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Sample records for factors including physical

  1. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  2. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, Adrian J.; van Stralen, Maartje M.; Kunst, Anton E.; te Velde, Saskia J.; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the

  3. Macroenvironmental Factors Including GDP per Capita and Physical Activity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, A.J.; van Stralen, M.M.; Kunst, A.E.; te Velde, S.J.; Lenthe, F.J.; Salmon, J.; Brug, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. Methods: We

  4. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Exercises in experimental physics including complete solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, R.; Loos, G.

    1978-01-01

    This collection of exercises is not only addressed to students of physics but also to scientists of other branches and to engineers. Possibilities are offered to the student to gain control on his growing knowledge from the beginning of his studies until the examination. The individual exercises are linked thematically and are mostly composed by several single tasks. Complete and detailed numerical solutions are presented. The topics covered are: (1) Mechanics, (2) thermodynamics, (3) oscillations and their propagation, (4) electricity and magnetism, (5) atomic physics, and (6) nuclear physics. (KBE)

  6. Statistical physics including applications to condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies -- as e.g. semiconductors or lasers -- are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

  7. Including a learner with physical disabilities: stressful for teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Eloff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.

  8. Including Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…

  9. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  10. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  11. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-19

    Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on academic achievement and other

  12. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Devices and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors provides material for a comprehensive upper-level-undergrauate and graduate course on the subject, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. For the interested reader some additional advanced topics are included, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors are included. Also supplied are explicit formulas for many results, to support better understanding. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from ...

  13. Factorizations and physical representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revzen, M; Khanna, F C; Mann, A; Zak, J

    2006-01-01

    A Hilbert space in M dimensions is shown explicitly to accommodate representations that reflect the decomposition of M into prime numbers. Representations that exhibit the factorization of M into two relatively prime numbers: the kq representation (Zak J 1970 Phys. Today 23 51), and related representations termed q 1 q 2 representations (together with their conjugates) are analysed, as well as a representation that exhibits the complete factorization of M. In this latter representation each quantum number varies in a subspace that is associated with one of the prime numbers that make up M

  14. The physics of semiconductors an introduction including nanophysics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better under...

  15. The Value of Home Education Including Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iradge Ahrabi-Fard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a false notion that public school can educate great students. Facing diversity of students’ potential, different timing of growth pattern and varieties of home preparation of students to be a assiduous learner it is serious challenging task. Schools offer a general education to all with some attention to the diversity of students. It is home education, dealing with concentration habits during learning process, valuing educational process and respecting the rules of group learning that are influential in acquiring most from the educational opportunities. School is not able to go against the home culture and re-educate students to behave as a concern and diligent learner if these habits are not emphasized or supported at home. Public education in US is ranked between 18 to 22 in the world (according to different sources. Comparing with the world, American schools as the whole rank first for school structures, are number one for allocation of school budget, the emphasis and requirements of teacher education is number one. America expenditure per student exceed the top ten of the world combined. It is the lack of home education of learning demeanor and respecting the learning process that causes the inferiority. Physical education faces the same general dilemma at school having a very diverse group of students within variety of growth stages, potentials, sizes and capabilities based on their previous experiences. Decent general physical education at school can only offer a limited advancement. It is the responsibilities of parents to learn about the specifics of healthy growth and suitable skill development for their unique child. It is their parental task to act responsibly for the healthy growth of their child concerning: bone density and health, muscular strength, size and endurance, heart development to endure the stress of activities and function well, the range of motion of joints and finally their weight management. All the above

  16. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  17. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  18. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  19. Factors affecting physical therapists' job satisfaction: questionnaire survey targeting first-year physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Munetsugu; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Okita, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The survey aimed to clarify the factors that affect physiotherapists' job satisfaction. [Subjects and Methods] To examine factors affecting physical therapists' job satisfaction using a cross-sectional study with a questionnaire survey. Subjects were 193 first-year physical therapists who participated in a newcomer orientation at Hiroshima Prefectural Physical Therapy Association. The questionnaire comprised items concerning physical therapists' satisfaction with their work, motives for becoming physical therapists, education in school, internships, the workplace, and comfort in the workplace. [Results] Subjects were divided into two groups according to their satisfaction with their occupation. The "high satisfaction" group included 157 subjects, and the group "low satisfaction" group included 36 subjects. Using logistic regression analysis, items concerning comfort in the workplace, motives for becoming physical therapists, and learning in school were analysed. [Conclusion] Factors affecting physical therapists' job satisfaction were primarily influenced by previous experience and working conditions.

  20. Links Between Psychological Factors And Physical Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For diverse reasons, a large number of patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are yet to imbibe regular physical exercise behaviour. In this study, we characterised the link between psychological factors and physical exercise behaviour of a sample of Nigerian T2D patients. Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of ...

  1. Physical risk factors for neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, Geertje A M; Van Mechelen, Willem; Bongers, Paulien M.; Bouter, Lex M.; Van Der Wal, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    To identify physical risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on methodological quality and study design, 4 levels of evidence were defined to establish the strength of evidence for the relationship between risk factors and neck pain. Altogether, 22

  2. Ride with Abandon: Practical Ideas to Include Mountain Biking in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Cycling and mountain biking are among the most popular fitness activities in America. Considering that the purpose of physical education is to encourage lifelong activity for all, it is logical to include lifetime activities such as mountain biking in physical education programs. Many perceived barriers to adding mountain biking in physical…

  3. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Lee, Sarah M; Robin, Leah; Laris, B A; Russell, Lisa A; Coyle, Karin K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity (including physical education) and academic performance (including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement). Relevant research was identified through a search of nine electronic databases using both physical activity and academic-related search terms. Forty-three articles (reporting a total of 50 unique studies) met the inclusion criteria and were read, abstracted, and coded for this synthesis. Findings of the 50 studies were then summarized. Across all the studies, there were a total of 251 associations between physical activity and academic performance, representing measures of academic achievement, academic behavior, and cognitive skills and attitudes. Slightly more than half (50.5%) of all associations examined were positive, 48% were not significant, and 1.5% were negative. Examination of the findings by each physical activity context provides insights regarding specific relationships. Results suggest physical activity is either positively related to academic performance or that there is not a demonstrated relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Results have important implications for both policy and schools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing virtual with physical wedge for the transmission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Kuei-Hua; Lin Jao-Perng; Chu Tieh-Chi; Liu Mu-Tai

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the discrepancies between virtual wedge and physical wedge at the standard wedge angles of 15, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The dose distributions for virtual wedge and physics wedge were measured by using a commercial multichamber detector array. The transmission factors of each virtual wedge and physical wedge were measured for Siemens PRIMUS 3008 linear accelerator by single ion chamber. These factors were used to set-up the clinical treatment data tables for clinical dosimetry for virtual wedge utilization. The Wellhoefer IC15, 0.13cc chamber was installed on the chamber frame of Wellhoefer water phantom (48x48x40 cm 3 ). The surface of water was at 100 cm SSD. The output factor in water were measured on the central axis of each field at 5 cm depth for 6MV or 10 cm depth for 15MV X-ray on virtual wedge and physical wedge. Comparing virtual wedge with physical wedge for transmission factor as field size range from 4x4 to 25x25 cm 2 . We have measured the dose distributions using the chamber array for 25x25 cm 2 virtual wedge fields and physical wedge fields at wedge angles of 15deg to 60deg. The dose profiles at various depths were also measured using the chamber array. The transmission factors of each physical wedge were slowly increased as field sizes increase, and had different value for each wedge angle. The transmission factors of each virtual wedge were almost constant value as 1.0 for each wedge angle. The results show that the dose profiles including the penumbra dose measured by the chamber array for virtual wedge agree with those measured for the physical wedge. For transmission factors of virtual wedge were constant value as 1.0 for each angles, namely output without wedge is almost equal to output with wedge on the central axis. Virtual wedge has practical and dosimetric advantages over physical wedge. (author)

  5. Policies for including disabled people in education. obstacles and facilitating factors for their implementation: Bucaramanga, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Serrano R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to explore the factors enabling or hindering the implementation of inclusive education policies for the disabled population of Bucaramanga. Methodology: a descriptive study, involving representatives from governmental agencies (EG, members of the faculty boards of educational institutions (DIE and guardians of disabled individuals (APSD. Physical, social, and political obstacles and facilitating factors that could potentially determine the implementation of these policies were analyzed. Data was collected through interviews. Results: there was a total of 2, 32, and 34 participants from the EG, DIE, and APSD groups respectively. Identified obstacles included: lack of strategies to support educational institutions, poor or limited teacher training, high tuition fees, and negative attitude towards disability. The facilitating factors included: availability of places, inclusion of this issue in the political agenda, and desire of the disabled individuals’ families to provide them with education. Discussion: These findings provide useful information for further research on this issue and show how action has been taken, as well as how urgent it is to establish a direct relationship between academia and the public sector to propose strategies for assessing and modifying these policies.

  6. Psychosocial factors and theory in physical activity studies in minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; McNeill, Lorna H; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Diamond, Pamela M; Adamus-Leach, Heather J; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the effectiveness of interventions targeting psychosocial factors to increase physical activity (PA) among ethnic minority adults and explore theory use in PA interventions. Studies (N = 11) were identified through a systematic review and targeted African American/Hispanic adults, specific psychosocial factors, and PA. Data were extracted using a standard code sheet and the Theory Coding Scheme. Social support was the most common psychosocial factor reported, followed by motivational readiness, and self-efficacy, as being associated with increased PA. Only 7 studies explicitly reported using a theoretical framework. Future efforts should explore theory use in PA interventions and how integration of theoretical constructs, including psychosocial factors, increases PA.

  7. Factors associated with physical therapists' implementation of physical activity interventions in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijg, Johanna M; Dusseldorp, Elise; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Verheijden, Marieke W; van der Zouwe, Nicolette; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Duijzer, Geerke; Crone, Mathilde R

    2015-04-01

    Physical therapists play an important role in the promotion of physical activity (PA) and the effectiveness of PA interventions. However, little is known about the extent to which they implement PA interventions following the intervention protocol and about the factors influencing their implementation behaviors. The study objective was to investigate physical therapists' implementation fidelity regarding PA interventions, including completeness and quality of delivery, and influencing factors with a Theoretical Domains Framework-based questionnaire. The study was based on a cross-sectional design. A total of 268 physical therapists completed the Determinants of Implementation Behavior Questionnaire. Questions about completeness and quality of delivery were based on components and tasks of PA interventions as described by the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy. Multilevel regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with completeness and quality of delivery. High implementation fidelity was found for the physical therapists, with higher scores for completeness of delivery than for quality of delivery. Physical therapists' knowledge, skills, beliefs about capabilities and consequences, positive emotions, behavioral regulation, and the automaticity of PA intervention delivery were the most important predictors of implementation fidelity. Together, the Theoretical Domains Framework accounted for 23% of the variance in both total completeness and total quality scores. The cross-sectional design precluded the determination of causal relationships. Also, the use of a self-report measure to assess implementation fidelity could have led to socially desirable responses, possibly resulting in more favorable ratings for completeness and quality. This study enhances the understanding of how physical therapists implement PA interventions and which factors influence their behaviors. Knowledge about these factors may assist in the development of strategies to

  8. Physical Design Factors Contributing to Patient Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Debajyoti; Valipoor, Shabboo; Cloutier, Aimee; Yang, James; Freier, Patricia; Harvey, Thomas E; Lee, Jaehoon

    2017-02-03

    The aim of this study was to identify physical design elements that contribute to potential falls in patient rooms. An exploratory, physical simulation-based approach was adopted for the study. Twenty-seven subjects, older than 70 years (11 male and 16 female subjects), conducted scripted tasks in a mockup of a patient bathroom and clinician zone. Activities were captured using motion-capture technology and video recording. After biomechanical data processing, video clips associated with potential fall moments were extracted and then examined and coded by a group of registered nurses and health care designers. Exploratory analyses of the coded data were conducted followed by a series of multivariate analyses using regression models. In multivariate models with all personal, environmental, and postural variables, only the postural variables demonstrated statistical significance-turning, grabbing, pushing, and pulling in the bathroom and pushing and pulling in the clinician zone. The physical elements/attributes associated with the offending postures include bathroom configuration, intravenous pole, door, toilet seat height, flush, grab bars, over-bed table, and patient chair. Postural changes, during interactions with the physical environment, constitute the source of most fall events. Physical design must include simultaneous examination of postural changes in day-to-day activities in patient rooms and bathrooms. Among discussed testable recommendations in the article, the followings design strategies should be considered: (a) designing bathrooms to reduce turning as much as possible and (b) designing to avoid motions that involve 2 or more of the offending postures, such as turning and grabbing or grabbing and pulling, and so on.

  9. What Factors Determine the Uptake of A-level Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tim; Bell, John F.

    2013-03-01

    There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced Level (A-level) in a particular year. Each factor of interest was entered into a separate model, while accounting for prior attainment and gender (both well-known predictors of A-level uptake). We found that factors associated with greater probability of uptake included better attainment in physics (or combined science) and maths qualifications at age 16 in comparison to other subjects, and (for girls only) attending an independent or grammar school. While it is difficult to address these factors directly, the results imply that more needs to be done to improve relative performance at General Certificate of Secondary Education, perhaps by increasing the supply of specialist physics teachers at this level and to overcome the perception (especially among girls) that physics is a particularly difficult subject.

  10. Licensing of spent fuel storage facility including its physical protection in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajman, V.; Sedlacek, J.

    1992-01-01

    The current spent fuel management policies as practised in the Czech Republic are described, and the conception of the fuel cycle back end is outlined. The general principles and the legislative framework are explained of the licensing process concerning spent fuel interim storage facilities, including the environmental impact assessment component. The history is outlined of the licensing process for the spent fuel storage facility at the Dukovany NPP site, including the licensing of the transport and storage cask. The basic requirements placed on the physical safeguarding of the facility and on the licensing process are given. (J.B.). 13 refs

  11. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire to assess physical environmental factors pertaining to physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinn Aileen P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population. Methods Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC overall and separately by gender and race. Results Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8, with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains. Conclusion This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men.

  12. Data Stewardship in the Ocean Sciences Needs to Include Physical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M.; Lehnert, K.

    2016-02-01

    Across the Ocean Sciences, research involves the collection and study of samples collected above, at, and below the seafloor, including but not limited to rocks, sediments, fluids, gases, and living organisms. Many domains in the Earth Sciences have recently expressed the need for better discovery, access, and sharing of scientific samples and collections (EarthCube End-User Domain workshops, 2012 and 2013, http://earthcube.org/info/about/end-user-workshops), as has the US government (OSTP Memo, March 2014). iSamples (Internet of Samples in the Earth Sciences) is a Research Coordination Network within the EarthCube program that aims to advance the use of innovative cyberinfrastructure to support and advance the utility of physical samples and sample collections for science and ensure reproducibility of sample-based data and research results. iSamples strives to build, grow, and foster a new community of practice, in which domain scientists, curators of sample repositories and collections, computer and information scientists, software developers and technology innovators engage in and collaborate on defining, articulating, and addressing the needs and challenges of physical samples as a critical component of digital data infrastructure. A primary goal of iSamples is to deliver a community-endorsed set of best practices and standards for the registration, description, identification, and citation of physical specimens and define an actionable plan for implementation. iSamples conducted a broad community survey about sample sharing and has created 5 different working groups to address the different challenges of developing the internet of samples - from metadata schemas and unique identifiers to an architecture for a shared cyberinfrastructure to manage collections, to digitization of existing collections, to education, and ultimately to establishing the physical infrastructure that will ensure preservation and access of the physical samples. Repositories that curate

  13. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences

  14. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

  15. Risk Factors, Pathobiomechanics and Physical Examination of Rotator Cuff Tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Samuel G.; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Millett, Peter J.; Petri, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is important to appreciate the risk factors for the development of rotator cuff tears and specific physical examination maneuvers. Methods: A selective literature search was performed. Results: Numerous well-designed studies have demonstrated that common risk factors include age, occupation, and anatomic considerations such as the critical shoulder angle. Recently, research has also reported a genetic component as well. The rotator cuff axially compresses the humeral head in the glenohumeral joint and provides rotational motion and abduction. Forces are grouped into coronal and axial force couples. Rotator cuff tears are thought to occur when the force couples become imbalanced. Conclusion: Physical examination is essential to determining whether a patient has an anterosuperior or posterosuperior tear. Diagnostic accuracy increases when combining a series of examination maneuvers. PMID:27708731

  16. Adolescent Physical Activity: Moderation of Individual Factors by Neighborhood Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Heather; Fowler, Stephanie L; Nebeling, Linda C; Oh, April Y

    2017-06-01

    Less than a third of U.S. adolescents meet federal physical activity (PA) guidelines. Understanding correlates of PA at multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model could improve PA interventions among youth. This study examines (1) associations between factors across the Social Ecological Model including psychosocial factors, perceived neighborhood physical and social environment characteristics, and adolescent moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and (2) whether perceived neighborhood characteristics moderate associations between psychosocial factors and MVPA. A national sample of adolescents (aged 12-17 years) in the 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Study was used to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics, perceived neighborhood social and physical characteristics, and self-reported weekly minutes of MVPA. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Interaction terms between psychosocial and neighborhood variables were added to multiple linear regression models to examine moderation hypotheses. Significant two-way interactions revealed that neighborhoods with features perceived as supportive of PA strengthened several psychosocial-MVPA associations. The positive associations between MVPA and friend norms, friend support, and attitudes were strengthened for adolescents living in neighborhoods with high versus low PA resource availability (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the association between controlled and autonomous motivation and MVPA was strengthened under conditions of shops/stores near (versus distant from) adolescents' homes (p<0.05). The association between some psychosocial factors and adolescent MVPA may be environment dependent. Neighborhood physical and social environments supportive of PA are important to consider when developing targeted PA interventions and may strengthen the association between psychosocial-level factors and adolescent MVPA. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors influencing the teaching of physical education and sport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the teaching of physical education and sport in Cluster H Shools ... and nine heads of schools selected using the random sampling technique. ... the participation of children with disabilities in Physical Education and Sports.

  18. Factors influencing healthcare worker's participation in physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... in one public hospital in South Africa: Do healthcare workers have barriers to exercise? ... Binary logistic regression was used to determine the association between barriers, attitude, ...

  19. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  20. On the use of risk-informed regulation including organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, S.M.O.; Alvarenga, M.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Risk-Informed Regulation (RIR) can be applied by using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as a basic tool. Traditionally, PSA methodology encompasses the calculation of failure probabilities of Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) and direct associated human errors. However, there are indirect causes related to human failures, associated with Organizational Factors, which are normally not included in fault trees, that may influence plant risk evaluation. This paper discusses on possible applications of RIR and on Organizational Factors. It also presents a classification of Angra-1 NPP unresolved issues, aiming a future inclusion of these factors into a PSA calculation. (author)

  1. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  2. It's Time to Include Nutrition Education in the Secondary Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Susan L.; Thompson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Although the primary focus of physical educators is to increase students' physical activity levels and their knowledge about the importance of movement, they also have the opportunity to affect students' overall wellness by teaching nutrition and how healthy eating contributes to overall health and weight management. Nutrition concepts…

  3. Physical Activity : The interplay between individual and neighbourhood factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Beenackers (Marielle)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPhysical inactivity is among the most important and prevalent risk factors of many major diseases. Although the health benefits of regular exercise and a physically active lifestyle are well known, many people are still not active. Understanding why some population groups are physically

  4. Some factors including radiation affecting the productivity of proteinase enzymes by mucor lamprosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.I.

    1996-01-01

    In the present time, great attention has been focused on the production of milk clotting enzymes from microbial source for use as remain substitute due to the increasing demands on rennin for cheese making and the prohibition of the slaughter of small calves. The present investigation included the isolation and identification of remin-like enzyme fungal producers from different egyptian food and soil samples. Different factors including gamma radiation affecting the capability of selected isolate to produce the enzyme was also included. Special attention has also given to study the effect of different purification methods of the produced enzyme. The properties of the purified enzyme were also investigated

  5. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and ...

  6. Factors Associated with Physical Activity Behaviors Among Rural Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Urruty, Kenli A.

    2009-01-01

    The "obesity epidemic" in the United States is a current health concern that has sparked research interest in physical activity as a means of weight management. However, little research has examined the physical activity behaviors of rural adolescents. The goal of the current study was to use a biopsychosocial framework to examine the physical activity behaviors of a sample of rural adolescents, and explore factors associated with physical activity participation. A sample of 162 ninth- an...

  7. A Model for the Design of Puzzle-Based Games Including Virtual and Physical Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Javier; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia

    2014-01-01

    Multiple evidences in the Technology-Enhanced Learning domain indicate that Game-Based Learning can lead to positive effects in students' performance and motivation. Educational games can be completely virtual or can combine the use of physical objects or spaces in the real world. However, the potential effectiveness of these approaches…

  8. Completed Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance; Including International Sources. Volume 27. 1985 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedson, Patty S., Ed.

    This compilation lists research completed in the areas of health, physical education, recreation, dance, and allied areas during 1984. The document is arranged in two parts. In the index, references are arranged under the subject headings in alphabetical order. Abstracts of master's and doctor's theses from institutions offering graduate programs…

  9. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  10. Including Children with Special Educational Needs in Physical Education: Has Entitlement and Accessibility Been Realised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…

  11. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 38-40: Optical Instruments; Diffraction; and Alternating Current Circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  12. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  14. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  15. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  16. Contextual factors influencing leisure physical activity of urbanized indigenous adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Feng-En; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Lee, Ming-Been; Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Yang, Chih-Chien

    2015-11-01

    Indigenous populations suffer from disparities in socioeconomic resources and health status. One approach to addressing these disparities is by targeting modifiable risk factors such as leisure physical activity (LPA). This study investigated and compared factors related to LPA among urbanized indigenous and nonindigenous adolescent students. This cross-sectional survey comprised fifth to ninth grade indigenous and nonindigenous students (n = 733). The nonindigenous students were matched with indigenous students on sex and academic achievement and used as a reference group. Data were collected through telephone interviews using structured questionnaires. Major items included: demographic characteristics; average time spent watching television per bout; participation in LPA; and stress and depression experiences. With the exception of the duration of television watching per bout, Chi-square and independent t tests demonstrated that there were no significant differences between indigenous and nonindigenous adolescents in the selected LPA-related factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis including terms investigating interaction between ethnicity and the contextual factors included in this study indicated that the following factors were correlated with LPA participation: age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.94], male sex (OR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.19-2.61), total hours spent watching television in the past 2 weeks (OR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.63-0.99), life satisfaction (OR = 2.25, 95%CI = 1.04-4.90), and exercise enjoyment (OR = 3.40, 95%CI = 1.71-6.74). However, neither indigenous status (OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.19-5.79) nor any of the interaction terms reached the significant level. No significant ethnic differences were found in LPA participation. LPA was significantly correlated with age, male sex, total time spent watching television, life satisfaction, and enjoyment of exercise. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Physical and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Physical Activity in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Boezen, H. Marike; de Greef, Mathieu H.; ten Hacken, Nick H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess physical activity and sitting time in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to investigate which physical and psychosocial factors are associated with physical activity and sitting time. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Patients were recruited at

  18. Correlation of physical factors with musculoskeletal pain among physiotherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhi Rajen Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The etiology of musculoskeletal work related disorders remains largely unclear, pain being the predominant complaint. The prevalence of neck pain, shoulder pain, upper and lower back pain increases drastically during professional practice in Physiotherapy. This study evaluated the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain. Also, the study determined the role of modifiable risk factors for physiotherapists (physical activity, psychological status and quantity and quality of sleep for pain. Method: The study population includes 60 physiotherapists with atleast work experience of 1 year and work duration of 6 hours per day. Outcome measures used were Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire as a screening tool, Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire, The Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical Activity (SQUASH, University of Cambridge sleep questionnaire and Internet Mental Health Quality of Life (IMHQOL scale. Results: Comparatively, pain was more concentrated at spinal regions than peripheral locations among physiotherapists. Surprisingly, many physiotherapists reported multiple sites of musculoskeletal pains. Conclusion: A weak correlation was established between physical activity and musculoskeletal pain among physiotherapists.

  19. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  20. But I Like PE: Factors Associated With Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity...

  1. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  2. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 31-34: Inductance; Wave Properties of Light; Interference; and Introduction to Quantum Physics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is Part of a series of 41 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 Pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized courses in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  3. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.

  4. What Factors Determine the Uptake of A-Level Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tim; Bell, John F.

    2013-01-01

    There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced…

  5. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  6. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin (AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  7. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin

    2007-06-01

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  8. What Factors Determine the Uptake of A-level Physics?

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Timothy; Bell, John F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced Level (A-level) in a particular year. Each factor of interest was entered into a separate model, whilst accounting for prior attai...

  9. Including an Autistic Middle School Child in General Physical Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…

  10. A constriction factor based particle swarm optimisation algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem including losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Steven; Montakhab, Mohammad; Nouri, Hassan

    2011-07-15

    Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the most important problems to be solved in power generation as fractional percentage fuel reductions represent significant cost savings. ED wishes to optimise the power generated by each generating unit in a system in order to find the minimum operating cost at a required load demand, whilst ensuring both equality and inequality constraints are met. For the process of optimisation, a model must be created for each generating unit. The particle swarm optimisation technique is an evolutionary computation technique with one of the most powerful methods for solving global optimisation problems. The aim of this paper is to add in a constriction factor to the particle swarm optimisation algorithm (CFBPSO). Results show that the algorithm is very good at solving the ED problem and that CFBPSO must be able to work in a practical environment and so a valve point effect with transmission losses should be included in future work.

  11. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  12. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part II: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-11-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition, planning, monitoring, evaluation, debugging, and information management. The college students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students' physics motivation and physics grade. However, the results of the exploratory factor analysis indicated that the questionnaire could be revised to improve its construct validity. The goal of this study was to revise the questionnaire and establish its construct validity through a confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, a Rasch analysis was applied to the data to better understand the psychometric properties of the inventory and to further evaluate the construct validity. Results indicated that the final, revised inventory is a valid, reliable, and efficient tool for assessing student metacognition for physics problem solving.

  13. Factors that encourage females to pursue physical science careers: Testing five common hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) on national data (n=7505) drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project, we test five commonly held beliefs including having a single-sex physics class, having a female physics teacher, having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, discussing the work of women scientists in physics class, and discussing the under-representation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including parental education, prior science/math interests, and academic background, thereby controlling for the effect of many confounding variables.

  14. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  15. Factors associated with physical therapists’ implementation of physical activity interventions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Dusseldorp, E.; Gebhardt, W.A.; Verheijden, M.W.; Zouwe, N. van der; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Duijzer, G.; Crone, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical therapists play an important role in the promotion of physical activity (PA) and the effectiveness of PA interventions. However, little is known about the extent to which they implement PA interventions following the intervention protocol and about the factors influencing their

  16. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  17. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to

  18. Factors predicting physical activity among children with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Yee, Chu Tang; Chung, Paul J

    2013-07-18

    Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child's and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child's exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child's lack of interest (43%), lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%), too many behavioral problems (32%), and parents' lack of time (29%). However, child's lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children's physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01). In this group of students with special needs, children's physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.

  19. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  20. Summaries of reports of the 30. Conference on low-temperature physics. Pt. 1. Fundamental questions of superconductivity including HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Thesis of reporsts of the 30th Conference on low-temperature physics are presented. Fundamental problems of superconductivity are discussed including HTSC in bulk crystals, in thin films of Josephson junctions, ceramics and heterostructures. Specific features of superconductor structure and magnetic properties and also different mechanisms of superconductivity are analyzed

  1. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  2. The FARE: a new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  3. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Pipe elbow stiffness coefficients including shear and bend flexibility factors for use in direct stiffness codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Historically, developments of computer codes used for piping analysis were based upon the flexibility method of structural analysis. Because of the specialized techniques employed in this method, the codes handled systems composed of only piping elements. Over the past ten years, the direct stiffness method has gained great popularity because of its systematic solution procedure regardless of the type of structural elements composing the system. A great advantage is realized with a direct stiffness code that combines piping elements along with other structural elements such as beams, plates, and shells, in a single model. One common problem, however, has been the lack of an accurate pipe elbow element that would adequately represent the effects of transverse shear and bend flexibility factors. The purpose of the present paper is to present a systematic derivation of the required 12x12 stiffness matrix and load vectors for a three dimensional pipe elbow element which includes the effects of transverse shear and pipe bend flexibility according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. The results are presented analytically and as FORTRAN subroutines to be directly incorporated into existing direct stiffness codes. (Auth.)

  5. Pesticide exposure as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including histopathological subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Akerman, Måns

    2008-10-01

    We report a population based case-control study of exposure to pesticides as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Male and female subjects aged 18-74 years living in Sweden were included during December 1, 1999, to April 30, 2002. Controls were selected from the national population registry. Exposure to different agents was assessed by questionnaire. In total 910 (91 %) cases and 1016 (92%) controls participated. Exposure to herbicides gave odds ratio (OR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.51. Regarding phenoxyacetic acids highest risk was calculated for MCPA; OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.27-6.22, all these cases had a latency period >10 years. Exposure to glyphosate gave OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.10-3.71 and with >10 years latency period OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.16-4.40. Insecticides overall gave OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.96-1.72 and impregnating agents OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.07-2.30. Results are also presented for different entities of NHL. In conclusion our study confirmed an association between exposure to phenoxyacetic acids and NHL and the association with glyphosate was considerably strengthened.

  6. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  7. Factors associated with high physical exertion during manual lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for back pain and long-term sickness absence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate which factors are associated with physical exertion during manual lifting. METHODS: From 14 workplaces across Denmark, 200 blue-collar workers reported perceived...... physical exertion (Borg-CR10) during manual lifting from floor to table height of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kg at the beginning and end of the working day. The workers also responded to a questionnaire and went through testing of isometric back muscle strength. Associations were modelled using logistic regression...... during manual lifting in blue-collar workers. These factors should be considered when planning work with manual lifting for individual workers....

  8. Motivational factors and stages of change for physical activity among college students in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Hala; Merrill, Ray M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate physical activity levels across the five stages of change for physical activity and to identify motivational factors for physical activity according to these stages of change among college students in Amman, Jordan. Analyses were based on a cross-sectional survey of 431 students, with a mean age of 21.1 (SD=0.16) and 67.5% female. Based on the recommendation that physical activity requires at least 30 minutes of physical activity 3 or more days per week, men were more likely than women to classify themselves in later stages: 7.3% vs. 9.5% in the precontemplation stage, 17.4% vs. 14.7% in the contemplation stage, 50.0% vs. 63.5% in the preparation stage, 9.4% vs. 5.6% in the action stage, and 15.9% vs. 6.7% in the maintenance stage [X2(4) = 14.04, p = 0.0072]. Seven potential motivational items for physical activity were assessed using factor analysis: experience better self-worth, prevent chronic disease, relieve stress, stay in shape, longevity, recreation/fun, and social benefits. Two factor groupings were identified from these items. The first factor included the first five items, labeled as "Physical and Mental". The second factor included the last two items, labeled as "Social and Recreational." "Physical and Mental" items compared with "Social and Recreational" items were most likely to motivate physical activity across the stages of change for physical activity. The strongest motivator of physical activity was to stay in shape. The weakest motivator of physical activity was for social reasons. The influence of the intermediate motivational factors was slightly affected by the students' stage of change for physical activity. Motivators for physical activity did not differ according to sex. These results provide important information about the motivational factors for physical activity for college-aged students in Jordan that can be useful in developing effective physical activity intervention programs.

  9. Physical inactivity: the "Cinderella" risk factor for noncommunicable disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian E

    2011-08-01

    There is strong evidence demonstrating the direct and indirect pathways by which physical activity prevents many of the major noncommunicable diseases (NCD) responsible for premature death and disability. Physical inactivity was identified as the 4th leading risk factor for the prevention of NCD, preceded only by tobacco use, hypertension, and high blood glucose levels, and accounting for more than 3 million preventable deaths globally in 2010. Physical inactivity is a global public health priority but, in most countries, this has not yet resulted in widespread recognition nor specific physical activity-related policy action at the necessary scale. Instead, physical inactivity could be described as the Cinderella of NCD risk factors, defined as "poverty of policy attention and resourcing proportionate to its importance." The pressing question is "Why is this so?" The authors identify and discuss 8 possible explanations and the need for more effective communication on the importance of physical activity in the NCD prevention context. Although not all of the issues identified will be relevant for any 1 country, it is likely that at different times and in different combinations these 8 problems continue to delay national-level progress on addressing physical inactivity in many countries. The authors confirm that there is sufficient evidence to act, and that much better use of well-planned, coherent communication strategies are needed in most countries and at the international level. Significant opportunities exist. The Toronto Charter on Physical Activity and the Seven Investments that Work are 2 useful tools to support increased advocacy on physical activity within and beyond the context of the crucial 2011 UN High-Level Meeting on NCDs.

  10. [Discuss on effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shihuan; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi

    2010-01-01

    Nature of Chinese materia medica is the nucleus in the theory of Chinese material medica, according to the recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which is the character of the drug related on curative effect. Nature and efficacy of a drug is through the medical material, then, physical environment, including the temperature, humidity, atmospheric water, wind, topography, soil, micro-organism, and so on, influence the growth and development of the medical meterial. In this paper, we researched the explanation on nature of Chinese materia medica in the medical books of past dynasties, combined with the modem research, analyzed the relationship between generative reception and physical environmental factors, and discussed the effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica. We indicated that the formation of Chinese materia medical nature is that the drug receptive the change of physical environmental factors, and resulted by the synthetic action of the factors, such as climate, soil, biology, topography, etc.

  11. Impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined vegetation-disturbance-environment relationships in the Xiaomengyang Section of Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve (XNR) using multivariate analysis to understand the impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on vegetation along the highway corridor. We found that native forests were the best ...

  12. Selected cultural factors associated with physical activity among Latino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Janine M; Mosquera, Margarita; Ramos, Blanca

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, Latinos are the largest ethnic group after non-Hispanic whites. Latinos currently represent 15% of the U.S. population and their numbers are growing in nontraditional areas. Latino women (Latinas) disproportionately experience chronic disease risk factors and report low levels of leisure time physical activity. This study examined cultural factors associated with leisure time physical activity among Latinas living in a new Latino destination in northeastern New York. Community-based participatory research, a collaborative approach in which community members are equitably and actively involved in the research process, was employed for this study. The Latina Health Survey was administered in Spanish and English to 289 Latina adults through snowball sampling. Women reported that their national origin was predominantly Puerto Rican (58.7%) or Dominican (18.2%). Only 6.6% of women met American College of Sports Medicine's physical activity recommendations of exercising 5 days a week; 25% participated in physical activity two or more times per week. Acculturation and religious service attendance at least once a week was positively associated and fast food consumption one or more times a week was negatively associated with physical activity. This study implicates the need for physical activity promotion efforts among Latinas who are culturally responsive and that address fast food consumption. In addition to acculturation, other, more specific cultural factors need to be examined to understand physical activity correlates among Latinas. Research among Latinas living in new Latino destinations is important for understanding behavior and tailoring health interventions among Latinos living in nontraditional areas. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  13. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2013-11-14

    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  14. Factors affecting perceived change in physical activity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2017-08-01

    reduction of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is common but undesirable, as it is associated with negative outcomes, including excessive gestational weight gain. Our objective was to explore changes in five types of activity that occurred during pregnancy and the behavioural determinants of the reported changes in PA. we performed a secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey that was constructed using the ASE-Model - an approach to identifying the factors that drive behaviour change that focuses on Attitude, Social influence, and self-Efficacy. 455 healthy pregnant women of all gestational ages, receiving prenatal care from midwifery practices in the Netherlands. more than half of our respondents reported a reduction in their PA during pregnancy. The largest reduction occurred in sports and brief rigorous activities, but other types of PA were reduced as well. Reduction of PA was more likely in women who considered themselves as active before pregnancy, women who experienced pregnancy-related barriers, women who were advised to reduce their PA, and multiparous women. Fewer than 5% increased their PA. Motivation to engage in PA was positively associated with enjoying PA. all pregnant women should be informed about the positive effects of staying active and should be encouraged to engage in, or to continue, moderately intensive activities like walking, biking or swimming. Our findings concerning the predictors of PA reduction can be used to develop an evidence-based intervention aimed at encouraging healthy PA during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. RISK FACTORS OF DELAYS OF CHILD PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Kaganova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research targeted studying risk factors for delays physical development of children (n = 70 aged 7–11 years. Control group was comprised of 30 children of normal height of the same age. Physical development was evaluated by centile method using regional and international standards, studying data of life and disease anamnesis, family anamnesis, living conditions. Children had their thyroid glands studied ultrasonically. Blood levels of calcium, phosphor, magnesium, ferrum, zinc were identified by photometry method for some children in both groups. Correlation analysis makes it possible to state risk factors of children dwarfism: low educational status of parents, child height figures at the age of 1 and 3 years, calcium and phosphor blood levels, as well as thyroid hypo plasy.Key words: dwarfism, children, risk factors, calcium deficit.

  16. Risk Factor Analysis for AKI Including Laboratory Indicators: a Nationwide Multicenter Study of Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Nie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Risk factor studies for acute kidney injury (AKI in China are lacking, especially those regarding non-traditional risk factors, such as laboratory indicators. Methods: All adult patients admitted to 38 tertiary and 22 secondary hospitals in China in any one month between July and December 2014 were surveyed. AKI patients were screened according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes’ definition of AKI. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for AKI, and Cox regression was used to analyze the risk of in-hospital mortality for AKI patients; additionally, a propensity score analysis was used to reconfirm the risk factors among laboratory indicators for mortality. Results: The morbidity of AKI was 0.97%. Independent risk factors for AKI were advancing age, male gender, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. All-cause mortality was 16.5%. The predictors of mortality in AKI patients were advancing age, tumor, higher uric acid level and increases in Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. The hazard ratio (HR for mortality with uric acid levels > 9.1 mg/dl compared with ≤ 5.2 mg/dl was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.58 for the AKI patients as a group, and was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.24 to 2.42 for a propensity score-matched set. Conclusion: In addition to traditional risk factors, uric acid level is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality after AKI.

  17. Major features of immunesenescence, including reduced thymic output, are ameliorated by high levels of physical activity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Niharika Arora; Pollock, Ross D; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen; Lord, Janet M

    2018-04-01

    It is widely accepted that aging is accompanied by remodelling of the immune system including thymic atrophy and increased frequency of senescent T cells, leading to immune compromise. However, physical activity, which influences immunity but declines dramatically with age, is not considered in this literature. We assessed immune profiles in 125 adults (55-79 years) who had maintained a high level of physical activity (cycling) for much of their adult lives, 75 age-matched older adults and 55 young adults not involved in regular exercise. The frequency of naïve T cells and recent thymic emigrants (RTE) were both higher in cyclists compared with inactive elders, and RTE frequency in cyclists was no different to young adults. Compared with their less active counterparts, the cyclists had significantly higher serum levels of the thymoprotective cytokine IL-7 and lower IL-6, which promotes thymic atrophy. Cyclists also showed additional evidence of reduced immunesenescence, namely lower Th17 polarization and higher B regulatory cell frequency than inactive elders. Physical activity did not protect against all aspects of immunesenescence: CD28 -ve CD57 +ve senescent CD8 T-cell frequency did not differ between cyclists and inactive elders. We conclude that many features of immunesenescence may be driven by reduced physical activity with age. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Factors that affect the physical science career interest of female students: Testing five common hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2013-12-01

    There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.

  19. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of

  20. Physical factors controlling the ductility of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [Central South University, China; Liu, Chain T [ORNL; Zhang, Z. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Keppens, V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify key physical factor controlling the deformation and fracture behavior of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), we compiled and analyzed the elastic moduli and compressive ductility for BMGs. In addition, new modulus data were generated in the critical ranges in order to facilitate the analysis. We have found that the intrinsic ductility of BMGs can be correlated with the bulk-to-shear modulus ratio B/G according to Pugh's [Philos. Mag. 45, 823 (1954) ] rule. In some individual BMG systems, for example, Fe based, the relationship seems to be very clear. The physical meaning of this correlation is discussed in terms of atomic bonding and connectivity.

  1. Top Five Physical Design Factors Contributing to Fall Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Debajyoti; Lee, Jaehoon; Mihandoust, Sahar; Kazem-Zadeh, Mahshad; Oh, Youngha

    2018-01-01

    To develop a prioritized list of physical design questions/interventions to reduce patient falls by conducting expanded analysis (Phase II) of data generated from a completed study phase. Patient falls continue to be a critical concern for healthcare providers, patients, and families. While substantial literature exist on intrinsic factors, scientific evidence on the role of the physical environment is scarce. Expanded analysis of data from 180 videos of trials conducted in a physical mock-up of a medical-surgical inpatient room in a previously completed study phase. The odds of subject's exhibited postures (predictors) on fall initiation (outcome) were examined in a series of generalized linear mixed effects models. Physical design elements and attributes associated with postures exhibiting statistical significance were examined. Turning, pulling, pushing, and bending forward exhibited the highest odds of contributing to fall initiation in the bathroom. Grabbing, pushing, and sitting exhibited the highest odds of contributing to fall initiation around the patient bed. Physical design elements/attributes associated with the above postures are the (1) bathroom door; (2) bathroom spatial configuration-relative locations of door, toilet bowl, and the sink; (3) door, toilet, and sink hardware; (4) space availability/tightness inside the clinician zone; and (5) spatial configuration around patient bed-relative locations of bed, patient chair, and overbed table, in relation to bathroom door, and resulting obstructions originating from the configuration. Patient falls during unassisted ambulation may be reduced through appropriate examination of these five physical elements/attributes.

  2. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-10-11

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lack of a role for AP1 in GPEI mediated trans-activation in F9 cells, although endogenously present AP1 can influence GPEI in HeLa cells. Co-transfection of delta fosB with c-jun, which forms an inactive c-Jun/delta FosB heterodimer that binds TRE sequences, inhibits GPEI-mediated transcription in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well as AP1-containing HeLa cells. These data suggest novel factor(s) other than AP1 are influencing GPEI. Binding studies reveal multiple nucleoproteins bind to GPEI. These factors are likely responsible for the high level of GPEI-mediated transcription observed in the absence of AP1 and during hepatocarcinogenesis.

  3. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that traditional safety management needs to be improved on the aspect of preparedness for coping with expected and unexpected deviations, avoiding an overly optimistic reliance on safety systems. Remembering recent major accidents, such as the Deep Water Horizon, the Texas City....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...

