WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors including physical

  1. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  2. Including a learner with physical disabilities: stressful for teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Eloff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.

  3. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  4. Including All Children in Standards-Based Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn V.; Kasser, Susan L.; Nichols, Beverly A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of students with and without disabilities in physical education as the movement toward standards-based education progresses, examining whether standards should be applied to all students, obstacles to including all students, ways to include all students, and the importance of standards for teachers. An example of inclusive…

  5. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Devices and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors provides material for a comprehensive upper-level-undergrauate and graduate course on the subject, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. For the interested reader some additional advanced topics are included, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors are included. Also supplied are explicit formulas for many results, to support better understanding. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from ...

  6. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better understanding of the topics. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from a highly regarded two...

  7. The physics of semiconductors an introduction including nanophysics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better under...

  8. What is the impact of obtaining medical clearance to participate in a randomised controlled trial examining a physical activity intervention on the socio-demographic and risk factor profiles of included participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Rebar, Amanda L; Maeder, Anthony J; Tague, Rhys; Savage, Trevor N; van Itallie, Anetta; Mummery, W Kerry; Kolt, Gregory S

    2016-12-07

    Requiring individuals to obtain medical clearance to exercise prior to participation in physical activity interventions is common. The impact this has on the socio-demographic characteristic profiles of participants who end up participating in the intervention is not clear. As part of the multi-component eligibility screening for inclusion in a three-arm randomised controlled trial examining the efficacy of a web-based physical activity intervention, individuals interested in participating were required to complete the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). The PAR-Q identified individuals as having lower or higher risk. Higher-risk individuals were required to obtain medical exercise clearance prior to enrolment. Comparisons of the socio-demographic characteristics of the lower- and higher-risk individuals were performed using t tests and chi-square tests (p = 0.05). A total of 1244 individuals expressed interest in participating, and 432 were enrolled without needing to undergo further screening. Of the 251 individuals required to obtain medical clearance, 148 received clearance, 15 did not receive clearance and 88 did not return any form of clearance. A total of 105 individuals were enrolled after obtaining clearance, and the most frequent reason for being required to seek clearance was for using blood pressure/heart condition medication. Higher-risk individuals were significantly older, had a higher body mass index and engaged in more sedentary behaviour than lower-risk individuals. Use of more inclusive participant screening protocols that maintain high levels of participant safety are encouraged. Allowing individuals to obtain medical clearance to participate can result in including a more diverse population likely to benefit most from participation. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12611000157976 ). Registered on 9 February 2011.

  9. Physics 1942 - 1962 including presentation speeches and laureates' biographies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yong

    1964-01-01

    Physics 1942 - 1962 presents Nobel Lectures on physics from 1942 to 1962. This book is 20 chapters that cover various Nobel physics subjects. The opening chapters deal with the topics of molecular ray methods, exclusion principle, quantum mechanics, the ionosphere, development of the Meson theory, interaction between high-speed nucleons and atomic nuclei, and the artificial production of fast particles. Other chapters discuss the principle of nuclear induction, research in nuclear magnetism, the discovery of phase contrast, statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics, the hydrogen atom

  10. Physics 1922 - 1941 including presentation speeches and laureates' biographies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yong

    1965-01-01

    Physics presents Nobel Lectures on physics from the period of 1922 to 1941. This book is organized into 18 parts encompassing 36 chapters that cover various Nobel physics subjects. The first parts explore the advances in understanding the atom structure, experimental studies of electrons, X-ray spectra of the atomic structure, kinetic energy of free electrons, and discontinuous structure of matter. These topics are followed by discussions on the laws governing the thermionic phenomena, wave nature of electron, light molecular scattering, the development of quantum mechanics, properties of neut

  11. Physics as a Mechanism for Including ELLs in Classroom Discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Suarez, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELLs) are frequently left on the periphery of classroom interactions. Due to misalignment of language skills, teachers and peers communicate with these students less often, decreasing the number of opportunities to engage. Exclusion can be avoided with learning activities that invite all students to participate and contribute ideas. We argue that environments and activities that privilege scientific inductive reasoning increase possibilities for emerging bilingual students to engage. This study investigated first-grade students' discussions about factors that affect how objects float. Students came from a variety of language backgrounds; all were considered beginner/intermediate ELLs. Results show that the goal of inducing principles from actual phenomena encouraged students to communicate their ideas and reasoning, boosting students' confidence in expressing themselves. Following the hybrid space argument of Vygotsky's theory of concept formation, we see how external expression pre...

  12. Search for BSM physics including dark matter at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, Xiangyang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The increased centre-of-mass energy of the proton-proton collisions of the LHC run 2 gives a unique opportunity to extend the sensitivity to the production of particles not foreseen by the Standard Model. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results on BSM searches. Although the focus is on searches for production of DM particles, results include searches for heavy resonances in many final states and for production of supersymmetric particles.

  13. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  14. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  15. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  16. Perinatal risk factors including malformation; Perinatale Risikofaktoren einschliesslich Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project `Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria` is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG). [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die haeufigsten in der Literatur beschriebenen Faktoren, die einen unguenstigen Einfluss auf den Schwangerschaftsverlauf ausueben koennen, gegeben. Ein Hauptgewicht liegt dabei auf der Beschreibung von solchen Faktoren, die mit der Induktion von Fehlbildungen in Zusammenhang gebracht werden koennen, so unter anderem auch der praenatalen Strahlenexposition. Diese Arbeit, die im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens `Strahlenbiologisches Umweltmonitoring Bayern` angefertigt wurde, bildet die Grundlage einer im Sinne einer umweltbezogenen Gesundheitsberichterstattung retro- bzw. prospektiv angelegten Auswertung der Saeuglingssterblichkeit, des Perinatalgeschehens und der Fehlbildungshaeufigkeit in Bayern, wobei neben der ionisierenden Strahlung als Risikofaktor auch andere im Rahmen einer oekologischen Studie erfassbare Risiken, wie beispielsweise Industrieansiedlungen, Muellverbrennungsanlagen und -deponien oder Urbanitaet beruecksichtigt werden sollen. (orig./MG).

  17. Ride with Abandon: Practical Ideas to Include Mountain Biking in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Cycling and mountain biking are among the most popular fitness activities in America. Considering that the purpose of physical education is to encourage lifelong activity for all, it is logical to include lifetime activities such as mountain biking in physical education programs. Many perceived barriers to adding mountain biking in physical…

  18. Research in space science and technology. [including X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.

  19. Remarks on the physical factor influencing the individual language learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨君

    2015-01-01

    individual language learner as a subject of learning can be influenced by many factors such as physical factor,cognitive factor,and affective factor.All of which play an important role in language learning.These three factors are worthy of our research and physical factor will be discussed in this essay.

  20. Physical spousal violence against women in India: some risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaseelan, L; Kumar, Shuba; Neelakantan, Nithya; Peedicayil, Abraham; Pillai, Rajamohanam; Duvvury, Nata

    2007-09-01

    Domestic spousal violence against women in developing countries like India, is now beginning to be recognized as a widespread health problem impeding development. This study aimed to explore the risk and protective factors for lifetime spousal physical violence. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in rural, urban and urban-slum areas across seven sites in India, among women aged 15-49 years, living with a child less than 18 years of age. The sample was selected using the probability proportionate to size method. Trained field workers administered a structured questionnaire to elicit information on spousal physical violence. The main hypothesized variables were social support, witnessed father beating mother and experience of harsh physical violence during childhood, alcohol abuse by spouse and socioeconomic variables. The outcome variables included three physical violence behaviours of hit, kick and beat. Odds ratios were calculated for risk and protective factors of violence using logistic regression. Of 9938 women surveyed, 26% reported experiencing spousal physical violence during the lifetime of their marriage. Adjusted odds ratios calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis suggest that women whose husbands regularly consumed alcohol (OR 5.6; 95% CI 4.7-6.6); who experienced dowry harassment (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.7-3.8); had reported experiencing harsh physical punishment during childhood (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8) and had witnessed their fathers beat their mothers (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.6-2.1), were at increased risk of spousal physical violence (beat, hit and kick). Higher socioeconomic status and good social support acted as protective buffers against spousal physical violence. The findings provide compelling evidence of the potential risk factors for spousal physical violence, which in turn could help in planning interventions.

  1. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire to assess physical environmental factors pertaining to physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinn Aileen P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population. Methods Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC overall and separately by gender and race. Results Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8, with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains. Conclusion This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men.

  2. Self-efficacy of physical education teachers in including students with cerebral palsy in their classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Barak, Sharon

    2017-09-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are often mainstreamed into the general education system, but are likely to be excluded from physical education (PE) classes. A questionnaire was constructed and utilized to measure PE teachers' self-efficacy (SE) toward inclusion of students with CP in each of three mobility categories (independent, using assistive devices, using wheelchair mobility) and the impact of experience and training on teachers' SE. Participants in the study were 121 PE teachers from different parts of Israel (mean age: 41.02±9.33 years; range: 25.00-59.00 years). Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the structure of the sub-scales' factors' structure and Cronbach's Alpha reliability was satisfactory (range 0.872-0.941). Independent t-tests were calculated in order to compare the SE of teachers with and without adapted PE experience. Repeated Analysis of Variance was performed to measure within-group differences in SE. Results revealed that the PE teachers' SE in teaching students who use mobility assistive devices or wheelchairs was significantly lower compared to teaching those who walk and run unaided (F=19.11; pmobility with assistive device group was also significantly influenced (pmobility group was influenced by having an adapted PE specialization (p<0.05; d=0.82). Specialized training in this particular area should be enhanced to increase teachers' SE and enable greater participation of children with CP in general physical education classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CP violation and limits on New Physics including recent B{sub s} measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botella, Francisco J. [Departament de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Branco, Gustavo C. [Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Nebot, Miguel [Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: miguel.nebot@uv.es

    2007-04-16

    We analyse present constraints on the SM parameter space and derive, in a model independent way, various bounds on New Physics contributions to B{sub d}{sup 0}-B-bar{sub d}{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0}-B-bar{sub s}{sup 0} mixings. Our analyses include information on a large set of asymmetries, leading to the measurement of the CKM phases {gamma} and {beta}-bar, as well as recent data from D0 and CDF related to the B{sub s}{sup 0}-B-bar{sub s}{sup 0} system such as the measurement of {delta}M{sub B{sub s}}, A and {delta}{gamma}{sub s}{sup CP}. We examine in detail several observables such as the asymmetries A{sub sl}{sup d}, A, the width differences {delta}{gamma}{sub d} and {delta}{gamma}{sub s}{sup CP} and discuss the role they play in establishing the limits on New Physics. The present data clearly favour the SM, with the New Physics favoured region placed around the SM solution. A New Physics solution significantly different from the SM is still allowed, albeit quite disfavoured (2.6% probability). We analyse the presently available indirect knowledge on the phase {chi}-bar entering in B{sub s}{sup 0}-B-bar{sub s}{sup 0} mixing and study the impact of a future measurement of {chi}-bar to be achieved at LHC, through the measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry in B{sub s}->J/{psi}{phi} decays.

  4. Physical factors affecting chloroquine binding to melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R L; Pendleton, P; Gerber, J P

    2015-10-01

    Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug but is also prescribed for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term users risk toxic side effects, including retinopathy, thought to be caused by chloroquine accumulation on ocular melanin. Although the binding potential of chloroquine to melanin has been investigated previously, our study is the first to demonstrate clear links between chloroquine adsorption by melanin and system factors including temperature, pH, melanin type, and particle size. In the current work, two Sepia melanins were compared with bovine eye as a representative mammalian melanin. Increasing the surface anionic character due to a pH change from 4.7 to 7.4 increased each melanin's affinity for chloroquine. Although the chloroquine isotherms exhibited an apparently strong interaction with each melanin, isosteric heat analysis indicated a competitive interaction. Buffer solution cations competed effectively at low surface coverage; chloroquine adsorption occurs via buffer cation displacement and is promoted by temperature-influenced secondary structure swelling.

  5. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

  6. Space life sciences: ground-based iron-ion biology and physics, including shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This session of the 35th Scientific Assembly of COSPAR focuses on recent advances in ground-based studies of high-energy (mainly 1 GeV/nucleon) iron ions. The theme is interdisciplinary in nature and encompasses both physics and biology reports. Manned space missions, including those of the International Space Station and the planned Mars mission, will require the extended presence of crew members in space. As such, a better understanding in shielding design--in radiation detection as well as radio-protection based on simulating studies--is much needed. On the other hand, a better understanding of the basic mechanisms that modulate radiation sensitivity; in determining DNA double strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and the induction of apoptosis, will provide important information for an interventional approach.

  7. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among ... Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and ... Conclusion: Physical activity energy expenditure was high in this population ...

  8. Gleason-Type Theorem for Projective Measurements, Including Qubits: The Born Rule Beyond Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zela, F.

    2016-10-01

    Born's quantum probability rule is traditionally included among the quantum postulates as being given by the squared amplitude projection of a measured state over a prepared state, or else as a trace formula for density operators. Both Gleason's theorem and Busch's theorem derive the quantum probability rule starting from very general assumptions about probability measures. Remarkably, Gleason's theorem holds only under the physically unsound restriction that the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space {H} must be larger than two. Busch's theorem lifted this restriction, thereby including qubits in its domain of validity. However, while Gleason assumed that observables are given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors, Busch made the mathematically stronger assumption that observables are given by positive operator-valued measures. The theorem we present here applies, similarly to the quantum postulate, without restricting the dimension of {H} and for observables given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors. We also show that the Born rule applies beyond the quantum domain, thereby exhibiting the common root shared by some quantum and classical phenomena.

  9. Learning in an Introductory Physics MOOC: All Cohorts Learn Equally, Including an On-Campus Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly F Colvin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied student learning in the MOOC 8.MReV Mechanics ReView, run on the edX.org open source platform. We studied learning in two ways. We administered 13 conceptual questions both before and after instruction, analyzing the results using standard techniques for pre- and posttesting. We also analyzed each week’s homework and test questions in the MOOC, including the pre- and posttests, using item response theory (IRT. This determined both an average ability and a relative improvement in ability over the course. The pre- and posttesting showed substantial learning: The students had a normalized gain slightly higher than typical values for a traditional course, but significantly lower than typical values for courses using interactive engagement pedagogy. Importantly, both the normalized gain and the IRT analysis of pre- and posttests showed that learning was the same for different cohorts selected on various criteria: level of education, preparation in math and physics, and overall ability in the course. We found a small positive correlation between relative improvement and prior educational attainment. We also compared homework performance of MIT freshmen taking a reformed on-campus course with the 8.MReV students, finding them to be considerably less skillful than the 8.MReV students.

  10. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  11. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part Ii: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-01-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition,…

  12. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part Ii: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-01-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition,…

  13. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  14. It's Time to Include Nutrition Education in the Secondary Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Susan L.; Thompson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Although the primary focus of physical educators is to increase students' physical activity levels and their knowledge about the importance of movement, they also have the opportunity to affect students' overall wellness by teaching nutrition and how healthy eating contributes to overall health and weight management. Nutrition concepts…

  15. It's Time to Include Nutrition Education in the Secondary Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Susan L.; Thompson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Although the primary focus of physical educators is to increase students' physical activity levels and their knowledge about the importance of movement, they also have the opportunity to affect students' overall wellness by teaching nutrition and how healthy eating contributes to overall health and weight management. Nutrition concepts…

  16. The Effect of Physical Biorhythm Cycle on Some Physical Fitness Factors of Adolescent Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Zareian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biorhythm is one of the latest topics in the field of identifying mind’s ergonomics. Of all the performances with which biorhythm deals is the physical performance. The purpose of present research is to study the effect of physical cycle of biorhythm on the designated factors of physical fitness among teenage volleyball players in the city of Qom. In the present field research, 30 people were selected out of volleyball players aged 12 to 15 at random in the city of Qom. Biorhythm cycles were obtained with the biorhythm software. Vertical jump and medicine ball throwing were used as tests associating with muscular power; pull-up and sit-up were used as tests associating with muscular endurance in two states of charged (the second position and discharged (the first position of biorhythm physical cycle. The statistical correlated t test with the significance level of p≤0.05 was used to analyze data. The findings indicated that the tests pertaining to power including Vertical jump and medicine ball throwing were well-correlated with the physical cycle of biorhythm (p=0.042; p=0.019. However, the muscular endurance tests (revised sit-up and pull-up did not show any significant difference between the two states and were not correlated with the physical cycle of biorhythm (p=0.75; p=0.73. The predictions by physical cycle of biorhythm on the muscular power of athletes are correct, but it was not possible with the muscular endurance of athletes. Of course, more researches should be conducted to increase the certainty of correctness predicted by the physical cycle of biorhythm. The prediction of this theory can be used to increase the performances of athletes in sports competitions if the biorhythm cycles prove right.

  17. Physical Activity : The interplay between individual and neighbourhood factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Beenackers (Marielle)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPhysical inactivity is among the most important and prevalent risk factors of many major diseases. Although the health benefits of regular exercise and a physically active lifestyle are well known, many people are still not active. Understanding why some population groups are physically

  18. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  19. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship Between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2012-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. The current analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior from physical child abuse and the buffering role of 3 school-related factors (i.e., school commitment, school dropout, and IQ) which are hypoth...

  20. A model for including Arduino microcontroller programming in the introductory physics lab

    CERN Document Server

    Haugen, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a curricular framework for introducing microcontroller programming in the University Physics lab. The approach makes use of Modeling Instruction, an effective approach for teaching science at the secondary level in which student learn the standard material by developing and deploying models of the physical world. In our approach, students engage with a context-rich problem that can be solved with one or more sensors and a microcontroller. The solution path we describe then consists of developing a mathematical model for how the sensors' data can be mapped to a meaningful measurement, and further, developing an algorithmic model that will be implemented in the microcontroller. Once the system is developed and implemented, students are given an array of similar problems in which they can deploy their data collection system. Results from the implementation of this idea, in two University Physics sections, using Arduino microcontrollers, are also described.

  1. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  2. Including Children with Special Educational Needs in Physical Education: Has Entitlement and Accessibility Been Realised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…

  3. Including Overweight and Obese Students in Physical Education: An Urgent Need and Effective Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanyu; Li, Weidong; Zhao, Qi; Li, Mingda

    2017-01-01

    Students who are overweight or obese generally have low physical ability and fitness levels, experience serious weight-related health implications, are teased and excluded by their peers, and suffer psycho-social and emotional damages as a result of weight stigma. Overweight and obese students have presented an unprecedented challenge for teachers…

  4. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  5. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  6. Physical and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Physical Activity in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Boezen, H. Marike; de Greef, Mathieu H.; ten Hacken, Nick H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess physical activity and sitting time in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to investigate which physical and psychosocial factors are associated with physical activity and sitting time. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Patients were recruited at

  7. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 31-34: Inductance; Wave Properties of Light; Interference; and Introduction to Quantum Physics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is Part of a series of 41 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 Pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized courses in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  8. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  9. Continuum simulation of solid phase epitaxial regrowth of amorphized silicon including most advanced physical interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalleau, Julien; Simola, Roberto [STMicroelectronics, ZI de Rousset, BP 2, 13106 Rousset (France); Pakfar, Ardechir; Tavernier, Clement [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Bazizi, El-Medhi [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); LAAS/CNRS, University of Toulouse, 7 av. Col. Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France); CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    Solid-phase-epitaxial regrowth (SPER) of Si amorphized by ion implantation is considered as a potential solution for the fabrication of highly-activated ultra-shallow junctions for future technology nodes of Si CMOS devices. In the frame of 32 and 22 nm technologies node development, SPER occurs after amorphizing implantations used in source/drain regions. To get an accurate simulation of dopant activation and junction depth position, a suitable continuum SPER model, implemented into a commercial simulator, is now mandatory. This TCAD model must consider the different physical effects associated with SPER: silicon regrowth rate, dopants redistribution snow plough effect, and interaction with silicon point defects. In this work, using a previously established model, we have implemented an improved physically based model for SPER and, several formulations have been developed to enable a robust/accurate modeling of the recrystallization velocity. It takes into account the direct interaction between amorphous/crystalline interface kinetics and point defects, and a regrowth rate dependent on temperature. Simulation results of dopant concentration profiles are in good agreement with experimental data and can provide important insight for optimizing the bulk silicon process as well in one dimension as two dimensions. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Physical factors influence for biologic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Physical methods are widely spread in diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies, especially in oncology. The application of lasers occurred to be the perspective approach for combined methods application in medicine. Our work is devoted to investigation of thermal effect of focused laser beam in the model of Garding-Passi melanoma and also to the study of free radicals activity after the radiation with non-focused laser beam. The histologic alterations correlated with theoretical calculations of temperature distribution in irradiated tissue for energies 30-60 J attracted our interest. The values of maximal temperatures in depths of tissue for energies 30-60 J were carried out. In the model of permanent magnetic field (PMF) effect for mice ascites sarcoma 37 we have showed the linear dependence of tumor growth inhibition from the period of PMF treatment. Simultaneously we investigated PMF influence for free radical"s (FR) concentrations in mice organs and tissues and potentially appearing questions of PMF effect for biopotential in connection with FR formation. We have also studied the alterations of K, Na and Ca ions concentrations in ascetic fluids after animal"s PMF treatment. We revealed some reasons of biopotential generation and concluded that biopotential is not the result of specific ions gradient only but its generation can be followed by free radicals states appearance and occurrence of semi-conductivity in biostructures.

  11. Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest…

  12. Some physical, physiological and biochemical adaptations of ruminant livestock including buffaloes to different feeds and climates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Ørskov

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Some of the adaptations of ruminant livestock to climate and feed resources are discussed. 1. Physical. Various types of coat serve to protect animals from cold and from the sun’s heat. 2. Physiological. Large rumen volumes enables animals to consume large amounts of poor roughages; fat depots in distinct regions of the body allow them to withstand regulation and fluctuating supply of nutrients, seasonality of reproduction matches requirement to seasonal variation in food supply. 3. Biochemical. There are species differences in the ability to recycle N to the rumen (buffaloes in the requirement for glucose to accommodate several days of fasting (camels, and in adaptation to low atmospheric oxygen tension (yaks. Such adaptations are important and should be considered when animals exported to areas where climates and feeds are different.

  13. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin (AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  14. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS IN THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lapshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides guidelines for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α  (TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis  (axSpA, including ankylosing spondylitis. It gives data on the efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with non-radiographic axSpA. By using international and Russian guidelines, the authors lay down indications for this therapy and criteria for evaluation of its efficiency and safety.

  15. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  16. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  17. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE ELDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Parreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the elderly population is well aware of the benefits of the practice of physical activity, which leads to an increasing demand for specialized physical activity programs in urban centers or recreational self-practice. However, people easily quit those programs or recreational self-practice and return to a sedentary lifestyle. A key factor to avoid this quittance is to keep them motivated to practice and stay in the programs.Objectives: This study aims to understand the motivational factors that lead older people to physical activity in order to improve existing programs so to better meet the needs of this population.

  18. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part II: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-11-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition, planning, monitoring, evaluation, debugging, and information management. The college students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students' physics motivation and physics grade. However, the results of the exploratory factor analysis indicated that the questionnaire could be revised to improve its construct validity. The goal of this study was to revise the questionnaire and establish its construct validity through a confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, a Rasch analysis was applied to the data to better understand the psychometric properties of the inventory and to further evaluate the construct validity. Results indicated that the final, revised inventory is a valid, reliable, and efficient tool for assessing student metacognition for physics problem solving.

  19. Psychosocial factors associated with increased physical activity in insufficiently active adults with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, G M E E Geeske; Brown, Wendy J; Burton, Nicola W

    2015-09-01

    Although physical activity can potentially reduce symptoms of arthritis, 50% of people with arthritis are insufficiently active. The aim was to identify psychosocial factors associated with increased physical activity in mid-age adults with arthritis who did not meet recommended physical activity levels. Longitudinal cohort study. Data were from 692 insufficiently active men and women (mean age 55 ± 6.6 years) with arthritis, who answered mailed surveys in 2007 and 2009 in the HABITAT study. Increased physical activity was defined as a change of ≥ 200 MET min/week in walking, moderate and vigorous activities from 2007 to 2009. Scale scores were used to measure psychosocial factors including intention, experiences, attitudes, efficacy, barriers, motivation, social support, and health professional advice. Associations between (1) 2007 psychosocial factors and (2) 2007-2009 improvement (≥ +1 standard deviation) in psychosocial factors and increased physical activity were examined with logistic regression models. Results were adjusted for education, body mass index, and self-rated health. Between 2007 and 2009, 296 participants (42.8%) increased their physical activity. Engagement, mastery and physical activity intention in 2007 were associated with this increase in physical activity (engagement OR = 1.11, 99% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.17; mastery OR = 1.12, 99%CI = 1.02-1.22; physical activity intention OR = 1.29, 99%CI = 1.06-1.56). Improved scores for encouragement (OR = 2.07, CI = 1.07-4.01) and self-efficacy (OR =2 .27, CI = 1.30-3.97) were also significantly associated with increased physical activity. Positive physical activity experiences and intentions were predictors of increased physical activity among people with arthritis. Improved physical activity confidence and social support were associated with increased physical activity. It is important to consider these psychosocial factors when planning physical activity interventions for people with

  20. Determinant Factors of Physical Fitness in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vyncke, Krishna; Moreno, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ’s fitness. Significant but small effects were found for low maternal BMI, high psychosocial well-being and fruit and vegetable intake as protective determinants. Sleep duration, breakfast intake, parental age and education and paternal BMI did not have a consistently significant effect on physical fitness....... The role of determinants depended on children’s sex and the specific PF component. Longitudinal analyses especially highlighted the importance of child’s BMI as physical fitness determinant, independent of physical activity.Conclusions: BMI together with physical activity, diet and psychosocial factors...

  1. What Factors Predict Student Self-Rated Physical Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance J.; Adlaf, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Data from a randomly selected sample of 840 Ontario students were used to examine factors that affect self-rated physical health. Analyses focused on demographics, family structure, financial situation, child-parent relationship, school achievement, self-esteem, alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use as factors which directly and indirectly influence…

  2. Factors of the physical environment associated with walking and bicycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; Schuit, A.J.; Niet, de R.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Saris, W.H.M.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify factors of the physical environment that may influence time spent on walking and bicycling. METHODS: Demographic factors and time spent on walking and bicycling (during leisure time and for commuting purposes) were assessed with a self-administered

  3. Z' factor including siRNA design quality parameter in RNAi screening experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sławomir; Kozak, Karol

    2012-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) high-content screening (HCS) enables massive parallel gene silencing and is increasingly being used to reveal novel connections between genes and disease-relevant phenotypes. The application of genome-scale RNAi relies on the development of high quality HCS assays. The Z' factor statistic provides a way to evaluate whether or not screening run conditions (reagents, protocols, instrumentation, kinetics, and other conditions not directly related to the test compounds) are optimized. Z' factor, introduced by Zhang et al., ( 1) is a dimensionless value that represents both the variability and the dynamic range between two sets of sample control data. This paper describe a new extension of the Z' factor, which integrates bioinformatics RNAi non-target compounds for screening quality assessment. Currently presented Z' factor is based on positive and negative control, which may not be sufficient for RNAi experiments including oligonucleotides (oligo) with lack of knock-down. This paper proposes an algorithm which extends existing algorithm by using additional controls generetaed from on-target analysis.

  4. Determinant Factors of Physical Fitness in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vyncke, Krishna; Moreno, Luis A.;

    2016-01-01

    ’s fitness. Significant but small effects were found for low maternal BMI, high psychosocial well-being and fruit and vegetable intake as protective determinants. Sleep duration, breakfast intake, parental age and education and paternal BMI did not have a consistently significant effect on physical fitness....... The role of determinants depended on children’s sex and the specific PF component. Longitudinal analyses especially highlighted the importance of child’s BMI as physical fitness determinant, independent of physical activity.Conclusions: BMI together with physical activity, diet and psychosocial factors......Objectives: This study was designed to explore the determinants of physical fitness in European children aged 6–11 years, cross-sectionally and longitudinally.Methods: There were sufficient data on 4903 children (50.6 % girls) on measured physical fitness (cardio-respiratory, muscular strength...

  5. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  6. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  7. Factors associated with physical activity in children and adolescents with a physical disability : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Manon A T; Backx, FJG; Takken, Tim; Wittink, H; Benner, Joyce; Mollema, Jurgen; de Groot, Janke F.

    2015-01-01

    AimThe aim of this review was to summarize the important factors associated with participation in physical activity in children and adolescents with physical disabilities. MethodA systematic mixed-studies review was conducted using the databases Academic Search Elite, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, E

  8. Factors associated with physical therapists’ implementation of physical activity interventions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, Johanna M.; Dusseldorp, Elise; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Verheijden, Marieke W.; Zouwe, van der Nicolette; Middelkoop, Barend J.C.; Duijzer, Geerke; Crone, Mathilde R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical therapists play an important role in the promotion of physical activity (PA) and the effectiveness of PA interventions. However, little is known about the extent to which they implement PA interventions following the intervention protocol and about the factors influencing

  9. Factors associated with physical therapists’ implementation of physical activity interventions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Dusseldorp, E.; Gebhardt, W.A.; Verheijden, M.W.; Zouwe, N. van der; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Duijzer, G.; Crone, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical therapists play an important role in the promotion of physical activity (PA) and the effectiveness of PA interventions. However, little is known about the extent to which they implement PA interventions following the intervention protocol and about the factors influencing their

  10. Contribution of Environmental Risk Factors Including Lifestyle to Inequalities Noncommunicable (Chronic Diseases such as Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Grochowska Niedworok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health inequalities: differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Some health inequalities are attributable to biological variations or free choice and others are attributable to the external environment and conditions mainly outside the control of the individuals concerned. 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2012 an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a normal body weight can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Risk factors: 1. Age- the prevalence of diabetes rises steeply with age: *one in twenty people over the age of 65 have diabetes, *and this rises to one in five people over the age of 85 years. The diagnosis of diabetes may be delayed in older people, with symptoms of diabetes being wrongly attributed to ageing. 2. Ethnic: type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in people of South Asian descent and up to three times more common in those of African and African-Caribbean descent then in the white population. It is also more common in people of Chinese descent and other non-Caucasian groups. 3. Gender: the frequency of diabetes usually is higher in men than in women. This may be because gender compounds other aspects of inequality- women often bear the brunt of poverty, and socio-economic differences in the prevalence of diabetes are more marked for women, probably because of differences in smoking rates, food choices and the prevalence of obesity. 4. Overweight/Obesity: every 1 kg/m2 more causes increase risk: cardiovascular diseases 2%, coronary artery disease- 3% , myocardial infarction- 5% , heart failure- 5% , peripheral vascular disease- 5%. Health inqualities important in diabetes -- modifiable:  social

  11. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  12. Factors Predicting Physical Activity Among Children With Special Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Yazdani, MD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. Methods We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child’s and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child’s exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Results Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child’s lack of interest (43%, lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%, too many behavioral problems (32%, and parents’ lack of time (29%. However, child’s lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children’s physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01. Conclusion In this group of students with special needs, children’s physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.

  13. Physical activity and associated factors among students attending evening classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luis Ceschini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the physical activity level and associated factors among students attending evening classes in public and private schools in a region of the city of São Paulo. The sample was composed of 1,844 adolescents of both sexes aged 15-20 years. Three public and private schools in the city of São Paulo were visited. Daily physical activity level was assessed through International Physical Activity Questionnaire that classifies physical activity level. Physical activity level was divided into insufficiently active (when subject reported less than 300 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activities per week and physically active (when subject reported more than 300 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activities per week. Information related to risk behavior such as smoking and alcohol consumption was collected. Data were analyzed using logistic regression with three levels of data input and p<.05 as significance level. The prevalence of physically active adolescents was 36.1%. Most active subjects were: A younger boys with low socioeconomic levels; B adolescents from private schools; C adolescents that do not smoke or drink alcoholic beverages; D those who do not attend formal exercise program; E those who go to school to perform physical activities on weekends. Adolescents attending evening classes tended to be insufficiently active. We believe that school structure, working hours, and distance from home and workplace to school and risk factor should explain these data. Intervention programs could significantly contribute to increase the physical activity level among adolescents.

  14. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods: Prospecti

  15. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  16. Factors related to physical activity: a study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, R; Thorlindsson, T

    1998-09-01

    Although the consequences of physical activity have been carefully documented, less is known about its correlates, particularly among children and youth. Based on a representative national survey of 1131 Icelandic adolescents, the study examined various physical, psychological, social and demographic factors related to physical activity. Male sex, significant others' involvement in physical activity (father, friend and older brother), sociability, perceived importance of sport and of health improvement and satisfaction with mandatory gym classes in school, were all related to more involvement, whereas hours of paid work and TV-viewing were related to less. Furthermore, the data suggested that the influence of friend's participation in physical activity depends on his or her emotional significance. Influential others appeared to affect males and females in the same way. The meaning of the results and their implications for future research are discussed.

  17. Factors determining physical activity of Ukrainian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bergier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. Scientific reports provide information concerning an insufficient level of physical activity of societies. The objective of the study is recognition of the level of physical activity among Ukrainian students, and factors which condition this activity: gender, place of residence, self-reported physical fitness, and the BMI. [b]Methods[/b]. The study was conducted in 2013 among 2,125 Ukrainian students using a long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, supplemented with data concerning the respondents’ physical development. [b]Results[/b]. The results of the study showed that the mean total physical activity of students was 3.560 MET, and its highest percentage pertained to the area of activity in sports – 1.124 MET. Significantly higher statistically physical activity was observed among males than females. In males, the highest activity was related to participation in sports classes, while in females – engagement in household chores. It was found that males, compared to females, were significantly more physically active in such areas as occupational activity (education and sports activity, whereas females showed higher activity performing household chores. According to the place of residence, inhabitants of medium-size towns and rural areas obtained the most favourable results in activity, while the inhabitants of large cities the poorest. Self-reported physical fitness was significantly correlated with the results in physical activity obtained by the students. No relationship was found between the BMI and the level of student’s physical activity. [b]Conclusion[/b]. Considering the very large population of respondents, the results obtained may be considered as an up-to-date pattern of physical activity among Ukrainian students.

  18. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marilyn; Bryans, Angie; Gray, Kaylin; Skinner, Leah; Verhoeve, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a "mixed methods" design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale-Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study-Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  19. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Wright

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a “mixed methods” design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale—Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study—Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  20. [Discuss on effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shihuan; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi

    2010-01-01

    Nature of Chinese materia medica is the nucleus in the theory of Chinese material medica, according to the recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which is the character of the drug related on curative effect. Nature and efficacy of a drug is through the medical material, then, physical environment, including the temperature, humidity, atmospheric water, wind, topography, soil, micro-organism, and so on, influence the growth and development of the medical meterial. In this paper, we researched the explanation on nature of Chinese materia medica in the medical books of past dynasties, combined with the modem research, analyzed the relationship between generative reception and physical environmental factors, and discussed the effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica. We indicated that the formation of Chinese materia medical nature is that the drug receptive the change of physical environmental factors, and resulted by the synthetic action of the factors, such as climate, soil, biology, topography, etc.

  1. Prognostic factors of infantile spasms: role of treatment options including a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Yu, Hee Jun; Lee, Munhyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide additional evidences on prognostic factors for infantile spasms and the possible role of a ketogenic diet. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with infantile spasms who had been followed up for more than 6months between January 2000 and July 2012 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). We analyzed the association between possible prognostic factors and seizure/developmental outcomes. Sixty-nine patients were included in this study and their mean follow-up duration was 52.5 (9-147) months. In the patients who had been followed up for more than 2years, 53.6% (n=30/57) remained seizure-free at the last visit. Sixty patients (86.9%) showed developmental delay at last follow-up. Forty-two patients (60.9%) became spasm-free with one or two antiepileptic drugs, one patient with epilepsy surgery for a tumor, and seven patients with a ketogenic diet after the failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. The etiology and age of seizure onset were the significant prognostic factors. In this study, about 60% of the patients became spasm-free with vigabatrin and topiramate. Ketogenic diet increased the rate by 10% in the remaining antiepileptic drug resistant patients. However, 86.9% of the patients showed developmental delay, mostly a severe degree. Early diagnosis and prompt application of treatment options such as antiepileptic drugs, a ketogenic diet or epilepsy surgery can improve outcomes in patients with infantile spasms. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.

  3. Physical factors associated with fatigue after stroke: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Chi Lan Nguyen; Salle, Jean-Yves; Mandigout, Stéphane; Hamonet, Julia; Macian-Montoro, Francisco; Daviet, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    To look for a relationship between physical fatigue and physical parameters in patients at least 3 months post stroke. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of 32 poststroke patients (average duration of stroke 40 months) who were recruited among in- and outpatients followed by the Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of a university hospital. Fatigue was defined as a Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score of 4 or more. The parameters studied were age, sex, time since stroke, Demeurisse Motor Index, Barthel Index score, new Functional Ambulation Category, Berg Balance Scale, 10-meter walk test, 6-minute walk test, Dijon Physical Activity Score, Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, presence of pain, and length and area of the center of pressure displacement obtained posturographically. Two-thirds of patients (65.6%) were fatigued. The mean FSS score was 4.3 ± 1.8. Fatigue was not associated with the physical parameters studied; notably, there was no correlation with motor impairment, autonomy and walking capacity, or balance and physical activity. However, after multivariate analysis, we found an association between physical fatigue and time since the occurrence of stroke (P = .05). Our study revealed a relationship between pain and physical fatigue, as reported by 2 other studies. Poststroke fatigue management should include appropriate pain management. Further studies are necessary to determine the causes of physical fatigue after stroke.

  4. Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-03-01

    We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest in physics was "neutral" (neither positive nor negative), with boys showing a higher interest than girls. We found a strong correlation between students' "neutral" interest in physics and their negative opinions about science classes. These findings raise serious questions about the implementation of changes made in the Israeli science curriculum in primary and junior high school, especially if the goal is to prepare the young generation for life in a scientific-technological era. A more in-depth analysis of the results led us to formulate curricular, behavioral, and organizational changes needed to reach this goal.

  5. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  6. Factors that affect the physical science career interest of female students: Testing five common hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2013-12-01

    There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.

  7. Factors affecting perceived change in physical activity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2017-08-01

    reduction of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is common but undesirable, as it is associated with negative outcomes, including excessive gestational weight gain. Our objective was to explore changes in five types of activity that occurred during pregnancy and the behavioural determinants of the reported changes in PA. we performed a secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey that was constructed using the ASE-Model - an approach to identifying the factors that drive behaviour change that focuses on Attitude, Social influence, and self-Efficacy. 455 healthy pregnant women of all gestational ages, receiving prenatal care from midwifery practices in the Netherlands. more than half of our respondents reported a reduction in their PA during pregnancy. The largest reduction occurred in sports and brief rigorous activities, but other types of PA were reduced as well. Reduction of PA was more likely in women who considered themselves as active before pregnancy, women who experienced pregnancy-related barriers, women who were advised to reduce their PA, and multiparous women. Fewer than 5% increased their PA. Motivation to engage in PA was positively associated with enjoying PA. all pregnant women should be informed about the positive effects of staying active and should be encouraged to engage in, or to continue, moderately intensive activities like walking, biking or swimming. Our findings concerning the predictors of PA reduction can be used to develop an evidence-based intervention aimed at encouraging healthy PA during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Individual factors affecting preferences for feedback message tactics in the contexts of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Noora; Enwald, Heidi; Bath, Peter A; Pyky, Riitta; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Tailored feedback on personal physical activity behavior has been used to inform individuals and promote physical activity among different populations. This study aimed to increase the understanding of factors associated with young men's preferences for feedback message tactics in the context of physical activity and exercise. How preferences vary was analyzed in terms of the self-reported physical activity, stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, objectively measured physical health status, and sociodemographic characteristics of young Finnish men. Population-based survey data, including physiological measurements (n = 525), were collected at the Finnish Defence Forces' call-ups in the city of Oulu, Finland, in September 2011. The results indicate that the stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, physical health status, and educational level are associated with a preference for normative and ipsative comparison. Multivariate logistic regression models show that an advanced stage of exercise behavior change and education in the academic track of an upper secondary school are independent predictors of preferring ipsative and normative physical activity feedback among young men. The study provides new insights into how the stage of behavior change influences health information behavior and is in line with studies emphasizing social factors--including education--as being important in shaping health-related behavior. These factors could form the basis for tailoring information when designing health promotion.

