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Sample records for factors including perceived

  1. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Cultural Factors Contributing to the Perceived Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Hye-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Romero and Roberts’ model (1998) and Phinney’s causal model (1997) were used as frameworks to test the relationship between ethnic identity, in-group attitudes, out-group attitudes, and the perception of discrimination. Among Asian American, Korean American, and Korean students. These models tested direct effects of ethic identity on perceived discrimination and indirect effects mediated by in-group attitudes and out-group attitudes. School-based surveys in California and Korea...

  3. Perceived health and environment related factors associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived health and environment related factors associated with urban ... as an important resource for meeting the challenges of rapidly growing cities, such ... to livelihood, it also has health and environmental problems associated with it.

  4. Theory of Planned Behavior including self-stigma and perceived barriers explain help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in Iranian women suffering from epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Oveisi, Sonia; Burri, Andrea; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-03-01

    To apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the two additional concepts self-stigma and perceived barriers to the help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. In this 18-month follow-up study, TPB elements, including attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention along with self-stigma and perceived barriers in seeking help for sexual problems were assessed in n=818 women with epilepsy (94.0% aged ≤40years). The basic TPB model (model 1) and the TPB model additionally including self-stigma and perceived barriers (Model 2) were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Both SEM models showed satisfactory model fits. According to model, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention explained 63.1% of the variance in help-seeking behavior. Variance was slightly higher (64.5%) when including self-stigma and perceived barriers (model 2). In addition, the fit indices of the models were better highlighting the importance of self-stigma and perceived barriers in help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Theory of Planned Behavior is useful in explaining help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. Self-stigma and perceived barriers are additional factors that should be considered in future interventions aiming to adopt TPB to improve help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Affecting Perceived Satisfaction with Facebook in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthawongs, Penjuree; Kanthawongs, Penjira; Chitcharoen, Chaisak

    2016-01-01

    [For full proceedings, see ED571332.]The aim of this study is to explore the impact of perspectives on Facebook in education and relational commitment towards perceived satisfaction with Facebook. The sample included 157 students of two private universities in Bangkok and Pathum Thani province of Thailand during April to May of academic year 2015…

  6. Factors associated with differences in perceived health among German long-term unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limm Heribert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unemployment is associated with reduced physical and psychological well-being. Perceived health is an important factor influencing health outcomes as well as successful returns to work. This study aims to determine the extent to which perceived health correlates with mental health, various health risk characteristics and socio-demographic characteristics in a setting-selected sample of long-term unemployed persons. Methods Using SF-12, 365 long-term unemployed persons were assessed for self-perceived health and various socio-demographic and health characteristics. Perceived health data of the sample was compared to the German SF-12 reference population. Bivariate analyses and multiple linear regression models were applied to identify those variables significantly associated with perceived health. Results The study population reported poorer perceived health compared with the general population. Analyses showed that perceived mental health was significantly worse in women, among persons with heightened depression and anxiety scores, and in participants reporting reduced levels of physical activity. Perceived physical health was significantly lower among older persons, participants with a higher BMI, and participants with heightened depression and anxiety scores. Both mental and physical health were worse among the unemployed assigned to an employment center as compared to those engaged in the secondary labor market. In total, 36% of the variance in the SF-12 mental score and 20% of the variance in the SF-12 physical score were explained by the factors included in the final multiple linear regression models. Conclusions Perceived health among a select group of long-term unemployed is reduced to a clinically relevant extent compared to the general population. The preliminary findings underline an association between mental health and perceived health. Negative self-perceptions of health were also associated with the labor market

  7. Transdiagnostic Factors and Mediation of the Relationship Between Perceived Racial Discrimination and Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Stohl, Malki; Hasin, Deborah S; Eaton, Nicholas R

    2015-07-01

    Multivariable comorbidity research indicates that many common mental disorders are manifestations of 2 latent transdiagnostic factors, internalizing and externalizing. Environmental stressors are known to increase the risk for experiencing particular mental disorders, but their relationships with transdiagnostic disorder constructs are unknown. The present study investigated one such stressor, perceived racial discrimination, which is robustly associated with a variety of mental disorders. To examine the direct and indirect associations between perceived racial discrimination and common forms of psychopathology. Quantitative analysis of 12 common diagnoses that were previously assessed in a nationally representative sample (N = 5191) of African American and Afro-Caribbean adults in the United States, taken from the National Survey of American Life, and used to test the possibility that transdiagnostic factors mediate the effects of discrimination on disorders. The data were obtained from February 2001 to March 2003. Latent variable measurement models, including factor analysis, and indirect effect models were used in the study. Mental health diagnoses from reliable and valid structured interviews and perceived race-based discrimination. While perceived discrimination was positively associated with all examined forms of psychopathology and substance use disorders, latent variable indirect effects modeling revealed that almost all of these associations were significantly mediated by the transdiagnostic factors. For social anxiety disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, complete mediation was found. The pathways linking perceived discrimination to psychiatric disorders were not direct but indirect (via transdiagnostic factors). Therefore, perceived discrimination may be associated with risk for myriad psychiatric disorders due to its association with transdiagnostic factors.

  8. Factors Associated With High Levels of Perceived Prenatal Stress Among Inner-City Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Kendra L; Heaman, Maureen I

    2016-01-01

    To explore the factors associated with high rates of perceived prenatal stress among inner-city women. Observational cross-sectional study. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 603 inner-city women. In our study, 330 participants (54.7%) self-identified as First Nations, Metis, or First Nations/Metis. Prenatal stress was measured with Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. A social ecological model provided the theoretical framework for the study, and variables representing all levels of the model were selected for study. Data analyses included t tests to compare women with high stress and low/moderate stress, univariable logistic regression analysis to determine the association of selected factors with maternal stress, and multivariable logistic regression analysis to provide adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the factors. Of the 603 participants, 17.2% (104) reported high levels of perceived stress, and 82.8% (499) reported low/moderate levels. The high-stress group included a significantly greater proportion of First Nations, Metis, or First Nations/Metis women (76.0%) than the low/moderate-stress group (50.3%). Low rates of self-esteem and social support, residential mobility, abuse before/during pregnancy, and experiencing discrimination were significantly associated with high levels of perceived prenatal stress. Our findings demonstrated that factors that influence prenatal stress occur at all levels of the social ecological model. The identified factors are amenable to change, and implications for practice include the need for psychosocial risk assessment, alternative forms of prenatal care, relational care, and advocacy initiatives. A greater understanding of the complex factors associated with high rates of perceived prenatal stress can inform the development of effective interventions for inner-city women. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Coping with perceived racism: a significant factor in the development of obesity in African American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendwa, Denee T; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C Jules; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L

    2011-07-01

    African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity.

  10. Dispensing errors in community pharmacy: perceived influence of sociotechnical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeinbach, Sheryl; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Parekh, Ashish; Herderick, Michelle

    2007-08-01

    This study examined the impact of pharmacists' perceptions of errors in dispensing, errors in communication, delays in prescription processing, efficiency and physical mobility in the pharmacy by practice setting and sociotechnical factors (i.e. pharmacy design, drive through pick-up window services and automated dispensing systems). Community pharmacy practice in the USA. A two-page survey was mailed to a geographically stratified random sample of 1047 community pharmacies. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the impact of attitudinal items with respect to pharmacy practice setting (e.g. mass merchant, supermarket, chain and independent) and sociotechnical factors. Pharmacy characteristics, pharmacist experience and total dispensing errors were also addressed. The response rate was 45.0% (n = 429). Pharmacists perceived that pharmacy design significantly (P pharmacy practice and other environments.

  11. Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Associated with Perceived Facial Age in Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Andrew E.; Murray, Peter G.; Gunn, David A.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Catt, Sharon D.; Wen, Yi B.; Zhou, Li P.; Wang, Hong Q.; Catt, Michael; Granger, Stewart P.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with ‘looking young for one’s age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25–70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age) identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001), fewer household members (p = 0.027), menopausal status (p = 0.020), frequency of visiting one's doctor (p = 0.013), working indoors (p<0.001), spending less time in the sun (p = 0.015), moderate levels of physical activity (p = 0.004), higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001) and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001); moisturiser (p = 0.016) or night cream (p = 0.016). Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations. PMID:21179450

  12. Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial age in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Mayes

    Full Text Available Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with 'looking young for one's age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25-70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001, fewer household members (p=0.027, menopausal status (p=0.020, frequency of visiting one's doctor (p=0.013, working indoors (p<0.001, spending less time in the sun (p=0.015, moderate levels of physical activity (p=0.004, higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001 and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001; moisturiser (p=0.016 or night cream (p=0.016. Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations.

  13. Factors relating to the perceived management of emergency situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkvad Rasmussen, Maria; Tolsgaard, Martin G; Dieckmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explored individual, team, and setting factors associated with the quality of management of in-hospital emergency situations experienced by former Advanced Life Support (ALS) course participants. METHODS: This study was a survey of former ALS course participants' long......-term experience of management of in-hospital, emergency situations. The survey was carried out in 2012 in Denmark and Norway. RESULTS: A questionnaire was send to 526 potential responders and (281/479 × 100) 58.7% responded. The results demonstrated that 75% of the emergency situations were perceived as "managed...... to apply ALS principles, the team atmosphere and communication. Responders' ratings of quality of management of emergency situations increased with intensity of setting. However, the 'clinical setting' was rated significantly lower as attributor to ability to apply ALS principles compared to 'co...

  14. The environment and physical activity: The influence of psychosocial, perceived and built environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullen Chris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study sought to integrate perceived and built environmental and individual factors into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to better understand adolescents' physical activity. Methods Participants (n = 110 aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.6 ± 1.55 were recruited from two large metropolitan high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, were included in the analysis. Participants completed measures of the revised TPB and the perceived environment. Individual factors such as ethnicity and level of deprivation were also collected. Geographical Information Systems (GIS software was used to measure the physical environment (walkability, access to physical activity facilities. Physical activity was assessed using the ActiGraph accelerometer and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A. Data from the various sources were combined to develop an integrated model integrated for statistical analysis using structural equation modeling. Results The TPB model variables (intention and perceived behavioral control explained 43% of the variance of PAQ-A. Unique and individual contributions were made by intention and PBC and home ownership of home equipment. The model explained 13% of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (Actigraph. Unique and individual contribution was made by intention. Conclusion Social cognitive variables were better predictors of both subjective and objective physical activity compared to perceived environmental and built environment factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Factors Contributing to Perceived Stress among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…

  16. Factors Contributing to Perceived Stress among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…

  17. Perceived Attributes of Factors Influencing Consumers’ Engagement with Electronic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Adewale Muritala

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to critically analyze the relationship between perceived attributes as factors and consumers’ engagement with electronic banking technology. A survey method was used to gather data from 200 secondary school teachers from five selected local government in South-Western part of Nigeria namely; Ibadan North, Egbeda, Ido, Ibadan North-East and Ibadan North-West Local government. Data was collected with a structured questionnaire and analyzed with several descriptive statistics to identify consumers’ engagement in electronic banking technology in Nigeria. The results of the study therefore reveals that the most common influential factors hindering consumers’ adoption of electronic banking in Nigeria are relative advantage of economic gains and non-economic gains, social character, communication behavior, trialability as well as observability. Hence, it therefore recommends that the banks should create channels through which customers’ awareness will be enhanced and employ IT trained personnel to monitor and report any fraudulent transaction in order to secure customers’ trust on safety risk/security.

  18. The evaluation of perceived stress and associated factors in elderly caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchesi, Bruna Moretti; Souza, Érica Nestor; Gratão, Aline Cristina Martins; Gomes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira; Inouye, Keika; Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Marques, Sueli; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost

    2016-01-01

    Factors associated with perceived stress in older people have been studied previously, but this investigation in elderly caregivers is still scarce in the literature. Our aim was to assess factors that are associated with perceived stress in a sample of elderly caregivers. This cross-sectional investigation assessed 341 elderly caregivers who cared for a dependent older person at home. They answered questionnaires including the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), a sociodemographic and care characterization, health and cognitive status, and burden related to care. The mean score in PSS-14 was 18.5±9.9. Self-reported pain, difficult to sleep, "very poor/poor" self-rated health, impaired cognitive status, more people living in the house and higher levels of burden related to care were associated with higher levels of perceived stress. The results highlight the importance of the development of stress-reduced interventions directed to elderly caregivers focusing on the associated variables in this study. Attention should be given to cognitive decline prevention and strategies to avoid or reduce burden in the elderly caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers' perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology.

  20. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers’ perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology. PMID:26262094

  1. Perceived migraine triggers: do dietary factors play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Camboim Rockett

    Full Text Available The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess the frequency of 36 possible triggering factors precipitating a migraine crisis (hormonal, environmental, and dietary in adult outpatients suffering from migraine attacks. A group of 123 migraine sufferers, aged 43.2 ± 13.9 (mean ± SD years, including 114 (92.7% women, 68.3% having migraine without aura, 68.3% reporting pain severe enough to require drug prophylaxis, and 29.3% presenting with hypertension, were evaluated. The most common triggers were stress and fasting, and environmental and hormonal factors were frequently found to precipitate a crisis. More than 90% of the patients reported susceptibility to 5 or more factors, and only 2.4% did not complain about any dietary factor. The large number of triggers detected in the present study emphasises the importance of awareness and avoidance of these factors in the management of patients with migraine.

  2. Perceived psychological stress among undergraduate medical students: Role of academic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ranadip; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Mitra, Kaushik; Naskar, Somnath; Karmakar, Prasanta Ray; Lahiri, Saibendu Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress among undergraduate medical students and to find out academic factors as determinants. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of R. G. Kar Medical College, India, during July 2011-June 2012. Perceived stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale-14. A 10-item questionnaire was used to assess academic sources of stress and their severity. The overall mean perceived stress score was 29.58 (standard deviation [SD] = 6.60), and 46.3% of the participants were in the group of more stressed (perceived stress score ≥28). The academic stressor factors predicted 78% of variability of perceived stress. A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The students should be taught different stress management techniques to improve their ability to cope with a demanding professional course.