  4. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  5. STRESS AS PREDISPOSING FACTOR OF SOME CHRONIC DISEASES INCLUDING PERIODONTAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi-Nurul M Dewi-Nurul

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is hypothesized as a common pathway for several related chronic diseases of man. Psychosocial stress as modified by perceptions and coping by patients can lead to physical processes. Psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI studies have suggested that psychosocial stress can alter immune function and increase vulnerability to illnesses. The patients also have high sensitivity to periodontal disease (PD. This article describes the association of stress as a physiological response to diseases such as PD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and inflammatory bowel disease. The psychosocial stress can lead to physiological processes through 1 the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis leading to glucocortico-steroid secretion; 2 the autonomic nervous system, resulting in the release of catecholamine; or 3 the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in the release of sex hormones. These processes may affect chronic diseases. It can be concluded that psychosocial stress in periodontal disease patients must be considered and social support must be provided in order to achieve an optimum periodontal therapy result.

  6. Factors affecting perceived change in physical activity in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astrid Merkx; Marlein Ausems; Luc Budé; Raymond de Vries; Marianne J. Nieuwenhuijze

    2017-01-01

    Objective reduction of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is common but undesirable, as it is associated with negative outcomes, including excessive gestational weight gain. Our objective was to explore changes in five types of activity that occurred during pregnancy and the behavioural

  7. De-novo discovery of differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites including their positional preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilwagen, Jens; Grau, Jan; Paponov, Ivan A; Posch, Stefan; Strickert, Marc; Grosse, Ivo

    2011-02-10

    Transcription factors are a main component of gene regulation as they activate or repress gene expression by binding to specific binding sites in promoters. The de-novo discovery of transcription factor binding sites in target regions obtained by wet-lab experiments is a challenging problem in computational biology, which has not been fully solved yet. Here, we present a de-novo motif discovery tool called Dispom for finding differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites that models existing positional preferences of binding sites and adjusts the length of the motif in the learning process. Evaluating Dispom, we find that its prediction performance is superior to existing tools for de-novo motif discovery for 18 benchmark data sets with planted binding sites, and for a metazoan compendium based on experimental data from micro-array, ChIP-chip, ChIP-DSL, and DamID as well as Gene Ontology data. Finally, we apply Dispom to find binding sites differentially abundant in promoters of auxin-responsive genes extracted from Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, and we find a motif that can be interpreted as a refined auxin responsive element predominately positioned in the 250-bp region upstream of the transcription start site. Using an independent data set of auxin-responsive genes, we find in genome-wide predictions that the refined motif is more specific for auxin-responsive genes than the canonical auxin-responsive element. In general, Dispom can be used to find differentially abundant motifs in sequences of any origin. However, the positional distribution learned by Dispom is especially beneficial if all sequences are aligned to some anchor point like the transcription start site in case of promoter sequences. We demonstrate that the combination of searching for differentially abundant motifs and inferring a position distribution from the data is beneficial for de-novo motif discovery. Hence, we make the tool freely available as a component of the open

  8. Induced Systemic Tolerance to Multiple Stresses Including Biotic and Abiotic Factors by Rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Je Yoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, global warming and drastic climate change are the greatest threat to the world. The climate change can affect plant productivity by reducing plant adaptation to diverse environments including frequent high temperature; worsen drought condition and increased pathogen transmission and infection. Plants have to survive in this condition with a variety of biotic (pathogen/pest attack and abiotic stress (salt, high/low temperature, drought. Plants can interact with beneficial microbes including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, which help plant mitigate biotic and abiotic stress. This overview presents that rhizobacteria plays an important role in induced systemic resistance (ISR to biotic stress or induced systemic tolerance (IST to abiotic stress condition; bacterial determinants related to ISR and/or IST. In addition, we describe effects of rhizobacteria on defense/tolerance related signal pathway in plants. We also review recent information including plant resistance or tolerance against multiple stresses (bioticabiotic. We desire that this review contribute to expand understanding and knowledge on the microbial application in a constantly varying agroecosystem, and suggest beneficial microbes as one of alternative environment-friendly application to alleviate multiple stresses.

  9. Innovative physical therapy practice: a qualitative verification of factors that support diffusion of innovation in outpatient physical therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabus, Carla; Spake, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    New ideas, methods, and technologies spread through cultures through typical patterns described by diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory. Professional cultures, including the physical therapy profession, have distinctive features and traditions that determine the adoption of practice innovation. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) proposes a framework of innovation implementation specific to health care services. While the CFIR has been applied to medical and nursing practice, it has not been extended to rehabilitation professions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to verify the CFIR factors in outpatient physical therapy practice. Through a nomination process of area rehabilitation managers and area directors of clinical education, 2 exemplar, outpatient, privately owned physical therapy clinics were identified as innovation practices. A total of 18 physical therapists (PTs), including 3 owners and a manager, participated in the study. The 2 clinics served as case studies within a qualitative approach of directed content analysis. Data were collected through observation, spontaneous, unstructured questioning, workflow analysis, structured focus group sessions, and artifact analysis including clinical documents. Focus group data were transcribed. All the data were analyzed and coded among 4 investigators. Through data analysis and alignment with literature in DOI theory in health care practice, the factors that determine innovation adoption were verified. The phenomena of implementation in PT practice are largely consistent with models of implementation in health care service. Within the outpatient practices studied, patient-centered care and collaborative learning were foundational elements to diffusion of an innovation. Innovation in outpatient physical therapy practice can be understood as a social process situated within the culture of the physical therapy professional that follows predictable patterns that strongly align with

  10. Human factors design of nuclear power plant control rooms including computer-based operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.; Felkel, L.; Becker, G.; Bohr, E.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific handling of human factors problems in control rooms began around 1970 on the basis of safety considerations. Some recent research work deals with the development of computerized systems like plant balance calculation, safety parameter display, alarm reduction and disturbance analysis. For disturbance analysis purposes it is necessary to homogenize the information presented to the operator according to the actual plant situation in order to supply the operator with the information he most urgently needs at the time. Different approaches for solving this problem are discussed, and an overview is given on what is being done. Other research projects concentrate on the detailed analysis of operators' diagnosis strategies in unexpected situations, in order to obtain a better understanding of their mental processes and the influences upon them when such situations occur. This project involves the use of a simulator and sophisticated recording and analysis methods. Control rooms are currently designed with the aid of mock-ups. They enable operators to contribute their experience to the optimization of the arrangement of displays and controls. Modern control rooms are characterized by increasing use of process computers and CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) displays. A general concept for the integration of the new computerized system and the conventional control panels is needed. The technical changes modify operators' tasks, and future ergonomic work in nuclear plants will need to consider the re-allocation of function between man and machine, the incorporation of task changes in training programmes, and the optimal design of information presentation using CRTs. Aspects of developments in control room design are detailed, typical research results are dealt with, and a brief forecast of the ergonomic contribution to be made in the Federal Republic of Germany is given

  11. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (physical activity measures as dependent variables and cumulative reproductive history index, menopausal symptoms, and pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The

  12. Resilience in physically abused children: protective factors for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R; Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M; Steigerwald, Stacey

    2015-04-27

    Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being) that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children's internalizing well-being, children's prosocial behavior, and caregivers' well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children's internalizing well-being and children's prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment.

  13. Resilience in Physically Abused Children: Protective Factors for Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R. Holmes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I. Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children’s internalizing well-being, children’s prosocial behavior, and caregivers’ well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children’s internalizing well-being and children’s prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment.

  14. Physical activity interventions in Latin America: what value might be added by including conference abstracts in a literature review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine; Soares, Jesus; Parra, Diana C; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Pratt, Michael; Bracco, Mario; Hallal, Pedro C; Brownson, Ross C

    2010-07-01

    This review assessed whether conference abstracts yield useful information on the types and effectiveness of community-based physical activity (PA) interventions in Latin America, beyond that from interventions included in a recent systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Abstracts from 9 conferences were searched for community-based interventions to promote PA in Latin America and summarized. Three reviewers classified and screened abstracts. Evaluated interventions that were not included in the previous review were assessed. Search of abstracts from 31 proceedings of 9 conferences identified 87 abstracts of studies on community-based interventions focused on increasing PA. Only 31 abstracts reported on studies with a control group and an outcome related to PA. Ten of these abstracts represented interventions that had not been included in the previous review of peer-reviewed literature, but the abstracts were insufficient in number or detail to make a practice recommendation for any single intervention. This review highlighted the challenges and low added value of including conference abstracts in a systematic review of community PA interventions in Latin America. Stronger evaluation design and execution and more published reports of evaluated interventions are needed to build an evidence base supporting interventions to increase PA in Latin America.

  15. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS RELATED TO THE PRACTICE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Navarro Cabral da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the motivational factors for older adults to practice physical activities regularly. The sample consisted of 77 elderly of both genders, aged 55 to 90 years and who were practicing physical activities for at least a month in centers of sports and leisure in the city of Indaiatuba. The inventory IMPRAF-54 (Motivation for the Regular Practice of Physical Activity Inventory was used for data collection. This instrument covers 6 dimensions of motivation for the practice of physical activities: stress control, health, sociability, competitiveness, aesthetic and pleasure. The results showed that the main motivational factor for the elderly is health. After health, sociability, pleasure and control of stress appear tied and, finally, aesthetics and competitiveness. With these results, it is possible to know what encourages older adults to attend classes and to plan for them properly, including their interests and considering them holistically.

  16. The environment and physical activity: The influence of psychosocial, perceived and built environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullen Chris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study sought to integrate perceived and built environmental and individual factors into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to better understand adolescents' physical activity. Methods Participants (n = 110 aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.6 ± 1.55 were recruited from two large metropolitan high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, were included in the analysis. Participants completed measures of the revised TPB and the perceived environment. Individual factors such as ethnicity and level of deprivation were also collected. Geographical Information Systems (GIS software was used to measure the physical environment (walkability, access to physical activity facilities. Physical activity was assessed using the ActiGraph accelerometer and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A. Data from the various sources were combined to develop an integrated model integrated for statistical analysis using structural equation modeling. Results The TPB model variables (intention and perceived behavioral control explained 43% of the variance of PAQ-A. Unique and individual contributions were made by intention and PBC and home ownership of home equipment. The model explained 13% of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (Actigraph. Unique and individual contribution was made by intention. Conclusion Social cognitive variables were better predictors of both subjective and objective physical activity compared to perceived environmental and built environment factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Factors of physical activity among Chinese children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Congchao; Stolk, Ronald P; Sauer, Pieter J J; Sijtsma, Anna; Wiersma, Rikstje; Huang, Guowei; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2017-03-21

    Lack of physical activity is a growing problem in China, due to the fast economic development and changing living environment over the past two decades. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors related to physical activity in Chinese children and adolescents during this distinct period of development. A systematic search was finished on Jan 10 th , 2017, and identified 2200 hits through PubMed and Web of Science. English-language published studies were included if they reported statistical associations between factors and physical activity. Adapted criteria from the Strengthening The Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement and evaluation of the quality of prognosis studies in systematic reviews (QUIPS) were used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. Related factors that were reported in at least three studies were summarized separately for children and adolescents using a semi-quantitative method. Forty two papers (published 2002-2016) were included. Most designs were cross-sectional (79%), and most studies used questionnaires to assess physical activity. Sample size was above 1000 in 18 papers (43%). Thirty seven studies (88%) showed acceptable quality by methodological quality assessment. Most studies reported a low level of physical activity. Boys were consistently more active than girls, the parental physical activity was positively associated with children and adolescents' physical activity, children in suburban/rural regions showed less activity than in urban regions, and, specifically in adolescents, self-efficacy was positively associated with physical activity. Family socioeconomic status and parental education were not associated with physical activity in children and adolescents. The studies included in this review were large but mostly of low quality in terms of study design (cross-sectional) and methods (questionnaires). Parental physical activity and self-efficacy are promising targets for future

  18. 体育纳入高考制度的理性思考%Rational thinking about including physical education in the National College Entrance Examination system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周茗

    2012-01-01

      我国高考的目的是选拔德、智、体全面发展的社会主义建设者和接班人。将体育纳入高考的改革,有利于落实国家相关政策,保持基础教育阶段学生健康教育的连续性,加强素质教育,促进学校体育地位的提高和体育活动的开展,但也受到政治、经济、社会、技术等因素的制约。%  The purpose of National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) in China is to select morally, intellectu-ally and physically developed socialist constructors and successors. Including physical education in the reform of NCEE is conducive to implementing related state policies, maintaining the continuity of student health education at the basic education stage, enhancing makings education, and boosting the promotion of school physical education status and the development of physical education activities, but also affected and restricted by factors such as poli-tics, economy, society, technology etc.

  19. Musculoskeletal alterations associated factors physical and environmental in dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fals Martínez, Juntzo; González Martínez, Farith; Orozco Páez, Jennifer; Correal Castillo, Sandra Patricia; Pernett Gómez, Cindy Vanessa

    2012-12-01

    To describe the musculoskeletal disorders and association with physical and environmental in students of Dentistry. Cross sectional study. Simple random sampling was conducted obtaining a proportional sample of 182 students per semester. Collecting information from physical and environmental exposures related to different clinical practice and this was assessed by a structured survey questionnaire type. The valuation muscle was performed by visual analysis with Scan-test. To assess factors related to working position, the instrument was used RULA. For the analysis of the association were used odds ratios with confidence intervals of 95%. For the multivariate analysis using logistic regression. 58.2% of students had pain tenderness in upper trapezius and 45.6% in area cervical. Lateral movements in the cervical found pain in 35.7%, with the bending cervical 35.1% related to all these factors own dental practice and not to other factors external. The onset of muscle pain in this population is influenced by multiple variables, most of them, related to dental practice of students to interact with each other can trigger symptoms at neck and back.

  20. Explanatory factors for the association between depression and long-term physical disability after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerbe, Luis; Ayis, Salma A; Crichton, Siobhan; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2015-11-01

    To identify explanatory factors for the association between depression at 3 months after stroke and physical disability at 3 years. Data from the South London Stroke Register (1998-2013) were used. Patients (n = 3,612) were assessed at stroke onset. Follow-up at 3 months included assessment for depression with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (scores ≥ 7 = depression), physical disability (Barthel index) cognitive function, smoking habit, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) use, perception of recovery and social support. Physical disability was reassessed at 3 years. The associations between depression at 3 months and physical disability at 3 years were estimated with multinomial regression adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, stroke severity and possible explanatory factors for the association (introduced in the models first individually and then sequentially): pre-stroke medical history and physical disability, cognitive function, smoking, SSRIs, perception of recovery and social support at 3 months. One thousand three hundred and seven survivors were assessed at 3 months, of which 418 (32.0%) had depression. Survivors with depression had a higher physical disability rate at 3 years. These associations remained significant after adjustment for individual explanatory factors but were not significant after adjustment for combined explanatory factors. Physical disability at 3 months was a relevant explanatory factor for this association. SSRIs were associated with severe, relative risk: 6.62 (2.92-15.02) P disability, relative risk: 3.45 (1.58-7.52) P = 0.002, at 3 years. The association between depression and physical disability appears to be multifactorial. The use of SSRIs after stroke requires further research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Influence of physical and biological factors in cellular radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Lima, Omar

    2016-01-01

    The use of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals is associated with radiation damage, and this at-nuclear physical properties of radionuclides used and the characteristics of the irradiated cells. The work deals with the damage caused by radiation to DNA, factors that condition and tools that can be used to measure it. It presents current concepts of death and cellular radiosensitivity, based on the pioneering work in this field. Enter the neighborhood effect and adaptive response and evaluates the influence of the same in the paradigms of classical radiobiology. (author)

  2. Factors That Influence Park Use and Physical Activity in Predominantly Hispanic and Low-Income Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolash, Karry; He, Meizi; Yin, Zenong; Sosa, Erica T

    2015-04-01

    Park features' association with physical activity among predominantly Hispanic communities is not extensively researched. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with park use and physical activity among park users in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods. Data were collected across 6 parks and included park environmental assessments to evaluate park features, physical activity observations to estimate physical activity energy expenditure as kcal/kg/ minute per person, and park user interviews to assess motivators for park use. Quantitative data analysis included independent t tests and ANOVA. Thematic analysis of park user interviews was conducted collectively and by parks. Parks that were renovated had higher physical activity energy expenditure scores (mean = .086 ± .027) than nonrenovated parks (mean = .077 ± .028; t = -3.804; P motivation to be physically active, using the play spaces in the park, parks as the main place for physical activity, and social support for using parks. Renovations to park amenities, such as increasing basketball courts and trail availability, could potentially increase physical activity among low-socioeconomic-status populations.

  3. Progress report of Physics Division including Applied Mathematics and Computing Section. 1st October 1970 - 31st March 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The initial MOATA safety assessment was based on data and calculations available before the advent of multigroup diffusion theory codes in two dimensions. That assessment is being revised and extended to gain approval for 100 kW operation. The more detailed representation obtained in the new calculations has resulted in a much better understanding of the physics of this reactor. The properties of the reactor are determined to a large extent by neutron leakage from the rather thin core tanks. In particular the effect of leakage on the coupling between the core tanks and on reactivity coefficients has been clarified and quantified. In neutron data studies, the theoretical fission product library was revised, checked against any experimental values and distributed to interested overseas centres. Some further nubar work was done vith much better neutron energy resolution, and confirmed our earlier measurements. A promising formulation of R matrix theory of nuclear interaction is expected to lead to simpler multilevel resonance parameter description. With large amounts of digital data being collected, dissplayed and used by theoreticians and experimentalists, more attention -was given to visual interactive computer displays. This interest is generating constructive proposals for use of the dataway now being installed between the Division and the IBM 360/50 computer. The study of gamma rays following the capture of keV neutrons continues to reveal new and interesting features of the physical processes involved. A detailed international compilation of the gamma rays emitted and their intensities is in progress. The work on nickel-68, amongst others, has enabled a partial capture cross section to be generated from the gamma ray parameters obtained by experiment. Much work still remains to be done, possibly at other establishments with more extensive facilities. The electrical and mechanical components of our new zero power split table machine for reactor physics assemblies

  4. [Sedentary lifestyle is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors independent of physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Ana María; Martínez, María Adela; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Díaz Martínez, Ximena; Aguilar-Farías, Nicolás; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Sedentary behavior is a main risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. To investigate the association between sedentary behavior and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. We assessed 322 participants aged between 18 to 65 years. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured with accelerometers (Actigraph®). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentage of body fat, diet and blood markers (glucose, lipid profile, insulin and HOMA-IR) were measured with standardized protocols. Thirty four percent of participants were physically inactive and spent on average 8.7 h/day on sedentary activities. Per one hour increase in sedentary behavior there were significant adverse changes in glucose (4.79 mg/dl), insulin (2.73 pmol/l), HOMA-IR (0.75), BMI (0.69 kg/m²), waist circumference (1.95 cm), fat mass (1.03%), total cholesterol (9.73 mg/dl), HDL-cholesterol (-3.50 mg/dl), LDL-cholesterol (10.7 mg/dl) and triglycerides (12.4 mg/dl). These findings were independent of main confounding factors including total physical activity, dietary factors, BMI and socio-demographics. The detrimental effect of sedentary behaviors on cardiometabolic and obesity-related traits is independent of physical activity levels. Therefore, reducing sedentary time should be targeted in the population apart from increasing their physical activity levels.

  5. Psychosocial factors and physical activity as predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Miranda TASSITANO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze whether psychosocial factors and physical activity are predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in young adults attending college. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a representative sample of students from a public university in the Brazilian Northeast (n=717. Fruit and vegetable intake was measured by a Food Frequency Questionnaire containing 21 items. The psychosocial factors for behavior change, measured by a questionnaire, were: behavior change strategy, self-efficacy, perceived barriers and facilitators in decision making, and social support. The level of physical activity was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression was the intake prediction model using a significance level of 5% (p<0.05. Results: The median fruit and vegetable intake was 2.0 servings/day. In adjusted analysis, behavior change strategy (R²=0.31, self-efficacy (R²=0.03, friends' support (R²=0.02, and physical activity (R²=0.03 explained 39% of the fruit and vegetable intake variance in men. Behavior change strategy (R²=0.03, self-efficacy (R²=0.13, perceived barriers (R²=0.08, and physical activity (R²=0.02 explained 26% of the fruit and vegetable intake variance in women. Fruit and vegetable intake would increase by one serving for every extra 35 and 47 minutes of physical activity men and women, respectively, practice a day. Conclusion: The main predictors of fruit and vegetable intake are behavior change strategies, self-efficacy, and physical activity.

  6. Predicting Factors Associated with Regular Physical Activity among College Students: Applying BASNEF Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Moeini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the important problems in modern society is people's sedentary life style. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with regular physical activity among college students based on BASNEF model.Materials & Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study carried out on 400 students in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Based on the assignment among different schools, classified sampling method was chosen for data gathering using a questionnaire in three parts including: demographic information, constructs of BASNEF model, and standard international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ. Data were analyzed by SPSS-13, and using appropriate statistical tests (Chi-square, T-test and regression. Results: Based on the results, 271 students(67.8 % had low, 124 (31% moderate ,and 5 (1.2% vigorous physical activity. There was a significant relationship (c2=6.739, df= 1, P= 0.034 between their residence and physical activity and students living in dormitory were reported to have higher level of physical activity. Behavioral intention and enabling factors from the constructs of BASNEF model were the best predictors for having physical activity in students (OR=1.215, P = 0.000 and (OR=1.119, P= 0.000 respectively.Conclusion: With regard to the fact that majority of the students did not engage in enough physical activity and enabling factors were the most effective predictors for having regular physical activity in them, it seems that providing sports facilities can promote physical activity among the students.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(3:70-76

  7. Innovative physical therapy practice: a qualitative verification of factors that support diffusion of innovation in outpatient physical therapy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabus C

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carla Sabus,1 Ellen Spake2 1Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 2Rockhurst University, Kansas City, MO, USA Background and purpose: New ideas, methods, and technologies spread through cultures through typical patterns described by diffusion of innovation (DOI theory. Professional cultures, including the physical therapy profession, have distinctive features and traditions that determine the adoption of practice innovation. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR proposes a framework of innovation implementation specific to health care services. While the CFIR has been applied to medical and nursing practice, it has not been extended to rehabilitation professions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to verify the CFIR factors in outpatient physical therapy practice.Design: Through a nomination process of area rehabilitation managers and area directors of clinical education, 2 exemplar, outpatient, privately owned physical therapy clinics were identified as innovation practices. A total of 18 physical therapists (PTs, including 3 owners and a manager, participated in the study.Methods: The 2 clinics served as case studies within a qualitative approach of directed content analysis. Data were collected through observation, spontaneous, unstructured questioning, ­workflow analysis, structured focus group sessions, and artifact analysis including clinical documents. Focus group data were transcribed. All the data were analyzed and coded among 4 investigators.Results: Through data analysis and alignment with literature in DOI theory in health care practice, the factors that determine innovation adoption were verified. The phenomena of implementation in PT practice are largely consistent with models of implementation in health care service. Within the outpatient practices studied, patient-centered care and collaborative learning were foundational

  8. Risk factors for rape, physical assault, and posttraumatic stress disorder in women: examination of differential multivariate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, R; Resnick, H; Kilpatrick, D G; Saunders, B; Best, C L

    1999-01-01

    The National Women's Study, a 2-year, three-wave longitudinal investigation, employed a national probability sample of 3,006 adult women to: (a) identify separate risk factors for rape and physical assault, and (b) identify separate risk factors associated with post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-physical assault PTSD. This investigation differed from previous studies in that it prospectively examined risk factors at the multivariate, as opposed to univariate level. Overall, past victimization, young age, and a diagnosis of active PTSD increased women's risk of being raped. By contrast, past victimization, minority ethnic status, active depression, and drug use were associated with increased risk of being physically assaulted. Risk factors for PTSD following rape included a history of depression, alcohol abuse, or experienced injury during the rape. However, risk factors for PTSD following physical assault included only a history of depression and lower education.

  9. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kae; Lopez-Colon, Dalia; Shuster, Jonathan J; Philip, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS), including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points ( p  < 0.001). When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45-60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  10. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS, including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points (p < 0.001. When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45–60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  11. Physical and chemical trigger factors in environmental intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Palmquist, Eva; Nordin, Steven

    2018-04-01

    Individuals with environmental intolerance (EI) react to exposure from different environmental sources at levels tolerated by most people and that are below established toxicological and hazardous thresholds. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attributing symptoms to chemical and physical sources in the environment among individuals with different forms of self-reported EI and in referents. Cross-sectional data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 3406), were used and individuals with self-reported EI to chemicals, buildings, electromagnetic fields and sounds as well as a group with multiple EIs were identified. The Environmental-Symptom Attribution Scale was used to quantify degree to which health symptoms are attributed to 40 specific environmental exposures and sources, with subscales referring to the four types of EI. All EI groups, except the group with building related intolerance (BRI), reported more symptoms from the expected sources compared to the referents. In addition, individuals with chemical and sound intolerance reported symptoms from building related trigger factors, and individuals with electromagnetic hypersensitivity reported symptoms from chemical trigger factors. The study suggests that individuals with BRI react to fewer and more specific trigger factors than do individuals with other EIs, and that it is important to ask about different sources since three of the EI groups attribute their symptoms to a wide variety of sources in addition to the sources to which their EI implicates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  13. Leisure-time physical activity and associated factors in fitness zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cozzensa da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n2p185   Fitness zones (FZ are a great alternative to physical activity practice. The aim of this study was verify physical activity practice and associated factors among FZ users of Pelotas. Participants answered a questionnaire containing demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, health and on the use of FZs. A long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to determine the level of physical activity and those who reported at least 150 minutes / week of PA in the leisure time were considered sufficiently active. The study included 323 subjects (65.3% women, mean age 52.5 years, 83.6% white skin color and 61.9% married. Almost half of respondents were overweight (48.0%, 45.8% had high blood pressure, 10.5% had diabetes and 64.4% used medications. About 77.7% of respondents were classified as sufficiently active. Health perception was associated to leisure physical activity, and the better the health perception, the higher the prevalence of sufficient physical activity. Collective programs with participation of Physical Education teacher can contribute to interaction of practitione with the use of fitness zones and increase the level of physical activity of individuals.

  14. Contingency Factors Influencing Implementation of Physical Asset Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maletič Damjan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this empirical study is to examine the role of two contingency factors, i.e. uncertainty and competitiveness in relation to physical asset management (PAM practices as well as to maintenance key performance indicators. The research is based on a premise that PAM, which was defined by risk management practices, performance assessment practices, life cycle management practices, and policy & strategy practices, has become an indispensable element of strategic thinking of asset owners as well as maintenance and asset managers. The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of how organizations that face high or low level of uncertainty and competitiveness respond in terms of PAM deployment.

  15. Critical success factors for physical activity promotion through community partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidarme, Steffie; Marlier, Mathieu; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Willem, Annick

    2014-02-01

    To define key factors of effective evidence-based policy implementation for physical activity promotion by use of a partnership approach. Using Parent and Harvey's model for sport and physical activity community-based partnerships, we defined determinants of implementation based on 13 face-to-face interviews with network organisations and 39 telephone interviews with partner organisations. Furthermore, two quantitative data-sets (n = 991 and n = 965) were used to measure implementation. In total, nine variables were found to influence implementation. Personal contact was the most powerful variable since its presence contributed to success while its absence led to a negative outcome. Four contributed directly to success: political motive, absence of a metropolis, high commitment and more qualified staff. Four others resulted in a less successful implementation: absence of positive merger effects, exposure motive and governance, and dispersed leadership. Community networks are a promising instrument for the implementation of evidence-based policies. However, determinants of both formation and management of partnerships influence the implementation success. During partnership formation, special attention should be given to partnership motives while social skills are of utmost importance for the management.

  16. Physical factors in cataractogenesis: ambient ultraviolet radiation and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliney, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    A number of environmental cofactors have been implicated in cataracto-genesis. Two have received the greatest attention: ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and ambient temperature. Unfortunately, both temperature and UVR levels vary similarly with geographical latitude. Careful attention to several more refined physical variables and the geometry of exposure may permit investigators to separate the contributory effects of these two physical agents. This paper briefly reviews the available data, estimates the variation of lenticular temperature with ambient temperature, and provides measurements of short-wavelength (UV-B) UVR exposure to the human eye with different meterological conditions. The study attempts to provide epidemiological investigators with more detailed information necessary to perform more accurate studies of cataract and other ocular pathologies that appear to be related to environmental factors. Ocular UV-B radiation exposure levels were measured at nine locations in the USA near 40 degrees latitude at elevations from sea level to 8000 ft. Terrain reflectance is shown to be much more important than terrain elevation; cloud cover and haze may actually increase ocular exposure; and the value of wearing brimmed hats and spectacles varies with the environment. Several avenues for future research are suggested

  17. Physical training risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in female soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tanja C; Songer, Thomas; Ye, Feifei; LaPorte, Ronald; Grier, Tyson; Anderson, Morgan; Chervak, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) result in the most medical encounters, lost duty days, and permanent disability. Women are at greater risk of injury than men and physical training is the leading cause of injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic, body composition, fitness, and physical training risk factors for injuries in female Soldiers serving in garrison Army units over the past 12 months. Self-report survey was collected from 625 women. The ankle was the most frequently injured body region, 13%. Running was the activity most often associated with injury, 34%. In univariate analysis lower rank, older age, history of deployment, no unit runs, weekly frequency of personal resistance training, and history of injury were all associated with injury. In multivariate analysis rank, history of injury, weekly frequency of unit runs, and weekly frequency of personal resistance training were the best combination of predictors of injury. Running once or twice a week with the unit protected against MSIs, whereas participating in personal resistance training sessions once or twice a week increased the risk of MSIs. With more emphasis on running and resistance training, the U.S. Army could reduce injuries and save billions of dollars in training and health care costs. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. The impact of physical activity on cumulative cardiovascular disease risk factors among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Thangiah, Govindamal; Yusoff, Khalid; Manikam, Rishya; Chandrasekaran, Sankara Kumar; Mustafa, Rujhan; Bakar, Najmin Binti Abu

    2015-12-16

    Numerous studies have shown the importance of physical activity in reducing the morbidity and mortality rates caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, most of these studies emphasise little on the cumulative effect of CVD risk factors. Hence, this study investigates the association between physical exercise and cumulative CVD risk factors among adults in three different age groups. Using a sample of 7276 respondents drawn from community centers, the REDISCOVER team gathered information on physical activity, CVD risk factors (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, tobacco use) and socioeconomic and demographic variables in Malaysia. Because the study required medical examination, a convenience sampling frame was preferred in which all volunteers were included in the study. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric (height, weight and more) measurements were collected by trained staffs. Socio-demographic and physical activity variables were recorded through questionnaires. A Chi-square test was performed to identify the bivariate association between the covariates (socioeconomic variables, demographic variables and physical activity) and outcome variable. The association between the main exposure, physical activity, and the outcome variable, cumulative CVD risk factors, was assessed using an ordinal logistic regression model, controlling for socioeconomic status and demographic influences in three different age groups, 35-49, 50-64 and 65 and above. The mean age of participants is 51.8 (SD = 9.4). Respondents in the age groups of 35-49 (aORmoderate = 0.12; 95 % CI: 0.02 - 0.53 ) and 65 and above (aORhigh = 0.58; 95 % CI: 0.24, 0.78) showed a statistically significant inverse relationship between physical activity and cumulative CVD risk factors. However, this relationship was not significant among respondents in the 50-64 age group suggesting the possible influence of other variables, such as stress and environment. The

  19. Contextual factors related to physical activity during daily middle school physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Timothy A; Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You

    2016-09-01

    Given the importance of optimizing physical activity in adolescents, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of activity mode, environment, and semester on step counts/minute and MVPA during daily middle-school physical education (PE). A prospective and observational research design. Participants included 232 students (Mean age=13.3±0.4 years) recruited from the seventh and eighth grades from one public middle-school in the U.S. Activity modes were employed across the school year including motor skills, games, and fitness activities located in indoor and outdoor environments. Step counts/minute and MVPA were monitored across 132 PE lessons during Fall and Spring semesters using NL-1000 piezoelectric pedometers. A three-way Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) was employed to examine the effect of activity mode (skill games vs. fitness), environment (indoors vs. outdoors), and semester (Fall vs. Spring) on student step counts/minute and MVPA. MANCOVA was followed by separate ANCOVA tests. MANCOVA yielded a statistically significant three-way interaction (Wilks' Λ=0.98 F(2, 1153)=8.9, PDaily middle-school physical activity was the highest during outdoor fitness activities in the Fall and the lowest during indoor motor skill games in the Spring. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. But I like PE: factors associated with enjoyment of physical education class in middle school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ward, Dianne S; Conway, Terry L; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R

    2008-03-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity, self-efficacy for leisure time physical activity, and perceived school climate for girls' physical activity as influenced by teachers, while body mass index was inversely associated with PE class enjoyment. After adjusting for all variables in the model, PE class enjoyment was significantly greater in Blacks than in Whites. In model testing, with mutual adjustment for all variables, self-efficacy was the strongest correlate of PE class enjoyment, followed by perceived benefits, race/ethnicity, and teachers' support for girls' physical activity, as compared to boys, at school. The overall model explained 11% of the variance in PE class enjoyment. Findings suggest that efforts to enhance girls' self-efficacy and perceived benefits and to provide a supportive PE class environment that promotes gender equality can potentially increase PE class enjoyment among young girls.

  1. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Haustermans, Karin; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011–0.013) clinical factor was “previous abdominal surgery.” As second significant (p = 0.012–0.016) factor, “cardiac history” was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including “diabetes” was significant (p = 0.039–0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003–0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D 50 . Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions

  2. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  3. Factors associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls and women in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Deborah A; Pan, Yi; Otieno, Fred; Hayes, Tameka; Omoro, Tereza; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Odongo, Fred; Otieno, George O

    2017-12-01

    Intimate partner physical violence increases women's risk for negative health outcomes and is an important public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to determine 1) the proportion of girls (≤18 years) and women (>18 years) who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner, and 2) factors (including self-reported HIV infection) associated with girls and women who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner. Cross-sectional surveys conducted in the Gem Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in Siaya County, western Kenya in 2011-2012 (Round 1) and 2013-2014 (Round 2). Among 8003 unique participants (582 girls and 7421 women), 11.6% reported physical violence by a sexual partner in the last 12 months (girls: 8.4%, women: 11.8%). Three factors were associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls: being married or cohabiting (nearly 5-fold higher risk), low education, and reporting forced sex in the last 12 months (both with an approximate 2-fold higher risk). Predictive factors were similar for women, with the addition of partner alcohol/drug use and deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Self-reported HIV status was not associated with recent physical violence by a sexual partner among girls or women. Gender-based physical violence is prevalent in this rural setting and has a strong relationship with marital status, low education level, and forced sex among girls and women. Concerted efforts to prevent child marriage and retain girls in school as well as implementation of school and community-based anti-violence programs may help mitigate this risk.

  4. Health-related quality of life and hand eczema--a comparison of two instruments, including factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Lena-Marie; Nyfjäll, Mats; Lindberg, Magnus; Meding, Birgitta

    2004-06-01

    Hand eczema is a disease of long duration, affecting the individual and society. The purpose of this study of 100 patients (51 females and 49 males) at an occupational dermatology clinic was to investigate whether the generic questionnaire Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the dermatology-specific Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are appropriate for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with hand eczema, and whether gender differences in HRQL could be detected. HRQL was affected by hand eczema, measured with both SF-36 and DLQI. The SF-36 showed more impaired HRQL for females than for males, in the mental health dimension, whereas no gender-related differences were detected with the DLQI. To compare the instruments we used factor analysis, with a polychoric correlation matrix as input, thus taking the ordinal aspect of the data into account. There was a high correlation between the instruments for physical health, but lower for mental health. In this context our interpretation of the factor analysis is that the SF-36 measures mental health better than the DLQI. The SF-36 therefore appears suitable for use in future studies for measuring HRQL, and gender differences in HRQL, in persons with reported hand eczema.

  5. Sitting Ballet: A Pilot Program Designed to Include Children with Physical Disabilities in the Private Studio Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzner, J.

    2015-01-01

    While recovering from a serious illness, the author looked for dance classes that would help in regaining flexibility, balance, and core strength. Finding no local dance classes that could accommodate the deconditioning experienced from almost two years of physical inactivity and disuse due to bedrest, the author wondered if there were other…

  6. Physical activity and performance at school A systematic review of the literature including a methodological quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Uijtdewilligen, L.; Twisk, J.W.; van Mechelen, W.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prospective relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Data Sources: Prospective studies were identified from searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central, and Sportdiscus from 1990 through 2010. Study Selection: We screened the titles and abstracts

  7. Factors associated with regular physical exercise and consumption of fruits and vegetables among Mexican older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Doubova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the factors associated with regular physical exercise and routine consumption of fruits and vegetables, and both healthy behaviors among Mexican older adults. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the baseline data (2014 of the Study on Obesity, Sarcopenia and Fragility in older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study included 948 adults who were ≥60 years of age. Multiple Poisson regression was performed. Results Routine consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by 53.8 % of older adults, 42.7 % reported engaging in regular physical exercise and 23.1 % reported participating in both types of healthy behaviors. Women, adults with a stable income, those with a self-perception of good health and those with a history of physical exercise at the age of 50 years had an increased likelihood of engaging in healthy eating and regular physical activity. Conclusions Many older adults do not routinely consume fruits and vegetables or engage in regular physical exercise despite the fact that most have a fixed income and a social network. It is relevant to conduct research-based interventions that take into account the contextual factors to promote healthy behaviors.

  8. Factors associated with regular physical exercise and consumption of fruits and vegetables among Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2016-09-09

    To analyze the factors associated with regular physical exercise and routine consumption of fruits and vegetables, and both healthy behaviors among Mexican older adults. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the baseline data (2014) of the Study on Obesity, Sarcopenia and Fragility in older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study included 948 adults who were ≥60 years of age. Multiple Poisson regression was performed. Routine consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by 53.8 % of older adults, 42.7 % reported engaging in regular physical exercise and 23.1 % reported participating in both types of healthy behaviors. Women, adults with a stable income, those with a self-perception of good health and those with a history of physical exercise at the age of 50 years had an increased likelihood of engaging in healthy eating and regular physical activity. Many older adults do not routinely consume fruits and vegetables or engage in regular physical exercise despite the fact that most have a fixed income and a social network. It is relevant to conduct research-based interventions that take into account the contextual factors to promote healthy behaviors.

  9. Risk factor characteristics in carers who physically abuse or neglect their elderly dependants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, A M; Browne, K D

    2001-02-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of, and differences in, risk factor characteristics in a sample of two select populations of carers, one of which physically abused their elderly dependants and one of which neglected them. Nineteen carers (nine who had physically abused and 10 who had neglected their elderly relatives), who were referred to clinical psychology by either their general practitioner or their psychiatrist, were invited to take part in this study. A detailed history of risk factors was obtained, including history of alcohol dependency, type and history of mental ill health, history of maltreatment earlier in life, who they were caring for, how long they had been a carer and whether they felt isolated as a carer. Subjects were then given five assessments to determine whether there were any differences between the two groups. These were the Conflict Tactic Scale, Strain Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Cost of Care Index. An examination of the risk factors suggests that heavy alcohol consumption and past childhood abuse by fathers were likely to lead to physical abuse. Significantly higher conflict and depression scores were also present in the physical abuse group, while the neglect group had significantly higher anxiety scores. It is suggested that these findings should be incorporated into an assessment of future risk of abuse or neglect by the carer.

  10. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 18-20: Sound; Temperature, Heat, and Thermodynamics: First Law; and Kinetic Theory of Gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  11. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 15-17: Gravitation; Simple Harmonic Motion; and Traveling Waves; plus a Partial Derivatives Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  12. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 35-37: Reflection and Refraction; Electric Fields and Potentials from Continuous Charge Distributions; and Maxwell's Predictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 8-10: Conservation of Energy; Impulse and Momentum; and Rotational Motion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  14. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 21-23: Second Law and Entropy; Coulomb's Law and the Electric Field; and Flux and Gauss' Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  15. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 11-14: Collisions; Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies; Rotational Dynamics; and Fluid Mechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  16. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  17. Low physical activity work-related and other risk factors increased the risk of poor physical fitness in cement workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditha Diana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim Low physical activity causes poor physical fitness, which leads to low productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low work-related physical activity and other risk factors on physical fitness.Methods This study was done in February 2008. Subjects were workers from 15 departments in PT Semen Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia. Data on physical activities were collected using the questionnaire from the Student Field Work I Guidebook and Hypertension – Geriatric Integrated Program of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia2003. Physical fitness was measured using the Harvard Step Test.Results A number of 937 male workers aged 18 – 56 years participated in this study. Poor physical fitness was found in 15.9% of the subjects. Low work-related physical activity, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and asthma were dominant risk factors related to poor physical fi tness. Subjects with low compared to high work-related activity had a ten-fold risk of poor physical fitness [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 10.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.71–24.33]. In term of physical exercise, subjects who had no compared to those who had physical exercise had a six-fold risk of poor physical fitness (ORa = 6.30; 95%CI = 3.69-10.75.Conclusion Low work-related physical activities, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and sthma were correlated to poor physical fi tness. It is, among others, therefore necessary to implement exercises for workers with poor physical fitness. (Med J Indones. 2009;18:201-5Key words: exercise test, occupational healths, physical fitness

  18. Factors affecting the local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Yamashita, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors. Between June 2006 and June 2009, 159 lung tumors in 144 patients (primary lung cancer, 128; metastatic lung tumor, 31) were treated with SBRT with 48-60 Gy (mean 50.1 Gy) in 4-5 fractions. Higher doses were given to larger tumors and metastatic tumors in principle. Assessed factors were age, gender, tumor origin (primary vs. metastatic), histological subtype, tumor size, tumor appearance (solid vs. ground glass opacity), maximum standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography using 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and SBRT doses. Follow-up time was 1-60 months (median 18 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year local failure-free rates of all lesions were 90, 80, and 77%, respectively. On univariate analysis, metastatic tumors (p<0.0001), solid tumors (p=0.0246), and higher SBRT doses (p=0.0334) were the statistically significant unfavorable factors for local control. On multivariate analysis, only tumor origin was statistically significant (p=0.0027). The 2-year local failure-free rates of primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors were 87 and 50%, respectively. A metastatic tumor was the only independently significant unfavorable factor for local control after SBRT. (author)

  19. Place of residence as a factor differentiating physical activity in the life style of Ukrainian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergier, Józef; Bergier, Barbara; Tsos, Anatolii

    2016-12-23

    Determining the state of physical activity of societies as an important component of a health promoting life style is a very up-to-date problem. Studies of physical activity among students, the future elites in their environments, become of increasing importance. An important problem is the recognition of factors differentiating this activity on the example of place of residence. For this purpose, the study covered 2,125 students (60.8% females and 39.2% males) from the National Institute in Lutsk, Ukraine, aged 17-22 (mean age: 20.4). The method of a diagnostic survey was applied which included the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The following measures of physical activity according to the place of residence (rural area, small town with a population up to 100,000; medium-size town - 100,000-200,000 inhabitants; large city - over 200,000) were taken into consideration: level of physical activity, self-reported physical fitness, sports disciplines practiced by the respondents, and those which they would like to practice, and the BMI, and leisure time possessed. The study showed that the place of residence positively differentiated physical activity among students from medium-size towns and rural areas, compared to their contemporaries from small towns and large cities. Significant differences were also found with respect to the BMI, which was significantly less favourable among respondents from the rural environment. However, no differences were observed between the place of residence for leisure time, self-reported physical activity, and forms of physical activity practiced, and those which the respondents would like to practice.

