inversely related to knowledge (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001), social support (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.01), and perceived self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.01; p less than 0.05). Predictors of alcohol and drug use included perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001) and strong peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.001). The best predictor of sexual risk behavior was alcohol and drug use (R2 delta = 0.07; p less than 0.001). Lower levels of knowledge (R2 delta = 0.14; p less than 0.01) and perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.05) predicted nonuse of condoms. Our results indicate that several factors relate to adolescent risk for STDs: the connection between peer influence and adolescent risk behaviors, the link between alcohol and drug use and sexual risk behavior, and the role of knowledge in determining nonuse of condoms.

  17. Determinants of Heterosexual Adolescents Having Sex with Female Sex Workers in Singapore.

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    Junice Y S Ng

    Full Text Available We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs.This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73% of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR and confidence intervals (CI.The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30-2.46, never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28-2.38, reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93-0.98, higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00-1.07 and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04-2.09. Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%.A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance.

  18. Gonadotropin-induced changes in oviducal mRNA expression levels of sex steroid hormone receptors and activin-related signaling factors in the alligator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon C.; Forouhar, Sara; Kohno, Satomi; Botteri, Nicole L.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    Oviducts respond to hormonal cues from ovaries with tissue proliferation and differentiation in preparation of transporting and fostering gametes. These responses produce oviducal microenvironments conducive to reproductive success. Here we investigated changes in circulating plasma sex steroid hormones concentrations and ovarian and oviducal mRNA expression to an in vivo gonadotropin (FSH) challenge in sexually immature, five-month-old alligators. Further, we investigated differences in these observed responses between alligators hatched from eggs collected at a heavily-polluted (Lake Apopka, FL) and minimally-polluted (Lake Woodruff, FL) site. In oviducts, we measured mRNA expression of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors and also beta A and B subunits which homo- or heterodimerize to produce the transforming growth factor activin. In comparison, minimal inhibin alpha subunit mRNA expression suggests that these oviducts produce a primarily activin-dominated signaling milieu. Ovaries responded to a five-day FSH challenge with increased expression of steroidogenic enzyme mRNA which was concomitant with increased circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations. Oviducts in the FSH-challenged Lake Woodruff alligators increased mRNA expression of progesterone and androgen receptors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and the activin signaling antagonist follistatin. In contrast, Lake Apopka alligators displayed a diminished increase in ovarian CYP19A1 aromatase expression and no increase in oviducal AR expression, as compared to those observed in Lake Woodruff alligators. These results demonstrate that five-month-old female alligators display an endocrine-responsive ovarian-oviducal axis and environmental pollution exposure may alter these physiological responses. PMID:22154572

  19. Sex-specific disruptions in spatial memory and anhedonia in a "two hit" rat model correspond with alterations in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rachel A; Klug, Maren; Kiss Von Soly, Szerenke; Binder, Michele D; Hannan, Anthony J; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2014-10-01

    Post-mortem studies have demonstrated reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of schizophrenia and major depression patients. The "two hit" hypothesis proposes that two or more major disruptions at specific time points during development are involved in the pathophysiology of these mental illnesses. However, the role of BDNF in these "two hit" effects is unclear. Our aim was to behaviorally characterize a "two hit" rat model of developmental stress accompanied by an in-depth assessment of BDNF expression and signalling. Wistar rats were exposed to neonatal maternal separation (MS) stress and/or adolescent/young-adult corticosterone (CORT) treatment. In adulthood, models of cognitive and negative symptoms of mental illness were analyzed. The hippocampus was then dissected into dorsal (DHP) and ventral (VHP) regions and analyzed by qPCR for exon-specific BDNF gene expression or by Western blot for BDNF protein expression and downstream signaling. Male "two hit" rats showed marked disruptions in short-term spatial memory (Y-maze) which were absent in females. However, female "two hit" rats showed signs of anhedonia (sucrose preference test), which were absent in males. Novel object recognition and anxiety (elevated plus maze) were unchanged by either of the two "hits". In the DHP, MS caused a male-specific increase in BDNF Exons I, II, IV, VII, and IX mRNA but a decrease in mature BDNF and phosphorylated TrkB (pTrkB) protein expression in adulthood. In the VHP, BDNF transcript expression was unchanged; however, in female rats only, MS significantly decreased mature BDNF and pTrkB protein expression in adulthood. These data demonstrate that MS causes region-specific and sex-specific long-term effects on BDNF expression and signaling and, importantly, mRNA expression does not always infer protein expression. Alterations to BDNF signaling may mediate the sex-specific effects of developmental stress on anhedonic behaviors.

  20. Cortistatin Is a Key Factor Regulating the Sex-Dependent Response of the GH and Stress Axes to Fasting in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Chacón, José; Gahete, Manuel D; Pozo-Salas, Ana I; de Lecea, Luis; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M

    2016-07-01

    Cortistatin (CORT) shares high structural and functional similarities with somatostatin (SST) but displays unique sex-dependent pituitary actions. Indeed, although female CORT-knockout (CORT-KO) mice exhibit enhanced GH expression/secretion, Proopiomelanocortin expression, and circulating ACTH/corticosterone/ghrelin levels, male CORT-KO mice only display increased plasma GH/corticosterone levels. Changes in peripheral ghrelin and SST (rather than hypothalamic levels) seem to regulate GH/ACTH axes in CORT-KOs under fed conditions. Because changes in GH/ACTH axes during fasting provide important adaptive mechanisms, we sought to determine whether CORT absence influences GH/ACTH axes during fasting. Accordingly, fed and fasted male/female CORT-KO were compared with littermate controls. Fasting increased circulating GH levels in male/female controls but not in CORT-KO, suggesting that CORT can be a relevant regulator of GH secretion during fasting. However, GH levels were already higher in CORT-KO than in controls in fed state, which might preclude a further elevation in GH levels. Interestingly, although fasting-induced pituitary GH expression was elevated in both male/female controls, GH expression only increased in fasted female CORT-KOs, likely owing to specific changes observed in key factors controlling somatotrope responsiveness (ie, circulating ghrelin and IGF-1, and pituitary GHRH and ghrelin receptor expression). Fasting increased corticosterone levels in control and, most prominently, in CORT-KO mice, which might be associated with a desensitization to SST signaling and to an augmentation in CRH and ghrelin-signaling regulating corticotrope function. Altogether, these results provide compelling evidence that CORT plays a key, sex-dependent role in the regulation of the GH/ACTH axes in response to fasting.

  1. Seroprevalence and factors associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 among HIV-negative high-risk men who have sex with men from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilotto Jose H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is the leading cause of genital ulcer disease in developing countries, including Brazil, and is especially prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM. HSV-2 infection represents a risk factor for the acquisition and transmission of other sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of the present cross-sectional study was to estimate HSV-2 seroprevalence and to determine the factors associated with HSV-2 seropositivity in HIV-negative high-risk MSM from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Stored sera were tested to estimate HSV-2 seroprevalence, while socio-demographic and sexual behavior data were used to measure associations between risk factors and HSV-2 seropositivity. Using the Poisson regression model with robust variance, prevalence ratios (PR were used to estimate de degree of association between risk factors and HSV-2 seropositivity in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Seroprevalence of HSV-2 was of 45.7% (184 out of 403. Factors independently associated with HSV-2 seroprevalence in the multivariate model were: older age (≥ 26 years, PR: 1.41 95% Confidence Interval: 1.11–1.78, non-white race (PR: 1.32 95%CI: 1.06–1.64, positive serology for syphilis (PR: 1.65 95%CI: 1.33–2.05, positive serology for hepatitis B (PR: 1.25 95%CI: 0.99–1.57, stable male partner in the past 6 months (PR: 1.42 95%CI: 1.12–1.79, and unprotected anal sex with a stable female partner (PR: 1.46 95%CI: 1.05–2.04 in the 6 months preceding the cross-sectional assessment. Conclusion The present study made evident a high prevalence of HSV-2 infection in a sample of HIV-negative high-risk MSM from Rio de Janeiro. This finding indicates the need and urgency for implementing integrated programs for the prevention of HSV-2 and other sexually transmitted diseases, and, in particular, programs targeting high-risk MSM.