  3. Factors affecting the use and perceived benefit of ITE and BTE hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumfield, A; Dillon, H

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that might affect hearing aid use, satisfaction and perceived benefit. A further aim was to look at which variables affect the choice of hearing aid, in particular, an in-the-ear (ITE) versus a behind-the-ear (BTE) device. Twenty-nine elderly hearing-impaired people with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss were fitted with both an ITE and a BTE hearing aid with similar electroacoustic performance. Both hearing aids were linear with output compression limiting and were fitted in a randomized order. After wearing each device for a six-week period, subj ets were asked to select the hearing aid they preferred. Variables significantly related to hearing aid choice, use and perceived benefit included ease of management, accuracy with which the NAL-R insertion gain target was achieved, earmould comfort and the type of hearing aid the client preferred initially.

  4. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  5. Factors related to perceived power usage in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwald, Joseph; Koslowsky, Meni; Brody-Shamir, Shlomit

    2006-09-01

    Based on Raven's (1992) power interaction model, situational and personal variables were examined as determinants of power choice in educational settings. The impact of educational sector (secular, religious), class level, gender and content of conflict on perceived power usage in teacher-pupil conflicts was analysed. A total of 370 elementary and junior high school pupils and 62 teachers from the same schools responded to a series of scenarios where they were asked how often specific power bases are used by teachers in trying to gain compliance. Results indicated that harsh power bases were perceived as more prevalent in the secular educational sector rather than in the religious one, in junior high school rather than elementary school, for boys as compared with girls, and for conflicts stemming from students rather than teachers. Findings were interpreted in terms of conformity level and frequency of conflicts. The discussion also addresses the lack of correspondence between teacher and pupil responses.

  6. [Validity of self-perceived dental caries as a diagnostic test and associated factors in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Roberto, Luana Leal; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista de; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E

    2017-08-21

    This study aimed to analyze the validity of self-perceived dental caries and associated factors in a sample of 795 adults (35-44 years). The dependent variable was self-perceived dental caries, and the independent variables were combined in blocks. Three logistic models were performed: (1) all adults; (2) adults with a formal diagnosis of caries; and (3) adults without such caries. Self-perceived dental caries showed 77.7% sensitivity, 58% specificity, 65% accuracy, 52% positive predictive value, and 81% negative predictive value. In Model 1, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, access to information, flossing, formal diagnosis of caries, self-perceived need for treatment, toothache, and dissatisfaction with oral health and general health. In Model 2, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, self-perceived need for treatment, and dissatisfaction with oral health and general health. In Model 3, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, access to information, flossing, self-perceived need for treatment, and dissatisfaction with oral health. Self-perceived dental caries showed limited utility as a diagnostic method.

  7. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  8. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  9. Use of ICT Technologies and Factors Affecting Pre-Service ELT Teachers' Perceived ICT Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Derya; Özen, Rasit

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify both level and frequency of ICT technology use and factors affecting perceived self-efficacy levels of pre-service English Language Teaching (ELT) teachers' (n = 241) ICT self-efficacy. The data were collected through a survey (Çuhadar & Yücel, 2010) during the 2011-2012 academic year that includes items on the use…

  10. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  11. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  12. Student-perceived factors for an enhanced advanced education program in prosthodontics recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Fatemeh S; Knoernschild, Kent L

    2011-07-01

    A qualitative study of Advanced Education Programs in Prosthodontics (AEPPs) students was conducted to identify best practices to effectively promote ongoing health and student learning within the context of a patient-centered recall system. Ten students from seven AEPPs nationwide were invited to participate in a focus group on recall systems within AEPPs. The discussion first identified whether an active recall program existed and then delved into benefits for patients and students, positive and negative features of existing recall systems, and factors that can be improved upon for an enhanced recall system. Participants advocated the highest standard of patient care, including regular ongoing care once restorative therapy is complete. Discussion indicates that not only does regular patient recall lead to health promotion, disease prevention, and monitoring of existing prostheses for the patient, but also provides for an enhanced learning experience for the students. Recognizing this, several students from AEPPs lacking an official recall system have established a "makeshift" system, encompassing a treatment completion letter, final intraoral photographs, patient education, and regular prosthetic evaluations, for their existing patients. Prosthodontic program students perceived their program's recall effectiveness could be improved. Due to the numerous potential benefits of an active recall system for both patients and students, some perceived factors to be improved upon include treatment completion protocol, patient education, and establishment of a patient-centered recall system managed by a team of hygienists, receptionists, attending faculty, and residents. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. Perceived participation and autonomy: aspects of functioning and contextual factors predicting participation after stroke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fallahpour, Mandana; Tham, Kerstin; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Jonsson, Hans

    2011-01-01

    To describe perceived participation and autonomy among a sample of persons with stroke in Iran and to identify different aspects of functioning and contextual factors predicting participation after stroke...

  14. MCDM Technique to Evaluating Mobile Banking Adoption in the Togolese Banking Industry Based on the Perceived Value : Perceived Benefit and Perceived Sacrifice Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbongli Komlan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of new technological innovations in networks, platforms, and financial institutions has empowered m-banking service providers to target their business strategies plan with confidence. Nevertheless, lots of service innovations have failed to generate revenue due to lagging adoption issues. Even though, several prior researches have focused on the factors that influence the acceptance of mbanking, there is limited empirical study which simultaneously take the success factors (perceived benefit and resistance factors (perceived sacrifice that contribute to the customers adoption of m- banking. Furthermore, most previous researches investigate on the overall aspects related to the adoption of mobile banking, have used multiple regression methods (structural equation modeling or technology acceptance technique or some MCDM tools. However, these studies still have some shortcoming due to lack of delivering the enough information about these factors and their prioritizing facets. Nowadays, only those organizations which major goal is to achieve customer’s expectations with maximum quality can be successful in the market environment. This research reviewed the literature, took the advice from the experts in the field of m-banking service, and constructed the structural hierarchical table of the factors that affecting perceived value on consumers' adoption of mobile banking. Via a pairwise comparisons scale, a questionnaire designated was distributed to some university students in Lomé-Togo and later used AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process to weigh each criteria, sub-criteria and alternative in order to rank them according to their preference. The finding revealed that financial risk is the utmost factor impacting the m-banking adoption, follow by money saved element. Both factors explain how consumers are more concerned with the financial or monetary issues and far ahead Security & Privacy risk come to confirm that, Togolese Banking industry

  15. Factors Influencing Perceived Crowding of Tourists and Sustainable Tourism Destination Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on tourists crowding are developed to explore the perception of crowding, and these studies indicate crowding influence on sustainable development of tourist destinations. This study aims to reveal the influential factors of tourists’ perceived crowding. We obtained data from interviewing over 400 tourists and five senior tourism officials in Xi’an, China. This study firstly applies factor analysis to identify the constructed variables of tourists’ motivations from the principle component analysis. It then examines the correlation between nationality and perceived crowding. Consequently, a multiple regression is used to identify the connection between motivations and perceived crowding. The results of the study indicate nationality and motivation as two significant influential factors to perceived crowding management. This study also shows that management in tourist destinations would benefit from provision of the authentic travel experience integrated with zoning the travel destination.

  16. Factors affecting perceived change in physical activity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2017-08-01

    reduction of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is common but undesirable, as it is associated with negative outcomes, including excessive gestational weight gain. Our objective was to explore changes in five types of activity that occurred during pregnancy and the behavioural determinants of the reported changes in PA. we performed a secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey that was constructed using the ASE-Model - an approach to identifying the factors that drive behaviour change that focuses on Attitude, Social influence, and self-Efficacy. 455 healthy pregnant women of all gestational ages, receiving prenatal care from midwifery practices in the Netherlands. more than half of our respondents reported a reduction in their PA during pregnancy. The largest reduction occurred in sports and brief rigorous activities, but other types of PA were reduced as well. Reduction of PA was more likely in women who considered themselves as active before pregnancy, women who experienced pregnancy-related barriers, women who were advised to reduce their PA, and multiparous women. Fewer than 5% increased their PA. Motivation to engage in PA was positively associated with enjoying PA. all pregnant women should be informed about the positive effects of staying active and should be encouraged to engage in, or to continue, moderately intensive activities like walking, biking or swimming. Our findings concerning the predictors of PA reduction can be used to develop an evidence-based intervention aimed at encouraging healthy PA during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influences of Perceived Factors on Consumer Purchasing Behavior: In the Perspective of Online Shopping Capability of Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Yingcong Xu; Lu Long; Lingying Zhang; Wojie Tan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, firstly, based on related researches about consumer online purchasing behavior before, we proposed that there were some perceived factors that influence perceived value which has a direct impact on consumer’s online purchasing decision-making. Secondly, on the analysis for the antecedent of consumer perceived factors with online shopping, we proposed the definition of online shopping capability of consumer and try to explore what factors would affect consumers’ perceived value ...

  18. Factors Affecting Teachers' Perceived Readiness for Online Collaborative Learning: A Case Study in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ah-Choo

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates factors affecting the perceived readiness for online collaborative learning (OCL) of a sample of 86 mathematics teachers from 12 secondary schools. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structure equation modeling were used to analyze the data. A moderately fit model was generated and able…

  19. Factors Perceived to Affect Delinquent Dispositions in Juvenile Court: Putting the Sentencing Decision into Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Joseph B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred workers from rural, urban, and suburban juvenile courts were interviewed to ascertain their perspectives as to factors that should and do influence sentencing decisions. The data demonstrate that the factors perceived to affect these decisions vary among juvenile courts, making it difficult to determine the impact of any single factor.…

  20. Correlations for perceived family environmental factors with substance use among adolescents in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, S N; Matla, M P

    2003-04-01

    Perceived family environmental factors were used to predict self-reported use of substances (drugs or alcohol) among adolescents in South Africa. 435 high school students (ages 15 to 19 years, M=17.2 yr., SD=1.34) answered a questionnaire which included questions on demographic variables, the Family Environmental Scale, and questions on substances used (drugs or alcohol). Logistic regression analysis indicated that scores on family conflict and low family moral-religious emphasis were significantly associated with drug use (57.9% of the variance was accounted for) and use of alcohol (62.3% of the variance was accounted for). Programmes for the reduction of substance use among adolescents should include activities designed to reduce family conflict and strengthen family moral-religious emphasis.

  1. Customers’ perceived value towards the service in Islamic banking: Confirmatory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryani Suryani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze the dimensionality of the concept of perceived value in Islamic banking sector, adapting to six dimensions of the GLOVAL scale and one additional dimension that is spiritual as measurement of perceived value to Islamic banking service sector. Design, methodology or approach is the total of 106 customers of financial entities surveyed, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify the reliability and validity of the scale of perceived value. It was found that perceived value is a multidimensional construct, composed of seven dimensions such as functional value of the establishment, functional value of the personnel, functional value of the service, functional value price, emotional value, social value, and spiritual value. The scale of overall perceived value in financial services was obtained, which was composed of seven dimensions and represented by 26 items that are significant for their measurement. It was also found that there are emotional and professionalism as dominant indicators in overall perceived value. It implies that a scale of measurement of the value is perceived by consumers in Islamic banking sector which incorporates valuations of customer value. The proposed model and study findings can greatly help researchers and practitioners understand the perceived value in Islamic Banking sector.

  2. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the needs among HIV-infected adults.

  3. Perceived psychological stress among undergraduate medical students: Role of academic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadip Chowdhury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress among undergraduate medical students and to find out academic factors as determinants. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of R. G. Kar Medical College, India, during July 2011–June 2012. Perceived stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale-14. A 10-item questionnaire was used to assess academic sources of stress and their severity. The overall mean perceived stress score was 29.58 (standard deviation [SD] = 6.60, and 46.3% of the participants were in the group of more stressed (perceived stress score ≥28. The academic stressor factors predicted 78% of variability of perceived stress. A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The students should be taught different stress management techniques to improve their ability to cope with a demanding professional course.

  4. perceived factors influencing the choice of antenatal care and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    medical conditions and screen for risk factors. However it is not ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management EJESM Vol. 5 No. ... Result among others shows that education and ... Polytechnic Ibadan and several private and.

  5. WHAT PERCEIVED SUCCESS FACTORS ARE IMPORTANT FOR SMALLL BUSINESS OWNERS IN A TRANSITION ECONOMY?

    OpenAIRE

    BESNIK A. KRASNIQI; Tullumi, Malush

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines perceived Critical Success Factors (CSFs) affecting the success of small firms and their relationship with firm and managerial characteristics. The paper also seeks to investigate the interdependence relationship among the perceived CSFs themselves using data reduction techniques. The study tests the number of CSFs on small firm success using primary data that were collected through a questionnaire survey with 256 business start-ups randomly selected from business register...

  6. Extracurricular factors influence perceived stress in a large cohort of Colombian dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Villa-Torres, Laura; Mafla, Ana Cristina; Moya, Gloria Aranzazu; González-Martínez, Farith; Vila-Sierra, Luis Armando; Fortich-Mesa, Natalia; Gómez-Scarpetta, Ruth Ángela; Duque-Restrepo, Liliana María

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of extracurricular factors including socioeconomic status and career choice with perceived stress in dental school in a large cohort of Colombian dental students. Participants in the study were 5,700 students enrolled in seventeen Colombian dental schools. The study employed a Spanish adaptation of the Dental Environment Stressors (DES30-Sp) questionnaire and recorded an array of demographic, socioeconomic, career choice, and dental studies-related information. Data analyses relied on descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate methods based on multi-level mixed-effects linear regression and post hoc estimation of predictive margins. "Fear of failing a course or year" emerged as the highest ranked item. Male students consistently reported less perceived stress than females, and stress scores were higher among seniors. Independent of gender, age, and study year, having dentistry as one's first career choice, relying on financial support, and belonging to higher socioeconomic strata were associated with lower stress levels. Academic environment interventions aimed to improve students' educational well-being will need to account for the individual heterogeneity among them. These data from a robust cohort of predoctoral dental students underscore the importance of considering students' educational experiences in a broader social and economic context.