  20. Factors Contributing to Mental and Physical Health Care in a Disaster-Prone Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Howard J; Hansel, Tonya Cross; Osofsky, Joy D; Speier, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Environment as a contextual factor plays an important role in southeastern Louisiana, as this area represents a major economic hub for the United States port, petroleum, and fishing industries. The location also exposes the population to both natural and technological disasters, including Hurricane Katrina and the Gulf oil spill. This study explored associations among hurricane loss, oil spill disruption, and environmental quality of life on mental and physical health on over 1,000 residents (N = 1,225) using structural equation modeling techniques. Results showed that oil spill distress was associated with increased symptoms of mental and physical health; Hurricane Katrina loss; and decreased environmental quality of life. Findings also indicate that mental health symptoms explain the association among oil spill distress and physical health symptoms-specifically, those that overlap with somatic complaints. These findings provide important support of the need for mental health assessment and service availability for disaster recovery.

  1. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. van Loon (Janine ); M.A.H. Sonneveld (Michelle); S.F.E. Praet (Stephan); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF) from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the

  2. Differences within: A comparative analysis of women in the physical sciences --- Motivation and background factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine Patricia Traudel

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a critical focus in the United States due to economic concerns and public policy (National Academy of Sciences, 2007; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). Part of this focus has been an emphasis on encouraging and evaluating career choice and persistence factors among underrepresented groups such as females in the physical sciences (Hill et al., 2010; National Academy of Sciences, 2007). The majority of existing STEM research studies compare women to men, yet a paucity of research exists that examines what differentiates female career choice within the physical sciences. In light of these research trends and recommendations, this study examines the following questions: 1. On average, do females who select chemistry or physics doctoral programs differ in their reported personal motivations and background factors prior to entering the field? 2. Do such variables as racial and ethnic background, age, highest level of education completed by guardians/parents, citizenship status, family interest in science, first interest in general science, first interest in the physical sciences, average grades in high school and undergraduate studies in the physical sciences, and experiences in undergraduate physical science courses explain a significant amount of variance in female physical scientists' years to Ph.D. completion? These questions are analyzed using variables from the Project Crossover Survey dataset through a subset of female physical science doctoral students and scientists. Logistic regression analyses are performed to uncover what differentiates women in the physical sciences based on their background, interest, academic achievement, and experiences ranging prior to elementary school through postsecondary education. Significant variables that positively predict a career choice in chemistry or physics include content specific high school and undergraduate academic achievement and positive

  3. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  4. School staff perpetration of physical violence against students in Uganda: a multilevel analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Katherine G; Knight, Louise; Glynn, Judith R; Allen, Elizabeth; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M

    2017-08-18

    To conduct a multilevel analysis of risk factors for physical violence perpetration by school staff against Ugandan students. Multilevel logistic regression analysis of cross-sectional survey data from 499 staff and 828 caregivers of students at 38 primary schools, collected in 2012 and 2014 during the Good Schools Study. Luwero District, Uganda. Past-week use of physical violence by school staff against students was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect 'Child Abuse Screening Tool- Child International' and the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Of 499 staff, 215 (43%) reported perpetration of physical violence against students in the past week. Individual risk factors associated with physical violence perpetration included being a teacher versus another type of staff member (pviolence against non-students (pviolence (IPV) (pviolence perpetration compared with male staff who had not been a victim of IPV. No evidence was observed for school- or community-level risk factors. Physical violence perpetration from school staff is widespread, and interventions are needed to address this issue. Staff who have been victims of violence and who use violence against people other than students may benefit from additional interventions. Researchers should further investigate how school and community contexts influence staff's physical violence usage, given a lack of associations observed in this study. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Giving Children a Voice: Exploring Qualitative Perspectives on Factors Influencing Recess Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Troelsen, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Facilitators and barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. To date, research on recess physical activity has predominantly focused on quantitative measures typically focusing on a narrow set of predefined factors, often constructed by adults. To really understand the factors affecting recess physical activity it is crucial to…

  6. Risk Factors for Spousal Physical Violence Against Women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldoseri, Halah M; Sharps, Phyllis

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to explore selected risk factors for spousal physical violence (SPV) in women frequenting primary health care clinics (PHCs) in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study design was conducted in six PHCs, where one-on-one, private interviews with 200 women were conducted using a standardized World Health Organization (WHO) violence against women questionnaire (v.10.0). SPV was reported by 45.5% of women. Husband-specific risk factors including alcohol or drug addiction, unemployment, control of wealth in the family, and physical aggression toward other men were significant predictors for SPV. A multisectoral approach should be implemented with focus on providers' training, women's safety, and involvement of men in violence prevention and intervention programs.

  7. Influence of physical fitness on cardio-metabolic risk factors in European children. The IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, M; Michels, N; Bammann, K; Ahrens, W; Sprengeler, O; Molnar, D; Hadjigeorgiou, C; Eiben, G; Konstabel, K; Russo, P; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the associations of individual and combined physical fitness components with single and clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in children. This 2-year longitudinal study included a total of 1635 European children aged 6-11 years. The test battery included cardio-respiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run test), upper-limb strength (handgrip test), lower-limb strength (standing long jump test), balance (flamingo test), flexibility (back-saver sit-and-reach) and speed (40-m sprint test). Metabolic risk was assessed through z-score standardization using four components: waist circumference, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), blood lipids (triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Mixed model regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, parental education, sugar and fat intake, and body mass index. Physical fitness was inversely associated with clustered metabolic risk (P<0.001). All coefficients showed a higher clustered metabolic risk with lower physical fitness, except for upper-limb strength (β=0.057; P=0.002) where the opposite association was found. Cardio-respiratory fitness (β=-0.124; P<0.001) and lower-limb strength (β=-0.076; P=0.002) were the most important longitudinal determinants. The effects of cardio-respiratory fitness were even independent of the amount of vigorous-to-moderate activity (β=-0.059; P=0.029). Among all the metabolic risk components, blood pressure seemed not well predicted by physical fitness, while waist circumference, blood lipids and insulin resistance all seemed significantly predicted by physical fitness. Poor physical fitness in children is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Based on our results, this risk might be modified by improving mainly cardio-respiratory fitness and lower-limb muscular strength.

  8. Explaining the role of personal, social and physical environment factors on employed women's physical activity: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtari Aghdam, Fatemeh; Baghiani Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Dabagh Nikookheslat, Saed; Noorizadeh, Roghaieh

    2013-05-13

    PA is a multi-factorial behavior that is affected by interpersonal, intra personal, environmental and social factors. In this study we applied explanatory model to determine the total, indirect and direct impact of physical environment, personal factors and social support on PA among employed women. This study was a correlational cross-sectional study which was conducted to model total, indirect and direct impact of environmental, psychological and social factors on PA. A total of 200 women were chosen from Tabriz University by using convenience sampling method. Data about demographic characteristics, psychological variables, social and physical environment were gathered by using self-reported questionnaire and also the PA was measured by using the International PA Questionnaire and pedometer. personal factors, physical and social environment, showed direct effects on PA. Social factors could be seen to have indirect effects on PA through their influence on personal factors such as pros, cons and self-efficacy; also physical environment had indirect effects on PA through social environment. The total effects of physical and social environment on PA type were respectively 0.17, 0.16 on walking, 0.05, 0.07 on moderate activity and 0.15, 0.18 on vigorous activity. Findings from this study indicated that social factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate and vigorous activity, especially through the effects on these factors of self-efficacy, physical environment, pros and cons, and the interactive role of individual, environmental and social impacts on PA. The current study identifies that psychological, physical and social factors could be shown to have direct and indirect influences on all forms of activity. The barriers of PA were the most predictor of this behavior, and based on results, it can be concluded that decreasing the barriers along with improving social and physical environment can lead to increasing PA and health promotion.

  9. A systematic literature review of physical prognostic factors for the development of Late Whiplash Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark; Williamson, Esther; Gates, Simon; Lamb, Sarah; Cooke, Matthew

    2007-12-01

    Systematic Review. To summarize evidence concerning physical prognostic factors for development of Late Whiplash Syndrome (LWS). There have been 3 previous systematic reviews of prognosis of whiplash with conflicting findings. The Quebec Task Force concluded that high priority should be given to determining prognostic factors. Subsequently their review was updated by Cote et al (Spine 2001;26:E445-58) and most recently by Scholten-Peeters et al (Pain 2003;104:303-22). We searched electronic databases from their inception to August 2006 using a prespecified search strategy. We included prospective cohort and case control studies that studied physical prognostic factors at baseline. Two independent reviewers selected articles, extracted data, and assessed quality. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the heterogeneity between studies. Instead, levels of evidence were generated by grouping similar findings from cohorts. Thirty-eight articles from 26 cohorts were reviewed. The majority of articles (25 of 38) were rated as low quality. No studies were rated as high quality. Only a minority of studies used validated prognostic measures and/or outcome measures. High initial neck pain intensity, neck pain related disability, and cold hyperalgesia all had moderate evidence for an association with the development of LWS. No factor was rated as having strong evidence. Pain has a central role to play as a prognostic factor for the development of LWS. Other physical factors commonly used in the clinical setting showed inconclusive evidence for their influence on prognosis. There is a need for improved quality of studies with consistent use of validated measures of all categories of prognostic factors and outcome. This may then provide a clearer understanding of prognosis of Whiplash Associated Disorders and therefore facilitate effective management of this costly problem.

  10. Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Riddoch, Chris; Kriemler, Susi

    2011-01-01

    A number of recent systematic reviews have resulted in changes in international recommendations for children's participation in physical activity (PA) for health. The World Health Authority (WHO) has recently released new recommendations. The WHO still recommends 60 min of moderate to vigorous...... physical activity (MVPA), but also emphasises that these minutes should be on top of everyday physical activities. Everyday physical activities total around 30 min of MVPA in the quintile of the least active children, which means that the new recommendations constitute more activity in total compared...

  11. Physical and biological factors determining the effective proton range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grün, Rebecca; Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael; Zink, Klemens; Durante, Marco; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy is rapidly becoming a standard treatment option for cancer. However, even though experimental data show an increase of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with depth, particularly at the distal end of the treatment field, a generic RBE of 1.1 is currently used in proton radiotherapy. This discrepancy might affect the effective penetration depth of the proton beam and thus the dose to the surrounding tissue and organs at risk. The purpose of this study was thus to analyze the impact of a tissue and dose dependent RBE of protons on the effective range of the proton beam in comparison to the range based on a generic RBE of 1.1.Methods: Factors influencing the biologically effective proton range were systematically analyzed by means of treatment planning studies using the Local Effect Model (LEM IV) and the treatment planning software TRiP98. Special emphasis was put on the comparison of passive and active range modulation techniques.Results: Beam energy, tissue type, and dose level significantly affected the biological extension of the treatment field at the distal edge. Up to 4 mm increased penetration depth as compared to the depth based on a constant RBE of 1.1. The extension of the biologically effective range strongly depends on the initial proton energy used for the most distal layer of the field and correlates with the width of the distal penumbra. Thus, the range extension, in general, was more pronounced for passive as compared to active range modulation systems, whereas the maximum RBE was higher for active systems.Conclusions: The analysis showed that the physical characteristics of the proton beam in terms of the width of the distal penumbra have a great impact on the RBE gradient and thus also the biologically effective penetration depth of the beam

  12. Study of physical factors affecting the TLD readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Amira Abd Elrhman Ebrahim

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to study the effects of physical factors in TLD reading. The dosimeters have been irradiated with x rays of (0.5 mGy to 5 mGy) using plastic holder with Aluminum filters with dimensions 1.5 x 0.8 mm and 0.5 mm in thickness to obtain the equivalent dose Hp (10) flux of nitrogen gas and annealing after data collection by TLD Reader Analyzer 04 (Version 0.9.400 micro lab (krakow 2012). The count and dose analysis shows that; The count/s given by TLD appears to be higher in case of using filtration which was 7189.9 eps in contrast with reading without filter which was 4055.8 eps. There was proportional linear relationship between the applied dose and the TLD count for both cases with and without filter. And the correlation could be fitted in the form of equations: y=423.9 x + 1023 and y = 432.5 x + 405.3 for filtered and y refers to count/s. Such increment in count is ascribed to increasing applied radiation dose as well it indicates and confirms the linearity of TLD in measuring the radiation dose since R 2 = 0.9. However the count with filter for the applied radiation dose in mGy was greater than that without filter. The that measured with pellets annealing (reading of zero doses). TLD pellets reading without zero dose measurement usually gives greater dose ( 441.8 and 563.6 μGy) relative to the case where the zero doses have been measured which were 289.6 and 429.2 μGy, respectively. While the effect of using filtration is so obvious and leads to increase of zero dose, respectively relative to dose s of un reading of zero dose, and reading of zero dose, but without filter.(Author)

  13. Prognostic factors for head and neck cancer of unknown primary including the impact of human papilloma virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Lars; Nyman, Jan; Haugen-Cange, Hedda; Bove, Mogens; Johansson, Leif; De Lara, Shahin; Kovács, Anikó; Hammerlid, Eva

    2017-06-10

    Head and neck cancer of unknown primary (HNCUP) is rare and prospective studies are lacking. The impact of different prognostic factors such as age and N stage is not completely known, the optimal treatment is not yet established, and the reported survival rates vary. In the last decade, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been identified as a common cause of and important prognostic factor in oropharyngeal cancer, and there is now growing interest in the importance of HPV for HNCUP. The aim of the present study on curatively treated HNCUP was to investigate the prognostic importance of different factors, including HPV status, treatment, and overall survival. A search for HNCUP was performed in the Swedish Cancer Registry, Western health district, between the years 1992-2009. The medical records were reviewed, and only patients with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma treated with curative intent were included. The tumor specimens were retrospectively analyzed for HPV with p16 immunostaining. Sixty-eight patients were included. The mean age was 59 years. The majority were males, and had N2 tumors. Sixty-nine percent of the tumors were HPV positive using p16 staining. Patients who were older than 70 years, patients with N3-stage tumors, and patients with tumors that were p16 negative had a significantly worse prognosis. The overall 5-year survival rate for patients with p16-positive tumors was 88% vs 61% for p16-negative tumors. Treatment with neck dissection and postoperative radiation or (chemo) radiation had 81 and 88% 5-year survival rates, respectively. The overall and disease-free 5-year survival rates for all patients in the study were 82 and 74%. Curatively treated HNCUP had good survival. HPV infection was common. Independent prognostic factors for survival were age over 70 years, HPV status and N3 stage. We recommend that HPV analysis should be performed routinely for HNCUP. Treatment with neck dissection and postoperative radiation or

  14. Factors influencing primary health care professionals' physical activity promotion behaviors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijg, Johanna M; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Verheijden, Marieke W; van der Zouwe, Nicolette; de Vries, Juriena D; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Crone, Mathilde R

    2015-02-01

    Despite the promising findings related to the efficacy of interventions aimed at promoting physical activity (PA) in primary health care (PHC), the translation of these interventions to PHC practice does not always happen as desired. To help understand why efficacious PHC-based PA interventions are not effectively translated to practice, this study systematically reviewed the literature on factors influencing PHC professionals' PA promotion practices. Literature searches were conducted in Web of Science, PubMed, and PsycINFO for peer-reviewed articles published in English from 1990 onwards. Studies were included that met the following criteria: (1) involving PHC-based PA interventions, and (2) reporting factors influencing PHC professionals' PA promotion behaviors. Two researchers independently screened studies and extracted data. A narrative synthesis using thematic analysis was conducted to identify factors. Of the 4,469 identified articles, 59 were included in the review. Factors were identified by qualitative methods, barrier/facilitator ratings, and the examination of the relationship between factors and PA promotion, and the effectiveness of introduction strategies. Many factors related to the development, delivery, and effects of the innovation, the sociopolitical and organizational culture, resources, and support, patient and PHC professional characteristics, and innovation strategies were identified as potential influences on PHC professionals' PA promotion practices. However, the lack of evidence on the relationship between factors and PA promotion indicated insufficient evidence on PA promotion determinants. This extensive overview of potential factors can inform intervention developers and implementers on which factors may play a role when introducing PA interventions in PHC. Future research should further investigate relationships between factors and PA promotion, which should be guided by qualitative in-depth knowledge on influencing factors.

  15. Lack of facilities rather than sociocultural factors as the primary barrier to physical activity among female Saudi university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Anastasia; Nistrup, Anne; Al-Rammah, Tamader Y; Aro, Arja R

    2015-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women's low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females. Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor's programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1) socioeconomic status, 2) physical activity, 3) self-efficacy 4) social factors, and 5) barriers and facilitators related to physical activity. The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14). Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%). Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10). Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity. The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of knowledge is to be expected given their health and well-being studies backgrounds) and/or restrictions from families and society, seem to hinder female students' physical activity, at least young Saudi students.

  16. The Butterfly Effect: Correlations Between Modeling in Nuclear-Particle Physics and Socioeconomic Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, Maria Grazia; Bell, Zane W.; Dressendorfer, Paul V.

    2010-01-01

    A scientometric analysis has been performed on selected physics journals to estimate the presence of simulation and modeling in physics literature in the past fifty years. Correlations between the observed trends and several social and economical factors have been evaluated.

  17. Metabolic risk factors, physical activity and physical fitness in azorean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares-Miranda Luísa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased over the last few decades in adolescents and has become an important health challenge worldwide. This study analyzed the relationships between metabolic risk factors (MRF and physical activity (PA and physical fitness (PF in a sample of Azorean adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 417 adolescents (243 girls aged 15-18 from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. Height, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure were measured. A sum of MRF was computed, and adolescents were classified into three groups: no MRF, one MRF and two or more MRF. PA was assessed by a sealed pedometer. PF was assessed using five tests from the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Dietary intake was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Mean daily steps for girls and boys were 7427 ± 2725 and 7916 ± 3936, respectively. Fifty-nine percent of the adolescents showed at least one MRF and 57.6% were under the healthy zone in the 20 m Shuttle Run Test. Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for sex, body mass index, socio-economic status and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, adolescents who were in the highest quartile of the pedometer step/counts (≥9423 steps/day and those who achieved the healthy zone in five tests were less likely to have one or more MRF (OR = 0.56;95%CI:0.33-0.95; OR = 0.55;95%CI:0.31-0.98, respectively. Conclusions Daily step counts and PF levels were negatively associated with having one or more MRF among Azorean adolescents. Our findings emphasize the importance of promoting and increasing regular PA and PF to reduce the public health burden of chronic diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  18. Factors influencing students' physical science enrolment decision at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study used a modified 'multiple worlds' model to investigate how the various worlds of the students influenced their science subject choice. ... Students also reported building enough self-confidence to enrol in physical science by the encouragement they received through informal contact with physics lecturers.

  19. Determinant Factors of Physical Fitness in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vyncke, Krishna; Moreno, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to explore the determinants of physical fitness in European children aged 6–11 years, cross-sectionally and longitudinally.Methods: There were sufficient data on 4903 children (50.6 % girls) on measured physical fitness (cardio-respiratory, muscular strength, f...

  20. Awareness and habit: important factors in physical activity in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, S.P.J.; Dijkman, M.A.M.; de Meij, J.S.B.; Jurg, M.E.; Brug, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the extent to which Dutch children are aware of their own physical activity level, and to what extent children's physical activity is habitual. Special attention was paid to the potential moderating effect of "awareness" and "habit

  1. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Janine E; Sonneveld, Michelle A H; Praet, Stephan F E; de Maat, Moniek P M; Leebeek, Frank W G

    2014-01-01

    Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF) from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the main mediators of the VWF increase by exhaustive physical exercise. 105 healthy individuals (18-35 years) were included in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exhaustive exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Respiratory gas exchange measurements were obtained while cardiac function was continuously monitored. Blood was collected at baseline and directly after exhaustion. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels, VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB) levels, ADAMTS13 activity and common variations in Syntaxin Binding Protein-5 (STXBP5, rs1039084 and rs9399599), Syntaxin-2 (STX2, rs7978987) and VWF (promoter, rs7965413) were determined. The median VWF:Ag level at baseline was 0.94 IU/mL [IQR 0.8-1.1] and increased with 47% [IQR 25-73] after exhaustive exercise to a median maximum VWF:Ag of 1.38 IU/mL [IQR 1.1-1.8] (pexercise (median increase 43% and 12%, both pexercise (females 1.2 IU/mL; males 1.7 IU/mL, p = 0.001), which was associated by a difference in performance. Genetic variations in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter were not associated with VWF:Ag levels at baseline nor with the VWF:Ag increase. VWF:Ag levels strongly increase upon exhaustive exercise and this increase is strongly determined by physical fitness level and the intensity of the exercise, while there is no clear effect of genetic variation in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter.

  2. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists – Demographic and organizational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Pustułka-Piwnik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Results: Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physical therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. Conclusions: The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention. Med Pr 2014;65(4:453–462

  3. Factors that contribute to biomarker responses in humans including a study in individuals taking Vitamin C supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D

    2001-09-01

    It is possible in many situations to identify humans exposed to potentially toxic materials in the workplace and in the environment. As in most human studies, there tends to be a high degree of interindividual variability in response to chemical insults. Some non-exposed control individuals exhibit as high a level of damage as some exposed individuals and some of these have levels of damage as low as many of the controls. Thus, it is only the mean values of the groups that can substantiate an exposure-related problem; the data on an individual basis are still of limited use. While human lymphocytes remain the most popular cell type for monitoring purposes, sperm, buccal, nasal, epithelial and placental cells are also used. However, for interpretation of responses, the issue of confounding factors must be addressed. There are endogenous confounding factors, such as age, gender, and genetic make-up and exogenous ones, including lifestyle habits (smoking, drinking, etc.) There are biomarkers of exposure, effect/response and susceptibility and the last may be influenced by the genotype and polymorphism genes existing in a population. From our own studies, confounding effects on cytogenetic damage and ras oncoproteins will be considered in relation to workers exposed to vinyl chloride and petroleum emissions and to volunteers taking Vitamin C supplementation. Smoking history, exposure and duration of employment affected the worker studies. For petroleum emissions, so did gender and season of exposure. For the non-smoking volunteer Vitamin C supplementation study, cholesterol levels, plasma Vitamin C levels, lipid peroxidation products and DNA damage in the Comet assay were also measured. Gender affected differences in Vitamin C levels, antioxidant capacity and the number of chromosome aberrations induced by bleomycin challenge in vitro. The results were the same for both high and low cholesterol subjects. The relationship between biomarkers and the various factors which

  4. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  5. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Physical, Verbal and Relational Aggression among Iranian Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipasha Meysamie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression Methods:In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. Results:According to parents’rating, the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4% , 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6% and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%, respectively; while based on teachers’ rating the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%, 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% - 6.0% and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%, respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p<0.05.Conclusion:This study revealed that children’s family environment alongside internal factors plays an important role as an external factor in determining the child’s potential aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies.

  6. Risk factors for exposure to influenza a viruses, including subtype H5 viruses, in Thai free-grazing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A L; Kitikoon, P; Schreiner, P J; Singer, R S; Sasipreeyajan, J; Amonsin, A; Gramer, M R; Pakinsee, S; Bender, J B

    2014-08-01

    Free-grazing ducks (FGD) have been associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks and may be a viral reservoir. In July-August 2010, we assessed influenza exposure of Thai FGD and risk factors thereof. Serum from 6254 ducks was analysed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to influenza A nucleoprotein (NP), and haemagglutinin H5 protein. Eighty-five per cent (5305 ducks) were seropositive for influenza A. Of the NP-seropositive sera tested with H5 assays (n = 1423), 553 (39%) were H5 ELISA positive and 57 (4%) suspect. Twelve per cent (74 of 610) of H5 ELISA-positive/suspect ducks had H5 titres ≥ 1 : 20 by haemagglutination inhibition. Risk factors for influenza A seropositivity include older age, poultry contact, flock visitors and older purchase age. Study flocks had H5 virus exposure as recently as March 2010, but no HPAI H5N1 outbreaks have been identified in Thailand since 2008, highlighting a need for rigorous FGD surveillance. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Physical and Chemical Factors Affecting Contaminant Hydrology in Cold Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grant, Steven

    2000-01-01

    .... The chemical thermodynamics of geochemical solutions below 0 deg C is then reviewed. Particular attention is placed on the physical-chemical properties of ice and liquid water at subzero temperatures...

  8. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied

  9. Interrelationships of Physical Activity and Sleep with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: a Person-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Associations of behaviorally modifiable factors like physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and sleep with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are complicated. We examined whether membership in latent classes (LCs) differentiated by PA and sleep profiles (real-life clustering of behaviors in population subgroups) associate with metabolic risk factors and CVD risk. The National FINRISK 2012 Study comprise a cross-sectional sample of 10,000 Finns aged 25 to 74 years. Analyses included participants with complete data on a health questionnaire, a health examination, who had no prevalent CVD (n = 4031). LCs with PA and sleep profiles were previously defined using latent class analysis. Ten metabolic risk factors and the Framingham 10-year CVD risk score were compared between the LCs. PA and sleep class profiles were substantially similar for genders. Compared to LC-1, with a profile including high PA and sufficient sleep, membership in LC-4, with a profile including sedentariness and insufficient sleep was associated with high metabolic risk factors in women but not in men. In women, also membership in LC-2, with a profile including light PA, sufficient sleep, and high sedentariness was associated with high metabolic risk factors. The Framingham 10-year CVD risk score was highest in LCs 2 and 4 in both genders. Membership in LCs differentiated by PA and sleep profiles was associated with metabolic risk factors merely in women, suggesting gender differences in the interrelationships of health behaviors and metabolic risk factors. Total CVD risk differed between the LCs despite of gender; however, the effect was small.

  10. An Evaluation of the Physical Environments of a Nuclear Power Plants for Human Factors Review in Periodic Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Yong Hee

    2006-01-01

    Currently, operation of a nuclear power plants(NPP) is highly emphasized by the integrity of the H/W and the human factors security, so the periodic safety review(PSR) is performed to NPP. The PSR activities on human factors include physical environments (illumination, noise, vibration, temperature and humidity etc). The review on these physical environments is to verify the possible affect to the human error during the operation of the man machine interface. Physical environments affect the health, job stress and job satisfaction of NPP's employees. On the ground of the reason, we need integrating the management program for the sufficient satisfaction of the regulatory basis and standards of physical environment and considering a health, a job stress and satisfaction of NPP's employees. So, this paper describes the planning of the setup procedures of physical environments and the adequate management program for the field applications in NPPs

  11. An Evaluation of the Physical Environments of a Nuclear Power Plants for Human Factors Review in Periodic Safety Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, operation of a nuclear power plants(NPP) is highly emphasized by the integrity of the H/W and the human factors security, so the periodic safety review(PSR) is performed to NPP. The PSR activities on human factors include physical environments (illumination, noise, vibration, temperature and humidity etc). The review on these physical environments is to verify the possible affect to the human error during the operation of the man machine interface. Physical environments affect the health, job stress and job satisfaction of NPP's employees. On the ground of the reason, we need integrating the management program for the sufficient satisfaction of the regulatory basis and standards of physical environment and considering a health, a job stress and satisfaction of NPP's employees. So, this paper describes the planning of the setup procedures of physical environments and the adequate management program for the field applications in NPPs.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  13. Physics teachers' perspectives on factors that affect urban physics participation and accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2013-06-01

    The accessibility of secondary physics in U.S. urban school districts is a complex issue. Many schools do not offer a physics option, and for those that do, access is often restricted by various school policies and priorities that do not promote physics participation for all. To analyze this problem in greater depth, I adopted a qualitative phenomenological methodology to explore urban physics teachers’ views on school- and district-based conditions that may marginalize traditionally underrepresented students. Teachers from three large urban districts shared concerns and suggestions regarding administrative commitment, student preparedness for physics, reform initiatives and testing mandates, promoting physics enrollments, and implementing high quality instruction. Data from interviews and focus groups provided contextual insights into ways in which physics study may be improved and encouraged for urban youth. Teachers believed expanding access could be facilitated with differentiated levels of physics, incorporating mathematical applications with multiple representations, educating students and counselors on the ramifications of choosing or not choosing elective sciences, well-designed grant-funded initiatives, and flexibility with prerequisites and science course sequencing. Teachers experienced frustration with standardized testing, lack of curricular autonomy, shifting administrative directives, and top-down reforms that did not incorporate their feedback in the decision-making processes. Data from this study revealed that physics teacher networks, often housed at local universities, have been a key resource for establishing supportive professional communities to share best practices that may influence school-based reforms that promote physics participation in urban schools.

  14. The moderating effect of psychosocial factors in the relation between neighborhood walkability and children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; Gheysen, Freja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet

    2016-12-09

    The study aimed to investigate if psychosocial factors moderate the association between objective walkability and different domains of children's physical activity (PA). A second aim of the study was to investigate the direct associations between psychosocial factors and children's PA. Based on previous literature, it was hypothesized that walkability would be more strongly related to PA among children with negative psychosocial profiles. Data were collected between December 2011 and May 2013 as part of the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in children (BEPAS-child). In total, data from 494 children and one of their parents were included in the study. Children wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days and together with one of their parents, they completed the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. Parents filled out a questionnaire concerning their child's psychosocial factors toward PA (i.e. parental attitude toward their child's PA, parental social norm toward their child's PA, parental support, friend support, children's self-efficacy, and perceived benefits and barriers toward sports and PA). Neighborhood walkability was calculated using geographical information systems (GIS). Multilevel cross-classified analyses were conducted. Of the 42 investigated interactions between neighborhood walkability and psychosocial factors in relation to PA among children, only 7 significant interactions were found of which 3 were only significant among children from low-income neighborhoods. Parental support and self-efficacy were positive correlates of children's PA in high- and low-income neighborhoods independent of the level of walkability, but effect sizes were small. The hypothesis that walkability would be more strongly related to PA among children with negative psychosocial profiles could not be confirmed and in general, psychosocial factors and objective walkability did not interact in relation to children's PA. Focusing on parental support and self

  15. The importance of psychological and social factors in influencing the uptake and maintenance of physical activity after stroke: a structured review of the empirical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqui; Oliver, Tracey; Kroll, Thilo; Macgillivray, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background. People with stroke are not maintaining adequate engagement in physical activity (PA) for health and functional benefit. This paper sought to describe any psychological and social factors that may influence physical activity engagement after stroke. Methods. A structured literature review of studies indexed in MEDLINE, CinAHL, P&BSC, and PsycINFO using search terms relevant to stroke, physical disabilities, and PA. Publications reporting empirical findings (quantitative or qualitative) regarding psychological and/or social factors were included. Results. Twenty studies from 19 publications (9 surveys, 1 RCT, and 10 qualitative studies) were included. Seventeen studies reported findings pertinent to psychological factors and fourteen findings pertinent to social factors. Conclusion. Self-efficacy, physical activity beliefs, and social support appear particularly relevant to physical activity behaviour after stroke and should be included in theoretically based physical interventions. The Transtheoretical Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour are candidate behavioural models that may support intervention development.

  16. On the physical factors influencing on the bone mineral density of the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Yoh; Abe, Shinji; Ogura, Izumi; Ishiguchi, Kohji; Matsui, Yohko; Moriki, Hisakazu; Suzuki, Takao.

    1992-01-01

    Individual characteristics such as sex, age, height and weight have been considered as the factors influencing bone mineral density (BMD). The purpose of this study is to analyze the relation between these factors and the data of BMD obtained from 387 healthy old persons (176 males and 211 females) at the age of 65 and over who are living in an urban community in a western suburb of Tokyo and chosen by randomized sampling. BMD of the third lumbar spine from lateral projection using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in the van was measured during a general health survey which included other physical examinations such as weight, height, blood pressure and so on. BMD obtained was analyzed in relation to these variables using both simple and multiple regression analyses. Standard regression coefficients showed that all physical variables had a significant relationship to BMD except the height in males. Standard regression coefficients of height and age for the males were the same, but height was evaluated to have slight influence on BMD by statistically. In a multiple regression analysis, the multiple correlation coefficient was somewhat lower in both sexes (males: R=0.448; females: R=0.381) than expected. Our analyses of these factors showed that there might be other possible factors influencing BMD regarding the elderly with the exception of age, sex, height and weight. (author)

  17. Student learning of upper-level thermal and statistical physics: The derivation and use of the Boltzmann factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John

    2015-04-01

    As the Physical Review Focused Collection demonstrates, recent frontiers in physics education research include systematic investigations at the upper division. As part of a collaborative project, we have examined student understanding of several topics in upper-division thermal and statistical physics. A fruitful context for research is the Boltzmann factor in statistical mechanics: the standard derivation involves several physically justified mathematical steps as well as the invocation of a Taylor series expansion. We have investigated student understanding of the physical significance of the Boltzmann factor as well as its utility in various circumstances, and identified various lines of student reasoning related to the use of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data as well as teaching interviews suggest that many students do not use the Boltzmann factor when answering questions related to probability in applicable physical situations, even after lecture instruction. We designed an inquiry-based tutorial activity to guide students through a derivation of the Boltzmann factor and to encourage deep connections between the physical quantities involved and the mathematics. Observations of students working through the tutorial suggest that many students at this level can recognize and interpret Taylor series expansions, but they often lack fluency in creating and using Taylor series appropriately, despite previous exposure in both calculus and physics courses. Our findings also suggest that tutorial participation not only increases the prevalence of relevant invocation of the Boltzmann factor, but also helps students gain an appreciation of the physical implications and meaning of the mathematical formalism behind the formula. Supported in part by NSF Grants DUE-0817282, DUE-0837214, and DUE-1323426.

  18. Psychological factors related to physical education classes as predictors of students' intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ponce-de-León-Elizondo, Ana; Sanz-Arazuri, Eva; Valdemoros-San-Emeterio, María de Los Ángeles; Martínez-Molina, Marina

    2016-04-01

    In view of the rise in sedentary lifestyle amongst young people, knowledge regarding their intention to partake in physical activity can be decisive when it comes to instilling physical activity habits to improve the current and future health of school students. Therefore, the object of this study was to find a predictive model of the intention to partake in leisure- time physical activity based on motivation, satisfaction and competence. The sample consisted of 347 Spanish, male, high school students and 411 female students aged between 13 and 18 years old. We used a questionnaire made up of the Sport Motivation Scale, Sport Satisfaction Instrument, and the competence factor in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Intention to Partake in Leisure-Time Physical Activity, all of them adapted to school Physical Education. We carried out confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation models. The intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity was predicted by competence and the latter by satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation was revealed to be the best predictor of satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation should be enhanced in order to predict an intention to partake in physical activity in Physical Education students.

  19. Validity of a four-factor modelunderlying the physical fitness in adults with intellectual disabilities a confirmatory factor analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Solera Martinez, M; Rodriguez Moya, Alejandro; Perez, Y; Martinez Vizcaino, V

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To use confirmatory factor analysis to test whether a four factor might explain the clustering of the components of the physical fitness in adults with intellectual disabilities (FID). Relevance: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are significantly weaker than individuals without ID at all stages of life. These subjects might be particularly susceptible to loss of basic function because of poor physical fitness. Participants: We studied 267 adults with intellectual...

  20. Prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among physical education students

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari; Edio Luiz Petroski; Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among physical education students enrolled in a public university. METHODS: This study evaluated 236 students and assessed body image perception (silhouette scale), sociodemographic variables (sex, age, parental education, marital status, university course, work, living arrangement, study shift, and income), physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version), d...

  1. Progress report of Physics Division including Applied Mathematics and Computing Section. 1st April 1971 - 30th September 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    All the mechanical and electronic components for the zero power splitable machine (the critical facility) arrived in excellent condition from France. Installation began and good progress was made on the mechanical side where the base and tables were successfully assembled and are being adjusted to meet the exacting specification. Power transients arising from the insertion of short reactivity steps were studied for the reactors, HIFAR, MOATA and the critical facility. Some effort was also devoted to the study of blowdown accidents in light water reactors and calculations of some Italian experiments were made successfully. The measurements of fast fission factor and initial conversion ratios for a range of natural uranium heavy water reactors were completed, and good progress is being made with neutron streaming in aluminium-water lattices. Many other investigators of this problem appear to have neglected or given insufficient attention to the case where the neutron beam is parallel to the plates. It is difficult to fit a cosine curve uniquely as coarse and fine features can not be separated. Previous analysis of the moisture content of soils and concrete by neutron scattering was successfully applied to obtain information on the variation of the moisture in large coal stacks as a function of time. This work was done in conjunction with Electricity Commission of N.S.W. Although a small Pu/Be source was found adequate for the above work, development continued on producing neutron pulses by means of a coaxial plasma focus device. Neutron pulses were produced regularly, but the output was variable; the fault was traced to breakdowns at the breech end of the device where restriking occurs. Although discrepancies of about 2% exist between V-bar for spontaneous fission of 252 Cf as measured by the liquid scintillation method and by the Manganese bath method, this important quantity is being measured locally using the liquid scintillator method. Preliminary results suggest

  2. Food choices, physical activity levels and other factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate educators' health behaviours regarding dietary intake and physical activity (PA). A survey was undertaken in 517 educators at 83 primary schools in the Western Cape. Food choices (healthy vs. unhealthy), PA levels, and health knowledge were measured by questionnaire. The six most ...

  3. Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Postpartum Iranian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozbahani, Nasrin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum women are a population at risk for sedentary living. Physical activity (PA) prior to pregnancy may be effective in predicting similar behaviour in the postpartum period. Objective: To test a composite version of the extended transtheoretical model (TTM) by adding "past behaviour" in order to predict PA behaviour…

  4. Spatial distribution and influence factors of interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical names in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, Y.; Ju, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical entities are the key areas of regional integrated management. Based on toponomy dictionaries and different thematic maps, the attributes and the spatial extent of the interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical names (ITPGN, including terrain ITPGN and water ITPGN) were extracted. The coefficient of variation and Moran's I were combined together to measure the spatial variation and spatial association of ITPGN. The influencing factors of the distribution of ITPGN and the implications for the regional management were further discussed. The results showed that 11325 ITPGN were extracted, including 7082 terrain ITPGN and 4243 water ITPGN. Hunan Province had the largest number of ITPGN in China, and Shanghai had the smallest number. The spatial variance of the terrain ITPGN was larger than that of the water ITPGN, and the ITPGN showed a significant agglomeration phenomenon in the southern part of China. Further analysis showed that the number of ITPGN was positively related with the relative elevation and the population where the relative elevation was lower than 2000m and the population was less than 50 million. But the number of ITPGN showed a negative relationship with the two factors when their values became larger, indicating a large number of unnamed entities existed in complex terrain areas and a decreasing number of terrestrial physical geographical entities in densely populated area. Based on these analysis, we suggest the government take the ITPGN as management units to realize a balance development between different parts of the entities and strengthen the geographical names census and the nomination of unnamed interprovincial physical geographical entities. This study also demonstrated that the methods of literature survey, coefficient of variation and Moran's I can be combined to enhance the understanding of the spatial pattern of ITPGN.

  5. Improvements in scaling of counter-current imbibition recovery curves using a shape factor including permeability anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Jassem; Sarafrazi, Shiva; Riazi, Masoud; Ghaedi, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous imbibition is the main oil production mechanism in the water invaded zone of a naturally fractured reservoir (NFR). Different scaling equations have been presented in the literature for upscaling of core scale imbibition recovery curves to field scale matrix blocks. Various scale dependent parameters such as gravity effects and boundary influences are required to be considered in the upscaling process. Fluid flow from matrix blocks to the fracture system is highly dependent on the permeability value in the horizontal and vertical directions. The purpose of this study is to include permeability anisotropy in the available scaling equations to improve the prediction of imbibition assisted oil production in NFRs. In this paper, a commercial reservoir simulator was used to obtain imbibition recovery curves for different scenarios. Then, the effect of permeability anisotropy on imbibition recovery curves was investigated, and the weakness of the existing scaling equations for anisotropic rocks was demonstrated. Consequently, an analytical shape factor was introduced that can better scale all the curves related to anisotropic matrix blocks.

  6. Radio immune analysis of endocrine system state at exposure to different physical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyil's'ka, O.M.; Rozdtil's'kij, S.Yi.; Bratchuk, O.M.; Yakimova, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    Radio immune analysis allows to define more exactly the mechanisms of physical factors action and may be used for validation of new therapeutic techniques. The ultra-high frequency magneto therapy, sinusoid modulated current and direct current influence the state of the endocrine system differently but within the physiological norm. The most prominent action of the physical factor is observed at trans cerebral mode

  7. Intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with meeting recommended physical activity among rural Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brian E; Thompson, Beti

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to identify intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with engaging in recommended levels of physical activity among rural Latino middle school youth. Data were from an anonymous survey of 773 Latino youth (51% female) about level of and barriers and motivators to physical activity, risk behaviors, and park use. Logistic regression models identified factors correlated with meeting recommended levels of physical activity (5 days or more 3 60 min/day). Thirty-four percent of girls and 41% of boys reported meeting this physical activity recommendation. Participation in an organized after school activity (p < .001) and in physical education (PE) classes 5 days a week (p < .001) were strongly associated with meeting recommended physical activity level. Making PE available 5 days a week and creating opportunities for organized after school physical activity programs may increase the number of rural Latino middle school youth who meet recommended physical activity level.

  8. Factors contributing to physical Gender Based Violence reported at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    violence, and poverty as well as income disparities and gender inequality stand out as important community and. 4 societal factors. Copperbelt ... of all urban married women had to seek hospital treatment. 9 following domestic violence.