  2. Anal human papillomavirus in HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men: incidence and clearance rates, duration of infection, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, M G; Vescio, M F; Latini, A; Giglio, A; Moretto, D; Frasca, M; Benevolo, M; Rollo, F; Colafigli, M; Cristaudo, A; Giuliani, M

    2016-12-01

    Little is known regarding the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We aimed to evaluate incidence and clearance rates, their risk factors, and duration of anal HPV infection in HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM). A longitudinal study was conducted. Anal samples were analysed using the Linear Array HPV Genotyping test. Incidence and clearance rates, and corresponding risk factors, were estimated using a two-state Markov model. Overall, 155 MSM (median age 33.4 years) attending the largest sexually transmitted infection (STI) centre in Rome, Italy, were followed for a median of 12.2 months (Q1-Q3: 7.0-18.1). Incidence and clearance rates for any HPV were 85.6 (95% CI: 58.4-125.4) and 35.6 (95% CI: 24.7-51.5) × 1000 person-months, respectively; the median duration of infection was 9.4 months (Q1-Q3: 7.5-12.1). Receptive anal sex emerged as the only risk factor for the acquisition of any HPV (Hazard Ratio, HR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.16-6.06). The incidence rates for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic types were 42.3 (95% CI: 29.2-61.4) and 29.2 (95% CI: 19.5-43.7) × 1000 person-months, respectively (p = 0.13); their clearance rates were 62.9 (95% CI: 45.1-87.7) and 65.7 (95% CI: 47.4-91.0) × 1000 person-months, respectively (p = 0.83). HPV16 showed the lowest clearance rate among carcinogenic types (59.7 × 1000 person-months), and a duration of infection of 16.8 months. In conclusion, a higher incidence rate was observed for carcinogenic compared to non-carcinogenic HPV types, although the difference was not significant. HPV16 emerged as the type with the longest duration of infection and the lowest clearance rate among carcinogenic types.

  3. Men who have sex with men (MSM and factors associated with not using a condom at last sexual intercourse with a man and with a woman in Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Larmarange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with other men (MSM are a vulnerable population in Africa that has been insufficiently explored. Given the high rate of bisexuality among MSM (73% in the past year, it is important to understand their risk-taking behaviors regarding both men and women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A socio-behavioral survey was carried out in 2007 among 501 MSM recruited using the snowball sampling method. We explore in this article why a condom was not used during last sexual intercourse with a man and with a woman, taking into account the respondent's characteristics, type of relationship and the context of the sexual act. In the survey, 489 men reported that they had had sexual intercourse at least once with another man during the previous year, and 358 with a man and with a woman. The main risk factors for not using a condom at last sexual intercourse with another man were having sex in a public place (aOR = 6.26 [95%CI: 2.71-14.46], non-participation in an MSM prevention program (aOR = 3.47 [95%CI: 2.12-5.69], a 19 years old or younger partner (aOR = 2.6 [95%CI: 1.23-4.53], being 24 years or younger (aOR = 2.07 [95%CI: 1.20-3.58] or being 35 years or over (aOR = 3.08 [95%CI:1.11-8.53] and being unemployed (aOR = 0.36 [95%CI: 0.10-1.25]. The last sexual intercourse with the respondent's wife was hardly ever protected (2%. With women, the other factors were a 15 years or younger partner (aOR = 6.45 [95%CI: 2.56-16.28], being educated (primary: aOR = 0.45 [95%CI: 0.21-0.95], secondary or higher: aOR = 0.26 [95%CI: 0.11-0.62], being a student (aOR = 2.20 [95%CI: 1.07-4.54] or unemployed (aOR = 3.72 [95%CI: 1.31-10.61] and having participated in a MSM prevention program (aOR = 0.57 [95%CI: 0.34-0.93]. CONCLUSION: Having participated in a prevention program specifically targeting MSM constitutes a major prevention factor. However, these programs targeting MSM must address their

  4. Premenopausal mammographic density in relation to cyclic variations in endogenous sex hormone levels, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Coupland, Ben; McCormack, Valerie A; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Gibson, Lorna; Hillier, Stephen G; Holly, Jeff M; Moss, Sue; Dowsett, Mitchell; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel

    2009-08-15

    Mammographic density is strongly associated with breast cancer risk, and endogenous hormones, which are risk factors for breast cancer, may be involved in the mechanism. This cross-sectional study of 494 premenopausal women is the first to account for cyclic variations in estrogen levels, by measuring urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) in the periovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and to assess the role of androgens. Computer-assisted density readings were obtained from digitized mammograms. Mean ovulatory E1G level and daily E1G load were both positively associated with percent density before adjustment for body mass index (BMI), with women in the top fourth having 10.2% (95% CI: 2.9%, 18.1%) and 8.9% (1.7%, 16.7%), respectively, higher density than those in the bottom fourth (Ptrend before/after BMI adjustment=0.006/0.11 and 0.01/0.13, respectively). Neither the peak nor luteal E1G levels were predictive of density after adjustment for E1G levels at other points in the cycle. The plasma androgens testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were negatively associated with density. In mutually adjusted analyses, density was positively associated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and negatively with IGF-II (Ptrend=0.006 for both) but not with IGF binding protein-3. There was also weak evidence of a positive association of prolactin with density. The study supports the hypothesis that endogenous hormones affect density in premenopausal women; in particular, it shows a positive association between estrogen levels and density and suggests that the mean level throughout the cycle is the most biologically relevant measure. Most of these hormone-density associations were attenuated with further adjustment for BMI.

  5. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  6. Associated risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia: low baseline hemoglobin, sex, and relative high systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaun, Michael R; Sarnaik, Sharada A; Rodeghier, Mark J; Minniti, Caterina P; Howard, Thomas H; Iyer, Rathi V; Inusa, Baba; Telfer, Paul T; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Quinn, Charles T; Bernaudin, Françoise; Airewele, Gladstone; Woods, Gerald M; Panepinto, Julie Ann; Fuh, Beng; Kwiatkowski, Janet K; King, Allison A; Rhodes, Melissa M; Thompson, Alexis A; Heiny, Mark E; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa C; Kirkham, Fenella J; Sabio, Hernan; Gonzalez, Corina E; Saccente, Suzanne L; Kalinyak, Karen A; Strouse, John J; Fixler, Jason M; Gordon, Mae O; Miller, J Phillip; Noetzel, Michael J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Casella, James F

    2012-04-19

    The most common form of neurologic injury in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is silent cerebral infarction (SCI). In the Silent Cerebral Infarct Multi-Center Clinical Trial, we sought to identify risk factors associated with SCI. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the clinical history and baseline laboratory values and performed magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in participants with SCA (HbSS or HbSβ° thalassemia) between the ages of 5 and 15 years with no history of overt stroke or seizures. Neuroradiology and neurology committees adjudicated the presence of SCI. SCIs were diagnosed in 30.8% (251 of 814) participants who completed all evaluations and had valid data on all prespecified demographic and clinical covariates. The mean age of the participants was 9.1 years, with 413 males (50.7%). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, lower baseline hemoglobin concentration (P blood pressure (P = .018), and male sex (P = .030) were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of an SCI. Hemoglobin concentration and systolic blood pressure are risk factors for SCI in children with SCA and may be therapeutic targets for decreasing the risk of SCI. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00072761.

  7. International migration from non-endemic settings as a protective factor for HIV/STI risk among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Liu, Vivian; Nguyen, Paul; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-02-01

    Given heterogeneous evidence regarding the impacts of migration on HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs), we explored factors associated with international migration among FSWs in Vancouver, Canada. We draw on baseline questionnaire and HIV/STI testing data from a community-based cohort, AESHA, from 2010-2012. Logistic regression identified correlates of international migration. Of 650 FSWs, 163 (25.1%) were international migrants, who primarily worked in formal indoor establishments. HIV/STI prevalence was lower among migrants than Canadian-born women (5.5 vs. 25.9%). In multivariate analysis, international migration was positively associated with completing high school, supporting dependents, and paying a third party, and negatively associated with HIV, injecting drugs and inconsistent condom use with clients. Although migrants experience lower workplace harms and HIV risk than Canadian-born women, they face concerning levels of violence, police harassment, and HIV/STIs. Research exploring structural and socio-cultural factors shaping risk mitigation and migrants' access to support remains needed.