  7. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A Comparative Study of Digital Library Use: Factors, Perceived Influences, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziming; Luo, Lili

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which undergraduate and graduate students in China differ in their digital library use. Unlike the factors promoting digital library use, non-use factors, perceived influences, and degree of satisfaction are quite different between undergraduate and graduate students due to their differing emphases and…

  9. Vocational satisfaction, coping strategies, and perceived stress as factors of ‘burnout’ in clinical dental students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pérez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Having discussed different factors contributing towards “Burnout Syndrome” (BOS in dentistry students, the aim of this project is to analyze the existing relationship between vocational satisfaction, coping strategies and perceived stress as determining factors of burnout in 4th and 5th year dentistry students. Methods: Prospective cohort study (March-December. The relationship between vocational satisfaction, coping strategies and perceived stress as factors towards BOS in 4th and 5th year dentistry students will be determined. All participants will be required to sign a consent form the project will be evaluated by the Ethics Committee. The sociodemographic variables to be measured are: age, gender and socioeconomic status; the psychological variables are: Burnout Syndrome severity, using Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, coping strategies by Copyng Strategies Inventory (CSI, perceived stress with Perceived Stress Scale Questionnaire (PSS. All versions above have been validated in Spanish, and vocational satisfaction of the Dentistry Degree will be measured using a questionnaire, with 6 questions for 3 parameters: career choice, current feeling and predicted feeling after graduation. The data collection will be carried out in 4 stages: informed consent obtainment; MBI, CSI, PSS scales and vocational satisfaction questionnaire in March. In the second (June, third (September and fourth (November stages, the questionnaires will be repeated: MBI, PSS and vocational satisfaction. The findings and analysis will be processed in STATA 10/SE including descriptive statistics, regression models, measures and tests of association.

  10. Perinatal risk factors including malformation; Perinatale Risikofaktoren einschliesslich Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project `Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria` is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG). [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die haeufigsten in der Literatur beschriebenen Faktoren, die einen unguenstigen Einfluss auf den Schwangerschaftsverlauf ausueben koennen, gegeben. Ein Hauptgewicht liegt dabei auf der Beschreibung von solchen Faktoren, die mit der Induktion von Fehlbildungen in Zusammenhang gebracht werden koennen, so unter anderem auch der praenatalen Strahlenexposition. Diese Arbeit, die im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens `Strahlenbiologisches Umweltmonitoring Bayern` angefertigt wurde, bildet die Grundlage einer im Sinne einer umweltbezogenen Gesundheitsberichterstattung retro- bzw. prospektiv angelegten Auswertung der Saeuglingssterblichkeit, des Perinatalgeschehens und der Fehlbildungshaeufigkeit in Bayern, wobei neben der ionisierenden Strahlung als Risikofaktor auch andere im Rahmen einer oekologischen Studie erfassbare Risiken, wie beispielsweise Industrieansiedlungen, Muellverbrennungsanlagen und -deponien oder Urbanitaet beruecksichtigt werden sollen. (orig./MG).

  11. Factors influencing perceived oral health of Japanese middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Ohara, Satoko; Wright, Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between subjective oral health symptoms and clinical oral health conditions on the perceived oral health of 1799 Japanese middle-aged adults. A self-administered questionnaire together with dental examinations was administered. A structural equation modeling analysis with Bayesian estimation was used to examine the factors influencing perceived oral health as a latent variable with 4 other latent variables: subjective oral health symptoms, clinical tooth conditions, clinical periodontal conditions, and other clinical oral conditions. For perceived oral health as the endogenous variable, only subjective oral health symptoms and clinical tooth conditions showed significant relationship. Clinical periodontal conditions and other clinical oral conditions did not show significant effects on the perceived oral health.

  12. The Influences of Perceived Factors on Consumer Purchasing Behavior: In the Perspective of Online Shopping Capability of Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingcong Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, firstly, based on related researches about consumer online purchasing behavior before, we proposed that there were some perceived factors that influence perceived value which has a direct impact on consumer’s online purchasing decision-making. Secondly, on the analysis for the antecedent of consumer perceived factors with online shopping, we proposed the definition of online shopping capability of consumer and try to explore what factors would affect consumers’ perceived value when they are online shopping in the perspective of consumer’s online shopping capability and their different influences on consumer purchasing behavior. We designed a questionnaire and obtained 1359 valid data from our investigation. Data analysis indicates that besides online shopping capability of consumers, there are other four significant common factors such as trust, perceived risk, perceived benefit and perceived cost, have significant influences on consumers’ perceived value. The causal relation among online shopping capability of consumers, the other four perceived factors and perceived value and consumer online purchasing behavior are verified using confirmatory factor analysis. We explored the differences and their changing way among different kinds of consumers. Discussions for the results indicated that consumers with different shopping experiences have different online shopping capabilities and significant differences on the other four perceived factors.

  13. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  14. Perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Chae, Young-Ran; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Murphy, Patrick; Kim, Jeungim; Jeon, Mi-Yang

    2011-03-01

    Acknowledging that changes in sociocultural environment influence health status, the purpose of this study was to compare perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular health in elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 88 elderly Korean immigrants and 295 elderly Koreans 65 and older were recruited from Korean communities in the United States and Korea. Respondents' perceived health was measured by self-assessment; life satisfaction was self-assessed using a dichotomous scale of general satisfaction with life; and cardiovascular health status was surveyed by self-report of major diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus) and body mass index measurement for obesity. Despite having better perceived health and life satisfaction, elderly Korean immigrants also had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The findings provide health care providers with useful information for effective health assessment of minority immigrants.

  15. The development of an instrument to measure factors that influence self-perceived dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlug, Mariska G; de Vet, Henrica C W; Pasman, H Roeline W; Rurup, Mette L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2011-05-01

    Preserving dignity can be considered as a goal of palliative care. To provide dignity-conserving care, it is relevant to identify the factors that influence a patient's self-perceived dignity. This study aims to develop an instrument to measure factors affecting self-perceived dignity that has good content validity and is appropriate for use in practice. Data were collected in the Advance Directives Cohort Study. In 2008, the cohort received a questionnaire with 31 items that might influence one's self-perceived dignity. For a subsample of people with poor health (n = 292), we analyzed which items could be removed because of the mean scores for presence of the item and its influence on dignity. The 31 items fell into four domains: evaluation of self in relation to others, functional status, mental state, and care and situational aspects. Mean scores for presence and influence on dignity showed large differences and were not correlated. Six items were scarcely present and did not substantially affect self-perceived dignity. Because three of these were expected to influence dignity in other settings, only three items could be removed and two items could be combined into one. After calculating correlations between conceptually similar items, one extra item could be removed. Reducing the instrument to 26 items and dichotomizing the answer option for presence increases its feasibility for use in practice. The instrument offers an important step to better understanding the phenomenon of self-perceived dignity by gaining information directly from patients.

  16. Perceived Environmental and Personal Factors Associated with Walking and Cycling for Transportation in Taiwanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined perceived environmental and personal factors associated with walking and cycling as means of transportation for Taiwanese adults. A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with Taiwanese adults aged 20 to 64 years. Data on time spent walking and cycling for transportation and perceptions of neighborhood environment and personal characteristics were obtained from 1065 adults by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long version and its environmental module. Adjusted binary logistic regression was performed. The results showed that, after adjusting potential confounders, common and different personal and perceived environmental factors were associated with walking and cycling for transportation. For common personal factors, adults who had employment were less likely to engage in 150 min of walking per week (odds ratio [OR] = 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.27–0.62 and to use cycling as a means of transportation (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.32–0.79. For common perceived environmental factors, adults who perceived good connectivity of streets were more likely to walk (OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.20–3.16 and cycle (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.16–3.54 for transportation. Targeting employed adults and improving the connectivity of streets should be a priority for developing transport policies and intervention strategies to promote active transportation.

  17. An Exploratory Factor Analysis Examining Traits, Perceived Fit and Job Satisfaction in Employed College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, John R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is an analysis of 24 variables associated with employee attitudes, behaviors and outcomes. A total of 140 college graduates participated in the study. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) techniques, the research examined relationships among the following variables: perceived fit, job satisfaction, cognitive ability, vocational…

  18. Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

  19. Factors Related to Perceived Needs of Primary Caregivers of Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ling Yeh

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Four clusters of caregivers' perceived needs were identified and found to be related to psychopathologic and demographic factors. These data are of value in designing appropriate community psychiatric programs to improve the quality of care and enhance the capacity of primary caregivers to care for patients.

  20. Perceived Adverse Drug Events in Heart Failure Patients' Perception and Related Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, Ruth H. E.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Groenier, Klaas H.; van der Meer, Klaas; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) often perceive adverse drug events (ADEs), affecting quality of life. For weighing the benefits and burden of medication in HF care, knowledge on patients' perception of ADEs is needed. Our aim was to assess these ADE perceptions and to identify factors r

  1. Identification of risk factors related to perceived unmet demands in patients with chronic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Port, I. G. L. Van; Van den Bos, G. A. M.; Voorendt, M.; Kwakkel, G.; Lindeman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prevalence of unmet demands concerning autonomy and participation and to identify risk factors related to these unmet demands in patients with chronic stroke. Method. A cross-sectional study of 147 patients three years after stroke. We assessed perceived unmet care demand

  2. Sensation Seeking: A Potential Factor Influencing Perceived Risk and Perceived Competence in an Introductory Scuba Diving Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Cass

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the sensation-seeking personality trait to changes in perceived risk and perceived competence during an adventure experience. Participants (n = 57) were enrolled in a 14-week introductory scuba diving course offered at a university in eastern North Carolina in 2006. The data was analyzed using a…

  3. [Measured weight, self-perceived weight, and associated factors in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cora L; Dumith, Samuel C; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Hallal, Pedro C

    2010-05-01

    To compare weight self-perception and nutritional status based on objective measurements of weight, height, and skin folds in adolescents, and to evaluate factors associated with disagreement between these measures. The sample included the 1993 birth cohort from the city of Pelotas, Brazil, who were interviewed at home in 2004 and 2005. The study outcome resulted from the comparison between nutritional status and the weight self-perception of adolescents, and was divided into three categories: underestimation, agreement, and overestimation. The explanatory variables were sex, skin color, accumulated goods index, physical activity, eating habits, discrimination, dieting, feeling of well-being, and opinion of the adolescent concerning the perception of his/her parents regarding the adolescent's weight. Multivariate logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. A total of 4 452 interviews were conducted (87.5% of original cohort). Mean age was 11 years. The analysis of nutritional status revealed that 7.1% were underweight, 69.8% normal weight, 11.6% overweight, and 11.6% obese. The analysis of self-perceived weight revealed that 19% saw themselves as thin or very thin, 56% believed their weight was normal, and 25% saw themselves as fat or very fat. Global agreement between weight self-perception and nutritional status was 65% (kappa = 0.36). Weight underestimation occurred in 24.9% of boys vs. 20.3% of girls. Overestimation occurred in 15.8% of girls vs. 8.5% of boys. Girls tended to overestimate their weight, and boys, to underestimate it. There was a strong association between the opinion of adolescents concerning their parents' view of the adolescent's body and self-perceived weight.

  4. Perceived factors in return to work after acquired brain injury: A qualitative meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frostad Liaset, Ingeborg; Lorås, Håvard

    2016-11-01

    A substantial proportion of survivors after brain injuries originating from trauma, tumour, or stroke may experience reduced ability to work due to a number of challenges. The purpose of this review is to summarize and highlight factors that have been perceived and reported as important in order to return to work after an acquired brain injury. A qualitative ethnographic meta-synthesis is used to interpret and develop concepts from studies retrieved from systematic searches in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Science. A total of 16 studies were included in the meta-synthesis. Four key concepts were identified as important for return to work after an acquired brain injury: empowerment, self-awareness, motivation, and facilitation. The results of the meta-synthesis indicate that personal development is experienced as essential in order to return to work after an acquired brain injury, involving identification of each individual's strengths and weaknesses. These personal factors intersect with an emphasis of the employer providing a certain degree of facilitation in the workplace. All of these aspects will affect one's motivation to return to work and can therefore be crucial to succeed.

  5. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  6. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Perceived Discrimination Is an Independent Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlbrenner, Verena; Deuba, Keshab; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Sexual and gender minorities experience an elevated burden of suicidality compared with the general population. Still, little is known about that burden and the factors generating it in the context of low- and middle-income countries. The present study assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, planned suicide, and attempted suicide among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG) in Nepal, and examined the association of perceived discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation with suicidal ideation and with attempted suicide. Data were obtained from a surveillance survey among MSM and TG in Nepal in 2012. A sample of 400 MSM and TG, recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a structured face-to-face interview. Throughout their lifetime, 26.8% of the participants had experienced suicidal ideation, 12.0% had made a suicide plan, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. In particular, more TG than MSM had experienced suicidal ideation (39.8% vs. 21.3%), had made a suicide plan (19.5% vs. 8.9%), and had attempted suicide (15.3% vs. 6.4%). Overall, the odds of having experienced suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the 38.3% of participants who had perceived discrimination based on their sexual orientation (AOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.83-5.48). Moreover, the odds of suicidal ideation was significantly higher as the extent of perceived discrimination increased (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60). However, the odds of attempted suicide was not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62-3.15). The findings highlight perceived discrimination as an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Future suicide prevention programs should target sexual and gender minorities and include elements focusing on discrimination.

  8. Perceived Discrimination Is an Independent Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Kohlbrenner

    Full Text Available Sexual and gender minorities experience an elevated burden of suicidality compared with the general population. Still, little is known about that burden and the factors generating it in the context of low- and middle-income countries. The present study assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, planned suicide, and attempted suicide among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender people (TG in Nepal, and examined the association of perceived discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation with suicidal ideation and with attempted suicide. Data were obtained from a surveillance survey among MSM and TG in Nepal in 2012. A sample of 400 MSM and TG, recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a structured face-to-face interview. Throughout their lifetime, 26.8% of the participants had experienced suicidal ideation, 12.0% had made a suicide plan, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. In particular, more TG than MSM had experienced suicidal ideation (39.8% vs. 21.3%, had made a suicide plan (19.5% vs. 8.9%, and had attempted suicide (15.3% vs. 6.4%. Overall, the odds of having experienced suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the 38.3% of participants who had perceived discrimination based on their sexual orientation (AOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.83-5.48. Moreover, the odds of suicidal ideation was significantly higher as the extent of perceived discrimination increased (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60. However, the odds of attempted suicide was not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62-3.15. The findings highlight perceived discrimination as an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Future suicide prevention programs should target sexual and gender minorities and include elements focusing on discrimination.