  9. Sex differences in social cognitive factors and physical activity in Korean college students

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jin Yi; Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Eun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined sex differences in physical activity and social cognitive theory factors in Korean college students. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional survey of 688 college students (285 men and 403 women) in Korea was conducted using a self-reported questionnaire. [Results] There was a significant difference in the level of physical activity between male and female students. The significant predictors of physical activity for male students were physical activity goals, p...

  10. Prevalence and Influencing Factors of Metabolic Syndrome Among Persons with Physical Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghee Jeong, RN, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors. However, it remains unclear to what extent metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors among Korean persons with physical disabilities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities using the Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort. Methods: The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome influencing factors and prevalence, which were evaluated in a representative sample from the 2013 Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort database. Characteristics were compared based on frequency using the χ2 test. The associations between metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were estimated using logistic multivariable regression analysis. Results: Metabolic syndrome was detected in 31.5% of the surveyed persons with physical disabilities. Female sex, age of ≥65 years, smoking, greater alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, higher body mass index, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased risks of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The major risk factors for metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities were obesity and older age. Performing physical activity was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recommend using a continuous obesity management program and physical activity to prevent metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities. Keywords: disabled persons, metabolic syndrome X, physical activity, obesity

  11. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  12. Physical fitness and injury reporting among active duty and National Guard/Reserve women: associations with risk and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazman, Josh B; de la Motte, Sarah; Bramhall, Elizabeth M S; Purvis, Dianna L; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    As more women enter the military, it is important to understand how different risks and lifestyle factors influence physical fitness and injury among women in both active duty (AD) and National Guard/Reserve (NG/R). Women in military service are less fit and more likely to suffer musculoskeletal injuries during physical training than men. They also use more medical care during deployment than men. Using data from the Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness Global Assessment Tool 2.0 (GAT 2.0), self-reported health and lifestyle and behavioral risk factors were analyzed in nondeployed Army personnel, with the goals of examining (1) service-component differences across traditional risk and lifestyle factors, and (2) correlates of physical performance and physical activity-related injury. Self-report GAT 2.0 data included health risk factors (overall perceived health, sleep, diet, tobacco and alcohol use), self-reported health metrics (height, weight, Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores), and history of physical activity-related injury. The GAT 2.0 was completed by 1,322 AD and 1,033 NG/R women, and APFT data were available for a subsample of 605 AD and 582 NG/R women. Initial analyses of GAT 2.0 data indicated that AD had higher rates of fair/poor perceived health, poor sleep, and unhealthy diet compared to NG/R women. However, AD women had a lower APFT fail rate (8%) than NG (27%) and R (28%). Active duty women were more likely to experience a physical injury in the past 6 months (38%) than NG (19%) and R (22%) women, and more likely to seek medical care than NG/R women. Across all service components, predictive factors for APFT failure included high body mass index (BMI), fair/poor health, and unhealthy diet. Predictive factors for physical injury included high BMI, fair/poor health, and binge drinking. Our analyses suggest that AD women Soldiers are more physically fit than NG/R women Soldiers, which is accompanied by a greater prevalence of physical

  13. Physical inactivity is associated with decreased growth differentiation factor 11 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka R

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rie Tanaka,1 Hisatoshi Sugiura,1 Mitsuhiro Yamada,1 Tomohiro Ichikawa,1 Akira Koarai,1 Naoya Fujino,1 Satoru Yanagisawa,1 Katsuhiro Onodera,1 Tadahisa Numakura,1 Kei Sato,1 Yorihiko Kyogoku,1 Hirohito Sano,1 Shun Yamanaka,1 Tatsuma Okazaki,1 Tsutomu Tamada,1 Motohiko Miura,2 Tsuneyuki Takahashi,3 Masakazu Ichinose1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku Rosai Hospital, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University Wakabayashi Hospital, Wakabayashi-ku, Sendai, Japan Background: Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11 is reported to possess anti-aging and rejuvenating effects, including muscle regeneration and to be highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Recently, we demonstrated that the levels of plasma GDF11 were decreased in COPD. However, the effect of decreased circulating GDF11 in the pathophysiology of COPD remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the plasma GDF11 levels and various clinical parameters in patients with COPD. Patients and methods: Eighteen ex-smokers as control subjects and 70 COPD patients participated in the current study. We measured the levels of plasma GDF11 using immunoblotting, lung function, physical activity using a triaxial accelerometer, quadriceps strength, exercise capacity, and systemic inflammatory markers. We investigated the association between the levels of plasma GDF11 and these clinical parameters. Results: The levels of plasma GDF11 in the COPD patients had significant positive correlations with the data of lung function. Furthermore, the levels of plasma GDF11 were significantly correlated with the physical activity, quadriceps strength, and exercise capacity. Moreover, the levels of plasma GDF11 were significantly correlated with the data of inflammatory markers. Although various factors were

  14. Cognitive, sensory and physical factors enabling driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Wood, Joanne; Lord, Stephen; Walker, Janine G

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed literature on cognitive, sensory, motor and physical factors associated with safe driving and crash risk in older adults with the goal of developing a model of factors enabling safe driving behaviour. Thirteen empirical studies reporting associations between cognitive, sensory, motor and physical factors and either self-reported crashes, state crash records or on-road driving measures were identified. Measures of attention, reaction time, memory, executive function, mental status, visual function, and physical function variables were associated with driving outcome measures. Self-monitoring was also identified as a factor that may moderate observed effects by influencing driving behavior. We propose that three enabling factors (cognition, sensory function and physical function/medical conditions) predict driving ability, but that accurate self-monitoring of these enabling factors is required for safe driving behaviour.

  15. Parenthood and factors that influence outdoor recreational physical activity from a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Eva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A physically active life promotes both physical and mental health, increasing well-being and quality of life. Physical activity (PA performed outdoors has been found to be particularly good for promoting well-being. However, participation in PA can change during the course of a lifetime. Parenthood has been found to be a life event associated with decreased PA, especially among women, although studies in the field are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate participation in outdoor recreational PA, and factors influencing participation among parents-to-be, with and without previous children, from a gender perspective. Methods This study included baseline data from parents-to-be, 224 women and 208 men, from the municipality of Karlskrona in south-east Sweden. Data collection was carried out during 2008-2009. We measured the self-reported amount of outdoor recreational PA undertaken during the last year and analysed the probability of participating in this PA using 25 variables covering individual and socioeconomic factors. Results Seventy-six per cent of the women and 65% of the men had participated in outdoor recreational PA, varying from several times per month to every day, over a 12-month period prior to one month before pregnancy. Participation in PA indoors and owning a dog or a horse emerged as the most important factors associated with the probability of participation in outdoor recreational PA. Men were affected by a greater number of factors than women, for example men who had a family situation that permitted outdoor recreational PA participated in activities to a greater extent than men without such a family situation. The physical aspect, i.e. improved physical condition, staying power and vigour, also played a significant role with regard to participation among men. Conclusions Becoming a parent is a life-changing event that affects participation in PA. By offering family-oriented PA choices that involve

  16. The Usage of the K Factor in Heavy Ion Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, R.

    2003-02-01

    The theoretical K factor, describing the difference between the leading and higher order cross sections, has no precise definition. The definition is sensitive to the order of the fit to the parton densities and the number of loops at which alpha s is evaluated. We describe alternate ways to define the K factor and show how the definition affects its magnitude and shape for examples of hadro production of W+ bosons, Drell-Yan lepton pairs, and heavy quarks. We discuss which definition is appropriate under certain circumstances

  17. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E van Loon

    Full Text Available Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the main mediators of the VWF increase by exhaustive physical exercise.105 healthy individuals (18-35 years were included in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exhaustive exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Respiratory gas exchange measurements were obtained while cardiac function was continuously monitored. Blood was collected at baseline and directly after exhaustion. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag levels, VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB levels, ADAMTS13 activity and common variations in Syntaxin Binding Protein-5 (STXBP5, rs1039084 and rs9399599, Syntaxin-2 (STX2, rs7978987 and VWF (promoter, rs7965413 were determined.The median VWF:Ag level at baseline was 0.94 IU/mL [IQR 0.8-1.1] and increased with 47% [IQR 25-73] after exhaustive exercise to a median maximum VWF:Ag of 1.38 IU/mL [IQR 1.1-1.8] (p<0.0001. VWF:CB levels and ADAMTS13 activity both also increased after exhaustive exercise (median increase 43% and 12%, both p<0.0001. The strongest determinants of the VWF:Ag level increase are performance related (p<0.0001. We observed a gender difference in VWF:Ag response to exercise (females 1.2 IU/mL; males 1.7 IU/mL, p = 0.001, which was associated by a difference in performance. Genetic variations in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter were not associated with VWF:Ag levels at baseline nor with the VWF:Ag increase.VWF:Ag levels strongly increase upon exhaustive exercise and this increase is strongly determined by physical fitness level and the intensity of the exercise, while there is no clear effect of genetic variation in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter.

  18. An integrative review: work environment factors associated with physical activity among white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Ping; McCullagh, Marjorie C; Kao, Tsui-Sui; Larson, Janet L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the research evidence for the role of the work environment-workplace physical activity policies and resources and job strain factors-in explaining physical activity in white-collar workers. White-collar workers are at risk for developing a sedentary lifestyle, which contributes to all-cause mortality. Understanding how work environment can influence worker physical activity is important for the development of effective interventions. We reviewed 15 research articles that describe the relationship between work environment factors and physical activity in predominantly white-collar workers. Relatively consistent evidence was found for the effects of supportive workplace policies and resources. Weak evidence was found for the effects of job strain. Both work environment factors have the potential to influence physical activity but require further exploration to fully understand their contribution to physical activity in white-collar workers. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  19. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Physical, Verbal and Relational Aggression among Iranian Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysamie, Alipasha; Ghalehtaki, Reza; Ghazanfari, Arash; Daneshvar-Fard, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-08-01

    Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression. In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. According to parents' rating, the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4%), 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6%) and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%), respectively; while based on teachers' rating the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%), 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% -6.0%) and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%), respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies.

  20. The influence of demographic, environmental and physical factors on functional independence post stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Mamabolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The magnitude of disability observed in strokesurvivors is believed to be dependent in part, on the severity of neurological deficits incurred. A s important but less well understood, is thecontribution of demographic, physical and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to establish what demographic, environmentaland physical factors influence functional independence post stroke. Method: Convenience sampling was used in the selection of subjects from four stroke outpatient public health facilities in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools used included descriptive statistics to measure percentages and cross tabulations to measure the level of associations between functional independence and some of the demographic factors. The Barthel Index was computed to establish the degree of functional independence. Finally the influence of factors on functional independence was investigated using bivariate logistic regressions.Results: The results showed that younger patients (18 - 34 yrs may have a higher likelihood of functional independence compared to older patients at the time of discharge from hospital (18 - 34 years: Odds Ratio = 1. Patients without helpers were more likely to be functionally independent than those with a helper (p = 0.03. Involvement in household activities (p = 0.01, participation in community activities (p = 0.02 and bowel and bladder continence (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04 improved the likelihood of functional independence.Conclusion and im plications: Factors that influence functional independence post stroke are: age, bowel and bladder continence, the presence of a caregiver, participation in household and community activities. It is also of value to encourage patients to participate in household and community activities post stroke as well as being less dependent on helpers in an effort to attain functional independence post

  1. Prevalence and Influencing Factors of Metabolic Syndrome Among Persons with Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeonghee; Yu, Jungok

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors. However, it remains unclear to what extent metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors among Korean persons with physical disabilities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome influencing factors and prevalence, which were evaluated in a representative sample from the 2013 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database. Characteristics were compared based on frequency using the χ 2 test. The associations between metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were estimated using logistic multivariable regression analysis. Metabolic syndrome was detected in 31.5% of the surveyed persons with physical disabilities. Female sex, age of ≥65 years, smoking, greater alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, higher body mass index, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased risks of metabolic syndrome. The major risk factors for metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities were obesity and older age. Performing physical activity was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recommend using a continuous obesity management program and physical activity to prevent metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of lifestyle interventions that include a physical activity component in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Baillot

    Full Text Available In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals.An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus. Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism, behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes, and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran's chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I².Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%. The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2-7.7; p < 0.01 and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4-2.2; p < 0.01. Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg compared to short-term (7.2 kg and intermediate-term (8.0 kg interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01, without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose.Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further

  3. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients.HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events.In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs and vascular events. Such results are preliminary and require

  4. Physical Activity Level of Ambulatory Stroke Patients: Is it Related to Neuropsychological Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz Hüseyinsinoğlu, Burcu; Kuran Aslan, Gökşen; Tarakci, Devrim; Razak Özdinçler, Arzu; Küçükoğlu, Hayriye; Baybaş, Sevim

    2017-06-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for stroke and stroke recurrence. There is insufficient knowledge about the physical activity (PA) level in stroke patients who are ambulatory in the subacute phase. Our aim was to compare the PA level between ambulatory stroke patients and a population of the same age and to investigate neuropsychological factors that could affect the PA level in the same stroke group. Eighty-five subacute stroke patients and 58 healthy subjects were included. Patients' demographic features, disease-related features, and comorbidities were recorded. The PA level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Version and a pedometer (OMRON Walking style II). The Apathy Rating Scale was applied to determine the apathy level. Depression level was investigated by the Geriatric Depression Scale. The standardized Mini-mental State Examination was performed to assess the cognitive status. The PA level was significantly higher in the healthy group than in the stroke group (plevel of men was significantly higher than that of women (p=0.03). Participants who were classified as level 4 had a lower PA level than those who were classified as level 5 according to the Functional Ambulation Category. There was no relationship between the PA level and the apathy, cognitive, and depression levels in the stroke patients (p>0.05). Subacute stroke patients have a lower PA level than healthy subjects. This is not related to neuropsychological factors. The reasons for minor deficits related to ambulation should be researched further while developing strategies for increasing the PA level of subacute stroke patients.

  5. Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising a ra...... with healthy eating. The dietary habits reported were strongly influenced by personal intentions. Thus, the biggest challenge for public health nutritionists will be to reach non-compliers who seldom have intentions to eat healthily.......Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising...... a random sample of 3151 Danish adults aged 18-75 years. Dietary intake was estimated using a 7 d pre-coded food diary. information on social background, leisure-time physical activity, height, body weight and intention to eat healthily was Obtained by in-person interviews. Logistic regression models Were...

  6. Physical and chemical factors influencing radionuclide behaviour in arable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauret, G.; Vidal, M.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Kruglov, S.V.; Cremers, A.; Wauters, J.; Valcke, E.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides integrates plant physiological and soil chemical aspects. Therefore, it is necessary to study the factors affecting the equilibrium of the radionuclides between solid and soil solution phases. Desorption and adsorption studies were applied to the podsolic and peat soils considered in the ECP-2 project. In the desorption approach, both sequential extraction and 'infinite bath' techniques were used. In the adsorption approach, efforts were directed at predicting Cs and Sr-K D on the basis of soil properties and soil solution composition. Desorption approach predicts time-dynamics of transfer with time but it is un sufficient for comparatively predicting transfer. Adsorption studies informs about which are the key factors affecting radionuclide transfer. For Sr, availability depends on the CEC and on the concentration of the Ca + Mg in the soil solution. For Cs, availability is mainly dependent on the partitioning between FES -frayed edge sites-, which are highly specific and REC -regular exchange complex-, with low selectivity for Cs. Moreover, availability depends on the K and NH 4 , levels in the soil solution and fixation properties of the soil. Considering these factors, the calculation of the in situ K D values helps to predict the relative transfer of radionuclides. The calculation of the K D of the materials that could be used as countermeasures could permit the prediction of its suitability to decrease transfer and therefore to help in producing cleaner agricultural products

  7. The profile of physical activity and coronary risk factors in Monica Jakarta survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Kusmana

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A population study was done to know the profile of daily physical activity including sports, and its influence on major coronary risk factors in three districts of Jakarta using questionnaire, physicaL and laboratory examination, and 12 leads ECC. The questionnaire gave the data about physical activity (work load and sport, and smoking habit. Work load was divided into light, moderate and heavy. Sport activity was divided into regular (≥ twice a week, 20 minutes or more, irregular (≤ once or occasional, and no sport activity. In addition, blood pressure  (hypertension was grouped according to WHO criteria, total cholesterol (regarded as hypercholesterolemia when > 200 mg%, and ECG were measured. ECG interpretation was done using Minnesota Code. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Out of 2400 people there were  2073(86.4%  respondents that consist of 1086 females and 987 males. The profile of physical activity as a whole showed 33.4% light, 50.7% moderate and 15.8% heavy activity. OnLy 22.5% of respondents had sport regularly, while 30.3% had sport irregularly, and 47.2% had no sport activity. The type of sport was walking (45.0%, callisthenic (22.0% jogging/running (15.6%, badminton (6.5%, volley ball/soccer (4.1%, tennis (3.8%, and golf (0.1%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension between people with heavy (12.0%, moderate (44.8% and light work load (43.2% (P<0.003, in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (13.2%: 50.8%: 36% (P<0.0003, and smoking (19.7%; 44.1%: 36.2% (P<0.00001, respectively. The difference also occurred in the prevalence of abnormal ECG (Q/QS, ST and T  abnormalities between people having regular sport (19.0%, irregular (22.7%, and no sport activity (58.3% (P<0.05. The number of respondents having enough physical activity (including regular sport was relatively low. Therefore, promotion should be done as a preventive method to overcome cardiovascular risk factors. (Med J Indones

  8. Lack of facilities rather than sociocultural factors as the primary barrier to physical activity among female Saudi university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anastasia Samara,1 Anne Nistrup,1 Tamader Y AL-Rammah,2 Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion and Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Faculty of Rehabilitation and Health Sciences, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women’s low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females.Patients and methods: Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor’s programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1 socioeconomic status, 2 physical activity, 3 self-efficacy 4 social factors, and 5 barriers and facilitators related to physical activity.Results: The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14. Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%. Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10. Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity.Conclusion: The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of

  9. The importance of the human factor in a physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.; Rocha, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A complete physical protection system gathers three elements: equipment's, guards and procedures. The integration of these three elements will guarantee the efficiency of the overall PPS in such a way that it can meet the objectives that were defined during its project: clear and precise procedures will rule the relation between the technical factor (equipments/ hardware and software) and the human factor (guards). The technical factor is easily adapted ad upgraded to continue meet the objectives of the PPS; however, the human factor presents some resistance, internal and external, concerning the performance of its function within the overall PPS. The objective of this paper is to show the importance of the human factor as an integrant part of the PPS of a nuclear facility. 1. Good relationship between guards and other employees in a facility; 2. the knowledge and acceptance of rules and procedures; 3. and the awareness of the needing to implement security measures, as well as the cooperation with these measures to avoid unauthorized nuclear material removal from the facility or sabotage with consequent radioactive release will guarantee the success of the human factor within the overall PPS. In countries where there is no recent record of terrorist activities, as in Brazil's case, these three key factors are particularly critical, once the concept of security culture is not present in those people's way of life. The target public of this survey are the employees, including the guards of the security force, of the CNAAA - Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - consisting of Angra 1 and Angra 2 nuclear power plants. The tools used to came up with the conclusions of this work were two different kinds of questionnaires: a) one of the questionnaires was answered by the guards of the security force concerning their feelings or impressions about other employees' knowledge, acceptance and cooperation of/with the security measures applied on site, and their

  10. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  11. Excitation and charge transfer in He+ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-01-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He + + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes

  12. Effect of Child Gender and Psychosocial Factors on Physical Activity From Fifth to Sixth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, Melinda; Dowda, Marsha; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Addy, Cheryl L; McDonald, Samantha; Reid, Lauren; Pate, Russell R

    2017-12-01

    Gender differences in physical activity (PA) trajectories during adolescence are well documented, yet little research has examined whether the determinants of these trajectories vary by child's gender. This study is one of few prospective examinations of gender differences in the influences of psychosocial and socioenvironmental factors on changes in objectively measured PA. Students and parents from elementary and middle schools located in 2 school districts in South Carolina were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of changes in children's PA from elementary to middle school. Measures included children's and/or parents' ratings of various psychosocial and socioenvironmental factors as well as objectively measured PA, children's anthropometric characteristics, and neighborhood factors at fifth and sixth grades. Parents' reports of children's sport and class participation, parent-reported support for PA, and neighborhood resources for PA were protective against declines in PA for both boys and girls. The effects of 2 factors-children's self-efficacy and parents' leisure-time PA-on changes in PA over time were moderated by the child's gender. A better understanding of these dynamics may inform the development of interventions.

  13. Perceived physical activity barriers related to body weight status and sociodemographic factors among Malaysian men in Klang Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity has been acknowledged as a public health issue and has received increasing attention in recent years. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the barriers to physical activity among Malaysian men. These barriers were analyzed with regards to sociodemographic factors, physical activity level, BMI and waist circumference. Methods Subjects in this study included 308 Malay men and 422 Chinese men aged 20 years and older. Subjects completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and a questionnaire on barriers to physical activity, categorized into personal and psychological, physical and social environment barriers. Weight, height and waist circumference were also measured and BMI was calculated. Results Descriptive analyses showed that 79.3% of subjects were married, 52.1% had secondary educational level, 68.8% were still working, and 39.7% had household income between RM1500 to RM3500. The perception that other recreational activities with family and friends were more fun was the most frequently reported barrier, followed by weather, lack of discipline, lack of free time, lack of money, and lack of friends. Marriage status, educational level, household income, BMI, and physical activity status were shown to be associated with perceived barriers. Conclusions To increase participation in physical activity, policy makers should consider significant personal, social and environmental barriers when developing appropriate intervention programmes. Health-promoting strategies that increase awareness, knowledge, skills and motivation related to physical activity are required. PMID:23530696

  14. Factors influencing participation in physical exercise by the elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular exercise has been recommended as a partial solution to improving health and wellness among many groups of people including the elderly. Unfortunately, information on the participation of elderly in exercise in Kenya is lacking. This study sought to explore measures for enhancing participation in exercise by the ...

  15. Reduction of risk factors for nuclear power plants due to personnel psychological data, including attitude, morale and motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities of reduction of risk factors for personnel activity and performance due to attitudes, motivation and moral are presented. Methodology and experience in psychology, sociopsychology, psychophisiology and sociology mistake sources are discussed. Authorization to job, stages of estimating occupational fitness and modules system of personnel psychological and sociopsychological training probabilistic are explained. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  16. Social and Health Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Kuwaiti College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Isa, Abdulwahab Naser; Campbell, Jennifer; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Wijesinghe, Namal

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to explore the social and health factors that are associated with the level of physical activity among Kuwaiti college students. A random sample of 787 students (48% males and 52% females) was chosen and weight and height were measured to obtain body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)). Associated social and health factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Those reporting being physically inactive numbered 354 and the remaining 433 were active. Obesity among males was 13% and was 10.5% among females. The social and health factors that were found to be significantly associated with physical activity among the students were gender (P degree (P benefits of being physically active should be instituted to increase the practice of sports and other physical activities in order to control and decrease obesity-related morbidity and mortality.

  17. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into 'pre-action' and 'action'. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1-12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. NCT01315756.

  18. Gender Similarities and Differences in Factors Associated with Adolescent Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenthe, Phyllis J.; Janz, Kathleen F; Levy, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors conceptualized within the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model (YPAP) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescent males and females. Specifically, self-efficacy to overcome barriers, enjoyment of physical activity; family support, peer support, perceived school climate, neighborhood safety and access to physical activity were examined. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) and the Actigraph 7164 were used to obtain three different measures of MVPA in 205 adolescents (102 males, 103 females). Family support emerged as the most significant and consistent factor associated with the MVPA of both adolescent males and females. This relationship was noted even when different methods of measuring MVPA were employed. These findings should increase the confidence of public health officials that family support has the potential to positively alter the physical activity behavior of adolescents. PMID:19827453

  19. A Preliminary Study on the Efficacy of a Community-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Physical Function-Related Risk Factors for Falls Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Ellen; Warden, Stuart J; Szuck, Beth; Lau, Y K James

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week community-based physical activity (PA) intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among 56 breast cancer survivors (BCS) who had completed treatments. This was a single-group longitudinal study. The multimodal PA intervention included aerobic, strengthening, and balance components. Physical function outcomes based on the 4-meter walk, chair stand, one-leg stance, tandem walk, and dynamic muscular endurance tests were assessed at 6-week pre-intervention (T1), baseline (T2), and post-intervention (T3). T1 to T2 and T2 to T3 were the control and intervention periods, respectively. All outcomes, except the tandem walk test, significantly improved after the intervention period (P control period (P > 0.05). Based on the falls risk criterion in the one-leg stance test, the proportion at risk for falls was significantly lower after the intervention period (P = 0.04), but not after the control period. A community-based multimodal PA intervention for BCS may be efficacious in improving physical function-related risk factors for falls, and lowering the proportion of BCS at risk for falls based on specific physical function-related falls criteria. Further larger trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  20. A Preliminary Study on the Efficacy of a Community-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Physical Function-Related Risk Factors for Falls among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. Ellen; Warden, Stuart J.; Szuck, Beth; Lau, Y.K. James

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week community-based physical activity (PA) intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among 56 breast cancer survivors (BCS) who had completed treatments. Design This was a single-group longitudinal study. The multimodal PA intervention included aerobic, strengthening and balance components. Physical function outcomes based on the 4-meter walk, chair stand, one-leg stance, tandem walk, and dynamic muscular endurance tests were assessed at 6-week pre-intervention (T1), baseline (T2), and post-intervention (T3). T1-T2 and T2-T3 were the control and intervention periods, respectively. Results All outcomes, except the tandem walk test, significantly improved after the intervention period (p 0.05). Based on the falls risk criterion in the one-leg stance test, the proportion at risk for falls was significantly lower after the intervention period (p = 0.04), but not after the control period. Conclusions A community-based multimodal PA intervention for BCS may be efficacious in improving physical function-related risk factors for falls, and lowering the proportion of BCS at risk for falls based on specific physical function-related falls criteria. Further larger trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:26829081

  1. Relationship between C-reactive protein and physical fitness, physical activity, obesity and selected cardiovascular risk factors in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Rahnama, Ameneh; Salesi, Mohsen; Rahnama, Nader; Mojtahedi, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between C-reactive protein (CRP) with physical fitness, physical activity, obesity, and selected cardiovascular risk factors in school-children. Forty-four boy schoolchildren (mean ± SD: age 10.25 ± 0.75 years, height 144 ± 0.2 cm, body weight 46.1 5± 4.59 kg, body mass index 22.16 ± 2.16 kg/m(2)) voluntarily participated in this study. Physical fitness and physical activity were assessed using the 20-meter fitness test. Adiposity was estimated using body mass index. Blood samples were taken after an overnight fast and measured for CRP, LDL, HDL and cholesterol. Pearson's correlation was calculated to determine the relations between these factors. Mean (SD) CRP concentration was 1.07 (0.82) mg/l. A significant correlation was observed between CRP and VO2max (r=-0.45, P= 0.001), body mass index (r=0.55, P=0.000) and cholesterol (r=-0.35, P=0.04). No significant relation was found between CRP and physical activity, LDL and HDL (P> 0.05). Moreover, significant associations were observed between body mass index and VO2max (r=-0.33, P=0.02) and physical activity (r=-0.43, P=0.04). Body mass index was the most powerful predictor of serum concentrations of CRP in schoolchildren. It may be an important factor to control body weight to prevent an increase in serum CRP in children and to help the primordial prevention of chronic diseases.

  2. Understanding factors that influence participation in physical activity among people with a neuromusculoskeletal condition: a review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newitt, Rosemarie; Barnett, Fiona; Crowe, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to describe the factors that influence participation in physical activity (PA) in people with neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) conditions. A systematic search of six databases was conducted. Articles were included if the study qualitatively explored factors that influence participation in PA by individuals with a NMS condition. Fifteen peer-reviewed articles published between 2003 and 2013 were analysed for common themes and critically appraised. Results were categorised using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework. The most common demotivators reported for the three areas of functioning, body function and structures, activities and participation were lack of walking balance, muscle weakness, pain, stiffness, bladder and blower problems, depression, thermoregulation and fear of injury. Fluctuating symptoms and fatigue were mentioned as demotivators in all of the progressive conditions. Maintaining independence, function and weight, and the prevention of secondary conditions were the leading motivators reported in this domain. Most common environmental barriers include accessibility, costs, transport and insufficient information and knowledge from health professionals. Social support is a consistent determinate of PA and is reported as a facilitator in every study. The most common personal demotivators include lack of motivation, feelings of self-consciousness and embarrassment in public, anxiety, frustration and anger. Personal motivators include goal setting and achieving, enjoyment, feeling good, feeling "normal", motivation and optimism, redefining self and escapism from everyday boundaries. Individuals with NMS conditions report complex common barriers, facilitators, demotivators and motivators to participation in PA. The way these factors influence participation in PA is unique to the individual; therefore, it is necessary to adopt an individually tailored approach when designing interventions. Individuals

  3. Factors that Influence Students in Choosing Physics Programmes at University Level: the Case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Kalliopi; Lavidas, Konstantinos; Koliopoulos, Dimitrios

    2018-04-01

    Low enrolment in undergraduate level physics programmes has drawn the attention of the relevant disciplines, education policy-makers, and researchers worldwide. Many reports released during the previous decades attempt to identify the factors that attract young people to study science, but only few of them focus explicitly on physics. In Greece, in contrast to many other countries, physics departments are overflowing with young students. However, there are two categories of students: those for whom physics was the optimal choice of a programme ("choosers") and those for whom physics was an alternative choice that they had to settle for. We suggest that the latter category be called "nearly-choosers," in order to be differentiated from choosers as well as from "non-choosers," namely those candidates that did not apply to a physics programme at all. We are interested in the factors that attract high school students to study physics and the differences (if any) between choosers and nearly-choosers. A newly formed questionnaire was distributed within a Greek physics department (University of Patras), and the students' responses (n = 105) were analysed with exploratory factor analysis and specifically principal component analysis so as to extract broad factors. Three broad factors have arisen: school-based, career, and informal learning. The first two factors proved to be motivating for pursuing a degree in physics, while the third factor appeared to have a rather indifferent association. t tests and Pearson correlations indicated mild differentiations between choosers and nearly-choosers that pertain to school-based influences and informal learning.

  4. Social-Relational Risk Factors for Predicting Elder Physical Abuse: An Ecological Bi-Focal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heydrich, Levente; Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Annually in the United States, 1 to 5 million older adults, 65 and above, are physically or sexually injured or mistreated by their caregivers in family settings. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors involved in elder physical abuse by adult child caregivers, moving from the immediate elderly parent/adult child relationship context…

  5. Factors of physical activity among Chinese children and adolescents : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Congchao; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sijtsma, Anna; Wiersma, Rikstje; Huang, Guowei; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lack of physical activity is a growing problem in China, due to the fast economic development and changing living environment over the past two decades. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors related to physical activity in Chinese children and adolescents during this

  6. Influence of physical factors on sexual function and pituitary gland-gonads system. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Chapter 3 it is noted, that different physical factors even with low intensity (vibration, noise, electromagnetic oscillations of s.h.f. and u.h.f range, laser radiation, temperature changes) predictably lead to spermatogenesis dysfunctions and functional shift in hypothalamus-pituitary gland-gonads system with examined animals and man. The sexual function of men changing in the result of contact with unfavourable physical factors arise early and quite often they preceding the manifestation of occupational diseases pattern

  7. Dataset on psychosocial risk factors in cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Clyde Pierce

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article “History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse” (Pierce et al., 2017 [1].

  8. Motivational factors associated with physical activity and quality of life in people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit; Halvari, Hallgeir

    2017-12-01

    There has been increasing interest for investigating the role of motivation in physical activity among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Autonomous motivation has been suggested to have a potentially important role in adoption and maintenance of physical activity. However, the knowledge about factors that facilitate autonomous motivation among people with SMI is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with motivation for physical activity as well as the relationships between motivation, physical activity and health-related quality of life in individuals with SMI that were currently physically active. A cross-sectional design was used, and 88 participants were recruited from a public health network promoting physical activity for people with SMI. They answered a questionnaire package consisting of scales measuring psychological need support - psychological need satisfaction - and motivation for physical activity, physical activity and health-related quality of life. The majority of participants reported to be in regular physical activity. Associations between variables were tested according to the self-determination theory process model. Structural equation modelling yielded good fit of the process model to the data. Specifically, a need-supportive environment was positively associated with psychological need satisfaction, while psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with autonomous motivation and mental health-related quality of life, and negatively associated with controlled motivation and amotivation. Physical activity was positively associated with autonomous motivation and physical health-related quality of life, and negatively associated with amotivation. This study indicates that individuals with SMI can be regularly physically active when provided with suitable opportunities. Furthermore, the present results suggest that it is vital for health-care practitioners to emphasise creating a need

  9. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include... generic name to identify the waste category (e.g., batteries), the definition of universal waste in § 260..., and specific management standards proposed or referenced by the petitioner (e.g., waste management...

  10. Development and validation of a job exposure matrix for physical risk factors in low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Solovieva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim was to construct and validate a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM for physical exposures to be used in epidemiological studies of low back pain (LBP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized two large Finnish population surveys, one to construct the JEM and another to test matrix validity. The exposure axis of the matrix included exposures relevant to LBP (heavy physical work, heavy lifting, awkward trunk posture and whole body vibration and exposures that increase the biomechanical load on the low back (arm elevation or those that in combination with other known risk factors could be related to LBP (kneeling or squatting. Job titles with similar work tasks and exposures were grouped. Exposure information was based on face-to-face interviews. Validity of the matrix was explored by comparing the JEM (group-based binary measures with individual-based measures. The predictive validity of the matrix against LBP was evaluated by comparing the associations of the group-based (JEM exposures with those of individual-based exposures. RESULTS: The matrix includes 348 job titles, representing 81% of all Finnish job titles in the early 2000s. The specificity of the constructed matrix was good, especially in women. The validity measured with kappa-statistic ranged from good to poor, being fair for most exposures. In men, all group-based (JEM exposures were statistically significantly associated with one-month prevalence of LBP. In women, four out of six group-based exposures showed an association with LBP. CONCLUSIONS: The gender-specific JEM for physical exposures showed relatively high specificity without compromising sensitivity. The matrix can therefore be considered as a valid instrument for exposure assessment in large-scale epidemiological studies, when more precise but more labour-intensive methods are not feasible. Although the matrix was based on Finnish data we foresee that it could be applicable, with some modifications, in

  11. Development and validation of a job exposure matrix for physical risk factors in low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Svetlana; Pehkonen, Irmeli; Kausto, Johanna; Miranda, Helena; Shiri, Rahman; Kauppinen, Timo; Heliövaara, Markku; Burdorf, Alex; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to construct and validate a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM) for physical exposures to be used in epidemiological studies of low back pain (LBP). We utilized two large Finnish population surveys, one to construct the JEM and another to test matrix validity. The exposure axis of the matrix included exposures relevant to LBP (heavy physical work, heavy lifting, awkward trunk posture and whole body vibration) and exposures that increase the biomechanical load on the low back (arm elevation) or those that in combination with other known risk factors could be related to LBP (kneeling or squatting). Job titles with similar work tasks and exposures were grouped. Exposure information was based on face-to-face interviews. Validity of the matrix was explored by comparing the JEM (group-based) binary measures with individual-based measures. The predictive validity of the matrix against LBP was evaluated by comparing the associations of the group-based (JEM) exposures with those of individual-based exposures. The matrix includes 348 job titles, representing 81% of all Finnish job titles in the early 2000s. The specificity of the constructed matrix was good, especially in women. The validity measured with kappa-statistic ranged from good to poor, being fair for most exposures. In men, all group-based (JEM) exposures were statistically significantly associated with one-month prevalence of LBP. In women, four out of six group-based exposures showed an association with LBP. The gender-specific JEM for physical exposures showed relatively high specificity without compromising sensitivity. The matrix can therefore be considered as a valid instrument for exposure assessment in large-scale epidemiological studies, when more precise but more labour-intensive methods are not feasible. Although the matrix was based on Finnish data we foresee that it could be applicable, with some modifications, in other countries with a similar level of technology.

  12. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenblat, Vanja; Ryan, Joanne; Wertheim, Eleanor H; King, Ross; Olsson, Craig A; Krug, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment) and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation. Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP), a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female) of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism ( 5-HTTLPR ). Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15-16 years). Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23-24 years) in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA. Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR ( p = 0.0048), genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  13. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Rozenblat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation.Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP, a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR. Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15–16 years. Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23–24 years in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA.Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR (p = 0.0048, genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  14. Anthropometric Factors and Physical Condition Dominant Determinants Batting Skills in Softball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Eka Saraya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available batting skills in softball requires several anthropometric factors and physical condition to play to improve skills. Anthropometric factors and physical condition, among others, height, arm length, arm muscle strength, hand-eye coordination, balance, and reaction time. This study aims to determine the anthropometric factors and the physical condition of the dominant determinant of batting skills in softball. This research approach uses a quantitative to design of confirmatory factor analysis. This study population is training student achievement softball in sports education university of riau. A sample of 100 people was obtained through a simple random sampling technique. The data used are taken through a series of tests of the independent and dependent variables. This research method through testing confirmatory factor KMO and Bartlett’s Test analysis using SPSS. Results from this research is: factor of anthropometri dominant physical condition and determinants batting skill in game of softball is arm length with value 0,788, arm muscle power with value 0,851 and time reaction of with value 0,737. The conclusion of this research is: factor of anthropometri dominant physical condition and determinants batting skill in game of softball is arm length, arm muscle power and time reaction

  15. Physical, chemical and kinetic factors affecting prion infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Francesca; Badhan, Anjna; Klier, Steffi; Schmidt, Christian; Klöhn, Peter C; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Clarke, Anthony R; Jackson, Graham S; Collinge, John

    2016-05-03

    The mouse-adapted scrapie prion strain RML is one of the most widely used in prion research. The introduction of a cell culture-based assay of RML prions, the scrapie cell assay (SCA) allows more rapid and precise prion titration. A semi-automated version of this assay (ASCA) was applied to explore a range of conditions that might influence the infectivity and properties of RML prions. These include resistance to freeze-thaw procedures; stability to endogenous proteases in brain homogenate despite prolonged exposure to varying temperatures; distribution of infective material between pellet and supernatant after centrifugation, the effect of reducing agents and the influence of detergent additives on the efficiency of infection. Apparent infectivity is increased significantly by interaction with cationic detergents. Importantly, we have also elucidated the relationship between the duration of exposure of cells to RML prions and the transmission of infection. We established that the infection process following contact of cells with RML prions is rapid and followed an exponential time course, implying a single rate-limiting process.

  16. Factors associated with a clinician's offer of screening HIV-positive patients for sexually transmitted infections, including syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R; Fernando, I; MacDougall, M

    2011-06-01

    This retrospective study assessed whether Quality Improvement Scotland national standards for the sexual health care offered to HIV-positive individuals are being met by the Edinburgh genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic; specifically whether HIV-positive patients are offered: (a) sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening annually and (b) syphilis testing six-monthly. The study also reviewed what factors were associated with a clinician's offer of STI screening and syphilis testing. Of the 509 patients seen within the study period, case notes documented that 64% were offered STI screens, and 69% were offered syphilis testing, results consistent with audits of services elsewhere. Sexual orientation (P offer of STI screening, while gender (P offer of syphilis testing. Our results suggest that one explanation for clinicians failing to offer STI screens and syphilis serology testing is their (implicit) risk assessment that STI testing is not required in individual patients.

  17. A review on early gut maturation and colonization in pigs, including biological and dietary factors affecting gut homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everaert, Nadia; Van Cruchten, Steven; Weström, Björn

    2017-01-01

    During the prenatal, neonatal and post-weaning periods, the mammalian gastrointestinal tract undergoes various morphological and physiological changes alongside with an expansion of the immune system and microbial ecosystem. This review focuses on the time period before weaning and summarizes...... in digestive function coincides with development in both the adaptive and innate immune system. This secures a balanced immune response to the ingested milk-derived macromolecules, and colonizing bacteria. Husbandry and dietary interventions in early life appear to affect the development of multiple components...... and immunological maturation, as influenced by early microbial colonization and ingestion of dietary factors, is of utmost importance to identify management and feeding strategies to optimize intestinal health. We discuss some possible implications related to intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm delivery...

  18. Work related musculoskeletal disorders amongst therapists in physically demanding roles: qualitative analysis of risk factors and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passier, Leanne; McPhail, Steven

    2011-01-25

    Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are two professions at high risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD). This investigation aimed to identify risk factors for WRMD as perceived by the health professionals working in these roles (Aim 1), as well as current and future strategies they perceive will allow them to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles (Aim 2). A two phase exploratory investigation was undertaken. The first phase included a survey administered via a web based platform with qualitative open response items. The second phase involved four focus group sessions which explored topics obtained from the survey. Thematic analysis of qualitative data from the survey and focus groups was undertaken. Overall 112 (34.3%) of invited health professionals completed the survey; 66 (58.9%) were physiotherapists and 46 (41.1%) were occupational therapists. Twenty-four health professionals participated in one of four focus groups. The risk factors most frequently perceived by health professionals included: work postures and movements, lifting or carrying, patient related factors and repetitive tasks. The six primary themes for strategies to allow therapists to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles included: organisational strategies, workload or work allocation, work practices, work environment and equipment, physical condition and capacity, and education and training. Risk factors as well as current and potential strategies for reducing WRMD amongst these health professionals working in clinically demanding roles have been identified and discussed. Further investigation regarding the relative effectiveness of these strategies is warranted.

  19. Physical Activity, a Critical Exposure Factor of Environmental Pollution in Children and Adolescents Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingmei; Zhang, Su; Xia, Li; Yu, Yi; Hu, Shuangshuang; Sun, Jingyu; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Peijie

    2018-01-23

    It is an extremely urgent problem that physical fitness promotion must face not only the increasing air pollution but also the decline of physical activity level of children and adolescents worldwide at present, which is the major reason that forms an inactive lifestyle and does harm to adolescents' health. Thus, it is necessary to focus on the exposure factor in environmental health risk assessment (EHRA) which conducts supervision of environmental pollution and survey of adolescents' activity patterns according to the harmful characteristics of air pollutant and relationship between dose and response. Some countries, such as USA, Canada and Australia, regard both respiratory rate and physical activity pattern as main exposure factors for adolescents in both air pollution health risk assessment and exercise risk assessment to forecast a safe exposing condition of pollutant for adolescents while they are doing exercise outdoors. In addition, it suggests that the testing indexes and testing methods of these two exposure factors, such as investigating the time of daily physical activity, strength, and characteristic of frequency, help to set up the quantitative relationship between environmental pollution index and the time, strength, frequency of daily activities, and formulate children's and adolescents' activity instructions under different levels of environmental pollutions. As smog becomes increasingly serious at present, it is meaningful to take physical activity as a critical composition of exposure factor and establish physical activity guideline, so as to reduce the risk of air pollution, and promote physical health of children and adolescents effectively.