  8. AIDS-Related High-Risk Behaviors and Affecting Factors of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张北川; 刘殿昌; 李秀芳; 胡铁中

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To describe and analyze HIV/AIDS/STD-related high risk behaviors and affecting factors of men who have sex with men (MSM) in mainland China~ Methods: 426 self-administered or interview-based questionnaires collected from MSM were analyzed with SPSS or SAS Systems. Results: Of the MSM, four-fifths had engaged in oral-genital intercourse, about half had engaged in anal intercourse, and in the past year more than two-fifths had casual sexual partner(s).Very few maintained monogamous sexual relationships, and nearly half also had intercourse with women. One fourth had previously been diagnosed with a venereal diseases. One HIV+individual was found among the 40 who reported having been tested for HIV. Only two men consistently used condoms among the one-third who had ever used condoms, despite almost universal knowledge of HIV and its transmission. Conclusions: MSM in mainland China are very sexually active, highlighting the possibility of a serious HIV epidemic that may be directly spread to the female population. However,AIDS interventions targeting MSM face severe obstructions resulting from cultural bias and other factors.

  9. Sex worker activism, feminist discourse and HIV in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between sex worker activism and HIV-related discourse in Bangladesh, relating recent developments in activism to the influence of feminist thought. Following their eviction in 1991 from brothels from red light areas, Bangladeshi sex workers started a social movement, at just about the same time that programmes started to work with sex workers to reduce the transmission of HIV. This paper argues that both sex worker activism and HIV-prevention initiatives find impetus in feminist pro-sex-work perspectives, which place emphasis on individual and collective agency. However, by participating in these programmes, sex workers failed to contest the imagery of themselves as 'vectors' of HIV. In this way, they were unwittingly complicit in reproducing their identity as 'polluting others'. Moreover, by focusing on individual behaviour and the agency of sex workers, HIV programmes ignored the fact that the 'choices' made by sex workers are influenced by a wide range of structural and discursive factors, including gender norms and notions of bodily purity, which in turn have implications for the construction of HIV-related risk.

  10. A reconfiguration of the sex trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmes, Jocelyn; Skovdal, Morten; Nhongo, Kundai

    2017-01-01

    dispersed from the bars into the wider community, requiring female sex workers to employ different tactics to attract clients. Hyperinflation meant that sex workers had to accept new forms of payment, including sex-on-credit and commodities. Further impacting the demand for commercial sex work was a poverty...... and respond to the contribution of sex work to HIV transmission need to guard against unduly static definitions and consider the changing socioeconomic context and how this can cause shifts in behavior....

  11. Tackling the diversity of sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Claus; Stelkens, Rike B

    2010-02-23

    A workshop on 'The evolution of sex determination systems' was held at a remote place in the Swiss Alps from 17 to 20 June 2009. It brought together theoreticians and empiricists, the latter ranging from molecular geneticists to evolutionary ecologists, all trying to understand key aspects of sex determination. The topics discussed included the evolutionary origins of sex determination, the diversity of sex determination mechanisms in different taxa, and the transition from genotypic to environmental sex determination and vice versa.

  12. The genetic sex-determination system predicts adult sex ratios in tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipoly, Ivett; Bókony, Veronika; Kirkpatrick, Mark; Donald, Paul F; Székely, Tamás; Liker, András

    2015-11-05

    The adult sex ratio (ASR) has critical effects on behaviour, ecology and population dynamics, but the causes of variation in ASRs are unclear. Here we assess whether the type of genetic sex determination influences the ASR using data from 344 species in 117 families of tetrapods. We show that taxa with female heterogamety have a significantly more male-biased ASR (proportion of males: 0.55 ± 0.01 (mean ± s.e.m.)) than taxa with male heterogamety (0.43 ± 0.01). The genetic sex-determination system explains 24% of interspecific variation in ASRs in amphibians and 36% in reptiles. We consider several genetic factors that could contribute to this pattern, including meiotic drive and sex-linked deleterious mutations, but further work is needed to quantify their effects. Regardless of the mechanism, the effects of the genetic sex-determination system on the adult sex ratio are likely to have profound effects on the demography and social behaviour of tetrapods.

  13. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-01-01

    In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurtur...

  14. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.

  15. A systematic review on identifying risk factors associated with early sexual debut and coerced sex among adolescents and young people in communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Regina Lai Tong; Yuen Loke, Alice; Hung, Tsz Man Tommy; Sobel, Howard

    2017-06-21

    To review literature on identifying the risk factors associated with early sexual coerced debut with the aim to facilitate the health care workers' planning of relevant health services to improve intervention strategies for delaying of early coerced sexual debut or forced sexual debut (CSD/FSD) in the communities. Identifying the risk factors associated with coercion at first sex is crucial for developing appropriate sexual and reproductive health information and health promotion in response. However, current knowledge about the risk factors associated with coercion, sexual debut (SD), and delayed SD among young people is limited. Health information programs are important during adolescence, when young people are developing their values and beliefs about sexual activity and sexual norms. However, little is known about those risk factors on initiation of early sexual debut in order to plan relevant interventions that can delay SD and prevent coerced sexual debut or forced sexual debut (CSD/FSD) in this population. A systematic review. An extensive literature search using Medline (PubMed), Nursing Journals (PubMed), Web of Science, PsychINFO and CINAHL. The search generated 39 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty-two articles passed the quality appraisal and were selected. This review identified six domains of risk factors, categorized as: (1) the individual domain, (2) the family domain, (3) the partner/peer domain, (4) the school domain, (5) the community domain, and (6) the cultural domain. These factors highlight the influences on sexual decision-making among adolescents and young people and the timing of their first sexual intercourse. It is important to utilize the outcome of this review's categorization of identified risk factors to facilitate the health care workers and plan relevant sexual and reproductive health programs more accessible to adolescents, especially young females and their parents. There is a need to evaluate

  16. Sex and gender affect the social brain: Beyond simplicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A

    2017-01-02

    As the most fascinating, complex, and dynamic part of our organism, the human brain is shaped by many interacting factors that not only are of neurobiological (including sex hormones) and environmental origin but are also sociocultural in their very nature (such as social roles). Gender is one of these factors. Most neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition (primarily body language reading and face perception) and a skewed sex ratio: females and males are affected differently in terms of clinical picture, prevalence, and severity. Is the social brain sex specific? This is still an open question. For a long time and for many reasons, sex differences have been overlooked or entirely ignored in neuroscience and biomedical research: there is a paucity of neuroimaging work examining sex differences in the social brain. However, the pattern of experimental behavioral data in both healthy, typically developing individuals and patients with deficient social cognition is beyond simple interpretation: contrary to popular wisdom, females are not always more proficient in understanding social signals, and their social abilities may be particularly affected by disease. Clarification of how neurobiological sex and sociocultural gender affect the social brain would provide novel insights into understanding gender-specific vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. This interaction is far beyond simplicity. Although sex differences represent a rather delicate topic, underestimation or exaggeration of possible effects retards progress in the field. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sex differentials in the risk factors of post traumatic stress disorder among tsunami survivors in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T T, Pyari; T K, Sundari Ravindran

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed if pre disaster, with-in disaster and post disaster factors predicted Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) differently, among men and women survivors of the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami in Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India. PTSD was identified using a validated tool, Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) among the participants in a cross-sectional community based survey (n=485). Case control analysis of 299 subjects was done to determine the predictors of PTSD. The odds of having PTSD were 6.35 times higher in women than men. Higher odds for PTSD was seen among women who were married, aged over 40, belonged to low socioeconomic status and resided in heavily damaged areas. Protective odds for PTSD was found among women who had received more than three times of counseling services whereas men were not at risk if they were free from fear of recurrence of tsunami, when adjusted for other variables. Women were vulnerable to PTSD because of their socially constructed roles. It is important to consider gender based vulnerabilities while designing interventions to combat mental health problems among disaster affected communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex parties among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in New York City: attendance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Todd M; Halkitis, Perry N; Moeller, Robert M; Siconolfi, Daniel E; Kiang, Mathew V; Barton, Staci C