  9. Program director perceived factors for an enhanced advanced education program in prosthodontics recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Fatemeh S; Knoernschild, Kent L

    2011-10-01

    A survey study of program directors in Advanced Education Programs in Prosthodontics (AEPPs) was conducted to determine the barriers to and factors that can lead to an enhanced patient-centered recall system. Surveys were sent to AEPP directors across the United States to assess their program's recall protocol. This survey first identified whether an active recall program existed. Based on the existence of recall, the survey then delved into benefits of recall systems for patients and residents, barriers to the formation of a successful recall system, and factors that can be improved upon for an enhanced recall system. Thirty-two of the 45 programs responded; however, only 28 of the surveys were completed entirely, giving a response rate of 62%. Of these 32 programs, 19 (59.4%) reported having a recall system. A majority of the AEPPs with recall (87.5%) indicated that their system can be further improved. Almost all of the programs without recall (91.7%) indicated that if solutions to the most common barriers to recall were found, they would like to implement one within their program. Some hindrances faced by all programs included budget for initiating and maintaining a recall system, personnel to perform hygiene, a patient tracking system, patient education, and time allocation in the residents' curriculum. Mann-Whitney analyses indicated no statistically significant difference in each factor between programs with and without a recall system. Power analysis suggested that differences in perceived barriers between programs with and without recall systems may have been found if the response rate was 71% or greater. Necessary budget and facilities for initiating or maintaining a recall system may be the greatest difference in barrier importance between programs with and without recall. Prosthodontic program directors perceived their program's recall system could be improved. If solutions to the most common hindrances were found, almost all program directors desired

  10. Perceived Neighborhood and Home Environmental Factors Associated with Television Viewing among Taiwanese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chun Hsueh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the associations between perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors and excessive television (TV viewing time among Taiwanese older adults. The sample data was collected by administering computer-assisted telephone interviewers to 980 Taiwanese older adults (aged ≥ 65 years living in two regions. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to examine the associations between self-reported perceived neighborhood and home environmental attributions and TV viewing time by using logistic regression analyses. The results showed that perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors were associated with excessive TV viewing time (≥2 h/day after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with a reference group, older adults who perceived their neighborhoods to have unsafe traffic were more likely to report excessive TV viewing time (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.02–1.82. Older adults who reported having two or more TV sets in the home (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.28–2.44 and having a TV in the bedroom (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.18–2.03 were also more likely to report excessive TV viewing time. Further longitudinal research can confirm these findings, and tailored interventions focusing on the perceptions of neighborhood traffic safety and TV access at home for older adults might be effective means of preventing excessive TV viewing time.

  11. Association between the Five Factor personality traits and perceived stress: is the effect mediated by general self-efficacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    of neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and to explore the role of general self-efficacy (GSE). A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Denmark, in 2006-2008. Men and women (N=3471) aged 18-69, were randomly......-significant - whilst neuroticism had a positive association. The associations with agreeableness and openness became positive and significant, respectively, when GSE was included. All five personality-stress models were mediated by GSE, with extroversion and conscientiousness having the strongest mediating effect....... The strongest stress-association was found for neuroticism. GSE was shown to change the impact and interpretation of the personality dimensions on perceived stress. These results indicate that GSE is an important factor to consider in the link between personality and perceived stress....

  12. Instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination: review and critique of factor analytic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2014-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis.

  13. Perceived family support of women with breast cancer and affecting factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardahan, Melek; Yesilbalkan, Oznur Usta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the percieved family support of the women with breast cancer and the affecting factors. The subjects were breast cancer cases undergoing treatment (n=240). The sample for this study was formed by women who accepted participation, were in the facility between the dates and hours when the study was applied, and who were selected with a nonprobability sampling technique (n=120). Two thirds of the women with breast cancer were in the 40-59 age group. The lowest score women with breast cancer for perceived family support scale was 0.00 and the highest was 40.0, with a mean of 30.1±8.85. In this study, it was determined that perceived family support of Turkish women with breast cancer was reasonable.

  14. The Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Exertion, Event-Related Stress, and Demographic Factors in Predicting Physical Activity among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The focus of this study was to examine the relationship among precursors to physical activity, including exercise self-efficacy, perceived exertion, stress, and demographic factors, among college students. Design: This study employed an associational design. Setting: The study population was college freshmen in southeast Louisiana who…

  15. The Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Exertion, Event-Related Stress, and Demographic Factors in Predicting Physical Activity among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The focus of this study was to examine the relationship among precursors to physical activity, including exercise self-efficacy, perceived exertion, stress, and demographic factors, among college students. Design: This study employed an associational design. Setting: The study population was college freshmen in southeast Louisiana who…

  16. Analysis of Factors in Technological and Vocational School Teachers' Perceived Organizational Innovative Climate and Continuous Use of E-Teaching: Using Computer Self-Efficacy as an Intervening Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chun-Mei; Hsiao, His-Chi; Shen, Chien-Hua; Chen, Su-Chang

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the correlation (N = 335) among technological and vocational school teachers' perceived organizational innovative climate, computer self-efficacy, and continuous use of e-teaching in Taiwan. Teachers' perceived organizational innovative climate includes five factors, namely, job autonomy, innovative leadership, resource…

  17. Risk factors and perceived restoration in a town destroyed by the 2010 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carolina; Rojas, Octavio; Villagra, Paula; Aránguiz, Rafael; Sáez-Carrillo, Katia

    2017-05-01

    A large earthquake and tsunami took place in February 2010, affecting a significant part of the Chilean coast (Maule earthquake, Mw of 8.8). Dichato (37° S), a small town located on Coliumo Bay, was one of the most devastated coastal areas and is currently under reconstruction. Therefore, the objective of this research is to analyze the risk factors that explain the disaster in 2010, as well as perceived restoration 6 years after the event. Numerical modeling of the 2010 Chile tsunami with four nested grids was applied to estimate the hazard. Physical, socioeconomic and educational dimensions of vulnerability were analyzed for pre- and post-disaster conditions. A perceived restoration study was performed to assess the effects of reconstruction on the community. It was focused on exploring the capacity of newly reconstructed neighborhoods to provide restorative experiences in case of disaster. The study was undertaken using the perceived restorativeness scale. The vulnerability variables that best explained the extent of the disaster were housing conditions, low household incomes and limited knowledge about tsunami events, which conditioned inadequate reactions to the emergency. These variables still constitute the same risks as a result of the reconstruction process, establishing that the occurrence of a similar event would result in a similar degree of devastation. For post-earthquake conditions, it was determined that all neighborhoods have the potential to be restorative environments soon after a tsunami. However, some neighborhoods are still located in areas devastated by the 2010 tsunami and again present high vulnerability to future tsunamis.

  18. Self-perceived Occupational Prestige among Romanian Teaching Staff: Organisational Explicative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu FRUNZARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies discuss occupational prestige by stressing out the macro-social aspects related to specific social stratification models. This paper aims to address the impact of organizational aspects on how teachers perceive the prestige of their occupational group, moving the focus on the micro-social context of their daily activity. The way teaching staff evaluate the social prestige of their profession fulfils normative and motivational functions and is, hence, reflected in how they actually perform their professional roles, serving both explicative and prospective purposes. In trying to identify the main factors that can explain the self-perceived level of occupational prestige among educators and teachers, we conducted a national level study among Romanian teachers (N=2165 from preschool to high school educational stages. Within the explicative model (R²=0.38, we were able to group the factors in three main categories: material conditions, bureaucratic and relational aspects. The findings reveal that teachers’ involvement in bureaucratic activities such as elaborating different reports, as well as a lower level of satisfaction regarding the relation they have with students, parents and representatives of the school's management end up decreasing the self-perceived occupational prestige. Our study lays emphasis on the fact that organizational factors influence teachers' selfperceived prestige and, thus, can affect the overall quality of the educational act. Therefore, to improve this, a greater involvement of national and local authorities in providing better material conditions in schools, in supporting the debureaucratization of the educational system and re-evaluating the role of teacher-student-parent communication triad is needed.

  19. Association of Sociodemographic and Perceived Environmental Factors with Public Bicycle Use among Taiwanese Urban Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module, and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR = 4.42 with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03 were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24. Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86 and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69 were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults.

  20. Entrepreneurial Growth and the Perceived Quality of Environmental Factors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinZhu; HongxinZhao

    2005-01-01

    The growth of entrepreneurship in China has been phenomenal since the open-door policy in 1978. Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have increasingly played an important role in the Chinese economy, accounting for about 50percent of the total GDP in 2001. Nonetheless, a few studies have examined what counts for such rapid growth of entrepreneurship in China. This study focuses on identifying environmental factors related to the success and failure of entrepreneurship in China. Based on a survey of l17 SME executives in Sichuan province, the survey results show that positive social acceptance, risk-taking attitudes and infrastructure adequacy were perceived as most facilitating factors, while market development and exploitation, and adopting low cost strategy were success factors. The results also reveal that lack of capital and over-competition within the industry was the key reasons for SME failures.

  1. Factors influencing the perceived orthodontic treatment need and its relationship with awareness of malocclusion among college adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha P Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The orthodontic need assessment is of interest for dental public health programs. The major factors determining a patient′s perceived need for orthodontic treatment may be aesthetic, functional, financial, or social. Adolescents seeking orthodontic treatment have been found to have poorer aesthetics than their peers, but whether poor aesthetics alone generates greater treatment demand has not been determined in the Indian context. Objective: The aim was to study the factors determining perceived orthodontic treatment need among college adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 448 adolescents between 17 and 19 years of age were selected randomly from the colleges. Data were collected on pretested and standardized questionnaire. Perceived need for orthodontic treatment was assessed by asking question to the participants. Dental Esthetic Index (DAI was used to assess the severity of malocclusion. Results: The prevalence of malocclusion was 21.6% as per DAI. The perceived need for orthodontic treatment was 11.2%, though the level of dissatisfaction with dental appearance was 19.2%. No agreement was seen between the treatment need assessed objectively by DAI and that perceived by the patient. The determinants for perceived and normative orthodontic treatment need were socioeconomic status (SES, awareness of malocclusion, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and avoided smile due to dental appearance. The positive correlation between perceived and normative need was statistically significant. Conclusion: The uptake of orthodontic care may be influenced by SES, awareness of malocclusion; dissatisfaction with dental appearance, perceived need and DAI score.

  2. The perceived influence of financial risk factors on the viability of nurse anesthesia educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Sonja J; Martin-Sheridan, Denise

    2002-10-01

    Monetary cutbacks have occurred in the healthcare industry with increasing incidence since the mid-1980s. Attempts at self-preservation through cost-constraint have been instituted by hospitals, Medicare and Medicaid, and private insurance companies. Curtailment of expenditures, as well as reestablishing profit, has taken many forms. These include managed care, mergers, changing profit status, and aggressive competition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether directors of nurse anesthesia programs (NAPs) perceived these items as being detrimental to their NAPs. Data were gathered by descriptive survey design by completing a survey tool. Findings identified directors perceived NAPs at moderate to high risk for closure because of the financial constraints hospitals are experiencing as a result of healthcare reimbursement cutbacks. We found it interesting that many directors were either unaware or considered the hospitals' financial burdens as not impacting their NAP. However, directors who had taken courses or seminars with a focus on issues affecting the financing and reimbursement of healthcare institutions perceived significantly greater risk than those who did not. Potential learning opportunities and strategies to ameliorate risk were identified. Additional education may provide the knowledge and insight to find alternatives to risk, develop strategies, and promote more successful and stable nurse anesthesia educational programs.

  3. Farmland Tenure Security in China: Influencing Factors of Actual and Perceived Farmland Tenure Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guangcheng; Zhu, Xueqin; Heerink, Nico; van Ierland, Ekko; Feng, Shuyi

    2017-04-01

    Tenure security plays an important role in farm households' investment, land renting and other decisions. Recent literature distinguishes between actual farmland tenure security (i.e. farm households' actual control of farmland) and perceived farmland tenure security (i.e. farm households' subjective understanding of their farmland tenure situation and expectation regarding government enforcement and equality of the law). However little is known on what factors influence the actual and perceived farmland tenure security in rural China. Theoretically, actual farmland tenure security is related to village self-governance as a major informal governance rule in rural China. Both economic efficiency and equity considerations are likely to play a role in the distribution of land and its tenure security. Household perceptions of farmland tenure security depend not only on the actual farmland tenure security in a village, but may also be affected by households' investment in and ability of changing social rules. Our study examines what factors contribute to differences in actual and perceived farmland tenure security between different villages and farm households in different regions of China. Applying probit models to the data collected from 1,485 households in 124 villages in Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning and Chongqing, we find that development of farmland rental market and degree of self-governance of a village have positive impacts, and development of labour market has a negative effect on actual farmland tenure security. Household perceptions of tenure security depend not only on actual farmland tenure security and on households' investment in and ability of changing social rules, but also on risk preferences of households. This finding has interesting policy implications for future land reforms in rural China.