  20. Preventive fraction of physical fitness on risk factors in cardiac patients: Retrospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caru, Maxime; Kern, Laurence; Bousquet, Marc; Curnier, Daniel

    2018-04-26

    To quantify the preventive fraction of physical fitness on the risk factors in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A total of 249 subjects (205 men and 44 women) suffering from CVD were categorized into four groups, according to their percentage of physical fitness. We calculated the odds ratio to obtain the preventive fraction in order to evaluate the impact of the physical fitness level on the risk factors ( i.e ., abdominal obesity, depression, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, overweight and smoking). It is observed that a normal physical fitness level is sufficient to induce a preventive action on abdominal obesity (38%), diabetes (12%), hypertension (33%), obesity (12%) and overweight (11%). Also, the preventive fraction increases with the level of physical fitness, in particular for hypertension (36%) and overweight (16%). A high physical fitness level does not necessarily induce a preventive action in most risk factors, excluding depression. This is the first study which demonstrates that reaching a normal physical fitness level is enough to induce a protection for some risk factors, despite having a CVD.

  1. Physical Activity, a Critical Exposure Factor of Environmental Pollution in Children and Adolescents Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Xia, Li; Yu, Yi; Hu, Shuangshuang; Sun, Jingyu; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Peijie

    2018-01-01

    It is an extremely urgent problem that physical fitness promotion must face not only the increasing air pollution but also the decline of physical activity level of children and adolescents worldwide at present, which is the major reason that forms an inactive lifestyle and does harm to adolescents’ health. Thus, it is necessary to focus on the exposure factor in environmental health risk assessment (EHRA) which conducts supervision of environmental pollution and survey of adolescents’ activity patterns according to the harmful characteristics of air pollutant and relationship between dose and response. Some countries, such as USA, Canada and Australia, regard both respiratory rate and physical activity pattern as main exposure factors for adolescents in both air pollution health risk assessment and exercise risk assessment to forecast a safe exposing condition of pollutant for adolescents while they are doing exercise outdoors. In addition, it suggests that the testing indexes and testing methods of these two exposure factors, such as investigating the time of daily physical activity, strength, and characteristic of frequency, help to set up the quantitative relationship between environmental pollution index and the time, strength, frequency of daily activities, and formulate children’s and adolescents’ activity instructions under different levels of environmental pollutions. As smog becomes increasingly serious at present, it is meaningful to take physical activity as a critical composition of exposure factor and establish physical activity guideline, so as to reduce the risk of air pollution, and promote physical health of children and adolescents effectively. PMID:29360730

  2. Physical Activity, a Critical Exposure Factor of Environmental Pollution in Children and Adolescents Health Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmei Dong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is an extremely urgent problem that physical fitness promotion must face not only the increasing air pollution but also the decline of physical activity level of children and adolescents worldwide at present, which is the major reason that forms an inactive lifestyle and does harm to adolescents’ health. Thus, it is necessary to focus on the exposure factor in environmental health risk assessment (EHRA which conducts supervision of environmental pollution and survey of adolescents’ activity patterns according to the harmful characteristics of air pollutant and relationship between dose and response. Some countries, such as USA, Canada and Australia, regard both respiratory rate and physical activity pattern as main exposure factors for adolescents in both air pollution health risk assessment and exercise risk assessment to forecast a safe exposing condition of pollutant for adolescents while they are doing exercise outdoors. In addition, it suggests that the testing indexes and testing methods of these two exposure factors, such as investigating the time of daily physical activity, strength, and characteristic of frequency, help to set up the quantitative relationship between environmental pollution index and the time, strength, frequency of daily activities, and formulate children’s and adolescents’ activity instructions under different levels of environmental pollutions. As smog becomes increasingly serious at present, it is meaningful to take physical activity as a critical composition of exposure factor and establish physical activity guideline, so as to reduce the risk of air pollution, and promote physical health of children and adolescents effectively.

  3. [Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors among Chilean young men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Antonio; Bustos, Patricia; Soto, Rodrigo; Velasco, Nicolás; Amigo, Hugo

    2010-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) has a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. To quantify PA in young adults and to correlate it with cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed employing the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), to measure the PA of 983 randomly selected young adults from Valparaiso region born between 1974 and 1978. Its results were associated with levels of obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP- ATP III) RESULTS: Mean physical activity among men and women was 3731 ± 3923 and 1360 ± 2303 METs-minutes/week, respectively (p women and 21.5% of men had an insufficient level of physical activity (p men and 23.4% of women had an intense level of physical activity (p physical activity and insulin resistance. A high physical activity was protective, specially among men, against a low HDL cholesterol level and high triglyceride levels with Odds Ratios of 0.59 (confidence interval (CI): 0,35-0.98) and 0.49 (CI: 0,27-0,87) respectively, after adjusting for body mass index and age. In this sample, men had higher levels of physical activity, that was protective against insulin resistance and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors.

  4. Work-related factors of presenteeism: The mediating role of mental and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohling, Rico; Buruck, Gabriele; Jungbauer, Kevin-Lim; Leiter, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Even though work-related factors have been found to play a crucial role in predicting presenteeism, studies investigating established theoretical frameworks of job design features and, in particular, underlying mechanisms are still very scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the areas of work life according to the Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS; Leiter & Maslach, 2004) on presenteeism. We examined mental and physical health as the underlying process of this relationship and assessed 2 presenteeism outcome measures and their relationship to each other-that is, the frequency of acts of presenteeism and work productivity. Using a cross-sectional design, the study was conducted in a sample of 885 employees from German public service. Results showed that the influence of some, but not all, areas of work life (workload, control, reward, and values) on both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity was mediated by health indicators (well-being and musculoskeletal complaints). Moreover, we found a relationship between health-related lost productivity and acts of presenteeism. The present research clarifies the importance of work-related factors as antecedents of sickness presenteeism. The findings of our study also emphasize the necessity to include both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity in presenteeism research and prevention. Presenteeism should be included as a measure in health prevention interventions because it reflects a crucial part of employee health that is not covered by other measures. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Factors related to accelerometer-derived physical activity in Pacific children aged 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melody; Schluter, Philip J; Schofield, Grant M; Paterson, Janis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential factors related to Pacific children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A total of 393 Pacific children aged 6 years and their mothers were invited to participate. Participants wore accelerometers over 8 days; height, weight, and waist circumference were measured, and mothers reported on individual, social, and perceived environmental factors. Generalized estimation equation models were used to identify associates of children's daily MVPA. In all, 135 children and 91 mothers were included in analyses. Children spent 24% of time in MVPA; 99% of days had ≥60 minutes of MVPA. Higher maternal MVPA, male sex, longer sunlight hours, and rain-free days were associated with children's MVPA. Approaches for improving activity in Pacific children may be most efficacious if strategies for inclement weather and the encouragement of activity in mothers and, in particular, their daughters are included. Also, 60 minutes of daily MVPA may be insufficient to protect Pacific children from increased body size.

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  7. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomedical Risk Factors of Achilles Tendinopathy in Physically Active People: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaia, Maria; Vlahovich, Nicole; Ashton, Kevin J; Hughes, David C

    2017-12-01

    Achilles tendinopathy is the most prevalent tendon disorder in people engaged in running and jumping sports. Aetiology of Achilles tendinopathy is complex and requires comprehensive research of contributing risk factors. There is relatively little research focussing on potential biomedical risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify studies and summarise current knowledge of biomedical risk factors of Achilles tendinopathy in physically active people. Research databases were searched for relevant articles followed by assessment in accordance with PRISMA statement and standards of Cochrane collaboration. Levels of evidence and quality assessment designation were implemented in accordance with OCEBM levels of evidence and Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale, respectively. A systematic review of the literature identified 22 suitable articles. All included studies had moderate level of evidence (2b) with the Newcastle-Ottawa score varying between 6 and 9. The majority (17) investigated genetic polymorphisms involved in tendon structure and homeostasis and apoptosis and inflammation pathways. Overweight as a risk factor of Achilles tendinopathy was described in five included studies that investigated non-genetic factors. COL5A1 genetic variants were the most extensively studied, particularly in association with genetic variants in the genes involved in regulation of cell-matrix interaction in tendon and matrix homeostasis. It is important to investigate connections and pathways whose interactions might be disrupted and therefore alter collagen structure and lead to the development of pathology. Polymorphisms in genes involved in apoptosis and inflammation, and Achilles tendinopathy did not show strong association and, however, should be considered for further investigation. This systematic review suggests that biomedical risk factors are an important consideration in the future study of propensity to the development

  9. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Abdulnour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter “fitness” and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 compared to women with a fitness <30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 (P < 0.05. However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05. Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  10. Adherence to physical activity recommendations and its associated factors: an interregional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'a Alkerwi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Though the influence of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular diseases is well documented, only a few comparative studies have determined the degree of adherence to physical activity recommendations among populations and identified the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and health-related factors associated with good compliance. Design and methods. Cross-sectional interregional NESCaV survey of 3133 subjects compared three populations, Luxembourg, Lorraine (France and Wallonia (Belgium, by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Age and gender prevalence rates of physical activity were standardized to the European population. Results. The likelihood to meet the recommendations was higher in Luxembourg, after adjustment for age, gender, education, employment, weight status, morbidity score, health perception and level of importance attributed to the practice of physical activity (P<0.0001. The odds for meeting the recommendations were significantly higher among those with secondary than tertiary education. Compared to good self-health perception, subjects with poor or fair self-perceived health were less likely to meet the recommendations; this also applied to those attributing little or enough importance to physical activity compared with great importance. Conclusions. Region, education, self-perceived health and perception of importance of physical activity were emerged as independent determinants of meeting the recommendations. Awareness of the positive health effects of physical activity might thus be crucial for motivating the people to become more active. Further research is needed to explore potential region-specific factors which might explain the difference in population behaviours with respect to physical activity.

  11. Reserve, thin form-factor, hypochlorite-based cells for powering portable systems: Manufacture (including MEMS processes), performance and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas-Valencia, Andres M.; Langebrake, Larry [Center for Ocean Technology, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Biver, Carl J. [Center for Ocean Technology, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave. Tampa, FL (United States)

    2007-03-30

    This work focuses on fabrication routes and performance evaluation of thin form-factors, reserve cells, as a powering alternative for expendable and/or remotely operated systems. The catalytic decomposition of sodium hypochlorite solutions is revisited herein with two cost-effective anodes: zinc and aluminum. Aluminum, even though the most expensive of the utilized anodes, constituted cells with double the energy content (up to 55 Wh kg{sup -1}) than those fabricated with zinc. Even though the hypochlorite concentration in the solution limits the cells' operational life, attractive performances (1.0 V with a current of 10 mA) for the manufactured cells are obtained. It is shown that micro fabrication processes, allowing for close electrodes interspacing, provided high faradic and columbic efficiencies of up to 70 and 100%, respectively. Obtained specific energies (50-120 Wh kg{sup -1}) are in the same order of magnitude than batteries currently used for powering deployable systems. Experimental results show that a simple model that linearly relates over potentials and the electrical load, adequately describe all the cell designs. A mathematical model based on a kinetic-mechanistic scheme that relates the current output as a function of time agrees fairly well with results obtained activating cells with various concentrations of NaOCl solutions. (author)

  12. Clustering of lifestyle factors in Spanish university students: the relationship between smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gómez, Carlos; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Tauler-Riera, Pedro; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Pericas-Beltran, Jordi; Martinez-Andreu, Sonia; Aguilo-Pons, Antoni

    2012-11-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of and association between main lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking) in students from the Balearic Islands University. A cross-sectional, descriptive study. A questionnaire including questions on lifestyle, dietary habits and physical activity habits was administered to the students. Four different diet quality scores were calculated (Diet Diversity Score, Mediterranean Diet Score, Dietary Guidelines Score and Global Dietary Guidelines Score). A sample of students from the Balearic Islands University. Nine hundred and eighty-seven students (45·5 % males; mean age 21·5 (sd 3·3) years). The dietary pattern of the student population was characterized by a low consumption of cereals and tubers, fruits, vegetables, olive oil, legumes and nuts, and a high consumption of processed meat, sweets, snacks, soft drinks and pastries. Linear, positive and statistically significant correlations were found between the number of meals consumed daily and all of the diet quality scores determined. Determinants of diet quality, both in the univariate and multivariate analyses, were physical activity practice, sex, age and number of meals consumed daily. Risk factors such as smoking, diet and physical inactivity had a tendency of clustering among Spanish university students. Overall diet quality was low, due to important departures from dietary recommendations and loss of the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern. Nutritional education campaigns that include promotion of physical activity practice are needed to improve the overall health status of this population.

  13. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pincreased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  14. Giving children a voice: Exploring qualitative perspectives on factors influencing recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Facilitators and barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. To date, research on recess physical activity has predominantly focused on quantitative measures typically focusing on a narrow set of predefined factors, often constructed by adults. To really understand the factors...... 11–12-year-old children. The socio-ecological model was used as the overall theoretical framework. Twelve factors were identified as influencing the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability; gender; gendered school culture; peer influence; conflicts and exclusion; space...... and place experiences; lack of play facilities; outdoor play policy; use of electronic devices; recess duration; organised activities; and weather. These factors were located within different layers of the socio-ecological model, but were interdependent. The findings speak for implementing a combination...

  15. Participation restrictions in ambulatory amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: Physical and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Groenestijn, Annerieke C; Schröder, Carin D; Kruitwagen-Van Reenen, Esther T; Van Den Berg, Leonard H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of participation restrictions in ambulatory patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to identify physical and psychological contributory factors. In this cross-sectional study, self-reported participation restrictions of 72 ambulatory ALS patients were assessed using the social health status dimension (SIPSOC) of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-68). Associations between SIPSOC and physical functioning, psychological factors, and demographic factors were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. Ninety-two percent of the patients reported participation restrictions; 54.9% could be explained by physical functioning; psychological factors accounted for 8.1% of the variance. Lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and helplessness were independently associated with participation restrictions. Ambulatory ALS patients have participation restrictions, which may be influenced if early ALS care is directed toward lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and feelings of helplessness. Muscle Nerve 56: 912-918, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Brazilian impact factor of physics journals - the third side of the coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Mohallem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The lack of correlation between the Journal Impact Factors and the most cited Brazilian papers in physics is statistically demonstrated. The existence of an effective "Brazilian Impact Factor" is observed, being its values, in general, lower than the international Impact Factors. In some cases, discrepancies from the international values are huge, leading to doubts on whether it is appropriate to use this indicator to judge Brazilian scientists.

  17. Development of a self-report physical function instrument for disability assessment: item pool construction and factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Christine M; Jette, Alan M; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    To build a comprehensive item pool representing work-relevant physical functioning and to test the factor structure of the item pool. These developmental steps represent initial outcomes of a broader project to develop instruments for the assessment of function within the context of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs. Comprehensive literature review; gap analysis; item generation with expert panel input; stakeholder interviews; cognitive interviews; cross-sectional survey administration; and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess item pool structure. In-person and semistructured interviews and Internet and telephone surveys. Sample of SSA claimants (n=1017) and a normative sample of adults from the U.S. general population (n=999). Not applicable. Model fit statistics. The final item pool consisted of 139 items. Within the claimant sample, 58.7% were white; 31.8% were black; 46.6% were women; and the mean age was 49.7 years. Initial factor analyses revealed a 4-factor solution, which included more items and allowed separate characterization of: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole body mobility, (3) upper body function, and (4) upper extremity fine motor. The final 4-factor model included 91 items. Confirmatory factor analyses for the 4-factor models for the claimant and the normative samples demonstrated very good fit. Fit statistics for claimant and normative samples, respectively, were: Comparative Fit Index=.93 and .98; Tucker-Lewis Index=.92 and .98; and root mean square error approximation=.05 and .04. The factor structure of the physical function item pool closely resembled the hypothesized content model. The 4 scales relevant to work activities offer promise for providing reliable information about claimant physical functioning relevant to work disability. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors related to rural young adolescents' participation in outdoor, noncompetitive physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G; McCarty, Frances A; Green, Gary T

    2014-12-01

    Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to rural young adolescents' participation in noncompetitive outdoor physical activity to inform intervention design. Young adolescents aged 10 to 14 years old (N = 1,032) from 1 rural county completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing constructs from self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) related to noncompetitive outdoor physical activity. Structural equation modeling was used to examine an integrated conceptual model of hypothesized relationships among constructs. The hypothesized conceptual model provided a good fit to the data with greater perceptions of autonomy support and self-determined motivation having statistically significant positive indirect effects on participation in noncompetitive outdoor physical activity mediated by the constructs of the TPB. All direct paths in the model were statistically significant; however, the direct effect of attitudes on intention was weak (.08) and self-determined motivation had no indirect effect on intention through attitudes (.03). Constructs of SDT and TPB should be accounted for by interventions targeting noncompetitive outdoor physical activity among young adolescents. More research is needed to determine young adolescents' preferences for noncompetitive and competitive physical activity and the potential influence that noncompetitive outdoor physical activity may have on total daily physical activity.

  19. Connected and disconnected contributions to nucleon axial form factors using Nf = 2 twisted mass fermions at the physical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Constantinou, Martha; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Jansen, Karl; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis; Vaquero Avilés-Casco, Alejandro

    2018-03-01

    We present results on the isovector and isoscalar nucleon axial form factors including disconnected contributions, using an ensemble of Nf = 2 twisted mass cloverimproved Wilson fermions simulated with approximately the physical value of the pion mass. The light disconnected quark loops are computed using exact deflation, while the strange and the charm quark loops are evaluated using the truncated solver method. Techniques such as the summation and the two-state fits have been employed to access ground-state dominance.

  20. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain. PMID:26441569

  1. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens' faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain.

  2. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Jankowiak Siuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI, and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behaviour. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behaviour and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male were studied using fMRI method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioural effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain.

  3. Factors Determining Physical and Mental Quality of Life of Living Kidney Donors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K-H; Yeh, L-C; Huang, H-L; Chiang, Y-J; Lin, M-H; Hsieh, C-Y; Weng, L-C

    2016-04-01

    Living-donor kidney transplantation has a positive influence on recipients' life expectancy and improves quality of life for patients with end-stage renal disease compared with dialysis patients. Evaluation of the physical and mental quality of life for donors can promote positive perceptions about donation and help potential donors in their decision-making process. The aim of this study was to explore the predictive factors of quality of life for living kidney donors. A cross-sectional and descriptive design was used, and the study was conducted from January to July 2013. The donors were a convenience sample of 34 participants who had undergone kidney transplant surgery >1 year earlier. The results showed that kidney donors had a low to moderate physical and mental quality of life. Multiple regression analysis revealed that financial concerns and anxiety explained 27.8% of the total variance of quality of life in the physical component. Anxiety and paid work explained 61.4% of the total variance of quality of life in the mental component. After renal transplantation, living kidney donors experienced low to moderate quality of life. Because donors are family members (siblings, sons or daughters, spouses, or parents), monthly family income is a significant issue that influences both the decision to donate and quality of life after transplantation. Our findings suggest that pre-transplantation assessment must include social workers as part of the health care team to evaluate the impact of a donor's financial status on post-transplantation quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical activity and associated factors among young adults in Malaysia: an online exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, C T; Majeed Kutty, N A; Razzaq Jabbar, M A; Boo, N Y

    2012-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in Malaysia. Insufficient Physical Activity, which is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, is less researched in Malaysia. We aimed to assess the level of physical activity and identify its correlates. An online survey was carried out during October, 2011 in the University Tunku Abdul Rahman by the opinion poll research committee. Young adults answered the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire about factors according to a socio-ecological model which was adapted from published studies. Metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours and MET-minutes were calculated. Physical activity was classified as sufficient when MET-minutes were > 840. The mean age of the 474 participants was 22.4 years (S.D. = 4.7), and 253 (53.4%) were females. Their mean and median of MET-hours of PA done during the previous seven days were 31.36 (S.D., 52.19) and 14.7 (IQR, 5.77-32.07), respectively. Physical activity done was sufficient among 242 (51.1%) participants. Using univariate analysis, being male, good self-rated health, positive intention, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, social support, and availability of facilities were associated with sufficient physical activity. Using multivariate analysis sufficient physical activity was associated with participants' intention (OR 0.75, 95% CIs 0.64, 0.88), self-efficacy (OR 0.91, 95% CIs 0.85, 0.97) and facility availability (OR 0.81, 95% CIs 0.73, 0.91). The proportion of participants with sufficient physical activity was low. Positive intention and self-efficacy associated with sufficient physical activity should be supported by availability of facilities and a safely-built environment. A nationwide survey about physical and associated socialecological factors is needed to design rational health promotion strategies.

  5. Urban-rural differences in physical activity in Belgian adults and the importance of psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Delfien Van; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-02-01

    Recent research in urban planning and public health has drawn attention to the associations between urban form and physical activity in adults. Because little is known on the urban-rural differences in physical activity, the main aims of the present study were to examine differences in physical activity between urban and rural adults and to investigate the moderating effects of the physical environment on the relationship between psychosocial factors and physical activity. In Flanders, Belgium, five rural and five urban neighborhoods were selected. A sample of 350 adults (20-65 years of age; 35 adults per neighborhood) participated in the study. Participants wore a pedometer for 7 days, and self-reported physical activity and psychosocial data were also collected. Results showed that urban adults took more steps/day and reported more walking and cycling for transport in the neighborhood, more recreational walking in the neighborhood, and more walking for transportation outside the neighborhood than rural adults. Rural adults reported more recreational cycling in the neighborhoods. The physical environment was a significant moderator of the associations between several psychosocial factors (modeling from family, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers) and physical activity. In rural participants, adults with psychosocial scores above average were more physically active, whereas there were no differences in physical activity according to psychosocial factors in urban participants. These results are promising and plead for the development of multidimensional interventions, targeting specific population subgroups. In rural environments, where changing the environment would be a very challenging task, interventions focusing on modifiable psychosocial constructs could possibly be effective.

  6. Associations Between Parenting Factors, Motivation, and Physical Activity in Overweight African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lauren E; Wilson, Dawn K; Van Horn, M Lee; Pate, Russell R

    2018-02-05

    Positive parenting practices and environmental supports have been linked to physical activity (PA) levels in youth, yet factors associated with positive parenting styles have been understudied in African American adolescents. This study expands on previous literature by examining associations between motivation, parenting factors associated with Self-Determination Theory's psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) including authoritative parenting, autonomy support and emotional and tangible support, and adolescent moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and light PA (LPA). Participants were African American adolescents (N = 148; Mage = 13.6 years; MBMI% = 96.6) and their care-givers (Mage = 43.4 years; MBMI = 37.4) enrolled in the Families Improving Together for Weight Loss trial. Parenting factors were measured using self-report surveys, and PA minutes were measured using 7-day accelerometry estimates. Regression analyses indicated that overall models for MVPA (F(11,134) = 4.35; R2 = 0.26) and LPA (F(11,134) = 5.84, R2 = 0.32) were significant. Adolescent motivation for PA (B = 0.58, SE = 0.16) was positively associated with MVPA minutes. Authoritative parenting (B = 15.71, SE = 4.38) and tangible support (B = 8.53, SE = 4.02) were positively associated with adolescent LPA minutes. Unexpectedly, emotional support was negatively associated with both MVPA (B = -0.47, SE = 0.17) and LPA (B = -11.22, SE = 4.79), with follow-up analyses showing this relationship stronger in males. Findings highlight the importance of adolescent motivation for PA onMVPA and positive parenting styles and tangible supports on adolescent LPA in overweight African American youth. Recommendations for integrating these factors within the context of intervention studies are discussed.

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  9. Sexual victimization of youth with a physical disability: an examination of prevalence rates, and risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Sensitivity analysis with regard to variations of physical forcing including two possible future hydrographic regimes for the Oeregrundsgrepen. A follow-up baroclinic 3D-model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, A.; Andrejev, O.

    2000-02-01

    A sensitivity analysis with regard to variations of physical forcing has been performed using a 3D baroclinic model of the Oeregrundsgrepen area for a whole-year period with data pertaining to 1992. The results of these variations are compared to a nominal run with unaltered physical forcing. This nominal simulation is based on the experience gained in an earlier whole-year modelling of the same area; the difference is mainly that the present nominal simulation is run with identical parameters for the whole year. From a computational economy point of view it has been necessary to vary the time step between the month-long simulation periods. For all simulations with varied forcing, the same time step as for the nominal run has been used. The analysis also comprises the water turnover of a hypsographically defined subsection, the Bio Model area, located above the SFR depository. The external forcing factors that have been varied are the following (with their found relative impact on the volume average of the retention time of the Bio Model area over one year given within parentheses): atmospheric temperature increased/reduced by 2.5 deg C (-0.1% resp. +0.6%), local freshwater discharge rate doubled/halved (-1.6% resp. +0.01%), salinity range at the border increased/reduced a factor 2 (-0.84% resp. 0.00%), wind speed forcing reduced 10% (+8.6%). The results of these simulations, at least the yearly averages, permit a reasonably direct physical explanation, while the detailed dynamics is for natural reasons more intricate. Two additional full-year simulations of possible future hydrographic regimes have also been performed. The first mimics a hypothetical situation with permanent ice cover, which increases the average retention time 87%. The second regime entails the future hypsography with its anticipated shoreline displacement by an 11 m land-rise in the year 4000 AD, which also considerably increases the average retention times for the two remaining layers of the

  11. Barriers and motivational factors towards physical activity in COPD - an interview based pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Elisabeth Bomholt; Sritharan, Sophia Sajitha; Thomsen, Pernille Maja

    2018-01-01

    Title Barriers and motivational factors towards physical activity in COPD - an interview based pilot study Authors Elisabeth Bomholt Østergaard, Sophia Sajitha Sritharan, Pernille Maja Thomsen, Anne Dal Kristiansen, Anders Løkke Background: Surprisingly few people in Denmark with Chronic...... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) engage in physical activity even though it is evident that pulmonary rehabilitation has positive effects on activity level, dyspnea, anxiety, fatigue and quality of life. Aims: To explore why people with COPD do not engage in physical activity and their motivational...... factors for being physically active. Methods: Fieldwork among five people with COPD in Jutland, Denmark 2013-2016 using qualitative semi-structured interviews. Supplementary short semistructured interviews with three general practitioners, and participation in a closed Facebook-group for people with COPD...

  12. A gender perspective on factors that influence outdoor recreational physical activity among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjögren Katarina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is part of a healthy lifestyle and prevents many chronic health problems, in addition to promoting mental health. PA performed outdoors has been found particularly good for promoting one's well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which outdoor recreational PA was carried out during 1 year, and the factors influencing such activities from a gender perspective among persons ≥ 60 years of age. Methods This study included 999 individuals 60-96 years of age living in the south eastern part of Sweden. Data collection was carried out during the years of 2001-2003. We measured the amount of regular light and/or intense outdoor recreational PA performed during the last year and determined the probability of performing PA as a function of 10 variables covering individual and socioeconomic factors. Results Our results suggest that being independent physically and healthy enough to manage one's personal hygiene and having access to areas for country walks were the most important factors associated with the probability of engaging in outdoor recreational PA for both men and women. Despite the level of performance being almost equal for the sexes as two-thirds of both had performed outdoor recreational PA during the preceding year more factors, i.e., living alone, being unable to cover an unexpected cost, fear of being violated, and fear of falling, were associated with the possibilities of engaging in outdoor recreational PA among women. Also increasing age seems to affect activities among women negatively to a higher extent than men. Conclusion Men and women seem to have different opportunities and needs with respect to performing PA. These considerations do not seem to be sufficiently taken into account today and improvements could be made concerning e.g., health-promoting activities suggested to the elderly by healthcare personnel and spatial planning within society. Promoting outdoor

  13. Constraining the Magmatic System at Mount St. Helens (2004-2008) Using Bayesian Inversion With Physics-Based Models Including Gas Escape and Crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ying-Qi; Segall, Paul; Bradley, Andrew; Anderson, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Physics-based models of volcanic eruptions track conduit processes as functions of depth and time. When used in inversions, these models permit integration of diverse geological and geophysical data sets to constrain important parameters of magmatic systems. We develop a 1-D steady state conduit model for effusive eruptions including equilibrium crystallization and gas transport through the conduit and compare with the quasi-steady dome growth phase of Mount St. Helens in 2005. Viscosity increase resulting from pressure-dependent crystallization leads to a natural transition from viscous flow to frictional sliding on the conduit margin. Erupted mass flux depends strongly on wall rock and magma permeabilities due to their impact on magma density. Including both lateral and vertical gas transport reveals competing effects that produce nonmonotonic behavior in the mass flux when increasing magma permeability. Using this physics-based model in a Bayesian inversion, we link data sets from Mount St. Helens such as extrusion flux and earthquake depths with petrological data to estimate unknown model parameters, including magma chamber pressure and water content, magma permeability constants, conduit radius, and friction along the conduit walls. Even with this relatively simple model and limited data, we obtain improved constraints on important model parameters. We find that the magma chamber had low (<5 wt %) total volatiles and that the magma permeability scale is well constrained at ~10 –11.4 m 2 to reproduce observed dome rock porosities. Here, compared with previous results, higher magma overpressure and lower wall friction are required to compensate for increased viscous resistance while keeping extrusion rate at the observed value.

  14. The effects of physical activity and exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, T; Larsen, K T; Ried-Larsen, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the effects of physical activity and exercise on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy humans. Experimental and observational studies were identified from PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and SPORT Discus. A total of 32 articles...... studies suggested an inverse relationship between the peripheral BDNF level and habitual physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness. More research is needed to confirm the findings from the observational studies....

  15. Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Macedonian Adolescents in Albanian Ethnic Community

    OpenAIRE

    GONTAREV, Seryozha; KALAC, Ruzdija; AMETI, Vullnet; REDJEPI, Agim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of demographic, psychological, social and environmental factors with physical activity and to determine whether indicators of physical activity differ by gender among Macedonian adolescents from Albanian ethnic community from 11 to 14 yr (N = 886). Methods: Research were conducted in 2014 in several primary schools randomly selected from Tetovo and Gostivar region of the R. Macedonia. Students completed a questionnaire wh...

  16. Practice of walking, moderate and vigorous physical activity and associated factors in first year undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Salvador Claumann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes that occur with the beginning of university life may interfere with the practice of physical activities by students. The aim was to investigate the association between the practice of walking, moderate and vigorous physical activities with sociodemographic factors and weight status in freshman students in the first semester of the first year of a public university in Florianopolis/SC. This study assessed198 students (86 men and 112 women. The practice of physical activities was collected with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire – IPAQ, short version. Students of human and educational sciences reported higher amounts of moderate physical activity when compared to health and exact science counterparts (p< 0.05. It was verified that male students, from higher economic status, from the health sciences, and full-time students showed higher time of practice of vigorous physical activity (p< 0.05. Significant associations were also observed between study period and walking, and between gender, scientific field and vigorous physical activity. It was concluded that the variables associated with the practice of physical activity differ according to the type and intensity of physical activity.

  17. Physical inactivity and associated factors among women from a municipality in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, Cristiano; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa; Bressan, Ana Weigert; Paniz, Vera Maria; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important modifiable risk factors that is raising the global burden of chronic diseases. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study of 790 women aged 20 years or older living in the urban area of a municipality in Southern Brazil. The level of physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, short form. Inactivity was defined as fewer than 150 min/wk-1 spent in moderate or vigorous physical activities. Prevalence ratios were calculated by robust Poisson regression. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 48.7% (95% CI, 43.3%-54.1%). After adjusting for confounders, we found a linear trend for increasing prevalence of physical inactivity with increasing body mass index (P = .008). Women who were married or in a domestic partnership were 29% less physically active than single women (P = .044). A borderline association was detected between the presence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) and physical inactivity (P = .058). There was a high prevalence of inactivity. Obese women, those married or in domestic partnerships and those with MPD were more likely to lead an inactive lifestyle. These results suggest that strategies are required for breaking down barriers to physical activity in this demographic group.

  18. Trajectories of physical activity and risk factors among Taiwanese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ling-Yen; Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Luh, Dih-Ling

    2015-02-01

    The significance of physical activity has been noticed. However, the dynamic change and the heterogeneity of physical activity patterns among older people are little explored. This study aimed to identify the trajectory patterns of engaging in physical activity over time and its related factors. Nationally representative four-wave panel data from Taiwanese older adults, gathered between 1996 and 2007, were used (n = 4,018). The participants ranged in age from 50 to 96 years old. "Being physically active" was defined as performing physical activity in sports or exercises at least three times per week and lasting for at least 30 min each time. Group-based trajectory analysis was performed for analyzing the data. Four trajectory patterns were identified: inactive (47.83%), decreasing (12.21%), increasing (23.36%), and active (16.60%). Older respondents and those with more education were more likely to be active. Those respondents having more depressive symptoms, having more physical functional limitations, and having jobs were less likely to be physically active in the decreasing, increasing, and active patterns. There is heterogeneity among the trajectory patterns of physical activity across time in the older adults. Different strategies of physical activity promotion for the older people should be developed by the group characteristics.

  19. Social and Health Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Kuwaiti College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to explore the social and health factors that are associated with the level of physical activity among Kuwaiti college students. A random sample of 787 students (48% males and 52% females was chosen and weight and height were measured to obtain body mass index (BMI, kg/m2. Associated social and health factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Those reporting being physically inactive numbered 354 and the remaining 433 were active. Obesity among males was 13% and was 10.5% among females. The social and health factors that were found to be significantly associated with physical activity among the students were gender (P<.001, marital status (P<.05, BMI category (obese or nonobese (P<.05, last dental and health checkup (P<.01, desiring a higher degree (P<.001, and countries preferred for visiting (P<.01. Males significantly exceeded females in the practice of physical activity. In conclusion, behavioural modifications, intervention studies, and health education touting the benefits of being physically active should be instituted to increase the practice of sports and other physical activities in order to control and decrease obesity-related morbidity and mortality.

  20. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  1. Personality disorder is an excess risk factor for physical multimorbidity among women with mental state disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shae E; Stuart, Amanda L; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan Olsen, Sharon L; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Honkanen, Risto; Lukkala, Pyry S; Chanen, Andrew M; Kotowicz, Mark; Williams, Lana J

    2017-11-01

    We examined whether mental state disorders (lifetime mood, anxiety, eating, substance misuse) with comorbid personality disorder are associated with physical multimorbidity in a population-based sample of women. Mental state and personality disorders were assessed using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Clinical measures were performed and medical conditions, medication use and lifestyle factors were documented by questionnaire. Mental state disorders were associated with higher odds of physical multimorbidity; risk was especially high for those with comorbid personality disorder. These findings suggest that mental state and physical comorbidity might be worsened by the additional comorbidity of personality disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical factors that influence patients’ privacy perception toward a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nasriah; Ramli, Rusyaizila

    2018-01-01

    Background Psychiatric patients have privacy concerns when it comes to technology intervention in the hospital setting. In this paper, we present scenarios for psychiatric behavioral monitoring systems to be placed in psychiatric wards to understand patients’ perception regarding privacy. Psychiatric behavioral monitoring refers to systems that are deemed useful in measuring clinical outcomes, but little research has been done on how these systems will impact patients’ privacy. Methods We conducted a case study in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. We investigated the physical factors that influence patients’ perceived privacy with respect to a psychiatric monitoring system. The eight physical factors identified from the information system development privacy model, a comprehensive model for designing a privacy-sensitive information system, were adapted in this research. Scenario-based interviews were conducted with 25 patients in a psychiatric ward for 3 months. Results Psychiatric patients were able to share how physical factors influence their perception of privacy. Results show how patients responded to each of these dimensions in the context of a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system. Conclusion Some subfactors under physical privacy are modified to reflect the data obtained in the interviews. We were able to capture the different physical factors that influence patient privacy. PMID:29343963

  3. Physical factors that influence patients' privacy perception toward a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nasriah; Ramli, Rusyaizila

    2018-01-01

    Psychiatric patients have privacy concerns when it comes to technology intervention in the hospital setting. In this paper, we present scenarios for psychiatric behavioral monitoring systems to be placed in psychiatric wards to understand patients' perception regarding privacy. Psychiatric behavioral monitoring refers to systems that are deemed useful in measuring clinical outcomes, but little research has been done on how these systems will impact patients' privacy. We conducted a case study in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. We investigated the physical factors that influence patients' perceived privacy with respect to a psychiatric monitoring system. The eight physical factors identified from the information system development privacy model, a comprehensive model for designing a privacy-sensitive information system, were adapted in this research. Scenario-based interviews were conducted with 25 patients in a psychiatric ward for 3 months. Psychiatric patients were able to share how physical factors influence their perception of privacy. Results show how patients responded to each of these dimensions in the context of a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system. Some subfactors under physical privacy are modified to reflect the data obtained in the interviews. We were able to capture the different physical factors that influence patient privacy.

  4. Use of physical restraint: Nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Fatemeh; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Wong, Li Ping

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice of nurses towards physical restraint and factors influencing these variables. A literature review showed a lack of studies focused on the intention of nurses regarding physical restraint throughout the world. Considering that very little research on physical restraint use has been carried out in Malaysia, assessment of nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice is necessary before developing a minimising programme in hospitals. A cross-sectional study was used. A questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice was completed by all nurses (n = 309) in twelve wards of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Moderate knowledge and attitude with strong intention to use physical restraint were found among the nurses. Less than half of nurses considered alternatives to physical restraint and most of them did not understand the reasons for the physical restraint. Nurses' academic qualification, read any information source during past year and nurses' work unit showed a significant association with nurses' knowledge. Multiple linear regression analysis found knowledge, attitude and intention were significantly associated with nurses' practice to use physical restraint. This study showed some important misunderstandings of nurses about using physical restraint and strong intention regarding using physical restraint. Findings of this study serve as a supporting reason for importance of educating nurses about the use of physical restraint. Exploring the knowledge, attitude, intention and current practice of nurses towards physical restraint is important so that an effective strategy can be formulated to minimise the use of physical restraints in hospitals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers

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    Qian-fen Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers’ HRQOL. Results: Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Conclusions: Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers.

  6. Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An investigation and research on influencing factors of college students’ physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available College students’ consciousness of physical exercise is so weak in recent years. The exercising habit is hard to form and physique conditions decline year by year. Combining practical teaching experience and considering influencing factors of college students, the author carries out an investigation and a statistical analysis on the college students’ participation of physical exercise through methods of documents, questionnaire survey and mathematical statistics according to personalities of college students. The result indicates that the lack of fields and facilities, the lack of leisure time, the lack of companions, the lack of sport specialties and the lack of teachers’ guidance and extracurricular sports competitions are major factors influencing physical exercise of college students. So, how to form the habit of college students participating in physical exercise should be reexamined so as to form the consciousness of lifelong physical exercise. A more particular knowledge of college students’ awareness and needs of physical exercise provide references for sports work of colleges and universi-ties, provide theoretical and practical supports for college students participating in physical exercise, and promote college students’ development of qualities from all aspects.

  8. Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse as Risk Factors for the Development of Bulimia Nervosa: A Community-Based Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Sarah L.; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    Young women (n=102) with bulimia nervosa were compared with 204 control subjects without an eating disorder and with 102 subjects with other psychiatric disorders. Results suggest that sexual and physical abuse are both risk factors for psychiatric disorders in general, including bulimia nervosa, but are not specific risk factors for bulimia. (DB)

  9. Interaction of Physical Exposures and Occupational Factors on Sickness Absence in Automotive Industry Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valirad, Fateme; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2015-04-23

    Increased sickness absence in recent years has been a trouble making issue in industrial society. Identify the causes of sickness absence and its influencing factors, is an important step to control and reduce its associated complications and costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate main factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. In 2012, a cross-sectional study on 758 employees of a car accessories producing company was applied and relevant information about the number of days and episodes of sickness absence, Disease resulting in absence from work, personal features, occupational factors and physical exposures were collected. To determine risk factors associated with sickness absence, Logistic regression analysis was used. The most common diseases leading to sickness absence in order of frequency were Respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and injuries at work. Musculoskeletal disorders increased the danger of long term absence by 4/33 times. Blue collar and shift works were the most important occupational factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. The main physical factors that affect incidence of sickness absence were frequent bending-twisting and heavy lifting. Identifying controllable factors of sickness absence and trying to prevent and modify them such as compliance of ergonomic principals to decrease physical can be effective in reducing sickness absence.

  10. Systematic review with meta-analysis: online psychological interventions for mental and physical health outcomes in gastrointestinal disorders including irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, I; Hewitt, C; Bell, K; Phillips, A; Mikocka-Walus, A

    2018-06-14

    Online psychotherapy has been successfully used as supportive treatment in many chronic illnesses. However, there is a lack of evidence on its role in the management of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. To examine whether online psychological interventions improve mental and physical outcomes in gastrointestinal diseases. We searched CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, a specialised register of the IBD/FBD Cochrane Group, MEDLINE (PubMed) WHO International Clinical Trial Registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of all papers included in the review. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess internal validity. Where possible, data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. We identified 11 publications (encompassing nine studies) meeting inclusion criteria. One study had a high risk of selection bias (allocation concealment), all studies had a high risk of performance and detection bias. Eight studies were included in the meta-analyses (6 on irritable bowel syndrome [IBS] and two on inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]). Online cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was shown to significantly improve gastrointestinal symptom-specific anxiety (MD: -8.51, 95% CI -12.99 to -4.04, P = 0.0002) and lessen symptom-induced disability (MD: -2.78, 95% CI -5.43 to -0.12, P = 0.04) in IBS post intervention. There was no significant effect of online CBT on any other outcomes in IBS. No significant effect of online psychotherapy was demonstrated in IBD. There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of online CBT to manage mental and physical outcomes in gastrointestinal diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The role of trophic factors and inflammatory processes in physical activity-induced neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease

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    Ewelina Pałasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glial cells and neurotrophins play an important role in maintaining homeostasis of the CNS. Disturbances of their function can lead to a number of nervous system diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD. Current clinical studies provide evidence that moderate physical activity adapted to the health status of PD patients can support pharmacological treatment, slow down the onset of motor impairments, and extend the patients period of independence. Physical activity, by stimulating the production and release of endogenous trophic factors, prevents the neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons via inhibition of inflammatory processes and the reduction of oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to present the current state of knowledge for the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of physical activity as a supportive therapy in Parkinson’s disease.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  13. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerens, L.; Deforche, B.; Cardon, G.; Bourdeaudhuij, I.D.; Craeynest, M.; Maes, L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  14. Female university students' physical activity levels and associated factors--a cross-sectional study in southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Atika; Ekblom, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Berggren, Vanja; Westergren, Albert; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa

    2013-08-09

    The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5). Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. This study raises four important determinants for female university students' PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Insufficient free-time physical activity and occupational factors in Brazilian public school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Fernando Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate if perceived occupational factors are associated with insufficient free-time physical activity in Brazilian public school teachers. METHODS The relationship between insufficient physical activity (< 150 minutes/week and variables related to work was analyzed in 978 elementary and high school teachers calculating the prevalence ratio (PR and 95% confidence interval (95%CI in Poisson regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic and health variables. RESULTS The prevalence of insufficient physical activity was 71.9%, and this condition was associated independently with the perception of bad or regular balance between personal and professional life (PR = 1.09; 95%CI 1.01–1.18, perception that standing time affects the work (PR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.01–1.34, low or very low perception of current ability for the physical requirements of work (PR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08–1.35, and temporary employment contract (PR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03–1.25. The teaching of physical education was associated with lower prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.64–0.95. CONCLUSIONS The perception of adverse working conditions is associated with increased prevalence of insufficient physical activity in teachers and should be considered for the promotion of physical activity in this population.