    2011-12-01

    Very little information exists with regard to sex party behaviors in young men who have sex with men (YMSM), often defined as men ranging in age from 13 to 29 years. The current analysis examines sex party attendance and behavior in a sample of 540 emergent adult gay, bisexual, and other YMSM in New York City, ages 18-29 years. Findings indicate that 8.7% (n = 47) of the sample had attended a sex party 3 months prior to assessment. Sex party attendees reported that parties included both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men; attendees also reported unprotected sex and limited access to condoms and lubricant. As compared with those who did not attend sex parties, those who did indicated significantly more lifetime and recent (last 3 months) casual sex partners, drug use (both number of different drugs used and total lifetime use), psychosocial burden (history of partner violence and number of arrests), and total syndemic burden (a composite of unprotected anal sex, drug use and psychosocial burden). These results indicate that while only a small percentage of the overall sample attended sex parties, the intersection of both individual risk factors coupled with risk factors engendered within the sex party environment itself has the potential to be a catalyst in the proliferation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in urban settings. Lastly, given that sex parties are different than other sex environments, commercial and public, with regard to how they are accessed, public health strategies may need to become more tailored in order to reach this potentially highly risky group.

  19. Sex with sweethearts: Exploring factors associated with inconsistent condom use among unmarried female entertainment workers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Ngin, Chanrith; Chhim, Kolab; Brody, Carinne

    2017-01-05

    Despite the success in promoting condom use in commercial relationships, condom use with regular, noncommercial partners remains low among key populations in Cambodia. This study explores factors associated inconsistent condom use with sweethearts among unmarried sexually active female entertainment workers (FEWs). In 2014, the probability proportional to size sampling method was used to randomly select 204 FEWs from entertainment venues in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap for face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine independent determinants of inconsistent condom use. Of total, 31.4% of the respondents reported consistent condom use with sweethearts in the past three months. After adjustment, respondents who reported inconsistent condom use with sweethearts remained significantly less likely to report having received any form of sexual and reproductive health education (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.22-0.99), but more likely to report having been tested for HIV in the past six months (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.03-4.65). They were significantly more likely to report having used higher amount of alcohol in the past three months (AOR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.01-1.99) and currently using a contraceptive method other than condoms such as pills (AOR = 4.46, 95% CI = 1.34-10.52) or other methods (AOR = 9.75, 95% CI = 2.07-9.86). The rate of consistent condom use in romantic relationships among unmarried FEWs in this study is considerably low. The importance of consistent condom use with regular, non-commercial partners should be emphasized in the education sessions and materials, particularly for FEWs who use non-barrier contraceptive methods.

  20. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple factors, including non-motor impairments, influence decision making with regard to exercise participation in Parkinson's disease: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine; Clemson, Lindy; Canning, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    To explore how the meaning of exercise and other factors interact and influence the exercise behaviour of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled in a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program to prevent falls, regardless of whether they completed the prescribed exercise or not. This qualitative study utilised in-depth semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory methodology. Four main themes were constructed from the data: adapting to change and loss, the influence of others, making sense of the exercise experience and hope for a more active future. Participation in the PD-specific physiotherapy program involving group exercise provided an opportunity for participants to reframe their identity of their "active" self. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified and explored: non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, the belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. A model was developed incorporating the themes and influences to explain decision-making for exercise participation in this group. Complex and interacting issues, including non-motor impairments, need to be considered in order to enhance the development and ongoing implementation of effective exercise programmes for people with PD. Exercise participation can assist individuals to reframe their identity as they are faced with losses associated with Parkinson's disease and ageing. Non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue may influence exercise participation in people with Parkinson's disease. Particular attention needs to be paid to the provision of feedback in exercise programs for people with Parkinson's disease as it important for their decision-making about continuing exercise.

  2. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  3. Laser Microdissection Unravels Cell-Type-Specific Transcription in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots, Including CAAT-Box Transcription Factor Gene Expression Correlating with Fungal Contact and Spread1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogekamp, Claudia; Arndt, Damaris; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Becker, Jörg D.; Hohnjec, Natalija; Küster, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis. PMID:22034628

  4. Effects of sex steroids and growth factors on invasive activity and 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine sensitivity in ovarian adenocarcinoma OMC-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, M; Fujii, H; Yoshizawa, K; Kumagai, K; Ueki, K; Terai, Y; Yanagihara, T; Ueki, M

    1998-12-01

    Effects of sex steroids (estradiol-17 beta, E2; progesterone, Prog) and growth factors (epidermal growth factor, EGF; transforming growth factor-alpha, TGF-alpha) on invasive activity and 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUrd) sensitivity of ovarian adenocarcinoma OMC-3 cells were investigated. Tumor cell migration along a gradient of substratum-bound fibronectin and invasion into reconstituted basement membrane were inhibited by 10 microM Prog, but stimulated by 0.1-10 nM EGF and TGF-alpha in a concentration-dependent manner. E2 did not have any effect on tumor cell migration or invasion. The zymography of tumor conditioned medium showed that the treatment of OMC-3 cells with EGF and TGF-alpha resulted in increases of type IV collagenase, stromelysin and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). EGF and TGF-alpha up-regulated thymidine phosphorylase (dThdPase) expression of tumor cells and consequently enhanced the antiproliferative action of 5'-dFUrd, which is converted to 5-fluorouracil by dThdPase. E2 and Prog did not have significant effects on the expression of proteolytic enzymes and dThdPase, or on the 5'-dFUrd sensitivity of tumor cells. The inhibitory effect of Prog on tumor cell invasion may depend on its inhibitory action on the motility of tumor cells. These results suggest that EGF and TGF-alpha simultaneously up-regulate the potential of ovarian adenocarcinoma cells to invade extracellular matrices and their dThdPase expression, both of which are associated with the specific action of 5'-dFUrd selectively to kill tumor cells with high invasive and metastatic potential.

  5. High human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroprevalence in men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina: risk factors for infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, Maria de los Angeles; Maulen, Sergio; Weissenbacher, Mercedes; Marone, Rubén; Duranti, Ricardo; Peralta, Liliana Martínez; Salomón, Horacio; Russell, Kevin; Negrete, Monica; Sosa Estani, Sergio; Montano, Silvia; Sanchez, José L; Avila, Maria Mercedes

    2003-10-01

    To determine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence in a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires City and to identify risk factors associated with HIV type 1 infection. Participants were invited to receive HIV counselling and testing at "NEXO" (a gay non-governmental organization) by means of informative leaflets distributed in gay nightclubs, porno cinemas, gymnasiums, and in the streets. During the encounter, the study was explained by a trained social worker and individuals were invited to volunteer for the study. Diagnosis of HIV was performed using two screening tests and Western Blot assay was used as confirmatory. Human immunodeficiency virus was detected in 96 (13.8%; 95% CI: 11.4-16.7) of 694 MSM. Fourteen (14.6%) of the 96 HIV-positive MSM were already aware of their HIV serostatus. In univariate analysis, HIV-1 infection (odds ratio [OR] >1.5) was found to be associated with older age (30-39 years), being unemployed, a previous sexually transmitted disease (STD) history, and having an HIV-positive partner. Cocaine consumption and irregular use of condoms with occasional partners were also found to be risk factors. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being unemployed (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.17-9.99) and having an HIV-positive partner (OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.09-6.52) remained significant risk factors. The high HIV-1 prevalence observed suggests an urgent need for implementation of effective prevention campaigns. This represents the first cross-sectional epidemiological study of HIV among the high-risk group of MSM in Argentina.