  10. Determination of factors associated with physical activity levels among adolescents attending school in Kuantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, S P; Mohd, Nasir M T; Zalilah, M S

    2011-08-01

    Findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey III (MOH, 2008) indicate a 43.7% prevalence of physical inactivity among Malaysian adults. This sedentary lifestyle can also be observed among children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine factors associated with physical activity levels of four hundred, 13 year-old adolescents in Kuantan, Pahang. Data on socio-demographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors were collected using a self-administered questionnaire while physical activity level was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). About one-third of the respondents were in the low physical activity level category, 61.5% were in the moderate category and only 3.0% of the adolescents were in the high physical activity level category. Males were more physically active than females (chi2 = 23.667, p = 0.0001) with female adolescents (45.1%) twice as likely as male adolescents (22.1%) to be in the low physical activity level category. The associations between physical activity level with socio-demographic and health-related factors, perception of weight status and body parts satisfaction were not significant. However, physical activity was found to be positively correlated with physical activity self-efficacy (r = 0.496, p = 0.0001), peer influence ( r = 0.468, p = 0.0001), family influence (r = 0.298, p = 0.0001) and beliefs in physical activity outcomes (r = 0.207, p = 0.0001). Negative relationships were found between physical activity with depression (r = -0.116, p = 0.021) and body size discrepancy (r = -0.143, p < 0.01). Respoedbnts who had a better perception of their current health status were more physically active chi2 = 21.062, p = 0.0001). Multivariate analyses for the prediction of physical activity showed that physical activity self-efficacy, sex and peer influence were the most significant contributors in explaining physical activity among adolescents. Physical activity

  11. Who Is Joining Physics and Why? Factors Influencing the Choice of Physics among Ethiopian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semela, Tesfaye

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the enrolment trends and the critical factors that impinge on students' choice of physics as major field of study. The data were generated from primary and secondary sources. Primary data was acquired based on a semi-structured interview with 14 sophomore and 11 senior students and five instructors of the department of…

  12. Value of the small cohort study including a physical examination for minor structural defects in identifying new human teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Christina D

    2011-03-01

    Most known human teratogens are associated with a unique or characteristic pattern of major and minor malformations and this pattern helps to establish the causal link between the teratogenic exposure and the outcome. Although traditional case-control and cohort study designs can help identify potential teratogens, there is an important role for small cohort studies that include a dysmorphological examination of exposed and unexposed infants for minor structural defects. In combination with other study design approaches, the small cohort study with a specialized physical examination fulfills a necessary function in screening for new potential teratogens and can help to better delineate the spectrum and magnitude of risk for known teratogens.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with physical fighting among Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Hussin, Siti Fatimah; Abd Aziz, Nur Shahida; Hasim, Hazrin; Sahril, Norhafizah

    2014-09-01

    Physical fighting among adolescents is one manifestation of interpersonal violence that is an important issue globally, but attention to this problem in Malaysia has been limited. We analyzed data available from the Malaysia Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2012. Of the 25 507 respondents, 27.4% reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Being bullied (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67-3.39) was significantly and highly associated with involvement in physical fighting. Smoking (aOR = 2.56; 95% CI = 2.20-2.97), males (aOR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.62-1.93), using drugs (aOR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.09-2.15), and drinking alcohol (aOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.24-1.63) were other factors associated with physical fighting. Parental supervision showed no significant association with physical fighting. These findings indicate that more attention needs to be given to bullying at school by school authorities and parents.

  14. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.

  15. Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

  16. But I like PE: Factors Associated with Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they…

  17. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS RELATED TO THE PRACTICE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Navarro Cabral da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the motivational factors for older adults to practice physical activities regularly. The sample consisted of 77 elderly of both genders, aged 55 to 90 years and who were practicing physical activities for at least a month in centers of sports and leisure in the city of Indaiatuba. The inventory IMPRAF-54 (Motivation for the Regular Practice of Physical Activity Inventory was used for data collection. This instrument covers 6 dimensions of motivation for the practice of physical activities: stress control, health, sociability, competitiveness, aesthetic and pleasure. The results showed that the main motivational factor for the elderly is health. After health, sociability, pleasure and control of stress appear tied and, finally, aesthetics and competitiveness. With these results, it is possible to know what encourages older adults to attend classes and to plan for them properly, including their interests and considering them holistically.

  18. The environment and physical activity: The influence of psychosocial, perceived and built environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullen Chris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study sought to integrate perceived and built environmental and individual factors into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to better understand adolescents' physical activity. Methods Participants (n = 110 aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.6 ± 1.55 were recruited from two large metropolitan high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, were included in the analysis. Participants completed measures of the revised TPB and the perceived environment. Individual factors such as ethnicity and level of deprivation were also collected. Geographical Information Systems (GIS software was used to measure the physical environment (walkability, access to physical activity facilities. Physical activity was assessed using the ActiGraph accelerometer and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A. Data from the various sources were combined to develop an integrated model integrated for statistical analysis using structural equation modeling. Results The TPB model variables (intention and perceived behavioral control explained 43% of the variance of PAQ-A. Unique and individual contributions were made by intention and PBC and home ownership of home equipment. The model explained 13% of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (Actigraph. Unique and individual contribution was made by intention. Conclusion Social cognitive variables were better predictors of both subjective and objective physical activity compared to perceived environmental and built environment factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Factorization of Radiative Leptonic Decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ Mesons Including the Soft Photon Region

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ji-Chong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the radiative leptonic decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ mesons using factorization approach. Factorization is proved to be valid explicitly at 1-loop level at any order of $O(\\Lambda _{\\rm QCD}\\left/m_Q\\right.)$. We consider the contribution in the soft photon region that $E_{\\gamma} \\sim \\left. \\Lambda^2 _{\\rm QCD} /\\right. m_Q$. The numerical results shows that, the soft photon region is very important for both the $B$ and $D$ mesons. The branching ratios of $B\\to \\gamma e\

  20. 体育纳入高考制度的理性思考%Rational thinking about including physical education in the National College Entrance Examination system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周茗

    2012-01-01

      我国高考的目的是选拔德、智、体全面发展的社会主义建设者和接班人。将体育纳入高考的改革,有利于落实国家相关政策,保持基础教育阶段学生健康教育的连续性,加强素质教育,促进学校体育地位的提高和体育活动的开展,但也受到政治、经济、社会、技术等因素的制约。%  The purpose of National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) in China is to select morally, intellectu-ally and physically developed socialist constructors and successors. Including physical education in the reform of NCEE is conducive to implementing related state policies, maintaining the continuity of student health education at the basic education stage, enhancing makings education, and boosting the promotion of school physical education status and the development of physical education activities, but also affected and restricted by factors such as poli-tics, economy, society, technology etc.

  1. The Importance of Physical Fitness versus Physical Activity for Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Steinhardt, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among physical fitness, physical activity, and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in male police officers. Data from screenings and physical fitness assessments indicated physical activity must be sufficient to influence fitness before obtaining statistically significant risk-reducing…

  2. Physical urticaria: Review on classification, triggers and management with special focus on prevalence including a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisonno, Jordan; Balram, Bhairavi; Netchiporouk, Elena; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2015-08-01

    Physical urticaria (PU) is a subset of chronic urticaria (CU) induced by physical stimuli. To date, there is no consensus in the literature on the prevalence of PU among patients with CU. Our objective was to review the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of PU and to estimate the prevalence of PU in CU patients. We performed a narrative review of PU and conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis to determine the pooled estimates of the prevalence of PU among patients with CU in the literature up to September 2014. We searched four databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE and Web of Science) of published work for which full text was available in English or French. Studies were eligible if they measured the prevalence of PU in adults or children with CU worldwide and ineligible if CU cases were not differentiated from total urticaria cases. Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata, version 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). In addition, the quality and validity of the articles included in the meta-analysis was assessed. Ten studies were included in our meta-analysis. Sample sizes ranged from 202 to 4157 patients. The pooled prevalence estimate of PU including and excluding cholinergic forms among all cases of CU were 13.1% (95% CI: 12.5, 13.6) and 14.9% (95% CI: 14.3, 15.7), respectively. Our results must be viewed with circumspection because of the small number of eligible articles and heterogeneity among studies. Even so, the results suggest that PU is an important subset of CU and that physicians should be aware of this important condition in order to manage patients appropriately.

  3. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The results increase our knowledge of the factors related to physical activity participation among middle-aged women and

  4. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of th

  5. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  6. Resilience in Physically Abused Children: Protective Factors for Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R. Holmes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I. Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children’s internalizing well-being, children’s prosocial behavior, and caregivers’ well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children’s internalizing well-being and children’s prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment.

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  8. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  9. Objectively measured physical activity in Brazilians with visual impairment: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Porcellis da Silva, Rafael; Marques, Alexandre Carriconde; Reichert, Felipe Fossati

    2017-05-19

    Low level of physical activity is a serious health issue in individuals with visual impairment. Few studies have objectively measured physical activity in this population group, particularly outside high-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe physical activity measured by accelerometry and its associated factors in Brazilian adults with visual impairment. In a cross-sectional design, 90 adults (18-95 years old) answered a questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for at least 3 days (including one weekend day) to measure physical activity (min/day). Sixty percent of the individuals practiced at least 30 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Individuals who were blind were less active, spent more time in sedentary activities and spent less time in moderate and vigorous activities than those with low vision. Individuals who walked mainly without any assistance were more active, spent less time in sedentary activities and spent more time in light and moderate activities than those who walked with a long cane or sighted guide. Our data highlight factors associated with lower levels of physical activity in people with visual impairment. These factors, such as being blind and walking without assistance should be tackled in interventions to increase physical activity levels among visual impairment individuals. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical inactivity worldwide is a serious health issue in people with visual impairments and specialized institutions and public policies must work to increase physical activity level of this population. Those with lower visual acuity and walking with any aid are at a higher risk of having low levels of physical activity. The association between visual response profile, living for less than 11 years with visual impairment and PA levels deserves further investigations Findings of the present study provide reliable data to support rehabilitation programs, observing the need of taking special attention to

  10. The N(H2/I(CO Conversion Factor: A Treatment that Includes Radiative Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento que explica mejor el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO y que incluye la transferencia radiativa. A primera vista, incluir la transferencia radiativa parece superfluo para una línea óptimamente gruesa como CO J = 1 0. No obstante, dado que el medio interestelar es inhomogéneo, los fragmentos de gas (es decir, grumos todavía pueden ser óptimamente delgadas hacia sus bordes y en las alas de los pérfiles de la línea. El tratamiento estadístico de Martin et al. (1984 de la transferencia radiativa a través una nube molecular con grumos se usa para derivar una expresión para el factor de conversión que su- pera los defectos de las explicaciones más tradicionales basadas en Dickman et al. (1986. Por un lado, el tratamiento presentado aquí posiblemente representa un avance importante al entender el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO pero, por otro lado, tiene sus propios defectos, que son discutidos aquí brevemente.

  11. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  12. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  13. A Physics-Based Charge-Control Model for InP DHBT Including Current-Blocking Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Ji; JIN Zhi; SU Yong-Bo; CHENG Wei; WANG Xian-Wai; CHEN Gao-Peng; LIU Xin-Yu

    2009-01-01

    We develop a physics-based charge-control InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor model including three important effects: current blocking, mobile-charge modulation of the base-collector capacitance and velocity-field modulation in the transit time. The bias-dependent base-collector depletion charge is obtained analytically, which takes into account the mobile-charge modulation. Then, a measurement based voltage-dependent transit time formulation is implemented. As a result, over a wide range of biases, the developed model shows good agreement between the modeled and measured S-parameters and cutoff frequency. Also, the model considering current blocking effect demonstrates more accurate prediction of the output characteristics than conventional vertical bipolar inter company results.

  14. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  15. STRESS AS PREDISPOSING FACTOR OF SOME CHRONIC DISEASES INCLUDING PERIODONTAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi-Nurul M Dewi-Nurul

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is hypothesized as a common pathway for several related chronic diseases of man. Psychosocial stress as modified by perceptions and coping by patients can lead to physical processes. Psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI studies have suggested that psychosocial stress can alter immune function and increase vulnerability to illnesses. The patients also have high sensitivity to periodontal disease (PD. This article describes the association of stress as a physiological response to diseases such as PD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and inflammatory bowel disease. The psychosocial stress can lead to physiological processes through 1 the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis leading to glucocortico-steroid secretion; 2 the autonomic nervous system, resulting in the release of catecholamine; or 3 the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in the release of sex hormones. These processes may affect chronic diseases. It can be concluded that psychosocial stress in periodontal disease patients must be considered and social support must be provided in order to achieve an optimum periodontal therapy result.

  16. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  17. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    explosion, and the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, such an approach may have helped to maintain the integrity of the designed provisions against major deviations resulting in these disasters. In order to make this paradigm operational, safety management and in particular risk assessment tools need to be refined....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...... Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...

  18. [Sedentary lifestyle is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors independent of physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Ana María; Martínez, María Adela; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Díaz Martínez, Ximena; Aguilar-Farías, Nicolás; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Sedentary behavior is a main risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. To investigate the association between sedentary behavior and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. We assessed 322 participants aged between 18 to 65 years. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured with accelerometers (Actigraph®). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentage of body fat, diet and blood markers (glucose, lipid profile, insulin and HOMA-IR) were measured with standardized protocols. Thirty four percent of participants were physically inactive and spent on average 8.7 h/day on sedentary activities. Per one hour increase in sedentary behavior there were significant adverse changes in glucose (4.79 mg/dl), insulin (2.73 pmol/l), HOMA-IR (0.75), BMI (0.69 kg/m²), waist circumference (1.95 cm), fat mass (1.03%), total cholesterol (9.73 mg/dl), HDL-cholesterol (-3.50 mg/dl), LDL-cholesterol (10.7 mg/dl) and triglycerides (12.4 mg/dl). These findings were independent of main confounding factors including total physical activity, dietary factors, BMI and socio-demographics. The detrimental effect of sedentary behaviors on cardiometabolic and obesity-related traits is independent of physical activity levels. Therefore, reducing sedentary time should be targeted in the population apart from increasing their physical activity levels.

  19. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active.

  20. Predicting Factors Associated with Regular Physical Activity among College Students: Applying BASNEF Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Moeini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the important problems in modern society is people's sedentary life style. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with regular physical activity among college students based on BASNEF model.Materials & Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study carried out on 400 students in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Based on the assignment among different schools, classified sampling method was chosen for data gathering using a questionnaire in three parts including: demographic information, constructs of BASNEF model, and standard international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ. Data were analyzed by SPSS-13, and using appropriate statistical tests (Chi-square, T-test and regression. Results: Based on the results, 271 students(67.8 % had low, 124 (31% moderate ,and 5 (1.2% vigorous physical activity. There was a significant relationship (c2=6.739, df= 1, P= 0.034 between their residence and physical activity and students living in dormitory were reported to have higher level of physical activity. Behavioral intention and enabling factors from the constructs of BASNEF model were the best predictors for having physical activity in students (OR=1.215, P = 0.000 and (OR=1.119, P= 0.000 respectively.Conclusion: With regard to the fact that majority of the students did not engage in enough physical activity and enabling factors were the most effective predictors for having regular physical activity in them, it seems that providing sports facilities can promote physical activity among the students.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(3:70-76

  1. Innovative physical therapy practice: a qualitative verification of factors that support diffusion of innovation in outpatient physical therapy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabus C

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carla Sabus,1 Ellen Spake2 1Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 2Rockhurst University, Kansas City, MO, USA Background and purpose: New ideas, methods, and technologies spread through cultures through typical patterns described by diffusion of innovation (DOI theory. Professional cultures, including the physical therapy profession, have distinctive features and traditions that determine the adoption of practice innovation. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR proposes a framework of innovation implementation specific to health care services. While the CFIR has been applied to medical and nursing practice, it has not been extended to rehabilitation professions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to verify the CFIR factors in outpatient physical therapy practice.Design: Through a nomination process of area rehabilitation managers and area directors of clinical education, 2 exemplar, outpatient, privately owned physical therapy clinics were identified as innovation practices. A total of 18 physical therapists (PTs, including 3 owners and a manager, participated in the study.Methods: The 2 clinics served as case studies within a qualitative approach of directed content analysis. Data were collected through observation, spontaneous, unstructured questioning, ­workflow analysis, structured focus group sessions, and artifact analysis including clinical documents. Focus group data were transcribed. All the data were analyzed and coded among 4 investigators.Results: Through data analysis and alignment with literature in DOI theory in health care practice, the factors that determine innovation adoption were verified. The phenomena of implementation in PT practice are largely consistent with models of implementation in health care service. Within the outpatient practices studied, patient-centered care and collaborative learning were foundational

  2. Demographic, physical, and radiographic factors associated with functional flatfoot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Kitterman, Ryan T; LaFontaine, Javier; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    In 1 of our previous studies, the occurrence of self-reported flatfoot was associated with self-reported increased age, male gender, Asian and African American races, veteran status, poor health, increased body mass index, callus, bunion, hammertoe, and arthritis. However, we had to rely on survey data to identify these risk factors, and the accuracy of the survey results was unknown. Therefore, we decided to identify the risk factors associated with flatfeet using objectively and more accurately measured data. A total of 94 patients were enrolled in the present study. The demographic data and physical and radiographic examination results were recorded by the investigators in the clinic. The data were then analyzed to identify the factors unique to flatfoot, measured and defined using a plantar pressure measurement system during natural gait. We learned that a painful tibialis posterior tendon was associated with flatfoot. The calcaneal inclination angle was also decreased in the flatfoot group. The talar declination, intermetatarsal, hallux abductus, and calcaneal cuboid angles, and static calcaneal stance eversion were elevated in the flatfoot group compared with the non-flatfoot group. Systematic evaluation of these associated factors will help in the understanding of the functional status of the flatfoot deformity.

  3. Sexual and physical violence victimization among senior high school students in Ghana: Risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene, Sally-Ann; Johnson, Kiana; Atunah-Jay, Sarah; Owusu, Andrew; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2015-12-01

    Violence in all forms poses a concern because of associations with multiple adverse effects including injuries and mental health problems. There is however limited data on violence in general and youth violence in particular in Ghana. To explore the nature and scope of youth violence in Ghana, we used the nationwide Global School-based Health Survey, conducted among senior high school students in Ghana, to explore risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and environmental levels associated with sexual and physical violence victimization. A fifth of these students reported being forced to have sex in their lifetime while two out of five had been a victim of a physical attack in the year preceding the survey. In final multivariate analysis, for sexual violence victimization, history of sexual activity with or without condom use at last sex, feeling sad or hopeless, and being a victim of bullying and electronic bullying were identified as risk factors, while having friends who were not sexually active was protective. Independent risk factors for physical violence victimization were attempting suicide in the last year, alcohol use in the past month, and bullying other students in the past month. Parent respect for privacy just reached significance as a protective factor for physical violence victimization in the final model. Recognition of the magnitude of violence victimization among Ghanaian students and associated factors must be used to guide development and implementation of appropriate concrete measures to prevent and address the problem.

  4. Gauge theory extension to include number scaling by boson field: Effects on some aspects of physics and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Benioff, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In gauge theories, separate vector spaces, Vx, are assigned to each space time point x with unitary operators as maps between basis vectors in neighboring Vx. Here gauge theories are extended by replacing the single underlying set of complex scalars, C, with separate sets, Cx, at each x, and including scaling between the Cx. In gauge theory Lagrangians, number scaling shows as a scalar boson field, B, with small coupling to matter fields. Freedom of number scaling is extended to a model with separate number structures assigned to each point x. Separate collections, Ux, of all mathematical systems based on numbers, are assigned to each x. Mathematics available to an observer, Ox, at x is that in Ux. The B field induces scaling between structures in the different Ux. Effects of B scaling on some aspects of physics and geometry are described. The lack of experimentally observed scaling means that B(z) is essentially constant for all points, z, in a region, Z, that can be occupied by us as observers. This restric...

  5. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS, including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points (p < 0.001. When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45–60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  6. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  7. Physical and environmental factors contributing to music related injuries among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Natalie C; Jacobs, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study asserts that a combination of environmental and physical factors influence the child pianist's risk for developing a music related injury. 26 participants (10 piano students, 10 parents, and 6 piano teachers) were included in this study. Piano students were ages 5 to 11 and currently enrolled in piano lessons. Three questionnaires addressed the factors affecting the participant groups (children, parents, and piano teachers). Participants completed one questionnaire about the factors contributing to the development of music related injuries in child pianists. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. None of the student participants had pain, discomfort, or a history of music related injuries. The majority of parents and teachers reported that the lighting was the most important environmental factor affecting students' playing in the piano lesson. 70% of parents reported that the presence of family members most greatly affected students' practicing at home. 100% of the teachers and parents reported that the most important physical factors contributing to students' injury-free playing were playing with proper technique and learning effective practice strategies. All parents and students who were taking piano lessons in their homes reported the most satisfaction with their piano lesson environment. The results of this study do not support a relationship between environmental or physical factors and the presence of pain, discomfort, or music related injuries in students.

  8. Physical exercise and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in elderly: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; de Melo Coelho, Flávia Gomes; Arantes, Franciel José; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies that verified the effects of physical exercise on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in elderly. The bibliographic search was conducted in five database, from 1990 to 2013, with the following keywords and boolean operators: physical exercise OR physical exercise OR physical therapy OR exercise OR training AND VEGF OR vascular endothelial growth factor AND aged OR older OR elderly. The inclusion criteria were: (1) sample including elderly with average age of 60; (2) studies that verified the effects of acute exercise; (3) studies that verified the effects of chronic physical exercise; (4) studies with humans; (5) randomized controlled trials, randomized non-controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, non-randomized and non-controlled trials; (6) assessment of VEGF peripheral concentrations. Ten studies were selected, and that four of them verified an increase of VEGF concentrations after practicing physical exercise and six studies did not verify any change on VEGF concentrations. Different populations found in this study and the different exercise protocols applied in the studies of this review make it difficult to establish parameters of what would be the best type of exercise to promote an increase on the concentrations of VEGF in the elderly. Therefore, we suggest that further studies can be performed, so that we can establish some recommendations for this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of physical activity on cumulative cardiovascular disease risk factors among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Thangiah, Govindamal; Yusoff, Khalid; Manikam, Rishya; Chandrasekaran, Sankara Kumar; Mustafa, Rujhan; Bakar, Najmin Binti Abu

    2015-12-16

    Numerous studies have shown the importance of physical activity in reducing the morbidity and mortality rates caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, most of these studies emphasise little on the cumulative effect of CVD risk factors. Hence, this study investigates the association between physical exercise and cumulative CVD risk factors among adults in three different age groups. Using a sample of 7276 respondents drawn from community centers, the REDISCOVER team gathered information on physical activity, CVD risk factors (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, tobacco use) and socioeconomic and demographic variables in Malaysia. Because the study required medical examination, a convenience sampling frame was preferred in which all volunteers were included in the study. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric (height, weight and more) measurements were collected by trained staffs. Socio-demographic and physical activity variables were recorded through questionnaires. A Chi-square test was performed to identify the bivariate association between the covariates (socioeconomic variables, demographic variables and physical activity) and outcome variable. The association between the main exposure, physical activity, and the outcome variable, cumulative CVD risk factors, was assessed using an ordinal logistic regression model, controlling for socioeconomic status and demographic influences in three different age groups, 35-49, 50-64 and 65 and above. The mean age of participants is 51.8 (SD = 9.4). Respondents in the age groups of 35-49 (aORmoderate = 0.12; 95 % CI: 0.02 - 0.53 ) and 65 and above (aORhigh = 0.58; 95 % CI: 0.24, 0.78) showed a statistically significant inverse relationship between physical activity and cumulative CVD risk factors. However, this relationship was not significant among respondents in the 50-64 age group suggesting the possible influence of other variables, such as stress and environment. The

  10. Physical and psychological factors predict outcome following whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Michele; Jull, Gwendolen; Vicenzino, Bill; Kenardy, Justin; Darnell, Ross

    2005-03-01

    Predictors of outcome following whiplash injury are limited to socio-demographic and symptomatic factors, which are not readily amenable to secondary and tertiary intervention. This prospective study investigated the predictive capacity of early measures of physical and psychological impairment on pain and disability 6 months following whiplash injury. Motor function (ROM; kinaesthetic sense; activity of the superficial neck flexors (EMG) during cranio-cervical flexion), quantitative sensory testing (pressure, thermal pain thresholds, brachial plexus provocation test), sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses and psychological distress (GHQ-28, TSK, IES) were measured in 76 acute whiplash participants. The outcome measure was Neck Disability Index scores at 6 months. Stepwise regression analysis was used to predict the final NDI score. Logistic regression analyses predicted membership to one of the three groups based on final NDI scores (pain and disability, >30 moderate/severe pain and disability). Higher initial NDI score (1.007-1.12), older age (1.03-1.23), cold hyperalgesia (1.05-1.58), and acute post-traumatic stress (1.03-1.2) predicted membership to the moderate/severe group. Additional variables associated with higher NDI scores at 6 months on stepwise regression analysis were: ROM loss and diminished sympathetic reactivity. Higher initial NDI score (1.03-1.28), greater psychological distress (GHQ-28) (1.04-1.28) and decreased ROM (1.03-1.25) predicted subjects with persistent milder symptoms from those who fully recovered. These results demonstrate that both physical and psychological factors play a role in recovery or non-recovery from whiplash injury. This may assist in the development of more relevant treatment methods for acute whiplash.

  11. Physical measurements including temperature profiles of coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006 (NODC Accession 0019214)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical measurements of Coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, Technical Report NPS-OC-07-002. This...

  12. Factors associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls and women in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Deborah A; Pan, Yi; Otieno, Fred; Hayes, Tameka; Omoro, Tereza; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Odongo, Fred; Otieno, George O

    2017-12-01

    Intimate partner physical violence increases women's risk for negative health outcomes and is an important public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to determine 1) the proportion of girls (≤18 years) and women (>18 years) who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner, and 2) factors (including self-reported HIV infection) associated with girls and women who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner. Cross-sectional surveys conducted in the Gem Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in Siaya County, western Kenya in 2011-2012 (Round 1) and 2013-2014 (Round 2). Among 8003 unique participants (582 girls and 7421 women), 11.6% reported physical violence by a sexual partner in the last 12 months (girls: 8.4%, women: 11.8%). Three factors were associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls: being married or cohabiting (nearly 5-fold higher risk), low education, and reporting forced sex in the last 12 months (both with an approximate 2-fold higher risk). Predictive factors were similar for women, with the addition of partner alcohol/drug use and deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Self-reported HIV status was not associated with recent physical violence by a sexual partner among girls or women. Gender-based physical violence is prevalent in this rural setting and has a strong relationship with marital status, low education level, and forced sex among girls and women. Concerted efforts to prevent child marriage and retain girls in school as well as implementation of school and community-based anti-violence programs may help mitigate this risk.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical activity among university students in Somaliland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mahdi; Yusuf, Hassan Ismail; Stahmer, Jens; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle I

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is a well-known risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases and counts as fourth leading cause of death worldwide. The study aimed to elucidate to what extent cardiovascular risk factors exist in university students in Somaliland. In a cross-sectional survey, self-administered questionnaires were used to elucidate existence of cardiovascular risk factors in 173 university students (117 male, 56 female) in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Information elucidated included socio-economic and demographic data in addition to questions on coffee intake, on physical activity behavior, type of sport/activity and intensity and duration. Height and weight were taken, as was blood pressure (BP). Median age was 23 years in male and 20 years in female students. Mean BMI was 19.7 in male and 21.8 in female students. The prevalence rates of elevated BP and overweight (BMI ≥ 25) in female and male students were, 0 versus 9 and 14 versus 7 %, respectively. Coffee consumption was reported by 39 % of students. None of the female students reported smoking cigarettes, while 5.1 % of the male students did. Physical inactivity was reported by 52 % of the female students and 27 % of the male students (p = 0.01). Overall, male students reported a higher degree and intensity of physical activity. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is low in female and male university students in Somaliland. However, the results demonstrate a high degree of physical inactivity and overweight might become a problem in the future. This issue should be addressed by increasing the motivation and opportunities for physical activity in students.

  14. Physics-based features for identifying contextual factors affecting landmine detection with ground-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2011-06-01

    It has been established throughout the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) literature that environmental factors can severely impact the performance of GPR sensors in landmine detection applications. Over the years, electromagnetic inversion techniques have been proposed for determining these factors with the goal of mitigating performance losses. However, these techniques are often computationally expensive and require models and responses from canonical targets, and therefore may not be appropriate for real-time route-clearance applications. An alternative technique for mitigating performance changes due to environmental factors is context-dependent classification, in which decision rules are adjusted based on contextual shifts identified from the GPR data. However, analysis of the performance of context-dependent learning has been limited to qualitative comparisons of contextually-similar GPR signatures and quantitative improvement to the ROC curve, while the actual information extracted regarding soils has not been investigated thoroughly. In this work, physics-based features of GPR data used in previous context-dependent approaches were extracted from simulated GPR data generated through Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) modeling. Statistical techniques where then used to predict several potential contextual factors, including soil dielectric constant, surface roughness, amount of subsurface clutter, and the existence of subsurface layering, based on the features. Results suggest that physics-based features of the GPR background may contain informatin regarding physical properties of the environment, and contextdependent classification based on these features can exploit information regarding these potentially-important environmental factors.

  15. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included…

  16. Low physical activity work-related and other risk factors increased the risk of poor physical fitness in cement workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditha Diana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim Low physical activity causes poor physical fitness, which leads to low productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low work-related physical activity and other risk factors on physical fitness.Methods This study was done in February 2008. Subjects were workers from 15 departments in PT Semen Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia. Data on physical activities were collected using the questionnaire from the Student Field Work I Guidebook and Hypertension – Geriatric Integrated Program of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia2003. Physical fitness was measured using the Harvard Step Test.Results A number of 937 male workers aged 18 – 56 years participated in this study. Poor physical fitness was found in 15.9% of the subjects. Low work-related physical activity, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and asthma were dominant risk factors related to poor physical fi tness. Subjects with low compared to high work-related activity had a ten-fold risk of poor physical fitness [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 10.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.71–24.33]. In term of physical exercise, subjects who had no compared to those who had physical exercise had a six-fold risk of poor physical fitness (ORa = 6.30; 95%CI = 3.69-10.75.Conclusion Low work-related physical activities, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and sthma were correlated to poor physical fi tness. It is, among others, therefore necessary to implement exercises for workers with poor physical fitness. (Med J Indones. 2009;18:201-5Key words: exercise test, occupational healths, physical fitness

  17. Estimating Escherichia coli loads in streams based on various physical, chemical, and biological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P; Lesikar, Bruce J

    2013-05-01

    Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various models to predict E. coli loads in streams, but they tend to be system or site specific or overly complex without enhancing our understanding of these factors. Hence, based on available data, a Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) is presented for estimating E. coli loads based on physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams. The BNN has the dual advantage of overcoming the absence of quality data (with regards to consistency in data) and determination of mechanistic model parameters by employing a probabilistic framework. This study evaluates whether the BNN model can be an effective alternative tool to mechanistic models for E. coli loads estimation in streams. For this purpose, a comparison with a traditional model (LOADEST, USGS) is conducted. The models are compared for estimated E. coli loads based on available water quality data in Plum Creek, Texas. All the model efficiency measures suggest that overall E. coli loads estimations by the BNN model are better than the E. coli loads estimations by the LOADEST model on all the three occasions (three-fold cross validation). Thirteen factors were used for estimating E. coli loads with the exhaustive feature selection technique, which indicated that six of thirteen factors are important for estimating E. coli loads. Physical factors included temperature and dissolved oxygen; chemical factors include phosphate and ammonia; biological factors include suspended solids and chlorophyll. The results highlight that the LOADEST model

  18. Finite and infinite system gamma ray buildup factor calculations with detailed physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atak, Haluk; Çelikten, Osman Şahin; Tombakoğlu, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Examination of physical interactions of photons in materials is a significant subject for buildup factor studies. In most of the buildup calculations, by default, coherent (Rayleigh) scattering is ignored and the Compton scattering is modeled by free-electron Klein-Nishina formula with "simple physics" treatment. In this work, photon buildup factors are calculated for many different cases including "detailed physics" by taking into account coherent and bound-electron Compton scatterings with the Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, and the results are compared with the literature values. They are computed for point isotropic photon sources up to depths of 20 mean free paths and at the three photon energies most widely used (0.06, 0.6 and 6MeV). Calculations are made for both finite and infinite homogeneous ordinary water media. It is concluded that Coherent scattering is very dominant at low energies and for deep penetrations and assumed physical approximation (simple/detailed, finite/infinite) is the critical point for determining shielding material dimensions. After all, it can be stated that all parametric assumptions should be clearly given and indicated in the tabulation of photon buildup factors.

  19. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 35-37: Reflection and Refraction; Electric Fields and Potentials from Continuous Charge Distributions; and Maxwell's Predictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  20. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 21-23: Second Law and Entropy; Coulomb's Law and the Electric Field; and Flux and Gauss' Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  1. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 18-20: Sound; Temperature, Heat, and Thermodynamics: First Law; and Kinetic Theory of Gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  2. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 11-14: Collisions; Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies; Rotational Dynamics; and Fluid Mechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  3. Sitting Ballet: A Pilot Program Designed to Include Children with Physical Disabilities in the Private Studio Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzner, J.

    2015-01-01

    While recovering from a serious illness, the author looked for dance classes that would help in regaining flexibility, balance, and core strength. Finding no local dance classes that could accommodate the deconditioning experienced from almost two years of physical inactivity and disuse due to bedrest, the author wondered if there were other…

  4. Sitting Ballet: A Pilot Program Designed to Include Children with Physical Disabilities in the Private Studio Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzner, J.

    2015-01-01

    While recovering from a serious illness, the author looked for dance classes that would help in regaining flexibility, balance, and core strength. Finding no local dance classes that could accommodate the deconditioning experienced from almost two years of physical inactivity and disuse due to bedrest, the author wondered if there were other…

  5. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending…

  6. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  7. Factors Contributing to Mental and Physical Health Care in a Disaster-Prone Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Howard J; Hansel, Tonya Cross; Osofsky, Joy D; Speier, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Environment as a contextual factor plays an important role in southeastern Louisiana, as this area represents a major economic hub for the United States port, petroleum, and fishing industries. The location also exposes the population to both natural and technological disasters, including Hurricane Katrina and the Gulf oil spill. This study explored associations among hurricane loss, oil spill disruption, and environmental quality of life on mental and physical health on over 1,000 residents (N = 1,225) using structural equation modeling techniques. Results showed that oil spill distress was associated with increased symptoms of mental and physical health; Hurricane Katrina loss; and decreased environmental quality of life. Findings also indicate that mental health symptoms explain the association among oil spill distress and physical health symptoms-specifically, those that overlap with somatic complaints. These findings provide important support of the need for mental health assessment and service availability for disaster recovery.

  8. Differences within: A comparative analysis of women in the physical sciences --- Motivation and background factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine Patricia Traudel

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a critical focus in the United States due to economic concerns and public policy (National Academy of Sciences, 2007; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). Part of this focus has been an emphasis on encouraging and evaluating career choice and persistence factors among underrepresented groups such as females in the physical sciences (Hill et al., 2010; National Academy of Sciences, 2007). The majority of existing STEM research studies compare women to men, yet a paucity of research exists that examines what differentiates female career choice within the physical sciences. In light of these research trends and recommendations, this study examines the following questions: 1. On average, do females who select chemistry or physics doctoral programs differ in their reported personal motivations and background factors prior to entering the field? 2. Do such variables as racial and ethnic background, age, highest level of education completed by guardians/parents, citizenship status, family interest in science, first interest in general science, first interest in the physical sciences, average grades in high school and undergraduate studies in the physical sciences, and experiences in undergraduate physical science courses explain a significant amount of variance in female physical scientists' years to Ph.D. completion? These questions are analyzed using variables from the Project Crossover Survey dataset through a subset of female physical science doctoral students and scientists. Logistic regression analyses are performed to uncover what differentiates women in the physical sciences based on their background, interest, academic achievement, and experiences ranging prior to elementary school through postsecondary education. Significant variables that positively predict a career choice in chemistry or physics include content specific high school and undergraduate academic achievement and positive

  9. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  10. School factors associated with the provision of physical education and levels of physical activity among elementary school students in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Daniel I; Leatherdale, Scott T; Gotay, Carolyn; Mâsse, Louise C

    2015-04-30

    To explore school and student characteristics associated with the number of physical education (PE) classes that elementary students received and to determine whether these characteristics and amount of PE were associated with the physical activity (PA) levels of elementary students. Multi-level modeling with school-level (n = 30) and student-level (n = 2,447) questionnaire data from the PLAY-ON study was used to explore the school factors associated with the number of PE classes that students in grades 5 to 8 report receiving, and how these factors were associated with their PA. The Theories of Organizational Change served to operationalize the main school factors measured in this study and included assessments of: organizational climate (school practices related to PE or PA), organizational capacity (school ability to provide students with more PE or PA), and school PA/PE policies. The number of PE classes reported per week was higher in schools that had two PA facilities in addition to a gymnasium (β = 1.13, p = 0.048) and in schools with greater levels of parental involvement in school-based PA decisions and programs (β = 2.06, p = 0.001). However, students in schools that provided more intramural programs reported fewer PE classes than those without (β = -1.97, p < 0.001). The number of PE classes provided in the previous week was associated with greater odds of students being highly active compared to minimally active (OR = 1.14, p = 0.003). Organizational and structural factors within the school environment are related to the amount of PE that students receive at school. Strategies are required to resolve the resulting inequities.

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  12. Study protocol: rehabilitation including social and physical activity and education in children and teenagers with cancer (RESPECT)

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Halse, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis

    2013-01-01

    Background During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years n...

  13. Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Results: Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. PMID:25479851

  14. [Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-09-01

    To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  16. The Butterfly Effect: Correlations Between Modeling in Nuclear-Particle Physics and Socioeconomic Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, Maria Grazia; Bell, Zane W.; Dressendorfer, Paul V.

    2010-01-01

    A scientometric analysis has been performed on selected physics journals to estimate the presence of simulation and modeling in physics literature in the past fifty years. Correlations between the observed trends and several social and economical factors have been evaluated.