  16. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Mohamadian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesPhysical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework.MethodsThis cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework.ResultsThe final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001, perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001, social support (β=0.24, p<0.001, perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001, and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001.ConclusionsThe findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population.

  17. Factors influencing the occupational injuries of physical therapists in Taiwan: A hierarchical linear model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu-Hui; Wu, Yu-Lung; Huang, Wan-Yun

    2017-01-01

    The evidence literature suggests that physical therapy practitioners are subjected to a high probability of acquiring work-related injuries, but only a few studies have specifically investigated Taiwanese physical therapy practitioners. This study was conducted to determine the relationships among individual and group hospital-level factors that contribute to the medical expenses for the occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners in Taiwan. Physical therapy practitioners in Taiwan with occupational injuries were selected from the 2013 National Health Insurance Research Databases (NHIRD). The age, gender, job title, hospitals attributes, and outpatient data of physical therapy practitioners who sustained an occupational injury in 2013 were obtained with SAS 9.3. SPSS 20.0 and HLM 7.01 were used to conduct descriptive and hierarchical linear model analyses, respectively. The job title of physical therapy practitioners at the individual level and the hospital type at the group level exert positive effects on per person medical expenses. Hospital hierarchy moderates the individual-level relationships of age and job title with the per person medical expenses. Considering that age, job title, and hospital hierarchy affect medical expenses for the occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners, we suggest strengthening related safety education and training and elevating the self-awareness of the risk of occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners to reduce and prevent the occurrence of such injuries.

  18. Factors influencing pre-service physics teachers' skills of writing teaching materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, Parlindungan

    2016-02-01

    Writing teaching materials is one of the generic pedagogical skills. Teachers and pre-service teachers should be trained to have the skills of writing teaching materials. This study examines the factors that influence the skills of writing in the disciplines among pre-service physics teachers. This study in particular aims to contribute to the development of science writing in the disciplines and to the organization of workshops on writing teaching materials for pre-service teachers. The problems of this research are formulated in the question of what are the factors that influence the skills of pre-service physics teachers in writing teaching materials. The research adopted mixed methods with embedded experimental design. The research subjects were 18 students enrolled in the school physics course. The instruments used consisted of conceptual understanding tests, learning strategy questionnaire, tests of the multiple representation skills, and one-on-one semi- structured interview. Results of data analysis show that the ability and skills of writing physics teaching materials of the pre- service physics teachers are determined by the factors of conceptual understanding of the subject matter with a contribution of 20%, the skills of making multiple representations of concepts with a contribution of 9.8% and students' self-regulation and learning strategy with a contribution of 33.5%. There are other factors that have not been investigated in this study; therefore, it is recommended that future research conduct further investigation on other factors that influence pre-service teachers' skills in writing physics teaching materials.

  19. Physical factors that influence patients’ privacy perception toward a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria N

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasriah Zakaria,1,2 Rusyaizila Ramli3 1Research Chair of Health Informatics and Promotion, 2Medical Informatics and E-learning Unit, Medical Education Department, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Advanced Military Maintenance Repair and Overhaul Center (AMMROC, Abu Dhabi, UAE Background: Psychiatric patients have privacy concerns when it comes to technology intervention in the hospital setting. In this paper, we present scenarios for psychiatric behavioral monitoring systems to be placed in psychiatric wards to understand patients’ perception regarding privacy. Psychiatric behavioral monitoring refers to systems that are deemed useful in measuring clinical outcomes, but little research has been done on how these systems will impact patients’ privacy. Methods: We conducted a case study in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. We investigated the physical factors that influence patients’ perceived privacy with respect to a psychiatric monitoring system. The eight physical factors identified from the information system development privacy model, a comprehensive model for designing a privacy-sensitive information system, were adapted in this research. Scenario-based interviews were conducted with 25 patients in a psychiatric ward for 3 months. Results: Psychiatric patients were able to share how physical factors influence their perception of privacy. Results show how patients responded to each of these dimensions in the context of a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system. Conclusion: Some subfactors under physical privacy are modified to reflect the data obtained in the interviews. We were able to capture the different physical factors that influence patient privacy. Keywords: information system development (ISD, physical factor, privacy, psychiatric monitoring system

  20. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steve

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113 and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063 reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape. Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.

  1. Factors influencing the use of outcome measures in physical therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedge, Frances M; Braswell-Christy, Jennifer; Brown, Cynthia J; Foley, Kathleen T; Graham, Cecilia; Shaw, Sharon

    2012-02-01

    Use of outcome measures in physical therapy practice is central to evaluating the effectiveness of treatment interventions, providing accountability and addressing quality of physical therapy programs. There is limited discussion on barriers and facilitators to using outcome measures in physical therapy practice. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence a physical therapist when deciding to use outcome measures in clinical practice. Participants were 21 physical therapists, seven each from skilled nursing facilities, outpatient clinics, and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. A grounded theory approach was used for interview and data collection. Common themes were determined from the data and a theory developed to explain the rationale behind physical therapists' decisions to use or not use outcome measures in clinical practice. Three overlapping themes related to (1) concepts of time, (2) knowledge, and (3) facility culture were indentified as factors influencing the use of outcome measures. A fourth encompassing theme, professionalism, identified the value placed on the use of outcome measures in practice. Data revealed that therapists require more information on the outcome measures available, and this information needs to be easily accessible within the workplace. Therapists value information generated by using outcome measures in the clinical setting, but need information on what measures are available and psychometric properties. Information must be easily accessible and measures easy to use. Newer graduates and recent learners have a foundation in the use of outcome measures, but more needs to be done in the clinic and through continuing education to promote increased use and understanding.

  2. A Statistical Study of Socio-economic and Physical Risk Factors of Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alamgir

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 506 patients from various hospitals in Peshawar was examined to determine significant socio-economic and physical risk factors of Myocardial Infarction (heart attack. The factors examined were smoking (S, hypertension (H, cholesterol (C, diabetes (D, family history (F, residence (R, own a house (OH, number of dependents (ND, household income (I, obesity and lack of exercise (E. The response variable MI was binary. Therefore, logistic regression was applied (using GLIM and SPSS packages to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. Logistic regression models have been obtained indicating significant risk factors for both sexes, for males and for females separately. The best-selected model for both sexes is of factors S, F, D, H and C. The best-selected model for males is of factors CIFH, S, H, D, C and F, while the best-selected model for females is of factors D, H, C and F.

  3. A Comparison of Motivational Factors and Barriers to Physical Activity among Traditional versus Nontraditional College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulavic, Kimberly; Hultquist, Cherilyn N.; McLester, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the motivational factors and the barriers to physical activity (PA) in traditional college students (TS) and nontraditional college students (NTS) and determine if differences exist between these 2 groups. Participants: A total of 746 college students; 628 were TS (19.1 [plus-minus] 1.2 years), and 118 were NTS (31.2…

  4. Associations between Distal Upper Extremity Job Physical Factors and Psychosocial Measures in a Pooled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Thiese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. Individualized quantification of duration, repetition, and force and composite scores of the Strain Index (SI and the Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL were compared to 10 psychosocial measures. Relationships and predicted probabilities were assessed using ordered logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, and gender. Results and Discussion. Among 1834 study participants there were multiple statistically significant relationships. In general, as duration, repetition, and force increased, psychosocial factors worsened. However, general health and mental exhaustion improved with increasing job exposures. Depression was most strongly associated with increased repetition, while physical exhaustion was most strongly associated with increased force. SI and TLV for HAL were significantly related to multiple psychosocial factors. These relationships persisted after adjustment for strong confounders. Conclusion. This study quantified multiple associations between job physical exposures and occupational and nonoccupational psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to quantify the impacts on occupational health outcomes.

  5. The influences of the physical-chemical factors on the free-volume relations in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, J.; Kristiak, J.; Kristiakova, K.; Sausa, O.; Bandzuch, P.

    1995-01-01

    The positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to the study of different physical-chemical factors on the free-volume microstructure of the model polymeric systems [amorphous 1,4-cis-poly(butadiene), amorphous a-tactic and semi-crystal iso-tactic poly(propylene), polycarbonate

  6. Factors associated with access to physical rehabilitation for victims of traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelienny de Meneses Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the level of access to physical rehabilitation for survivors of traffic accidents and the associated factors. METHODS A cross-sectional study performed in Natal, Northeastern Brazil, through a telephone survey of 155 victims of traffic accidents admitted to an emergency hospital between January and August of 2013, with a diagnosis of fracture, traumatic brain injury or amputation. Participants were identified in the database of the reference hospital for care of traffic accident victims. We calculated point estimates and confidence interval (95%CI for the frequency of subjects who had access, in addition to multivariate analysis (logistic regression between access (dependent variable and sociodemographic, clinical, and assistance variables. RESULTS Among the 155 respondents, the majority were adolescents and adults between 15–29 years of age (47.7%, men (82.6%, education up to high school (92.3%, income of up to two minimum wages (78.0% and bikers (75.5%. Although 85.8% of traffic accident survivors reported the need for physical rehabilitation, there was little access (51.6%; 95%CI 43.7–59.4 and a delay to start the physical rehabilitation (average = 67 days. We classified factors associated with access to physical rehabilitation as: (i unmodifiable individuals in the short term – family income greater than two minimum wages (OR = 3.7, informal worker (OR = 0.11 or unemployed (OR = 0.15 and possession of a private health care plan (OR = 0.07; and (ii assistance modifiable by service management – written referral for physical rehabilitation (OR = 27.5 and perceived need of physical rehabilitation (OR = 10. CONCLUSIONS This study found a low and slow access to physical rehabilitation for individuals potentially in need. The associated factors were the organizational processes of health care (health information and referral and social determinants (income, occupation and private health care plan.

  7. Physical inactivity and associated factors in Iranian children and adolescents: the Weight Disorders Survey of the CASPIAN-IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Djalalinia, Shirin; Sheidaei, Ali; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Arefirad, Tahereh; Safiri, Saeid; Asayesh, Hamid; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to assess the associated factors of physical inactivity among Iranian children and adolescents at national level. The second objective is to assess the relationship of physical inactivity with anthropometric measures. Methods: Along with a national surveillance program, this survey on weight disorders was conducted among a nationally-representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years. Students were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) was used to assess physical activity (PA). Using PAQ-A instrument, PA of past week categorized as; low PA level, that included those who scored between 1 to 1.9 on the PAQ-A instrument and high PA level that included participants with estimated scores between 2-5 PAQ-A. Results: Participants were 23183 school students (50.8% boys) with a mean age of 12.55 ± 3.3 years, without significant difference in terms of gender. Totally, 23.48% of participants (13.84% of boys and 33.42% of girls) were physically inactive. In multivariate logistic regression model, with increased age in children and adolescence, the odds of a physically inactivity increased (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07-1.10). The odds of prevalence of both obesity and underweight were high in children and adolescents with low PA. There was a decreasing trend in PA in higher school grades. Conclusion: We found a considerably high prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian children and adolescents, with higher rates among girls and older ages. However, we did not find correlation between PA and socioeconomic status (SES). Because of the positive relationship between PA and ST, future studies should consider the complex interaction of these two items. Multidisciplinary policies should be considered in increasing PA programs among children and adolescents.

  8. Epidemiology of leisure, transportation, occupational, and household physical activity: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Alex Antonio; Guimarães, Vanessa Valente; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2009-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of and identify factors associated with physical activity in leisure, transportation, occupational, and household settings. This was a cross-sectional study aimed at investigating living and health conditions among the population of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on 1318 adults aged 18 to 65 years were used. To assess physical activity, the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied. Multivariate analysis was conducted using a hierarchical model. The greatest prevalence of insufficient activity related to transportation (91.7%), followed by leisure (77.5%), occupational (68.9%), and household settings (56.7%). The variables associated with insufficient levels of physical activity in leisure were female sex, older age, low education level, nonwhite skin color, smoking, and self-reported poor health; in occupational settings were female sex, white skin color, high education level, self-reported poor health, nonsmoking, and obesity; in transportation settings were female sex; and in household settings, with male sex, separated, or widowed status and high education level. Physical activity in transportation and leisure settings should be encouraged. This study will serve as a reference point in monitoring different types of physical activities and implementing public physical activity policies in developing countries.

  9. Determination of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays including incoherent and coherent scattering for aluminum, iron, lead, and water by discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Assad, A.; Diop, C.M.; Nimal, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure and energy absorption buildup factors for aluminum, iron, lead, and water are calculated by the SNID discrete ordinates code for an isotropic point source in a homogeneous medium. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the effects of both bound-electron Compton (incoherent) and coherent (Rayleigh) scattering. A comparison with buildup factors from the literature shows that these two effects greatly increase the buildup factors for energies below a few hundred kilo-electron-volts, and thus the new results are improved relative to the experiment. This greater accuracy is due to the increase in the linear attenuation coefficient, which leads to the calculation of the buildup factors for a mean free path with a smaller shield thickness. On the other hand, for the same shield thickness, exposure increases when only incoherent scattering is included and decreases when only coherent scattering is included, so that the exposure finally decreases when both effects are included. Great care must also be taken when checking the approximations for gamma-ray deep-penetration transport calculations, as well as for the cross-section treatment and origin

  10. [Evaluation of the influence of physical environmental factors on morbidity among armed forces personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanov, R S; Gadzhiibragimov, D A; Medzhidova, M A; Kudriavtseva, O A

    2009-01-01

    Under the conditions of hot and mountain-continental climate, the morbidity rates were estimated to be significantly lower than those in young men who had not been acclimatized or adapted to living conditions and in non-acclimatized men. A role of individual physical environmental factors (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, average and maximum air speed) and integral exposure by the wind chill index (a combined impact of an air speed and ambient temperature) as risk factors to human health was defined. The mountain-continental climate showed a relationship of the influence of these factors to habitation at different altitudes.

  11. Physical activity and dark skin tone: protective factors against low bone mass in Mexican men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco-Muñoz, Nalleli; Jo, Talavera; Gerardo, Huitron-Bravo; Juan, Tamayo; Clark, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 268 Mexican men between the ages of 13 and 80 yr to evaluate the association of clinical factors related with bone mass. Men from high schools, universities, and retirement homes were invited to participate. Body mass index (BMI) was measured, and bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for L1-L4 and total hip. Factors related to bone mass were assessed by questionnaire and analyzed using a logistic regression model. Demographic factors (age, education, and occupation), clinical data (BMI, skin tone, previous fracture, history of osteoporosis [OP], and history of fractures), and lifestyle variables (diet, physical activity, sun exposure, and smoking) were evaluated. Physical activity (≥ 60 min/5 times a week) reduced the risk for low BMD for age, osteopenia, and OP at the spine and total hip (odds ratio [OR]: 0.276; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.099-0.769; p=0.014; and OR: 0.184; 95% CI: 0.04-0.849; p=0.03, respectively). Dark skin tone was a protective factor, decreasing the risk by up to 70%. In this population of healthy Mexican men (aged 13-80 yr), dark skin and physical activity were protective factors against low bone mass. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of the factor structure of the mental, physical and spiritual well-being scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Green

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of mental, physical and spirituality in coping with violence is becoming increasingly recognized. As such, scales measuring these constructs are instrumental in assessment of clients from a holistic and strengths perspective, the foundation of social work. This article examines the factor structure of the Mental, Physical and Spiritual Well-being scale. The MPS is a 30 item, easy to administer, self report measure. The MPS was administered to 175 crime victims to assess whether or not the three factor structure fits the data from the sample. Exploratory statistical procedures were used to reduce data through principle component analysis identified three factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 and a cumulative variance of 57%. Recommendations are made for utilizing this brief self-report instrument in assessing victims of crime and training social workers and other practitioners.

  13. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  14. Physical factors affecting single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) applied in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.I.; Khalil, W.A.; Hassan, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    many physical factors degrade single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images both qualitatively and quantitatively. Physical properties important for the assessment of the potential of emission computed tomography implemented by collimated detector systems include sensitivity, statistical and angular sampling requirements, attenuation compensation, resolution, uniformity, and multisection design constraints. SPECT has highlighted the used to improve gamma camera performance. Flood field nonuniformity is translated into tomographic the need to improve gamma camera performance. Flood field nonuniformity is translated into tomographic images as major artifacts because it distorts the data obtained at each projection. Also, poor energy resolution translates directly into degraded spatial resolution through reduced ability to reject scattered photons on the basic of pluses height analysis. The aim of this work is study the different and most important acquisition and processing parameters, which affect the quality of the SPECT images. The present study investigates the various parameters effecting SPECT images and experimental results demonstrate that: daily uniformity checks and evaluation are essential to ensure that the SPECT system is working properly. The Core used in the reconstruction process could be correct to avoid data misalignment. 60 mumblers of views gave the best image quality, rather than 20 or 30 views. Time per view (TPV) 30 or 20 sec gave a good image quality, rather than high-resolution collimator, is recommended in order to provide good spatial resolution. On the other hand patient motion could cause serious reconstruction artifacts. A cine display is recommended to identify movement artifacts. In the case of matrix size, matrix 128x128 give the best resolution than matrix 64x64. Energy window width, 15% compared with the standard 20% improved the resolution. Butter worth filter (cut off 0.57 cyc/cm with order 6 ) give the best resolution

  15. Factors across home, work, and school domains influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bishop, Hillary L; Greaney, Mary L; Whiteley, Jessica A

    2012-10-01

    Nontraditional college students (older, part-time, and/or working) have less healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors compared to traditional students, yet few health promotion efforts focus on nontraditional students. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to explore factors affecting nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional students. Fourteen semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with nontraditional undergraduate students attending a large university. The sample had a median age of 25 (range, 21-64), 57% were men, 43% were racial/ethnic minorities, and 57% were employed (mean 22 hours/week). Data were coded using a systematic team-based approach. Consistent themes (mentioned by 4+ students) were identified and categorized into three domains: home, work, and school. Home (themes: neighborhood characteristics, family, partners), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: cafeteria, vending machines) factors consistently influenced positive nutrition behaviors. Similarly, home (themes: neighborhood including safety, friends from home, partner,), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: not having a car, campus structure, campus gym, friends at school) factors consistently influenced positive physical activity. Financial resources and perceptions of autonomy had influence across domains. Results indicate consistent influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors across home, work, and school domains for nontraditional college students. Study findings suggest possible, and sometimes unconventional, intervention strategies to promote healthful eating and physical activity. For example, when cafeteria meal plans are not offered and financial constraints limit eating at the cafeteria, encouraging healthful choices from vending machines could be preferable to not eating at all. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalenceinstigating factors and help seeking behavior of physical domestic violence among married women of HyderabadSindh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Seema; Ashfaq, Sanober; Shaikh, Farhana; Qureshi, Pir Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives : Domestic violence against women is highly prevalent but under reported issue having social, legal, health and economic implications. It needs to be identified and addressed in order to decrease the sufferings of women. Our objective was to find out prevalence, instigating factors and help seeking behavior of physical domestic violence against married women. Methods: A total of 378 married women who were attending Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Liaquat University Hospital from January 1, 2013 to March 31, 2013 for different obstetrical & gynaecological problems were randomly selected and interviewed. After informed consent, required information was collected on predesigned performa including demographic details, prevalence, instigating factors, help seeking behavior for physical domestic violence. Results: About 31% (120) of women reported lifetime physical domestic violence. Husbands and in-laws were perpetrators in 70% (84) and 30% (36) cases respectively. Wives being disobedient and making arguments were the most common instigating factors for violence followed by husband’s drug addiction, extra marital relationship and infertility. It was severe enough to require medical care in 24% (29) cases. Only 2% (2) women sought social and legal aid. Conclusion: Domestic violence was quite common among married women, however help seeking was minimal. There is need to identify and address this menace effectively. PMID:24639844

  17. Physical activity, sedentary behavior time and lipid levels in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2015-08-11

    Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. While many studies have investigated general physical activity (PA) in relation to blood lipid levels, the current study aimed to examine the intensity of activity, including sedentary behavior time, and time spent engaging in moderate and intense PA, with concentrations of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Participants comprised 1331 individuals, aged 18 to 70 years, from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors (screen time on a workday and a day off, and total sitting time on a work day), and moderate and intense PA, were related to levels of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample, and then with stratification according to BMI (normal weight versus overweight/obese). Both lower screen time during days off and higher intense PA time were significantly associated with higher HDL-cholesterol after full adjustment for socio-demographic factors, dietary factors and smoking (both p sedentary behavior time variables were observed (all p sedentary behavior time variable and lipid levels in those overweight or obese. Spending less time in sedentary behaviors, and engaging in medium levels of intense physical activity may be associated with a more favorable blood lipid profile, particularly with regard to levels of HDL and triglycerides.

  18. Factors that influence physical activity in the daily life of male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, S; Rodrigues, F; Bárbara, C

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease with great impact on the ability to carry out physical activity. To identify the main factors that affect physical activity in the daily life of patients with COPD. Physical activity in daily routine has been evaluated according to the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale (LCADL) and the pedometer counting the number of steps per day, for a period of three days. Fifty-five male patients with a diagnosis of moderate to very severe COPD were included (aged 67±9.6 years; FEV1 50.8±14.7% predicted). Patients walked on average 4972 steps per day. Very severe COPD patients (n=12) walked much less than severe (n=21) and moderate (n=22) patients (respectively 3079.8 versus 4853.5 and 6118.1 steps per day, ppositive correlation with the distance covered in the six-minute walk test (6MWT), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO), arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and body mass index (BMI). The main factors that correlated with limited physical activity in daily life routine of this group of COPD patients were dyspnea and 6 min walking distance. These patients form a sedentary group, with a low rate of daily physical activity, which is more evident in patients with GOLD spirometry stage IV. Although pedometer is simpler and less accurate than other devices, it can be used to detect significant restraints daily life physical activity of COPD patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Traditional foods and physical activity patterns and associations with cultural factors in a diverse Alaska Native population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Diana G; Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Schumacher, Mary C; Johnson, Jennifer S; Lanier, Anne P; Helzer, Laurie J; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Murtough, Maureen A; Slattery, Martha L

    2008-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of traditional food and physical activity use and associations with cultural factors among 3,830 Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study in 3 regions of Alaska. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study. Participants (2,323 women and 1,507 men) completed a computer-assisted self-administered questionnaire that included information on diet, physical activity, life-style and cultural factors. Over 92% of participants reported eating at least 1 traditional food in the past year. The top 3 traditional foods reported were fish, moose and agutaq (a mixture of berries and fat). The percentage of people who consumed traditional foods varied by region and age but not by sex (p one traditional harvesting physical activity. Picking berries or greens, cutting/smoking fish or meat and fishing were the most common activities. Participation in traditional physical activity was highest in south-west Alaska and was higher among men than women, but did not differ by age (p speaking a Native language at home, using traditional remedies and participating in or attending traditional events (p < 0.05). The EARTH Study found relationships between traditional food use, physical activities, cultural activities and behaviours. Consumption of a variety of traditional foods and participation in traditional physical activities remain an important part of the contemporary Alaska Native life-style. Efforts to promote and sustain these foods and activities in AN/AI populations may lead to improved health outcomes.

  20. Physical Exercise Practice and Associated Factors Among Undergraduate Students from a Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Marcio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and factors associated with not performing physical exercise in undergraduate students. Methods. The sample was composed of 2738 undergraduate students of Londrina city, Parana, Brazil. The dependent variables were: not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity for at least 30 minutes per week; not performing vigorous physical exercise for at least 20 minutes per week; not performing muscular strengthening exercises (8-12 repetitions in a week. The independent variables were gender, age, skin colour, marital status, housing, study pattern, year of course, paid work, and area of the course. Odds ratio (OR was estimated by multivariate analysis with the use of binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of undergraduate students not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity, of vigorous intensity, or muscular strengthening exercises was 47.3, 61.0, and 66.2%, respectively. Female sex was associated with a risk of not performing moderate physical exercise (OR = 1.23, vigorous physical exercise (OR = 1.47, and strengthening exercises (OR = 1.22. Undergraduate students of exact sciences (OR = 1.40 and 1.52, juridical sciences (OR = 1.48 and 1.51, and humanities (OR = 1.45 and 1.52 were at risk of not performing physical exercise of moderate or vigorous intensity, respectively. Being a 2nd (OR = 0.79, 3rd (OR = 0.74, or 4th (OR = 0.71 year student was bound with a lower likelihood of not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity. Conclusions. Intervention programmes with the aim of promoting physical exercise practice in undergraduate students should consider gender, year, and area of the course.

  1. Physical illness and lifestyle risk factors in people with their first presentation of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samele, Chiara; Patel, Maxine; Boydell, Jane; Leese, Morven; Wessely, Simon; Murray, Robin

    2007-02-01

    There is an increased prevalence of physical illness and poor lifestyle in patients with chronic schizophrenia. It is unclear whether these are present at the onset of psychosis or develop over the course of illness. We aimed to establish whether patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis have worse physical health and lifestyle than community controls without psychosis. Eighty-nine patients with new onset illness were compared to age and sex matched controls for self-reported physical illness and cardiovascular and respiratory risk factors. Patients reported more physical health complaints, mainly respiratory, compared with age and gender matched controls (odds ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.2-6.7). Patients were more likely to be cigarette smokers (1.82, 95% CI 1.0-3.3) and eat a fast food diet (1.04, 95% CI 1.0-1.1), but these differences were accounted for by patients' unemployment status. Some risk factors for physical health problems are present at the onset of psychosis, but these may be explained by unemployment.

  2. Factors associated with physical activity promotion by allied and other non-medical health professionals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisford, Paul; Winzenberg, Tania; Venn, Alison; Schultz, Martin; Aitken, Dawn; Cleland, Verity

    2018-05-21

    To identify factors associated with non-medical health professionals' engagement in physical activity (PA) promotion. Five electronic databases were searched for studies including practising health professionals (excluding medical doctors), a PA promotion practice measure, a test of association between potential influencing factors and PA promotion practice, and written in English. Two researchers independently screened studies and extracted data. Extracted data were synthesized in a tabular format with a narrative summary (thematic analysis). Thirty studies involving 7734 non-medical health professionals were included. Self-efficacy in PA promotion, positive beliefs in the benefits of PA, assessing patients' PA, and PA promotion training were the main factors associated with engaging in PA promotion. Lack of remuneration was not associated. Common study limitations included a lack of information on non-responders, data collection by survey only and limited reliability or validity testing of measurements. There are common factors influencing PA promotion, but the absence of studies from some health professions, limitations related to study measures, and the lack of randomised controlled intervention trials highlights the need for further research. The factors identified may prove useful for guiding the development of strategies to encourage greater engagement in PA promotion by health professionals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Attachment as a Moderating Factor Between Social Support, Physical Health, and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rapoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.

  4. Driving factors of the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites in a physic nut plantation and spontaneous plants associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Teodoro, Adenir V; Neto, Marçal P; Ignacio, Maíra

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal changes in climate and plant diversity are known to affect the population dynamics of both pests and natural enemies within agroecosystems. In Brazil, spontaneous plants are usually tolerated in small-scale physic nut plantations over the year, which in turn may mediate interactions between pests and natural enemies within this agroecosystem. Here, we aimed to access the influence of seasonal variation of abiotic (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and biotic (diversity of spontaneous plants, overall richness and density of mites) factors on the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites found in a physic nut plantation and its associated spontaneous plants. Mite sampling was monthly conducted in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous leaves of spontaneous plants as well as in physic nut shrubs over an entire year. In the dry season there was a higher abundance of phytophagous mites (Tenuipalpidae, Tarsonemidae and Tetranychidae) on spontaneous plants than on physic nut shrubs, while predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) showed the opposite pattern. The overall density of mites on spontaneous plants increased with relative humidity and diversity of spontaneous plants. Rainfall was the variable that most influenced the density of mites inhabiting physic nut shrubs. Agroecosystems comprising spontaneous plants associated with crops harbour a rich mite community including species of different trophic levels which potentially benefit natural pest control due to increased diversity and abundance of natural enemies.

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  6. [Characteristics of physical growth of schoolchildren in Mongolia and their forming factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelova, I G; Amgalan, G

    The article considers the findings of hygienic assessments of educational conditions in urban and rural schools in Mongolia and socio-economic conditions of living of schoolchildren and analysis of anthropometric measurements of schoolchildren aged of 7-16 years in relation to the assessment of harmonicity of their physical development. Hygienic conditions in Mongolian schools are characterized by improper organization of the educational - accomplishment process, high occupancy rate in classes causing insufficient space for a pupil and disconformity of school furniture parameters of school desks and chairs to growth and age requirements of pupils. Comparative assessment of socio-economic factors revealed (выделено автором) that the majority (84.1%) of rural pupils reside in uncomfortable houses and gerdwellings, 58.5 % - in large families with many children, 46.3 % - in families with poor living conditions. There were obtained data about differences in physical development of urban and rural schoolchildren pronounced with age by the gain in the number of children with disharmonious development and children with lower physical indices of the development, delayed by 1-2 years appearance of the crossing of growth and growth shift typical for rural children in comparison with their urban counterparts. According to results of multivariate regression analysis most significant factors for the formation of physical development of school children in descending order are academic workload, the place of residence, the number of children in the family, uncomfortable living conditions, household income and parent’s education. In the presence of these factors, the risk of the formation of disharmonious physical growth of school children increases by 1.8-2.8 times. The probability of the risk offormation of disharmonious physical development of schoolchildren living in rural areas was found to be by 2.5 times more than for their urban counterparts. The results

  7. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  8. The effect of physical activity on the brain derived neurotrophic factor: from animal to human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Pilc, A

    2010-10-01

    It is well documented that physical activity can induce a number of various stimuli which are able to enhance the strength and endurance performance of muscles. Moreover, regular physical activity can preserve or delay the appearance of several metabolic disorders in the human body. Physical exercise is also known to enhance the mood and cognitive functions of active people, although the physiological backgrounds of these effects remain unclear. In recent years, since the pioneering study in the past showed that physical activity increases the expression of the brain derived neurothophic factor (BDNF) in the rat brain, a number of studies were undertaken in order to establish the link between that neurothrophin and post-exercise enhancement of mood and cognitive functions in humans. It was recently demonstrated that physical exercise can increase plasma and/or serum BDNF concentration in humans. It was also reported that physical exercise or electrical stimulation can increase the BDNF expression in the skeletal muscles. In the present review, we report the current state of research concerning the effect of a single bout of exercise and training on the BDNF expression in the brain, in both the working muscles as well as on its concentrations in the blood. We have concluded that there may be potential benefits of the exercise-induced enhancement of the BDNF expression and release in the brain as well as in the peripheral tissues, resulting in the improvement of the functioning of the body, although this effect, especially in humans, requires more research.

  9. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 27-30: Direct-Current Circuits; Magnetic Forces; Ampere's Law; and Faraday's Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules indlude study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  11. Community and Individual Risk Factors for Physical Child Abuse and Child Neglect: Variations by Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Font, Sarah A

    2017-08-01

    Families are impacted by a variety of risk and protective factors for maltreatment at multiple levels of the social ecology. Individual- and neighborhood-level poverty has consistently been shown to be associated with higher risk for child abuse and neglect. The current study sought to understand the ways in which individual- and neighborhood-level risk and protective factors affect physical child abuse and child neglect and whether these factors differed for families based on their individual poverty status. Specifically, we used a three-level hierarchical linear model (families nested within census tracts and nested within cities) to estimate the relationships between physical child abuse and child neglect and neighborhood structural factors, neighborhood processes, and individual characteristics. We compared these relationships between lower and higher income families in a sample of approximately 3,000 families from 50 cities in the State of California. We found that neighborhood-level disadvantage was especially detrimental for families in poverty and that neighborhood-level protective processes (social) were not associated with physical child abuse and child neglect for impoverished families, but that they had a protective effect for higher income families.

  12. Factors influencing the adoption, implementation, and continuation of physical activity interventions in primary health care: A Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Crone, M.R.; Verheijden, M.W.; Zouwe, N. van der; Middelkoop, B.J.; Gebhardt, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The introduction of efficacious physical activity interventions in primary health care is a complex process. Understanding factors influencing the process can enhance the development of effective introduction strategies. This Delphi study aimed to identify factors most relevant for the

  13. About role of human factors in the building of physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A special role in establishing the physical protection system (at all levels) pertains to the human factor. It is necessary to specify a place of this matter within the overall security system. The nuclear energy sector security (as well as of other national industry sectors) is based on the people: developers, personnel, different level management responsible for decision-making process, the representative of regulatory, controlling and legal structures, and therefore, in general, the rote of the human factor can be considered to be significant. The operative situation while being formed during the physical protection ensuring, first of all, is affected by the following factors: political, social and economic, spiritual wealth and cultural factors and etc. In addition, a new problem suddenly appeared related to the safety and security of the energy complex, that is: uncontrolled processes such as: non-payment, debts on salary for several month period; all this factors effect negatively the level of safety and security. In this clear, that in such a difficult situation the role of an individual is increasing. Ignorance of the above factors or their non-objective (incomplete, partial ignorance) accounting (consideration) finally can lead to the negative and irremediable consequences. Thus, the content and the extent of the security of a society, in general, and every person, in particular, directly depend on the functioning of all society's structure, and, first of all, on the economic, social, political and legal structures. As a result, the physical protection system acquires a complex or comprehensive structure and I shall describe its specifics in the paper. (author)

  14. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2003-01-01

    : Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related...... index was established based on posture, repetition, and force. The adjusted ORs for tennis elbow at low, medium, and high strain were 1.4 (CI 0.8 to 2.7), 2.0 (CI 1.1 to 3.7), and 4.4 (CI 2.3 to 8.7). Low social support at work, adjusted for physical strain, was a risk factor among women (OR 2.4, CI 1......, tennis elbow among women was associated with low social support at work. The results for precision demanding movements and for vibration were less consistent...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  16. Factors affecting pain relief in response to physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, M D; Sundstrup, E; Brandt, M; Andersen, L L

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify factors associated with musculo-skeletal pain reduction during workplace-based or home-based physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers. Two hundred female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0-10) from three hospitals participated. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level (18 departments) to 10 weeks of (i) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5 × 10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (ii) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure-time for 5 × 10 minutes per week. Linear mixed models accounting for cluster identified factors affecting pain reduction. On average 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. The multi-adjusted analysis showed a significant effect on pain reduction of both training adherence (P=.04) and intervention group (P=.04) with participants in WORK experiencing greater reductions compared with HOME. Obesity at baseline was associated with better outcome. Leisure-time exercise, daily patient transfer, age, and chronic pain did not affect the changes in pain. In conclusion, even when adjusted for training adherence, performing physical exercise at the workplace is more effective than home-based exercise in reducing musculo-skeletal pain in healthcare workers. Noteworthy, obese individuals may especially benefit from physical exercise interventions targeting musculo-skeletal pain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Physical activity and associated socio-demographic factors in adolescents from the eastern region of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Małgorzata; Bergier, Józef

    The introduction and maintenance of healthy habits in the field of physical activity at the early stage of life is particularly important for public health. With increasing of public awareness in physical activity, researchers are increasingly questioning its determinants in different age groups. In this paper we focus on variables such as age, sex and place of residence. To determine what selected socio-demographic factors influence the level of physical activity of school youth from the eastern region of Poland in different domains of daily life. A random sample of 916 Polish school youth from Secondary Schools from Eastern Region of Poland aged 16-18 was interviewed in spring 2016 by diagnostic survey method with the use of the official Polish long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Analysing the relationship between gender and the level of physical activity statistically significant differences were found in all domains in favour of boys. The level of total physical activity in girls was 5345.5 MET-min./week, whereas in boys – 6556.6 MET-min./week. In the area of total physical activity, the highest values were observed in pupils from small towns and villages, with lower values in the youth living in large and medium-sized cities. When the relationship of age with the level of physical activity in particular domains was examined, only the activity in the work/ school domain (p = 0.0129) spoke in favour of the youngest pupils (2578.7 MET-min./week) when compared to the oldest ones (2226.4 MET-min./week). The level of physical activity in young people from the Eastern region of Poland is decreasing with age, both in girls and boys. It is therefore important, especially for the group emerging adulthood, to offer a wide variety of updated, involving, age and gender-oriented school physical activity classes that could be easily practised outside the school environment to improve the level of physical activity in leisure domain

  18. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on the Effectiveness of Physical Fitness Teaching and Constraining Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui-Er Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cooperative learning and traditional learning on the effectiveness and constraining factors of physical fitness teaching under various teaching conditions were studied. Sixty female students in Grades 7–8 were sampled to evaluate their learning of health and physical education (PE according to the curriculum for Grades 1–9 in Taiwan. The data were quantitatively and qualitatively collected and analyzed. The overall physical fitness of the cooperative learning group exhibited substantial progress between the pretest and posttest, in which the differences in the sit-and-reach and bent-knee sit-up exercises achieved statistical significance. The performance of the cooperative learning group in the bent-knee sit-up and 800 m running exercises far exceeded that of the traditional learning group. Our qualitative data indicated that the number of people grouped before a cooperative learning session, effective administrative support, comprehensive teaching preparation, media reinforcement, constant feedback and introspection regarding cooperative learning strategies, and heterogeneous grouping are constraining factors for teaching PE by using cooperative learning strategies. Cooperative learning is considered an effective route for attaining physical fitness among students. PE teachers should consider providing extrinsic motivation for developing learning effectiveness.

  19. Physical Trauma and Infection as Precipitating Factors in Patients with Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Juan; Vincent, Ann; Cha, Stephen S; Luedtke, Connie A; Kim, Chul H; Oh, Terry H

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate both precipitating factors in patients with fibromyalgia and any differences in clinical presentation, symptom severity, and quality-of-life between those with and without precipitating physical trauma or infection. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, the authors compared patient characteristics and fibromyalgia symptom severity and quality-of-life with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 Health Survey in patients seen in a fibromyalgia treatment program. Of 939 patients, 27% reported precipitating factors (trauma, n = 203; infection, n = 53), with the rest having idiopathic fibromyalgia (n = 683). Patients with precipitating trauma were more likely to have worse Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire physical function than patients with idiopathic onset (P = 0.03). Compared with patients with idiopathic onset and precipitating trauma, patients with precipitating infection were more likely to have worse Short Form-36 Health Survey physical component summary (P = 0.01 and P = 0.003) but better role emotional (P = 0.04 and P = 0.005), mental health index (P = 0.02 and P = 0.007), and mental component summary (P = 0.03 and P = 0.004), respectively. One-fourth of this study's patients with fibromyalgia had precipitating physical trauma or infection. Patients with precipitating infection had different sociodemographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and quality-of-life from the idiopathic and trauma groups. Further studies are needed to look into the relationships between precipitating events and fibromyalgia.

  20. An examination of multilevel factors that may explain gender differences in children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Noe C; Corder, Kirsten; Marshall, Simon; Norman, Gregory J; Patrick, Kevin; Sallis, Jim F; Elder, John P

    2013-09-01

    Girls are less physically active than boys, yet no single study has examined the factors that may explain gender differences in children's physical activity (PA). This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data from 116 caregivers and their children aged 5-8 years who participated in the MOVE study. Caregivers reported various factors that may relate to children's PA (eg, encouragement for child PA and PA equipment at home). Child PA was measured by 7-day accelerometry. Linear regression tested for the variance in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) explained by gender and several variables. Gender and ethnicity interactions were examined. Caregivers were mostly female (97%), mean age 38 ± 6 years, mean BMI 28 ± 6 (kg/m2). Child's mean age was 8.1 ± 0.7, 54% were female and 40% were overweight/obese. Girls were less physically active than boys (54.1 ± 19.7 vs. 65.2 ± 28.0 daily minutes of MVPA, respectively). Among girls, more days of PE/week was associated with greater MVPA. Among boys, greater parent support for PA, greater parent modeling for PA, and greater number of PA equipment in the home were associated with greater MVPA. This study supports that boys and girls have different correlates for MVPA, which may partly explain gender differences in PA.

  1. Prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among physical education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Elisa Pinheiro; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among physical education students enrolled in a public university. This study evaluated 236 students and assessed body image perception (silhouette scale), sociodemographic variables (sex, age, parental education, marital status, university course, work, living arrangement, study shift, and income), physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version), dietary habits, tobacco use, excessive intake of alcohol (questions from the tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and nutrition domains of the FANTASTIC instrument), and nutritional status (body mass index [BMI]). Descriptive analysis, the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and crude and adjusted multinomial regression were used. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 69.5%; 44.1% were dissatisfied with excess weight. BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² was associated with dissatisfaction with excess weight; factors associated with dissatisfaction with slimness were being male, eating an unhealthy diet, and smoking tobacco. Our findings suggest that female college students with a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² are more likely to present dissatisfaction with excess weight. Being male, eating an unhealthy diet, engaging in physical activity for smoking tobacco were the variables associated with dissatisfaction with thinness.

  2. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra Sagarduy, José Luis; Camacho Mata, Dacia Yurima; Moral de la Rubia, José; Piña López, Julio Alfonso; Yunes Zárraga, José Luis Masud

    2018-01-01

    It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension. This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior. Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data ( p BS =0.235, χ 2 / gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom's Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen's Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053). The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so that quality of life of patients with hypertension improves and they might be able to manage and control their disease well.