  6. The relationships among bone health, insulin-like growth factor-1 and sex hormones in adolescent female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruodyte, Rita; Jürimäe, Jaak; Saar, Meeli; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships of bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and estradiol in pubertal female athletes. The participants were 170 healthy adolescent girls (13-15 years) who participated in competitive extramural athletic programs, i.e., sports games (n = 49), track sprinting (n = 24), rhythmic gymnastics (n = 23), swimming (n = 24) and cross-country skiing (n = 17). The control group (n = 33) consisted of girls who took part only in compulsory physical education classes at school. The whole-body BMD and femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and BMC were measured using DXA, and the volumetric BMD was calculated. Venous blood samples to determine the concentration of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and estradiol were drawn after an overnight fasting. After adjusting for age, body height and body mass, the relationships among BMD variables, IGF-1 and the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio remained significant only in the rhythmic gymnast group. BMDs at the femoral neck and lumbar spine were also related to estradiol levels (r = 0.45-0.60; p < 0.05) only in the rhythmic gymnast group. No relationships were found among the measured BMD, IGF axis and estradiol in other athletic groups. Only BMC at the femoral neck remained associated with the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio in the rhythmic gymnast group after adjusting for age, body height and body mass. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that IGF-1 and estradiol together explained 42.6% (R(2) x 100) of total variance in the femoral neck BMD and IGF-1 alone 35.4% (R(2) x 100) of the total variance in the femoral neck BMC only in the rhythmic gymnast group. We conclude that femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD correlated with IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio and estradiol in rhythmic gymnasts. No relationships were found between bone parameters and the hormones used in other athletic groups.

  7. Sex chromosome complement influences operant responding for a palatable food in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seu, E; Groman, S M; Arnold, A P; Jentsch, J D

    2014-07-01

    The procurement and consumption of palatable, calorie-dense foods is influenced by the nutritional and hedonic value of foods. Although many factors can influence the control over behavior by foods rich in sugar and fat, emerging evidence indicates that biological sex may play a particularly crucial role in the types of foods individuals seek out, as well as the level of motivation individuals will exert to obtain those foods. However, a systematic investigation of food-seeking and consumption that disentangles the effects of the major sex-biasing factors, including sex chromosome complement and organizational and activational effects of sex hormones, has yet to be conducted. Using the four core genotypes mouse model system, we separated and quantified the effects of sex chromosome complement and gonadal sex on consumption of and motivation to obtain a highly palatable solution [sweetened condensed milk (SCM)]. Gonadectomized mice with an XY sex chromosome complement, compared with those with two X chromosomes, independent of gonadal sex, appeared to be more sensitive to the reward value of the SCM solution and were more motivated to expend effort to obtain it, as evidenced by their dramatically greater expended effort in an instrumental task with progressively larger response-to-reward ratios. Gonadal sex independently affected free consumption of the solution but not motivation to obtain it. These data indicate that gonadal and chromosomal sex effects independently influence reward-related behaviors, contributing to sexually dimorphic patterns of behavior related to the pursuit and consumption of rewards.

  8. Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortner, Renée T; Hüsing, Anika; Kühn, Tilman;

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case......-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum...... concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines, and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at pdiscrimination was assessed using...

  9. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  10. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  11. [Lethal sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinerson, David; Ben-Shitrit, Gadi; Glezerman, Marek

    2011-03-01

    Asphyxiophilic sex is a form of autoerotic activity, in which the user creates mechanical means (such as hanging or bondage) in order to achieve cerebral hypoxia, which, in turn, enhances sexual, as well as orgasmic, stimulus. Failure of safety mechanisms, created by the user, may lead to instant death as a result of asphyxiation or strangulation. This kind of sexual practice is more prevalent among men than in women. In cases of death, it is difficult to relate it to the sexual practice itself. Suicide and homicide are the main differential diagnoses. Closely related derivatives of asphyxiophilic sex are anesthesiophilia (inhalation of variable volatile substances) and electrophilia (use of electric current during sexual activity)--both also intended to enhance the sexual stimulation. These forms of sexual practice are less prevalent than asphyxiophilia.

  12. Size-dependent, sex-dependent and seasonal changes in insulin-lige growth-factor-I in the loggerhead sea turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, D.A.; Bolten, A.B.; Bjorndal, K.A.; Guillette, L.J.; Gross, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines size-dependent, sex-dependent, and seasonal fluctuations in plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Loggerhead turtles (n = 158) were captured in shrimp trawler nets during a 12-month survey in Cape Canaveral Channel, Florida. Plasma samples were analyzed using a validated heterologous radioimmunoassay. Large turtles (>75 cm straight-line carapace length) had significantly higher plasma IGF-I concentrations than small turtles (⩽75 cm; P turtles, but large turtles had significantly higher plasma IGF-I concentrations during the spring and summer months (P turtles, adult males had significantly lower IGF-I concentrations than females and subadult males (P turtle natural history suggest that the seasonal fluctuations in plasma IGF-I of adult turtles are due to elevated IGF-I levels in reproductively active female turtles. Further research is needed to examine correlations between reproductive activities and plasma IGF-I concentrations in reptiles.

  13. Sex Education and Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruyter, Doret J.; Spiecker, Ben

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that sex education should include sexual ideals. Sexual ideals are divided into sexual ideals in the strict sense and sexual ideals in the broad sense. It is argued that ideals that refer to the context that is deemed to be most ideal for the gratification of sexual ideals in the strict sense are rightfully called sexual…

  14. Sex differences in NMDA GluN1 plasticity in rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons containing corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor following slow-pressor angiotensin II hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kempen, T A; Dodos, M; Woods, C; Marques-Lopes, J; Justice, N J; Iadecola, C; Pickel, V M; Glass, M J; Milner, T A

    2015-10-29

    There are profound, yet incompletely understood, sex differences in the neurogenic regulation of blood pressure. Both corticotropin signaling and glutamate receptor plasticity, which differ between males and females, are known to play important roles in the neural regulation of blood pressure. However, the relationship between hypertension and glutamate plasticity in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-receptive neurons in brain cardiovascular regulatory areas, including the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), is not understood. In the present study, we used dual-label immuno-electron microscopy to analyze sex differences in slow-pressor angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension with respect to the subcellular distribution of the obligatory NMDA glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluN1) subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the RVLM and PVN. Studies were conducted in mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) under the control of the CRF type 1 receptor (CRF1) promoter (i.e., CRF1-EGFP reporter mice). By light microscopy, GluN1-immunoreactivity (ir) was found in CRF1-EGFP neurons of the RVLM and PVN. Moreover, in both regions tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was found in CRF1-EGFP neurons. In response to AngII, male mice showed an elevation in blood pressure that was associated with an increase in the proportion of GluN1 on presumably functional areas of the plasma membrane (PM) in CRF1-EGFP dendritic profiles in the RVLM. In female mice, AngII was neither associated with an increase in blood pressure nor an increase in PM GluN1 in the RVLM. Unlike the RVLM, AngII-mediated hypertension had no effect on GluN1 localization in CRF1-EGFP dendrites in the PVN of either male or female mice. These studies provide an anatomical mechanism for sex-differences in the convergent modulation of RVLM catecholaminergic neurons by CRF and glutamate. Moreover, these results suggest that sexual dimorphism in

  15. 南京市男男性行为人群梅毒感染情况及影响因素调查%Syphilis prevalence and its associated factors among men who have sex with men in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎; 张敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nanjing. Methods; A face-face questionnaire interview was conducted among MSM by snowball sampling method in Nanjing from March to July,2009. Socio-demographic,behavioral and other characteristics were included in the questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to evaluate independent factor associated with syphilis. Results;A total of 661 MSM were recruited. The mean age of these participants was 27.44 years. Among them 84.0% were unmarried, and 90.5% had an education beyond senior middle school; in the past 6 months,5.0% had sexual contact with more than 10 male sex partners,the rate of protected anal sex during the past 6 months was 36.0%. The percentage of people who had ever paid for male sex service was 3.9%,who had provided commercial sex service to male was 4.5%,and who had sexual contact with female was 21.0%. Syphilis was diagnosed in 11.5% of these participants,the risk factors independently associated with syphilis elude being older than 25 years (adjusted OR=4.20,95%CI:2.26-7.80),non-local residency (adjusted OR=1.67,95%CI:1.00-2.78),looking for male sex partners from bathhouse (adjusted OR=2.29,95%CI: 1.26-4.15),sexually transmitted diseases examination and treatment in I year before interview (adjusted OR=2.15,95%CI;1.25-3.69). Conclusion:The rate of unprotected anal sex was high, so was the prevalence of syphilis among MSM. Further efforts are urgently needed to scale-up the prevention of syphilis among MSM.%目的:了解南京市男男性行为人群(men who have sexwith men,MSM)梅毒感染情况及影响因素,为行为干预工作提供科学数据.方法:在南京市MSM社区使用滚雪球法招募MSM进行问卷调查,了解其社会人口学、高危行为特征;采集静脉血进行HIV和梅毒抗体检测.结果:共调查661例MSM,所调查的MSM平均年龄为(27.44±7.94)