  17. Factors that influence physicians' and medical students' confidence in counseling patients about physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Durkin, Martin W; Stallworth, James Rast; Powell, Caroline Keller; Poston, Mary Beth; Blair, Steven N

    2014-06-01

    Less than half of US adults and two-thirds of US high school students do not meet current US guidelines for physical activity. We examined which factors promoted physicians' and medical students' confidence in counseling patients about physical activity. We established an online exercise survey targeting attending physicians, resident and fellow physicians, and medical students to determine their current level of physical activity and confidence in counseling patients about physical activity. We compared their personal level of physical activity with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines of the US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). We administered a survey in 2009 and 2010 that used the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A total of 1,949 individuals responded to the survey, of whom 1,751 (i.e., 566 attending physicians, 138 fellow physicians, 806 resident physicians, and 215 medical students) were included in this analysis. After adjusting for their BMI, the odds that physicians and medical students who met USDHHS guidelines for vigorous activity would express confidence in their ability to provide exercise counseling were more than twice that of physicians who did not meet these guidelines. Individuals who were overweight were less likely to be confident than those with normal BMI, after adjusting for whether they met the vigorous exercise guidelines. Physicians with obesity were even less likely to express confidence in regards to exercise counseling. We conclude that physicians and medical students who had a normal BMI and met vigorous USDHHS guidelines were more likely to feel confident about counseling their patients about physical activity. Our findings suggest that graduate medical school education should focus on health promotion in their students, as this will likely lead to improved health behaviors in their students' patient populations.

  18. Swimming as important factor of development of physical abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadin V.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current state of health and physical fitness of young people, the complex of issues regarding the development of sports and mass swimming in Ukraine, in particular regarding training the ability to swim of the population and its conscripts have been analyzed. The role and place of swimming in the system of physical education of students and the compliance with the foundations of healthy lifestyle have been defined. The methodical peculiarities of swimming lessons with the students of higher educational institutions and their influence on physical abilities and capacities of human body are being studied. The results of studies for determination of the dynamics of physical abilities and physical fitness of students aged 18 and 19 years necessary for effective actions in terms of the average high school, taking into account means of physical training in swimming, have been presented.

  19. Metabolic risk factors, physical activity and physical fitness in azorean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares-Miranda Luísa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased over the last few decades in adolescents and has become an important health challenge worldwide. This study analyzed the relationships between metabolic risk factors (MRF and physical activity (PA and physical fitness (PF in a sample of Azorean adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 417 adolescents (243 girls aged 15-18 from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. Height, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure were measured. A sum of MRF was computed, and adolescents were classified into three groups: no MRF, one MRF and two or more MRF. PA was assessed by a sealed pedometer. PF was assessed using five tests from the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Dietary intake was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Mean daily steps for girls and boys were 7427 ± 2725 and 7916 ± 3936, respectively. Fifty-nine percent of the adolescents showed at least one MRF and 57.6% were under the healthy zone in the 20 m Shuttle Run Test. Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for sex, body mass index, socio-economic status and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, adolescents who were in the highest quartile of the pedometer step/counts (≥9423 steps/day and those who achieved the healthy zone in five tests were less likely to have one or more MRF (OR = 0.56;95%CI:0.33-0.95; OR = 0.55;95%CI:0.31-0.98, respectively. Conclusions Daily step counts and PF levels were negatively associated with having one or more MRF among Azorean adolescents. Our findings emphasize the importance of promoting and increasing regular PA and PF to reduce the public health burden of chronic diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  20. Prof C. N. Yang (Physics Nobel Prize 1957) from Tsinghua University (Beijing) during his CERN Colloquium: "Thematic Melodies of Twentieth Century Theoretical Physics: Quantization, Symmetry and Phase Factor".

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Prof C. N. Yang (Physics Nobel Prize 1957) from Tsinghua University (Beijing) during his CERN Colloquium: "Thematic Melodies of Twentieth Century Theoretical Physics: Quantization, Symmetry and Phase Factor".

  1. [Encircling needling combined with physical factor therapy for severe pressure sore].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chengjie; Su, Bin; Gong, Lili; Wang, Wenying; Zhang, Xiuhua

    2015-11-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy difference between encircling needling combined with physical factor therapy and simple physical factor therapy for severe pressure sore, and to explore the optimal method for severe pressure sores. Thirty-four patients with IV-grade pressure sore were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 17 cases in each one. Patients in the control group were treated with conventional nursing, ultrasonic wave and short-wave ultraviolet therapy; additionally, the encircling needling was applied in the observation group. All the treatment was given once a day, 5 times a week, and 4-week treatment constituted one session. Totally, two sessions of treatment were performed. Three indices, including the area of pressure sore, 24-h volume of exudates and wound-bed tissue type, were compared between the two groups before and after treatment; the clinical efficacy was evaluated in the two groups. After treatment of one session and two sessions, the area of pressure sore, 24-h volume of exudates and wound-bed tissue type were significantly reduced in the two groups (P pressure sore area and 24-h volume of exudates and improve wound-bed tissue type, which is superior to simple physical factor therapy.

  2. Physical activity, and physical activity related to sports, leisure and occupational activity as risk factors for ALS: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacorte, Eleonora; Ferrigno, Luigina; Leoncini, Emanuele; Corbo, Massimo; Boccia, Stefania; Vanacore, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is considered a multifactorial, multisystem neurodegenerative disease due to an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. This systematic review aims at gathering all available evidence on the association between physical activity (PA) and the risk of ALS. Relevant literature published up to January 2015 was gathered through structured searches on Medline, The Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Science databases. Studies considering any type of PA as the main exposure and a diagnosis of ALS or motor neuron disease were selected. Data were extracted in standardized forms, and the quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Bibliographic searches yielded 3168 records. Nineteen case control studies and 7 cohort studies met the inclusion criteria, and were included in the analysis. Evidence on cumulative measures of PA as a risk factor for ALS remain inconclusive. However, cohort studies report a significantly higher number of cases of ALS in professional soccer and American football players, and a slightly increased risk of ALS in varsity athletes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ability to show shame can include children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    ) the children have to participate in physical activities at least 45 minutes each school day. Autism and ADHD are disabling conditions that affects social communication and interaction, and often also their motor skills and cognition (Harvey & Reid, 2003; Verret, 2010). Therefore these children can be challenge...... children and the principals at the schools, focus group interviews with the PE teachers and modified Social Network method on the school classes. The empirical framework will be analyzed through process-sociologist Norbert Elias theory of Civilizing (1994) and The Establish and Outsiders (Elias & Scotson......, 1994) and micro-sociologist Erving Goffmans theory about Stigma (2014) and Dramaturgies (2014). The research is at the moment in process and the presentation will only show initial analyses.Some of the children participate and enjoy PE, but the majority of the children often get a feeling of being...

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Physical, Verbal and Relational Aggression among Iranian Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipasha Meysamie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression Methods:In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. Results:According to parents’rating, the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4% , 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6% and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%, respectively; while based on teachers’ rating the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%, 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% - 6.0% and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%, respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p<0.05.Conclusion:This study revealed that children’s family environment alongside internal factors plays an important role as an external factor in determining the child’s potential aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  6. The Importance of Psychological and Social Factors in Influencing the Uptake and Maintenance of Physical Activity after Stroke: A Structured Review of the Empirical Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Morris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. People with stroke are not maintaining adequate engagement in physical activity (PA for health and functional benefit. This paper sought to describe any psychological and social factors that may influence physical activity engagement after stroke. Methods. A structured literature review of studies indexed in MEDLINE, CinAHL, P&BSC, and PsycINFO using search terms relevant to stroke, physical disabilities, and PA. Publications reporting empirical findings (quantitative or qualitative regarding psychological and/or social factors were included. Results. Twenty studies from 19 publications (9 surveys, 1 RCT, and 10 qualitative studies were included. Seventeen studies reported findings pertinent to psychological factors and fourteen findings pertinent to social factors. Conclusion. Self-efficacy, physical activity beliefs, and social support appear particularly relevant to physical activity behaviour after stroke and should be included in theoretically based physical interventions. The Transtheoretical Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour are candidate behavioural models that may support intervention development.

  7. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists – Demographic and organizational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Pustułka-Piwnik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Results: Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physical therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. Conclusions: The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention. Med Pr 2014;65(4:453–462

  8. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied

  9. The Oregon Oceanbook. An Introduction to the Pacific Ocean off Oregon Including Its Physical Setting and Living Marine Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmenter, Tish; Bailey, Robert

    Developed to integrate fundamental oceanographic concepts with basic research, this book presents information about the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Oregon. Characterizations and descriptions of the marine environment from the coastline to approximately 200 miles offshore are provided for the interested public. Chapter topics include: (1) marine…

  10. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (pfasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further high quality trials are needed to confirm this evidence, especially beyond weight loss. PMID:25830342

  11. Physics teachers' perspectives on factors that affect urban physics participation and accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2013-06-01

    The accessibility of secondary physics in U.S. urban school districts is a complex issue. Many schools do not offer a physics option, and for those that do, access is often restricted by various school policies and priorities that do not promote physics participation for all. To analyze this problem in greater depth, I adopted a qualitative phenomenological methodology to explore urban physics teachers’ views on school- and district-based conditions that may marginalize traditionally underrepresented students. Teachers from three large urban districts shared concerns and suggestions regarding administrative commitment, student preparedness for physics, reform initiatives and testing mandates, promoting physics enrollments, and implementing high quality instruction. Data from interviews and focus groups provided contextual insights into ways in which physics study may be improved and encouraged for urban youth. Teachers believed expanding access could be facilitated with differentiated levels of physics, incorporating mathematical applications with multiple representations, educating students and counselors on the ramifications of choosing or not choosing elective sciences, well-designed grant-funded initiatives, and flexibility with prerequisites and science course sequencing. Teachers experienced frustration with standardized testing, lack of curricular autonomy, shifting administrative directives, and top-down reforms that did not incorporate their feedback in the decision-making processes. Data from this study revealed that physics teacher networks, often housed at local universities, have been a key resource for establishing supportive professional communities to share best practices that may influence school-based reforms that promote physics participation in urban schools.

  12. Social Factors in Relation to Physical Abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd Sham; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This report details demographic factors associated with 119 cases of physical child abuse occurring in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Findings address severity of abuse, age factors, perpetrator characteristics, family social class, family problems, psychological disorders, and substance abuse. (DB)

  13. Student learning of upper-level thermal and statistical physics: The derivation and use of the Boltzmann factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John

    2015-04-01

    As the Physical Review Focused Collection demonstrates, recent frontiers in physics education research include systematic investigations at the upper division. As part of a collaborative project, we have examined student understanding of several topics in upper-division thermal and statistical physics. A fruitful context for research is the Boltzmann factor in statistical mechanics: the standard derivation involves several physically justified mathematical steps as well as the invocation of a Taylor series expansion. We have investigated student understanding of the physical significance of the Boltzmann factor as well as its utility in various circumstances, and identified various lines of student reasoning related to the use of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data as well as teaching interviews suggest that many students do not use the Boltzmann factor when answering questions related to probability in applicable physical situations, even after lecture instruction. We designed an inquiry-based tutorial activity to guide students through a derivation of the Boltzmann factor and to encourage deep connections between the physical quantities involved and the mathematics. Observations of students working through the tutorial suggest that many students at this level can recognize and interpret Taylor series expansions, but they often lack fluency in creating and using Taylor series appropriately, despite previous exposure in both calculus and physics courses. Our findings also suggest that tutorial participation not only increases the prevalence of relevant invocation of the Boltzmann factor, but also helps students gain an appreciation of the physical implications and meaning of the mathematical formalism behind the formula. Supported in part by NSF Grants DUE-0817282, DUE-0837214, and DUE-1323426.

  14. Evaluation of potentially modifiable physical factors as predictors of health status in knee osteoarthritis patients referred for physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui Soles; Pinheiro, João Páscoa; Cabri, Jan

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this cross sectional study was to estimate the contributions of potentially modifiable physical factors to variations in perceived health status in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients referred for physical therapy. Health status was measured by three questionnaires: Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS); Knee Outcome Survey - Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS); and Medical Outcomes Study - 36 item Short Form (SF-36). Physical factors were measured by a battery of tests: body mass index (BMI); visual analog scale (VAS) of pain intensity; isometric dynamometry; universal goniometry; step test (ST); timed "up and go" test (TUGT); 20-meter walk test (20MWT); and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). All tests were administered to 136 subjects with symptomatic knee OA (94 females, 42 males; age: 67.2 ± 7.1 years). Multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that knee muscle strength, VAS of pain intensity, 6MWT, degree of knee flexion and BMI were moderate predictors of health status. In the final models, selected combinations of these potentially modifiable physical factors explained 22% to 37% of the variance in KOOS subscale scores, 40% of the variance in the KOS-ADLS scale score, and 21% to 34% of the variance in physical health SF-36 subscale scores. More research is required in order to evaluate whether therapeutic interventions targeting these potentially modifiable physical factors would improve health status in knee OA patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Factors That Affects the Capital Structure within Companies Included In the Index of LQ45 During 2011 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominica Rufina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors of ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size affecting Capital Structure. The population in this study is the companies included in the Index LQ45 Indonesia Stock Exchange from the period 2011 to 2013, the data of a total of 270 listed companies in LQ45 during that period, only 90 corporate data that successively included in the index LQ45. The data used in this study uses secondary data from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website www.idx.co.id. In the process of data analysis and testing the assumptions of classical hypothesis testing using multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS v20.00. The results showed that partially variable ROA, Asset Structure, and Firm Size has a significant influence on the Capital Structure, Growth Sales whereas variable has no influence on the Capital Structure. Simultaneously ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size effect on Capital Structure.

  16. K semileptonic form factor with HISQ fermions at the physical point

    CERN Document Server

    Gámiz, E; Bernard, C; Bouchard, C; DeTar, C; Du, D; El-Khadra, A X; Foley, J; Freeland, E D; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Kim, J; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Mackenzie, P B; Neil, E T; Oktay, M B; Qiu, Si-Wei; Simone, J N; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, Ran

    2013-01-01

    We present results for the form factor $f_+^{K \\pi}(0)$, needed to extract the CKM matrix element $|V_{us}|$ from experimental data on semileptonic $K$ decays, on the HISQ $N_f=2+1+1$ MILC configurations. The HISQ action is also used for the valence sector. The data set used for our final result includes three different values of the lattice spacing and data at the physical light quark masses. We discuss the error budget and how this calculation improves on our previous determination of $f_+^{K \\pi}(0)$ on the asqtad $N_f=2+1$ MILC configurations.

  17. Impact of body mass index, physical activity, and other clinical factors on cardiorespiratory fitness (from the Cooper Center longitudinal study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoski, Susan G; Barlow, Carolyn E; Farrell, Stephen W; Berry, Jarett D; Morrow, James R; Haskell, William L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is widely accepted as an important reversible cardiovascular risk factor. In the present study, we examined the nonmodifiable and modifiable determinants of CRF within a large healthy Caucasian population of men and women. The study included 20,239 patients presenting to Cooper Clinic (Dallas, Texas) for a comprehensive medical examination from 2000 through 2010. CRF was determined by maximal treadmill exercise testing. Physical activity categories were 0 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs)/min/week (no self-reported moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity), 1 to 449 METs/min/week (not meeting physical activity guideline), 450 to 749 METs/min/week (meeting guideline), and ≥750 METs/min/week (exceeding guideline). Linear regression modeling was used to determine the most robust clinical factors associated with achieved treadmill time. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity were the most important factors associated with CRF, explaining 56% of the variance (R(2) = 0.56). The addition of all other factors combined (current smoking, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, health status) were associated with CRF (p physical activity on CRF, such that normal-weight (BMI physical activity compared to obese subjects (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Percent body fat, not lean body mass, was the key factor driving this interaction. In conclusion, BMI was the most important clinical risk factor associated with CRF other than nonmodifiable risk factors age and gender. For a similar amount of physical activity, normal-weight subjects achieved a higher CRF level compared to obese subjects. These data suggest that obesity may offset the benefits of physical activity on achieved CRF, even in a healthy population of men and women.

  18. Coupled physical/biogeochemical modeling including O2-dependent processes in the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems: application in the Benguela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gutknecht

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS contribute to one fifth of the global catches in the ocean. Often associated with Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs, EBUS represent key regions for the oceanic nitrogen (N cycle. Important bioavailable N loss due to denitrification and anammox processes as well as greenhouse gas emissions (e.g, N2O occur also in these EBUS. However, their dynamics are currently crudely represented in global models. In the climate change context, improving our capability to properly represent these areas is crucial due to anticipated changes in the winds, productivity, and oxygen content. We developed a biogeochemical model (BioEBUS taking into account the main processes linked with EBUS and associated OMZs. We implemented this model in a 3-D realistic coupled physical/biogeochemical configuration in the Namibian upwelling system (northern Benguela using the high-resolution hydrodynamic ROMS model. We present here a validation using in situ and satellite data as well as diagnostic metrics and sensitivity analyses of key parameters and N2O parameterizations. The impact of parameter values on the OMZ off Namibia, on N loss, and on N2O concentrations and emissions is detailed. The model realistically reproduces the vertical distribution and seasonal cycle of observed oxygen, nitrate, and chlorophyll a concentrations, and the rates of microbial processes (e.g, NH4+ and NO2− oxidation, NO3− reduction, and anammox as well. Based on our sensitivity analyses, biogeochemical parameter values associated with organic matter decomposition, vertical sinking, and nitrification play a key role for the low-oxygen water content, N loss, and N2O concentrations in the OMZ. Moreover, the explicit parameterization of both steps of nitrification, ammonium oxidation to nitrate with nitrite as an explicit intermediate, is necessary to improve the representation of microbial activity linked with the OMZ. The simulated minimum oxygen

  19. Differential DNA methylation regions in cytokine and transcription factor genomic loci associate with childhood physical aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Provençal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal and human studies suggest that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. We have recently shown that physical aggression of boys during childhood is strongly associated with reduced plasma levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, later in early adulthood. This study tests the hypothesis that there is an association between differential DNA methylation regions in cytokine genes in T cells and monocytes DNA in adult subjects and a trajectory of physical aggression from childhood to adolescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the methylation profiles of the entire genomic loci encompassing the IL-1α, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-8 and three of their regulatory transcription factors (TF NFkB1, NFAT5 and STAT6 genes in adult males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory (CPA and males with the same background who followed a normal physical aggression trajectory (control group from childhood to adolescence. We used the method of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation with comprehensive cytokine gene loci and TF loci microarray hybridization, statistical analysis and false discovery rate correction. We found differentially methylated regions to associate with CPA in both the cytokine loci as well as in their transcription factors loci analyzed. Some of these differentially methylated regions were located in known regulatory regions whereas others, to our knowledge, were previously unknown as regulatory areas. However, using the ENCODE database, we were able to identify key regulatory elements in many of these regions that indicate that they might be involved in the regulation of cytokine expression. CONCLUSIONS: We provide here the first evidence for an association between differential DNA methylation in cytokines and their regulators in T cells and monocytes and male physical aggression.

  20. Testing the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model: Fatness and Fitness as Enabling Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Welk, Gregory J.; Joens-Matre, Roxane R.

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence of childhood obesity increases, it is important to examine possible differences in psychosocial correlates of physical activity between normal weight and overweight children. The study examined fatness (weight status) and (aerobic) fitness as Enabling factors related to youth physical activity within the Youth Physical Activity…

  1. Testing the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model: Fatness and Fitness as Enabling Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Welk, Gregory J.; Joens-Matre, Roxane R.

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence of childhood obesity increases, it is important to examine possible differences in psychosocial correlates of physical activity between normal weight and overweight children. The study examined fatness (weight status) and (aerobic) fitness as Enabling factors related to youth physical activity within the Youth Physical Activity…

  2. Association between Social and Environmental Factors and Physical Activity Opportunities in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Furong; Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir; Liu, Wenhao; Schmidlein, Robert

    2010-01-01

    School-based physical activity (PA) interventions impact children's PA involvement and thus opportunities and associated factors for the promotion of physical activity in children need to be examined. The purpose of this study was to examine physical education teachers' perceptions of PA opportunities available to students at the middle school…

  3. Giving children a voice: Exploring qualitative perspectives on factors influencing recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Facilitators and barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. To date, research on recess physical activity has predominantly focused on quantitative measures typically focusing on a narrow set of predefined factors, often constructed by adults. To really understand the factors...... affecting recess physical activity it is crucial to observe and listen to children to know how they engage in and perceive recess physical activity. The aim of this paper was to gain knowledge on children’s perceptions and experiences of factors influencing their physical activity behaviour during recess...... 11–12-year-old children. The socio-ecological model was used as the overall theoretical framework. Twelve factors were identified as influencing the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability; gender; gendered school culture; peer influence; conflicts and exclusion; space...

  4. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Ulf; Luan, Jian'an; Sherar, Lauren B

    2012-01-01

    Sparse data exist on the combined associations between physical activity and sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy children.......Sparse data exist on the combined associations between physical activity and sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy children....

  5. Physical culture and sport as factors of socializations to personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamaeva E.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of publications is resulted on the topic of research. Essence of physical culture and sport is exposed and its place is certain in the system of public relations. The socializing function of sport is considered. Pedagogical facilities of forming personality of sportsman are exposed. A few determinations of concept of socialization are given. The basic institutes of socialization are presented. Influence of physical culture and sport is investigational on the process of socialization of personality. It is well-proven that efficiency of socialization in sport depends on the level of coincidence of values of sport and values of society and personality.

  6. Physical intimate partner violence during gestation as a risk factor for low quality of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Claudia Leite; Arana, Flávia Dias Nogueira; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate physical intimate partner violence during gestation as an independent risk factor for low quality of prenatal care. A cross-sectional study was carried out at three public maternity wards of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (Southeastern Brazil). The 528 puerperal women included in the study were selected by simple random sampling from all babies born at term in 2000. Prenatal care information was collected through the pregnant woman's card and face-to-face interviews. The Kotelchuck index was employed to assess the quality of prenatal care. In order to identify violence situations, the Brazilian version of the instrument Revised Conflict Tactics Scales was used. Non-conditional logistic regression was used to assess the effect of exposure, after controlling for confounding variables. Even after adjustment for socioeconomic, demographic, reproductive, and couple's lifestyle variables, physical intimate partner violence during gestation remained associated with low quality of prenatal care. Women exposed to physical violence during gestation had 2.2 times more chance of presenting inadequate prenatal care compared to those without history of physical violence. These findings point to the need of identifying family conflict situations since the beginning of prenatal care in order to address the issue and enable higher adherence to follow-up among victimized pregnant women.

  7. Prevalence of Physical Activity in the United States: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. Ainsworth, PhD, MPH

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The health benefits of regular cardiovascular exercise are well-known. Such exercise, however, has traditionally been defined as vigorous physical activity, such as jogging, swimming, or aerobic dance. Exercise of moderate intensity also promotes health, and many U.S. adults may be experiencing the health benefits of exercise through lifestyle activities of moderate intensity, such as yard work, housework, or walking for transportation. Until recently, public health surveillance systems have not included assessments of this type of physical activity, focusing on exercise of vigorous intensity. We used an enhanced surveillance tool to describe the prevalence and amount of both moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity physical activity among U.S. adults. Methods We analyzed data from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based, random-digit–dialed telephone survey administered to U.S. adults aged 18 years and older (n = 82,834 men and 120,286 women. Physical activity behavior was assessed using questions designed to quantify the frequency of participation in moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activities performed during leisure time or for household chores and transportation. Results Overall, 45% of adults (48% of men and 43% of women were active at recommended levels during nonworking hours (at least 30 minutes five or more days per week in moderate-intensity activities, equivalent to brisk walking, or at least 20 minutes three or more days per week in vigorous activities, equivalent to running, heavy yard work, or aerobic dance. Less than 16% of adults (15% of men and 17% of women reported no moderate or vigorous activity in a usual week. Conclusion Integrating surveillance of lifestyle activities into national systems is possible, and doing so may provide a more accurate representation of the prevalence of recommended levels of physical activity. These results, however, suggest that the majority of U

  8. Intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with meeting recommended physical activity among rural Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brian E; Thompson, Beti

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to identify intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with engaging in recommended levels of physical activity among rural Latino middle school youth. Data were from an anonymous survey of 773 Latino youth (51% female) about level of and barriers and motivators to physical activity, risk behaviors, and park use. Logistic regression models identified factors correlated with meeting recommended levels of physical activity (5 days or more 3 60 min/day). Thirty-four percent of girls and 41% of boys reported meeting this physical activity recommendation. Participation in an organized after school activity (p physical education (PE) classes 5 days a week (p physical activity level. Making PE available 5 days a week and creating opportunities for organized after school physical activity programs may increase the number of rural Latino middle school youth who meet recommended physical activity level.

  9. Physical Activity among Older People and Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ann; While, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the duration, intensity and type of physical activity undertaken by people aged 60 years and over in relation to their reported levels of participation in social activities and their perceptions of their neighbourhood. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of older people attending two luncheon and eight social…

  10. Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Riddoch, Chris; Kriemler, Susi

    2011-01-01

    A number of recent systematic reviews have resulted in changes in international recommendations for children's participation in physical activity (PA) for health. The World Health Authority (WHO) has recently released new recommendations. The WHO still recommends 60 min of moderate to vigorous ph...

  11. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  12. PR[superscript 2]EPS: Preparation, Recruitment, Retention and Excellence in the Physical Sciences, Including Engineering. A Report on the 2004, 2005 and 2006 Science Summer Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Nancy J.; Bischoff, Paul J.; Gallagher, Hugh; Labroo, Sunil; Schaumloffel, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Now in its fourth year, PR[superscript 2]EPS is a National Science Foundation funded initiative designed to recruit high school students to attend college majoring in the physical sciences, including engineering and secondary science education, and to help ensure their retention within the program until graduation. A central feature of the…

  13. Factors Influencing the Decision To Return to Graduate School in One Professional Group, Physical Therapy. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Judith L.

    The factors influencing the decision to return to graduate school in an emerging professional group, physical therapy, are described, and a causal model incorporating the principal constructs of the status attainment and college impact model is proposed. The five variable sets included are background characteristics, college characteristics,…

  14. Relation of physical activity to cardiovascular disease mortality and the influence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddigan, Jacinta I; Ardern, Chris I; Riddell, Michael C; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2011-11-15

    Physical activity can improve several metabolic risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality. We sought to evaluate the extent to which metabolic risk factors mediate the association between physical activity and CVD mortality and whether physical activity provides protective effects against CVD mortality in healthy adults and those with metabolic risk factors. A sample of 10,261 adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with public-access mortality data linkage (follow-up 13.4 ± 3.9 years) was used. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire and classified into inactive, light, and moderate/vigorous activity categories. Metabolic risk factors (dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, inflammation, and insulin resistance) were categorized using clinical thresholds. After adjusting for basic confounders, engaging in light or moderate/vigorous physical activity was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality (p activity remained at lower risk of CVD mortality. In addition, physical activity provided protective effects for CVD mortality in healthy subjects and those with metabolic risk factors in isolation or in clusters. In conclusion, physical activity was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality independent of traditional and inflammatory risk factors. Taken together these results suggest that physical activity may protect against CVD mortality regardless of the presence of metabolic risk factors.

  15. Cosmic X-ray Physics: Sounding rocket investigations of the diffuse X-ray background, including instrument development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Dan

    We propose an investigation to improve our understanding of the Galactic diffuse X-ray background. The ultimate purpose of this is to determine the role of hot phases of the interstellar medium in mediating stellar feedback in star formation, in transport of metals, and in determining the structure and evolution of the Galaxy. It directly addresses SMD's astrophysics goal No. 2, to explore the origin and evolution of the galaxies, stars and planets that make up our universe. This work will involve a flight of an existing payload with small modifications in Woomera, South Australia, to observe the Galactic soft X-ray bulge and attempt to determine its nature and emission mechanisms. This flight should also either confirm or put strict upper limits on the "sterile neutrino" model for the 3.5 keV signal observed near the Galactic Center by XMM-Newton. Our investigation includes the development of thermal detectors with superconducting transition edge thermometers capable of 1-2 eV FWHM energy resolution in the 100-400 eV range with the intent of obtaining a scientifically useful spectrum on a sounding rocket flight of the emission from one million degree gas in this energy range. This will require a total area of 1-2 square centimeters for the detector array. To enable routine testing of such detectors in the lab and for necessary in-flight gain and resolution monitoring, we are trying to develop a pulsed-UV laser calibration source. In collaboration with Goddard Space Flight Center, we are investigating the practicality of waveguide-below-cutoff filters to provide the necessary attenuation of infrared radiation for these detectors while still allowing good x-ray transmission below 150 eV. The detectors, calibration source, filters, optimal high-rate pulse analysis and flight experience with the detector readouts are all relevant to future NASA major missions. The detectors we're working on for a low-energy sounding rocket flight would be an excellent match to what is

  16. A new prognostic model for cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy including pretreatment thrombocytosis and standard pathological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Renninger, Markus; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

    2012-12-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (cohort series) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Preoperative thrombocytosis has been identified as a predictor of poor outcome in various cancer types. However, the prognostic role of platelet count in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy is unknown. The present study demonstrates that preoperative thrombocytosis is an independent risk factor for decreased cancer-specific survival after radical treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We developed a new prognostic scoring model for cancer-specific outcomes after radical cystectomy including platelet count and established pathological risk factors. Consideration of platelet count in the final model increased its predictive accuracy significantly. Thrombocytosis may be a useful parameter to include within established international bladder cancer nomograms. •  To investigate the oncological significance of preoperative thrombocytosis in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, as it has been reported as a marker for aggressive tumour biology in a variety of solid tumours. •  The series comprised 258 patients undergoing radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2010 in whom different clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed. •  Elevated platelet count was defined as >450 × 10(9) /L. •  Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariable analysis a new weighted scoring model was developed to predict cancer-specific outcomes. •  The median follow-up was 30 months (6-116). •  Of the 258 patients, 26 (10.1%) had elevated and 232 (89.9%) had normal platelet count. The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with normal and elevated platelet count was 61.5% and 32.7%, respectively (P thrombocytosis (2.68, 1.26-5.14; P= 0.011). •  The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with a score 0 (low risk), 1-2 (intermediate risk) and 3

  17. Physical fitness of 9 year olds in England: related factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, S; Rona, R J; Chinn, S

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the influence of social factors, passive smoking, and other parental health related factors, as well as anthropometric and other measurements on children's cardiorespiratory fitness. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study. SETTING--The analysis was based on 22 health areas in England. PARTICIPANTS--The subjects were 299 boys and 282 girls aged 8 to 9 years. Parents did not give positive consent for 15% of the eligible sample. A further 25% of the eligible sample ...

  18. Associations of subjective vitality with DNA damage, cardiovascular risk factors and physical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Hansen, A-M;

    2015-01-01

    by comet assay) (P = 0.046) and BMI (P = 0.002), and positively associated with all of the physical performance parameters (all P physical performance parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the load of short telomeres was inversely......AIM: To examine associations of DNA damage, cardiovascular risk factors and physical performance with vitality, in middle-aged men. We also sought to elucidate underlying factors of physical performance by comparing physical performance parameters to DNA damage parameters and cardiovascular risk...... associated with maximum jump force (P = 0.018), with lowered significance after exclusion of either arthritis sufferers (P = 0.035) or smokers (P = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Here, we show that self-reported vitality is associated with DNA breaks, BMI and objective (measured) physical performance in a cohort...

  19. Prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors in physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Costa Moreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To establish the prevalence of coronary risk in physical education students, and compare risk between the genders and the years of course. We evaluated 246 physical education students using RISKO questionnaire to determine eight risk factors: age, heredity, body weight, smoking, physical inactivity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and sex. Students had mean coronary risk score of 16.03 ± 3.52 points, rated "below-average risk." Men had significantly greater risk compared to women. No difference was found between the years of course. The prevalence of risk factors were heritability (58.37%, physical inactivity (32.65%, hypercholesterolemia (32.24%, overweight (27.35%, smoking (3.67% and hypertension (2.45%. The coronary risk of physical education students was rated as below average, being higher among men than women, and no difference in risk between years of course. The most prevalent risk factors were heredity, physical inactivity, overweight and hypercholesterolemia.

  20. A factors influencing applicant selection of entry-level physical therapist education programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Kim Curbow; Weber, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Physical therapist education programs must compete for qualified applicants due to a nationwide reduction in the applicant pool. To develop successful recruitment strategies, faculty members need information on factors influencing applicant selection of a program. The purpose of this study was to analyze factors influencing selection of an entry-level physical therapist education program. Survey subjects were students enrolled in the first professional year of an accredited entry-level physical therapist education program. A survey instrument was developed based on the literature and interviews with physical therapist students and faculty members. Results of pilot studies to determine face and content validity were acceptable. Stratified random cluster sampling was applied to select 66 entry-level physical therapy programs from an available population of 150 of the 199 accredited programs. Forty-nine programs were not included in the population for various reasons. Using a five-point Likert scale, subjects rated the influence of 51 items on their selection of a specific physical therapist education program. The overall return rate was 70.4% (1,250 surveys returned). Data were analyzed by response frequency. Four factors were selected as "very influential" by 50% or more of the subjects: degree offered, accreditation status, perception of educational quality, and program atmosphere. Additional factors selected by 45% or more of respondents as "very influential" were pass rate on licensing examination, marketability of degree, student/faculty ratio, and small class size. Factors rated "not influential" by 50% or more of subjects included ethnic, cultural, and gender issues. Since 1998, the physical therapy profession has experienced changes in entry-level degree requirements, practice requirements, and employment opportunities, resulting in increased competition for qualified applicants to education programs. The information gained in this study may assist faculty in

  1. The influence of demographic, environmental and physical factors on functional independence post stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Mamabolo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The magnitude of disability observed in strokesurvivors is believed to be dependent in part, on the severity of neurological deficits incurred. A s important but less well understood, is thecontribution of demographic, physical and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to establish what demographic, environmentaland physical factors influence functional independence post stroke. Method: Convenience sampling was used in the selection of subjects from four stroke outpatient public health facilities in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools used included descriptive statistics to measure percentages and cross tabulations to measure the level of associations between functional independence and some of the demographic factors. The Barthel Index was computed to establish the degree of functional independence. Finally the influence of factors on functional independence was investigated using bivariate logistic regressions.Results: The results showed that younger patients (18 - 34 yrs may have a higher likelihood of functional independence compared to older patients at the time of discharge from hospital (18 - 34 years: Odds Ratio = 1. Patients without helpers were more likely to be functionally independent than those with a helper (p = 0.03. Involvement in household activities (p = 0.01, participation in community activities (p = 0.02 and bowel and bladder continence (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04 improved the likelihood of functional independence.Conclusion and im plications: Factors that influence functional independence post stroke are: age, bowel and bladder continence, the presence of a caregiver, participation in household and community activities. It is also of value to encourage patients to participate in household and community activities post stroke as well as being less dependent on helpers in an effort to attain functional independence post

  2. Effects of lifestyle interventions that include a physical activity component in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Baillot

    Full Text Available In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals.An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus. Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism, behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes, and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran's chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I².Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%. The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2-7.7; p < 0.01 and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4-2.2; p < 0.01. Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg compared to short-term (7.2 kg and intermediate-term (8.0 kg interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01, without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose.Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further

  3. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  4. Effectiveness of physical exercise to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in youths: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motykova, Eva; Zlatohlavek, Lukáš; Prusikova, Martina; Lanska, Vera; Ceska, Richard; Vasickova, Ludmila; Vrablik, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased inflammation which represents a link to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent marker of inflammation and atherosclerosis risk. To assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic markers of atherosclerosis including Lp-PLA2 we examined a group of Czech non-diabetic obese/overweight children exposed to a lifestyle intervention. Fourty unrelated overweight/obese non-diabetic Czech children (13.7 ± 2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 29.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2) underwent 4 weeks of lifestyle modification (reduction of energy intake to age matched optimum and supervised physical activity). Anthropometrical and biochemical variables were determined at baseline and after the intervention. Lp-PLA2 mass concentration was assessed using the ELISA kit. Wilcocson's rank test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A significant decrease of BMI and waist circumference was associated with significant changes of plasma lipoprotein and glycaemia levels. Mass concentration of Lp-PLA2 at the baseline was 402 ± 94 μg/ml, after the intervention 368 ± 105 μg/ml (p=0.008). Change in Lp-PLA2 was associated with triglyceride level decrease (p=0.009). Intensive lifestyle modification leading to body weight decrease results in significant changes of plasma lipoprotein levels and, also, a drop of Lp-PLA2 levels in paediatric obese patients. However, even after the intervention Lp-PLA2 concentrations in this patient group remain elevated suggesting possible increased atherosclerosis risk in later life. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  6. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E van Loon

    Full Text Available Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the main mediators of the VWF increase by exhaustive physical exercise.105 healthy individuals (18-35 years were included in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exhaustive exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Respiratory gas exchange measurements were obtained while cardiac function was continuously monitored. Blood was collected at baseline and directly after exhaustion. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag levels, VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB levels, ADAMTS13 activity and common variations in Syntaxin Binding Protein-5 (STXBP5, rs1039084 and rs9399599, Syntaxin-2 (STX2, rs7978987 and VWF (promoter, rs7965413 were determined.The median VWF:Ag level at baseline was 0.94 IU/mL [IQR 0.8-1.1] and increased with 47% [IQR 25-73] after exhaustive exercise to a median maximum VWF:Ag of 1.38 IU/mL [IQR 1.1-1.8] (p<0.0001. VWF:CB levels and ADAMTS13 activity both also increased after exhaustive exercise (median increase 43% and 12%, both p<0.0001. The strongest determinants of the VWF:Ag level increase are performance related (p<0.0001. We observed a gender difference in VWF:Ag response to exercise (females 1.2 IU/mL; males 1.7 IU/mL, p = 0.001, which was associated by a difference in performance. Genetic variations in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter were not associated with VWF:Ag levels at baseline nor with the VWF:Ag increase.VWF:Ag levels strongly increase upon exhaustive exercise and this increase is strongly determined by physical fitness level and the intensity of the exercise, while there is no clear effect of genetic variation in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter.