  3. Do Psychosocial Factors Predict Muscle Strength, Pain, or Physical Performance in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Isabel A C; Meeus, Mira; Mahmoudian, Armaghan; Luyten, Frank P; Nijs, Jo; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of psychosocial factors, namely, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and maladaptive coping strategies, with muscle strength, pain, and physical performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related symptoms. A total of 109 women (64 with knee OA-related symptoms) with a mean age of 65.4 years (49-81 years) were recruited for this study. Psychosocial factors were quantified by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Pain Coping Inventory. Clinical features were assessed using isometric and isokinetic knee muscle strength measurements, visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and functional tests. Associations were examined using correlation and regression analysis. In knee OA patients, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy explained a significant proportion of the variability in isometric knee extension and flexion strength (6.3%-9.2%), accounting for more overall variability than some demographic and medical status variables combined. Psychosocial factors were not significant independent predictors of isokinetic strength, knee pain, or physical performance. In understanding clinical features related to knee OA, such as muscle weakness, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy might offer something additional beyond what might be explained by traditional factors, underscoring the importance of a biopsychosocial approach in knee OA management. Further research on individual patient characteristics that mediate the effects of psychosocial factors is, however, required in order to create opportunities for more targeted, personalized treatment for knee OA.

  4. Return to work of cancer patients after a multidisciplinary intervention including occupational counselling and physical exercise in cancer patients: a prospective study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, Monique C. J.; Groeneveld, Iris F.; van der Heide, Iris; Rejda, Tomas; van Veldhoven, Peter L. J.; van Berkel, Sietske; Snoek, Aernout; van Harten, Wim; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To support return to work (RTW) among cancer patients, a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was developed which combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme during chemotherapy. The aim was to investigate RTW rates of cancer patients and to

  5. Return to work of cancer patients after a multidisciplinary intervention including occupational counselling and physical exercise in cancer patients : A prospective study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, Monique C.J.; Groeneveld, Iris F.; Heide, Iris Van Der; Rejda, Tomas; Van Veldhoven, Peter L.J.; Berkel, Sietske Van; Snoek, Aernout; van Harten, Willem H.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; Boer, Angela G.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To support return to work (RTW) among cancer patients, a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was developed which combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme during chemotherapy. The aim was to investigate RTW rates of cancer patients and to

  6. Socio-economic factors and psycho-physical well-being as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socio-economic factors and psycho-physical well-being on the popularity of sauna usage among male university students. The research was conducted in 2012 on 550 first-year male university students aged 19 to 20 years (20.23±0.83yrs). The participants were asked to ...

  7. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  8. Factors associated with leisure time physical inactivity in black individuals: hierarchical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. A number of studies have shown that the black population exhibits higher levels of leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI, but few have investigated the factors associated with this behavior.Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze associated factors and the explanatory model proposed for LTPI in black adults.Methods. The design was cross-sectional with a sample of 2,305 adults from 20–96 years of age, 902 (39.1% men, living in the city of Salvador, Brazil. LTPI was analyzed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. A hierarchical model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPI, distributed in distal (age and sex, intermediate 1 (socioeconomic status, educational level and marital status, intermediate 2 (perception of safety/violence in the neighborhood, racial discrimination in private settings and physical activity at work and proximal blocks (smoking and participation in Carnival block rehearsals. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR using logistic regression.Results. The variables inversely associated with LTPI were male gender, socioeconomic status and secondary/university education, although the proposed model explains only 4.2% of LTPI.Conclusions. We conclude that male gender, higher education and socioeconomic status can reduce LTPI in black adults.

  9. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the importance of physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). METHODS: Case-referent study of 267 new cases of tennis elbow and 388 referents from the background population enrolled from general practices in Ringkjoebing County, Denmark. RESULTS......: Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related...... index was established based on posture, repetition, and force. The adjusted ORs for tennis elbow at low, medium, and high strain were 1.4 (CI 0.8 to 2.7), 2.0 (CI 1.1 to 3.7), and 4.4 (CI 2.3 to 8.7). Low social support at work, adjusted for physical strain, was a risk factor among women (OR 2.4, CI 1...

  10. Nutrition and physical activity educational intervention on CHD risk factors: a systematic review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Ghaffarpasand, Eiman; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah

    2015-01-01

    Fast growing epidemic of chronic diseases causes many health challenges over the world. Regarding reported pros and cons, the aim of the current study is to review the effect of nutrition and physical educational intervention in decreasing cardiovascular risk factors. In this review study, searching has done through the English and Persian databases. Articles with other languages, lack of important information, and score 3 or less in the JADAD standard checklist were exluded from the study. In the primary search, 194 articles have been found.Through four stages of secondary search and further evaluation, 43 articles were selected. These articles were published between 1989 to 2013. According to these findings, the majority of articles showed a positive effect of nutrition and physical activity educational interventions on cardiovascular risk factors- blood cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as smoking cigarette in high risk patients. These results, suggest the necessity of continiuting nutrition and physical educational intervention for individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. Toxic effects of the interaction of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with chemicals or physical factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Lin, Xialu; Zhao, Jinshun

    2013-01-01

    Due to their chemical stability and nonallergic, nonirritant, and ultraviolet protective properties, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in industries such as electronics, optics, and material sciences, as well as architecture, medicine, and pharmacology. However, increasing concerns have been raised in regards to its ecotoxicity and toxicity on the aquatic environment as well as to humans. Although insights have been gained into the effects of TiO2 NPs on susceptible biological systems, there is still much ground to be covered, particularly in respect of our knowledge of the effects of the interaction of TiO2 NPs with other chemicals or physical factors. Studies suggest that interactions of TiO2 NPs with other chemicals or physical factors may result in an increase in toxicity or adverse effects. This review highlights recent progress in the study of the interactive effects of TiO2 NPs with other chemicals or physical factors. PMID:23901269

  12. Zimbabwean Female Participation in Physics: Factors of Identity Formation Considered as Contributing to Developing an Orientation to Physics by Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudyanga, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the Zimbabwean female participation in physics, with special emphasis on the factors of identity formation considered as contributing to developing an orientation to physics by female students. The main study from which this paper was taken explored the influence of identity formation on the Zimbabwean Advanced Level…

  13. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors.Cross sectional survey.17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom.Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups.Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling.547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model.Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  14. Factors associated with physical aggression in pregnant women and adverse outcomes for the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viellas, Elaine Fernandes; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Carvalho, Márcia Lazaro de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

    2013-01-01

    To assess the socioeconomic, demographic, and reproductive factors associated with physical aggression during pregnancy, and the negative outcomes for the newborn in two groups of women: adolescents and young adults. Cross-sectional study with a sample of 8,961 mothers who were admitted to hospitals of the city of Rio de Janeiro during delivery. To test the hypothesis of homogeneity of proportions, the chi-squared test was used. Odds ratio and confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression. 5.0% of the adolescents and 2.5% of the young adult women suffered physical violence during pregnancy. In both groups, the variables associated with physical abuse were lower educational level, lower support from the child's father, and more attempts to interrupt the pregnancy. The increase in alcohol consumption was associated with physical abuse only in the group of adolescents; illicit drug use was only associated with physical abuse in young adults. The children of abused mothers had a two-fold increased chance of neonatal death, and a three-fold increased chance of post-neonatal death. Conversely, good quality prenatal care reduced the chance of physical aggression during pregnancy. The results emphasize the increased chance of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality among children of victims of physical abuse during pregnancy, and indicate the importance of prenatal care to identify women at higher risk of suffering aggression, the appropriate time to provide measures of protection and care for mother and baby. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral Frailty as a Risk Factor for Physical Frailty and Mortality in Community-Dwelling Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomoki; Takahashi, Kyo; Hirano, Hirohiko; Kikutani, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Ohara, Yuki; Furuya, Hiroyasu; Tsuji, Tetsuo; Akishita, Masahiro; Iijima, Katsuya

    2017-11-17

    Oral health is important for maintaining general health among the elderly. However, a longitudinal association between poor oral health and general health has not been reported. We investigated whether poor oral status can predict physical weakening (physical frailty, sarcopenia, subsequent disability) and identified the longitudinal impact of the accumulated poor oral health (i.e., oral frailty) on adverse health outcomes, including mortality. A total of 2,011 elderly individuals (aged ≥65 years) participated in the baseline survey of the Kashiwa study in 2012. At baseline, 16 oral status measures and covariates such as demographic characteristics were assessed. As outcomes, physical frailty and sarcopenia were assessed at baseline and at follow-up in 2013 and 2014. Physical independence and survival were assessed from 2012 to 2016 at the time of long-term care certification and time of death. Poor oral status as determined by the number of natural teeth, chewing ability, articulatory oral motor skill, tongue pressure, and subjective difficulties in eating and swallowing significantly predicted future physical weakening (new-onsets of physical frailty, sarcopenia, and disability). Oral frailty was defined as co-existing poor status in ≥3 of the 6 measures. Sixteen percent of participants had oral frailty at baseline, which was significantly associated with 2.4-, 2.2-, 2.3-, and 2.2-fold increased risk of physical frailty, sarcopenia, disability, and mortality, respectively. Accumulated poor oral status strongly predicted the onset of adverse health outcomes, including mortality among the community-dwelling elderly. Prevention of oral frailty at an earlier stage is essential for healthy aging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A Comparison of Biological and Physical Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Overweight/Obese Individuals With and Without Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting

    2017-12-01

    Compared with type 2 diabetes, evaluating the direct biological and physical risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in overweight/obese adults with and without prediabetes is less understood. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare baseline biological and physical risk factors for CVD among overweight/obese adults with and without prediabetes. A secondary data analysis was performed. Three hundred forty-one overweight/obese participants were included in the analysis. Compared with non-prediabetics, prediabetics had higher fasting blood glucose, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and triglycerides. Prediabetics were also more likely to be insulin resistant than non-prediabetics. Participants with prediabetes had much lower cardiorespiratory fitness than those without prediabetes. Findings from this study suggest that healthy overweight/obese adults with prediabetes were likely at higher biological and physical risk of CVD at baseline compared with those without prediabetes. Early intervention to improve CVD risk progression among persons with prediabetes is essential.

  17. Risk factors for ischaemic heart disease mortality among men with different occupational physical demands. A 30-year prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    , but less pronounced differences in risk factors for all-cause mortality between groups were found. Conclusions The risk factors for IHD and all-cause mortality, low physical fitness and low leisure-time physical activity are not identical for men with different physical work demands. Preventive initiatives......Objectives Men with high physical work demands have elevated cardiovascular strain, which may lead to enhanced atherosclerosis. Theoretically, the impact of risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) may thus depend on physical work demands. The authors investigated this hypothesis. Design.......7%) from all-cause mortality. Similarities and differences in risk predictors were found between men with low (n=1219), medium (n=2636) and high (n=846) physical work demands. After control for potential confounders, high physical fitness conferred a reduced risk of IHD mortality only among men with high...

  18. Determinant Factors of Physical Performance and Specific Throwing in Handball Players of Different Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Becerra, Manuel; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Víctor; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2018-06-01

    Ortega-Becerra, M, Pareja-Blanco, F, Jiménez-Reyes, P, Cuadrado-Peñafiel, V, and González-Badillo, JJ. Determinant factors of physical performance and specific throwing in handball players of different ages. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1778-1786, 2018-This study aimed to analyze various fitness qualities in handball players of different ages and to determine the relationships between these parameters and throwing velocity. A total of 44 handball players participated, pooled by age groups: professional (ELITE, n = 13); under-18 (U18, n = 16); under-16 (U16, n = 15). The following tests were completed: 20-m running sprints; countermovement jumps (CMJs); jump squat to determine the load that elicited ∼20 cm jump height (JSLOAD-20 cm); a progressive loading test in full squat and bench press to determine the load that elicited ∼1 m·s (SQ-V1-LOAD and BP-V1-LOAD); and handball throwing (jump throw and 3-step throw). ELITE showed greater performance in almost all sprint distances, CMJ, JSLOAD-20 cm, and bench press strength than U18 and U16. The differences between U18 and U16 were unclear for these variables. ELITE also showed greater (p handball throwing velocity is strongly associated with lower-limb strength, although upper-limb strength, jumping and sprint capacities also play a relevant role in throwing performance, suggesting the need for coaches to include proper strength programs to improve handball players' throwing velocity.

  19. Physical and technological factors of the formation of detonation capacity of blasthole charges of emulsion explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poplavsky V.A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern conditions of mining are characterized by a constant increase in the depth of the pit, as a result of this there is a change in the geological and mining conditions. The obtaining of the mined rock is provided by using the drilling-and-blasting method as the main process that influences the technical and economic indicators of the next processes and enterprises in general. The effectiveness of the explosion in rocks depends on the technology of blasting. In scientific and technical literature the influence of various natural and technological factors on the process of the explosion has been studied in detail. We developed methods and recommendations for calculating the parameters of mass blasting used in common projects in the blasting operation and ensure their implementation of getting the rock mass of different coarseness of grading. However, these methods are based on traditional formulas and empirical dependencies, according to which the parameters of location and charge blasting accepted as the same, despite the fact that the blocks that blasted may include different types of rocks, and this, in turn, causes predatory yield of sub-standard fractions. Therefore, the implementation of the design parameters of the blasting should be based on modern scientific achievements, interrelationships of geological and technological indicators and parameters with the least expenditure of labor and time in the design process. The article analyzes the impact of the physical condition and the composition of emulsion explosive, geometric parameters and conditions of charge blasting, characteristics of dynamic processes in the charge and the decomposed array for the manifestation of the phenomenon of desensibilization emulsion explosives. Keywords: desensibilization; detonation speed; critical diameter; ; hydrostatic pressure; gas-generating process; shock wave; boulder.

  20. How life stressors influence modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, and physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao-Tran, Tiet-Hanh; Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte

    2017-06-29

    Research has demonstrated that exposure to life stressors can influence health through a number of pathways. However, knowledge about the patterns of life stressors and their contributions to health in different populations is limited. Vietnamese older women have attracted little research to date in this area. This cross-sectional study used an interview-administered-questionnaire to collect data from 440 Vietnamese older women. Descriptive analysis was used to describe life stressors among Vietnamese older women. Binary analysis and Structural Equation Modelling statistical analysis were used to examine the influences of life stressors on modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women. Vietnamese older women in this study commonly reported the experience of losing a close person, including a baby/child, serious health or money problems, violence and disaster. Among the study participants, (1) exposure to more life stressors increased their depressive symptoms, and decreased their physical and mental health; (2) exposure to more life stressors also increased their physical health by increasing their physical activity levels. Life stressors influenced health among Vietnamese older women through different pathways. Interventions to manage stress and depressive symptoms are required for Vietnamese older women in the future.

  1. Predictors of healthcare professionals' intention and behaviour to encourage physical activity in patients with cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare professionals can play a crucial role in optimizing the health status of patients with cardiovascular risk factors (abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and elevated blood glucose. In order to do this, it is imperative that we understand the social-cognitive determinants (including habits that underlie healthcare professionals' intention and the corresponding behavior of actually encouraging patients with cardiovascular risk factors to engage in physical activity. Methods In this longitudinal Professionals' Intention and Behavior (PIB study, healthcare professionals (N = 278, aged 20-61 years with approximately 60% having attained an education level exceeding bachelor's degree, types of healthcare professionals 60% in physiotherapy and 40% in nursing completed online surveys measuring the social-cognitive determinants of healthcare professionals' intention and the corresponding behavior of actually encouraging patients with cardiovascular risk factors to engage in physical activity. Results Social-cognitive determinants accounted for 41% (p We explored the congruence between healthcare professionals' intention to encourage patients and the self-reported behavior of encouraging patients. We found that intention and behavior were congruent in 39.7% of the healthcare professionals. Additionally, the intention to encourage and the corresponding behavior of encouraging was incongruent in 31.7% of the healthcare professionals. Conclusions In the prevention of cardiovascular disease, healthcare professionals' intention to encourage physical activity among patients and subsequent behavior of encouraging patients is important for the improvement of patients' cardiovascular risk profiles. We found that the intentions and self-reported behavior of healthcare professionals working with patients with cardiovascular risk factors can be predicted by social-cognitive determinants thus

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  3. Physical activity as a health factor modifying heart rate variability (HRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowosielska-Swadzba Danuta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research was the evaluation of the selected HRV factors of the training volleyball players in two training periods and non-training people. Materials and methods : The study involved 8 leading volleyball players aged 20-23 and 13 non-training persons aged 19-26. The study of the training players was conducted twice: in the pre-competition and in the competition period. The study for the non-training persons was conducted once. The selected factors of the spectral analysis have been evaluated: TP [ms 2], share of LF and HF power [n.u], LF/HF indicator and time analysis factors: RR [ms], HR [1/min], RMSSD [ms]. Results : Statistically significant differences appeared only in the selected time analysis factors (RR, HR, between the group of the training and non-training persons. Other differences in the evaluated parameters were not statistically significant. Conclusions : Physical activity influences on the HRV growth. HRV measurement may serve for the control of the changes taking place in the AUN under the influence of the physical activity.

  4. Dutch monitor on stress and physical load: risk factors, consequences, and preventive action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, I L; Goudswaard, A; Dhondt, S; van der Grinten, M P; Hildebrandt, V H; van der Poel, E G

    1998-02-01

    Due to recent changes in legislation on occupational health and safety, a national monitor on stress and physical load was developed in The Netherlands to monitor (a) risks and consequences of stress and physical load at work, (b) preventive actions in companies to reduce these risks, and (c) organisational and environmental variables that facilitate preventive actions. Information was gathered from employers, employees, and employees' representatives. The monitor was used with a nationally representative sample of companies in industry, wholesale trade, and banking and finance, 782 companies in total. The information from the employees, aggregated at the company level, was not found to be correlated with that from the employer from the same companies. Although many employers do recognise risk factors for both physical load and stress as a problem they often seem to underestimate the problem when compared with employees or their representatives. This is particularly the case for psychosocial risk factors. Also, the perception of outcome measures, especially employers who consider emotional exhaustion to be work related, were fewer than the employees' representatives of the same organisation. Preventive measures on physical load are much more popular than measures against stress. It is the responsibility of the employer to take more preventive action of all kinds. They need to recognise risk factors as problems and health outcomes to be related to work. Employees of larger companies should participate with employers to consider effective measures, and more use should be made of support at branch level. For specific preventive measures, specific predictors emerged. Except for measures to prevent work stress, information from employees did not sufficiently contribute to the initiation of preventive measures in the workplace.

  5. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  6. [Physical factors influencing the floristic relationships of pinyon pine (Pinaceae) from San Luis Potosi, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Angélica; Luna, Mario; García, Edmundo

    2014-06-01

    In plant communities, the species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental factors are of central importance in ecology. In San Luis Potosí of Mexico, woodlands of Pinus cembroides and P. johannis are sympatric, but P. cembroides tends to be located in South and Southwest slopes, in more disturbed sites; unlike, P. johannis, is mostly distributed in mesic areas, in North and Northeast slopes. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of some physical factors on the floristic similarity of pinyon pine P. cembroides and P. johannis. The study area was located in the Sierra San Miguelito, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. We selected 40 sampling units spread over an area of 50km2. In each unit, we laid out two 20m long lines perpendicular to each other, in which we recorded cover data of the plant species intercepted. We developed two data matrices, the first one including cover values of 91 species, and the second one, considering seven topographical, climatic, and solar radiation variables. We applied cluster analysis and ordination to explore the influence of environmental variables on the floristic differentiation of pinyon pine woodlands. Clustering showed six groups, the first three characterized by P. cembroides. The ordination showed that variance represented by the first three axes was 65.9%. Axis 1 was positively correlated with altitude and negatively with mean annual temperature; axes two and three, showed low correlation with the variables tested. P. cembroides woodlands and accompanying flora tend to be located in lower altitude, higher mean annual temperature, and mainly in South-Southwestern slopes. In contrast, stands of P. johannis, mixed stands of P. johannis-P. cembroides, and Quercus potosina, were usually founded in greater altitudes, mean annual temperature slightly lower, and North-Northeastern exposure. The sites of these monospecific and mixed woodlands with associated species, indicators of environmental variables

  7. Objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors are not associated with accelerometer-determined total sedentary time in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Van Nassau, Femke; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    Background: The physical neighbourhood environment may influence adults' sedentary behaviour. Yet, most studies examining the association between the physical neighbourhood environment and sedentary behaviour rely on self-reported data of either the physical neighbourhood environment and/or sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors and accelerometer-determined total sedentary time in...

  8. Physical activity and physical activity cognitions are potential factors maintaining fatigue in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline J. M.; van Leeuwen, Ninke; Bossema, Ercolie R.; Kruize, Aike A.; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bijlsma, Johannes W. J.; Geenen, Rinie

    Background Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating problem in Sjogren's syndrome. It has been suggested that physical activity and cognitions about physical activity can influence fatigue. Objective The aim of this study was to examine fatigue and physical activity levels in patients with Sjogren's

  9. Physical activity and physical activity cognitions are potential factors maintaining fatigue in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen; Bossema; Kruize; Geenen; Bijlsma; Bootsma; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2012-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating problem in Sjögren's syndrome. It has been suggested that physical activity and cognitions about physical activity can influence fatigue. Objective The aim of this study was to examine fatigue and physical activity levels in patients with Sjögren's

  10. Perception of built environmental factors and physical activity among adolescents in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding environmental factors related to adolescents’ physical activity can inform intervention for obesity control and prevention, but virtually no study has been conducted in the African region, where adolescents’ physical inactivity and chronic diseases rates are rising. This study assessed associations between perceived built environmental variables and adolescents’ physical activity (active transportation to school and leisure-time moderate-to- vigorous physical activity), and the moderating effects of neighborhood-level income on association between environmental variables and physical activity among Nigerian boys and girls. Methods Participants were 1006 adolescents (12–19 years, 50.4% girls) randomly selected from 11 secondary schools in Maiduguri city, Nigeria. Physical activity and perceptions of environmental characteristics were assessed by validated self-report questionnaires. Separate gender-based, hierarchical multiple moderated linear regression analyses were used to examine the direct associations between the environmental perceptions and physical activity variables (active transportation and leisure-time MVPA; dependent variables), as well as the moderating effects of neighborhood-level income. Results Only in boys were direct associations and interaction effect of neighborhood-level income found. Access to destinations was positively associated with active transportation to school (β = 0.18; CI = 0.67, 2.24); while residential density (β = 0.10; CI = 0.01, 1.74) and availability/quality of infrastructures (β = 0.14; CI = 0.49, 2.68) were positively associated with leisure-time MVPA. Also, neighborhood-level income moderated the association between perceived safety and leisure-time MVPA, with more perceived safety related to less MVPA (β = -0.16; CI = -0.01, -0.70) in boys living in high SES neighborhood but marginally related to more MVPA (β = 0.11; CI = -0.04, 2.88, p = 0

  11. About role of human factors in the building of physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.

    2001-01-01

    In our opinion, our contribution to the fight against the illicit turnover has to be focused on ensuring the safe keeping and integrity of nuclear material and radiation sources and on creating powerful and highly efficient physical protection systems. A special role in establishing the physical protection system (at all levels) pertains to the human factor. The nuclear energy sector security (as well as of other national industry sectors) is based on the people: developers, personnel, different level management responsible for decision-making process, the representative of regulatory, controlling and legal structures, and therefore, in general, the role of the human factor can be considered to be significant. After having analyzed, even in a general way, the status of the affairs we can see: 1) the stage of designing and development of facilities is actually completed; 2) the existing concept of protection does not meet current requirements of the physical protection; 3) the next period is the operation when it is necessary to adapt with using capabilities available to the today requirements and to establish conditions under which the human factor could compensate technical backwardness; 4) the final stage is the ChNPP decommissioning, the Object Shelter problem. It is obvious that the ChNPP decommissioning process will increase acuteness of the problem related to the physical protection of this facility. The operative situation while being formed during the physical protection ensuring, first of all, is affected by the following factors: 1) political factors: changes in the geopolitical situation caused by fundamental changes, formation of a national state based on a principle of democracy and law, etc.; 2) social and economic factors: difficulties originated during the period of transition towards the market economy, decrease in the standard of living; increase in the crime rate and criminalization of social relations and others; 3) spiritual wealth and cultural

  12. Systematic mapping review of the factors influencing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in ethnic minority groups in Europe: a DEDIPAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langøien, Lars Jørun; Terragni, Laura; Rugseth, Gro; Nicolaou, Mary; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Lien, Nanna; Roos, Gun

    2017-07-24

    Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with health and wellbeing. Studies indicate that ethnic minority groups are both less active and more sedentary than the majority population and that factors influencing these behaviours may differ. Mapping the factors influencing physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe can help to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, research gaps and guide future research. A systematic mapping review was conducted to map the factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe (protocol PROSPERO ID = CRD42014014575). Six databases were searched for quantitative and qualitative research published between 1999 and 2014. In synthesizing the findings, all factors were sorted and structured into clusters following a data driven approach and concept mapping. Sixty-three articles were identified out of 7794 returned by the systematic search. These included 41 quantitative and 22 qualitative studies. Of these 58 focused on physical activity, 5 on both physical activity and sedentary behaviour and none focused on sedentary behaviour. The factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour were grouped into eight clusters. Social & cultural environment (n = 55) and Psychosocial (39) were the clusters containing most factors, followed by Physical environment & accessibility (33), Migration context (15), Institutional environment (14), Social & material resources (12), Health and health communication (12), Political environment (3). An important finding was that cultural and religious issues, in particular those related to gender issues, were recurring factors across the clusters. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe are influenced by a wide variety of factors, especially informed by qualitative studies. More comparative studies are

  13. Physical and psychosocial ergonomic risk factors for low back pain in automobile manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergrift, Jonathan L; Gold, Judith E; Hanlon, Alexandra; Punnett, Laura

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between ergonomic physical and psychosocial exposures and the risk of prevalent and incident low back pain (LBP) in a longitudinal cohort of automobile manufacturing workers. Ergonomic exposure intensity and LBP presence were determined through questionnaires at baseline (n=1181) and to workers in the same job 1 year later (n=505). Models were constructed using log-binomial regression with special attention to interactions between ergonomic exposures. Awkward back posture (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.17), hand force (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10), physical effort (PR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.16) and whole body vibration (PR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08) were each associated cross-sectionally with LBP. Awkward back posture (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.31) and hand force (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.22) also predicted incident LBP, although estimates were statistically less precise. Neither job control, psychological demands, nor job strain was independently related to risk of incident LBP. Among participants reporting high physical ergonomic exposures and moderate to high job control, increasing job demands was associated with a reduced LBP risk (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.00). Among participants reporting high physical exposures and low job control, psychological demands was associated with an increased LBP risk (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.66). Psychosocial workplace interventions for LBP should prioritise jobs in which there are high physical ergonomic exposures. Future studies of LBP should examine the interactions between physical ergonomic risk factors.

  14. Contextual and individual predictors of physical activity: Interactions between environmental factors and health cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Wurm, Susanne; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Schwarzer, Ralf; Tesch-Römer, Clemens

    2012-11-01

    Although health behavior theories assume a role of the context in health behavior self-regulation, this role is often weakly specified and rarely examined. The two studies in this article test whether properties of the environment (districts) affect if and how health-related cognitions are translated into physical activity. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the assumed cross-level interactions. Study 1 is a large-scale survey representative of the German adult population (N = 6,201). Gross domestic product (GDP) on the level of administrative districts was used to indicate environmental opportunities and barriers. Study 2 examined cross-level interactions of proximal predictors of physical activity (intentions, action planning, and coping planning) in older adults with multiple illnesses (N = 309), a high-risk group for health deteriorations. Study 1 showed that on the individual level, health attitudes (B = .11) and education (B = .71) were significantly associated with physical activity. GDP moderated the attitudes-behavior relation (B = .01), with higher attitude-behavior relations in districts with higher GDP. Study 2 finds that intention (B = .16), action planning (B = .17), and coping planning (B = .13) significantly predict activity. In addition, district-level GDP significantly moderated the relations between action planning and coping planning, but not intention, on physical activity. Results suggest that the effects of health attitudes and planning on physical activity are moderated by environmental factors. Districts with higher GDP provide better contextual opportunities for the enactment of concrete if-then plans for physical activity. This has implications for both theory and health promotion.

  15. [Association between cardiometabolic risk factors, physical activity and sedentariness in Chilean university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Illanes, Gladys Ruth; Balboa-Castillo, Teresa; Muñoz, Sergio; Belmar, Carlos; Soto, Álvaro; Schifferli, Ingrid; Guillen-Grima, Francisco

    2017-11-16

    There is a huge evidence in adults, that a high level of physical activity and a low level of sedentariness are associated independently with a reduction of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF). This association has been poor evaluated in young people and the results are not conclusive. To estimate the association between CMRF, physical activity and sedentariness in Chilean university students. Cross-sectional study. Sample of 326 students who enrolled at University of La Frontera, Temuco, Chile, in 2014. They were selected randomly and stratified according to faculty, career and gender. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, lipidic profile, glycemia, insulin resistance, tobacco and alcohol consumption. These variables were associated with physical activity level (PAL) and sedentariness using the IPAQ questionnaire. The students with a low PAL had a higher probability of abdominal obesity (OR: 4.68; IC 95% 1.86-11.73), metabolic syndrome (OR: 3.80; IC 95% 1.23-11.73) and triglycerides elevated (OR: 2.61 IC 95%; 1.18-5.75), compared with students with moderate and vigorous PAL (p < 0.05). There were no association between CMRF and sedentariness, even after fit by physical activity. We found an association between CMRF and PAL which was independent of sedentatiness. We believe it is very important to implement effective physical activity programs at universities. It is necesary to encourage students in order to increase the physical activity level to a moderate and vigorous range with the purpose of decreasing their cardiovascular risk. We consider it is recommendable to keep studying the association between sedentariness and CMRF.

  16. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eSaligeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.

  17. The Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Exertion, Event-Related Stress, and Demographic Factors in Predicting Physical Activity among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The focus of this study was to examine the relationship among precursors to physical activity, including exercise self-efficacy, perceived exertion, stress, and demographic factors, among college students. Design: This study employed an associational design. Setting: The study population was college freshmen in southeast Louisiana who…

  18. Risk Factors for Pressure Ulcers Including Suspected Deep Tissue Injury in Nursing Home Facility Residents: Analysis of National Minimum Data Set 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyochol; Cowan, Linda; Garvan, Cynthia; Lyon, Debra; Stechmiller, Joyce

    2016-04-01

    To provide information on risk factors associated with pressure ulcers (PrUs), including suspected deep tissue injury (sDTI), in nursing home residents in the United States. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Examine the literature related to risk factors for the development of PrUs.2. Compare risk factors associated with the prevalence of PrUs and sDTI from the revised Minimum Data Set 3.0 2012 using a modified Defloor's conceptual model of PrUs as a theoretical framework. This study aims to characterize and compare risk factors associated with pressure ulcers (PrUs), including suspected deep tissue injury (sDTI), in nursing home (NH) residents in the United States. Secondary analysis of the 2012 Minimum Data Set (MDS 3.0). Medicare- or Medicaid-certified NHs in the United States. Nursing home residents (n = 2,936,146) 18 years or older with complete PrU data, who received comprehensive assessments from January to December 2012. Pressure ulcer by stage was the outcome variable. Explanatory variables (age, gender, race and ethnicity, body mass index, skin integrity, system failure, disease, infection, mobility, and cognition) from the MDS 3.0 were aligned with the 4 elements of Defloor's conceptual model: compressive forces, shearing forces, tissue tolerance for pressure, and tissue tolerance for oxygen. Of 2,936,146 NH residents who had complete data for PrU, 89.9% had no PrU; 8.4% had a Stage 2, 3, or 4 or unstagable PrU; and 1.7% had an sDTI. The MDS variables corresponding to the 4 elements of Defloor's model were significantly predictive of both PrU and sDTI. Black residents had the highest risk of any-stage PrU, and Hispanic residents had the highest risk of sDTI. Skin integrity, system failure, infection, and disease risk factors had larger effect sizes for sDTI than for other PrU stages

  19. A Qualitative Study of Environmental Factors Important for Physical Activity in Rural Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; Hughes, Clarissa; Thornton, Lukar; Venn, Alison; Squibb, Kathryn; Ball, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults. In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming) of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews explored features of the built and social environment commonly examined in studies of urban adults, including functional characteristics (eg, lighting, footpaths, roads/verges), road and personal safety, availability and accessibility of places to be active, destinations, and aesthetics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content-thematic approach using QSR NVivo software. While some urban environmental constructs were salient to these rural adults, such as availability of and accessibility to places to be active, some constructs were operationalised differently, such as road safety (where large trucks and winding roads rather than traffic density was of concern), or were not considered relevant (eg, personal safety related to crime, availability of walkable destinations, aesthetics). The measurement of the physical environment in rural populations may require reconsideration and/or modification to ensure salience and appropriate quantification of associations with physical activity in future studies.

  20. A Qualitative Study of Environmental Factors Important for Physical Activity in Rural Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Cleland

    Full Text Available Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults.In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews explored features of the built and social environment commonly examined in studies of urban adults, including functional characteristics (eg, lighting, footpaths, roads/verges, road and personal safety, availability and accessibility of places to be active, destinations, and aesthetics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content-thematic approach using QSR NVivo software.While some urban environmental constructs were salient to these rural adults, such as availability of and accessibility to places to be active, some constructs were operationalised differently, such as road safety (where large trucks and winding roads rather than traffic density was of concern, or were not considered relevant (eg, personal safety related to crime, availability of walkable destinations, aesthetics.The measurement of the physical environment in rural populations may require reconsideration and/or modification to ensure salience and appropriate quantification of associations with physical activity in future studies.

  1. Spatially dependent biotic and abiotic factors drive survivorship and physical structure of green roof vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Jason M; Palmer, Matthew I; Giampieri, Mario A; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2017-01-01

    Plant survivorship depends on biotic and abiotic factors that vary at local and regional scales. This survivorship, in turn, has cascading effects on community composition and the physical structure of vegetation. Survivorship of native plant species is variable among populations planted in environmentally stressful habitats like urban roofs, but the degree to which factors at different spatial scales affect survivorship in urban systems is not well understood. We evaluated the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on survivorship, composition, and physical structure of two native perennial species assemblages, one characterized by a mixture of C 4 grasses and forbs (Hempstead Plains, HP) and one characterized by a mixture of C 3 grasses and forbs (Rocky Summit, RS), that were initially sown at equal ratios of growth forms (5:1:4; grass, N-fixing forb and non-N-fixing forb) in replicate 2-m 2 plots planted on 10 roofs in New York City (New York, USA). Of 24 000 installed plants, 40% survived 23 months after planting. Within-roof factors explained 71% of variation in survivorship, with biotic (species identity and assemblage) factors accounting for 54% of the overall variation, and abiotic (growing medium depth and plot location) factors explaining 17% of the variation. Among-roof factors explained 29% of variation in survivorship and increased solar radiation correlated with decreased survivorship. While growing medium properties (pH, nutrients, metals) differed among roofs there was no correlation with survivorship. Percent cover and sward height increased with increasing survivorship. At low survivorship, cover of the HP assemblage was greater compared to the RS assemblage. Sward height of the HP assemblage was about two times greater compared to the RS assemblage. These results highlight the effects of local biotic and regional abiotic drivers on community composition and physical structure of green roof vegetation. As a result, initial green roof plant

  2. Physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors for neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles among workers performing monotonous, repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Kaergaard, A.; Frost, P.

    2002-01-01

    factors versus individual factors in the etiology of pain in the neck and/or shoulders. METHODS: Study participants were 3123 workers from 19 plants. Physical risk factors were evaluated via video observations, and psychosocial risk factors were assessed with the job content questionnaire. Other...... procedures included symptom survey, clinical examination, and assessment of health-related quality of life (SF-36). The main outcome variable, neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness, was defined on the basis of subjective pain score and pressure tenderness in muscles of the neck/shoulder region. RESULTS......STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of individual characteristics and physical and psychosocial workplace factors on neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy prevails about the importance of workplace...

  3. Health effects of an increased protein intake on kidney function and colorectal cancer risk factors, including the role of animal and plant protein sources – the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith

    intake, including the role of animal and plant protein in pre-diabetic, overweight or obese individuals on health outcomes: markers of kidney function and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer as well as insulin sensitivity and kidney function in healthy individuals. The thesis is based on PREVIEW......, especially plant protein, on insulin sensitivity and kidney function. In paper II, the aim of the study was to assess the effect after one year of a higher protein intake on kidney function, measured by in creatinine clearance. This was investigated in pre-diabetic older adults based on a sub-group of 310...... pre-diabetic individuals included in the PREVIEW RCT. We found that a higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in urea to creatinine ratio and serum urea after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular...

  4. Psychometric Factors Affecting Female Employees Physical Activity Status: Applying Trans-Theoretical Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafieinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Sedentary women are at risk for problems such as obesity, diabetes, depression and cardiovascular disease. Meanwhile, due to long working hours and excessive travel time from home to work and vice versa the employees have minimal physical activity .The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective psychometric factors on physical activity of female employees, according to the Trans-theoretical Model and theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 95 female staff of Tehran University was selected through a call. In order to collect data, a questionnaire with acceptable, reliability and validity, including demographic data, and constructs of planned behavior theory as well as Trans-theoretical Model was used. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 statisti-cal tests; correlation and stepwise regression were also performed. Results: In this study, 72% of the population was in the inactive stages (pre-contemplation, contemplation and preparation and only 28% of patients had regular physical activity. There was a significant positive correlation between the behavioral intention and attitude scores (P = 0.02, perceived behavioral control (P = 0.000, self-efficacy (P = 0.000 and stage of change (P = 0.000, but subjective norms score (P = 0.605 was irrelevant. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that self-efficacy and perceived behavioral con-trol can affect female employees’ intention and physical activity behaviors. So, the authori-ties should seriously consider these factors in educational planning for this stratum of society, remove barriers for the participation of more employees in sporting activities, and offer fa-cilitators at the community level. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:350-359

  5. An Examination of the Reliability and Factor Structure of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) Among Individuals Living With Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Pardo, J; Holmes, J D; Jenkins, M E; Johnson, A M

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity is generally thought to be beneficial to individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). There is, however, limited information regarding current rates of physical activity among individuals with PD, possibly due to a lack of well-validated measurement tools. In the current study we sampled 63 individuals (31 women) living with PD between the ages of 52 and 87 (M = 70.97 years, SD = 7.53), and evaluated the amount of physical activity in which they engaged over a 7-day period using a modified form of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). The PASIPD was demonstrated to be a reliable measure within this population, with three theoretically defensible factors: (1) housework and home-based outdoor activities; (2) recreational and fitness activities; and (3) occupational activities. These results suggest that the PASIPD may be useful for monitoring physical activity involvement among individuals with PD, particularly within large-scale questionnaire-based studies.

  6. [Study on physical deviation factors on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Hua-Ming

    2013-10-01

    In order to eliminate the deviation between the measured LIBS spectral line and the standard LIBS spectral line, and improve the accuracy of elements measurement, a research of physical deviation factors in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technology was proposed. Under the same experimental conditions, the relationship of ablated hole effect and spectral wavelength was tested, the Stark broadening data of Mg plasma laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with sampling time-delay from 1.00 to 3.00 micros was also studied, thus the physical deviation influences such as ablated hole effect and Stark broadening could be obtained while collecting the spectrum. The results and the method of the research and analysis can also be applied to other laser induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment system, which is of great significance to improve the accuracy of LIBS elements measuring and is also important to the research on the optimum sampling time-delay of LIBS.

  7. Does adiposity mediate the relationship between physical activity and biological risk factors in youth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, J; Bugge, A; Andersen, L B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To model the association between accumulating 60 daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and a composite score of biological risk factors into a direct and an indirect effect, using abdominal obesity as the mediator. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data from.......11, -0.02) to the indirect effect indicating that 22% of the total effect was mediated by central adiposity. Modelling 30 and 90 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day resulted in changes in the direct but not the indirect effect. CONCLUSIONS: One hour of daily moderate...... of insulin, glucose, triacylglycerol and inverse HDL-cholesterol. Abdominal obesity was assessed by the waist-circumference:height ratio. Two-stage regression analysis, allowing for exposure-mediator interaction, was used for the effect decomposition. RESULTS: Participants achieving 60 daily minutes...

  8. Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Methods Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 ± 13.0 years, who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social (social support, health professional advice, environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area, and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs·hour per week, respondents were divided into two categories–recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive–according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. Results When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55–2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82–4.08 and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14–2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01–1.99 for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06–1.97 for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09–2.36 for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33–0.67 and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25–0.97 were negatively associated with meeting the physical

  9. Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro; Harada, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshio; Muraoka, Isao

    2009-08-28

    Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 +/- 13.0 years), who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons), social (social support, health professional advice), environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area), and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status) variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs.hour per week), respondents were divided into two categories-recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive)-according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55-2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82-4.08) and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14-2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01-1.99) for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06-1.97) for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09-2.36) for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33-0.67) and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.97) were negatively associated with meeting the physical activity recommendations. In the psychological, social, and

  10. Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Need-Supportive Teaching Style Scale for Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Dong; Chung, Pak-Kwong

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the factor structure and measurement invariance of a scale measuring students' perceptions of need-supportive teaching (Need-Supportive Teaching Style Scale in Physical Education; NSTSSPE). We sampled 615 secondary school students in Hong Kong, 200 of whom also completed a follow-up assessment two months later. Factor structure of the scale was examined through exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). Further, nomological validity of the NSTSSPE was evaluated by examining the relationships between need-supportive teaching style and student satisfaction of psychological needs. Finally, four measurement models-configural, metric invariance, scalar invariance, and item uniqueness invariance-were assessed using multiple group ESEM to test the measurement invariance of the scale across gender, grade, and time. ESEM results suggested a three-factor structure of the NSTSSPE. Nomological validity was supported, and weak, strong, and strict measurement invariance of the NSTSSPE was evidenced across gender, grade, and time. The current study provides initial psychometric support for the NSTSSPE to assess student perceptions of teachers' need-supportive teaching style in physical education classes.

  11. Accessible protocol for practice classroom about physical and chemical factors that affect the biomembranes integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barros Galvão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work is to review a protocol used in practical classes to demonstrate some factors that affect biomembrane integrity. Sugar-beet fragments were utilized as the experimental model as membrane damage could be visualized by leakage of betacyanins, hydrophilic pigments accumulated in the cell vacuoles. The tests were carried out as discrete experiments utilizing physical agents and chemical products present in the student daily routine. To test the effect of temperature, sugar-beet fragments were submitted to heat, cold or both at different times of exposition. When chemical products were tested, sugar-beet fragments were exposed to organic solvents (common alcohol and acetone or polar and amphipathic substances (disinfectant, detergent, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite. The obtained results were discussed in terms of the capacity of the physical and chemical factors to cause membrane damage. The review of this protocol using reagents that are present in the student daily routine were able to demonstrate clearly the effect of the different tested factors, allowing the utilization of this practical class under limited conditions.