  16. Goals for Sex Equitable Sexuality Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Mariamne H.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents an overview of issues related to sex equity in sexuality education. Goals which might represent sex equitable sexuality education include eliminating double standards, and redefining sexuality education. (IAH)

  17. Sex Differences and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Foch, Terryl T.

    1981-01-01

    Sex differences and their relationship to individual differences were examined for Maccoby and Jacklin's sex differences summaries, for a diverse set of measures of specific cognitive abilities (including verbal ability), and for objective personality assessments of 216 school-age children. Average differences between groups appeared to be trivial…

  18. Sex Differences in Dichotic Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present study quantified the magnitude of sex differences in perceptual asymmetries as measured with dichotic listening. This was achieved by means of a meta-analysis of the literature dating back from the initial use of dichotic listening as a measure of laterality. The meta-analysis included 249 effect sizes pertaining to sex differences and…

  19. Sex difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular-related risk factors in urban adults from 33 communities of China: The CHPSNE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Bin; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Jian; Xin, Shi-Jie; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome in urban areas of China. To estimate the prevalence of MetS and identify its cardiovascular-related factors in men and women, a representative sample of 15,477 urban adults aged 18-74 years in Northeast China was selected from 2009 to 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on criteria set by the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.4% (men 27.9% and women 26.8%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher education level and a higher family income were associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men, but associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women. Higher physical activity was associated with a decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men (adjusted odds ratios (aORs) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.99), but associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00-1.29). Compared with rice as the major staple food, cooked wheaten foods were associated with lower adjusted odds for metabolic syndrome both in men (aOR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.90) and in women (aOR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.56-0.92). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in urban areas of China, and there is heterogeneity by sex in the relationships between risk factors and metabolic syndrome prevalence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Concomitant socioeconomic, behavioral, and biological factors associated with the disproportionate HIV infection burden among Black men who have sex with men in 6 U.S. cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth H Mayer

    Full Text Available American Black men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by HIV, but the factors associated with this concentrated epidemic are not fully understood.Black MSM were enrolled in 6 US cities to evaluate a multi-component prevention intervention, with the current analysis focusing on the correlates of being newly diagnosed with HIV compared to being HIV-uninfected or previously diagnosed with HIV.HPTN 061 enrolled 1553 Black MSM whose median age was 40; 30% self-identified exclusively as gay or homosexual, 29% exclusively as bisexual, and 3% as transgender. About 1/6(th (16.2% were previously diagnosed with HIV (PD; of 1263 participants without a prior HIV diagnosis 7.6% were newly diagnosed (ND. Compared to PD, ND Black MSM were younger (p<0.001; less likely to be living with a primary partner (p<0.001; more likely to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001, rectal gonorrhea (p = 0.011 or chlamydia (p = 0.020. Compared to HIV-uninfected Black MSM, ND were more likely to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI with a male partner in the last 6 months (p<0.001; and to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001, rectal gonorrhea (p = 0.004, and urethral (p = 0.025 or rectal chlamydia (p<0.001. They were less likely to report female (p = 0.002 or transgender partners (p = 0.018. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that ND Black MSM were significantly more likely than HIV-uninfected peers to be unemployed; have STIs, and engage in URAI. Almost half the men in each group were poor, had depressive symptoms, and expressed internalized homophobia.ND HIV-infected Black MSM were more likely to be unemployed, have bacterial STIs and engage in URAI than other Black MSM. Culturally-tailored programs that address economic disenfranchisement, increase engagement in care, screen for STIs, in conjunction with safer sex prevention interventions, may help to decrease further transmission in this heavily

  1. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy A A ... safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during all stages ...

  2. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  3. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  4. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  5. "The Second Sex" as a Classic: A Rhetorical Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waln, Virginia

    The rhetorical technique of Simone de Beauvoir's "The Second Sex" is discussed and analyzed as one source of its impact on the women's movement. De Beauvoir's existentialist philosophy is seen as the most significant factor both in her perception of the world and in the rhetorical style adopted in the book. This includes both a…

  6. "The Second Sex" as a Classic: A Rhetorical Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waln, Virginia

    The rhetorical technique of Simone de Beauvoir's "The Second Sex" is discussed and analyzed as one source of its impact on the women's movement. De Beauvoir's existentialist philosophy is seen as the most significant factor both in her perception of the world and in the rhetorical style adopted in the book. This includes both a…

  7. Investigation of SRY Gene in Sex Reversed Syndrome Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金东; 单祥年; 蒋清; 鲁晓宣; 邱定红; 严明; 郑谷; 王世浚

    1995-01-01

    SRY (sex-determining region Y chromosome) is considered as a strong candidate for the TDF (testis determining factor) and has been cloned following another candidate ZFY (zinc finger protein gone). In this study,eight cases of sex reversal, including four 46, XX males and four 46, XY females were examined for the presence of SRY sequence and a Y-repeated DNA locus. Our data indicated that the genomie DNA of the four classical 46,XX males had the SRY sequences. On the other hand, both SRY sequences and Y-repeated DNA sequences were present in aii four 46, XY females.These results suggest that SRY sequences were responsible for the sex reversal of 46, XX males whereas there may be other genetic mechanisms for the sex reversal of 46, XY females without the lack of SRY sequences.

  8. Offspring sex ratio in mammals and the Trivers-Willard hypothesis: In pursuit of unambiguous evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhard, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    Can mammalian mothers adaptively control the sex of their offspring? The influential Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH) proposes that when maternal condition increases the fitness of sons more than that of daughters, the proportion of sons produced should increase with maternal condition. Studies of mammals, however, often fail to support this hypothesis. This article highlights recent advances, including studies on the assumptions of the TWH and physiological mechanisms for sex-ratio manipulation. Particular emphasis is placed on how factors such as paternal quality, maternal reproductive costs and environmental conditions experienced by mothers early in life can mask/alter the expected relationship between maternal condition and offspring sex ratio or lead to apparent support for the TWH. While there is growing evidence that sex ratio around conception may be maternally and paternally manipulated, a challenge for future studies on sex allocation is to integrate how multiple and potentially opposite selective pressures affect offspring sex ratio. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  10. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  11. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vicoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot, but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes. Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  12. 绵阳城区男男性行为者性伴特征及影响因素%Features and Its Influencing Factors of the Sex Partners of MSM in Mianyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 徐杰; 李志军; 张光贵; 李六林; 樊静

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of the sex partners of men who have sex with men ( MSM). Methods The respondent - driven sampling ( RDS) was adopted to recuit respondents, and the anonymous self - administered questionnaire were fulfilled by MSM in certain time and place. Results Totally 400 people were investigated, and the average age of the first anal sex was (18 ± 3. 59) years. Among the 400 people, 88.4% (352/398) of them had sex in the last 6 months with an average of (2 ±3.29) sex partners; 4. 7% ( 17/359) of them had sex with male prostitute with an average number of ( 1 ± 2. 49 ) ; 2. 5 % ( 9/355 ) of them sell sex, the average number was (4 ±6. 19); 18. 3% (73/400) of them had sex with women with an average number of (1 ± 2.42). The number of sex part-ners was related to different marriage situation, sexual orientation, age of the first time having anal sex, number of local homosexual friends, number of the cities where their companions live, use of condoms in anal sex in die last 6 months, gain of knowledge related AIDS from books or school, aware of the healthy situation of sex partners or not. Through multifactor analysis, the coincidental factors which entered the regression model finally were different marriage situation, number of local homosexual friends, age of the first insertional sex, number of the cities where their sex partners lived, wether understood the healthy situation of sex partners (P < 0. 05). The MSM who was married (OR =5. 074); who had a number of local homosexual friends more than or equal to 9 (OR = 5.074); who were not aware of the healdiy situation of sex partners ( OR =1. 235 ) ; who had first anal sex at the age of less or equal to 24 ( OR = 6. 948 - 9. 817) had more sex partners; who had number of die cities where their sex partners lived less than or equal to 1 ( OR = 0. 254) had less sex partners. Conclusion It is presented that MSM in Mianyang had first sex at young age, and have sex with both men and