  7. Lack of facilities rather than sociocultural factors as the primary barrier to physical activity among female Saudi university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anastasia Samara,1 Anne Nistrup,1 Tamader Y AL-Rammah,2 Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion and Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Faculty of Rehabilitation and Health Sciences, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women’s low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females.Patients and methods: Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor’s programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1 socioeconomic status, 2 physical activity, 3 self-efficacy 4 social factors, and 5 barriers and facilitators related to physical activity.Results: The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14. Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%. Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10. Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity.Conclusion: The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of

  8. The relationship between physical factors (Wrist ratio and electrophysiologic factors of median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliaiy Gh

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is considered by researchers because of its high prevalence, and several studies have been done to find the causes and factors which increase the chance for the syndrome. These studies have shown relationships between this syndrome with some physical parameters like wrist dimensions, weight and systemic conditions. There is no investigation on risk factors in CTS in our country. So the main goal of this research is to find and introduce predisposing factors for carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods: Seventy patients and 33 controls 22 to 70 years old were studied. Standard methods for median and ulnar nerve studies were used and questionnaires included physical measurements, history of diseases and personal information were completed for each person. Results: Patients had higher wrist ratio (mean difference, 0.0267, P<0.001, weight (mean difference: 6.098, P<0.001 and body mass index (mean difference: 3.376, P<0.001. Regression analysis showed strong positive relation between wrist ratio and median latencies. The strongest correlation was found between wrist ratio and median minus ulnar distal sensory latencies (Y2=0.4014, P<0.0001. No relation was found between weight and body mass index with median latencies. Seventy-nine percent of patients and 48.5% of controls had wrist ratio of 0.7 or greater (P<0.05. Seventy-two percent of patients with repetetive hand activities and 78% with associated conditions had wrist ratio of 0.7 or greater. Seventy-six percent had wrist ratio less than 0.7. No relationship was found between obesity, diabetes, thyroid disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, taking oral contraceptive, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, menopause and repetetive hand activities with involvement of carpal tunnel syndrome. Discussion: Wrist dimensions seem to be an important predictor for carpal tunnel syndrome also in patients with associated conditions. If individuals with squarer wrists are involved in special conditions

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  10. The profile of physical activity and coronary risk factors in Monica Jakarta survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Kusmana

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A population study was done to know the profile of daily physical activity including sports, and its influence on major coronary risk factors in three districts of Jakarta using questionnaire, physicaL and laboratory examination, and 12 leads ECC. The questionnaire gave the data about physical activity (work load and sport, and smoking habit. Work load was divided into light, moderate and heavy. Sport activity was divided into regular (≥ twice a week, 20 minutes or more, irregular (≤ once or occasional, and no sport activity. In addition, blood pressure  (hypertension was grouped according to WHO criteria, total cholesterol (regarded as hypercholesterolemia when > 200 mg%, and ECG were measured. ECG interpretation was done using Minnesota Code. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Out of 2400 people there were  2073(86.4%  respondents that consist of 1086 females and 987 males. The profile of physical activity as a whole showed 33.4% light, 50.7% moderate and 15.8% heavy activity. OnLy 22.5% of respondents had sport regularly, while 30.3% had sport irregularly, and 47.2% had no sport activity. The type of sport was walking (45.0%, callisthenic (22.0% jogging/running (15.6%, badminton (6.5%, volley ball/soccer (4.1%, tennis (3.8%, and golf (0.1%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension between people with heavy (12.0%, moderate (44.8% and light work load (43.2% (P<0.003, in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (13.2%: 50.8%: 36% (P<0.0003, and smoking (19.7%; 44.1%: 36.2% (P<0.00001, respectively. The difference also occurred in the prevalence of abnormal ECG (Q/QS, ST and T  abnormalities between people having regular sport (19.0%, irregular (22.7%, and no sport activity (58.3% (P<0.05. The number of respondents having enough physical activity (including regular sport was relatively low. Therefore, promotion should be done as a preventive method to overcome cardiovascular risk factors. (Med J Indones

  11. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma.

  12. Associations of Sleep Quality and Awake Physical Activity with Fluctuations in Nocturnal Blood Pressure in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Sleep quality and awake physical activity are important behavioral factors involved in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, potentially through nocturnal blood pressure (BP changes. However, the impacts of quantitatively measured sleep quality and awake physical activity on BP fluctuation, and their relationships with several candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension are not well elucidated.This cross-sectional study included 303 patients registered in the HSCAA study. Measurements included quantitatively determined sleep quality parameters and awake physical activity obtained by actigraph, nocturnal systolic BP (SBP fall [100 × (1- sleep SBP/awake SBP ratio], apnea hypopnea index, urinary sodium and cortisol secretion, plasma aldosterone concentration and renin activity, insulin resistance index, parameters of heart rate variability (HRV, and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF.Simple regression analysis showed that time awake after sleep onset (r = -0.150, a parameter of sleep quality, and awake physical activity (r = 0.164 were significantly correlated with nocturnal SBP fall. Among those, time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.179 and awake physical activity (β = 0.190 were significantly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP fall in multiple regression analysis. In a subgroup of patients without taking anti-hypertensive medications, both time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.336 and awake physical activity (β = 0.489 were more strongly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP falls.Sleep quality and awake physical activity were found to be significantly associated with nocturnal SBP fall, and that relationship was not necessarily confounded by candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension.

  13. Characterisation of physical environmental factors on an intertidal sandflat, Manukau Harbour, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R.G.; Hume, T.M.; Dolphin, T.J.; Green, M.O.; Walters, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Physical environmental factors, including sediment characteristics, inundation time, tidal currents and wind waves, likely to influence the structure of the benthic community at meso-scales (1-100 m) were characterised for a sandflat off Wiroa Island (Manukau Harbour, New Zealand). In a 500 x 250 m study site, sediment characteristics and bed topography were mostly homogenous apart from patches of low-relief ridges and runnels. Field measurements and hydrodynamic modelling portray a complex picture of sediment or particulate transport on the intertidal flat, involving interactions between the larger scale tidal processes and the smaller scale wave dynamics (1-4 s; 1-15 m). Peak tidal currents in isolation are incapable of eroding bottom sediments, but in combination with near-bed orbital currents generated by only very small wind waves, sediment transport can be initiated. Work done on the bed integrated over an entire tidal cycle by prevailing wind waves is greatest on the elevated and flatter slopes of the study site, where waves shoal over a wider surf zone and water depths remain shallow e enough for wave-orbital currents to disturb the bed. The study also provided physical descriptors quantifying static and hydrodynamic (tidal and wave) factors which were used in companion studies on ecological spatial modelling of bivalve distributions and micro-scale sediment reworking and transport.

  14. Adherence, Compliance, and Health Risk Factor Changes following Short-Term Physical Activity Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda H. Norton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low physical activity (PA levels are associated with poor health risk factor profiles. Intervention strategies to increase PA and quantify the rate and magnitude of change in risk factors are important. Methods. Interventions were conducted over 40 days to increase PA in 736 insufficiently active (<150 min/wk PA participants using either a pedometer or instructor-led group protocol. There were a further 135 active participants as controls. Major cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, including fitness parameters, were measured before and after intervention. Results. Adherence to the interventions was higher for the group versus pedometer participants (87.1% versus 79.8% and compliance rates for achieving sufficient levels of PA (≥150 min/wk were also higher for the group participants (95.8% versus 77.6%. Total weekly PA patterns increased by 300 and 435 minutes, for the pedometer and group participants, respectively. Improvements were found for waist girth, total cholesterol, aerobic fitness, and flexibility relative to controls. The change in vigorous PA, but not moderate PA, was a significant predictor of the change in eight of 11 risk factor variables measured. Conclusions. Rapid and dramatic increases in PA among previously insufficiently active adults can result in important health benefits.

  15. Continuous Improvement of Physical Functioning in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients by Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors: Three-Year Followup and Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weely, Salima F E; Kneepkens, Eva L; Nurmohamed, Mike T; Dekker, Joost; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E

    2016-10-01

    To establish the 3-year outcome and course of physical functioning and spinal mobility impairments in patients routinely treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) and to find predictors of physical functioning and spinal mobility impairments. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients eligible for TNFi were followed in a 3-year prospective observational study. Prediction models were developed with linear mixed modeling. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) were used as outcome measures for physical functioning and spinal mobility. A total of 257 patients were included and treated with etanercept (n = 174) or adalimumab (n = 83). Physical functioning improved significantly during the first 6 months after the start of TNFi. The BASFI score decreased from mean ± SD 5.4 ± 2.4 to 3.3 ± 2.6 at 6 months, and stabilized thereafter (BASFI third year score mean ± SD 3.6 ± 2.5). The BASMI showed no significant changes over time. Lower baseline BASFI and BASMI scores predicted a better level of physical functioning and spinal mobility after 3 years of TNFi therapy. Other predictors for a better 3-year outcome and course of physical functioning included absence of comorbidity, physical activity, younger age, and lower body mass index at baseline. Physical functioning in routinely TNFi-treated AS patients improved up to 6 months and stabilized thereafter. Therefore, it would be better to extend the period of evaluation of TNFi treatment to 6 months rather than the 3 months currently used. The risk factors of long-term physical functioning found in this study might help to identify patients at risk at an earlier stage and improve treatment strategy. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. The Intellectual Factors Believed by Physicists to be Most Important to Physics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Arnold

    1988-01-01

    Surveys most important intellectual abilities for physics students. Found four factors: visualization; mathematics; logic; and problem solving. Explores the variations between respondent classification (researcher, teacher) and student goal (physicist, scientifically aware layman) on the ratings. (Author/YP)

  17. Factors Influencing the Introduction of Physical Activity Interventions in Primary Health Care: a Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Zouwe, N. van der; Crone, M.R.; Verheijden, M.W.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Gebhardt, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of efficacious physical activity (PA) interventions in routine primary health care (PHC) is a complex process. Understanding factors influencing the process can enhance the development of successful introduction strategies. Purpose: The aim of this qualitative study was

  18. Children's perceptions of weight, obesity, nutrition, physical activity and related health and socio-behavioural factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Economos, Christina D; Bakun, Peter J; Herzog, Julia Bloom; Dolan, Peter R; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Markow, Dana; Sharma, Shanti; Nelson, Miriam E

    .... An online survey was conducted with children to capture their perceptions of weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Within the USA. US children (n 1224) aged 8-18 years...

  19. How behaviour of sprat and herring in the central Baltic Sea depends on physical factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stepputtis, D

    2003-01-01

    ... environmental situations. The effect of stratification of physical factors on the behaviour of herring and sprat was investigated with hydroacoustic methods in combination with towed CTD-measurements in the central Baltic Sea...

  20. Physical (in)activity and endothelium-derived constricting factors: overlooked adaptations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. H. J. Thijssen; G. A. Rongen; P. Smits; M. T. E. Hopman

    2008-01-01

    .... In response to physical stimuli, the endothelium varies its release of circulating vasoactive substances and serves as a source of local and systemic endothelium-derived dilator and vasoconstrictor factors...

  1. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with physical activity of working woman in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Affira, K; Mohd Nasir, M T; Hazizi, A S; Kandiah, M

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted on 215 working women from four private corporate companies in a suburb in Malaysia to determine the factors related to their physical activity levels. Data were collected using a questionnaire which included socio-demographic characteristics, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), perceived barriers and benefits to physical activity, self-efficacy to physical activity and an 8-item questionnaire on current behavioral stage of physical activity. The majority of the respondents were Malay (81.9%) with 10.2% being Chinese and 7.9% Indian. Most of the respondents were executives (64.2%), while the rest were non-executives (24.7%) and managers (11.2%). The mean weight, height, BMI and waist circumference were 59.4 +/- 13.1 kg, 1.6 +/- 0.6 m, 23.7 +/- 4.8 kg/m2 and 77.0 +/- 12.1cm respectively. In this sample, 24.7% and 7.9% were overweight and obese respectively, while 34% were at risk of abdominal obesity. A total of 28.8% of the respondents had low physical activity level, while 48.8% and 22.3% were in the moderate and high physical activity categories respectively. An association was found between monthly income (chi2 = 110.17; p 0.05). Physical activity category was also positively correlated with perceived barriers (r = 0.227, p socio-demographic and psychosocial factors (except self-efficacy to physical activity) were found to have an association with physical activity level of the respondents. Further studies should be conducted to confirm these findings in the general working women population.

  2. Factors Influencing International PhD Students to Study Physics in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Serene H.-J.; Nieminen, Timo A.; Townson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Since physics research is an activity of an active international community, international visits are a common way for physicists to share scientific knowledge and skills. International mobility of physicists is also important for PhD physics study and research training. We investigated personal and social factors that influenced the decision for…

  3. Factors of physical activity among Chinese children and adolescents : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Congchao; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sijtsma, Anna; Wiersma, Rikstje; Huang, Guowei; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lack of physical activity is a growing problem in China, due to the fast economic development and changing living environment over the past two decades. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors related to physical activity in Chinese children and adolescents during this

  4. Factors Associated with High Levels of Physical Activity among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to identify factors associated with physical activity participation among active (i.e. more than or equal to 10 000 steps per day) individuals with intellectual disability. Staff at day program and supported employment organizations were asked to identify individuals they believed were physically active. To verify participants were…

  5. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  6. Social-Relational Risk Factors for Predicting Elder Physical Abuse: An Ecological Bi-Focal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heydrich, Levente; Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Annually in the United States, 1 to 5 million older adults, 65 and above, are physically or sexually injured or mistreated by their caregivers in family settings. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors involved in elder physical abuse by adult child caregivers, moving from the immediate elderly parent/adult child relationship context…

  7. Regular physical activity in old age. Effect on coronary heart disease risk factors and well- being.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Background. Regular physical activity is considered an important aspect of a healthy lifestyle. It may improve fitness, physical competence and may lower the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, until now, data on the effects of regular exercise on CHD risk factors in elde

  8. Students' Physical and Psychological Reactions to Forensic Dissection: Are There Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Papadodima, Stavroula A.; Evaggelakos, Christos I.; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G.; Goutas, Nikolaos D.; Spiliopoulou, Chara A.

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine…

  9. Equivalent circuit with complex physical constants and equivalent-parameters-expressed dissipation factors of piezoelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yu; Wen Yu-Mei; Li Ping

    2006-01-01

    The equivalent circuit with complex physical constants for a piezoelectric ceramic in thickness mode is established.In the equivalent circuit, electric components (equivalent circuit parameters) are connected to real and imaginary parts of complex physical coefficients of piezoelectric materials. Based on definitions of dissipation factors, three of them (dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric dissipation factors) are represented by equivalent circuit parameters. Since the equivalent circuit parameters are detectable, the dissipation factors can be easily obtained. In the experiments, the temperature and the stress responses of the three dissipation factors are measured.

  10. Factors associated with participation in physical activity among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Lim, Hock Kuang; Kee, Chee Cheong; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd

    2016-11-01

    The rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has become a serious public health issue. Among the multi-factorial drivers behind NCDs are modifiable health risk factors, most notably, physical inactivity. In response to the nearly global policy priority of encouraging regular participation in physical activity, the objective of the present study is to examine the factors that determine participation in physical activity among Malaysian adolescents. Nationally representative data consisting of a large sample size was used. A censored regression model was developed to estimate the likelihood of participation and time spent on physical activity. There are significant relationships between physical activity and gender, ethnicity, self-rated academic performance, maternal education, household size and time spent on physical education. The present study provides new insights into the factors affecting physical activity participation among adolescents. Specifically, self-rated excellent academic performance, household size and physical education can increase the likelihood of being physically active. Evidence of the present study implies that policy makers should pay special attention to females, Chinese, adolescents with self-rated poor academic performance and adolescents who have low maternal education.

  11. Factors associated with physical activity among young adults with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saebu, M; Sørensen, M

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine: (1) total physical activity and (2) the relative importance of functioning and disability, environmental and personal factors for total physical activity among young adults with a disability. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health developed by the World Health Organization was used as a structural framework for a cross-sectional survey, based on a questionnaire. The population studied was 327 young adults (age 18-30) with a disability who were members of interest organizations for persons with disabilities. Using an adapted version of the self-administered short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the sample reported some differences in physical activity related to the type and the onset of disability. Linear regression analyses revealed that personal factors demonstrated more power in explaining the variance in physical activity than both the environmental factors and factors related to functioning and disability. As for the able-bodied, intrinsic motivation and identity as an active person were the factors most strongly associated with physical activity behavior. This should have important consequences for how professionals try to motivate people with disabilities for physical activity, and how they plan and implement rehabilitation.

  12. Dataset on psychosocial risk factors in cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Mary Clyde; Kaczor, Kim; Acker, Deborah; Webb, Tina; Brenzel, Allen; Lorenz, Douglas J; Young, Audrey; Thompson, Richard

    2017-10-01

    This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article "History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse" (Pierce et al., 2017) [1].

  13. Giving children a voice: Exploring qualitative perspectives on factors influencing recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2017-01-01

    11–12-year-old children. The socio-ecological model was used as the overall theoretical framework. Twelve factors were identified as influencing the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability; gender; gendered school culture; peer influence; conflicts and exclusion; space...... of actions addressing factors from different layers in the socio-ecological model to increase recess physical activity....

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  16. Increasing Physical Activity Decreases Hepatic Fat and Metabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Tanya L; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I; Davis, Jaimie N

    2012-04-01

    This study assessed the changes in time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammation. Longitudinal data were generated from 66 Hispanic adolescents (15.6±1.1 yr; BMI percentile 97.1±3.0) who participated in a 16-wk nutrition or nutrition+exercise intervention. There were no effects of the intervention on PA, but there were inter-individual changes in PA. For purposes of this analysis, all intervention groups were combined to assess how changes in PA during 16 wk affected changes in adiposity, insulin action, and markers of inflammation. MVPA was assessed by 7-day accelerometry, total body fat via DXA, liver fat by MRI, and insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR via a fasting blood draw. A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of MVPA on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammatory markers. Sixty-two percent of participants increased MVPA (mean increase, 19.7±16.5 min/day) and 38% decreased MVPA (mean decrease, 10.7±10.1 min/day). Those who increased MVPA by as little as 20 min per day over 16 wk, compared to those who decreased MVPA, had significant reductions in liver fat (-13% vs. +3%; P=0.01), leptin levels (-18% vs. +4%; P=0.02), and fasting insulin (-23% vs. +5%; P=0.05). These findings indicate that a modest increase in MVPA can improve metabolic health in sedentary overweight Hispanic adolescents.

  17. Physical factors influencing pleasant touch during tactile exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klöcker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (unpleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. RESULTS: Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT , as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN , i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, μ. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of μ were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. CONCLUSION: Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of

  18. Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöcker, Anne; Wiertlewski, Michael; Théate, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i) characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii) the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. Results Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT, as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN, i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, μ. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of μ were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. Conclusion Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction

  19. Influential factors of insufficient physical activity among adolescents with asthma in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kuei Teng

    Full Text Available Little research has been reported concerning insufficient physical activity in Taiwanese adolescents with asthma. The aims of this paper are to compare the amount of physical activity between asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents in Taiwan, as well as to investigate the influential factors associated with insufficient physical activity in asthmatic adolescents.Self-reporting structured questionnaires (socio-economic status, scale of family support for physical activity, amount of physical activity and peak expiratory flow were assessed from 286 adolescents with asthma and 588 non-asthmatic adolescents in a cross-sectional design. Insufficient amount of physical activity was based on less than 300 minutes per week of moderate and vigorous physical activity.Adolescents with asthma have a greater amount of physical activity and a higher level of family support than those who are non-asthmatic. In Taiwan, adolescents with asthma, girls relative to boys, obesity relative to average weight, and low family support relative to high family support were found to be associated with insufficient physical activity.Physical activity in adolescents with asthma is insufficient especially in girls, in asthmatics with obesity, and in those with low family support. We suggest that physical activity programs should be applied to Taiwan adolescents with asthma in order to match the criteria of 300 minutes per week of moderate and vigorous physical activity, especially for girls, the obese and those with a low level of family support.

  20. Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Macedonian Adolescents in Albanian Ethnic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    GONTAREV, Seryozha; KALAC, Ruzdija; AMETI, Vullnet; REDJEPI, Agim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of demographic, psychological, social and environmental factors with physical activity and to determine whether indicators of physical activity differ by gender among Macedonian adolescents from Albanian ethnic community from 11 to 14 yr (N = 886). Methods: Research were conducted in 2014 in several primary schools randomly selected from Tetovo and Gostivar region of the R. Macedonia. Students completed a questionnaire which examined their level of participation in physical activity and sedentary behavior along with a number of potential correlates. Hierarchical regression was used to explore the relationship between hypothesised factors and physical activity. Results: The boys unlike the girls showed significantly higher levels of physical activity (P=0.001). Respondents of both genders who perceive greater benefits from the physical activity (P=0.010). They have more confidence in their abilities (P=0.001), enjoy more in the physical activities (P=0.016), perceive greater social support from friends (P=0.008) and parents (P=0.001) and have higher levels of physical activity. Conclusions: The results indicate the importance of developing a national plan and program to promote physical activity in order to help young people to change unhealthy lifestyle habits and increase the physical activity, thus improving their health. PMID:27252917

  1. Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were

  2. Development and validation of a job exposure matrix for physical risk factors in low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Solovieva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim was to construct and validate a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM for physical exposures to be used in epidemiological studies of low back pain (LBP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized two large Finnish population surveys, one to construct the JEM and another to test matrix validity. The exposure axis of the matrix included exposures relevant to LBP (heavy physical work, heavy lifting, awkward trunk posture and whole body vibration and exposures that increase the biomechanical load on the low back (arm elevation or those that in combination with other known risk factors could be related to LBP (kneeling or squatting. Job titles with similar work tasks and exposures were grouped. Exposure information was based on face-to-face interviews. Validity of the matrix was explored by comparing the JEM (group-based binary measures with individual-based measures. The predictive validity of the matrix against LBP was evaluated by comparing the associations of the group-based (JEM exposures with those of individual-based exposures. RESULTS: The matrix includes 348 job titles, representing 81% of all Finnish job titles in the early 2000s. The specificity of the constructed matrix was good, especially in women. The validity measured with kappa-statistic ranged from good to poor, being fair for most exposures. In men, all group-based (JEM exposures were statistically significantly associated with one-month prevalence of LBP. In women, four out of six group-based exposures showed an association with LBP. CONCLUSIONS: The gender-specific JEM for physical exposures showed relatively high specificity without compromising sensitivity. The matrix can therefore be considered as a valid instrument for exposure assessment in large-scale epidemiological studies, when more precise but more labour-intensive methods are not feasible. Although the matrix was based on Finnish data we foresee that it could be applicable, with some modifications, in

  3. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Rozenblat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation.Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP, a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR. Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15–16 years. Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23–24 years in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA.Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR (p = 0.0048, genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  4. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  5. Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe;

    2009-01-01

    fibre and Saturated fat. Results: Greater food variety (OR = 1.32 for women, 1.13 for men), high leisure-time physical activity (OR = 2.20 for women, 1.91 for men), frequent intentions to eat healthily (OR = 8.19 for women, 5.40 for men) and low energy intake (OR = 0.78 for women, 0.85 for men) were...

  6. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Abdulnour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter “fitness” and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 compared to women with a fitness <30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 (P < 0.05. However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05. Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  7. Work-related factors of presenteeism: The mediating role of mental and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohling, Rico; Buruck, Gabriele; Jungbauer, Kevin-Lim; Leiter, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Even though work-related factors have been found to play a crucial role in predicting presenteeism, studies investigating established theoretical frameworks of job design features and, in particular, underlying mechanisms are still very scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the areas of work life according to the Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS; Leiter & Maslach, 2004) on presenteeism. We examined mental and physical health as the underlying process of this relationship and assessed 2 presenteeism outcome measures and their relationship to each other-that is, the frequency of acts of presenteeism and work productivity. Using a cross-sectional design, the study was conducted in a sample of 885 employees from German public service. Results showed that the influence of some, but not all, areas of work life (workload, control, reward, and values) on both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity was mediated by health indicators (well-being and musculoskeletal complaints). Moreover, we found a relationship between health-related lost productivity and acts of presenteeism. The present research clarifies the importance of work-related factors as antecedents of sickness presenteeism. The findings of our study also emphasize the necessity to include both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity in presenteeism research and prevention. Presenteeism should be included as a measure in health prevention interventions because it reflects a crucial part of employee health that is not covered by other measures.

  8. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying factors hampering physical activity in longstanding rheumatoid arthritis: what is the role of glucocorticoid therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Goes, M C; Hoes, J N; Cramer, M J; van der Veen, M J; van der Werf, J H; Bijlsma, J W J; Jacobs, J W G

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors hampering the level of physical activity in longstanding rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and to evaluate the effects of glucocorticoid therapy on physical activity. Patient characteristics, disease characteristics and cardiovascular parameters were recorded in 170 patients, who participated in a study about glucose metabolism in longstanding RA treated with or without glucocorticoids. Disease activity scores (DAS28) were calculated and x-rays of hands and feet were taken and scored according to the Sharp van der Heijde score (SHS). Participants completed the health assessment questionnaire and short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH), which reflect physical disability and physical activity, respectively. Adherence rates to recommendations on physical activity were calculated, and patients were categorised as fully adhering, insufficiently adhering (adherence on less than the recommended number of days per week) or inactive (adherence on none of the days). Forty-four percent of the patients showed adherence to the recommended minimum level of physical activity, and 22% were classified as inactive. Higher DAS28 and SHS, glucocorticoid therapy, and presence of cardiovascular risk factors were associated with lower total SQUASH physical activity scores univariately. In a multivariate model, higher age, higher body mass index (BMI), higher DAS28, and higher SHS negatively influenced the score significantly; cardiovascular risk factors and glucocorticoid therapy were no longer significantly influencing physical activity. Physical activity in longstanding RA is hampered by higher age, higher BMI, higher disease activity, and more radiographic joint damage. Glucocorticoid therapy was not identified as independent risk factor in multivariate analyses.

  10. Biomedical Risk Factors of Achilles Tendinopathy in Physically Active People: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaia, Maria; Vlahovich, Nicole; Ashton, Kevin J; Hughes, David C

    2017-12-01

    Achilles tendinopathy is the most prevalent tendon disorder in people engaged in running and jumping sports. Aetiology of Achilles tendinopathy is complex and requires comprehensive research of contributing risk factors. There is relatively little research focussing on potential biomedical risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify studies and summarise current knowledge of biomedical risk factors of Achilles tendinopathy in physically active people. Research databases were searched for relevant articles followed by assessment in accordance with PRISMA statement and standards of Cochrane collaboration. Levels of evidence and quality assessment designation were implemented in accordance with OCEBM levels of evidence and Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale, respectively. A systematic review of the literature identified 22 suitable articles. All included studies had moderate level of evidence (2b) with the Newcastle-Ottawa score varying between 6 and 9. The majority (17) investigated genetic polymorphisms involved in tendon structure and homeostasis and apoptosis and inflammation pathways. Overweight as a risk factor of Achilles tendinopathy was described in five included studies that investigated non-genetic factors. COL5A1 genetic variants were the most extensively studied, particularly in association with genetic variants in the genes involved in regulation of cell-matrix interaction in tendon and matrix homeostasis. It is important to investigate connections and pathways whose interactions might be disrupted and therefore alter collagen structure and lead to the development of pathology. Polymorphisms in genes involved in apoptosis and inflammation, and Achilles tendinopathy did not show strong association and, however, should be considered for further investigation. This systematic review suggests that biomedical risk factors are an important consideration in the future study of propensity to the development

  11. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists - demographic and organizational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustułka-Piwnik, Urszula; Ryn, Zdzisław Jan; Krzywoszański, Łukasz; Stożek, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physi cal therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention.

  12. Risk factors for physical symptoms after a disaster: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Berg, B; Grievink, Linda; van der Velden, P.G.; Yzermans, C.J.; Stellato, R; Lebret, E.; Brunekreef, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although symptoms such as fatigue, headache and pain in bones and muscles are common after disasters, risk factors for these symptoms among disaster survivors have rarely been studied. We examined predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors for these physical symptoms among surv

  13. Social Cognitive Factors Associated with Physical Activity in Elementary School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Melanie K.; Miller, Sara; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine social cognitive factors associated with physical activity (PA) among preadolescent girls. Method: Social cognitive theory was used to examine PA in girls (N = 90; 71% African American) participating in Girls on the Run. Multiple regressions explored factors associated with PA at posttesting and 3-month follow-up. Results:…

  14. To What Extent Do School Leaders in Slovenia Understand Physical School Environments as a Learning Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencic, Majda

    2017-01-01

    School leaders are a central factor of the quality of learning and teaching in schools. It is generally believed that the staff model their behaviour on leaders, which means if school leaders understand the physical school environment to be an important factor of learning, school staff (teachers and other professional staff) will also do so. To…

  15. Risk factors for physical symptoms after a disaster: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Berg, B; Grievink, Linda; van der Velden, P.G.; Yzermans, C.J.; Stellato, R; Lebret, E.; Brunekreef, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although symptoms such as fatigue, headache and pain in bones and muscles are common after disasters, risk factors for these symptoms among disaster survivors have rarely been studied. We examined predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors for these physical symptoms among

  16. Risk factors for physical symptoms after a disaster: a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B. van den; Grievink, L.; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Lebret, E.; Brunekreef, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although symptoms such as fatigue, headache and pain in bones and muscles are common after disasters, risk factors for these symptoms among disaster survivors have rarely been studied. We examined predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors for these physical symptoms among

  17. Risk Factor Models for Adolescent Verbal and Physical Aggression toward Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Linda S.; Tremblay, Richard E.; Nagin, Daniel; Zoccolillo, Mark; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Contributing to the family violence and conflict literature, we examine prospective and concurrent risk factors associated with verbal and physical aggression toward mothers by 15/16 year-old adolescent sons and daughters. Data from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children is used to examine the influence of socioeconomic factors,…

  18. Risk factors for physical symptoms after a disaster: a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B. van den; Grievink, L.; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Lebret, E.; Brunekreef, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although symptoms such as fatigue, headache and pain in bones and muscles are common after disasters, risk factors for these symptoms among disaster survivors have rarely been studied. We examined predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors for these physical symptoms among surv

  19. Factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being among Medicare-Medicaid enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kathy D; Pepper, Ginette A; Caserta, Michael; Wong, Bob; Brunker, Cherie P; Morris, Diana L; Burant, Christopher J; Hazelett, Susan; Kropp, Denise; Allen, Kyle R

    2015-01-01

    Dually enrolled Medicare-Medicaid older adults are a vulnerable population. We tested House's Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Inequalities in Health and Aging in Medicare-Medicaid enrollees by examining the extent to which disparities indicators, which included race, age, gender, neighborhood poverty, education, income, exercise (e.g., walking), and physical activity (e.g., housework) influence physical function and emotional well-being. This secondary analysis included 337 Black (31%) and White (69%) older Medicare-Medicaid enrollees. Using path analysis, we determined that race, neighborhood poverty, education, and income did not influence physical function or emotional well-being. However, physical activity (e.g., housework) was associated with an increased self-report of physical function and emotional well-being of β = .23, p physical function and emotional well-being in this population should take into account health status indicators such as allostatic load, comorbidity, and perceived racism/discrimination.

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  1. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  2. Development of a self-report physical function instrument for disability assessment: item pool construction and factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Christine M; Jette, Alan M; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    To build a comprehensive item pool representing work-relevant physical functioning and to test the factor structure of the item pool. These developmental steps represent initial outcomes of a broader project to develop instruments for the assessment of function within the context of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs. Comprehensive literature review; gap analysis; item generation with expert panel input; stakeholder interviews; cognitive interviews; cross-sectional survey administration; and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess item pool structure. In-person and semistructured interviews and Internet and telephone surveys. Sample of SSA claimants (n=1017) and a normative sample of adults from the U.S. general population (n=999). Not applicable. Model fit statistics. The final item pool consisted of 139 items. Within the claimant sample, 58.7% were white; 31.8% were black; 46.6% were women; and the mean age was 49.7 years. Initial factor analyses revealed a 4-factor solution, which included more items and allowed separate characterization of: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole body mobility, (3) upper body function, and (4) upper extremity fine motor. The final 4-factor model included 91 items. Confirmatory factor analyses for the 4-factor models for the claimant and the normative samples demonstrated very good fit. Fit statistics for claimant and normative samples, respectively, were: Comparative Fit Index=.93 and .98; Tucker-Lewis Index=.92 and .98; and root mean square error approximation=.05 and .04. The factor structure of the physical function item pool closely resembled the hypothesized content model. The 4 scales relevant to work activities offer promise for providing reliable information about claimant physical functioning relevant to work disability. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sicknes......: Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  4. [Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Luane Margarete; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto

    2010-09-01

    To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo, Brazil. Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.

  5. [Descriptive and comparative study of cardiovascular risk factors and physical activity in patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Arce, Maria Isabel; Marques-Sule, Elena

    2017-08-22

    To analyse several cardiovascular risk factors by means of the physical activity performed by patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Cross-sectional study. Cardiovascular prevention service (Health Department, Valencia, Spain). The study included 401 individuals with acute coronary syndrome and discharged from hospital 2-3months before the assessment. The inclusion criteria included age between 30 and 80years-old, no contraindication for physical activity, and no previous participation in cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Metabolic equivalent MET (Kcal/Kg) was calculated, based on the type of activity, frequency, duration and intensity. Participants were divided into two groups: sedentary group (cardiovascular risk factors were assessed: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, lipid profile, blood glucose, and arterial pressure. The mean consumption was 8.24±12.5METs/week. Prevalent factors were overweight (77.05%), and dyslipidaemia (64.3%), whilst 64.8% were sedentary. The physically active group showed differences when compared to sedentary group in triglycerides (146.53±72.8 vs. 166.94±104.8mg/dL; 95%CI; P=.031), and BMI (27.65±3.86 vs. 28.50±4.38kg/m(2); 95%CI; P=.045). Physical activity was performed by a limited number of patients with ACS, with a prevalence of overweight and dyslipidaemia. Being physically active improved triglycerides levels and BMI. Therefore, health promotion from Primary Care and encouraging physical activity amongst patients with ACS is crucial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain. PMID:26441569

  7. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Jankowiak Siuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI, and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behaviour. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behaviour and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male were studied using fMRI method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioural effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain.

  8. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens' faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain.

  9. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Everhart, Joshua S; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James R; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2016-11-01

    A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5-6.1; P < 0.05) and physical maturation status (P < 0.05) were predictive of overall injury risk, knee hyperextension was predictive of anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2-18.4; P < 0.05), hip external:internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = -0.339, P = 0.008). Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury.

  10. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Reports of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among U.S. Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yah, Fang

    2008-01-01

    The present study, based upon the national 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of U.S. high school students, provides the most current and representative data on physical dating violence among adolescent males (N = 6,528) The dependent variable was physical dating violence. The independent variables included four dimensions: violence, suicide,…

  11. Deduction of bond length changes of symmetric molecules from experimental vibrational progressions, including a topological mass factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wei, Fan; Schwarz, W H E; Li, Jun

    2012-12-20

    The change ΔR(x) of bond length R(x) for atom X in a molecule upon electronic transition can be derived from the intensities I(i) of the vibrational stretching progression v = 0 → i of the electronic absorption or emission spectrum. In many cases, a simple model is sufficient for a reasonable estimate of ΔR(x). For symmetric molecules, however, conceptual problems in the literature of many decades are evident. The breathing modes of various types of symmetric molecules X(n) and AX(n) (A at the center) are here discussed. In the simplest case of a harmonic vibration of the same mode in the initial and final electronic states, we obtain ΔR(x) ≈ [2S/(ωm(x))](1/2)/w(1/2) (all quantities in atomic units). ω and S are respectively the observed vibrational quanta and the Huang-Rhys factor (corresponding, e.g., to the vibrational intensity ratio I(1)/I(0) ≈ S), m(x) is the mass of vibrating atom X, and w is a topological factor for molecule X(n) or AX(n). The factor 1/w(1/2) in the expression for ΔR(x) must not be neglected. The spectra and bond length changes of several symmetric molecules AX(n) and X(n) are discussed. The experimental bond length changes correctly derived with factor 1/w(1/2) are verified by reliable quantum chemical calculations.

  12. Assessing the Ability of a VR-Based Assembly Task Simulation to Evaluate Physical Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontonnier, Charles; Samani, Afshin; Badawi, Marwan; Madeleine, Pascal; Dumont, Georges

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the process of workstation design tends to include assessment steps in a virtual environment (VE) to evaluate the ergonomic features. These approaches are cost-effective and convenient since working directly on the digital mock-up in a VE is preferable to constructing a real physical mock-up in a real environment (RE). This study aimed at understanding the ability of a VR-based assembly tasks simulator to evaluate physical risk factors in ergonomics. Sixteen subjects performed simplified assembly tasks in RE and VE. Motion of the upper body and five muscle electromyographic activities were recorded to compute normalized and averaged objective indicators of discomfort, that is, rapid upper limb assessment score, averaged muscle activations, and total task time. Rated perceived exertion (RPE) and a questionnaire were used as subjective indicators of discomfort. The timing regime and complexity of the assembly tasks were investigated as within-subject factors. The results revealed significant differences between measured indicators in RE and VE. While objective measures indicated lower activity and exposure in VE, the subjects experienced more discomfort than in RE. Fairly good correlation levels were found between RE and VE for six of the objective indicators. This study clearly demonstrates that ergonomic studies of assembly tasks using VR are still challenging. Indeed, objective and subjective measurements of discomfort that are usually used in ergonomics to minimize the risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders development exhibit opposite trends in RE and VE. Nevertheless, the high level of correlation found during this study indicates that the VR-based simulator can be used for such assessments.

  13. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  14. Sensitivity analysis with regard to variations of physical forcing including two possible future hydrographic regimes for the Oeregrundsgrepen. A follow-up baroclinic 3D-model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, A. [A and I Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (Sweden); Andrejev, O. [Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-02-15

    A sensitivity analysis with regard to variations of physical forcing has been performed using a 3D baroclinic model of the Oeregrundsgrepen area for a whole-year period with data pertaining to 1992. The results of these variations are compared to a nominal run with unaltered physical forcing. This nominal simulation is based on the experience gained in an earlier whole-year modelling of the same area; the difference is mainly that the present nominal simulation is run with identical parameters for the whole year. From a computational economy point of view it has been necessary to vary the time step between the month-long simulation periods. For all simulations with varied forcing, the same time step as for the nominal run has been used. The analysis also comprises the water turnover of a hypsographically defined subsection, the Bio Model area, located above the SFR depository. The external forcing factors that have been varied are the following (with their found relative impact on the volume average of the retention time of the Bio Model area over one year given within parentheses): atmospheric temperature increased/reduced by 2.5 deg C (-0.1% resp. +0.6%), local freshwater discharge rate doubled/halved (-1.6% resp. +0.01%), salinity range at the border increased/reduced a factor 2 (-0.84% resp. 0.00%), wind speed forcing reduced 10% (+8.6%). The results of these simulations, at least the yearly averages, permit a reasonably direct physical explanation, while the detailed dynamics is for natural reasons more intricate. Two additional full-year simulations of possible future hydrographic regimes have also been performed. The first mimics a hypothetical situation with permanent ice cover, which increases the average retention time 87%. The second regime entails the future hypsography with its anticipated shoreline displacement by an 11 m land-rise in the year 4000 AD, which also considerably increases the average retention times for the two remaining layers of the

  15. Physical inactivity as a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Mohamed; Crowston, Jonathan G; van Wijngaarden, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have been identified as modifiable risk factors for diabetes. However, little is known of the associations between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and diabetic retinopathy. The development of diabetic retinopathy is associated with longer duration of diabetes, elevated blood pressure and poor glycaemic control. However these factors only explain a proportion of the risk of retinopathy in individuals with diabetes. Several studies have suggested a protective role for physical activity in diabetic retinopathy. Other work has shown that the time spent watching television is independently associated with abnormal retinal vascular signs. Limitations of the existing studies, such as the absence of objective measures of physical activity, a lack of sedentary behaviour measures, the inclusion of only those with type 1 diabetes and a lack of longitudinal data, make it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the strength of these associations.