  12. Physiological and behavioral factors related to physical activity in black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nancy A; Melkus, Gail D; Chyun, Deborah A

    2011-10-01

    To describe relationships among physical activity (PA), physiological factors, and psychological factors in Black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-sectional design was used (N = 109). Data were collected on PA(activity/inactivity, TV hours, bed confinement), physiology (blood pressure, lipids, hemoglobin A1c), psychology (anxiety,emotional distress, physical functioning, bodily pain, vitality), and health care provider (HCP) support. Walking was the preferred PA; TV viewing averaged 3.7 hours/day, and 24% reported confinement to bed >1 week in the last year. Inactive women had greater physiological and psychological problems than active women. Women watching TV >2 hours/day had more physiological problems than women watching TV Women reporting >1 week of confinement to bed in the last year had more physiological and psychological problems than those confined to bed women with T2DM should promote walking, address TV viewing time, incorporate HCP’s role of PA counseling/support,and address several psychological factors.

  13. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  14. Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Ju; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M; Eisenmann, David M

    2014-05-13

    Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo. We used the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) method to screen for factors that bound to 13 fragments from the lin-39 region: twelve fragments contained sequences conserved between C. elegans and two other nematode species, while one fragment was known to drive reporter gene expression in the early embryo in cells that generate the VPCs. Sixteen transcription factors that bind to eight lin-39 genomic fragments were identified in yeast, and we characterized several factors by verifying their physical interactions in vitro, and showing that reduction of their function leads to alterations in lin-39 levels and lin-39::GFP reporter expression in vivo. Three factors, the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NHR-43, the hypodermal fate regulator LIN-26, and the GATA factor ELT-6 positively regulate lin-39 expression in the embryonic precursors to the VPCs. In particular, ELT-6 interacts with an enhancer that drives GFP expression in the early embryo, and the ELT-6 site we identified is necessary for proper embryonic expression. These three factors, along with the factors ZTF-17, BED-3 and TBX-9, also positively regulate lin-39 expression in the larval VPCs. These results significantly expand the number of factors known to directly bind and regulate lin-39 expression, identify the first factors required for lin-39 expression in the embryo, and hint at a

  15. Studying wedge factors and beam profiles for physical and enhanced dynamic wedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Misbah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate variation in Varian′s Physical and Enhanced Dynamic Wedge Factors (WF as a function of depth and field size. The profiles for physical wedges (PWs and enhanced dynamic wedges (EDWs were also measured using LDA-99 array and compared for confirmation of EDW angles at different depths and field sizes. WF measurements were performed in water phantom using cylindrical 0.66 cc ionization chamber. WF was measured by taking the ratio of wedge and open field ionization data. A normalized wedge factor (NWF was introduced to circumvent large differences between wedge factors for different wedge angles. A strong linear dependence of PW Factor (PWF with depth was observed. Maximum variation of 8.9% and 4.1% was observed for 60° PW with depth at 6 and 15 MV beams respectively. The variation in EDW Factor (EDWF with depth was almost negligible and less than two per cent. The highest variation in PWF as a function of field size was 4.1% and 3.4% for thicker wedge (60° at 6 and 15 MV beams respectively and decreases with decreasing wedge angle. EDWF shows strong field size dependence and significant variation was observed for all wedges at both photon energies. Differences in profiles between PW and EDW were observed on toe and heel sides. These differences were dominant for larger fields, shallow depths, thicker wedges and low energy beam. The study indicated that ignoring depth and field size dependence of WF may result in under/over dose to the patient especially doing manual point dose calculation.

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  18. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  19. The Predictive Factors of the Promotion of Physical Activity by Air Force Squadron Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whelan, Dana

    2001-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between beliefs about physical activity, physical activity levels, age and the promotional practices for physical activity employed by Air Force squadron commanders...

  20. Children's perceptions of weight, obesity, nutrition, physical activity and related health and socio-behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D; Bakun, Peter J; Herzog, Julia Bloom; Dolan, Peter R; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Markow, Dana; Sharma, Shanti; Nelson, Miriam E

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one-third of children in the USA are either overweight or obese. Understanding the perceptions of children is an important factor in reversing this trend. An online survey was conducted with children to capture their perceptions of weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Within the USA. US children (n 1224) aged 8-18 years. Twenty-seven per cent of children reported being overweight; 47·1% of children overestimated the rate of overweight/obesity among US children. A higher percentage of self-classified overweight children (81·9%) worried about weight than did self-classified under/normal weight children (31·1%). Most children (91·1%) felt that it was important to not be overweight, for both health-related and social-related reasons. The majority of children believed that if someone their age is overweight they will likely be overweight in adulthood (93·1%); get an illness such as diabetes or heart disease in adulthood (90·2%); not be able to play sports well (84·5%); and be teased or made fun of in school (87·8%). Children focused more on food/drink than physical activity as reasons for overweight at their age. Self-classified overweight children were more likely to have spoken with someone about their weight over the last year than self-classified under/normal weight children. Children demonstrated good understanding of issues regarding weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Their perceptions are important and can be helpful in crafting solutions that will resonate with children.

  1. Patterns of physical activity and associated factors among teenagers from Barcelona (Spain) in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Trasserra, Alicia; Pérez, Anna; Continente, Xavier; O'Brien, Kerry; Bartroli, Montse; Teixidó-Compaño, Ester; Espelt, Albert

    To estimate the prevalence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), and associated factors among teenagers from Barcelona in 2012. Cross-sectional survey to assess risk factors in a representative sample of secondary school students (aged 13-16 years, International Standard Classification of Education [ISCED] 2, n=2,162; and 17-18 years, ISCED 3, n=1016) in Barcelona. We estimated MVPA prevalence overall, and for each independent variable and each gender. Poisson regression models with robust variance were fit to examine the factors associated with high-level MVPA, and obtained prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Only 13% of ISCED 2 and 10% of ISCED 3 students met the WHO physical activity recommendations. This percentage was lower among girls at both academic levels. MVPA was lower among ISCED 3 compared to ISCED 2 students, and among students with a lower socioeconomic status. Physical activity was associated with positive self-perception of the health status (e.g., positive self-perception of health status among ISCED 2 compared to ISCED 3 students: PR=1.31 [95%CI: 1.22-1.41] and 1.61 [95%CI: 1.44-1.81] for boys and girls, respectively]. The percentage of teenagers who met WHO MVPA recommendations was low. Strategies are needed to increase MVPA levels, particularly in older girls, and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of Physical Exercise and Cognitive Training on Memory and Neurotrophic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Clark, Ilana B; Bonin, Katija; Paolucci, Emily M; Michalski, Bernadeta; Becker, Suzanna; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the combined effect of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors in healthy, young adults. Ninety-five participants completed 6 weeks of exercise training, combined exercise and cognitive training, or no training (control). Both the exercise and combined training groups improved performance on a high-interference memory task, whereas the control group did not. In contrast, neither training group improved on general recognition performance, suggesting that exercise training selectively increases high-interference memory that may be linked to hippocampal function. Individuals who experienced greater fitness improvements from the exercise training (i.e., high responders to exercise) also had greater increases in the serum neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1. These high responders to exercise also had better high-interference memory performance as a result of the combined exercise and cognitive training compared with exercise alone, suggesting that potential synergistic effects might depend on the availability of neurotrophic factors. These findings are especially important, as memory benefits accrued from a relatively short intervention in high-functioning young adults.

  3. In Turkey, factors which urge physically handicapped sporters to start badminton sport and their expectations

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    Arslan Ersin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine factors, which lead physically handicapped badminton players in Turkey to tend towards badminton sport, and expectations of sporters. 45 (Male: 29 Female: 16 physically handicapped sporters, who participated in Turkey Bandminton Championship for Physically Handicapped, which was arranged in Antalya on 24-26 February, 2017, from different cities, attended the study voluntarily. Developed by Sunay and his colluages [13], tendency to sports and expectation survey was used in badminton branch after expert opinions, firstly, were received and necessary regulations were made for using it in our study. In order to determine whether the difference between opinions of sporters, attending the study, according to their genders, their ages, their best sport degrees, their sport years, their parents’ educational backgrounds and jobs, is important or not, one-way analysis of variance was used. To identify resource of the difference, Duncan’s multiple range test was used. Kruskal Wallis H test was used when normality and homogeneity of variances were not provided. Value of p for comparisons was taken as 0,05. Consequently, it was determined that, in Turkey, effects of environment, friend-peer group and trainer on sporters playing at elite level as physically handicapped are high in starting badminton firstly while effects of sport complex, parents and siblings, mass media such as television and media organs on tendency to badminton are quite low. It was ascertained that liking badminton sport and delighting in earning success were effective as the reasons of physically handicappeds’ playing badminton sport and their expectations were, firstly, to be chosen for national team and to be national team sporters.

  4. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents’ visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12–16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents’ behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents’ home or school may

  5. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Van Hecke

    Full Text Available Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12-16 years, 64% boys were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium. Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people, the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents' behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents' home or school

  6. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12-16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents' behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents' home or school may stimulate

  7. Factors Associated with Regular Physical Activity for the Prevention of Osteoporosis in Female Employees Alborz University of Medical Sciences: Application of Health Belief Model

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    E. Hatefnia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease and a growing global health problem that causes bones to thin and fragile. It is estimated that about two million people suffer from osteoporosis. According to the World Health Organization recommends regular physical activity is effective in preventing and while the results of some studies show about 65% of working women in Iran; do not get enough physical activity. This study aimed to determine factors associated with regular physical activity behavior for the prevention of osteoporosis in female employees Alborz University of Medical Sciences and was designed by HBM Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study involving 217 female university employees, all of whom were studied with the consent of the census. Tools for data collection questionnaire that included demographic questions, knowledge and questions based on health belief model structures that had done Validity and reliability. Data were analyzed using spss Edition19 and descriptive analytical statistics tests. Findings: The results show that regular physical activity was 37/8%. Idependent t-test showed a significant difference (P< 0/001 knowledge and self-efficacy between the two groups (with and without regular physical activity. Logistic regression analysis showed that knowledge and self-efficacy are significant predictor of Physical activity behavior. In this study, a significant association was found between the income and physical activity And the other factors such relationship wasnot found for physical activity. Conclusion: According to lack of regular physical activity and considering the relationship between knowledge and self-efficacy with physical activity, the need to addressing this issue through educational programming based on related factors

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  9. Leisure time physical activity in Saudi Arabia: prevalence, pattern and determining factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al Khoudair, Ali Salah; Al Harbi, Mohammad Abdulwahab; Al Ali, Ahmed Radi

    2012-01-01

    Identification of reliable predictors of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) will enable healthcare providers to intervene and change the patterns of LTPA in the population to improve community health. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence and pattern of LTPA among adult Saudis aged 18-65 years, and to define the socio-demographic determinants that correlate with LTPA in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study of 2176 adult Saudis attending urban and rural primary health care centers were selected using a multistage proportionate sampling method. Participants were personally interviewed to gather information regarding socio-demographics, physical activity pattern using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Physical activity (PA) in each domain was expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs). The median total METs minutes/week for LTPA for both genders was 256, higher for men (636 METs minutes/week) compared to women (249 METs minutes/week). Overall, only 19.8% of the total PA was derived from LTPA. Of the sampled population 50.0% reported doing no leisure activity. Using the cut off of 600 METs-minutes/day or 150 minutes of moderate intensity over 5 or more days/week, only 21.0% of the included sample were considered as being sufficiently active and 10.4% were in the high active category with beneficial health effects. Multivariate regression analysis showed that male, younger age (active in the LTPA domain. The prevalence and intensity of LTPA among the included sample demonstrated low levels. Nearly 80% of the included sample population did not achieve the recommended LTPA level with beneficial health effects. Female gender, urban residence and associated chronic diseases correlated with a low LTPA.

  10. Shared Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment Among Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, H. Luz; Chen, May S.; Ennett, Susan T.; Basile, Kathleen C.; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother–adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother–adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study’s implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:26746242

  11. Shared Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment Among Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-04-01

    The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed.

  12. Factors Related to Healthy Diet and Physical Activity in Hospital-Based Clinical Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nancy M; Butler, Robert; Sorrell, Jeanne

    2014-09-30

    Hospitals often promote healthy lifestyles, but little is known about nurses' actual diet and physical activity. Greater understanding about these lifestyle choices for clinical nurses may improve existing hospital-based programs and/or create desirable services. This article discusses a study that considered diet and physical activity of clinical nurses, using elements of Pender's self-care theory as a conceptual framework. Study methods included a cross-sectional, correlational design and a convenience sample of 278 nurses who worked on units with 24 hours/day and seven days-per-week responsibilities. Participants completed diet and exercise questionnaires about perceptions of attitudes and opinions, barriers, diet benefits/exercise motivators, self-efficacy, and locus of control, and personal and work characteristics. Diet and activity categories were created. Study results demonstrated that over 50% of nurses had moderately healthy diets but were insufficiently active. Healthy diet and physical activity levels were associated with higher self-efficacy, more diet benefits and physical activity motivators, fewer perceived barriers, and confidence in body image. The article discussion and conclusion sections note areas for future research and suggest that focused interventions that address benefits, motivators, and self-efficacy may increase participation in hospital-based programs and enhance healthy lifestyle for hospital-based clinical nurses.

  13. Insulin-like growth factor-I, physical activity, and control of cellular anabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C

    2010-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for mediating the beneficial outcomes of exercise undoubtedly are many, but the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system is emerging as an important and central hormonal axis that plays a significant role concerning cellular anabolism. This introductory article summarizes the intent and the content for papers presented as part of a 2008 American College of Sports Medicine national symposium entitled "Insulin-like Growth Factor-I, Physical Activity, and Control of Cellular Anabolism." The individual authors and their papers are as follows: Jan Frystyk authoring "The relationship between exercise and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis," Greg Adams authoring "IGF-I signaling in skeletal muscle and the potential for cytokine interactions," and Brad Nindl authoring "Insulin-like growth factor-I as a biomarker of health, fitness, and training status." These papers focus on 1) different assay methodologies for IGF-I within the paradigm of exercise studies, 2) research demonstrating that intracellular signaling components associated with several proinflammatory cytokines have the potential to interact with anabolic signaling processes in skeletal muscle, and 3) an overview of IGF-I as a biomarker related to exercise training, muscle and bone remodeling, body composition, cognition, and cancer. When summed in total, the contribution that these papers will make will undoubtedly involve bringing attention to the vast regulatory complexity of the IGF-I system and will hopefully convince the reader that the IGF-I system warrants further detailed scientific inquiry to resolve many unanswered questions and paradoxical experimental findings. The IGF-I system remains one of the most intriguing and captivating marvels of human physiology that seems central in mediating numerous adaptations from physical activity.

  14. Depressive symptoms in people with chronic physical conditions: prevalence and risk factors in a Hong Kong community sample

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    Nan Hairong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is predicted to become one of the two most burdensome diseases worldwide by 2020 and is common in people with chronic physical conditions. However, depression is relatively uncommon in Asia. Family support is an important Asian cultural value that we hypothesized could protect people with chronic physical conditions from developing depression. We investigated depressive symptom prevalence and risk factors in a Chinese sample with chronic medical conditions, focusing on the possible protective role of family relationships. Methods Data were obtained from the Hong Kong Jockey Club FAMILY Project cohort study in 2009–2011, which included 6,195 participants (age ≥15 with self-reported chronic conditions. Depressive symptoms were recorded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Demographic and lifestyle variables, stressful life events, perceived family support and neighborhood cohesion were assessed. Factors associated with a non-somatic (PHQ-6 depression score were also examined. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥5 was 17% in those with one or more chronic conditions, and was more prevalent in women than in men (19.7% vs. 13.9%; p p p  Conclusions Acute life stress and the number of chronic conditions, together with socio-demographic factors, explain most variance in depressive symptoms among chronically ill Chinese individuals. Somatic items in the PHQ-9 increased the depression scores but they did not alter the pattern of predictors. Family support appears to be an important protective factor in Chinese cultures for individuals with chronic conditions.

  15. The most effective factors to offset sarcopenia and obesity in the older Korean: Physical activity, vitamin D, and protein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; Jeon, Byeong Hwan; Reid Storm, Shaun Nicholas; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the types and levels of physical activity in conjunction with protein intake and vitamin D on sarcopenia and obesity status in an elderly population. Study participants (N = 4452) were ages ≥60 y and included 1929 men and 2523 women who completed a body composition analysis with a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and provided health and dietary data. Higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight was observed in the non-obese group, although obese participants had greater weights. The non-obese sarcopenia subgroup showed health problems related to insulin resistance and metabolic-related factors compared with the nonsarcopenic group. The total metabolic equivalent was significantly different in both obese categories, regardless of sarcopenic status. The prevalence of obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity relatively increased with a diet deficient of protein intake and vitamin D. These data suggest that sarcopenia had a significant association with metabolic-related factors; physical activity, especially vigorous activity; and protein intake and vitamin D levels in a non-obese elderly population. Therefore, maintaining healthy body weight by means of resistance exercise and enhanced protein intake and vitamin D may help offset sarcopenia in this age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. THE PROCESS OF SEPARATION AND INDIVIDUATION AS THE RISK FACTOR IN PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONS WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES

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    Simona OZHEK

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of separation and individuation is a developmental psychological process, which takes place at various phases of child development within his first three years of life. These phases include the Normal Autistic Phase, the Normal Symbiotic Phase, the Separation-Individuation Phase (with sub-phases Differentiation, Practicing and Rapprochement, On the Way to Object Con­stancy and the Final Separation and Psychological Birth of the Human Infant. Undisturbed transition through the developmental phases leads to the es­tablishment of psychological structure in the hu­man infant, which means that he reaches autonomy and independence, thus becoming an individual. For children which were born with physical dis­abilities and have their intellectual capacities pre­served (i.e. in cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy etc., the fulfillment of this process is endangered, because their development was stuck at the Nor­mal Symbiotic Phase due to two types of factors. The first group represents factors of physical dis­ability (i.e. impossibility to move, obtain inde­pendent experiences and, consequently, the inabil­ity to detach from the Object, while the second group represents reactions to this hindrance (i.e. over-protection, which further thwarts attempts to detach from the Object.

  17. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. RESULTS: Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively. The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p < 0.05. Moderately-active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05 as well as higher total cholesterol concentrations (232.1 and 145 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.01. Irrespective of their physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers are exposed to cardiovascular risk factors due to the characteristics of the job, such as high work demand, long working hours and time in this profession, regardless of shift type or leisure-time physical

  18. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension

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    Ybarra Sagarduy JL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy,1 Dacia Yurima Camacho Mata,1 José Moral de la Rubia,2 Julio Alfonso Piña López,3 José Luis Masud Yunes Zárraga4 1Unit of Social Work and Human Development, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, 2School of Psychology, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, 3Independent Researcher, Hermosillo, 4Institute of Health and Safety Services for State Workers, Clinic for the Study and Prevention of the Chilhood Obesity, Ciudad Victoria, Mexico Background: It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension.Purpose: This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior.Results: Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data (pBS =0.235, χ2/gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom’s Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen’s Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053.Conclusion: The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so

  19. Influence of solvent evaporation rate and formulation factors on solid dispersion physical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian X; Yang, Mingshi; Berg, Frans van den; Pajander, Jari; Rades, Thomas; Rantanen, Jukka

    2011-12-18

    New chemical entities (NCEs) often show poor water solubility necessitating solid dispersion formulation. The aim of the current study is to employ design of experiments in investigating the influence of one critical process factor (solvent evaporation rate) and two formulation factors (PVP:piroxicam ratio (PVP:PRX) and PVP molecular weight (P(MW))) on the physical stability of PRX solid dispersion prepared by the solvent evaporation method. The results showed the rank order of an increase in factors contributing to a decrease in the extent of PRX nucleation being evaporation rate>PVP:PRX>P(MW). The same rank order was found for the decrease in the extent of PRX crystal growth in PVP matrices from day 0 up to day 12. However, after 12days the rank became PVP:PRX>evaporation rate>P(MW). The effects of an increase in evaporation rate and PVP:PRX ratio in stabilizing PRX were of the same order of magnitude, while the effect from P(MW) was much smaller. The findings were confirmed by XRPD. FT-IR showed that PRX recrystallization in the PVP matrix followed Ostwald's step rule, and an increase in the three factors all led to increased hydrogen bonding interaction between PRX and PVP. The present study showed the applicability of the Quality by Design approach in solid dispersion research, and highlights the need for multifactorial analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between academic performance with physical, psychosocial, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors in female undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Maude Dubuc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. Methods: One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old. All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA, handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max (Bruce Protocol and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Results: Significant correlations were observed between GPA with estimated VO2max (r = 0.32, intrinsic motivation toward knowledge (r = 0.23, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment (r = 0.27 and external regulation (r = -0.30, P = 0.002. In addition, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance (P < 0.05. Finally, a stepwise linear regression analysis showed that external regulation, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment, VO2max levels and eating a daily breakfast explained 28.5 % of the variation in the GPA in our cohort. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that motivational, physical and lifestyle factors appear to be predictors of academic performance in female undergraduate students.

  1. Physical Activity-Related Injury and Its Associated Factors among Middle School Students in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weicong Cai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA promotion is beneficial to gain and maintain optimal health, but might increase risks for physical activity-related injury (PARI. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the incidence rate and identify risk factors of PARI among Chinese middle school students. Selected via the method of cluster random sampling, students graded 7–8 (junior and 10–11 (senior from five middle schools (aged from 10 to 18 years old in Shantou were invited to participate in the survey. Information on socio-demography, PA involvement, sleep duration, individual safety awareness and exercise behavior, and PARI experiences in the past 12 month was collected. Multivariate logistic regression model was performed to estimate the risk factors of PARI. A total of 3082 participants completed the valid questionnaires, with an overall incidence rate of 25.1%. Boys, junior school students, sports team members, and those with lower safety awareness, living with single parent, and without any chronic conditions were at higher risks for PARI. Moreover, exercising on wet floor or with illness frequently would also be more likely to experience injury, especially those with at least 120 min per day. In conclusion, PARI was prevalent among middle school students in southern China. The above data provide insights that were focused and effective actions should be taken to prevent school-aged adolescents from PARI and maximize the benefits of PA.

  2. Relationship between Academic Performance with Physical, Psychosocial, Lifestyle, and Sociodemographic Factors in Female Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Marie-Maude; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Karelis, Antony D

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old). All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA), handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) (Bruce Protocol) and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Significant correlations were observed between GPA with estimated VO 2 max ( r = 0.32), intrinsic motivation toward knowledge ( r = 0.23), intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment ( r = 0.27) and external regulation ( r = -0.30, P = 0.002). In addition, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance ( P breakfast explained 28.5 % of the variation in the GPA in our cohort. Results of the present study indicate that motivational, physical and lifestyle factors appear to be predictors of academic performance in female undergraduate students.

  3. Relationships between physical-geographical factors and soil degradation on agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednář, Marek; Šarapatka, Bořivoj

    2018-07-01

    It is a well-known fact that soil degradation is dramatically increasing and currently threatens agricultural soils all around the world. The objective of this study was to reveal the possible connection between soil degradation and seven physical-geographical factors - slope steepness, altitude, elevation differences, rainfall, temperature, soil texture and solar radiation - in the form of threshold values (if these exist), where soil degradation begins and ends. The analysis involved the whole area of the Czech Republic which consists of 13,027 cadasters (78,866 km 2 ). The greatest total degradation threat occurs in areas with slope steepness >7 degrees, average annual temperature 10.54, altitude >766 m a.s.l. Similarly, the results for water erosion, wind erosion, soil compaction, loss of organic matter, acidification and heavy metal contamination were processed. The results enable us to identify the relationships of different levels of threats which could consequently be used in various ways - for classification of threatened areas, for more effective implementation of anti-degradation measures, or purely for a better understanding of the role of physical geographical factors in soil degradation in the Czech Republic, and thus could increase the chances of reducing vulnerability to land degradation not only in the Czech Republic. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. School difficulties in immigrant adolescent students and roles of socioeconomic factors, unhealthy behaviours, and physical and mental health

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    Chau Kénora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income, WHO-Quality of life (measuring the four dimensions physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment, unhealthy behaviours (last-30-day uses of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs and no regular sports/physical activities, grade repetition, low school performance ( Results Grade repetition affected 14.8% of students, low school performance 8.2%, and school dropout ideation 3.9%. European immigrants had a higher risk for grade repetition only with a gender-age-adjusted odds ratio (OR of 2.44, vs. French students. This odds ratio decreased to 1.76 (contribution 47% with further adjustment for all confounders (family structure, father’s occupation, family income, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Non-European immigrants had a statistically higher risk for all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation with ORs of 3.29, 3.02, and 3.42, respectively vs. French students. These odds ratios decreased to 1.76, 1.54, and 1.54, respectively (contributions 66%, 73%, and 78% with further adjustment for all confounders. Conclusions Compared with French students

  5. School difficulties in immigrant adolescent students and roles of socioeconomic factors, unhealthy behaviours, and physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle; Kabuth, Bernard; Chau, Nearkasen

    2012-06-19

    School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. This cross-sectional study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, family structure, father's occupation, and family income), WHO-Quality of life (measuring the four dimensions physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment), unhealthy behaviours (last-30-day uses of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs and no regular sports/physical activities), grade repetition, low school performance (dropout ideation at 16 years. Data were analyzed using logistic models. Grade repetition affected 14.8% of students, low school performance 8.2%, and school dropout ideation 3.9%. European immigrants had a higher risk for grade repetition only with a gender-age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.44, vs. French students. This odds ratio decreased to 1.76 (contribution 47%) with further adjustment for all confounders (family structure, father's occupation, family income, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours). Non-European immigrants had a statistically higher risk for all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation with ORs of 3.29, 3.02, and 3.42, respectively vs. French students. These odds ratios decreased to 1.76, 1.54, and 1.54, respectively (contributions 66%, 73%, and 78%) with further adjustment for all confounders. Compared with French

  6. Factors influencing the introduction of physical activity interventions in primary health care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijg, Johanna M; van der Zouwe, Nicolette; Crone, Mathilde R; Verheijden, Marieke W; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Gebhardt, Winifred A

    2015-06-01

    The introduction of efficacious physical activity (PA) interventions in routine primary health care (PHC) is a complex process. Understanding factors influencing the process can enhance the development of successful introduction strategies. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore stakeholders' perceptions on factors influencing the introduction, i.e., adoption, implementation, and continuation, of PA interventions in PHC. Twenty-eight semistructured interviews were held with intervention managers, PHC advisors, intervention providers, and referring general practitioners of five PA interventions delivered in PHC. A theoretical framework on the introduction of innovations in health care was used to guide the data collection. Influencing factors were identified using thematic analysis. Stakeholders reported preconditions for the introduction of PA interventions in PHC (e.g., support, resources, and networks and collaborations), in addition to characteristics of PA interventions (e.g., compatibility, flexibility, and intervention materials) and characteristics of PHC professionals (e.g., knowledge, positive attitudes, and beliefs about capabilities) perceived to enhance the introduction process. Furthermore, they proposed strategies for the development of PA interventions (e.g., involvement of future stakeholders, full development, and refinement) and strategies to introduce PA interventions in PHC (e.g., training, assistance, and reinforcement). The majority of the influencing factors were discussed specifically in relation to one or two stages. This study presents an overview of factors that are perceived to influence the introduction of PA interventions in PHC. It underscores the importance of taking these factors into account when designing introduction strategies and of giving special attention to the distinct stages of the process.

  7. Associations of Neighborhood and Family Factors with Trajectories of Physical and Social Aggression During Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents develop within multiple contexts that synergistically influence their behavior and health. To understand the simultaneous influence of neighborhood and family contexts on adolescents, this study examined relationships of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, neighborhood social disorganization, family conflict, parent-child bonding and parental control with trajectories of physical and social aggression. The sample included 5,118 adolescents between ages 11 and 18 (50% female, 52% Caucasian) living in predominantly rural areas. Multilevel growth curve models showed an interaction between neighborhood disadvantage, family conflict and gender on the physical aggression trajectories. The interaction suggested more rapid processes of both increase in and desistance from physical aggression over time for boys with high neighborhood disadvantage and high family conflict, as well as a higher starting point, more gradual increase and slower process of desistance over time for girls in similar neighborhood and family contexts. Less parent-child bonding and less parental control also were associated with higher initial levels of physical aggression. For social aggression, an interaction between family conflict and gender showed girls with high family conflict had the highest initial levels of social aggression, with a more gradual increase over time for these girls compared to their male counterparts in high-conflict families or their female counterparts in low-conflict families. Less parent-child bonding was associated with higher initial levels and a faster increase over time of social aggression, and less parental control was associated with higher initial levels of social aggression. The findings suggest early family-based interventions may help prevent perpetration of both physical and social aggression during adolescence. PMID:23054352

  8. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors The U.S. Preventive ...

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  11. Interaction between physical and psychosocial work risk factors for low back symptoms and its consequences amongst Indonesian coal mining workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors for low back symptoms (LBS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism) in a developing country. A sample of 1294 Indonesian coal mining workers reported occupational exposures, LBS and its consequences using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were placed into one of four combination exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial (HPhyHPsy); high physical and low psychosocial (HPhyLPsy); low physical and high psychosocial (LPhyHPsy), and; low physical and low psychosocial (LPhyLPsy). The attributable proportion due to interaction between physical and psychosocial factors was examined. Individuals in the HPhyHPsy group were most likely to report LBS (OR 5.42, 95% CI 3.30-8.89), reduced activities (OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.09-7.74), and absenteeism (OR 4.96, 95% CI 3.05-8.06). Interactions between physical and psychosocial factors were present for LBS, reduced activities, and absenteeism; although for LBS and absenteeism the interactions were not significant. Current smokers were more likely to report LBS consequences. Permanent employment and night shift work increased the odds of LBS and its consequences. We conclude that interventions aimed at reducing LBS and its consequences should address both physical and psychosocial factors, with a focus on smokers, permanent employment and night shift work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. School related factors and 1yr change in physical activity amongst 9-11 year old English schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantjes, Joyce A.; Jones, Andrew P.; Corder, Kirsten; Jones, Natalia R.; Harrison, Flo; Griffin, Simon J.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Activity levels are known to decline with age and there is growing evidence of associations between the school environment and physical activity. In this study we investigated how objectively measured one-year changes in physical activity may be associated with school-related factors in

  13. Associations between individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity among older Chinese adults: A social–ecological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangren Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide an initial validation of a social–ecological approach to the study of HPA in China, suggesting that strategies aimed at promoting physical activity in older adults should address multiple levels of factors that may contribute to the likelihood of older Chinese adults being physically active.

  14. Physical Inactivity in U.S. Adolescents: Family, Neighborhood, and Individual Factors. Research Brief. Publication #2009-28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Mary; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Concern about physical inactivity among U.S. youth has been mounting in recent years, in light of studies suggesting that few adolescents (about one out of three) engage in recommended levels of physical activity. Although much attention has been paid to individual factors that may contribute to this problem, such as television viewing and…

  15. Risk and protective factors for physical and sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Africa: a review and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Mhlongo, Elsinah L

    2015-01-01

    There is now conclusive evidence of the major and long-lasting negative effects of physical and sexual abuse on children. Within Africa, studies consistently report high rates of child abuse, with prevalence as high as 64%. However, to date, there has been no review of factors associated with physical and sexual child abuse and polyvictimization in Africa. This review identified 23 quantitative studies, all of which showed high levels of child abuse in varying samples of children and adults. Although studies were very heterogeneous, a range of correlates of abuse at different levels of the Model of Ecologic Development were identified. These included community-level factors (exposure to bullying, sexual violence, and rural/urban location), household-level factors (poverty, household violence, and non-nuclear family), caregiver-level factors (caregiver illness in particular AIDS and mental health problems, caregiver changes, family functioning, parenting, caregiver-child relationship, and substance abuse), and child-level factors (age, disability, physical health, behavior, and gender). These findings identify key associated factors that are potential foci of child abuse prevention interventions. In addition, there is a clear need for further rigorous longitudinal research into predictive factors and culturally relevant interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jie Zhuang,1,* Liang Huang,1,2,* Yanqiang Wu,3 Yanxin Zhang2 1School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Shanghai Municipal Center for Students' Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60–80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. Keywords: Tai Chi Chuan, resistance training, balance, fall prevention, fall

  17. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  18. Neighborhood environmental factors are related to health-enhancing physical activity and walking among community dwelling older adults in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Kolo, Sanda M; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Omotara, Babatunji A

    2018-02-23

    Health promotion strategies grounded by evidence-based determinants of physical activity constitute an important focus of physiotherapy practice in the twenty-first century. This study investigated associations between neighborhood environmental factors and health-related moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and walking for transportation and recreation among community dwelling Nigerian older adults. A representative sample of 353 Nigerian older adults (age = 68.9 ± 9.13 years) in a cross-sectional survey provided self-reported min/week of MVPA and walking for transportation and recreation and perceived neighborhood environmental factors. In multilevel linear regression analyses, proximity of destinations (β = 3.291; CI = 0.392, 6.191), access to services and places (β = 4.417; CI = 0.995, 7.838), esthetics (β = 3.603; CI = 0.617, 6.590), traffic safety (β = 5.685; CI = 3.334, 8.036), and safety from crime (β = 1.717; CI = 0.466, 2.968) were related to more MVPA. Also, proximity of destinations (β = 1.656; CI = 0.022, 3.291) and safety from crime (β = 2.205; CI = 0.018, 4.579) were related to more transport walking. Access to services and places (β = 2.086; CI = 0.713, 3.459) and walking infrastructure and safety (β = 1.741; CI = 0.199, 3.282) were related to more recreational walking. Six of eight supportive environmental factors were associated with more physical activity among community dwelling older Nigerian adults. Policy makers including physiotherapists in this role can use the evidence to inform community-based physical activity and health promotion programs for older adults in Nigeria.

  19. Physical activity level of three generation families. Genetic and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nichele de Chaves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims (1 to investigate the presence of familial aggregation in physical activity (PA levels and sedentary behavior (SB among members of three generations families and (2 to estimate the magnitude of additive genetic influences on PA and SB phenotypes. The sample consisted of 100 extended families covering three generations (n=1034, from the Lisbon area, Portugal. Phenotypes were assessed via the short version of the self-administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF. Measured phenotypes: total physical activity (TPA; vigorous (VPA; moderate (MPA; walking; time spent in sitting time (ST, watching television (WT and PA levels classification. Body mass index (BMI was calculated. Exploratory family analysis in all phenotypes was conducted in PEDSTATS software. The genetic component (h2 and shared environmental effect were estimated using maximum likelihood implemented in the SOLAR software package. All graphs were done in HLM software. Sex, age, sex*age, age2, sex*age2 and BMI were used as covariates. Significant level was set at 0,05. Genetic component estimates (h2 were as follows: TPA h2=0,28±0,06 (p<0.0001; VPA h2=0,35±0,06 (p<0.0001; MPA h2=0,29±0,06 (p<0.0001; walking h2=0,40±0,06 (p<0.0001; ST h2=0,29±0,06 (p<0.0001; WT h2=0,15±0,06 (p<0.003 and determination of the level physical activity h2=0,35±0,14 (p<0.007. Shared environmental effect was not significant. These results showed a low-to-moderate genetic contribution, between 15% to 40% of the total variability, in the PA and SB phenotypes. The genetic factors have low to moderate influence in this sample. Non-shared environmental factors appear to have the major contribution in these phenotypes.

  20. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  2. Barriers and enabling factors for work-site physical activity programs: a qualitative examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gena M; Behrens, Timothyh K; Domina, Lorie

    2008-05-01

    Work sites offer a productive setting for physical activity (PA) promoting interventions. Still, PA participation remains low. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the reasoning behind commonly reported barriers and enabling factors to participation in PA programs in a work-site setting. Employees from a large city government were recruited to participate in focus groups, stratified by white- and blue-collar occupations. Responses from open-ended questions about factors influencing participation in PA programs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Resulting data were analyzed with open and axial coding. The sample consisted of 60 employees composing 9 focus groups. Although time was the most common barrier between both groups, white-collars workers responded that scheduling and work conflicts were the most common barrier concerning time. Blue-collar workers indicated shift work as their most common barrier. In addition, health was a significant enabling factor for both occupational categories. White-collar workers were much more concerned with appearances and were more highly motivated by weight loss and the hopefulness of quick results than were blue-collar workers. These findings are important in the understanding of PA as it relates to the reasoning behind participation in work-site programs in regard to occupational status.

  3. Poor performance in physical education - a risk factor for bully victimization. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Edgar, Johan; Humble, Mats B

    2011-03-01

    Poor social skills are a risk factor for becoming bullied, which could explain why this frequently occurs to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Poor social skills tend to coexist with clumsiness. According to a pilot study, poor performance in physical education (PE) was correlated with bully victimization. Sixty-nine healthy university students reported performance in PE and bully victimization in childhood. In addition, the participants responded to questionnaires for ADHD and ASDs to assess personality traits related to increased risk for bully victimization. Below average performance in PE was a risk factor of being bullied in school with an odds ratio of 3.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.23-10.5; p = 0.017]. Strong correlations between poor performance in PE and long duration of victimization (p = 0.007) and poor performance in PE and high frequency of victimization (p = 0.008) were found. Autistic traits were related to performance below average in PE. Poor motor skills are a strong risk factor for becoming bullied. Prevention programmes that identify, protect and empower the clumsy children could be an important step to avoid bullying of the most vulnerable children. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  4. Factors predicting changes in physical activity through adolescence: the Young-HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangul, Vegar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Bauman, Adrian; Bratberg, Grete H; Kurtze, Nanna; Midthjell, Kristian

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective population-based study was to analyze predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) levels from early to late adolescence. Data presented are from 2,348 adolescents and their parents who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997) and at follow-up in Young-HUNT 2, 2000-2001 Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire and participated in a clinical examination that included measurements of height and weight. Four patterns of PA emerged in the study: active or inactive at both time points (active maintainers, 13%; inactive maintainers, 59%), inactive and became active (adopters, 12%), active and became inactive (relapsers, 16%). Being overweight, dissatisfied with life, and not actively participating in sports at baseline were significant predictors of change regarding PA among boys at follow-up. For girls, smoking, drinking, low maternal education, and physical inactivity predicted relapsers and inactive maintainers. Higher levels of education and more physically active parents at baseline seemed to protect against decreased PA during follow-up for both genders. Predictors of change in, or maintaining PA status during adolescence differed by gender. These results suggest that PA-promoting interventions should be tailored by gender and focus on encouraging activity for inactive adolescents and maintenance of PA in those already active. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The TAL effector PthA4 interacts with nuclear factors involved in RNA-dependent processes including a HMG protein that selectively binds poly(U RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antonio de Souza

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic bacteria utilize an array of effector proteins to cause disease. Among them, transcriptional activator-like (TAL effectors are unusual in the sense that they modulate transcription in the host. Although target genes and DNA specificity of TAL effectors have been elucidated, how TAL proteins control host transcription is poorly understood. Previously, we showed that the Xanthomonas citri TAL effectors, PthAs 2 and 3, preferentially targeted a citrus protein complex associated with transcription control and DNA repair. To extend our knowledge on the mode of action of PthAs, we have identified new protein targets of the PthA4 variant, required to elicit canker on citrus. Here we show that all the PthA4-interacting proteins are DNA and/or RNA-binding factors implicated in chromatin remodeling and repair, gene regulation and mRNA stabilization/modification. The majority of these proteins, including a structural maintenance of chromosomes protein (CsSMC, a translin-associated factor X (CsTRAX, a VirE2-interacting protein (CsVIP2, a high mobility group (CsHMG and two poly(A-binding proteins (CsPABP1 and 2, interacted with each other, suggesting that they assemble into a multiprotein complex. CsHMG was shown to bind DNA and to interact with the invariable leucine-rich repeat region of PthAs. Surprisingly, both CsHMG and PthA4 interacted with PABP1 and 2 and showed selective binding to poly(U RNA, a property that is novel among HMGs and TAL effectors. Given that homologs of CsHMG, CsPABP1, CsPABP2, CsSMC and CsTRAX in other organisms assemble into protein complexes to regulate mRNA stability and translation, we suggest a novel role of TAL effectors in mRNA processing and translational control.

  6. Insufficient free-time physical activity and occupational factors in Brazilian public school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Douglas Fernando; Loch, Mathias Roberto; González, Alberto Durán; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2017-07-20

    To evaluate if perceived occupational factors are associated with insufficient free-time physical activity in Brazilian public school teachers. The relationship between insufficient physical activity (work was analyzed in 978 elementary and high school teachers calculating the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) in Poisson regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic and health variables. The prevalence of insufficient physical activity was 71.9%, and this condition was associated independently with the perception of bad or regular balance between personal and professional life (PR = 1.09; 95%CI 1.01-1.18), perception that standing time affects the work (PR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.01-1.34), low or very low perception of current ability for the physical requirements of work (PR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08-1.35), and temporary employment contract (PR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03-1.25). The teaching of physical education was associated with lower prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.64-0.95). The perception of adverse working conditions is associated with increased prevalence of insufficient physical activity in teachers and should be considered for the promotion of physical activity in this population. Analisar se fatores ocupacionais percebidos estão associados à atividade física insuficiente no tempo livre em professores de escolas públicas. A relação entre atividade física insuficiente (< 150 minutos/semana) e variáveis relacionadas ao trabalho foi analisada em 978 professores do ensino fundamental e médio mediante o cálculo da razão de prevalência (RP) e intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%) em modelos de regressão de Poisson, ajustados por variáveis sociodemográficas e de saúde. A prevalência de atividade física insuficiente foi de 71,9%, e essa condição associou-se de maneira independente com percepção de equilíbrio entre vida pessoal e profissional ruim ou regular (RP = 1,09; IC95% 1,01-1,18), percepção de

  7. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  8. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT WITH THE INHIBITORS OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR OF THE CHRONIC UVEITIS REFRACTORY TO THE BASIC THERAPY (INCLUDING AN ASSOCIATED WITH JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rudakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy of chronic uveitis refractory to the basic treatment, in juvenile