  13. 云南省某市低档场所女性性工作者无保护性行为及影响因素分析%Unprotected sex behavior among female sex workers in low class establishments and related factors in a city of Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    历云超; 李静; 焦锋; 韩芳; 徐凡; 韩云涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study unprotected sex behavior among female sex workers in low class establishments and related factors in a city of Yunnan province, so as to provide scientific evidence for behavioral intervention large-ting female sex workers(FSWs). Methods FSWs were selected by snowball sampling and were interviewed by face to face approach. All data were analyzed with SPSS 17. 0 software, using logistic regression model to analyze factors related to safe sex behavior. Result A total of 426 FSWs were investigated, of whom 16. 2 % and 85. 4 % had unprotected sex behavior with clients and regular sex partners in the last month,respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that educational background, rate of condom use with clients in the last month, and whether to know the result of AIDS test were independently associated with unprotected sex behavior among FSWs and their clients. Conclusion There is a great difference in the unprotected sex behavior among FSWs with their different sex partners,particularly sexual intercourse with their intimate sex partners. Considering too close relationship, they often overlook the risk of unprotected intercourse. The rate of unprotected sex behavior with clients is low, but the rate of repeated behaviors cannot be ignored, which indicates that different strategies should be developed for behavioral intervention targeting female sex workers in low class establishments and they should be timely informed of the result of HIV tests%目的 了解云南省某市低档场所女性性工作者(FSWs)无保护性行为发生状况及主要影响因素,为有效地开展艾滋病干预工作提供参考.方法 通过滚雪球的方式招募目标人群,进行面对面的调查,数据采用SPSS 17.0作统计学处理,运用逐步向前法的Logistic回归分析确定影响安全性行为的因素.结果 共得到有效样本426名,在调查中发现被调查者与商业性性伴最近一个月的无

  14. Sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin, and vertebral fractures in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Schousboe, John T; Harrison, Stephanie L; Ensrud, Kristine E; Black, Dennis; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; LeBlanc, Erin S; Laughlin, Gail A; Nielson, Carrie M; Broughton, Augusta; Kado, Deborah M; Hoffman, Andrew R; Jamal, Sophie A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-03-01

    The association between sex hormones and sex hormone binding globin (SHBG) with vertebral fractures in men is not well studied. In these analyses, we determined whether sex hormones and SHBG were associated with greater likelihood of vertebral fractures in a prospective cohort study of community dwelling older men. We included data from participants in MrOS who had been randomly selected for hormone measurement (N=1463, including 1054 with follow-up data 4.6years later). Major outcomes included prevalent vertebral fracture (semi-quantitative grade≥2, N=140, 9.6%) and new or worsening vertebral fracture (change in SQ grade≥1, N=55, 5.2%). Odds ratios per SD decrease in sex hormones and per SD increase in SHBG were estimated with logistic regression adjusted for potentially confounding factors, including age, bone mineral density, and other sex hormones. Higher SHBG was associated with a greater likelihood of prevalent vertebral fractures (OR: 1.38 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.72). Total estradiol analyzed as a continuous variable was not associated with prevalent vertebral fractures (OR per SD decrease: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.10). Men with total estradiol values ≤17pg/ml had a borderline higher likelihood of prevalent fracture than men with higher values (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.16). There was no association between total testosterone and prevalent fracture. In longitudinal analyses, SHBG (OR: 1.42 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.95) was associated with new or worsening vertebral fracture, but there was no association with total estradiol or total testosterone. In conclusion, higher SHBG (but not testosterone or estradiol) is an independent risk factor for vertebral fractures in older men.

  15. Sex hormone binding globulin decrease as potential pathogenetic factor for hirsutism in adolescent girls Disminución de la globulina transportadora de hormonas sexuales como factor patogénico de hirsutismo en la adolescencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Cross

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated 252 non-obese female subjects aged 13-39 years to evaluate if an exaggerated descent of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels during adolescence can play a role in the development of hirsutism. Body hair was assessed according to Ferriman and Gallwey (FG, with a stringent criterion of normality of 4 and controls (FG Se investigaron 252 mujeres con peso normal, de 13 a 39 años de edad, para evaluar si un descenso exagerado en los niveles de la globulina transportadora de hormonas sexuales ("sex hormone binding globulin"; SHBG puede tener un rol en el desarrollo de hirsutismo. Este signo fue evaluado con la escala de Ferriman y Gallwey (FG, empleando un criterio riguroso de normalidad 4 y controles (FG < 4, ciclos menstruales regulares, sin acné. En adolescentes de 15-18 años, los valores de SHBG fueron menores en las "hirsutas", los niveles de FT fueron similares en ambos grupos y el índice de FG correlacionó inversamente con SHBG. En las mujeres de 19-39 años, los niveles de FT fueron mayores en las "hirsutas", los valores de SHBG fueron similares en ambos grupos y FG correlacionó positivamente con FT. Los valores más bajos de SHBG se observaron entre 15 y 18 años, pero la pendiente de disminución a partir de los valores de 13-14 años fue mayor en el grupo de "hirsutas". Los valores de FT se incrementaron progresivamente con la edad, pero el aumento fue mayor en el grupo de "hirsutas". Estos resultados sugieren un rol importante del descenso de SHBG en la adolescencia vs. un incremento más acentuado de los niveles de testosterona en las adultas, como factores que condicionan el desarrollo del hirsutismo en esos dos diferentes periodos de la vida.

  16. Sex-specific patterns and differences in dementia and Alzheimer's disease using informatics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, Jay Geronimo; Baer, Merritt Rachel; Lester, William T

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health recently highlighted the critical need for explicitly addressing sex differences in biomedical research, including Alzheimer's disease and dementia. The purpose of our study was to perform a sex-stratified analysis of cognitive impairment using diverse medical, clinical, and genetic factors of unprecedented scale and scope by applying informatics approaches to three large Alzheimer's databases. Analyses suggested females were 1.5 times more likely than males to have a documented diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease, and several other factors fell along sex-specific lines and were possibly associated with severity of cognitive impairment.

  17. Neisseria gonorrhoeae prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors among female sex workers in a high HIV-prevalence area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luo

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: A relatively high prevalence and incidence of N. gonorrhoeae among a prospective cohort of FSWs underscore the urgency for traditional HIV/STIs prevention methods among FSWs, such as condom promotion, screening and treatment of STIs, considering the high prevalence of STIs. Significant attention should focus on FSWs working in higher risk commercial sex venues as they are at higher risk for N. gonorrhoeae and transmission than those in lower risk commercial sex venues.

  18. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor....... In conclusion, spironolactone inhibits production of several proinflammatory cytokines considered to be of pathogenic importance in many immunoinflammatory diseases and shows positive effect in patients with chronic arthritis. Its effect as an anti-inflammatory drug should be explored, because prolonged...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  19. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    ,000 genes) and enzyme immunoassay for quantitating secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of spironolactone as an anti-inflammatory drug 21 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) or other arthritides were treated...... for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  20. Lineages of human T-cell clones, including T helper 17/T helper 1 cells, isolated at different stages of anti–factor VIII immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Ettinger, Ruth A.; James, Eddie A.; Kwok, William W.; Arthur R Thompson; Pratt, Kathleen P.

    2009-01-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) after factor VIII (FVIII) infusions is a serious complication that affects approximately one-quarter of hemophilia A patients who have access to replacement therapy. To investigate the differentiation of naive T cells into FVIII-specific helper T cells that promote B-cell activation and antibody secretion, HLA-DRA-DRB1*0101-restricted T-cell clones that respond to a specific epitope in FVIII were isolated from a mild hemophilia A subject...