  16. A gender perspective on factors that influence outdoor recreational physical activity among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjögren Katarina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is part of a healthy lifestyle and prevents many chronic health problems, in addition to promoting mental health. PA performed outdoors has been found particularly good for promoting one's well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which outdoor recreational PA was carried out during 1 year, and the factors influencing such activities from a gender perspective among persons ≥ 60 years of age. Methods This study included 999 individuals 60-96 years of age living in the south eastern part of Sweden. Data collection was carried out during the years of 2001-2003. We measured the amount of regular light and/or intense outdoor recreational PA performed during the last year and determined the probability of performing PA as a function of 10 variables covering individual and socioeconomic factors. Results Our results suggest that being independent physically and healthy enough to manage one's personal hygiene and having access to areas for country walks were the most important factors associated with the probability of engaging in outdoor recreational PA for both men and women. Despite the level of performance being almost equal for the sexes as two-thirds of both had performed outdoor recreational PA during the preceding year more factors, i.e., living alone, being unable to cover an unexpected cost, fear of being violated, and fear of falling, were associated with the possibilities of engaging in outdoor recreational PA among women. Also increasing age seems to affect activities among women negatively to a higher extent than men. Conclusion Men and women seem to have different opportunities and needs with respect to performing PA. These considerations do not seem to be sufficiently taken into account today and improvements could be made concerning e.g., health-promoting activities suggested to the elderly by healthcare personnel and spatial planning within society. Promoting outdoor

  17. Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse as Risk Factors for the Development of Bulimia Nervosa: A Community-Based Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Sarah L.; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    Young women (n=102) with bulimia nervosa were compared with 204 control subjects without an eating disorder and with 102 subjects with other psychiatric disorders. Results suggest that sexual and physical abuse are both risk factors for psychiatric disorders in general, including bulimia nervosa, but are not specific risk factors for bulimia. (DB)

  18. Practice of walking, moderate and vigorous physical activity and associated factors in first year undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Salvador Claumann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes that occur with the beginning of university life may interfere with the practice of physical activities by students. The aim was to investigate the association between the practice of walking, moderate and vigorous physical activities with sociodemographic factors and weight status in freshman students in the first semester of the first year of a public university in Florianopolis/SC. This study assessed198 students (86 men and 112 women. The practice of physical activities was collected with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire – IPAQ, short version. Students of human and educational sciences reported higher amounts of moderate physical activity when compared to health and exact science counterparts (p< 0.05. It was verified that male students, from higher economic status, from the health sciences, and full-time students showed higher time of practice of vigorous physical activity (p< 0.05. Significant associations were also observed between study period and walking, and between gender, scientific field and vigorous physical activity. It was concluded that the variables associated with the practice of physical activity differ according to the type and intensity of physical activity.

  19. Postnatal visual deprivation in rats regulates several retinal genes and proteins, including differentiation-associated fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Meyer zu Hoerste, Melissa; Mertsch, Sonja; Stupp, Tobias; Thanos, Solon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the retinal cellular basis of amblyopia, which is a developmental disease characterized by impaired visual acuity. This study examined the retinal transcripts associated with experimentally induced unilateral amblyopia in rats. Surgical tarsorrhaphy of the eyelids on one side was performed in pups prior to eye opening at postnatal day 14, thereby preventing any visual experience. This condition was maintained for over 2 months, after which electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded, the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) arrangement and number were determined using neuroanatomical tracing, the retinal transcripts were studied using microarray analysis, regulated mRNAs were confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, and proteins were stained using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. An attenuated ERG was found in eyes that were deprived of visual experience. Retrograde neuroanatomical staining disclosed a larger number of RGCs within the retina on the visually deprived side compared to the non-deprived, control side, and a multilayered distribution of RGCs. At the retinomic level, several transcripts associated with retinal differentiation, such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), were either up- or downregulated. Most of the transcripts could be verified at the mRNA level. To unravel the role of a differentiation-associated protein, we tested FGF-2 in dissociated postnatal retinal cell cultures and found that FGF-2 is a potent factor triggering ganglion cell differentiation. The data suggest that visual experience shapes the postnatal retinal differentiation, whereas visual deprivation induces changes at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within the retina.

  20. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  1. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  2. Physical and psychosocial factors associated with wrist or hand pain among Australian hospital-based nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawera, Inoka K; Hoe, Victor C W; Kelsall, Helen L; Urquhart, Donna M; Sim, Malcolm R

    2013-02-01

    To assess the personal, physical and psychosocial factors associated with wrist or hand pain in Australian hospital-based nurses. Wrist or hand pain, associated disability and sickness absence, demographic, occupational, physical, psychosocial and personal factors among nurses working for three hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, were assessed in a cross-sectional study. Factors associated with wrist or hand pain in the past month were assessed using logistic regression. This analysis was based on 1111 participants. The prevalence of wrist or hand pain in the past month was 15.3%. Repeated movements of the wrist or finger >4 h (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.80 to 3.84), high job strain (1.54, 1.04 to 2.28), job insecurity (1.55, 1.04 to 2.28), somatisation tendency (2.73, 1.75 to 4.26), pain catastrophising (1.56, 1.03 to 2.37), better mental (0.97, 0.95 to 0.99) and physical (0.96, 0.94-0.98) health and well-being were associated with wrist or hand pain in the past month, after adjusting for possible confounding factors. When all significant factors were examined in the same model, repeated movements of the wrist or finger >4 h (2.50, 1.71 to 3.67), somatisation (2.61, 1.65 to 4.13) and better physical health and well-being (0.96, 0.94 to 0.99) remained independently associated with wrist or hand pain in the past month. This study highlights that wrist or hand pain is prevalent in hospital nurses. Workplace physical factors and personal factors were associated with wrist or hand pain. Further longitudinal investigation is needed to examine the predictive nature of these factors.

  3. [Physical activity habits in schoolchildren: influential factors and relationships with physical fitness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Muros, José Joaquín; Zabala, Mikel; Dalmau, Josep María

    2014-10-06

    Introducción: Los estilos de vida actuales han provocado un aumento de las actividades sedentarias y una disminución de la actividad física, lo que puede conllevar un empeoramiento de la salud presente y futura de la población infantil. Objetivos: El objetivo del estudio fue describir los hábitos de vida y actividad física de una población de escolares de una ciudad del norte de España, así como analizar las relaciones entre dichos hábitos y la composición corporal, la condición física y algunos factores sociodemográficos. Métodos: El estudio se llevó a cabo sobre una muestra representativa de 329 escolares de sexto de primaria (11-12 años) de las 31 escuelas de Logroño (La Rioja). Se registraron datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos, tensión arterial, desarrollo madurativo, condición física y hábitos de vida y de actividad física. Resultados: Los alumnos de género masculino, quienes practicaban actividades deportivas extraescolares y los que se encontraban en un estadio de desarrollo menor reportaron mayores niveles de actividad física. Se encontraron correlaciones directas entre la práctica y la condición física, especialmente con la capacidad aeróbica (r=0,38), e inversas con las horas frente a la pantalla (r=- 0,18), pero no con la composición corporal. Conclusiones: Dadas las relaciones entre los niveles de actividad y la condición física, estrategias de promoción de la práctica física deberían fomentarse con el fin de mejorar la salud de los jóvenes. Las intervenciones deberían centrarse en favorecer el acceso a las actividades deportivas extraescolares, reducir los hábitos sedentarios y aumentar el nivel de práctica física del género femenino.

  4. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  5. Use of physical restraint: Nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Fatemeh; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Wong, Li Ping

    2017-02-23

    To investigate the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice of nurses towards physical restraint and factors influencing these variables. A literature review showed a lack of studies focused on the intention of nurses regarding physical restraint throughout the world. Considering that very little research on physical restraint use has been carried out in Malaysia, assessment of nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice is necessary before developing a minimising programme in hospitals. A cross-sectional study was used. A questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice was completed by all nurses (n = 309) in twelve wards of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Moderate knowledge and attitude with strong intention to use physical restraint were found among the nurses. Less than half of nurses considered alternatives to physical restraint and most of them did not understand the reasons for the physical restraint. Nurses' academic qualification, read any information source during past year and nurses' work unit showed a significant association with nurses' knowledge. Multiple linear regression analysis found knowledge, attitude and intention were significantly associated with nurses' practice to use physical restraint. This study showed some important misunderstandings of nurses about using physical restraint and strong intention regarding using physical restraint. Findings of this study serve as a supporting reason for importance of educating nurses about the use of physical restraint. Exploring the knowledge, attitude, intention and current practice of nurses towards physical restraint is important so that an effective strategy can be formulated to minimise the use of physical restraints in hospitals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Individual, social-environmental, and physical-environmental factors that underlie sense of coherence in Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Emily; Bouwman, Laura; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan; Aarts, Noelle; Koelen, Maria

    2016-06-30

    Antonovsky's salutogenesis is a theoretical perspective on health development that explores physical, mental, and social factors that contribute to a 'healthy life orientation' and also a theoretical approach to behavior change. Previous studies applying salutogenesis show that a high sense of coherence (SOC), a composite measure from salutogenesis indicating one's capacity to cope with stress, is associated with a healthy life orientation and lifestyle behaviors, including healthy eating patterns. However, limited evidence exists on the factors that underlie SOC, which could be used to strengthen this capacity as a means to enable healthier eating. Dutch adults (N = 781) participated in a cross-sectional study examining the relationship between SOC and a set of individual, social-environmental, and physical-environmental factors. The main findings indicate that high SOC was associated with a diverse set of factors including lower doctor-oriented health locus of control; higher satisfaction with weight; higher perceived levels of neighborhood collective efficacy; higher situational self-efficacy for healthy eating; lower social discouragement for healthy eating; and higher neighborhood affordability, accessibility and availability of healthy foods. These findings can inform the design of nutrition interventions that target these factors that strengthen SOC and provide the building blocks for a healthier life orientation.

  7. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-fen Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers’ HRQOL. Results: Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Conclusions: Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers.

  8. Complex analysis of Askaryan radiation: A fully analytic treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jordan C.; Connolly, Amy L.

    2017-05-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from high-energy cascades in dense media with a collective charge. We present an analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the cascade, and quantum mechanical cascade elongation via the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect. These calculations, and the associated open-source code, allow the user to avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo cascade simulations. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan-based detectors benefit from computational speed, because scans of Askaryan parameter-space are required to match neutrino signals. The Askaryan field is derived from cascade equations verified with Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, instructive cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for correlations with event candidates.

  9. Complex Analysis of Askaryan Radiation: A Fully Analytic Treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Jordan C

    2016-01-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from the collective charge within high-energy cascades in dense media. We present the first fully analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the electromagnetic cascade and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect. Analytic calculations avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulations of the cascades. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan- based detectors benefit from computational speed, because neutrino event parameters affect the shape of the electromagnetic field, requiring scans of parameter space. The Askaryan field is derived and verified against Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, two special cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain, analytically. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for phase ...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  11. S2DS: Physics-based compact model for circuit simulation of two-dimensional semiconductor devices including non-idealities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryavanshi, Saurabh V.; Pop, Eric

    2016-12-01

    We present a physics-based compact model for two-dimensional (2D) field-effect transistors (FETs) based on monolayer semiconductors such as MoS2. A semi-classical transport approach is appropriate for the 2D channel, enabling simplified analytical expressions for the drain current. In addition to intrinsic FET behavior, the model includes contact resistance, traps and impurities, quantum capacitance, fringing fields, high-field velocity saturation, and self-heating, the latter being found to play an important role. The model is calibrated with state-of-the-art experimental data for n- and p-type 2D-FETs, and it can be used to analyze device properties for sub-100 nm gate lengths. Using the experimental fit, we demonstrate the feasibility of circuit simulations using properly scaled devices. The complete model is implemented in SPICE-compatible Verilog-A, and a downloadable version is freely available at the nanoHUB.org.

  12. Factors Contributing to Satisfaction with Changes in Physical Function after Orthopedic Surgery for Musculoskeletal Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Yasuaki; Nitta, Osamu; Matsuo, Atsushi; Takaki, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background The recognition of required treatments for cerebral palsy (CP) patients, including orthopedic surgery, differs according to region. This study was performed to identify factors associated with satisfactory changes in physical function after orthopedic surgery. Methods 358 patients were selected for the questionnaire survey. The following information was collected: gender, primary disease, age of initial surgery, total procedural count, operated sites, satisfaction of postoperative rehabilitation frequency, ideal amount of postoperative rehabilitation sessions per week, frequency of voluntary home training per week, satisfaction of the timing of surgery and the current satisfaction with the changes in physical function after the orthopedic surgery. We classified the patients into the satisfied and dissatisfied group according to satisfactory changes in physical function after the surgery. We performed unpaired t-tests and chi-square tests to determine the variables that differed significantly between the groups. Variables with a p value of <0.2 were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The logistic model was revised and summed up to two potential predictors of postsurgical satisfaction with physical function: satisfaction with the frequency of postoperative rehabilitation sessions and the orthopedic surgery of the hip (distinction hit ratio, 75.4%). Conclusions This study demonstrated that the frequency of postoperative rehabilitation and history of hip surgery seemed to be related to the satisfaction with the changes in physical function after orthopedic surgery. PMID:27135609

  13. Identifying items to assess methodological quality in physical therapy trials: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Cummings, Greta G; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

    2014-09-01

    Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor analysis of these results are needed to validate these items.

  14. Interaction of Physical Exposures and Occupational Factors on Sickness Absence in Automotive Industry Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valirad, Fateme; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2015-04-23

    Increased sickness absence in recent years has been a trouble making issue in industrial society. Identify the causes of sickness absence and its influencing factors, is an important step to control and reduce its associated complications and costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate main factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. In 2012, a cross-sectional study on 758 employees of a car accessories producing company was applied and relevant information about the number of days and episodes of sickness absence, Disease resulting in absence from work, personal features, occupational factors and physical exposures were collected. To determine risk factors associated with sickness absence, Logistic regression analysis was used. The most common diseases leading to sickness absence in order of frequency were Respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and injuries at work. Musculoskeletal disorders increased the danger of long term absence by 4/33 times. Blue collar and shift works were the most important occupational factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. The main physical factors that affect incidence of sickness absence were frequent bending-twisting and heavy lifting. Identifying controllable factors of sickness absence and trying to prevent and modify them such as compliance of ergonomic principals to decrease physical can be effective in reducing sickness absence.

  15. Students' physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection: Are there risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Papadodima, Stavroula A; Evaggelakos, Christos I; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G; Goutas, Nikolaos D; Spiliopoulou, Chara A

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine in the 2005-2006 academic year were asked to complete a questionnaire at the conclusion of the five-day course. The questionnaire surveyed physical and psychological reactions (outcomes) and 47 student traits, beliefs, and behaviors (risk factors) that might predispose to adverse reactions. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression yielded five independent risk factors for negative psychological reactions: female gender, stereotypic beliefs about forensic pathologists, a less cognitive and more emotional frame of mind relative to forensic dissection, more passive coping strategies, and greater fear of death. The sole independent risk factor for physical symptoms was a less cognitive/more emotional approach to dissection. Students' reactions to forensic dissection integrate a host of inherent and dissection-related risk factors, and future interventions to improve this aspect of medical education will need to take into account the complexities underlying students' experiences with dissection.

  16. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steve

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113 and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063 reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape. Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.

  17. Insufficient free-time physical activity and occupational factors in Brazilian public school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Fernando Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate if perceived occupational factors are associated with insufficient free-time physical activity in Brazilian public school teachers. METHODS The relationship between insufficient physical activity (< 150 minutes/week and variables related to work was analyzed in 978 elementary and high school teachers calculating the prevalence ratio (PR and 95% confidence interval (95%CI in Poisson regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic and health variables. RESULTS The prevalence of insufficient physical activity was 71.9%, and this condition was associated independently with the perception of bad or regular balance between personal and professional life (PR = 1.09; 95%CI 1.01–1.18, perception that standing time affects the work (PR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.01–1.34, low or very low perception of current ability for the physical requirements of work (PR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08–1.35, and temporary employment contract (PR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03–1.25. The teaching of physical education was associated with lower prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.64–0.95. CONCLUSIONS The perception of adverse working conditions is associated with increased prevalence of insufficient physical activity in teachers and should be considered for the promotion of physical activity in this population.

  18. Factors influencing pre-service physics teachers' skills of writing teaching materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, Parlindungan

    2016-02-01

    Writing teaching materials is one of the generic pedagogical skills. Teachers and pre-service teachers should be trained to have the skills of writing teaching materials. This study examines the factors that influence the skills of writing in the disciplines among pre-service physics teachers. This study in particular aims to contribute to the development of science writing in the disciplines and to the organization of workshops on writing teaching materials for pre-service teachers. The problems of this research are formulated in the question of what are the factors that influence the skills of pre-service physics teachers in writing teaching materials. The research adopted mixed methods with embedded experimental design. The research subjects were 18 students enrolled in the school physics course. The instruments used consisted of conceptual understanding tests, learning strategy questionnaire, tests of the multiple representation skills, and one-on-one semi- structured interview. Results of data analysis show that the ability and skills of writing physics teaching materials of the pre- service physics teachers are determined by the factors of conceptual understanding of the subject matter with a contribution of 20%, the skills of making multiple representations of concepts with a contribution of 9.8% and students' self-regulation and learning strategy with a contribution of 33.5%. There are other factors that have not been investigated in this study; therefore, it is recommended that future research conduct further investigation on other factors that influence pre-service teachers' skills in writing physics teaching materials.

  19. Laser Microdissection Unravels Cell-Type-Specific Transcription in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots, Including CAAT-Box Transcription Factor Gene Expression Correlating with Fungal Contact and Spread1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogekamp, Claudia; Arndt, Damaris; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Becker, Jörg D.; Hohnjec, Natalija; Küster, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis. PMID:22034628

  20. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time child...

  1. Analysis of Physical andChemical Characteristics and Influence Factors of UCG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the UCG(underground coal gasification) theory, the “three zones” which are oxidization zone,reduction zone, and drying zone, were divided; physical and chemical properties of each zone were analyzed. Fac-tors, such as temperature, rate of water pouring, quantity of air blast, thickness of coal seam, and the operationpressure were discussed. Among the influencing factors, the temperature is the most important one.

  2. The effects of individual, family and environmental factors on physical activity levels in children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Sharon L; Keane, Eimear; Kearney, Patricia M

    2014-04-21

    Physical activity plays an important role in optimising physical and mental health during childhood, adolescence, and throughout adult life. This study aims to identify individual, family and environmental factors that determine physical activity levels in a population sample of children in Ireland. Cross-sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of the nationally representative Growing Up in Ireland study. A two-stage clustered sampling method was used where national schools served as the primary sampling unit (response rate: 82%) and age eligible children from participating schools were the secondary units (response rate: 57%). Parent reported child physical activity levels and potential covariates (parent and child reported) include favourite hobby, total screen time, sports participation and child body mass index (measured by trained researcher). Univariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression (forward block entry) examined the association between individual, family and environmental level factors and physical activity levels. The children (N = 8,568) were classified as achieving low (25%), moderate (20%) or high (55%) physical activity levels. In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 1.64 [95% CI: 1.34-2.01]), having an active favourite hobby (OR 1.65 [95% CI: 1.31-2.08]) and membership of sports or fitness team (OR 1.90 [95% CI: 1.48-2.45]) were significantly associated with being in the high physical activity group. Exceeding two hours total screen time (OR 0.66 [95% CI: 0.52-0.85]), being overweight (OR 0.41 [95%CI: 0.27-0.61]; or obese (OR 0.68 [95%CI: 0.54-0.86]) were significantly associated with decreased odds of being in the high physical activity group. Individual level factors appear to predict PA levels when considered in the multiple domains. Future research should aim to use more robust objective measures to explore the usefulness of the interconnect that exists across these domains. In particular how the family and environmental

  3. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pyoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  4. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A.; Everhart, Joshua S.; Clifton, Daniel R.; Best, Thomas M.; Borchers, James R.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. Data Sources A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Main Results Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5–6.1; P anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2–18.4; P < 0.05), hip external: internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = −0.339, P = 0.008). Conclusions Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury. PMID:26978166

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  6. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the importance of physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). METHODS: Case-referent study of 267 new cases of tennis elbow and 388 referents from the background population enrolled from general practices in Ringkjoebing County, Denmark. RESULTS......: Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related...... to tennis elbow (OR 3.7, CI 1.7 to 8.3). Among men, work with precision demanding movements was related to tennis elbow (OR 5.2, CI 1.5 to 17.9). Among both males and females, the results for work with hand held vibrating tools were inconsistent, partly because of few exposed subjects. A physical strain...

  7. Obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity as risk factors for CKD: Are men more vulnerable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Hallan; R. de Mutsert; S. Carlsen; F.W. Dekker; K. Aasarod; J. Holmen

    2006-01-01

    Background: The incidence of end-stage renal disease is especially high in men, and some studies indicated that smoking is a risk factor for men only. We investigated associations between obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population and whether

  8. Self-reported occupational exposure to chemical and physical factors and risk of skin problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso, Jose Hernan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Tynes, Tore;

    2015-01-01

    Prospective studies on occupational dermatoses in the general working population are sparse. This study investigated prospectively the impact of self-reported occupational exposure to chemicals and physical factors on the risk of skin problems. The cohort comprised respondents drawn randomly from...

  9. Sociocultural and Motivational Factors Affecting Asian American Females Studying Physics and Engineering in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Saliha L.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated whether and to what extent the motivational and sociocultural factors affect female Asian American high school physics students' achievement, their intended major in college, and their planned career goals at work fields. A survey of 62 questions, extracted from subscales of AAMAS,STPQ and PSE, were…

  10. A Comparison of Motivational Factors and Barriers to Physical Activity among Traditional versus Nontraditional College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulavic, Kimberly; Hultquist, Cherilyn N.; McLester, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the motivational factors and the barriers to physical activity (PA) in traditional college students (TS) and nontraditional college students (NTS) and determine if differences exist between these 2 groups. Participants: A total of 746 college students; 628 were TS (19.1 [plus-minus] 1.2 years), and 118 were NTS (31.2…

  11. Moving Home to College: Socio-Physical Factors in Creating "Home" in Temporary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Julie Williams

    2012-01-01

    Intentionally temporary housing environments, like student housing, where residents know they will settle for a short period may lack the social and physical factors that inspire a sense of home and community. Yet, these environments compete with traditional housing options to retain residents and therefore, universities want to create housing…

  12. Associations between Distal Upper Extremity Job Physical Factors and Psychosocial Measures in a Pooled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Thiese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. Individualized quantification of duration, repetition, and force and composite scores of the Strain Index (SI and the Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL were compared to 10 psychosocial measures. Relationships and predicted probabilities were assessed using ordered logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, and gender. Results and Discussion. Among 1834 study participants there were multiple statistically significant relationships. In general, as duration, repetition, and force increased, psychosocial factors worsened. However, general health and mental exhaustion improved with increasing job exposures. Depression was most strongly associated with increased repetition, while physical exhaustion was most strongly associated with increased force. SI and TLV for HAL were significantly related to multiple psychosocial factors. These relationships persisted after adjustment for strong confounders. Conclusion. This study quantified multiple associations between job physical exposures and occupational and nonoccupational psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to quantify the impacts on occupational health outcomes.

  13. Physical factors of primary jet vectoring control using synthetic jet actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhi-xun; LUO Zhen-bing

    2007-01-01

    A primary jet vectoring using synthetic jet actuators with different exit configurations was investigated, and the main physical factors influencing jet vectoring were analyzed and summarized. The physical factors of the pressure difference, the location and area of the lower pressure region, the component of the synthetic jet momentum and the entrainment ratio of the synthetic jet flow to primary jet flow directly control the vectoring force and the vectoring angle. Three characteristic parameters of the synthetic jet contribute to the pressure difference and the area of the lower pressure region Both the extension step and slope angle of the actuator exit have functions of regulating the location of the lower pressure region, the area of the lower pressure region, and the entrainment ratio of the synthetic jet flow to primary jet flow. The slope angle of the actuator exit has additional functions of regulating the component of the synthetic jet momentum. Based upon analyzing the physical factors of jet vectoring control with synthetic jets, the source variables of the physical factors were established. A preparatory control model of jet vectoring using synthetic jet actuator was presented, and it has the benefit of explaining the efficiency of jet vectoring using synthetic jet actuator with source variables at different values, and it indicates the optimal actuator is taking full advantage of the regulating function.

  14. Measurement of the Compressibility Factor of Gases: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Bendelsmith, Andrew J.; Kuwata, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students measure the compressibility factor of two gases, helium and carbon dioxide, as a function of pressure at constant temperature. The experimental apparatus is relatively inexpensive to construct and is described and diagrammed in detail.…

  15. Predicting geographical variations in behavioural risk factors: an analysis of physical and mental healthy days

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, H; Muennig, P. (Peter); Lubetkin, E; Gold, M.

    2004-01-01

    Study objectives: To determine the validity of physical and mental unhealthy days as summary measures for county health status and to forward a method for examining county level health trends using a single year of data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

  16. Factors that Affect the Physical Science Career Interest of Female Students: Testing Five Common Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project ("n" = 7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what…

  17. Investigating Factors in the Retention of Students in High School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Pybus, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported declining student enrolment rates in optional physical education. This study--incorporating constructs from social cognitive, self-determination, and body image theory--investigated factors that might be influential to this trend. Surveys were administered to 227 tenth-grade students from five schools in one school…

  18. Exposure to physical risk factors in Dutch agriculture : Effect on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E; Vrielink, HHEO; Metz, JHM; Huirne, RBM

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study examined the association between Dutch farmers' exposure to single physical risk factors or combinations of them and sick leave due to back disorders and neck, shoulder or upper extremity disorders. The sick leave claims of an insurance company in the years 1998-2001 for back (S

  19. Exposure to physical risk factors in Dutch agriculture: Effect on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Metz, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study examined the association between Dutch farmers¿ exposure to single physical risk factors or combinations of them and sick leave due to back disorders and neck, shoulder or upper extremity disorders. The sick leave claims of an insurance company in the years 1998¿2001 for back (S

  20. Measurement of the Compressibility Factor of Gases: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Bendelsmith, Andrew J.; Kuwata, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students measure the compressibility factor of two gases, helium and carbon dioxide, as a function of pressure at constant temperature. The experimental apparatus is relatively inexpensive to construct and is described and diagrammed in detail.…

  1. The PROSPECTS study: design of a prospective cohort study on prognosis and perpetuating factors of medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dessel, Nikki; Leone, Stephanie S; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Dekker, Joost; van der Horst, Henriëtte E

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the rationale and methodology of the PROSPECTS study, a study which aims to assess the course and prognosis of medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS), in terms of symptom severity and physical and social functioning. Additionally, it aims to identify different course types and to determine which factors are associated with these course types. Based on these factors, one or more prediction models will be developed. This study is a prospective, multicenter longitudinal cohort study with 1 baseline and 4 follow-up measurements during a 3 year period. 450 MUPS patients (age 18-70 years) will be included, divided over a primary care group, recruited in general practices, and a secondary/tertiary care group, recruited in specialized MUPS care programs. Primary outcome measures are severity of symptoms and degree of functional impairment. Secondary outcome measures are health care consumption and level of depressive symptoms and anxiety. Potential predictors are based on current theoretical models describing the perpetuation of MUPS and include somatic, psychological and social factors. Latent Class Growth Mixture Modeling will be used to identify distinct course types. Logistic regression analysis will be used to identify risk factors associated with these course types. Finally, one or more multivariate prediction models for the course of MUPS will be developed and tested. The PROSPECTS study aims to enhance our insight into the course of MUPS, thus contributing to better recognition of future patients at risk for persistent MUPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Fuentes, Jorge; Ospina, Maria; Saltaji, Humam; Hartling, Lisa

    2013-09-17

    Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to assess risk of bias of RCTs. Further

  3. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. Methods We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. Results In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. Conclusions There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to

  4. A Statistical Study of Socio-economic and Physical Risk Factors of Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alamgir

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 506 patients from various hospitals in Peshawar was examined to determine significant socio-economic and physical risk factors of Myocardial Infarction (heart attack. The factors examined were smoking (S, hypertension (H, cholesterol (C, diabetes (D, family history (F, residence (R, own a house (OH, number of dependents (ND, household income (I, obesity and lack of exercise (E. The response variable MI was binary. Therefore, logistic regression was applied (using GLIM and SPSS packages to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. Logistic regression models have been obtained indicating significant risk factors for both sexes, for males and for females separately. The best-selected model for both sexes is of factors S, F, D, H and C. The best-selected model for males is of factors CIFH, S, H, D, C and F, while the best-selected model for females is of factors D, H, C and F.

  5. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rossanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out on 40 elementary and high school students in Bandung, West Java, who were recruited by stratified random sampling. Short term memory was assessed by a psychologist using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Digit Span test (WISC-III Digit Span. Physical fitness was assessed by a clinical exercise physiologist using the Asian Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA test in a certified laboratory. ANOVA test was used to assess for a correlation between serum BDNF concentration and short term memory, as well as between physical fitness level and short term memory. Pearson’s correlation test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels. Results The majority of subjects were in the physical fitness categories of moderate or poor. Subjects had a mean BDNF level of 44,227.8 (SD 10,359 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference in physical fitness with either serum BDNF or with short term memory levels (P=0.139 and P=0.383, respectively. Also, no correlation was determined between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels (r=0.222; P=0.169. Conclusion In obese adolescents, short term memory levels are not significantly different between physical fitness levels nor between serum BDNF levels.

  6. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rossanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out on 40 elementary and high school students in Bandung, West Java, who were recruited by stratified random sampling. Short term memory was assessed by a psychologist using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Digit Span test (WISC-III Digit Span. Physical fitness was assessed by a clinical exercise physiologist using the Asian Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA test in a certified laboratory. ANOVA test was used to assess for a correlation between serum BDNF concentration and short term memory, as well as between physical fitness level and short term memory. Pearson’s correlation test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels. Results The majority of subjects were in the physical fitness categories of moderate or poor. Subjects had a mean BDNF level of 44,227.8 (SD 10,359 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference in physical fitness with either serum BDNF or with short term memory levels (P=0.139 and P=0.383, respectively. Also, no correlation was determined between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels (r=0.222; P=0.169. Conclusion In obese adolescents, short term memory levels are not significantly different between physical fitness levels nor between serum BDNF levels.

  7. Predictive factors for successful clinical outcome 1 year after an intensive combined physical and psychological programme for chronic low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    van Hooff, Miranda L; Spruit, Maarten; O’Dowd, John K.; van Lankveld, Wim; Fairbank, Jeremy C.T.; Van Limbeek, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this longitudinal study is to determine the factors which predict a successful 1-year outcome from an intensive combined physical and psychological (CPP) programme in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Methods A prospective cohort of 524 selected consecutive CLBP patients was followed. Potential predictive factors included demographic characteristics, disability, pain and cognitive behavioural factors as measured at pre-treatment assessment. The primary outcome measure ...

  8. Identifying Items to Assess Methodological Quality in Physical Therapy Trials: A Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta G.; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. Objective The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Design A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Methods Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Results Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Limitation Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. Conclusions To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor

  9. Factors across home, work, and school domains influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bishop, Hillary L; Greaney, Mary L; Whiteley, Jessica A

    2012-10-01

    Nontraditional college students (older, part-time, and/or working) have less healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors compared to traditional students, yet few health promotion efforts focus on nontraditional students. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to explore factors affecting nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional students. Fourteen semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with nontraditional undergraduate students attending a large university. The sample had a median age of 25 (range, 21-64), 57% were men, 43% were racial/ethnic minorities, and 57% were employed (mean 22 hours/week). Data were coded using a systematic team-based approach. Consistent themes (mentioned by 4+ students) were identified and categorized into three domains: home, work, and school. Home (themes: neighborhood characteristics, family, partners), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: cafeteria, vending machines) factors consistently influenced positive nutrition behaviors. Similarly, home (themes: neighborhood including safety, friends from home, partner,), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: not having a car, campus structure, campus gym, friends at school) factors consistently influenced positive physical activity. Financial resources and perceptions of autonomy had influence across domains. Results indicate consistent influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors across home, work, and school domains for nontraditional college students. Study findings suggest possible, and sometimes unconventional, intervention strategies to promote healthful eating and physical activity. For example, when cafeteria meal plans are not offered and financial constraints limit eating at the cafeteria, encouraging healthful choices from vending machines could be preferable to not eating at all.

  10. Physical and environmental factors affecting the persistence of explosives particles (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantonakis, Michael R.; Nguyen, Viet K.; Furstenberg, Robert; White, Caitlyn; Shuey, Melissa; Kendziora, Christopher A.; McGill, R. Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge of the persistence of trace explosives materials is critical to aid the security community in designing detection methods and equipment. The physical and environmental factors affecting the lifetimes of particles include temperature, airflow, interparticle distance, adlayers, humidity, particle field size and vapor pressure. We are working towards a complete particle persistence model that captures the relative importance of these effects to allow the user, with known environmental conditions, to predict particle lifetimes for explosives or other chemicals. In this work, particles of explosives are sieved onto smooth glass substrates using particle sizes and loadings relevant to those deposited by fingerprint deposition. The coupon is introduced into a custom flow cell and monitored under controlled airflow, humidity and temperature. Photomicroscopy images of the sample taken at fixed time intervals are analyzed to monitor particle sublimation and characterized as a size-independent radial sublimation velocity for each particle in the ensemble. In this paper we build on previous work by comparing the relationship between sublimation of different materials and their vapor pressures. We also describe the influence of a sebum adlayer on particle sublimation, allowing us to better model `real world' samples.

  11. Thermal physical properties and key influence factors of phase change emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; YANG Rui; ZHANG Yinping; HUANG Zhe; LIN Jia; WANG Xin

    2005-01-01

    Latent functionally thermal fluids (LFTF) are a novel kind of heat storage and heat transfer fluids that include phase change microcapsule slurry and phase change emulsion (PCE). They have much greater apparent specific heats and higher heat transfer abilities in the phase change temperature range than conventional single-phase heat transfer fluids such as water. Thus they are advantageous in the field of the convective heat transfer enhancement and energy transport. In this paper, some thermal physical properties such as viscosity, fusion heat and apparent specific heat (cp) are measured, and the influences of some factors (such as selection of surfactants, preparation method, temperature, mixing ratio of surfactants and mass concentration of phase change material) on them are discussed. The study shows that: 1) the viscosity of the PCE prepared in the present work is lower than that reported in the literature; 2) its apparent specific heat value for the phase change temperature region is high and proportionally increases with the concentration of phase change material.

  12. Driving factors of the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites in a physic nut plantation and spontaneous plants associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Teodoro, Adenir V; Neto, Marçal P; Ignacio, Maíra

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal changes in climate and plant diversity are known to affect the population dynamics of both pests and natural enemies within agroecosystems. In Brazil, spontaneous plants are usually tolerated in small-scale physic nut plantations over the year, which in turn may mediate interactions between pests and natural enemies within this agroecosystem. Here, we aimed to access the influence of seasonal variation of abiotic (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and biotic (diversity of spontaneous plants, overall richness and density of mites) factors on the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites found in a physic nut plantation and its associated spontaneous plants. Mite sampling was monthly conducted in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous leaves of spontaneous plants as well as in physic nut shrubs over an entire year. In the dry season there was a higher abundance of phytophagous mites (Tenuipalpidae, Tarsonemidae and Tetranychidae) on spontaneous plants than on physic nut shrubs, while predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) showed the opposite pattern. The overall density of mites on spontaneous plants increased with relative humidity and diversity of spontaneous plants. Rainfall was the variable that most influenced the density of mites inhabiting physic nut shrubs. Agroecosystems comprising spontaneous plants associated with crops harbour a rich mite community including species of different trophic levels which potentially benefit natural pest control due to increased diversity and abundance of natural enemies.

  13. Dietary and physical activity/inactivity factors associated with obesity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-07-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8-10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA.

  14. Physical Exercise Practice and Associated Factors Among Undergraduate Students from a Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Marcio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and factors associated with not performing physical exercise in undergraduate students. Methods. The sample was composed of 2738 undergraduate students of Londrina city, Parana, Brazil. The dependent variables were: not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity for at least 30 minutes per week; not performing vigorous physical exercise for at least 20 minutes per week; not performing muscular strengthening exercises (8-12 repetitions in a week. The independent variables were gender, age, skin colour, marital status, housing, study pattern, year of course, paid work, and area of the course. Odds ratio (OR was estimated by multivariate analysis with the use of binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of undergraduate students not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity, of vigorous intensity, or muscular strengthening exercises was 47.3, 61.0, and 66.2%, respectively. Female sex was associated with a risk of not performing moderate physical exercise (OR = 1.23, vigorous physical exercise (OR = 1.47, and strengthening exercises (OR = 1.22. Undergraduate students of exact sciences (OR = 1.40 and 1.52, juridical sciences (OR = 1.48 and 1.51, and humanities (OR = 1.45 and 1.52 were at risk of not performing physical exercise of moderate or vigorous intensity, respectively. Being a 2nd (OR = 0.79, 3rd (OR = 0.74, or 4th (OR = 0.71 year student was bound with a lower likelihood of not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity. Conclusions. Intervention programmes with the aim of promoting physical exercise practice in undergraduate students should consider gender, year, and area of the course.

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  16. Controlling Legionella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa re-growth in therapeutic spas: implementation of physical disinfection treatments, including UV/ultrafiltration, in a respiratory hydrotherapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, E; Sanna, T; Zanetti, F; Dallolio, L

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the efficacy of an integrated water safety plan (WSP) in controlling Legionella re-growth in a respiratory hydrotherapy system located in a spa centre, supplied with sulphurous water, which was initially colonized by Legionella pneumophila. Heterotrophic plate counts, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella spp. were detected in water samples taken 6-monthly from the hydrotherapy equipment (main circuit, entry to benches, final outlets). On the basis of the results obtained by the continuous monitoring and the changes in conditions, the original WSP, including physical treatments of water and waterlines, environmental surveillance and microbiological monitoring, was integrated introducing a UV/ultrafiltration system. The integrated treatment applied to the sulphurous water (microfiltration/UV irradiation/ultrafiltration), waterlines (superheated stream) and distal outlets (descaling/disinfection of nebulizers and nasal irrigators), ensured the removal of Legionella spp. and P. aeruginosa and a satisfactory microbiological quality over time. The environmental surveillance was successful in evaluating the hazard and identifying the most suitable preventive strategies to avoid Legionella re-growth. Ultrafiltration is a technology to take into account in the control of microbial contamination of therapeutic spas, since it does not modify the chemical composition of the water, thus allowing it to retain its therapeutic properties.

  17. The role of obesity, physical activityand dietary factors on the risk for breast cancer: mexican experience

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Romieu; Martin Lajous

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the role of adiposity, physical activity and diet in the risk for breast cancer in Mexican women. Lack of physical activity, diets high in carbohydrates and in glycemic load and low intake of folate and vitamin B12 have been shown to increase the risk of breast cancer in Mexican women, in particular postmenopausal breast cancer. Other dietary factors that may begin to play a more relevant role in breast cancer incidence in Mexico are alcohol intake and vitamin D stat...

  18. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 27-30: Direct-Current Circuits; Magnetic Forces; Ampere's Law; and Faraday's Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules indlude study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Activity on the Brain A Closer Look at Trophic Factor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristy ePhillips

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While the relationship between increased physical activity and cognitive ability hasbeen conjectured for centuries, only recently have the mechanisms underlying this relationship began to emerge. Convergent evidence suggests that physical activity offers an affordable and effective method to improve cognitive function in all ages, particularly the elderly who are most vulnerable to neurodegenerative disorders. In addition to improving cardiac and immune function, physical activity alters trophic factor signaling and, in turn, neuronal function and structure in areas critical for cognition. Sustained exercise plays a role in modulating anti-inflammatory effects and may play a role in preserving cognitive function in aging and neuropathological conditions. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that myokines released by exercising muscles affect the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor synthesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, a finding that could lead to the identification of new and therapeutically important mediating factors. Given the growing numbers of individuals with cognitive impairment in the US population, a better understanding of how these factors work in aggregate to contribute to cognition is imperative, and constitutes an important first step toward developing non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies to improve cognition in vulnerable populations.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain: a closer look at trophic factor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Cristy; Baktir, Mehmet Akif; Srivatsan, Malathi; Salehi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    While the relationship between increased physical activity and cognitive ability has been conjectured for centuries, only recently have the mechanisms underlying this relationship began to emerge. Convergent evidence suggests that physical activity offers an affordable and effective method to improve cognitive function in all ages, particularly the elderly who are most vulnerable to neurodegenerative disorders. In addition to improving cardiac and immune function, physical activity alters trophic factor signaling and, in turn, neuronal function and structure in areas critical for cognition. Sustained exercise plays a role in modulating anti-inflammatory effects and may play a role in preserving cognitive function in aging and neuropathological conditions. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that myokines released by exercising muscles affect the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor synthesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, a finding that could lead to the identification of new and therapeutically important mediating factors. Given the growing number of individuals with cognitive impairments worldwide, a better understanding of how these factors contribute to cognition is imperative, and constitutes an important first step toward developing non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies to improve cognition in vulnerable populations.