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  5. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song E Kim

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950 were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  6. Factors Affecting Research Environment at Syrian Business Faculties: A Student-Perceived Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan Khalifa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the factors that affect the research environment of business postgraduate students, particularly master students, from the perspective of these students. From the same perspective, it also aims at assessing these factors together with the quality of research environment. A questionnaire survey method was employed. The questionnaire was developed by academics from five business faculties based on relevant studies and was distributed to graduate students enrolled in all of the research business programs at the Faculty of Economics, Damascus University, ending up with 88 valid responses. To explore the factors that may affect research environment, exploratory factor analysis was employed. In addition, multiple regression analysis and t-test were applied to respond to the study purposes. Facilities and industry linkage come to be significant factors in the research environment. However, the results show insignificant impact for each of the research courses, networking, and research skills in the overall research environment. Variations in regard to the availability of these factors were identified with low level of availability for the facilities and industry linkage. The study is one of a kind that investigates factors affecting research environment of postgraduate students and particularly master students. Further and to the best of our knowledge, it is the first study that examines such factors in war conditions, which enables us to understand what students perceive as critical factors influencing their research performance in these conditions. Recommendations to policy makers are presented to develop strategies that respond to students’ concerns for a better research environment.

  7. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Song E; Han-Na Kim; Juhee Cho; Min-Jung Kwon; Yoosoo Chang; Seungho Ryu; Hocheol Shin; Hyung-Lae Kim

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed usi...

  8. The Relationship of Socio-Demographic Factors, Fertility Behavior and Child’s Perceived Value with Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmoude, Elham; Behnam, Haniye; Barati-Far, Saeede; Kabirian, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Fertility intention is one of the strongest predictors of couple’s fertility behavior that is affected by many variables. This study aimed to identify the relationship of socio-demographic factors, fertility behavior, and child’s perceived value with fertility intention of women in a region in the east Iran Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 241 married women aged between 15 and 49 years of Torbat Heydariyeh City in 2015, were studied. The data collection scales included a demographic information form, fertility information questionnaire and Trommsdorff’s child value questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 by Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, t-independent test and logistic regression. The significance level of Pcosts of children (P=0.001). In addition, in subjects with children of both sexes, intention for childbearing was significantly lower when compared to subjects with only one sex in children (P=0.001). However, when the logistic regression test was performed, being housewife, number of children, having children of both sexes, benefit and costs of children showed statistical significance (Pcurrent children, having children of both sexes, and perceived childbearing costs are important in determining the odds that a woman will intend to have a child. These findings can contribute to the realization of new population programs towards higher fertility rate in the country. PMID:28409166

  9. Perceived positive teacher-student relationship as a protective factor for Chinese left-behind children's emotional and behavioural adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xiaowei; Chen, Li; Qu, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    Using cross-sectional data collected in rural communities of two provinces of China, this study examined the protective role of perceived positive teacher-student relationship for Chinese left-behind children. The participants included 1442 children with a mean age of 14.13 classified into two groups: a left-behind group (104 boys and 110 girls) and a comparison group (588 boys and 640 girls). Self-reported questionnaires concerning self-esteem, depression, problem behaviours and the teacher-student relationship were administered. Relative to the comparison group, after controlling for age, gender and family socioeconomic status, the left-behind group was disadvantaged in terms of self-esteem and depression but not in problem behaviours. As hypothesised, the results of regression analyses indicated that teacher-student relationship positively predicted self-esteem and negatively predicted depression and problem behaviours for both groups. Moreover, the association between teacher-student relationship and depression was stronger among the left-behind group, suggesting that left-behind children were more responsive to the positive effect of a desired teacher-student relationship. Taken together, the results of our study support the idea that perceived positive teacher-student relationship may serve as a protective factor for left-behind children. Practical implications and limitations of the present study are discussed.

  10. Reasons, perceived efficacy, and factors associated with complementary and alternative medicine use among Malaysian patients with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; See, Choon Keong; Choong, Christopher Lee Kwok; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Ahmadi, Keivan; Anwar, Mudassir

    2010-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of use, reasons for use, and perceived effect of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), accompanied by identification and comparison of the factors that are potentially associated with CAM use. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 325 randomly sampled patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), at HIV/AIDS referral clinics in the Hospital Sungai Buloh, Malaysia. Simple random sampling was used, where randomization was done using patients' medical record numbers. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted using 38 questions pertaining to type, pattern, perceived efficacy, adverse effects, and influential factors associated with CAM use. In addition, CD4 count and viral load readings were recorded. Of 325 randomly sampled patients with HIV/AIDS, 254 of them were using some forms of CAM, resulting in a utilization rate of 78.2%. Vitamins and supplements (52.6%), herbal products (33.8%), and massage (16.6%) were the top three most frequently used CAM modalities. Sociodemographic factors including education level (p = 0.021, r(s) = 0.148), monthly income (p = 0.001, r(s) = 0.260), and family history of CAM use (p = 0.001, r(s) = 0.231) were significantly associated and positively correlated with CAM use. However, the majority of these patients (68%) did not disclose CAM use to health care professionals. About half of those who rated their health as good or very good perceived it as a result of CAM use. This study confirmed the range of 30%-100% CAM use among individuals infected with HIV/AIDS. Although, on the one hand some types of CAM reduced viral load and enhanced the immune system, on the other hand some forms of CAM produced a detrimental effect on the virological suppression, opening this platform to more research and investigation in order to optimize the use of CAM among patients with HIV/AIDS.

  11. MCDM Technique to Evaluating Mobile Banking Adoption in the Togolese Banking Industry Based on the Perceived Value : Perceived Benefit and Perceived Sacrifice Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gbongli Komlan; Dumor Koffi; Kissi Mireku Kingsford

    2016-01-01

    Development of new technological innovations in networks, platforms, and financial institutions has empowered m-banking service providers to target their business strategies plan with confidence. Nevertheless, lots of service innovations have failed to generate revenue due to lagging adoption issues. Even though, several prior researches have focused on the factors that influence the acceptance of mbanking, there is limited empirical study which simultaneously take the success fac...

  12. Injustice Experience Questionnaire, Japanese Version: Cross-Cultural Factor-Structure Comparison and Demographics Associated with Perceived Injustice

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) assesses injury-related perceived injustice. This study aimed to (1) develop a Japanese version (IEQ-J), (2) examine its factor structure, validity, and reliability, and (3) discover which demographic variable(s) positively contributed to prediction of IEQ-J scores. Methods Data from 71 patients (33 male, 38 female; age = 20+) with injury pain were employed to investigate factor structure by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. C...

  13. Perceived interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: Is religious affiliation a protective factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattis, Maurice N.; Woodford, Michael R.; Han, Yoonsun

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. Midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage, as well as those among peers who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group’s stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth’s resilience to interpersonal discrimination. PMID:25119387

  14. Perceived Health Status and Influencing Factors for the Extreme Elderly in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁渊; 曾尔亢; 吴植恩; 陈仲文; 李谨邑; 卢祖洵

    2004-01-01

    Perceived health status is one of the important meansof evaluating quality of life,1 and has attracted increas-ing attention as a focus of research. Studies have pointedout that perceived health status is important in affectinghealth seeking behaviors because people will only seekmedical attention when they perceive that they areunhealthy. Furthermore, aside from age and sex, per-ceived health status has been recognized as the stron-gest “early-warning index” for pre-estimating deathrates.2-5 Prior studies ...

  15. Factors Related to Perceived Diabetes Control Are Not Related to Actual Glucose Control for Minority Patients With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Lisa M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Lancaster, Kristie J.; Leventhal, Howard

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine variables associated with perceived diabetes control compared with an objective measure of glucose control (A1C). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Beliefs about diabetes were assessed among 334 individuals with diabetes living in a primarily low-income, minority, urban neighborhood. Regression analyses tested associations between disease beliefs and both participants' perceptions of control and actual control (A1C). RESULTS Poorer perceived diabetes control was associated with perceiving a greater impact of diabetes, greater depressive symptoms, not following a diabetic diet, A1C, and a trend toward less exercise. Variables associated with better actual control (A1C) included higher BMI, older age, and not using insulin. CONCLUSIONS Patients' perceptions of their diabetes control are informed by subjective diabetes cues (e.g., perceived impact of diabetes and adherence to a diabetic diet), which are not related to A1C. Clinicians should take into account what cues patients are using to assess their diabetes control. PMID:20067972

  16. Self-Perceived Health among School Going Adolescents in Pakistan: Influence of Individual, Parental and Life Style Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Asad Ali Khan; Motwani, Komal; Khawaja, Saleem; Khoja, Adeel A; Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Kadir, Muhammad Masood

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adolescents are at substantial risk of acquiring behaviors which might influence their health status. This study was aimed to assess the proportion of school going adolescents (both males and females) with poor self-perceived health and its associated factors. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three major cities of Pakistan i.e. Karachi, Lahore and Quetta. From each city, six (6) secondary schools were randomly selected (3 public and 3 private). Pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to students. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine independent factors associated with poor self-perceived health. Results: Approximately 29% adolescents (119/414) reported poor self-perceived health. Individual and parental factors significantly associated with poor self-perceived health were being male (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.09 – 2.79), living in extended family (AOR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.66 – 4.22), unskilled employment of father (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.35 – 3.48), lack of parental-child communication (AOR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.03 – 2.91) and unfair treatment by parents (AOR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.09 – 2.96). Life style factors such as use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.26 – 3.96) and unhealthy diet (AOR = 3.60, 95% CI: 1.76 – 7.33) were associated with poor self-perceived health. Conclusion: Better employment opportunities for father, parental counseling and increase awareness for adolescents about healthy diet are recommended to improve adolescent self-perceived health in Pakistan. PMID:23777723

  17. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  18. Perceived obstacles of colorectal cancer screening and their associated factors among 10,078 Chinese participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to evaluate the proportion of self-referred screening participants having various psychological barriers and the factors associated with these barriers. METHODS: A territory-wide bowel cancer screening centre sent an invitation via the media to all Hong Kong residents aged 50-70 years who were asymptomatic of CRC to join a free screening programme. Upon attendance they were requested to complete self-administered surveys on their perceived barriers of screening. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the factors associated with these barriers. RESULTS: From 10,078 consecutive screening participants (mean age 57.5 years; female 56.4% completed the surveys between May 2008 to September 2012. There were high proportions who agreed or strongly agreed with the following barriers: financial difficulty (86.0%, limited service accessibility (58.2%, screening-induced bodily discomfort (55.2%, physical harm (44.4%, embarrassment (40.1%, apprehension (38.8% and time constraints (13.9%. From regression models, older participants (aged ≥ 56 were less likely to have these barriers (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ranged from 0.738 to 0.952 but they encountered more difficulties to access to screening services (AOR ranged from 1.141 to 1.371. Female subjects were more likely to encounter most of these barriers (AOR ranged from 1.188 to 2.179. Participants who were uncertain of the necessity of CRC screening for people aged ≥ 50 were more likely to report these barriers (AOR ranged from 1.151 to 1.671. CONCLUSION: The proportions of perceptual barriers of CRC screening were high among these participants. Those with these associated factors should receive more thorough explanation of the screening test procedures.

  19. Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors in male automotive assembly workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin

    2008-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress.

  20. Factors that Influence the Perceived Advantages and Relevance of Facebook as a Learning Tool: An Extension of the UTAUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Carvajal-Trujillo, Elena; Monge-Lozano, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Social media technologies are becoming a fundamental component of education. This study extends the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to identify factors that influence the perceived advantages and relevance of Facebook as a learning tool. The proposed model is based on previous models of UTAUT. Constructs from previous…

  1. The Impact of Perceived College Students and Psychosocial Factors on Missed Class and Work in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jenifer J.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of how missed class and work are influenced by psychosocial factors is important. The authors collected data from 303 college students through self-report questionnaires. Moderation analysis indicated that with higher perceived stress, students were more likely to miss class if they were less satisfied with social support and less…

  2. Enjoyment and Perceived Value of Two School-Based Interventions Designed To Reduce Risk Factors for Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D.; Davidson, Susan; O'Dea, Jennifer A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the enjoyment and perceived value associated with two interventions designed to reduce risk factors for eating disorders in young adolescents, a media literacy program or a self-esteem program. Overall, the media literacy program was the intervention preferred by students. Students in both interventions said that they had learnt to…

  3. The Impact of Perceived College Students and Psychosocial Factors on Missed Class and Work in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jenifer J.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of how missed class and work are influenced by psychosocial factors is important. The authors collected data from 303 college students through self-report questionnaires. Moderation analysis indicated that with higher perceived stress, students were more likely to miss class if they were less satisfied with social support and less…

  4. Enjoyment and Perceived Value of Two School-Based Interventions Designed To Reduce Risk Factors for Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D.; Davidson, Susan; O'Dea, Jennifer A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the enjoyment and perceived value associated with two interventions designed to reduce risk factors for eating disorders in young adolescents, a media literacy program or a self-esteem program. Overall, the media literacy program was the intervention preferred by students. Students in both interventions said that they had learnt to…

  5. Perceived Factors Influencing Post-Secondary Enrollment and Economic Stability of Single and Married Mothers in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Rosenthal, Angelina M.

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the perceived factors that influenced the decisions of single and married mothers to enroll or not enroll in post-secondary education. The study then investigated the relationship between educational level and income for single mothers in Utah. From a survey of 1197 Utah mothers, this study concluded that mothers enroll in…

  6. Terrorism in Australia: factors associated with perceived threat and incident-critical behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Beverley

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To help improve incident preparedness this study assessed socio-demographic and socio-economic predictors of perceived risk of terrorism within Australia and willingness to comply with public safety directives during such incidents. Methods The terrorism perception question module was incorporated into the New South Wales Population Health Survey and was completed by a representative sample of 2,081 respondents in early 2007. Responses were weighted against the New South Wales population. Results Multivariate analyses indicated that those with no formal educational qualifications were significantly more likely (OR = 2.10, 95%CI:1.32–3.35, p Conclusion Low education level is a risk factor for high terrorism risk perception and concerns regarding potential impacts. The pattern of concern and response among those of migrant background may reflect secondary social impacts associated with heightened community threat, rather than the direct threat of terrorism itself. These findings highlight the need for terrorism risk communication and related strategies to address the specific concerns of these sub-groups as a critical underpinning of population-level preparedness.