  1. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; van Lankveld, Wim G J M; Vonk, Madelon C; Becker, Eni S; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. In total, 215 patients with SSc completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, physical functioning (HAQ-DI), pain (VAS), fatigue (CIS), psychosocial characteristics (CISS, ICQ, PRQ, ASE, FoP-Q-SF) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). Disease characteristics (disease duration, disease subtype, modified Rodnan Skin Score) were collected. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess associations with depressive symptoms. The mean CES-D score was 12.9 (SD=9.7) and the prevalence of patients scoring>= 16 and>=19 were 32.1% and 25.1%, respectively. The variance explained by sociodemographics and disease characteristics was negligible (R(2)≤.09). Fatigue and pain were independently associated with depressive symptoms (R(2) change=.35). After adding psychological factors (R(2) change=.21), satisfaction with social support, emotion-focused coping and helplessness were also significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher fear of progression was associated with more depressive symptoms (P≤.01), and appearance self-esteem showed a marginally significant association (P=.08). Depressive symptoms were common in the present sample of patients with SSc and were independently associated with pain, fatigue, social support, emotion-focused coping, helplessness and fear of progression. Results suggest that, in addition to assessment of disease characteristics, attention should be given also to psychosocial factors found to be associated with depressive symptoms. For the development and trialling of psychological interventions, fear of progression could be an important target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Individual, partner, and partnership level correlates of anal sex among youth in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Luciana E; Lilleston, Pamela S; Jennings, Jacky M; Sherman, Susan G

    2015-04-01

    Anal sex is an efficient mode of STI transmission and studies indicate that anal sex is common among heterosexuals, including adolescents. We examined the association between individual, partner, and sexual partnership-level characteristics with anal sex among a household survey of 263 individuals aged 15-24 years in Baltimore City, Maryland. We used weighted multiple logistic regression to examine correlates of anal sex in a heterosexual partnership by gender. Twenty-nine percent of males and 15% of females reported anal sex in a partnership in the past 6 months. For males, anal sex was associated with having two or more partners in the past 3 months (AOR = 13.93, 95% CI 3.87-50.12), having been tested for HIV (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.72), and oral sex with a partner (AOR = 8.79, 95% CI 1.94-39.78). For females, anal sex was associated with reporting having a main partner (AOR = 6.74, 95% CI 1.74-23.65), partner meeting place (AOR = 3.03, 95% CI 1.04-8.82), partner history of STI (AOR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.85), and oral sex with a partner (AOR = 8.47, 95% CI 1.08-66.25). Anal sex was associated with inconsistent condom use for both males (OR = 5.77, 95% CI 1.68-19.79) and females (OR = 5.16, 95% CI 1.46-18.30). We conclude that anal sex is a prevalent risk behavior among heterosexual youth and is associated with a range of factors at the individual and partnership levels. These findings provide support for comprehensive sex education that includes information about anal sex; findings from this study can inform public health campaigns targeting youth at risk for STIs.

  3. Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Markosyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs’ demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n=62 of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants’ age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P<0.01, reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P<0.01, and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P=0.02 significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV.

  4. The impact of environmental enrichment on sex-specific neurochemical circuitries - effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourbaji, S; Hörtnagl, H; Molteni, R; Riva, M A; Gass, P; Hellweg, R

    2012-09-18

    Experimental evidence in mice indicates that environmental conditions affect females and males differently. However, in a recent study analyzing the heterozygous mutation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), both sexes presented a similar emotional phenotype, which became obvious only under impoverished, but not in enriched conditions suggesting an "enrichment-induced" rescue. To investigate the basis of this behavioral "rescue" effect, we analyzed neurochemical changes (BDNF expression, serotonergic changes, and corticosterone) in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus of animals housed under respective conditions. In male mice, enrichment induced an increase of BDNF expression in the hippocampus of both BDNF heterozygous (BDNF(+/-)) and wild-types. Notably, in enriched-reared BDNF(+/-) mice BDNF mRNA and protein increased to levels comparable to those of wild-types in impoverished environment. In the frontal cortex of males, only wild-types presented an enrichment-induced increase of BDNF mRNA, while no effect of environment could be detected in BDNF protein levels of the male hypothalamus. A further male-specific effect of "environment" is the significant reduction of hypothalamic 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in enriched-housed wild-types. In female mice, environmental enrichment did not affect BDNF expression in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. However, comparable to males, an enrichment-induced increase of BDNF mRNA was detected in the frontal cortex of wild-types only. In contrast to males, no influence of environment on serotonergic parameters was observed. Male and female corticosterone levels were neither affected by "genotype" nor by "environment". In conclusion, we propose that the rescue of the emotional phenotype by environmental enrichment in BDNF(+/-) mice is directed by distinct mechanisms in males and females. Only in male BDNF(+/-) mice the rescue is related to an increase in hippocampal BDNF expression suggesting that enrichment

  5. Greater transforming growth factor-β in adult female SHR is dependent on blood pressure, but does not account for sex differences in renal T regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Ashlee J; Musall, Jacqueline B; Crislip, G Ryan; Sullivan, Jennifer C

    2017-07-05

    Female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have more renal regulatory T cells (Tregs) than males, and greater levels of Tregs in female SHR is dependent on blood pressure (BP). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for greater Tregs in female SHR is unknown. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a pleiotropic cytokine critical in the differentiation of naïve T cells into Tregs, and female SHR have higher TGF-β excretion than male SHR. The goals of the current study were to test the hypotheses that 1) female SHR have greater renal TGF-β expression than male SHR which is dependent on BP and 2) neutralizing TGF-β will decrease renal Tregs in female SHR. Renal cortices were isolated from 5 and 13 week old male and female SHR and TGF-β levels were measured via Western blot and ELISA. Adult female SHR have more free, active TGF-β1 than 5 week old female SHR (46% more) or male SHR (44% more than 5 week old males and 56% more than 13 week old male SHR). We confirmed greater TGF-β1 in adult female SHR was due to increases in BP and not sexual maturation by measuring TGF-β1 levels following treatment with BP lowering drugs or ovariectomy. Separate female SHR were treated with an antibody to TGF-β1,2,3; BP was measured and T cells were assessed in whole blood and the kidney. Neutralizing TGF-β had no effect on BP, although circulating Tregs decreased by 32% while Th17 cells increased by 64%. Renal Tregs were not altered by antibody treatment, although Th17 cells were decreased by 61%. In conclusion, although TGF-β promotes circulating Tregs in female SHR, it does not account for the sex difference in renal Tregs in SHR. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology.

  6. Factors associated with loss-to-follow-up during behavioral interventions and HIV testing cohort among men who have sex with men in Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Tang

    Full Text Available Behavioral interventions (BIs remained the cornerstone of HIV prevention in resource-limited settings. One of the major concerns for such efforts is the loss-to-follow-up (LTFU that threatens almost every HIV control program involving high-risk population groups.To evaluate the factors associated with LTFU during BIs and HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM, 410 HIV sero-negatives MSM were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS in Nanjing, China during 2008, they were further followed for 18 months. At baseline and each follow-up visits, each participant was counseled about various HIV risk-reductions BIs at a designated sexually transmitted infection (STI clinic.Among 410 participants recruited at baseline, altogether 221 (53.9% were LTFU at the 18-month follow-up visit. Overall, 46 participants were found to be positive for syphilis infection at baseline while 13 participants were HIV sero-converted during the follow-up period. Increasing age was less (Adjusted Odds Ratio(aOR of 0.90, 95% confidence Interval (CI 0.86-0.94 and official residency of provinces other than Nanjing (AOR of 2.49, 95%CI 1.32-4.71, lower level of education (AOR of 2.01, 95%CI 1.10-3.66 and small social network size (AOR of 1.75, 95%CI 1.09-2.80 were more likely to be associated with higher odds of LTFU.To improve retention in the programs for HIV control, counseling and testing among MSM in Nanjing, focused intensified intervention targeting those who were more likely to be LTFU, especially the young, less educated, unofficial residents of Nanjing who had smaller social network size, might be helpful.

  7. Parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication about sex