  2. Factors influencing the adoption, implementation, and continuation of physical activity interventions in primary health care: A Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Crone, M.R.; Verheijden, M.W.; Zouwe, N. van der; Middelkoop, B.J.; Gebhardt, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The introduction of efficacious physical activity interventions in primary health care is a complex process. Understanding factors influencing the process can enhance the development of effective introduction strategies. This Delphi study aimed to identify factors most relevant for the

  3. Zimbabwean Female Participation in Physics: Factors of Identity Formation Considered as Contributing to Developing an Orientation to Physics by Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudyanga, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the Zimbabwean female participation in physics, with special emphasis on the factors of identity formation considered as contributing to developing an orientation to physics by female students. The main study from which this paper was taken explored the influence of identity formation on the Zimbabwean Advanced Level…

  4. Is an imbalance between physical capacity and exposure to work-related physical factors associated with low-back, neck or shoulder pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-Reenen, H.H. van; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates whether an imbalance between physical capacity and exposure to work-related physical factors is associated with low-back, neck, or shoulder pain. Methods: Data of the longitudinal study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress, and health (SMASH), with a

  5. Is an imbalance between physical capacity and exposure to work-related physical factors associated with low-back, neck or shoulder pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-Reenen, H.H. van; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates whether an imbalance between physical capacity and exposure to work-related physical factors is associated with low-back, neck, or shoulder pain. Methods: Data of the longitudinal study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress, and health (SMASH), with a

  6. Factors affecting pain relief in response to physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, M D; Sundstrup, E; Brandt, M; Andersen, L L

    2016-12-28

    The aim of this study is to identify factors associated with musculo-skeletal pain reduction during workplace-based or home-based physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers. Two hundred female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0-10) from three hospitals participated. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level (18 departments) to 10 weeks of (i) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5 × 10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (ii) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure-time for 5 × 10 minutes per week. Linear mixed models accounting for cluster identified factors affecting pain reduction. On average 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. The multi-adjusted analysis showed a significant effect on pain reduction of both training adherence (P=.04) and intervention group (P=.04) with participants in WORK experiencing greater reductions compared with HOME. Obesity at baseline was associated with better outcome. Leisure-time exercise, daily patient transfer, age, and chronic pain did not affect the changes in pain. In conclusion, even when adjusted for training adherence, performing physical exercise at the workplace is more effective than home-based exercise in reducing musculo-skeletal pain in healthcare workers. Noteworthy, obese individuals may especially benefit from physical exercise interventions targeting musculo-skeletal pain.

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  9. Intense heat waves: dynamical-physical factors and characteristics of these heat waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Demirtaş

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical and physical factors that trigger and maintain heat waves (HW were examined. Since high pressure systems play a role in HW processes, an atmospheric blocking method was introduced. A HW detection method which employs spatially and temporally changing reference temperature to compute HW parameters was used. Departures from climate averages of 500-hPa geopotential height, 850-hPa temperature, sea-surface-temperatures and soil wetness of 2003, 2012 and 2015 June-July-August were analyzed. HWs were examined together with dynamical and physical factors, atmospheric blocking and HW characteristics. Results indicate that HWs were influential over the Aegean region. Year-to-year variability in summer temperatures is considered as signs of climate variability.

  10. Examining problem solving skills of physical education and sport students from several factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasgin, Ozden

    2011-06-01

    In this research, problem solving skills of university students are examined in the factors of sex and class. In this research problem solving inventory that is improved by Heppner and Petersen (1982) is applied to the students that are training 1. and 4. class 58 female 86 male at Selcuk University Konya, Turkey Physical Education and Sport Collage. In statistical analysis of research for the factors sex and class, variance analysis and t test are used. In the research while meaningful difference is found in the above dimension of the factors sex and there is not found meaningful difference in the factors of class. In conclusion, female students have more positive problem solving skills than male students.

  11. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on the Effectiveness of Physical Fitness Teaching and Constraining Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui-Er Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cooperative learning and traditional learning on the effectiveness and constraining factors of physical fitness teaching under various teaching conditions were studied. Sixty female students in Grades 7–8 were sampled to evaluate their learning of health and physical education (PE according to the curriculum for Grades 1–9 in Taiwan. The data were quantitatively and qualitatively collected and analyzed. The overall physical fitness of the cooperative learning group exhibited substantial progress between the pretest and posttest, in which the differences in the sit-and-reach and bent-knee sit-up exercises achieved statistical significance. The performance of the cooperative learning group in the bent-knee sit-up and 800 m running exercises far exceeded that of the traditional learning group. Our qualitative data indicated that the number of people grouped before a cooperative learning session, effective administrative support, comprehensive teaching preparation, media reinforcement, constant feedback and introspection regarding cooperative learning strategies, and heterogeneous grouping are constraining factors for teaching PE by using cooperative learning strategies. Cooperative learning is considered an effective route for attaining physical fitness among students. PE teachers should consider providing extrinsic motivation for developing learning effectiveness.

  12. Factors related to physical violence experienced by parents of persons with schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masako; Solomon, Phyllis; Kita, Sachiko; Nagata, Satoko; Yokoyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Fujii, Chiyo

    2016-09-30

    Most violence by patients with mental illness is perpetuated against family members rather than the general public. However, there is insufficient research to reach a consensus on factors related to family violence for this population. Thus, the current study aimed to clarify factors related to physical violence by patients with schizophrenia towards their parents in Japan. A self-administrated survey was distributed through family groups to families with a relative with a psychiatric disorder. Questionnaires completed by 400 parents of patients with schizophrenia were analyzed. Of the 400 parents, almost two-thirds experienced "no physical violence" and close to one-third experienced "physical violence" during the past year. Results of a mixed-effects logistic regression revealed that physical violence was significantly related to the patients' gender (female rather than male), multiple patient hospitalizations (3 or more times as compared to never hospitalized), low annual household income (less than US$20K as compared to over US$40K), and higher hostility and criticism of family interactions. Family violence maybe reduced through education on communication strategies for both parents and patients.

  13. Factors associated with leisure time physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants: Ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of the study was identify the prevalence and factors associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adult participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The LTPA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), long version. A hierarchical ecological model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPA distributed across blocks. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression. In men, being more educated, having a high family income, living in environments with conditions and opportunities for PA, being retired and being overweight were positively associated, while current smoking, obesity and abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. Among women, being over 60years old, being more educated, having a high family income, living in an environment with conditions and opportunities for PA practice and being retired were positively associated, while being overweight, obese and having abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. The proposed ecological model explains the LTPA through the social, physical and personal environment and highlights gender differences in physical activity.

  14. Prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among physical education students enrolled in a public university. METHODS: This study evaluated 236 students and assessed body image perception (silhouette scale, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, parental education, marital status, university course, work, living arrangement, study shift, and income, physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version, dietary habits, tobacco use, excessive intake of alcohol (questions from the tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and nutrition domains of the FANTASTIC instrument, and nutritional status (body mass index [BMI]. Descriptive analysis, the chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and crude and adjusted multinomial regression were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 69.5%; 44.1% were dissatisfied with excess weight. BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² was associated with dissatisfaction with excess weight; factors associated with dissatisfaction with slimness were being male, eating an unhealthy diet, and smoking tobacco. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that female college students with a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² are more likely to present dissatisfaction with excess weight. Being male, eating an unhealthy diet, engaging in physical activity for < 739.61 min/week and smoking tobacco were the variables associated with dissatisfaction with thinness.

  15. Prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among physical education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Elisa Pinheiro; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among physical education students enrolled in a public university. This study evaluated 236 students and assessed body image perception (silhouette scale), sociodemographic variables (sex, age, parental education, marital status, university course, work, living arrangement, study shift, and income), physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version), dietary habits, tobacco use, excessive intake of alcohol (questions from the tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and nutrition domains of the FANTASTIC instrument), and nutritional status (body mass index [BMI]). Descriptive analysis, the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and crude and adjusted multinomial regression were used. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 69.5%; 44.1% were dissatisfied with excess weight. BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² was associated with dissatisfaction with excess weight; factors associated with dissatisfaction with slimness were being male, eating an unhealthy diet, and smoking tobacco. Our findings suggest that female college students with a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² are more likely to present dissatisfaction with excess weight. Being male, eating an unhealthy diet, engaging in physical activity for < 739.61 min/week and smoking tobacco were the variables associated with dissatisfaction with thinness.

  16. Impact on total population health and societal cost-effectiveness of including tumour necrosis factor- antagonists in management of ankylosing spondylitis: a dynamic population modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tran-Duy (An); A. Boonen (Annelies); M.A.F.J. van de Laar (Martin); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background: Sequential treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that includes tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF agents) has been applied in most of the Western countries. Existing cost-effectiveness (CE) models almost exclusively presented the incremental

  17. Do Psychosocial Factors Predict Muscle Strength, Pain, or Physical Performance in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Isabel A C; Meeus, Mira; Mahmoudian, Armaghan; Luyten, Frank P; Nijs, Jo; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of psychosocial factors, namely, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and maladaptive coping strategies, with muscle strength, pain, and physical performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related symptoms. A total of 109 women (64 with knee OA-related symptoms) with a mean age of 65.4 years (49-81 years) were recruited for this study. Psychosocial factors were quantified by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Pain Coping Inventory. Clinical features were assessed using isometric and isokinetic knee muscle strength measurements, visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and functional tests. Associations were examined using correlation and regression analysis. In knee OA patients, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy explained a significant proportion of the variability in isometric knee extension and flexion strength (6.3%-9.2%), accounting for more overall variability than some demographic and medical status variables combined. Psychosocial factors were not significant independent predictors of isokinetic strength, knee pain, or physical performance. In understanding clinical features related to knee OA, such as muscle weakness, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy might offer something additional beyond what might be explained by traditional factors, underscoring the importance of a biopsychosocial approach in knee OA management. Further research on individual patient characteristics that mediate the effects of psychosocial factors is, however, required in order to create opportunities for more targeted, personalized treatment for knee OA.

  18. Sociocultural factors relating to Tongans' and Indigenous Fijians' patterns of eating, physical activity and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavoa, Helen M; McCabe, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews literature between 1974 and 2007 that addresses the impact of sociocultural factors on reported patterns of eating, physical activity (activity) and body size of Tongans and indigenous Fijians (Fijians) in their countries of origin. There have been changes in diet (more imported and fewer traditional foods), activity (reduced, especially in urban settings), residence (rural-urban shift) and body size (increased obesity and at a younger age). The prevalence of overweight/obesity in Tongans and Fijians has increased rapidly over the last two decades and remains among the highest in the world (>80% in Tonga; >40% in Fiji), with more females reported to be obese than males. The few studies that investigated sociocultural influences on patterns of eating, activity and/or body size in this population have examined the impact of hierarchical organisation, rank and status (sex, seniority), values (respect, care, co-operation) and/or role expectations. It is important to examine how sociocultural factors influence eating, activity and body size in order to i) establish factors that promote or protect against obesity, ii) inform culturally-appropriate interventions to promote healthy lifestyles and body size, and iii) halt the obesity epidemic, especially in cultural groups with a high prevalence of obesity. There is an urgent need for more systematic investigations of key sociocultural factors, whilst taking into account the complex interplay between sociocultural factors, behaviours and other influences (historical; socioeconomic; policy; external global influences; physical environment).

  19. Lower physical activity is a risk factor for a clustering of metabolic risk factors in non-obese and obese Japanese subjects: the Takahata study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaino, Wataru; Daimon, Makoto; Sasaki, Satoshi; Karasawa, Shigeru; Takase, Kaoru; Tada, Kyouko; Wada, Kiriko; Kameda, Wataru; Susa, Shinji; Oizumi, Toshihide; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    In several countries including Japan, people without obesity but with a clustering of metabolic risk factors (MetRFs) were not considered to have the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Here, we examined whether lifestyle characteristics differed between non-obese and obese subjects with or without a clustering of MetRFs. From a population-based cross-sectional study of Japanese subjects aged ≥ 40 years, 1,601 subjects (age: 61.9 ± 10.3 years; 710/891 men/women) were recruited. Physical activity status and daily nutritional intake were estimated using questionnaires. A clustering of MetRFs was defined based on the presence of at least two non-essential risk factors for the diagnosis of the MetS in Japan. Energy intake was not higher in subjects with a clustering of MetRFs compared with those without. Among men, energy expenditure at work was significantly lower in non-obese (9.0 ± 8.2 vs. 11.3 ± 9.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), P = 0.025) and obese (9.0 ± 7.9 vs. 11.6 ± 9.4 METs, P = 0.017) subjects with a clustering of MetRFs than in those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that energy expenditure at work was significantly associated with a clustering of MetRFs after adjusting for possible confounding factors including total energy intake. The ORs (per 1 METs) were 0.970 (95% CI, 0.944-0.997; P = 0.032) in non-obese men and 0.962 (0.926- 0.999; P = 0.043) in obese men. Similar associations were not observed in women. In Japanese males, lower physical activity, but not excessive energy intake, is a risk factor for a clustering of MetRFs independent of their obesity status.

  20. Lack of physical activity in young children is related to higher composite risk factor score for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanha, Tina; Wollmer, Per; Thorsson, Ola

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates whether accelerometer-measured physical activity is related to higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children.......This study evaluates whether accelerometer-measured physical activity is related to higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children....

  1. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. RESULTS: 547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. CONCLUSIONS: Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  2. Protein intake as a determinant factor of physical activity in older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina K. Kusumaratna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the proportion of people aged 60 and over is growing faster than any other age group. It has been well-established that the aging process can be associated with increased susceptibility to chronic conditions, disability, and co-morbidity, which however may be minimized or even partially reversed by physical activity. The assessment of physical activity is becoming an increasingly important component in the evaluation of elderly persons. Nutritional intake and status play an essential role in determining the physical activity level potentially capable of minimizing the health burden of older persons. The objective of this study was to find out whether nutritional intake and status were correlated with physical activity in community-dwelling older persons. The study population included 219 aged 60 to 69 years, of whom complete measures of socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, nutritional intake and physical activity were obtained. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin and hemoglobin concentration were measured as nutritional indicators (biomarkers. The nutrient content of food intakes was analyzed and calculated by “Nutrisurvey” software. Analysis indicated that there was a significant correlation between nutritional biomarkers [total protein (r=-0.211; p=0.002 and globulin (r=-0.247; p=0.000] and physical activity. Compared to other food intakes, intakes of carbohydrate (r=0.241; p=0.001 and animal protein (r=0.149; p=0.027 were significantly correlated with physical activity. Our findings lend support to the existence among healthy older persons of a relationship between nutrional intake and status and physical activity.

  3. Protein intake as a determinant factor of physical activity in older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina K. Kusumaratna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the proportion of people aged 60 and over is growing faster than any other age group. It has been well-established that the aging process can be associated with increased susceptibility to chronic conditions, disability, and co-morbidity, which however may be minimized or even partially reversed by physical activity. The assessment of physical activity is becoming an increasingly important component in the evaluation of elderly persons. Nutritional intake and status play an essential role in determining the physical activity level potentially capable of minimizing the health burden of older persons. The objective of this study was to find out whether nutritional intake and status were correlated with physical activity in community-dwelling older persons. The study population included 219 aged 60 to 69 years, of whom complete measures of socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, nutritional intake and physical activity were obtained. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin and hemoglobin concentration were measured as nutritional indicators (biomarkers. The nutrient content of food intakes was analyzed and calculated by “Nutrisurvey” software. Analysis indicated that there was a significant correlation between nutritional biomarkers [total protein (r=-0.211; p=0.002 and globulin (r=-0.247; p=0.000] and physical activity. Compared to other food intakes, intakes of carbohydrate (r=0.241; p=0.001 and animal protein (r=0.149; p=0.027 were significantly correlated with physical activity. Our findings lend support to the existence among healthy older persons of a relationship between nutrional intake and status and physical activity.

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  5. Predictors of healthcare professionals' intention and behaviour to encourage physical activity in patients with cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare professionals can play a crucial role in optimizing the health status of patients with cardiovascular risk factors (abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and elevated blood glucose. In order to do this, it is imperative that we understand the social-cognitive determinants (including habits that underlie healthcare professionals' intention and the corresponding behavior of actually encouraging patients with cardiovascular risk factors to engage in physical activity. Methods In this longitudinal Professionals' Intention and Behavior (PIB study, healthcare professionals (N = 278, aged 20-61 years with approximately 60% having attained an education level exceeding bachelor's degree, types of healthcare professionals 60% in physiotherapy and 40% in nursing completed online surveys measuring the social-cognitive determinants of healthcare professionals' intention and the corresponding behavior of actually encouraging patients with cardiovascular risk factors to engage in physical activity. Results Social-cognitive determinants accounted for 41% (p We explored the congruence between healthcare professionals' intention to encourage patients and the self-reported behavior of encouraging patients. We found that intention and behavior were congruent in 39.7% of the healthcare professionals. Additionally, the intention to encourage and the corresponding behavior of encouraging was incongruent in 31.7% of the healthcare professionals. Conclusions In the prevention of cardiovascular disease, healthcare professionals' intention to encourage physical activity among patients and subsequent behavior of encouraging patients is important for the improvement of patients' cardiovascular risk profiles. We found that the intentions and self-reported behavior of healthcare professionals working with patients with cardiovascular risk factors can be predicted by social-cognitive determinants thus

  6. Physical and technological factors of the formation of detonation capacity of blasthole charges of emulsion explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poplavsky V.A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern conditions of mining are characterized by a constant increase in the depth of the pit, as a result of this there is a change in the geological and mining conditions. The obtaining of the mined rock is provided by using the drilling-and-blasting method as the main process that influences the technical and economic indicators of the next processes and enterprises in general. The effectiveness of the explosion in rocks depends on the technology of blasting. In scientific and technical literature the influence of various natural and technological factors on the process of the explosion has been studied in detail. We developed methods and recommendations for calculating the parameters of mass blasting used in common projects in the blasting operation and ensure their implementation of getting the rock mass of different coarseness of grading. However, these methods are based on traditional formulas and empirical dependencies, according to which the parameters of location and charge blasting accepted as the same, despite the fact that the blocks that blasted may include different types of rocks, and this, in turn, causes predatory yield of sub-standard fractions. Therefore, the implementation of the design parameters of the blasting should be based on modern scientific achievements, interrelationships of geological and technological indicators and parameters with the least expenditure of labor and time in the design process. The article analyzes the impact of the physical condition and the composition of emulsion explosive, geometric parameters and conditions of charge blasting, characteristics of dynamic processes in the charge and the decomposed array for the manifestation of the phenomenon of desensibilization emulsion explosives. Keywords: desensibilization; detonation speed; critical diameter; ; hydrostatic pressure; gas-generating process; shock wave; boulder.

  7. Association Between Living Alone and Physical Inactivity Among People With and Without Disability, Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar-Viera, César G.; Jones, Patrice D.; Schumacher, Jessica R.; Hall, Allyson G

    2014-01-01

    People with disability may be at risk of developing diseases due to physical inactivity; social support from family and friends is positively related to engaging in regular physical activity. We compared the association between living alone and engagement in physical activity among people with and without disability in Florida. We used multivariate logistical regression to analyze 2009 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data (n = 10,902) to assess differences in physical activ...

  8. Physical activity and physical activity cognitions are potential factors maintaining fatigue in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline J. M.; van Leeuwen, Ninke; Bossema, Ercolie R.; Kruize, Aike A.; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bijlsma, Johannes W. J.; Geenen, Rinie

    Background Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating problem in Sjogren's syndrome. It has been suggested that physical activity and cognitions about physical activity can influence fatigue. Objective The aim of this study was to examine fatigue and physical activity levels in patients with Sjogren's

  9. Physical activity and physical activity cognitions are potential factors maintaining fatigue in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen; MD E.J.M. Wouters; Bossema; Bootsma; Geenen; Kruize; Bijlsma

    2012-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating problem in Sjögren's syndrome. It has been suggested that physical activity and cognitions about physical activity can influence fatigue. Objective The aim of this study was to examine fatigue and physical activity levels in patients with Sjögren's

  10. Physical activity and physical activity cognitions are potential factors maintaining fatigue in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline J. M.; van Leeuwen, Ninke; Bossema, Ercolie R.; Kruize, Aike A.; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bijlsma, Johannes W. J.; Geenen, Rinie

    2012-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating problem in Sjogren's syndrome. It has been suggested that physical activity and cognitions about physical activity can influence fatigue. Objective The aim of this study was to examine fatigue and physical activity levels in patients with Sjogren's

  11. The Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Exertion, Event-Related Stress, and Demographic Factors in Predicting Physical Activity among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The focus of this study was to examine the relationship among precursors to physical activity, including exercise self-efficacy, perceived exertion, stress, and demographic factors, among college students. Design: This study employed an associational design. Setting: The study population was college freshmen in southeast Louisiana who…

  12. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Anderssen, S A; Holme, I M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 2-year school-based physical activity (PA) intervention in 9-year-old children on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. One intervention school (I-school) (n=125) and one control school (C-school) (n=131) were included. The children...

  13. The Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Exertion, Event-Related Stress, and Demographic Factors in Predicting Physical Activity among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The focus of this study was to examine the relationship among precursors to physical activity, including exercise self-efficacy, perceived exertion, stress, and demographic factors, among college students. Design: This study employed an associational design. Setting: The study population was college freshmen in southeast Louisiana who…

  14. Gas-phase and Ar-matrix SQM scaling factors for various DFT functionals with basis sets including polarization and diffuse functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábri, Csaba; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2011-05-12

    Scaling factors for Pulay's scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) scheme have been determined for four different widely used DFT functionals (PBE, B3LYP, B3PW91, and M06-2X) and for two basis sets (6-31++G** and aug-cc-pVTZ) by fitting computed results to 347 fundamental experimental vibrational frequencies of 33 molecules. Measurements in the gas phase and in solid argon matrices were used independently in the fitting procedure in order to provide a simple method of estimating matrix shifts. The accuracy of the new scaling factors is demonstrated on test molecules including hydrogen-bonded systems and molecules containing chlorine and sulfur atoms.

  15. Physical activity as a health factor modifying heart rate variability (HRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowosielska-Swadzba Danuta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research was the evaluation of the selected HRV factors of the training volleyball players in two training periods and non-training people. Materials and methods : The study involved 8 leading volleyball players aged 20-23 and 13 non-training persons aged 19-26. The study of the training players was conducted twice: in the pre-competition and in the competition period. The study for the non-training persons was conducted once. The selected factors of the spectral analysis have been evaluated: TP [ms 2], share of LF and HF power [n.u], LF/HF indicator and time analysis factors: RR [ms], HR [1/min], RMSSD [ms]. Results : Statistically significant differences appeared only in the selected time analysis factors (RR, HR, between the group of the training and non-training persons. Other differences in the evaluated parameters were not statistically significant. Conclusions : Physical activity influences on the HRV growth. HRV measurement may serve for the control of the changes taking place in the AUN under the influence of the physical activity.

  16. [Physical factors influencing the floristic relationships of pinyon pine (Pinaceae) from San Luis Potosi, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Angélica; Luna, Mario; García, Edmundo

    2014-06-01

    In plant communities, the species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental factors are of central importance in ecology. In San Luis Potosí of Mexico, woodlands of Pinus cembroides and P. johannis are sympatric, but P. cembroides tends to be located in South and Southwest slopes, in more disturbed sites; unlike, P. johannis, is mostly distributed in mesic areas, in North and Northeast slopes. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of some physical factors on the floristic similarity of pinyon pine P. cembroides and P. johannis. The study area was located in the Sierra San Miguelito, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. We selected 40 sampling units spread over an area of 50km2. In each unit, we laid out two 20m long lines perpendicular to each other, in which we recorded cover data of the plant species intercepted. We developed two data matrices, the first one including cover values of 91 species, and the second one, considering seven topographical, climatic, and solar radiation variables. We applied cluster analysis and ordination to explore the influence of environmental variables on the floristic differentiation of pinyon pine woodlands. Clustering showed six groups, the first three characterized by P. cembroides. The ordination showed that variance represented by the first three axes was 65.9%. Axis 1 was positively correlated with altitude and negatively with mean annual temperature; axes two and three, showed low correlation with the variables tested. P. cembroides woodlands and accompanying flora tend to be located in lower altitude, higher mean annual temperature, and mainly in South-Southwestern slopes. In contrast, stands of P. johannis, mixed stands of P. johannis-P. cembroides, and Quercus potosina, were usually founded in greater altitudes, mean annual temperature slightly lower, and North-Northeastern exposure. The sites of these monospecific and mixed woodlands with associated species, indicators of environmental variables

  17. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eSaligeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.

  18. Surface soil factors and soil characteristics in geo-physical milieu of Kebbi State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Usman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility (K factor is the most important tool for estimation the erosion. The aim of this study Soil factors and surface soil characteristics are important components of agricultural environment. They support surface and subsurface soils to perform many functions to agriculture and economic human developments. Understanding these factors would aid to the recognition of the values that our soil and land offered to humanity. It is therefore, aim of this study to visualise and examine the soil factors and surface soil characteristics in Kebbi State Nigeria. An Integrated Surface Soil Approach (ISSA was used in the classification and description of soil environment in the study region. The factors constituted in the ISSA are important components of soil science that theories and practice(s noted to provide ideas on how soil environment functioned. The results indicate that the surface soil environments around Arewa, Argungu, Augie, Birnin Kebbi and Dandi are physically familiar with the following surface soil characteristics: bad-lands, blown-out-lands, cirque-lands, fertile-lands, gullied-lands, miscellaneous and rock-outcrops.The major soil factors observed hat played an important role in surface soil manipulations and soil formation are alluvial, colluvial, fluvial and lacustrine; ant, earthworms and termite; and various forms of surface relief supported by temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and wind. Overall, the surface soil environment of the region was describe according to their physical appearance into fadama clay soils, fadama clay-loam soils, dryland sandy soils, dryland sandy-loam soils, dryland stony soils and organic-mineral soils.

  19. A Qualitative Study of Environmental Factors Important for Physical Activity in Rural Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Cleland

    Full Text Available Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults.In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews explored features of the built and social environment commonly examined in studies of urban adults, including functional characteristics (eg, lighting, footpaths, roads/verges, road and personal safety, availability and accessibility of places to be active, destinations, and aesthetics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content-thematic approach using QSR NVivo software.While some urban environmental constructs were salient to these rural adults, such as availability of and accessibility to places to be active, some constructs were operationalised differently, such as road safety (where large trucks and winding roads rather than traffic density was of concern, or were not considered relevant (eg, personal safety related to crime, availability of walkable destinations, aesthetics.The measurement of the physical environment in rural populations may require reconsideration and/or modification to ensure salience and appropriate quantification of associations with physical activity in future studies.

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  2. Joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged Malays in a developing country: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H Y Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged sitting is associated with increased weight and higher risks for abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension among the adult population. This has been well documented in the West, but studies on these associations are lacking in developing countries, including Malaysia. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged working adults. METHODOLOGY: A total of 686 Malay men and women participated (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed from the modified NCEP ATP III criteria. Self-reported sitting time was obtained with the validated Malay version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Participants were asked about their time spent sitting during travel in a motor vehicle, e.g., car, motorcycle or bus, over the preceding 7 days. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with the confidence interval for the combined effects of sitting quartiles and physical activity categories with metabolic risk factors. RESULTS/SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our participants was 31.9%. Their average total sitting time (including transportation was 7.6 ± 2.4 h/day. After we adjusted for gender and educational level, higher sitting quartiles and physically inactive groups were associated with higher odds for metabolic syndrome compared with the referent group (sitting <6 h/day and physically active. In the physically active stratum, the odds for metabolic syndrome in participants who sat ≥ 9.3 h/day was 3.8 times that of participants who sat <6 h/day. Both higher sitting quartiles and insufficient physical activity were associated with adverse effects on abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycaemia. CONCLUSION: In joint analyses of sitting time and physical activity, higher sitting time and insufficient physical activity

  3. Prevalence of lower back pain and physical inactivity: the impact of psychosocial factors in pregnant women served by the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Ferreira Guedes Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study analyzed the impact of psychosocial factors on pregnant women with lower back pain and an associated lack of physical activity prior to pregnancy. Methods: The sample included 66 pregnant women who were randomly selected from a total of 84 patients in the waiting rooms of the Family Health Units in Cuitegí, Paraíba, from September to November 2009. An epidemiological questionnaire adapted from the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale was used for data collection. The questions about back pain, physical activity, and psychosocial factors were emphasized. SPSS 16.0 was used for the data analysis. The prevalence of lower back pain and its relationship to gestational age, habitual physical activity, and psychosocial factors were studied using the descriptive statistics and relative percentages in the SPSS Crosstabs procedure. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for lower back pain were calculated. Results: The prevalence of lower back pain was 75%, which suggests that psychosocial factors were related to the presence of pain. Anxiety was reported in 42.8% of the women with lower back pain, and 38.7% of the women with lower back pain experienced physical fatigue at the end of the day. A higher percentage of pain (53% was noted in the women who did not exercise prior to pregnancy. Conclusion: Lower back pain prior to pregnancy is associated with lack of physical activity and with psychosocial factors in the Family Health Strategy patients of Cuitegí county.

  4. Psychometric Factors Affecting Female Employees Physical Activity Status: Applying Trans-Theoretical Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafieinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Sedentary women are at risk for problems such as obesity, diabetes, depression and cardiovascular disease. Meanwhile, due to long working hours and excessive travel time from home to work and vice versa the employees have minimal physical activity .The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective psychometric factors on physical activity of female employees, according to the Trans-theoretical Model and theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 95 female staff of Tehran University was selected through a call. In order to collect data, a questionnaire with acceptable, reliability and validity, including demographic data, and constructs of planned behavior theory as well as Trans-theoretical Model was used. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 statisti-cal tests; correlation and stepwise regression were also performed. Results: In this study, 72% of the population was in the inactive stages (pre-contemplation, contemplation and preparation and only 28% of patients had regular physical activity. There was a significant positive correlation between the behavioral intention and attitude scores (P = 0.02, perceived behavioral control (P = 0.000, self-efficacy (P = 0.000 and stage of change (P = 0.000, but subjective norms score (P = 0.605 was irrelevant. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that self-efficacy and perceived behavioral con-trol can affect female employees’ intention and physical activity behaviors. So, the authori-ties should seriously consider these factors in educational planning for this stratum of society, remove barriers for the participation of more employees in sporting activities, and offer fa-cilitators at the community level. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:350-359

  5. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; van Lankveld, Wim G J M; Vonk, Madelon C; Becker, Eni S; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. In total, 215 patients with SSc completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, physical functioning (HAQ-DI), pain (VAS), fatigue (CIS), psychosocial characteristics (CISS, ICQ, PRQ, ASE, FoP-Q-SF) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). Disease characteristics (disease duration, disease subtype, modified Rodnan Skin Score) were collected. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess associations with depressive symptoms. The mean CES-D score was 12.9 (SD=9.7) and the prevalence of patients scoring>= 16 and>=19 were 32.1% and 25.1%, respectively. The variance explained by sociodemographics and disease characteristics was negligible (R(2)≤.09). Fatigue and pain were independently associated with depressive symptoms (R(2) change=.35). After adding psychological factors (R(2) change=.21), satisfaction with social support, emotion-focused coping and helplessness were also significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher fear of progression was associated with more depressive symptoms (P≤.01), and appearance self-esteem showed a marginally significant association (P=.08). Depressive symptoms were common in the present sample of patients with SSc and were independently associated with pain, fatigue, social support, emotion-focused coping, helplessness and fear of progression. Results suggest that, in addition to assessment of disease characteristics, attention should be given also to psychosocial factors found to be associated with depressive symptoms. For the development and trialling of psychological interventions, fear of progression could be an important target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatially dependent biotic and abiotic factors drive survivorship and physical structure of green roof vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Jason M; Palmer, Matthew I; Giampieri, Mario A; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2017-01-01

    Plant survivorship depends on biotic and abiotic factors that vary at local and regional scales. This survivorship, in turn, has cascading effects on community composition and the physical structure of vegetation. Survivorship of native plant species is variable among populations planted in environmentally stressful habitats like urban roofs, but the degree to which factors at different spatial scales affect survivorship in urban systems is not well understood. We evaluated the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on survivorship, composition, and physical structure of two native perennial species assemblages, one characterized by a mixture of C4 grasses and forbs (Hempstead Plains, HP) and one characterized by a mixture of C3 grasses and forbs (Rocky Summit, RS), that were initially sown at equal ratios of growth forms (5:1:4; grass, N-fixing forb and non-N-fixing forb) in replicate 2-m(2) plots planted on 10 roofs in New York City (New York, USA). Of 24 000 installed plants, 40% survived 23 months after planting. Within-roof factors explained 71% of variation in survivorship, with biotic (species identity and assemblage) factors accounting for 54% of the overall variation, and abiotic (growing medium depth and plot location) factors explaining 17% of the variation. Among-roof factors explained 29% of variation in survivorship and increased solar radiation correlated with decreased survivorship. While growing medium properties (pH, nutrients, metals) differed among roofs there was no correlation with survivorship. Percent cover and sward height increased with increasing survivorship. At low survivorship, cover of the HP assemblage was greater compared to the RS assemblage. Sward height of the HP assemblage was about two times greater compared to the RS assemblage. These results highlight the effects of local biotic and regional abiotic drivers on community composition and physical structure of green roof vegetation. As a result, initial green roof plant

  7. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Van Hecke

    Full Text Available Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12-16 years, 64% boys were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium. Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people, the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents' behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents' home or school

  8. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents’ visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12–16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents’ behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents’ home or school may

  9. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2003-01-01

    : Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related.......3 to 4.6). CONCLUSION: Results indicate that being a new case of tennis elbow is associated with non-neutral postures of hands and arms, use of heavy hand held tools, and high physical strain measured as a combination of forceful work, non-neutral posture of hands and arms, and repetition. Furthermore......, tennis elbow among women was associated with low social support at work. The results for precision demanding movements and for vibration were less consistent...

  10. Insufficient free-time physical activity and occupational factors in Brazilian public school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Douglas Fernando; Loch, Mathias Roberto; González, Alberto Durán; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2017-07-20

    To evaluate if perceived occupational factors are associated with insufficient free-time physical activity in Brazilian public school teachers. The relationship between insufficient physical activity (disciplina de educação física associou-se com menor prevalência de atividade física insuficiente (RP = 0,78; IC95% 0,64-0,95). A percepção de condições de trabalho negativas associa-se à maior prevalência de atividade física insuficiente em professores e devem ser consideradas para a promoção de atividade física nessa população.

  11. Accessible protocol for practice classroom about physical and chemical factors that affect the biomembranes integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barros Galvão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work is to review a protocol used in practical classes to demonstrate some factors that affect biomembrane integrity. Sugar-beet fragments were utilized as the experimental model as membrane damage could be visualized by leakage of betacyanins, hydrophilic pigments accumulated in the cell vacuoles. The tests were carried out as discrete experiments utilizing physical agents and chemical products present in the student daily routine. To test the effect of temperature, sugar-beet fragments were submitted to heat, cold or both at different times of exposition. When chemical products were tested, sugar-beet fragments were exposed to organic solvents (common alcohol and acetone or polar and amphipathic substances (disinfectant, detergent, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite. The obtained results were discussed in terms of the capacity of the physical and chemical factors to cause membrane damage. The review of this protocol using reagents that are present in the student daily routine were able to demonstrate clearly the effect of the different tested factors, allowing the utilization of this practical class under limited conditions.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  13. Studying wedge factors and beam profiles for physical and enhanced dynamic wedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Misbah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate variation in Varian′s Physical and Enhanced Dynamic Wedge Factors (WF as a function of depth and field size. The profiles for physical wedges (PWs and enhanced dynamic wedges (EDWs were also measured using LDA-99 array and compared for confirmation of EDW angles at different depths and field sizes. WF measurements were performed in water phantom using cylindrical 0.66 cc ionization chamber. WF was measured by taking the ratio of wedge and open field ionization data. A normalized wedge factor (NWF was introduced to circumvent large differences between wedge factors for different wedge angles. A strong linear dependence of PW Factor (PWF with depth was observed. Maximum variation of 8.9% and 4.1% was observed for 60° PW with depth at 6 and 15 MV beams respectively. The variation in EDW Factor (EDWF with depth was almost negligible and less than two per cent. The highest variation in PWF as a function of field size was 4.1% and 3.4% for thicker wedge (60° at 6 and 15 MV beams respectively and decreases with decreasing wedge angle. EDWF shows strong field size dependence and significant variation was observed for all wedges at both photon energies. Differences in profiles between PW and EDW were observed on toe and heel sides. These differences were dominant for larger fields, shallow depths, thicker wedges and low energy beam. The study indicated that ignoring depth and field size dependence of WF may result in under/over dose to the patient especially doing manual point dose calculation.

  14. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  15. [Structural analysis for psychosocial factors including health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) associated with lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Ogino, K; Ooshita, Y; Tsukahara, S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify psychosocial characteristics associated with preventive health behavior for lifestyle-related diseases. The author performed objective health examinations and gave questionnaires to 289 men (39.7 +/- 11.8 years, mean +/- SD) and 80 women (32.8 +/- 10.4 years) engaged in office work. Psychosocial factors included lifestyle and perceived stress, as well as the health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) as newly developed indicators for health behavior. The principal component analysis for men did not extract lifestyle from the psychosocial structures. Multiple regression analysis showed that internal HLC (IHLC), chance HLC (CHLC), professional HLC (PHLC) and stress significantly contributed to SOC. Principal component analysis using psychosocial factors in women showed two psychosocial structures, i.e. the second principal (high SOC, high lifestyle, and low stress) and the 4th principal components (high supernatural HLC, and high PHLC). Both components were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. SOC was recognized to be negatively associated with age, stress, and total cholesterol, and positively with IHLC, FHLC, lifestyle, and gamma-GTP using multiple regression analysis for women. These results indicated a distinguishable sex difference regarding the involvement of psychosocial factors including HLC and SOC in objective health. SOC seems likely to be involved not in objective health, but closely with stress, suggesting a direct influence on mental health. Lifestyle should be divided into more detailed categories such as smoking and salt intake. Structural analysis of women suggests that SOC is involved directly or indirectly through lifestyle in objective health, different from men. To further clarify causal relationships between psychosocial factors and risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases, a longitudinal study is necessary based on these results.