  7. Traditional versus modern values, self-perceived interpersonal factors, and posttraumatic stress in Chinese and German crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, Andreas; Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Müller, Mario; Xie, Wei; Hui Yang, Zhi; Wang, Jiangping; Müller, Julia

    2009-06-01

    The influence of cultural factors on mental health is not disputed in general - but elaborated research approaches are still lacking. We investigate cultural influences not only by nationality but also by value orientation (modern vs. traditional). A cross-cultural comparison with Chinese and German crime victims included an assessment of value orientation according to Schwartz's theory (Schwartz, 1994) of personal values. Chinese and German adult crime victims were assessed. By means of structural equation multi-sample analysis, data of the two groups were compared. Traditional (conformity, benevolence, customs orientation) and modern values (achievement, hedonism, stimulation), traumatic exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), and two self-perceived interpersonal mediator processes (disclosure intentions, social acknowledgement as a victim) were assessed by self-report measures in 130 Chinese and 151 German crime victims. The two patterns of prediction for PTS differed between the countries: In the German sample both value types but in the Chinese sample only traditional values were directly or indirectly predictive of PTS. Traditional values inhibited social acknowledgement as a victim in China and Germany. In Germany, traditional values were related to increased PTS severity. Modern values predicted social acknowledgement as well as lower symptoms in Germany, but not in China. The study shows cultural and interpersonal factors that may contribute to the development of PTSD that are under-researched in contemporary psychology and psychotherapy.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor and perceived early-life stress in depressed patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda L; Tyrka, Audrey R; McDougle, Christopher J; Malison, Robert T; Owens, Michael J; Nemeroff, Charles B; Price, Lawrence H

    2004-04-01

    Previous studies have reported elevated concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in patients with major depression. Elevations of CSF CRF have also been reported in adult laboratory animals exposed to the stress of brief maternal deprivation or maternal neglect in the neonatal or preweaning period. The present study was designed to determine whether major depression and a history of perceived early adversity in childhood are independently associated with elevated CSF CRF concentrations in adults. In this case-control study, 27 medication-free adults with major depression and 25 matched controls underwent standardized lumbar puncture for collection of a single CSF sample at 1200. Subjects provided data about significant adverse early-life experiences and rated their global perceived level of stress during pre-school and preteen years on a six-point Likert scale. The mean difference in CSF CRF between depressed patients and controls did not reach statistical significance. In a regression model, perceived early-life stress was a significant predictor of CSF CRF, but depression was not. Perinatal adversity and perceived adversity in the preteen adversity years (ages 6-13 years) were both independently associated with decreasing CSF CRF concentrations. The relationship observed between perceived early-life stress and adult CSF CRF concentrations in this study closely parallels recent preclinical findings. More work is needed to elucidate the critical nature and timing of early events that may be associated with enduring neuroendocrine changes in humans.

  9. The voice handicap of student-teachers and risk factors perceived to have a negative influence on the voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George; Kooijman, Piet G C; Donders, A Rogier T; Cremers, W R J; de Jong, Felix I C R S

    2007-05-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed. The objectives of the study were to assess the psychosocial impact of current voice complaints as perceived by student-teachers with voice complaints in comparison with student-teachers without voice complaints, and to observe the pattern of risk factors in relation to their voice handicap. Subjects in the general population without a voice-demanding profession were selected as a reference group for limited comparison with the total group of student-teachers (future professional voice users). The respondents to the questionnaires were anonymous. Among the student-teachers, 17.2% reported current voice complaints in comparison with 9.7% of the reference group, and the odds ratio was 1.94, which showed the relative risk. Student-teachers had significantly greater total Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores than the reference group (P = 0.034). The VHI subscale scores were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Student-teachers who reported current voice complaints had a significantly higher total VHI and subscale scores than student teachers without voice complaints (P VHI scores greater than the 75th percentile. These persons may be neglecting their voice handicap and probably represent the false-negative cases in the estimation of voice complaints. Logistic regression analysis of each of the given risk factors with the VHI as the independent variable showed that the perceived negative influence of the given risk factors on their voices was significantly greater with increasing VHI scores across the VHI range. A significant correlation was observed between the number of perceived risk factors and increasing VHI scores across the VHI range. An increased awareness of risk factors in relation to their voice handicap would serve to motivate student-teachers to change factors that contributed to their voice problem. Attention to all risk factors, which the subjects perceive to be a risk, would aid in effective management

  10. Behavioral and Psychosocial Health of New Mothers and Associations With Contextual Factors and Perceived Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lorraine O; Xie, Bo; Hendrickson, Sherry G; Sterling, Bobbie S

    2016-01-01

    To test the association of behavioral and psychosocial health domains with contextual variables and perceived health in ethnically and economically diverse postpartum women. Mail survey of a stratified random sample. Southwestern community in Texas. Non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic women (N = 168). A questionnaire was sent to a sample of 600 women. The adjusted response rate was 32.8%. The questionnaire covered behavioral (diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use) and psychosocial (depression symptoms and body image) health, contextual variables (race/ethnicity, income, perceived stress, and social support), and perceived health. Hypotheses were tested using linear and logistic regression. Body image, dietary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and depression symptoms were all significantly correlated (Spearman ρ = -.15 to .47). Higher income was associated with increased odds of higher alcohol use (more than 1 drink on 1 to 4 days in a 14-day period). African American ethnicity was correlated with less healthy dietary behaviors and Hispanic ethnicity with less physical activity. In multivariable regressions, perceived stress was associated with less healthy dietary behaviors, increased odds of depression, and decreased odds of higher alcohol use, whereas social support was associated with less body image dissatisfaction, more physical activity, and decreased odds of depression. All behavioral and psychosocial domains were significantly correlated with perceived health, with higher alcohol use related to more favorable perceived health. In regressions analyses, perceived stress was a significant contextual predictor of perceived health. Stress and social support had more consistent relationships to behavioral and psychosocial variables than race/ethnicity and income level. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A simple photometric factor in perceived depth order of bistable transparency patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukiage, Taiki; Oishi, Takeshi; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    2014-05-05

    Previous studies on perceptual transparency defined the photometric condition in which perceived depth ordering between two surfaces becomes ambiguous. Even under this bistable transparency condition, it is known that depth-order perceptions are often biased toward one specific interpretation (Beck, Prazdny, & Ivry, 1984; Delogu, Fedorov, Belardinelli, & van Leeuwen, 2010; Kitaoka, 2005; Oyama & Nakahara, 1960). In this study, we examined what determines the perceived depth ordering for bistable transparency patterns using stimuli that simulated two partially overlapping disks resulting in four regions: a (background), b (portion of right disk), p (portion of left disk), and q (shared region). In contrast to the previous theory that proposed contributions of contrast against the background region (i.e., contrast at contour b/a and contrast at contour p/a) to perceived depth order in bistable transparency patterns, the present study demonstrated that contrast against the background region has little influence on perceived depth order compared with contrast against the shared region (i.e., contrast at contour b/q and contrast at contour p/q). In addition, we found that the perceived depth ordering is well predicted by a simpler model that takes into consideration only relative size of lightness difference against the shared region. Specifically, the probability that the left disk is perceived as being in front is proportional to (|b - q| - |p - q|) / (|b - q| + |p - q|) calculated based on lightness.

  12. Perceived and actual key success factors: A study of the yoghurt market in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Sørensen, Elin

    /high degree of innovativeness, extensive marketing activities, (abundant) financial resources, s production, good logistics management, good product portfolio management, non-complex organisation, low retail prices, good relations with trade, extensive market knowledge. 4. According to managers' perceptions......Executive summary 1. We define a key success factor as a skill or resource that a business can invest in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. The key success factors as perceived by managers...... need not be identical with the actual key success factors in a market. 2. Depth interviews with managers in yoghurt-producing companies in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom showed considerable variation in both substance and degree of detail in their perceptions of the determinants of success...

  13. Perceived quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiz-Ruiz Jeronimo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD affects young adults and has great impact on the social, emotional and work spheres. Methods We measured perceived quality of life (QOL in OCD patients, in order to analyse socio-demographic and clinical factors that may be associated with QOL perception. 64 OCD outpatients were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-IV, the Yale-Brown Obsessions and Compulsions scale (Y-BOCS, Hamilton's depression scale and the SF-36 self-administered global QOL perception scale. Results We found a correlation among Hamilton's scale scores and all SF-36 subscales. The severity of the obsessive-compulsive disorder was correlated with all SF-36 subscales and with the highest scores in Hamilton's scale. The obsessions subscale was correlated to all SF-36 subscales, while the compulsions subscale was correlated only to social functioning, emotional role, mental health and vitality. Compulsions were not related to general health perception. There were significant differences between OCD patients and the Spanish general population in all SF-36 subscales except those related to physical health and pain. Gender, age, age of onset of the disorder, years of evolution and marital status of the patients did not significantly affect quality of life perception. Being employed was related to better scores in the subscale of physical role. Patients with medical comorbidity scored lower in the subscales of general health, social functioning and mental health. Patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders had worse scores in the subscales of pain, general health, social functioning and mental health. Conclusion Quality of life perception was different in OCD patients and the general population. Quality of life perception was related to severity of the disorder, physical and psychiatric comorbidity and employment status.

  14. The affecting of perceived product quality and perceived risk on perceived product value

    OpenAIRE

    Pisnik Korda, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Perceived value is an extremely important concept in marketing and many authors have dealt with it in the recent years. There are numerous factors affecting perceived product value and we focused on three: perceived product price, perceived product quality and perceived risk. In this paper we present two of them: perceived product quality and perceived risk. Perceived product value is the difference between value in use and price. Value in use is a mix of benefits, which a customer is likely ...

  15. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  16. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS IN THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lapshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides guidelines for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α  (TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis  (axSpA, including ankylosing spondylitis. It gives data on the efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with non-radiographic axSpA. By using international and Russian guidelines, the authors lay down indications for this therapy and criteria for evaluation of its efficiency and safety.

  17. Factors perceived to affect employee satisfaction and productivity at a mine in the Northern Cape / Mzwandile Anthony Maki

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Mzwandile Anthony

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the factors perceived to negatively affect employee satisfaction and productivity at the mine. More especially the analysis focuses on the implementation of the incentive schemes without the involvement of the workers 'unions, a situation which has led to misunderstanding between management and the unions. The study also focused on the following specific objectives: • To investigate the effect of lncentive Schemes on employee satisfaction, employee re...

  18. A Comprehensive Examination of the Determinants for Food Risk Perception: Focusing on Psychometric Factors, Perceivers' Characteristics, and Media Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Myoungsoon; Ju, Youngkee

    2017-01-01

    Risk characteristics within a psychometric paradigm have been of major concern in studies of food risk perception. This study compared the influence of psychometric factors, perceivers' characteristics (i.e., risk attitude, trust, and favorability of the country of origin), and that of the news media on the levels of food risk perception. The interaction of news media with the other two factors was also examined. A nationwide survey (n = 1,500) was conducted. The foods under investigation were Chinese processed foods and Japanese seafood imported to South Korea. In both cases, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that psychometric factors had the greatest influence on food risk perception, followed by perceivers' characteristics and media use. In addition, our results showed that the effect of perceived benefit and dread in Chinese food were salient only for those with little media use. The implication of the interaction effect on food risk perception is discussed in terms of accessibility and limited capacity of information processing.

  19. Dimensionality of the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale: Findings Based on Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia Man-Sze

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale (CPCPS) was constructed to assess Chinese people's beliefs about poverty. Four categories of explanations of poverty are covered in this scale: personal problems of poor people, lack of opportunities to escape from poverty, exploitation of poor people, and bad fate. Based on the responses of 1,519…

  20. Motivation as a factor of perceived exertion in purposeful versus nonpurposeful activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, M A

    1984-03-01

    Perceived exertion during the performance of purposeful and nonpurposeful activity was studied in 26 women. The subjects acted as their own controls in the performance of both kinds of exercise. The two exercises were jumping rope, defined as a purposeful activity, and jumping in place without a rope, defined as a nonpurposeful activity. In each activity the subjects exercised to reach the subjective point of "very hard work" on the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion. Duration and cessation of exercise were entirely controlled by the performers. Heart rate responses during and immediately after cessation of exercise, measured by electrocardiographic telemetry, and duration of exercise in seconds were compared for the two types of exercise. Results showed that heart rate increase at a given rate of perceived exertion was significantly higher (.001) for jumping rope. This raises the possibility that workload was inadvertently perceived by the performers to be greater in nonpurposeful activity and provides support for the hypothesis that purposeful activity serves as an intrinsic motivator to the performer.

  1. Prediction of leisure-time walking: an integration of social cognitive, perceived environmental, and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchard Chris M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking is the primary focus of population-based physical activity initiatives but a theoretical understanding of this behaviour is still elusive. The purpose of this study was to integrate personality, the perceived environment, and planning into a theory of planned behaviour (TPB framework to predict leisure-time walking. Methods Participants were a random sample (N = 358 of Canadian adults who completed measures of the TPB, planning, perceived neighbourhood environment, and personality at Time 1 and self-reported walking behaviour two months later. Results Analyses using structural equation modelling provided evidence that leisure-time walking is largely predicted by intention (standardized effect = .42 with an additional independent contribution from proximity to neighbourhood retail shops (standardized effect = .18. Intention, in turn, was predicted by attitudes toward walking and perceived behavioural control. Effects of perceived neighbourhood aesthetics and walking infrastructure on walking were mediated through attitudes and intention. Moderated regression analysis showed that the intention-walking relationship was moderated by conscientiousness and proximity to neighbourhood recreation facilities but not planning. Conclusion Overall, walking behaviour is theoretically complex but may best be addressed at a population level by facilitating strong intentions in a receptive environment even though individual differences may persist.

  2. Perceived Burdensomeness, Familism, and Suicidal Ideation among Mexican Women: Enhancing Understanding of Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Monica J.; Pettit, Jeremy W.

    2010-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide and a culturally-relevant construct, familism, was used to examine predictors of suicidal ideation among Mexican and Mexican American women in the United States. A sense of perceived burdensomeness toward others was expected to significantly predict suicidal ideation, especially among women who…

  3. Dimensionality of the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale: Findings Based on Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia Man-Sze

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale (CPCPS) was constructed to assess Chinese people's beliefs about poverty. Four categories of explanations of poverty are covered in this scale: personal problems of poor people, lack of opportunities to escape from poverty, exploitation of poor people, and bad fate. Based on the responses of 1,519…

  4. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids.

  5. Z' factor including siRNA design quality parameter in RNAi screening experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sławomir; Kozak, Karol

    2012-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) high-content screening (HCS) enables massive parallel gene silencing and is increasingly being used to reveal novel connections between genes and disease-relevant phenotypes. The application of genome-scale RNAi relies on the development of high quality HCS assays. The Z' factor statistic provides a way to evaluate whether or not screening run conditions (reagents, protocols, instrumentation, kinetics, and other conditions not directly related to the test compounds) are optimized. Z' factor, introduced by Zhang et al., ( 1) is a dimensionless value that represents both the variability and the dynamic range between two sets of sample control data. This paper describe a new extension of the Z' factor, which integrates bioinformatics RNAi non-target compounds for screening quality assessment. Currently presented Z' factor is based on positive and negative control, which may not be sufficient for RNAi experiments including oligonucleotides (oligo) with lack of knock-down. This paper proposes an algorithm which extends existing algorithm by using additional controls generetaed from on-target analysis.

  6. Walking for leisure among adults from three Brazilian cities and its association with perceived environment attributes and personal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malta Deborah C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking is a popular form of physical activity and a convenient option to prevent chronic diseases. However, most of the evidence on this topic derives from high-income countries and little is known about walking patterns and its association with environmental features in low and middle income countries. Objectives To describe walking for leisure and to identify its association with perceived environment and personal factors among residents of three state capitals from different regions of Brazil Methods Cross sectional phone surveys were conducted in Recife, Curitiba and Vitória (n = 6,166 in 2007, 2008 and 2009 respectively. Physical activity was measured using the leisure-time sections of the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Perceived environment characteristics were assessed using a modified version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS. Multivariable analysis tested the associations between walking for leisure and perceived environment characteristics across the cities using logistic regression. Results The proportions of respondents meeting physical activity recommendations through walking for leisure were 9.6%, 16.0% and 8.8% in Curitiba, Recife and Vitoria, respectively. Engaging in 150 min/wk or more of walking for leisure was significantly associated with younger age, higher education, better self-rated health and with lack of sidewalks on nearby streets. We did not find positive associations between walking for leisure and traffic conditions and safety related to cycling/walking during the day or night. Conclusion Most environmental features were not associated with walking for leisure. Personal factors were stronger predictors of walking for leisure as compared with perceived environment factors.

  7. Factor Structure and Reliability of the Malay Version of the Perceived Stress Scale among Malaysian Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Sulaiman, Nik Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS-10) is a validated and reliable instrument to measure global levels of perceived stress. This study aims to assess the internal consistency, reliability, and factor structure of the Malay version of the PSS-10 for use among medical students. Methods: The original English version of the PSS-10 was translated and back-translated into Malay language. The Malay version was distributed to 242 Bachelor of Medical Science students in a private university in Malaysia. Test–retest reliability was assessed in 70 students. An exploratory principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Reliability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: All 242 students participated in the initial questionnaire study (validity and factor structure), and 70 students participated in the test–retest reliability of the study. Exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors that accounted for 57.8% of the variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the 2 factors were 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. The reliability test showed an ICC of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.89). Conclusion: The Malay version of the PSS-10 showed adequate psychometric properties. It is a useful instrument for measuring stress among medical students in Malaysia. PMID:23785249

  8. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  9. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  10. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna; Tabak, Izabela; Dzielska, Anna; Wąż, Krzysztof; Oblacińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years) was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence) interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements) were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively). The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors. PMID:28009806

  11. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mazur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively. The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.

  12. Managing perceived operational risk factors for effective supply-chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Cheickna

    2014-12-01

    This research is part of a large scale comprehensive mathematical and empirical modeling investigation projects aimed at developing a better understanding of supply-chain risk management by offering a comprehensive framework including theoretical elements and empirical evidence based on managers' perception of improved organizational level of preparedness to safeguard against the threats of disruptions, delays and stoppage in the supply chain. More specifically, this paper reports the empirical investigation conducted using 92 companies in several eastern USA regions involved in international trades with global supply chains. Among the 56 general hypotheses investigated, the results support that managers strive to balance their control and decision impacts to mold their responses to risk factors with knowledge of the extent of cost consequences as stated in previous research. However, the results also propose new findings which significantly vary from previous research reports.

  13. Prognostic factors of infantile spasms: role of treatment options including a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Yu, Hee Jun; Lee, Munhyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide additional evidences on prognostic factors for infantile spasms and the possible role of a ketogenic diet. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with infantile spasms who had been followed up for more than 6months between January 2000 and July 2012 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). We analyzed the association between possible prognostic factors and seizure/developmental outcomes. Sixty-nine patients were included in this study and their mean follow-up duration was 52.5 (9-147) months. In the patients who had been followed up for more than 2years, 53.6% (n=30/57) remained seizure-free at the last visit. Sixty patients (86.9%) showed developmental delay at last follow-up. Forty-two patients (60.9%) became spasm-free with one or two antiepileptic drugs, one patient with epilepsy surgery for a tumor, and seven patients with a ketogenic diet after the failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. The etiology and age of seizure onset were the significant prognostic factors. In this study, about 60% of the patients became spasm-free with vigabatrin and topiramate. Ketogenic diet increased the rate by 10% in the remaining antiepileptic drug resistant patients. However, 86.9% of the patients showed developmental delay, mostly a severe degree. Early diagnosis and prompt application of treatment options such as antiepileptic drugs, a ketogenic diet or epilepsy surgery can improve outcomes in patients with infantile spasms. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  15. Perceived social support following percutaneous coronary intervention is a crucial factor in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, Outi; Kankkunen, Päivi; Miettinen, Heikki; Lamidi, Marja-Leena; Saaranen, Terhi

    2017-05-01

    To describe perceived social support among patients with coronary heart disease following percutaneous coronary intervention. A low level of social support is considered a risk factor for coronary heart disease in healthy individuals and reduces the likelihood that people diagnosed with coronary heart disease will have a good prognosis. A descriptive cross-sectional study. A survey of 416 patients was conducted in 2013. A self-report instrument, Social Support of People with Coronary Heart Disease, was used. The instrument comprises three dimensions of social support: informational, emotional, functional supports and 16 background variables. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, mean sum variables and multivariate logistic regression. Perceived informational support was primarily high, but respondents' risk factors were not at the target level. The weakest items of informational support were advice on physical activity, continuum of care and rehabilitation. Regarding the items of emotional support, support from other cardiac patients was the weakest. The weakest item of functional support was respondents' sense of the healthcare professionals' care of patients coping with their disease. Background variables associated with perceived social support were gender, marital status, level of formal education, profession, physical activity, duration of coronary heart disease and previous myocardial infarction. Healthcare professionals should pay extra attention to women, single patients, physically inactive patients, those demonstrating a lower level of education, those with a longer duration of CHD, and respondents without previous acute myocardial infarction. Continuum of care and counselling are important to ensure especially among them. This study provides evidence that healthcare professionals should be more aware of the individual needs for social support among patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention

  16. Factor structure of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) across English and Spanish language responders in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Marisa J; Brintz, Carrie E; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia; Isasi, Carmen R; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Perreira, Krista M; Roesch, Scott C; Schneiderman, Neil; Llabre, Maria M

    2017-03-01

    Despite widespread use, psychometric investigation of the original English and translated Spanish versions of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) has been limited among the U.S. Hispanic/Latino population. The present study examined the factor structure, factorial invariance, and reliability and validity of PSS scores from English and Spanish versions using data from 5,176 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. The total sample and language multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model with all 10 PSS items loading on a general perceived stress factor, and the 4 reverse-worded items also loading on a reverse-worded factor. Internal consistency ranged from .68 to .78, and it was indicated that reliable variance exists beyond the general perceived stress factor. The model displayed configural, metric, scalar, and residual invariance across language groups. Convergent validity analyses indicated that both the general perceived stress factor and the reverse-worded factor were related to scores of depression, anxiety, and anger in the expected directions. The reverse-worded factor added to the validity of the PSS beyond the general perceived stress factor. The total computed score of the PSS can be recommended for use with Hispanics/Latinos in the United States that complete the measure in English or Spanish and the reverse-worded factor can enhance prediction. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. The compression of perceived time in a hot environment depends on physiological and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Maria; Jakobson, Ainika; Havik, Merle; Burk, Andres; Timpmann, Saima; Allik, Jüri; Oöpik, Vahur; Kreegipuu, Kairi

    2014-01-01

    The human perception of time was observed under extremely hot conditions. Young healthy men performed a time production task repeatedly in 4 experimental trials in either a temperate (22 °C, relative humidity 35%) or a hot (42 °C, relative humidity 18%) environment and with or without a moderate-intensity treadmill exercise. Within 1 hour, the produced durations indicated a significant compression of short intervals (0.5 to 10 s) in the combination of exercising and high ambient temperature, while neither variable/condition alone was enough to yield the effect. Temporal judgement was analysed in relation to different indicators of arousal, such as critical flicker frequency (CFF), core temperature, heart rate, and subjective ratings of fatigue and exertion. The arousal-sensitive internal clock model (originally proposed by Treisman) is used to explain the temporal compression while exercising in heat. As a result, we suggest that the psychological response to heat stress, the more precisely perceived fatigue, is important in describing the relationship between core temperature and time perception. Temporal compression is related to higher core temperature, but only if a certain level of perceived fatigue is accounted for, implying the existence of a thermoemotional internal clock.

  18. Perceived social-ecological factors associated with fruit and vegetable purchasing, preparation, and consumption among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dan J; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa N

    2013-10-01

    Most young adults do not consume recommended levels of fruits and vegetables (F/V), and interventions to increase F/V-related behaviors among this understudied population are needed. Therefore, it is important to identify correlates of F/V intake among young adults to guide intervention development. This cross-sectional study used data from an online survey to identify factors related to young adults' F/V purchasing, preparation, and consumption, and to explore between-factor relationships using mediation analysis. In 2010, 1,201 college students in Minnesota completed questionnaires assessing F/V behaviors as well as perceptions of F/V-related individual, social, and environmental factors. Factor analysis identified questionnaire items assessing similar constructs. Seven factors were identified (personal barriers, F/V knowledge, family, friends, neighborhood, access barriers, and campus) and evaluated for relationships with F/V purchasing, preparation, and consumption using linear regression. Results revealed that perceived personal barriers (eg, lacking cooking skills) were inversely related to all F/V outcomes. Perception that family and friends eat healthfully and neighborhood access to F/V were positively related to all outcomes. Individual-, social-, and environment-level perceptions were related to purchasing, preparation, and consumption, and the effects of these factors were similar when accounting for mediated effects. Factors at all three levels and the ways in which these various factors operate together may be important to consider in future efforts to improve F/V behaviors among young adults.

  19. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  20. Perceptions of preparation for further training: how our medical schools prepare graduates and the perceived factors influencing access to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Sarah J; Craig, Pippa L; Sefton, Ann J; Ryan, Greg L; Arnold, Stephanie J; Naganathan, Vasi

    2010-09-06

    To investigate the specific factors that graduates perceive to influence their success in obtaining primary training in a chosen field. The New South Wales Medical Registration Board provided data on doctors who were registered to practise between 1995 and 2006. A brief, paper-based survey was sent to a random selection of 2000 doctors. Doctors' self-reported perceptions on the impact of demographic details, specialty training applied for, university training and other factors on opportunities for further training after medical school. Of the 375/1915 doctors (19.6%) who responded, most had completed a 6-year undergraduate degree from the University of Sydney, University of NSW or University of Newcastle, and most were at registrar level. Of 242/321 doctors (76%) who had applied for a training position, 240 (99%) had been accepted. The support of a mentor was considered the most positive influence on meeting long-term career goals (255/318 [80%]). Learning how to communicate with patients was valued as the most helpful aspect of medical school (270/318 [85%]). The personal attributes of graduates were considered more influential in achieving career goals and accessing further training than perceived features of a medical program. This suggests that more emphasis and research should be devoted to selecting the most appropriate candidates, rather than restructuring medical curricula to meet a presumed need for more content knowledge before graduation.

  1. PPO.33 Perceived maternal stress and emotional wellbeing as risk factors for miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meaney, S.; Corcoran, P.; Gallagher, S.; Lutomski, J.E.; Spillane, N.; O' Donoghue, K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Miscarriage is the most common adverse outcome in pregnancy. Investigations suggest numerous risk factors however the cause remains poorly understood. The study aimed to examine the contribution of an array of psychological factors to risk of miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was

  2. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…

  3. PPO.33 Perceived maternal stress and emotional wellbeing as risk factors for miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meaney, S.; Corcoran, P.; Gallagher, S.; Lutomski, J.E.; Spillane, N.; O' Donoghue, K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Miscarriage is the most common adverse outcome in pregnancy. Investigations suggest numerous risk factors however the cause remains poorly understood. The study aimed to examine the contribution of an array of psychological factors to risk of miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was

  4. Chinese Children's Perceived School Satisfaction: The Role of Contextual and Intrapersonal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of school contextual factors and intrapersonal factors to school satisfaction among a sample of Hong Kong Chinese primary school children. A total of 760 children completed the School Satisfaction Subscale of the Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale for Children along with self-report measures of…

  5. Master's level education in Jordan: a qualitative study of key motivational factors and perceived impact on practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Zainab

    2013-09-01

    To explore key motivational factors of Jordanian nurses to undertake a Master's degree and explore perceived impact on practice. In Jordan, there are postgraduate educational programmes offering a Master's degree in clinical nursing for registered nurses. These programmes are intended to prepare nurses to practise at an advanced level as potential clinical nurse specialists. Little is known about the motivation of nurses to undertake such Master's degree preparation programmes and their perceived impact on practice. Using an ethnographic design, narratives from semi-structured interviews with participants (n=37) from five Jordanian hospitals and two public universities were collected and thematically analysed. Four main themes emerged from the data: self development; broadening career opportunities; developing practice; and the perceived impact of Master's level nurses on practice. The majority of Jordanian nurses chose to undertake a Master's degree because of a desire for self and practice development. The majority of participants referred to M-level nurses in terms of knowledge transfer, highlighting their clinical teaching and in-service education activities. M-level nurses were also associated with managerial and supervisory roles in clinical practice. Controversy over the impact of M-level nurses in enhancing patient care is not limited to the Jordanian setting. Future research needs to focus on comparative studies between nurses with M-level qualifications and experienced nurses without either M-level qualifications or specialist courses to establish if there is any significant relationship between practice performance and educational preparation and experience. Evaluation research could be undertaken for the purpose of developing measurable and observable criteria related to educational and skill based outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Terrorism in Australia: factors associated with perceived threat and incident-critical behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Garry; Agho, Kingsley; Taylor, Melanie; Barr, Margo; Raphael, Beverley; Jorm, Louisa

    2009-03-27

    To help improve incident preparedness this study assessed socio-demographic and socio-economic predictors of perceived risk of terrorism within Australia and willingness to comply with public safety directives during such incidents. The terrorism perception question module was incorporated into the New South Wales Population Health Survey and was completed by a representative sample of 2,081 respondents in early 2007. Responses were weighted against the New South Wales population. Multivariate analyses indicated that those with no formal educational qualifications were significantly more likely (OR = 2.10, 95%CI:1.32-3.35, p terrorism risk perception and concerns regarding potential impacts. The pattern of concern and response among those of migrant background may reflect secondary social impacts associated with heightened community threat, rather than the direct threat of terrorism itself. These findings highlight the need for terrorism risk communication and related strategies to address the specific concerns of these sub-groups as a critical underpinning of population-level preparedness.