  16. Children's perceptions of weight, obesity, nutrition, physical activity and related health and socio-behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D; Bakun, Peter J; Herzog, Julia Bloom; Dolan, Peter R; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Markow, Dana; Sharma, Shanti; Nelson, Miriam E

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one-third of children in the USA are either overweight or obese. Understanding the perceptions of children is an important factor in reversing this trend. An online survey was conducted with children to capture their perceptions of weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Within the USA. US children (n 1224) aged 8-18 years. Twenty-seven per cent of children reported being overweight; 47·1% of children overestimated the rate of overweight/obesity among US children. A higher percentage of self-classified overweight children (81·9%) worried about weight than did self-classified under/normal weight children (31·1%). Most children (91·1%) felt that it was important to not be overweight, for both health-related and social-related reasons. The majority of children believed that if someone their age is overweight they will likely be overweight in adulthood (93·1%); get an illness such as diabetes or heart disease in adulthood (90·2%); not be able to play sports well (84·5%); and be teased or made fun of in school (87·8%). Children focused more on food/drink than physical activity as reasons for overweight at their age. Self-classified overweight children were more likely to have spoken with someone about their weight over the last year than self-classified under/normal weight children. Children demonstrated good understanding of issues regarding weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Their perceptions are important and can be helpful in crafting solutions that will resonate with children.

  17. Patterns of physical activity and associated factors among teenagers from Barcelona (Spain) in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Trasserra, Alicia; Pérez, Anna; Continente, Xavier; O'Brien, Kerry; Bartroli, Montse; Teixidó-Compaño, Ester; Espelt, Albert

    2017-01-03

    To estimate the prevalence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), and associated factors among teenagers from Barcelona in 2012. Cross-sectional survey to assess risk factors in a representative sample of secondary school students (aged 13-16 years, International Standard Classification of Education [ISCED] 2, n=2,162; and 17-18 years, ISCED 3, n=1016) in Barcelona. We estimated MVPA prevalence overall, and for each independent variable and each gender. Poisson regression models with robust variance were fit to examine the factors associated with high-level MVPA, and obtained prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Only 13% of ISCED 2 and 10% of ISCED 3 students met the WHO physical activity recommendations. This percentage was lower among girls at both academic levels. MVPA was lower among ISCED 3 compared to ISCED 2 students, and among students with a lower socioeconomic status. Physical activity was associated with positive self-perception of the health status (e.g., positive self-perception of health status among ISCED 2 compared to ISCED 3 students: PR=1.31 [95%CI: 1.22-1.41] and 1.61 [95%CI: 1.44-1.81] for boys and girls, respectively]. The percentage of teenagers who met WHO MVPA recommendations was low. Strategies are needed to increase MVPA levels, particularly in older girls, and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; Ulhôa, Melissa Araújo; Moreno, Claudia Roberta de Castro

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively). The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively) than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively) (p physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively) than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p physical activity.

  19. The effects of physical activity and exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, T; Larsen, K T; Ried-Larsen, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the effects of physical activity and exercise on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy humans. Experimental and observational studies were identified from PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and SPORT Discus. A total of 32 articles...... met the inclusion criteria. Evidence from experimental studies suggested that peripheral BDNF concentrations were elevated by acute and chronic aerobic exercise. The majority of the studies suggested that strength training had no influence on peripheral BDNF. The results from most observational...

  20. Contributing Factors in Students' Choice of a Physical Therapist Assistant Career: A Contrast with the Physical Therapist Career Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Robert V.

    2009-01-01

    The health care professions have gained significant notoriety as one of the fastest growing career opportunities in the country. In particular, physical therapy has gained a reputation as a vital and significant member of the health care team. The physical therapy field has struggled to provide adequate services to meet patients' needs due to the…

  1. Shared Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment Among Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-04-01

    The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed.

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  3. Factors Related to Healthy Diet and Physical Activity in Hospital-Based Clinical Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nancy M; Butler, Robert; Sorrell, Jeanne

    2014-09-30

    Hospitals often promote healthy lifestyles, but little is known about nurses' actual diet and physical activity. Greater understanding about these lifestyle choices for clinical nurses may improve existing hospital-based programs and/or create desirable services. This article discusses a study that considered diet and physical activity of clinical nurses, using elements of Pender's self-care theory as a conceptual framework. Study methods included a cross-sectional, correlational design and a convenience sample of 278 nurses who worked on units with 24 hours/day and seven days-per-week responsibilities. Participants completed diet and exercise questionnaires about perceptions of attitudes and opinions, barriers, diet benefits/exercise motivators, self-efficacy, and locus of control, and personal and work characteristics. Diet and activity categories were created. Study results demonstrated that over 50% of nurses had moderately healthy diets but were insufficiently active. Healthy diet and physical activity levels were associated with higher self-efficacy, more diet benefits and physical activity motivators, fewer perceived barriers, and confidence in body image. The article discussion and conclusion sections note areas for future research and suggest that focused interventions that address benefits, motivators, and self-efficacy may increase participation in hospital-based programs and enhance healthy lifestyle for hospital-based clinical nurses.

  4. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  5. $B\\to\\pi\\ell\\ell$ form factors for new-physics searches from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Jon A; Bernard, C; Bouchard, C M; DeTar, C; Du, Daping; El-Khadra, A X; Freeland, E D; Gamiz, E; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Liu, Yuzhi; Lunghi, E; Mackenzie, P B; Meurice, Y; Neil, E; Qiu, Si-Wei; Simone, J N; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, Ran

    2015-01-01

    The rare decay $B\\to\\pi\\ell^+\\ell^-$ is sensitive to $b\\to d$ flavor-changing neutral currents, which could arise from physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we present the first $ab$-$initio$ QCD calculation of the $B\\to\\pi$ tensor form factor $f_T$. Together with the vector and scalar form factors $f_+$ and $f_0$ from our companion work [J. A. Bailey $et~al.$, arXiv:1503.07839], these parameterize the hadronic contribution to $B\\to\\pi$ semileptonic decays in any extension of the Standard Model. We obtain the total branching ratio $\\text{BR}(B^+\\to\\pi^+\\mu^+\\mu^-)=19.5(2.2)\\times10^{-9}$ in the Standard Model, which is the most precise theoretical determination to date, and agrees with the recent measurement from LHCb [R. Aaij, $et~al.$, JHEP $\\mathbf{1212}$, 125 (2012)].

  6. The most effective factors to offset sarcopenia and obesity in the older Korean: Physical activity, vitamin D, and protein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; Jeon, Byeong Hwan; Reid Storm, Shaun Nicholas; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the types and levels of physical activity in conjunction with protein intake and vitamin D on sarcopenia and obesity status in an elderly population. Study participants (N = 4452) were ages ≥60 y and included 1929 men and 2523 women who completed a body composition analysis with a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and provided health and dietary data. Higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight was observed in the non-obese group, although obese participants had greater weights. The non-obese sarcopenia subgroup showed health problems related to insulin resistance and metabolic-related factors compared with the nonsarcopenic group. The total metabolic equivalent was significantly different in both obese categories, regardless of sarcopenic status. The prevalence of obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity relatively increased with a diet deficient of protein intake and vitamin D. These data suggest that sarcopenia had a significant association with metabolic-related factors; physical activity, especially vigorous activity; and protein intake and vitamin D levels in a non-obese elderly population. Therefore, maintaining healthy body weight by means of resistance exercise and enhanced protein intake and vitamin D may help offset sarcopenia in this age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE PROCESS OF SEPARATION AND INDIVIDUATION AS THE RISK FACTOR IN PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONS WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona OZHEK

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of separation and individuation is a developmental psychological process, which takes place at various phases of child development within his first three years of life. These phases include the Normal Autistic Phase, the Normal Symbiotic Phase, the Separation-Individuation Phase (with sub-phases Differentiation, Practicing and Rapprochement, On the Way to Object Con­stancy and the Final Separation and Psychological Birth of the Human Infant. Undisturbed transition through the developmental phases leads to the es­tablishment of psychological structure in the hu­man infant, which means that he reaches autonomy and independence, thus becoming an individual. For children which were born with physical dis­abilities and have their intellectual capacities pre­served (i.e. in cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy etc., the fulfillment of this process is endangered, because their development was stuck at the Nor­mal Symbiotic Phase due to two types of factors. The first group represents factors of physical dis­ability (i.e. impossibility to move, obtain inde­pendent experiences and, consequently, the inabil­ity to detach from the Object, while the second group represents reactions to this hindrance (i.e. over-protection, which further thwarts attempts to detach from the Object.

  8. Depressive symptoms in people with chronic physical conditions: prevalence and risk factors in a Hong Kong community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Hairong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is predicted to become one of the two most burdensome diseases worldwide by 2020 and is common in people with chronic physical conditions. However, depression is relatively uncommon in Asia. Family support is an important Asian cultural value that we hypothesized could protect people with chronic physical conditions from developing depression. We investigated depressive symptom prevalence and risk factors in a Chinese sample with chronic medical conditions, focusing on the possible protective role of family relationships. Methods Data were obtained from the Hong Kong Jockey Club FAMILY Project cohort study in 2009–2011, which included 6,195 participants (age ≥15 with self-reported chronic conditions. Depressive symptoms were recorded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Demographic and lifestyle variables, stressful life events, perceived family support and neighborhood cohesion were assessed. Factors associated with a non-somatic (PHQ-6 depression score were also examined. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥5 was 17% in those with one or more chronic conditions, and was more prevalent in women than in men (19.7% vs. 13.9%; p p p  Conclusions Acute life stress and the number of chronic conditions, together with socio-demographic factors, explain most variance in depressive symptoms among chronically ill Chinese individuals. Somatic items in the PHQ-9 increased the depression scores but they did not alter the pattern of predictors. Family support appears to be an important protective factor in Chinese cultures for individuals with chronic conditions.

  9. School difficulties in immigrant adolescent students and roles of socioeconomic factors, unhealthy behaviours, and physical and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Kénora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income, WHO-Quality of life (measuring the four dimensions physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment, unhealthy behaviours (last-30-day uses of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs and no regular sports/physical activities, grade repetition, low school performance ( Results Grade repetition affected 14.8% of students, low school performance 8.2%, and school dropout ideation 3.9%. European immigrants had a higher risk for grade repetition only with a gender-age-adjusted odds ratio (OR of 2.44, vs. French students. This odds ratio decreased to 1.76 (contribution 47% with further adjustment for all confounders (family structure, father’s occupation, family income, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Non-European immigrants had a statistically higher risk for all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation with ORs of 3.29, 3.02, and 3.42, respectively vs. French students. These odds ratios decreased to 1.76, 1.54, and 1.54, respectively (contributions 66%, 73%, and 78% with further adjustment for all confounders. Conclusions Compared with French students

  10. Anthropometric factors and physical activity and risk of thyroid cancer in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Thomson, Cynthia A; Luo, Juhua; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Rohan, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the associations of anthropometric factors and physical activity with risk of thyroid cancer in a large prospective study. We examined these associations with risk of incident thyroid cancer in a cohort of 144,319 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for factors of interest with risk of all thyroid cancer (n = 294) and of the two major subtypes: papillary (n = 245) and follicular thyroid cancer (n = 32). After adjustment for covariates, measured height at baseline was positively associated with thyroid cancer overall (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile 1.48, 95% CI 1.04-2.13, p for trend 0.02) and with papillary carcinoma (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.01-2.21, p for trend 0.03, respectively). For each 5 cm-increase in height, the HR for all thyroid cancer was 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.27 and for papillary thyroid cancer was 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.27. In addition, self-reported weight at age 18 was positively associated with risk of papillary thyroid cancer. In contrast, baseline weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, weight change from age 18 to baseline, and level of self-reported recreational physical activity were not associated with risk. Our results suggest that attained stature is a risk factor for thyroid cancer in postmenopausal women. This association may reflect the influence of either genetic or environmental factors in early life on risk of thyroid cancer.

  11. Behavioral and Psychological Factors Associated with 12-Month Weight Change in a Physical Activity Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Napolitano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.

  12. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. RESULTS: Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively. The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p < 0.05. Moderately-active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05 as well as higher total cholesterol concentrations (232.1 and 145 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.01. Irrespective of their physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers are exposed to cardiovascular risk factors due to the characteristics of the job, such as high work demand, long working hours and time in this profession, regardless of shift type or leisure-time physical

  13. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simony Lira Nascimento

    Full Text Available To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy.For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants' medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR, with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI, followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%.Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1% (p = 0.01. Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6% and third trimesters (13.4%. Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%. Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28-2.60, primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07-2.07, exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64-8.96, and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80-3.57. Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women.The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a pregnancy, should be encouraged to adopt

  14. Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Ju; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M; Eisenmann, David M

    2014-05-13

    Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo. We used the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) method to screen for factors that bound to 13 fragments from the lin-39 region: twelve fragments contained sequences conserved between C. elegans and two other nematode species, while one fragment was known to drive reporter gene expression in the early embryo in cells that generate the VPCs. Sixteen transcription factors that bind to eight lin-39 genomic fragments were identified in yeast, and we characterized several factors by verifying their physical interactions in vitro, and showing that reduction of their function leads to alterations in lin-39 levels and lin-39::GFP reporter expression in vivo. Three factors, the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NHR-43, the hypodermal fate regulator LIN-26, and the GATA factor ELT-6 positively regulate lin-39 expression in the embryonic precursors to the VPCs. In particular, ELT-6 interacts with an enhancer that drives GFP expression in the early embryo, and the ELT-6 site we identified is necessary for proper embryonic expression. These three factors, along with the factors ZTF-17, BED-3 and TBX-9, also positively regulate lin-39 expression in the larval VPCs. These results significantly expand the number of factors known to directly bind and regulate lin-39 expression, identify the first factors required for lin-39 expression in the embryo, and hint at a

  15. Prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with physical restraint use in mechanically ventilated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; Burry, Lisa; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Luk, Elena; Cook, Deborah; Fergusson, Dean; Dodek, Peter; Burns, Karen; Granton, John; Ferguson, Niall; Devlin, John W; Steinberg, Marilyn; Keenan, Sean; Reynolds, Stephen; Tanios, Maged; Fowler, Robert A; Jacka, Michael; Olafson, Kendiss; Skrobik, Yoanna; Mehta, Sangeeta

    2016-02-01

    The purpose was to describe characteristics and outcomes of restrained and nonrestrained patients enrolled in a randomized trial of protocolized sedation compared with protocolized sedation plus daily sedation interruption and to identify patient and treatment factors associated with physical restraint. This was a post hoc secondary analysis using Cox proportional hazards modeling adjusted for center- and time-varying covariates to evaluate predictors of restraint use. A total of 328 (76%) of 430 patients were restrained for a median of 4 days. Restrained patients received higher daily doses of benzodiazepines (105 vs 41 mg midazolam equivalent, P < .0001) and opioids (1524 vs 919 μg fentanyl equivalents, P < .0001), more days of infusions (benzodiazepines 6 vs 4, P < .0001; opioids 7 vs 5, P = .02), and more daily benzodiazepine boluses (0.2 vs 0.1, P < .0001). More restrained patients received haloperidol (23% vs 12%, P = .02) and atypical antipsychotics (17% vs 4%, P = .003). More restrained patients experienced unintentional device removal (26% vs 3%, P < .001) and required reintubation (8% vs 1%, P = .01). In the multivariable analysis, alcohol use was associated with decreased risk of restraint (hazard ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.58). Physical restraint was common in mechanically ventilated adults managed with a sedation protocol. Restrained patients received more opioids and benzodiazepines. Except for alcohol use, patient characteristics and treatment factors did not predict restraint use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between academic performance with physical, psychosocial, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors in female undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Maude Dubuc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. Methods: One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old. All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA, handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max (Bruce Protocol and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Results: Significant correlations were observed between GPA with estimated VO2max (r = 0.32, intrinsic motivation toward knowledge (r = 0.23, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment (r = 0.27 and external regulation (r = -0.30, P = 0.002. In addition, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance (P < 0.05. Finally, a stepwise linear regression analysis showed that external regulation, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment, VO2max levels and eating a daily breakfast explained 28.5 % of the variation in the GPA in our cohort. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that motivational, physical and lifestyle factors appear to be predictors of academic performance in female undergraduate students.

  17. Moderate physical activity level as a protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Huei; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Yates, Patsy; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Hung, Yi-Jen; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2015-05-01

    To investigate whether physical activity is a protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors contribute to metabolic syndrome. To minimise the risk of metabolic syndrome, several global guidelines recommend increasing physical activity level. However, only limited research has investigated the relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors. Cross-sectional design. A convenience sample of 326 middle-aged and older women was recruited. Metabolic syndrome was confirmed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, and physical activity levels were measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The sample had a mean age of 60·9 years, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 43·3%. Postmenopausal women and women with low socioeconomic status (low-education background, without personal income and currently unemployed) had a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome. After adjusting for significant socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors, the women with moderate or high physical activity levels had a significantly lower (OR = 0·10; OR = 0·11, p socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors, physical activity level was a significant protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Higher physical activity levels (moderate or high physical activity level) reduced the risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Appropriate strategies should be developed to encourage middle-aged and older women across different socio-demographic backgrounds to engage in moderate or high levels of physical activity to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The effects of individual, family and environmental factors on physical activity levels in children: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Cadogan, Sharon L; Keane, Eimear; Kearney, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity plays an important role in optimising physical and mental health during childhood, adolescence, and throughout adult life. This study aims to identify individual, family and environmental factors that determine physical activity levels in a population sample of children in Ireland. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of the nationally representative Growing Up in Ireland study. A two-stage clustered sampling method was used where national s...

  19. Nucleon generalized form factors and sigma term from lattice QCD near the physical quark mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, G S; Gläßle, B; Göckeler, M; Najjar, J; Rödl, R; Schäfer, A; Schiel, R; Söldner, W; Sternbeck, A; Wein, P

    2013-01-01

    We present new N_f=2 data for the nucleon generalized form factors, varying volume, lattice spacing and pion mass, down to 150 MeV. We also give an update of our direct calculation of the nucleon sigma term for a range of pion mass values including the lightest one.

  20. Anthropometric factors, physical activity, and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Jean-Wactawski-Wende; Bea, Jennifer W; Edlefsen, Kerstin L; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Rohan, Thomas E

    2012-02-01

    Incidence rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) increased substantially in the United States and worldwide during the latter part of the 20th century, but little is known about its etiology. Obesity is associated with impaired immune function through which it may influence the risk of NHL; other factors reflecting energy homeostasis (height, abdominal adiposity, and physical activity) may also be involved. We examined the association of anthropometric factors and physical activity with risk of NHL and its major subtypes in a large cohort of women aged 50-79 years old who were enrolled at 40 clinical centers in the United States between 1993 and 1998. Over a mean follow-up period of 11 years, 1123 cases of NHL were identified among 158,975 women. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Height at baseline was positively associated with risk of all NHL and with that of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (HRs(q4vs.q1) 1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.43 and 1.43, 95% CI 1.01-2.03, respectively). Measures of obesity and abdominal adiposity at baseline were not associated with risk. Hazard ratios for NHL were increased for women in the highest quartile of weight and body mass index at age 18 (HRs(q4vs.q1) 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.65 and 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.59, respectively). Some measures of recreational physical activity were modestly associated with increased risk of NHL overall, but there were no clear associations with specific subtypes. Our findings regarding anthropometric measures are consistent with those of several previous reports, suggesting that early life influences on growth and immune function may influence the risk of NHL later in life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between physical, environmental and sociodemographic factors and school performance in primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmert, Elif N; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Soysal, Sebnem; Kulak-Kayikçi, Mavis E; Belgin, Erol; Ozmert, Emin; Laleli, Yahya; Saraçbasi, Osman

    2005-02-01

    Poor primary school performance is a risk factor for low high-school and university graduation, as well as poverty in later life. In this case-control study, the relation between a variety of physical, environmental and sociodemographic factors, and primary school performance was investigated. Grade one students with good and poor school achievement, from different socioeconomic levels were studied. A questionnaire about the sociodemographic characteristics and child's medical history, together with a Child Behavior Checklist, was filled out by parents. Physical examination, visual and hearing screening were performed. Blood count and blood lead levels were determined. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) was performed to determine the IQ. A total of 177 students participated in the study. Stepwise logistic regression revealed an independent positive relation between duration of study (OR, 2.69; Cl, 1.19-6.05; p=0.016), maternal education (OR, 1.47; Cl, 1.14-1.87; p=0.002), full scale score of WISC-R (OR, 1.08; Cl, 1.03-1.3; p=0.002) and school performance. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that the risk of having a below average full scale WISC-R score was higher among children having a hearing loss, uncorrected vision loss, heating house with stove, cigarette smoking of both parents, and low paternal education (less than 8 years). The chance of having an above average full scale WISC-R score was lower among children whose either parent smoked cigarettes, height-for-age percentile was below 10, and maternal education was less than 8 years. Policies for increasing male and female education, growth monitoring, appropriate feeding (breastfeeding and weaning), well-baby and child followup and clean environment (indoor and outdoor) will not only promote the physical health but also promote the cognitive development of the new generations.

  2. Psychometric Factors Affecting Female Employees Physical Activity Status: Applying Trans-Theoretical Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Shafieinia; A.R. Heidarnia; A. Kazemnejad; R. Rajabi

    2015-01-01

    ... .The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective psychometric factors on physical activity of female employees, according to the Trans-theoretical Model and theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods...

  3. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors The U.S. Preventive ...

  4. Risk and protective factors for physical and sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Africa: a review and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Mhlongo, Elsinah L

    2015-01-01

    There is now conclusive evidence of the major and long-lasting negative effects of physical and sexual abuse on children. Within Africa, studies consistently report high rates of child abuse, with prevalence as high as 64%. However, to date, there has been no review of factors associated with physical and sexual child abuse and polyvictimization in Africa. This review identified 23 quantitative studies, all of which showed high levels of child abuse in varying samples of children and adults. Although studies were very heterogeneous, a range of correlates of abuse at different levels of the Model of Ecologic Development were identified. These included community-level factors (exposure to bullying, sexual violence, and rural/urban location), household-level factors (poverty, household violence, and non-nuclear family), caregiver-level factors (caregiver illness in particular AIDS and mental health problems, caregiver changes, family functioning, parenting, caregiver-child relationship, and substance abuse), and child-level factors (age, disability, physical health, behavior, and gender). These findings identify key associated factors that are potential foci of child abuse prevention interventions. In addition, there is a clear need for further rigorous longitudinal research into predictive factors and culturally relevant interventions.

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  9. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  10. Perspectives of Constraining and Enabling Factors for Health-Promoting Physical Activity by Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A.; Walkley, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Physical activity influences health in individuals and within populations. This study explored factors perceived as enabling or inhibiting participation in physical activity by adults with intellectual disability from a health promotion perspective. Method: Six focus group interviews were conducted: adults with intellectual disability…

  11. School related factors and 1yr change in physical activity amongst 9-11 year old English schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantjes, Joyce A.; Jones, Andrew P.; Corder, Kirsten; Jones, Natalia R.; Harrison, Flo; Griffin, Simon J.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Activity levels are known to decline with age and there is growing evidence of associations between the school environment and physical activity. In this study we investigated how objectively measured one-year changes in physical activity may be associated with school-related factors in

  12. Associations between individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity among older Chinese adults: A social–ecological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangren Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide an initial validation of a social–ecological approach to the study of HPA in China, suggesting that strategies aimed at promoting physical activity in older adults should address multiple levels of factors that may contribute to the likelihood of older Chinese adults being physically active.

  13. Interaction between physical and psychosocial work risk factors for low back symptoms and its consequences amongst Indonesian coal mining workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors for low back symptoms (LBS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism) in a developing country. A sample of 1294 Indonesian coal mining workers reported occupational exposures, LBS and its consequences using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were placed into one of four combination exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial (HPhyHPsy); high physical and low psychosocial (HPhyLPsy); low physical and high psychosocial (LPhyHPsy), and; low physical and low psychosocial (LPhyLPsy). The attributable proportion due to interaction between physical and psychosocial factors was examined. Individuals in the HPhyHPsy group were most likely to report LBS (OR 5.42, 95% CI 3.30-8.89), reduced activities (OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.09-7.74), and absenteeism (OR 4.96, 95% CI 3.05-8.06). Interactions between physical and psychosocial factors were present for LBS, reduced activities, and absenteeism; although for LBS and absenteeism the interactions were not significant. Current smokers were more likely to report LBS consequences. Permanent employment and night shift work increased the odds of LBS and its consequences. We conclude that interventions aimed at reducing LBS and its consequences should address both physical and psychosocial factors, with a focus on smokers, permanent employment and night shift work.

  14. School related factors and 1yr change in physical activity amongst 9-11 year old English schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantjes, Joyce A.; Jones, Andrew P.; Corder, Kirsten; Jones, Natalia R.; Harrison, Flo; Griffin, Simon J.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Activity levels are known to decline with age and there is growing evidence of associations between the school environment and physical activity. In this study we investigated how objectively measured one-year changes in physical activity may be associated with school-related factors in

  15. Risk factors for ischaemic heart disease mortality among men with different occupational physical demands. A 30-year prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Men with high physical work demands have elevated cardiovascular strain, which may lead to enhanced atherosclerosis. Theoretically, the impact of risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) may thus depend on physical work demands. The authors investigated this hypothesis. Design Pr...

  16. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL PARAMETER AND OPTIMIZATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF “MORINGA OLEIFERA” ENZYME EXTRACT: STUDIES INCLUDES PHYTOCHEMICALS, MINERALS AND ANTIMICROBIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Gangasuresh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Moringa Oleifera is one of the 14 species of family Moringaceae, native to India, Africa, Arabia, South Asia, South America and the pacific and Caribbean Islands. Moringa oleifera has been naturalized in many tropic and subtropic regions worldwide, the plant is referred by a number of names such as horseradish tree, drumstick tree, ben oil tree, miracle tree, and “Mothers best friend”. The present study is to investigate physical and chemical parameters on the production of enzyme from leaf extract of Moringa oleifera. The leaf extract of different solvents showed the enzyme activity of Protease and lipase. The enzymes were optimized at different temperatures, and different chemical and nitrogen sources. The enzyme activity was determined at the different time intervals. The extract of different solvents showed the antibacterial activity against the selective pathogens. The enzyme was electrophoresed in SDS PAGE and molecular weight was determined and reported.

  17. Association between Cerebral Amyloid Deposition and Clinical Factors Including Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression: Pilot Study Using Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Geum; Kong, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Eun-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Koo, Bon-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebral amyloid deposition and overall clinical factors including cognitive functions in geriatric depression by using 18F-florbetaben positron emission tomography. Thirteen subjects aged over 60 years who had a history of major depressive disorder and also had subjective memory complaint were included. Of all subjects, 3 subjects judged as amyloid positive, and the others judged as amyloid negative. Their memory, visuospatial functions and attention abilities were negatively correlated with amyloid deposition in specific brain regions, but their language and recognition abilities were not correlated with any region. The amyloid deposition of the whole brain region was significantly negatively correlated with immediate memory. PMID:27776391

  18. Individual, physical and psychological risk factors for neck pain in Australian office workers: a 1-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hush, Julia M; Michaleff, Zoe; Maher, Christopher G; Refshauge, Kathryn

    2009-10-01

    Neck pain is more prevalent in office workers than in the general community. To date, findings from prospective studies that investigated causal relationships between putative risk factors and the onset of neck pain in this population have been limited by high loss to follow-up. The aim of this research was to prospectively evaluate a range of risk factors for neck pain in office workers, using validated and reliable objective measures as well as attain an estimate of 1-year incidence. We assembled a cohort of 53 office workers without neck pain and measured individual, physical, workplace and psychological factors at baseline. We followed participants for 1 year to measure the incidence of neck pain. We achieved 100% participant follow-up. Cox regression analysis was applied to examine the relationship between the putative risk factors and the cumulative incidence of neck pain. The 1-year incidence proportion of neck pain in Australian office workers was estimated in this study to be 0.49 (95% CI 0.36-0.62). Predictors of neck pain with moderate to large effect sizes were female gender (HR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.18-7.99) and high psychological stress (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 0.66-4.07). Protective factors included increased mobility of the cervical spine (HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.19-1.05) and frequent exercise (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.27-1.51). These results reveal that neck pain is common in Australian office workers and that there are risk factors that are potentially modifiable.

  19. The Course of Nonspecific Work-Related Upper Limb Disorders and the Influence of Demographic Factors, Psychologic Factors, and Physical Fitness on Clinical Status and Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijsden-Besseling, Marjon D.; van den Bergh, Karien A.; Staal, J. Bart; de Bie, Rob A.; van den Heuvel, Wim J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the course of nonspecific work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD) and the influence of sociodemographic factors, psychologic factors, and physical fitness on clinical status and functional disability. Design: Retrospective cohort study with cross-sectional analysis among compu

  20. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jie Zhuang,1,* Liang Huang,1,2,* Yanqiang Wu,3 Yanxin Zhang2 1School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Shanghai Municipal Center for Students' Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60–80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. Keywords: Tai Chi Chuan, resistance training, balance, fall prevention, fall

  1. Association between living alone and physical inactivity among people with and without disability, Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Viera, César G; Jones, Patrice D; Schumacher, Jessica R; Hall, Allyson G

    2014-10-09

    People with disability may be at risk of developing diseases due to physical inactivity; social support from family and friends is positively related to engaging in regular physical activity. We compared the association between living alone and engagement in physical activity among people with and without disability in Florida. We used multivariate logistical regression to analyze 2009 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data (n = 10,902) to assess differences in physical activity in disability levels for respondents who lived alone versus those who did not. Respondents with a disability were less likely to engage in physical activity than were people without a disability, regardless of disability type, and the lowest rates of engaging in physical activity were found for people with disability who lived alone. Public health efforts should consider the role of household composition when targeting physical activity interventions among people with disability.

  2. Is there a need to include HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the Saudi premarital screening program on the basis of their prevalence and transmission risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, F M; O'Brien, S J

    2010-11-01

    In January 2008, the Saudi Arabian health authority included mandatory testing for HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the premarital screening program. Epidemiologically, there were few justifications for their inclusion as disease prevalences and distributions are poorly understood in the population. This study aims to provide information about HBV, HCV and HIV prevalences and risk factors for disease transmission and so produce evidence for informed decision-making on the inclusion of these infectious diseases in the screening program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74,662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540). The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses. The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.

  3. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  4. Prevalence of physical inactivity and associated factors among adolescents from public schools in Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the prevalence of physical inactivity and associated factors in adolescents, using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 1,455 adolescents (741 females. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic, perceptual, and behavioral variables. Physical activity was estimated with the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and Adolescents. Prevalence of physical inactivity was 68% (95%CI: 65.6%-70.4%. The following variables remained associated with physical inactivity in the adjusted analysis (p < 0.05: living in an apartment, female gender, older adolescents, lower self-rated physical activity compared to peers, low perception of maternal physical activity, passive commuting to school, non-participation in physical education at school, non-enjoyment of physical education classes, and limited involvement in other types of physical exercise besides physical education at school. There were a high proportion of inactive adolescents. Strategies to prevent physical inactivity in adolescents should be elaborated with a central role for the school and family.

  5. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  6. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  7. Synergistic effects of compound physical factor treatment on neurological outcome after peripheral nerve entrapment surgery A randomized controlled study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaofeng Li; Dehu Tian; Jianli Yu; Wenzhi Li; Jie Meng

    2008-01-01

    6 000-ms intervals. Current dosage was 20–40 mA. The electrical stimulation was given 6 minutes/session, once a day, and 20 days were regarded as one treatment cycle. ② A TMA-A double-frequent mild-hot therapeutic instrument was used on patients in the decimeter wave group after neurolysis. The therapeutic program was adapted to the early and middle-late phase. In the early phase, the decimeter wave was 10–15 W, 10 minutes/session, once a day; in the middle-late phase, the decimeter wave was 10–30 W, 20 minutes/session, once a day. Twenty days were regarded as one treatment cycle. ③ Patients in the compound physical factor group following neurolysis were treated the same as the decimeter wave group and electrical stimulation group, respectively. The treatment was performed once a day, and 20 days were regarded as one course. ④ Patients in the control group were not administered any physical treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Therapeutic efficacy was comprehensively evaluated based on motor and sensory evaluation criteria (set by Subassociation of Hand Surgery, Chinese Medical Association) at 1, 2, and 3 months after surgery, as well as changes in the electromyogram before and after operation. RESULTS: All 124 patients with peripheral nerve entrapment syndrome were included in the final analysis. One month after surgery, fineness rates in the electrical stimulation group, decimeter wave group, and compound physical factor group were not significantly different from those in the control group (P > 0.05). There was also no significant difference between the electrical stimulation group, decimeter wave group, and compound physical factor group (P > 0.05). Two months after surgery, fineness rates in the electrical stimulation group and decimeter wave group were not significantly different from the control group (P > 0.05). However, fineness rates were higher in the compound physical factor group compared to the other three groups (P 0.05). Three months after

  8. Reaction of physiological factors on the solar-geomagnetic activity (the physical mechanisms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avakyan, Sergey; Voronin, Nikolai; Dubarenko, Konstantin

    This presentation proposes and provides substantiation for a hypothesis concerning the mechanism by which solar and geomagnetic activity (mainly of solar flares and magnetic storms) affects the biosphere, including man. The hypothesis, including a physical mechanism introduced by the authors, is that high-lying (Rydberg) states of all gases of the earth’s upper atmosphere are excited by ionospheric energetic electrons. Rydberg atoms, molecules and ions of all atmospheric gases emit characteristic radio emission in the spectral range from decimeters to millimeters. This radiation can easily penetrate to low atmosphere and biosphere carrying complete information about power and duration of solar flare and geomagnetic storms to biosphere. The microwave radioemission have the resonances at the spectral range 109 ÷ 1012 Hz at the cells and membranes, DNA and RNA, molecules of haemoglobin, erythrocytes, and this fact can explain the extremely small threshold for influence of ionospheric radioemission at the monochromatic (characteristic) transitions on biological objects, including the viscosity of blood. The energy estimates of the flux intensity of microwave radiation of the ionosphere from Rydberg states are used to prove for the first time that the values of this flux agree with the experimental data. A method is proposed for distinguishing the contributions of microwave radiation and magnetic perturbation in the geo-biocorrelations, taking into account the effect that the magnetic-field variations are not in phase with the flux of corpuscles from the radiation belts in the ionosphere during the period of a geomagnetic storm. Quanta of microwave radiation are emitted from the heights of 90 - 360 km, i.e. in the basic ionosphere regions. Their energy by almost 10 orders of magnitude exceeds that of the quanta of low-frequency electromagnetic background of the ionosphere (with the frequencies lower than 100 Hz, which coincide with those of biorhythms). Thereby

  9. Surveying students' epistemologies about experimental physics: When is gender a factor?

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a gender performance gap has been repeatedly demonstrated in scores on conceptual and attitudinal assessments. This gap is often present in students' preinstruction scores and persists in their postinstruction scores. However, one area in which the gender gap has not been extensively explored is undergraduate laboratory courses. For example, one of the few laboratory focused research-based assessments, the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS), has not been tested for the existence of a gender gap in students' scores. Here, we utilize a national data set of responses to the E-CLASS to determine if they demonstrate a significant gender gap. We also investigate how this gap varies along multiple student and course demographic slices, including course level (first-year vs.\\ beyond-first-year) and major (physics vs.\\ non-physics). We observe a gender gap in pre- and postinstruction scores in the aggregate data; however, for some subpopulations (e.g., ...

  10. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  13. Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, J; Gaida, J E; Danielson, P; Alfredson, H; Forsgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.90, Ptendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (ρ=0.65, P=0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (ρ=0.04, P=0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Prevalence study and risk factor analysis of selected bacterial, protozoal and viral, including vector-borne, pathogens in cats from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Sarvani, Elpida; Knowles, Toby G; Mengi, Sena; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-03-13

    Feline infectious agent studies are lacking in Cyprus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for various feline infectious agents, including feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP), in cats from Cyprus. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was performed on 174 feline samples [138 owned and 36 shelter-feral, including both healthy (43) and non-healthy (131), cats] from private veterinary clinics from all six districts of Cyprus. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (CMt). The population was tested for four FVBP including Bartonella henselae and Leishmania spp. using qPCR, while conventional PCR assays were used to detect Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Hepatozoon spp. Serological assays were performed to detect Leishmania infantum antibodies, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed to test associations and possible risk factors between variables and infectious agents. Ninety-six (55.2%) of the 174 cats were PCR-positive for at least one infectious agent. Forty-six cats (26.4%) were haemoplasma positive, including 13 (7.5%) for Mhf, 36 (20.7%) for CMhm and 12 (6.9%) for CMt. Sixty-six cats (37.9%) were positive for Hepatozoon spp., while 19 (10.9%) were positive for B. henselae, four (2.3%) for Leishmania spp. and one (0.6%) for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. Sequencing revealed the presence of Hepatozoon felis, L. infantum and Anaplasma platys. Of the 164 cats that underwent retroviral serology, 10 (6.1%) were FeLV-positive and 31 (18.9%) were FIV-positive, while L. infantum serology was positive in 7 (4.4%) of the 160 cats tested. Multivariable logistic regression revealed significant associations for various infectious agents including L. infantum with each of Hepatozoon spp. and CMt

  15. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for elevated aminotransferase in men independently of body mass index, dietary habits, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ki Deok; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon

    2015-04-01

    Aminotransferase activity is a surrogate marker of liver injury showing strong correlations with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, elevated aminotransferase activity is not uncommon in non-obese and non-alcoholic patients in clinical practice. To examine the relationship between sarcopenia and aminotransferase activity in a large population-based cohort. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examinations were used. A total of 13,431 subjects were included. A whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed on each patient to measure total and regional muscle mass. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass indices were also obtained. The prevalence of sarcopenia was significantly higher in the group with elevated aminotransferase levels than in the normal liver enzyme group (males: 26.5% vs. 16.9%; females: 38.3% vs. 22.1%, pfasting glucose and cholesterol levels. The frequency of elevated aminotransferase increased in male patients with sarcopenia after adjusting for potential confounding factors including age, body mass index, fasting glucose level, dietary, and exercise habits. However, the correlation was no longer observed in women after adjusting for body mass index. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for elevated aminotransferase in men, independently of body mass index, dietary habits, and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A cross-sectional study on patterns, motivating factors and barriers for physical activity among undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HN Harsha Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little published information exploring the perceptions and physical activity patterns among undergraduate medical students in our country. So this study was conducted with the following objectives: 1. To assess the perceptions about knowledge regarding physical activities among undergraduate medical students; 2. To assess their self-reported physical activity practices. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore from 12 th to 30 th April, 2012. A total number of 427 students were chosen at by using the formula for infinite population. Tools: 1. A semi-structured questionnaire to know perceptions, barriers, and practices about physical activity; 2. Physical activity was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Analysis was done by using SPSS version 11. Significance of differences across various levels of physical activity between different age-groups and gender were made by chi square test. Results: 376 students participated. Majority of them had high physical activity (54.75%. Knowledge was poor about prevention of diabetes (68.9%, stroke (61.6%, and osteoporosis (33.8%. Majority (82.4% of them perceived health-related benefits of physical activity as motivating factors rather than prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Most of them (72.3% have enrolled in life style modification activities like yoga, going to gymnasium, etc. Conclusion: Most of the students fall into moderate physical activity group. Health-related benefits were the driving force for doing physical activity.

  17. Prevalence of physical and verbal aggressive behaviours and associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desrosiers Johanne

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal and physical aggressive behaviours are among the most disturbing and distressing behaviours displayed by older patients in long-term care facilities. Aggressive behaviour (AB is often the reason for using physical or chemical restraints with nursing home residents and is a major concern for caregivers. AB is associated with increased health care costs due to staff turnover and absenteeism. Methods The goals of this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study are to determine the prevalence of verbal and physical aggressive behaviours and to identify associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area (n = 2 332. Results The same percentage of older adults displayed physical aggressive behaviour (21.2% or verbal aggressive behaviour (21.5%, whereas 11.2% displayed both types of aggressive behaviour. Factors associated with aggressive behaviour (both verbal and physical were male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild and severe cognitive impairment, insomnia, psychological distress, and physical restraints. Factors associated with physical aggressive behaviour were older age, male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild or severe cognitive impairment, insomnia and psychological distress. Finally, factors associated with verbal aggressive behaviour were benzodiazepine and neuroleptic drug use, functional dependency, mild or severe cognitive impairment and insomnia. Conclusion Cognitive impairment severity is the most significant predisposing factor for aggressive behaviour among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area. Physical and chemical restraints were also significantly associated with AB. Based on these results, we suggest that caregivers should provide care to older adults with AB using approaches such as the progressively lowered stress threshold model and reactance theory which stress the importance of paying attention to the severity of cognitive

  18. Adolescents’ Perception of the Psychosocial Factors affecting Sustained Engagement in Sports and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAVIN, JAMES; MCBREARTY, MADELEINE; MALO, KIT; ABRAVANEL, MICHAEL; MOUDRAKOVSKI, TATIANA

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adolescents’ perceptions of psychosocial influences – personal characteristics, environmental factors and behavioural undertakings – influencing their prolonged involvement in sports and physical activity (PA). A qualitative approach was adopted wherein 16 adolescents (8 boys, 8 girls; mean age 15.9 years), who had been physically active for at least the last 8 years, and sixteen adults identified as their ‘parents’ or ‘guardians’ participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using the HyperRESEARCH software. Data were analysed using thematic analysis procedures. Four main themes pertaining to psychosocial influences were identified: 1) personal characteristics; 2) school and community resources; 3) parental support; and 4) social interaction. Except for social interaction, for which participants did not identify challenges, themes are discussed according to their motivational aspects and the challenges they represent for adolescents’ PA involvement. The research has implications for health promotion endeavours directed toward parents of children and adolescents. Given the limitations of a qualitative study, readers are invited to apply the conclusions to their own context.

  19. Behavior change stages related to physical activity in adolescents from Santa Catarina: prevalence and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jaqueline Aragoni; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Nahas, Markus Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Verify the prevalence and sociodemographic and economic factors associated with behavior change stages for habitual physical activity practice in adolescents from Santa Catarina. Methods: Secondary analysis of a study on the Behavior of Adolescents from Santa Catarina (CompAC 2). Cross-sectional school-based study of 6,529 high-school students (males, n=2,903) from the state of Santa Catarina public education system in 2011, aged 15 to 19 years. Multinomial logistic regression (crude and adjusted) was used to measure the association. Results: The highest and lowest prevalence rates were found in the maintenance (43.9%) and precontemplation stages (7.0%), respectively. The stages of action, preparation and contemplation showed similar results: 16.2%; 17.0% and 15.6%; respectively. Male adolescents show higher prevalence in the maintenance stage in relation to females and these show a higher prevalence in preparation, contemplation and precontemplation. All the assessed variables (gender, age, area of residence, employment status, family income, maternal education and school grade), with the exception of school shift, were associated with at least one of the stages. Conclusions: A large proportion of adolescents are in the pre-adoption stages and most of these have the intention to start regular physical activity. With the exception of school shift, the assessed variables were associated with stages in different ways, showing different profiles in relation to sociodemographic and economic characteristics in each subgroup. PMID:27181341

  20. Determination of Factors Affecting Physical Activity Status of University Students on a Health Sciences Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayi, Ayfer; Acikgoz, Ayla; Guvendi, Guven; Bayrak, Levent; Ersoy, Burcu; Gur, Cagri; Ozmen, Omer

    2017-01-19

    Upon graduation, students studying in departments related to health will work in the health sector and will guide and enlighten people with their knowledge and behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the physical activity (PA) conditions of university students on a health sciences campus. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 706 students in a Turkish university. The data was obtained from a survey prepared by the researchers. The 26-question survey aimed to discover the students' socio-demographic characteristics and their awareness and practices concerning PA. We found that 30% of the students engage in some type of PA during their university education. A relationship was observed concerning their current PA and their family inactivity levels, as well as between inactivity before entering the university and inactivity during their education. The presence of a chronic disease in family members does not affect student PA. A majority of the students believe PA is beneficial (98.7%), 93.9% believe it relieves stress, and 94.5% believe it helps control body weight. Although students of medicine and related disciplines are aware of the importance of proper diet and adequate levels of PA in health, they did not implement theory into practice. Thus, it is questionable how young health professionals will promote the positive effects and necessity of regular physical activity if they do not apply these activities to their own lifestyle.

  1. Behavior change stages related to physical activity in adolescents from Santa Catarina: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Aragoni da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Verify the prevalence and sociodemographic and economic factors associated with behavior change stages for habitual physical activity practice in adolescents from Santa Catarina. Methods: Secondary analysis of a study on the Behavior of Adolescents from Santa Catarina (CompAC 2. Cross-sectional school-based study of 6,529 high-school students (males, n=2,903 from the state of Santa Catarina public education system in 2011, aged 15 to 19 years. Multinomial logistic regression (crude and adjusted was used to measure the association. Results: The highest and lowest prevalence rates were found in the maintenance (43.9% and precontemplation stages (7.0%, respectively. The stages of action, preparation and contemplation showed similar results: 16.2%; 17.0% and 15.6%; respectively. Male adolescents show higher prevalence in the maintenance stage in relation to females and these show a higher prevalence in preparation, contemplation and precontemplation. All the assessed variables (gender, age, area of residence, employment status, family income, maternal education and school grade, with the exception of school shift, were associated with at least one of the stages. Conclusions: A large proportion of adolescents are in the pre-adoption stages and most of these have the intention to start regular physical activity. With the exception of school shift, the assessed variables were associated with stages in different ways, showing different profiles in relation to sociodemographic and economic characteristics in each subgroup.

  2. Stages of Behavioral Change for Physical Activity in High School Students: Prevalence and Associated Sociodemographic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloyse E G; Silva, Diego A S

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to estimate the prevalence of stages of change for physical activity and associated sociodemographic factors in students. The sample consisted of 942 students (44.7% males, 55.3% females; mean age = 16.1 years, SD = 1.1) in southern Brazil. Self-administered questionnaire was applied to identify stages of behavioral change for physical activity and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, maternal schooling, economic status, and school shift). Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (95%). Results showed that 9.6% were in the pre-contemplation stage, 18.4% in the contemplation, 17.6% in the preparation, 14.3% in the action, and 39.6% in the maintenance stages. Girls and adolescents with lower economic status were more likely to be at stages of behavioral risk. Students whose mothers had high education were more likely to be in the action stage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Factors influencing the adoption, implementation, and continuation of physical activity interventions in primary health care: A Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Crone, M.R.; Verheijden, M.W.; Zouwe, N. van der; Middelkoop, B.J.; Gebhardt, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The introduction of efficacious physical activity interventions in primary health care is a complex process. Understanding factors influencing the process can enhance the development of effective introduction strategies. This Delphi study aimed to identify factors most relevant for the a

  4. Relationship between physical activity level and psychosocial and socioeconomic factors and issues in children and adolescents with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergren, Thomas; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid

    2017-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The first objective of this scoping review is to identify and map information about instruments used to measure psychosocial and socioeconomic factors associated with level of physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents with asthma that have been reported...... and socioeconomic factors and PA level in children and adolescents with asthma.Specifically the review questions are as follows....

  5. Gender differences in the relations between work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and muscu

  6. Effects of lifestyle changes including specific dietary intervention and physical activity in the management of patients with chronic hepatitis C--a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Emilia; Jinga, Mariana; Enache, Georgiana; Rusu, Florin; Dragomir, Andreea Diana; Ancuta, Ioan; Draguţ, Ramona; Parpala, Cristina; Nan, Raluca; Sima, Irina; Ateia, Simona; Stoica, Victor; Cheţa, Dan Mircea; Radulian, Gabriela

    2013-08-14

    dietary intervention and physical activity) for 1-year had significant improvements in body weight, lipid and hepatic profile. PNCI2-3343/41008/2007.

  7. Analysing physical fitness and biomechanical factors that determine tennis serve performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Gelen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The purpose of the study is to analyse the fitness and the biomechanical factors which determine the velocity of the ball during serve in tennis (VBTS. The subjects of the study were fifteen male tournament level tennis player between the ages of sixteen and twenty five (18,8 ± 2,70 age/year. The physical fitness measurement of the study were; length, body weight, skinfold, diameter, circumference and length of the body, body composition, isometric handgrip strength, vertical jump, upper extremity range of motion (ROM and isokinetic strength. The angular velocity of racket head, racket handhold, middle finger, wrist, elbow, shoulder and hip joints on three axis during serve shoot were used for the biomechanical measurement.  The relationship between VBTS with physical fitness and biomechanical factors were measured with Pearson Correlation. The analysis showed that there was significant positive relation between VBTS and length, negative relation with mesomorphy; positive relation between ROM of shoulder dominant internal and external rotation, trunk hyper-extension, left lateral flexion and right rotation, negative relation in dominant wrist flexion, positive relation between isokinetic strength characteristics such as shoulder and elbow extension, shoulder internal and external rotation, wrist flexion, handgrip isometric strength, also in biomechanical measures, positive relation between in Y axis elbow, wrist, finger and head of the racket. As a result, fitness and biomechanical parameters that are intensively used in tennis determine VBTS. We think trainers may speed up VBTS by improved parameters and accelerated training programmes.

  8. Study on the social maturity, self-perception, and associated factors, including motor coordination, of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumiko; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of social maturity and self-perception in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to elucidate associated factors, including motor coordination. The subjects were 15 children (14 boys and 1 girl, in elementary school grades 3 to 6). Their characteristics were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), the Japanese version of the Social Maturity Scale-R (S-M scale), and Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). The results of the study suggested that most of the subjects had some degree of motor problem and delay of social maturity. They also suggested an association between social maturity and static-dynamic balance, which was one of the indices of motor coordination.

  9. Risk factors for bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: A focus on antimicrobials including cefepime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Teena; Marchaim, Dror; Johnson, Paul C; Chalana, Indu K; Tamam, Zeinab; Mohammed, Mazin; Alkatib, Shatha; Tansek, Ryan; Chaudhry, Khawar; Zhao, Jing J; Pogue, Jason M; Kaye, Keith S

    2015-07-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens represent increasing challenges to physicians because of rising prevalence, high mortality, and challenging treatment. Identifying high risks and early appropriate therapy is critical to favorable outcomes. This is a 5-year retrospective case-case-control study performed at the Detroit Medical Center on adult patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae, each compared with uninfected controls. Data were collected from December 2004-August 2009. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Participants included 103 patients with BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens and 79 patients with BSI caused by pathogens that did not produce ESBLs. The mean age of patients in the ESBL group was 67 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 77% were black, and 38% (n = 39) died in hospital. The mean age of patients in the non-ESBL group was 58 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 92% were black, and 22% (n = 17) died in hospital. On multivariate analysis, predictors of BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens included central venous catheter (odds ratio [OR], 29.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-288.3), prior β-lactam-/β-lactamase-inhibitor therapy (OR, 28.1; 95% CI, 1.99-396.5), and prior cefepime therapy (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 2.7-192.4). The only risk factor for BSI caused by non-ESBL-producing pathogens was urinary catheter insertion (OR, 18.2; 95% CI, 3.3-100.3). Prior antimicrobial therapy, particularly with β-lactam, was the strongest unique risk factor for BSI caused by ESBL-producing E coli or K pneumoniae. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Factor which cause a level of physical readiness of servicemen of the Land forces of armed forces of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finogenov U.S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The level of physical readiness of officers of different age is construed. According to tests of the national charter on physical preparation 564 officers have been inspected. In addition with 395 officers the conducted army test of physical fitness was. Age decrease of parameters of physical readiness is exhibited. The authentic falling of a level of a velocity and force (in the age of 30-35 years, common endurance and a level of common physical readiness (in the age of 40-45 years is established. Among major factors of influence on a level of physical readiness of officers are: age, a stress, presence of harmful habits (smoking, surplus weight of a body.

  11. Bound states of the Klein-Gordon equation in D-dimensions with some physical scalar and vector exponential-type potentials including orbital centrifugal term

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhdair, Sameer M

    2011-01-01

    The approximate analytic bound state solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation with equal scalar and vector exponential-type potentials including the centrifugal potential term are obtained for any arbitrary orbital angular momentum number l and dimensional space D. The relativistic/non-relativistic energy spectrum equation and the corresponding unnormalized radial wave functions, in terms of the Jacobi polynomials P_{n}^{({\\alpha},{\\beta})}(z), where {\\alpha}>-1, {\\beta}>-1 and z\\in[-1,+1] or the generalized hypergeometric functions _{2}F_{1}(a,b;c;z), are found. The Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method is used in the solution. The solutions of the Eckart, Rosen-Morse, Hulth\\'en and Woods-Saxon potential models can be easily obtained from these solutions. Our results are identical with those ones appearing in the literature. Finally, under the PT-symmetry, we can easily obtain the bound state solutions of the trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential.

  12. Patterns and Associated Factors of Physical Activity among Adolescents in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale L Oyeyemi

    Full Text Available Understanding the context where adolescents' physical activity (PA takes place could impact a more targeted approach to implement PA promotion and interventions in Africa. However, standardized data on adolescents' PA behaviour is lacking in Nigeria. We described PA patterns in the various domains (home, school, transport, leisure-time and intensity categories (light-intensity PA, moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity [MVPA] and total PA, and their associations with sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic status (SES among secondary school adolescents in Nigeria.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1006 secondary school adolescents (12-18 years, 50.4% girls in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Self-reported PA was assessed with an adapted version of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Young Adults. Outcomes were weekly minutes (min/wk of PA spent in the various domains and intensity categories. Multivariate ANOVA was used to examine associations of PA scores (domains and intensity levels with adolescents' sociodemographic characteristics and SES, and track differences in PA scores between subgroups.The total sample reported most PA at school (1525 min/wk, the least during active transportation (210 min/wk, and only 37% engaged in 60 min of MVPA daily. Boys reported significantly more leisure-time PA (P<0.001, active transportation (P<0.001, MVPA (P = 0.023 and total PA (P = 0.003 than girls, while girls reported more school-based PA (P = 0.009, home-based PA (P<0.001 and light-intensity PA (P<0.001 than boys. Moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.024 and total PA (P = 0.049 were significantly higher in younger age group than in older group. Household car ownership was associated with less active transportation (P = 0.009, less moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.048 and with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.013. High parental SES was associated with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.002, more MVPA (P = 0.047 and less active

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  14. School related factors and 1yr change in physical activity amongst 9–11 year old English schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantjes Joyce A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activity levels are known to decline with age and there is growing evidence of associations between the school environment and physical activity. In this study we investigated how objectively measured one-year changes in physical activity may be associated with school-related factors in 9- to 10-year-old British children. Methods Data were analysed from 839 children attending 89 schools in the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity, and Eating behaviours: Environmental Determinants in Young People study. Outcomes variables were one year changes in objectively measured sedentary, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, with baseline measures taken when the children were 9–10 years old. School characteristics hypothesised to be associated with change in physical activity were identified from questionnaires, grounds audits, and computer mapping. Associations were examined using simple and multivariable multilevel regression models for both school (9 am – 3 pm and travel (8–9 am and 3–4 pm time. Results Significant associations during school time included the length of the morning break which was found to be supportive of moderate (β coefficient: 0.68 [p: 0.003] and vigorous (β coefficient: 0.52 [p: 0.002] activities and helps to prevent adverse changes in sedentary time (β coefficient: -2.52 [p: 0.001]. During travel time, positive associations were found between the presence of safe places to cross roads around the school and changes in moderate (β coefficient: 0.83 [p:0.022] and vigorous (β coefficient: 0.56 [p:0.001] activity, as well as sedentary time (β coefficient: -1.61 [p:0.005]. Conclusion This study suggests that having longer morning school breaks and providing road safety features such as cycling infrastructure, a crossing guard, and safe places for children to cross the road may have a role to play in supporting the maintenance of moderate and vigorous activity behaviours, and preventing the development of

  15. Modeling CO Emission: II. The Physical Characteristics that Determine the X factor in Galactic Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Shetty, Rahul; Dullemond, Cornelis P; Ostriker, Eve C; Harris, Andrew I; Klessen, Ralf S

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how the X factor, the ratio of H_2 column density (NH2) to velocity-integrated CO intensity (W), is determined by the physical properties of gas in model molecular clouds (MCs). We perform radiative transfer calculations on chemical-MHD models to compute X. Using integrated NH2 and W reproduces the limited range in X found in observations, resulting in a mean value X=2\\times10^20 s/cm^2/K^1/km^1 from the Galactic MC model. However, in limited velocity intervals, X can take on a much larger range due to CO line saturation. Thus, X strongly depends on both the range in gas velocities and volume densities. The temperature (T) variations within individual MCs do not strongly affect X, as dense gas contributes most to setting X. For fixed velocity and density structure, gas with higher T has higher W, yielding X ~ T^-1/2 for T~20-100 K. We demonstrate that the linewidth-size scaling relation does not influence the X factor - only the range in velocities is important. Clouds with larger linewidths, r...

  16. Associations between individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity among older Chinese adults:A social-ecological perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangren Yi; Rui Wang; Zachary Pope; Zan Gao; Shumei Wang; Fang Pan; Jingpeng Yan; Meng Liu; Peipei Wu; Jingjing Xu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, within a social–ecological framework, associations between multifaceted individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity (HPA) among older Chinese adults. Methods: Through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, a survey instrument assessing various factors underlying 3 social–ecological dimensions of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community and environmental resources was developed. Using a cross-sectional design, older adults (n=1580, aged 67 ± 7 years) recruited from 10 communities in Shandong province completed the social–ecological survey of HPA. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling. Results: Factors related to intrapersonal (medical knowledge, motivation, physical function, sport skills, socioeconomic status, and education), interpersonal (social support, social activity, and social norms), and community and physical environmental resources (safety, capacity, availability of and access to physical activity facilities) were found to be significantly associated with older adults’ participation in HPA. Conclusion: The findings provide an initial validation of a social–ecological approach to the study of HPA in China, suggesting that strategies aimed at promoting physical activity in older adults should address multiple levels of factors that may contribute to the likelihood of older Chinese adults being physically active. © 2016 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Shanghai University of Sport. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  17. [Burnout syndrome among generalist medical doctors of Douala region (Cameroon): Can physical activities be a protective factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandengue, S H; Owona Manga, L J; Lobè-Tanga, M Y; Assomo-Ndemba, P B; Nsongan-Bahebege, S; Bika-Lélé, C; Ngo Sack, F; Njamnshi, A K; Etoundi-Ngoa, S L

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and document the importance of Burnout syndrome among generalist medical doctors (GMD) since no investigation have been carried in Cameroon. Cross-sectional study including 85 GMD using a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, socioprofessional conditions, Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) to evaluate burnout, and Ricci-Gagnon physical activities level metrics. 77 GMD (90.6 %) reported having never heard about burnout. Mean age was 29 years (range 24-42 years). The MBI-HSS revealed that 36 GMD (42.4 %) were victims of burnout, with 27 (31.8 %) at a low level, 8 (9.4 %) moderate and one (1.2 %) severe. Burnout was associated with distance from home to job place (p ⟨ 0.05), strenuous job (p = 0.04), number of children in charge (p = 0.007), number of hospital attended (p = 0.003), number of hours of labor per day (p = 0.0001), conflicts with the hierarchy (p = 0.01), number of guards per month (p = 0.01). Physical activities practice did not showed significant preventive effect on burnout (p = 0.3) (Odds-ratio = 1.45, IC 95 % 0.6, 3.45). Burnout syndrome is not well known among GMD in Douala, though having a high prevalence. Various socio-demographic and socio-professional factors are associated and contribute to increase the level of affect. Burnout seems to be a vicious somato-psycho-somatic disorder. This study did not found a protective or preventive effect of physical activities on burnout.

  18. Factors Influencing Singapore Students' Choice of Physics as a Tertiary Field of Study: A Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Subramaniam, R.

    2013-01-01

    Asian students often perform well in international science and mathematics assessments. Their attitude toward technical subjects, such as physics, remains curious for many. The present study examines Singapore school students' views on various aspects of physics according to whether they intend to choose physics as an advanced field of study. A sample of 1076 physics students, from 16 secondary schools and junior colleges, participated in this study. The students were categorized as physics choosers or non-choosers according to their indicated intention, as sought in the survey, to study or not to study physics as a major subject at university after their leaving level examinations. Rasch-anchored analysis was employed to interpret the results; the use of Rasch analysis has helped to overcome significantly the psychometric limitations inherent in the treatment of Likert scale type of data using traditional analysis. As expected, the image of physics as a difficult subject surfaced in the samples used in our study. The students recognized unequivocally the utilitarian value of physics: physics is said to enhance career options and is necessary for technological progress to occur in a country. They also showed high interest in school physics-this is so even for students who are not keen to study physics in the future, a finding which is at variance with other studies reported from Western countries. School physics is seen to be relevant, and physics teachers are viewed as being able to foster students' interest in physics. Laboratory work, enrichment activities, and physics textbooks were reported to be important in order to encourage students to like physics. Though the physics choosers showed greater intention in physics, they were generally not inclined to pursue physics-related careers after graduation. Parents and peers at school, on the other hand, are perceived to display unenthusiastic attitudes toward physics. Possible reasons for these are discussed along

  19. "My hair or my health:" Overcoming barriers to physical activity in African American women with a focus on hairstyle-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebschmann, Amy G; Campbell, Lucille Johnson; Brown, Candace S; Dunn, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity disparities among African American (AA) women may be related to sociocultural barriers, including difficulties with restyling hair after exercise. We sought to identify physical activity barriers and facilitators in AA women with a focus on sociocultural factors related to hairstyle maintenance. Participants (n = 51) were AA women aged 19-73 years who completed valid surveys and participated in structured focus groups, stratified by age and physical activity levels, from November 2012 to February 2013. The Constant Comparison method was used to develop qualitative themes for barriers and facilitators. The most frequently reported general physical activity barrier among exercisers was "lack of money" (27%) and among non-exercisers was "lack of self-discipline" (57%). A hairstyle-related barrier of "sweating out my hairstyle" was reported by 7% of exercisers and 29% of non-exercisers. This hairstyle-related barrier included the need for extra time and money to restyle hair due to perspiration. Hairstyle-related facilitators included: prioritizing health over hairstyle and high self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration. Participants were interested in resources to simplify hairstyle maintenance. AA women whose hairstyle is affected by perspiration may avoid physical activity due to time and financial burdens. Increasing self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration may help to overcome this barrier.

  20. An investigation of neighborhood-level social, economic and physical factors for railway suicide in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Lay San; Spittal, Matthew J; Bugeja, Lyndal; Milner, Allison; Stevenson, Mark; McClure, Roderick

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the associations between railway suicide and neighborhood social, economic, and physical determinants using postcode-level data. It also examines whether the associations are influenced by having high concentration of high-risk individuals in a neighborhood area. Railway suicide cases from Victoria, Australia for the period of 2001-2012, their age, sex, year of death, usual residential address and suicide location were obtained from the National Coronial Information System. Univariate negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the association between railway suicide and neighborhood-level social, economic and physical factors. Variables which were significant in these univariate models were then assessed in a multivariate model, controlling for age and sex of the deceased and other known confounders. Findings from the multivariate analysis indicate that an elevated rate of railway suicide was strongly associated with neighborhood exposure of higher number of railway stations (IRR=1.30 95% CI=1.16-1.46). Other significant neighborhood risk factors included patronage volume (IRR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.11) and train frequency (IRR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.04). An increased number of video surveillance systems at railway stations and carparks was significantly associated with a modest reduction in railway suicide risk (IRR=0.93, 95% CI=0.88-0.98). These associations were independent of concentration of high-risk individuals. Railway suicide may be under-reported in Australia. Interventions to prevent railway suicide should target vulnerable individuals residing in areas characterized by high station density, patronage volume and train frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors associated with access to physical rehabilitation for victims of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Kelienny de Meneses; Oliveira, Wagner Ivan Fonsêca de; Alves, Emanuel Augusto; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva

    2017-06-22

    Evaluate the level of access to physical rehabilitation for survivors of traffic accidents and the associated factors. A cross-sectional study performed in Natal, Northeastern Brazil, through a telephone survey of 155 victims of traffic accidents admitted to an emergency hospital between January and August of 2013, with a diagnosis of fracture, traumatic brain injury or amputation. Participants were identified in the database of the reference hospital for care of traffic accident victims. We calculated point estimates and confidence interval (95%CI) for the frequency of subjects who had access, in addition to multivariate analysis (logistic regression) between access (dependent variable) and sociodemographic, clinical, and assistance variables. Among the 155 respondents, the majority were adolescents and adults between 15-29 years of age (47.7%), men (82.6%), education up to high school (92.3%), income of up to two minimum wages (78.0%) and bikers (75.5%). Although 85.8% of traffic accident survivors reported the need for physical rehabilitation, there was little access (51.6%; 95%CI 43.7-59.4) and a delay to start the physical rehabilitation (average = 67 days). We classified factors associated with access to physical rehabilitation as: (i) unmodifiable individuals in the short term - family income greater than two minimum wages (OR = 3.7), informal worker (OR = 0.11) or unemployed (OR = 0.15) and possession of a private health care plan (OR = 0.07); and (ii) assistance modifiable by service management - written referral for physical rehabilitation (OR = 27.5) and perceived need of physical rehabilitation (OR = 10). This study found a low and slow access to physical rehabilitation for individuals potentially in need. The associated factors were the organizational processes of health care (health information and referral) and social determinants (income, occupation and private health care plan). Avaliar o nível de acesso à reabilitação física para

  2. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  3. Physical activity in the prevention and amelioration of osteoporosis in women : interaction of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Katarina T

    2005-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious health problem that diminishes quality of life and levies a financial burden on those who fear and experience bone fractures. Physical activity as a way to prevent osteoporosis is based on evidence that it can regulate bone maintenance and stimulate bone formation including the accumulation of mineral, in addition to strengthening muscles, improving balance, and thus reducing the overall risk of falls and fractures. Currently, our understanding of how to use exercise effectively in the prevention of osteoporosis is incomplete. It is uncertain whether exercise will help accumulate more overall peak bone mass during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Also, the consistent effectiveness of exercise to increase bone mass, or at least arrest the loss of bone mass after menopause, is also in question. Within this framework, section 1 introduces mechanical characteristics of bones to assist the reader in understanding their responses to physical activity. Section 2 reviews hormonal, nutritional and mechanical factors necessary for the growth of bones in length, width and mineral content that produce peak bone mass in the course of childhood and adolescence using a large sample of healthy Caucasian girls and female adolescents for reference. Effectiveness of exercise is evaluated throughout using absolute changes in bone with the underlying assumption that useful exercise should produce changes that approximate or exceed the absolute magnitude of bone parameters in a healthy reference population. Physical activity increases growth in width and mineral content of bones in girls and adolescent females, particularly when it is initiated before puberty, carried out in volumes and at intensities seen in athletes, and accompanied by adequate caloric and calcium intakes. Similar increases are seen in young women following the termination of statural growth in response to athletic training, but not to more limited levels of physical activity

  4. Research-Based Assessment of Students' Beliefs about Experimental Physics: When is Gender a Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    The existence of gender differences in student performance on conceptual assessments and their responses to attitudinal assessments has been repeatedly demonstrated. This difference is often present in students' preinstruction responses and persists in their postinstruction responses. However, one area in which the presence of gender differences has not been extensively explored is undergraduate laboratory courses. For example, one of the few laboratory focused research-based assessments, the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS), has not been tested for the existence of gender differences in students' responses. Here, we utilize a national data set of responses to the E-CLASS to determine if they demonstrate significant gender differences. We also investigate how these differences vary along multiple student and course demographic slices, including course level (first-year vs beyond-first-year) and major (physics vs nonphysics). We observe a gender gap in pre- and postinstruction E-CLASS scores in the aggregate data both for the overall score and for most items individually. However, for some subpopulations (e.g., beyond-first-year students) the size or even existence of the gender gap depends on another dimension (e.g., student major). We also find that for all groups the gap in postinstruction scores vanishes or is greatly reduced when controlling for preinstruction scores, course level, and student major.

  5. Modifiable risk factors including sunlight exposure and fish consumption are associated with risk of hypertension in a large representative population from Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liang; Ho, Jacky; Feng, Jianzhang; Mpofu, Elias; Dibley, Michael J; Feng, Xiuhua; Van, Florance; Leong, Sokman; Lau, Winne; Lueng, Petra; Kowk, Carrie; Li, Yan; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye E

    2014-10-01

    Chinese populations are known to be at risk for vitamin D deficiency, with some evidence that this is due to lack of exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency and/or low sun exposure have been associated with higher incidence of hypertension in Caucasians. Thus, we investigated these associations in a Chinese population with a high rate of hypertension. From a random household survey of 1410 residents aged ≥18 years, height, weight and blood pressure were measured and demographic, exercise and dietary data were collected, as well as estimated hours of sunlight exposure on weekdays and weekends (in winter and summer). Modifiable predictors of hypertension in these data were lack of sunlight exposure and low intake of fish as well as smoking, obesity and lack of exercise. When investigated in a linear model, sunlight exposure was negatively associated with hypertension (β=-0.072, pexposure per day compared to none was associated with less hypertension (OR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Similarly, consuming either oily fish or seafood more than four times per week compared to less was also associated with less hypertension (oily fish (OR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.5); seafood consumption (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9)). Having daily moderate physical activity compared to none was also associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9). In contrast, being obese compared to normal weight and having more than five pack-years of smoking compared to none were associated with a higher risk of hypertension (OR=4.6, 95% CI: 3.7-5.7; OR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8, respectively). The major new findings of this study are that more sun exposure and high weekly fish consumption (especially oily fish) may be potentially modifiable independent factors for protecting against risk of hypertension in this population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Including the spatial variability of metal speciation in the effect factor in life cycle impact assessment: Limits of the equilibrium partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, Clara; Bulle, Cécile; Deschênes, Louise

    2017-03-01

    In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach. Alternatively, the TBLM (Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model) has been used to determine an EF that accounts for speciation, but is not available for metals; hence it cannot be consistently applied to metals in an LCA context. This paper proposes an approach to include metal speciation by regionalizing the EqP method for Cu, Ni and Zn with a geochemical speciation model (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model 7.0), for 5213 soils selected from the Harmonized World Soil Database. Results obtained by this approach (EF(EqP)regionalized) are compared to the EFs calculated with the conventional EqP method, to the EFs based on available terrestrial data and to the EFs calculated with the TBLM (EF(TBLM)regionalized) when available. The spatial variability contribution of the EF to the overall spatial variability of the characterization factor (CF) has been analyzed. It was found that the EFs(EqP)regionalized show a significant spatial variability. The EFs calculated with the two non-regionalized methods (EqP and terrestrial data) fall within the range of the EFs(EqP)regionalized. The EFs(TBLM)regionalized cover a larger range of values than the EFs(EqP)regionalized but the two methods are not correlated. This paper highlights the importance of including speciation into the terrestrial EF and shows that using the regionalized EqP approach is not an

  7. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT WITH THE INHIBITORS OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR OF THE CHRONIC UVEITIS REFRACTORY TO THE BASIC THERAPY (INCLUDING AN ASSOCIATED WITH JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rudakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy of chronic uveitis refractory to the basic treatment, in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a very complex problem in pediatrics. Substantial progress in this area resulted after the implementation in practice of inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, as the most effective in such clinical situation drugs adalimumab and infliximab are considered (although infliximab was not officially approved in JIA. Objective. To estimate the cost effectiveness of TNF inhibitors — adalimumab, and infliximab in chronic uveitis, refractory to the basic therapy (including associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. A modeling on the basis of a comparative prospective cohort clinical study was carried out. The analysis was performed by the method «cost–effectiveness» from a position of health and social accounting perspective. Results. It was shown that the frequency and time of remission did not differ when treatment with infliximab (5 mg/kg at 0–2–6 weeks and further once in 6–8 weeks and adalimumab (24 mg/m2 once in 2 weeks. Adalimumab provides a long-term maintenance of remission (no recurrence in 60% of patients within 40 months of observation, whereas 1 year after the treatment with infliximab the frequency of exacerbations was returned to that observed before therapy. The proportion of patients without relapse in the treatment with infliximab for 40 months was 18.8%. Similar results were obtained in a subset of patients with chronic uveitis associated with JIA (with follow-up of 20 months of in a group of infliximab number patients without relapse was 11.1%, with adalimumab therapy — 63.6%. In the general population of patients with refractory chronic uveitis the factor «cost–effectiveness» calculated for a patient with the maintenance of remission for 3 years with adalimumab therapy was in 2,1–2,8 times less than in the treatment with infliximab. In chronic uveitis associated with JIA, the coefficient of

  8. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, among urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, M A; Boyer, C B

    1991-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of multiple psychosocial and knowledge-related antecedent factors that may predict sexual and alcohol and drug use behaviors that are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection. Five hundred forty-four ninth-grade urban high school students were surveyed regarding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to STDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that higher levels of STD and AIDS knowledge were associated with lower levels of STD and AIDS anxiety (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), fewer negative attitudes toward people with AIDS (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), stronger perceptions of self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.03; p less than 0.01), and stronger peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.05). Negative attitudes toward people with AIDS were inversely related to knowledge (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001), social support (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.01), and perceived self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.01; p less than 0.05). Predictors of alcohol and drug use included perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001) and strong peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.001). The best predictor of sexual risk behavior was alcohol and drug use (R2 delta = 0.07; p less than 0.001). Lower levels of knowledge (R2 delta = 0.14; p less than 0.01) and perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.05) predicted nonuse of condoms. Our results indicate that several factors relate to adolescent risk for STDs: the connection between peer influence and adolescent risk behaviors, the link between alcohol and drug use and sexual risk behavior, and the role of knowledge in determining nonuse of condoms.

  9. Severe physical violence between intimate partners during pregnancy: a risk factor for early cessation of exclusive breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Claudia L; de Oliveira, Alessandra S D; Reichenheim, Michael E; Lobato, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the role of severe physical violence during pregnancy (SPVP) between intimate partners in early cessation of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF). A health services survey. The revised Conflict Tactics Scale was used to characterize SPVP; premature breast-feeding cessation was identified using a current status data approach, which was based on the information reported from food recall during the preceding 7 d. The cumulative hazard function was estimated by complementary log-log transformation models, which allowed the ensuing estimation of early breast-feeding cessation rates in different age groups and the ratio of rates of weaning between women exposed and not exposed to violence. Five large public primary health-care facilities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample comprised 811 randomly selected mothers of children under 5 months of age who were waiting to be consulted. SPVP is an independent risk factor of cessation of EBF since, after controlling for socio-economic, demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, women exposed to violence presented an incidence density that was 31% higher than those who were not exposed (hazard ratio = 1·30, 95% CI 1·01, 1·69). The findings corroborate the hypothesis that SPVP is an important risk factor for EBF. This indicates the need for incentives to adequately train health-care personnel in dealing with lactating women in order to gain a broader view of breast-feeding beyond the biological aspects of lactation, including the maternal psychological dimension.

  10. Multilevel analysis of the physical health perception of employees: community and individual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayanan, Sudhakar; Brooks, Ambyr J; Hagen, Susan E; Edington, Dee W

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the communities where employees reside are associated with employee perception of overall physical health after adjusting for individual factors. Retrospective cross-sectional. Active employees from a large manufacturing company representing 157 zip code tabulation areas (ZCTAs) in Michigan. 22,012 active employees who completed at least one voluntary health risk appraisal (HRA) during 1999-2001. Community deprivation and racial segregation at the ZCTA level were obtained using indices created from 2000 U.S. Census data. Demographics and HRA-related data (health-related behaviors, medical history, and quality of life indicators) at the individual level were used as independent variables. A two-level logistic regression model (employees nested in ZCTA) was used to model the probability of better self-rated health perception (SRH) (better health: 89.1% versus poor health: 10.9%). Relative to those living in highly deprived communities, employees residing in less-deprived communities showed 2.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57-2.72) and those living in moderately deprived communities showed 1.83 (95% CI, 1.42-2.35) increased odds of better SRH. After adjusting for individual-level variables, employees living in less-deprived communities had increased odds (1.31 [95% CI, 1.07-1.60]) and those living in moderately deprived communities had increased odds (1.33 [95% CI, 1.11-1.59]) of better SRH compared with individuals from highly deprived communities. The association of racial segregation with employees' SRH was mediated after adjusting for other variables. Individual-level variables showed significant statistical associations with SRH. Communities do have a modest association with SRH of the employees living there. After adjusting for individual-level and demographic variables, employees living in less/moderately deprived communities are more likely to perceive better physical health relative to those who live in highly deprived communities.

  11. Physical factors underlying the Timed "Up and Go" test in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavent-Caballer, Vicent; Sendín-Magdalena, Alejandro; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Rosado-Calatayud, Pedro; Amer-Cuenca, Juan José; Salvador-Coloma, Pablo; Segura-Ortí, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a range of selected physical measures for their relative contributions and extent to which they may explain the performance of the Timed "Up and Go" test (TUG) in a sample of healthy older adults. The participants where 194 adults aged 65 and older with no cognitive impairment and independent in their daily activities from local senior centres and a geriatric nursing home in Valencia, Spain. Age, body mass index (BMI), TUG, Berg balance scale (BBS), One-leg stand test (OLS), grip strength, chair stand test (STS-5), knee extension strength and rectus femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) where measured. Moderate to high significant associations were found between the TUG performance and BBS and knee extension strength (r = -.561 and -.397). A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the BBS was a significant and independent predictor (AdjR(2) = .373) for the TUG performance. The TUG is highly correlated with the BBS score and knee extension strength, measures that represent common performance tasks in everyday life. The BBS was demonstrated to be the most significant factor explaining the TUG performance. The TUG is demonstrated to be a useful tool for predicting changes in functional balance measured with the BBS. The mobility decline may be better explained as the sum of deficits across multiple domains rather than as a single entity. Clinicians would benefit of those findings by a better understanding of the physical measures, in addition to designing more accurate interventions focusing on the enhancement of mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Number-Theory in Nuclear-Physics in Number-Theory: Non-Primality Factorization As Fission VS. Primality As Fusion; Composites' Islands of INstability: Feshbach-Resonances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Numbers: primality/indivisibility/non-factorization versus compositeness/divisibility/ factorization, often in tandem but not always, provocatively close analogy to nuclear-physics: (2 + 1)=(fusion)=3; (3+1)=(fission)=4[=2 x 2]; (4+1)=(fusion)=5; (5 +1)=(fission)=6[=2 x 3]; (6 + 1)=(fusion)=7; (7+1)=(fission)=8[= 2 x 4 = 2 x 2 x 2]; (8 + 1) =(non: fission nor fusion)= 9[=3 x 3]; then ONLY composites' Islands of fusion-INstability: 8, 9, 10; then 14, 15, 16, ... Could inter-digit Feshbach-resonances exist??? Possible applications to: quantum-information/ computing non-Shore factorization, millennium-problem Riemann-hypotheses proof as Goodkin BEC intersection with graph-theory "short-cut" method: Rayleigh(1870)-Polya(1922)-"Anderson"(1958)-localization, Goldbach-conjecture, financial auditing/accounting as quantum-statistical-physics; ...abound!!! Watkins [www.secamlocal.ex.ac.uk/people/staff/mrwatkin/] "Number-Theory in Physics" many interconnections: "pure"-maths number-theory to physics including Siegel [AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)-Abs.# 973-6