  7. Living in Latvia after stroke: the association between functional, social and personal factors and the level of self-perceived disability-a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bērziņa, Guna; Smilškalne, Baiba; Vētra, Anita; Stibrant Sunnerhagen, Katharina

    2016-06-24

    To investigate how functional, social and personal factors are associated with self-perceived level of disability in the chronic phase of stroke in a Latvian stroke population. The consequences of stroke can vary greatly and often leads to long-term disability that, according to the WHO definitions, depends on the interaction between the person and his/her context. Cross-sectional study with retrospective data gathering. Community-dwelling persons who received specialised in-patient rehabilitation after stroke in Latvia. Of 600 persons after stroke who were identified through hospital register and selected for the study, 255 were included in the analysis. The medical information and discharge data of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) was extracted from medical records. Participants filled out a questionnaire on sociodemographic information and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), either in Latvian or Russian, depending on their wish when contacted for their oral agreement to participate. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to find a model that best explains the variance in WHODAS 2.0 scores. The models explained 23-43.5% of variance in outcomes. The best explained WHODAS 2.0 domains were 'mobility' and 'self-care'. The significant factors were level of independence in 'self-care', 'locomotion' and 'communication' according to FIM, as well as working status, time since rehabilitation, age, gender, living alone or in family and preferred language. Functional, social and personal factors are of similar importance when explaining self-perceived disability in the chronic phase of stroke. Some, but not all, of the factors are modifiable by the healthcare system. Therefore, a complex approach and involvement of medical, social and political systems is needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Biopsychosocial Factors and Perceived Disability in Saleswomen with Concurrent Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praneet Pensri

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: In clinical management of LBP workers who required prolonged standing, such as salespeople, clinicians should look for modifiable risk factors associated with disability. Specific measures need to be taken to prevent disability due to LBP among salespeople.

  9. Perceived barriers and motivating factors influencing student midwives’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Jody R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the mal-distribution of health care workers has focused mainly on physicians and nurses. To meet the Millennium Development Goal Five and the reproductive needs of all women, it is predicted that an additional 334,000 midwives are needed. Despite the on-going efforts to increase this cadre of health workers there are still glaring gaps and inequities in distribution. The objectives of this study are to determine the perceived barriers and motivators influencing final year midwifery students’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana, West Africa. Methods An exploratory qualitative study using focus group interviews as the data collection strategy was conducted in two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. All final year midwifery students from the two training schools were invited to participate in the focus groups. A purposive sample of 49 final year midwifery students participated in 6 focus groups. All students were women. Average age was 23.2 years. Glaser’s constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify patterns or themes from the data. Results Three themes were identified through a broad inductive process: 1 social amenities; 2 professional life; and 3 further education/career advancement. Together they create the overarching theme, quality of life, we use to describe the influences on midwifery students’ decision to accept a rural posting following graduation. Conclusions In countries where there are too few health workers, deployment of midwives to rural postings is a continuing challenge. Until more midwives are attracted to work in rural, remote areas health inequities will exist and the targeted reduction for maternal mortality will remain elusive.

  10. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  11. Using Electromyography to Detect the Weightings of the Local Muscle Factors to the Increase of Perceived Exertion During Stepping Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Ju Hsu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rate of perceived exertion (RPE is a clinically convenient indicator for monitoring exercise intensity in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. It might not be sensitive enough for clinicians to determine the patients’ physiological status because its association with the cardiovascular system and local muscle factors is unknown. This study used the electromyographic sensor to detect the local muscle fatigue and stabilization of patella, and analyzed the relationship between various local muscle and cardiovascular factors and the increase of RPE during stepping exercise, a common exercise program provided in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. Ten healthy adults (4 males and 6 females participated in this study. Each subject used their right bare foot to step up onto a 23-cm-high step at a constant speed until the RPE score reached 20. The RPE, heart rate (HR, and surface EMG of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis were recorded at 1-minute intervals during the stepping exercise. The generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis indicated that the increase in RPE significantly correlated with the increase in HR, and decrease in median frequency (MF of the EMG power spectrum of the RF. Experimental results suggest that the increase in RPE during stepping exercise was influenced by the cardiovascular status, localized muscle fatigue in the lower extremities. The weighting of the local muscle factors was more than half of the weighting of the cardiovascular factor.

  12. Social and behavioral determinants of perceived insufficient sleep: analysis of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Grandner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insufficient sleep is associated with cardiometabolic disease and poor health. However, few studies have assessed its determinants in a nationally-representative sample. Methods: Data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS was used (N=323,047 adults. Insufficient sleep was assessed as insufficient rest/sleep over 30 days. This was evaluated relative to sociodemographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, region, socioeconomics (education, income, employment, insurance, health behaviors (diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, and health/functioning (emotional support, BMI, mental/physical health. Results: Overall, insufficient sleep was associated with being female, White or Black/African-American, unemployed, without health insurance, and not married; decreased age, income, education, physical activity; worse diet and overall health; and increased household size, alcohol, and smoking. Conclusion: These factors should be considered risk factors for insufficient sleep.

  13. Factorization of Radiative Leptonic Decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ Mesons Including the Soft Photon Region

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ji-Chong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the radiative leptonic decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ mesons using factorization approach. Factorization is proved to be valid explicitly at 1-loop level at any order of $O(\\Lambda _{\\rm QCD}\\left/m_Q\\right.)$. We consider the contribution in the soft photon region that $E_{\\gamma} \\sim \\left. \\Lambda^2 _{\\rm QCD} /\\right. m_Q$. The numerical results shows that, the soft photon region is very important for both the $B$ and $D$ mesons. The branching ratios of $B\\to \\gamma e\

  14. [Socio-demographic and occupational factors associated with gains and losses perceived by employees nearing retirement in a public university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinati, Paloma de Souza Cavalcante; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço; Dalmas, José Carlos; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2016-10-10

    The aim was to analyze socio-demographic and occupational factors associated with gains and losses perceived by employees nearing retirement in a public university. In an exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative survey, employees (n = 164) approaching retirement in a public university in northern Paraná State, Brazil, assigned scales of importance to gains and losses. The data were analyzed with simple and multiple linear regression, based on the sizes of the scales, with socio-demographic and occupational variables as predictors. Employees assigned greater importance to retirement gains than losses. Increasing age was associated with less appreciation for total gains and time for relationships. Longer time on the job contributed to appreciation of total losses and tangible aspects of work. It is necessary to create spaces for reflection in employer institutions that promote listening to workers' needs, especially for older employees with longer time on the job.

  15. KM Critical Success Factors: A Comparison of Perceived Importance Versus Implementation in Malaysian ICT Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Siong Choy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research examines the level of perception and implementation of 11 identified knowledge management (KM) success factors and their differences among the information and communication technology (ICT) companies operating in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The survey data was obtained from a study of 427 middle managers from 194…

  16. Business Success and Its Factors as Perceived by Business School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    The author presents a typology of students in business education programs, and analyzes the characteristics of students' perceptions of business success that may result from their training. The factors that students try to maximize are a mix of financial, personal, and life-style issues. (Contains 3 tables.) [This article was translated by Kim…

  17. Patient-perceived factors contributing to low tuberculosis cure rate at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-03

    Apr 3, 2014 ... Objectives: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the factors contributing to low TB ..... treatment on an empty stomach I experience abdominal pains. I ..... org.za/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Chapter12.pdf ... in Pakistan', The Lancet 357(9257), 664–669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-.

  18. Business Success and Its Factors as Perceived by Business School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    The author presents a typology of students in business education programs, and analyzes the characteristics of students' perceptions of business success that may result from their training. The factors that students try to maximize are a mix of financial, personal, and life-style issues. (Contains 3 tables.) [This article was translated by Kim…

  19. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of th

  20. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  1. Perceived migraine triggers: do dietary factors play a role? Factores desencadenantes de migraña: ¿los factores dietéticos tienen influencia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Camboim Rockett

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess the frequency of 36 possible triggering factors precipitating a migraine crisis (hormonal, environmental, and dietary in adult outpatients suffering from migraine attacks. A group of 123 migraine sufferers, aged 43.2 ± 13.9 (mean ± SD years, including 114 (92.7% women, 68.3% having migraine without aura, 68.3% reporting pain severe enough to require drug prophylaxis, and 29.3% presenting with hypertension, were evaluated. The most common triggers were stress and fasting, and environmental and hormonal factors were frequently found to precipitate a crisis. More than 90% of the patients reported susceptibility to 5 or more factors, and only 2.4% did not complain about any dietary factor. The large number of triggers detected in the present study emphasises the importance of awareness and avoidance of these factors in the management of patients with migraine.El presente es un estudio transversal que fue diseñado para estimar la frecuencia de 36 posibles factores desencadenantes de iniciar una crisis de migraña (hormonales, ambientales y dietéticos en pacientes adultos ambulatoriales que sufren ataques de migraña. Fue evaluado un grupo de 123 adultos que sufre de migraña, con edades entre 43,2 ± 13,9 (media ± DE, incluyendo 114 (92,7% mujeres con migraña sin aura, 68,3% de las cuales informaron sentir dolor suficiente como para requerir profilaxis con fármacos y 29,3% con hipertensión. Los factores desencadenantes más comunes fueron el estrés y el ayuno; factores ambientales y hormonales fueron también desencadenantes frecuentes. Más del 90% de los pacientes informaron susceptibilidad a 5 o más factores, y sólo el 2,4% no informó de ningún factor dietético. El gran número de factores desencadenantes detectados en el presente estudio enfatiza la importancia del cuidado y la prevención de estos factores en el manejo de pacientes con migraña.

  2. Components of social capital and socio-psychological factors that worsen the perceived health of Japanese males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Hiroko; Yoshino, Ryozo; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2008-10-01

    Social capital refers to the quantity and quality of social relationships, such as formal and informal social connections as well as norms of reciprocity and trust that exist in a place or a community. This article analyzed the data from Japan 2004 B Survey in order to elucidate the effects of social capital and socio-psychological factors on the health of Japanese males and females. The Survey was a part of a nationwide random study on Japanese national character, which has been conducted by the Institute of Statistical Mathematics since 1953. A total of 785 (372 males and 413 females) valid data from 1,200 adult samples were used. Logistic regression analysis showed that the self-reported symptoms were increased by negative attitude to generalized trust in males, and by negative attitude to norm of reciprocity in females. Moreover, in females, health dissatisfaction was enhanced by low perceptions of support. In both genders, self-reported symptoms and health dissatisfaction were worsened by anxiety. The self-reported symptoms were increased by an adherence to religion and spirituality in males, whereas in females, the health dissatisfaction increased with low income and a concern about superstitions. Thus, from a viewpoint of social capital, perceived health is susceptible to personal relationships in females and to distrust in males. Anxiety seems a key factor affecting perceived health. In addition, females are influenced by economic status and superstitions, whereas males are more concerned about religion or the mind in relation to health. These findings are useful in developing health policies for Japanese.

  3. [Regional and individual factors of stress experience in Germany: results of a representative survey with the perceived stress questionnaire (PSQ)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocalevent, R-D; Hinz, A; Brähler, E; Klapp, B F

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to define, besides prevalence data, regional and individual factors of stress experience in a representative sample of the German general population. Regional factors were examined separately by federal state and the size of the political location. Individual factors were defined according to the severity of the stress experience as well as on the basis of central social factors such as family state, profession and earnings. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), a validated, self-evaluation process for recording a subjective representation of frequency estimates of stress experiences was used. Data acquisition was carried out by a market research institute in a multi-topic questionnaire (N=2,552). Households were selected by the random route procedure, target persons were also selected at random. The prevalence rate for an elevated stress experience was 14.5%, that for a very high stress experience 3.1% of the sample. People without education exhibited the highest rates of stress experience (36.8%), followed by the unemployed (30.6%). Individual and social factors that favour an increased stress experience are a subjectively poor state of health (OR: 3.42) or belonging to the lower social economic status (OR: 1.30). Furthermore, there are indications of regional factors such as size of the location as well as differences between the individual federal states. An east-west comparion did not show any significant differences with regard to stress experiences. In the light of the illness burden associated with chronic stress situations, preventative measures in cases of unemployment or low level of education should be given priority. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  5. The N(H2/I(CO Conversion Factor: A Treatment that Includes Radiative Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento que explica mejor el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO y que incluye la transferencia radiativa. A primera vista, incluir la transferencia radiativa parece superfluo para una línea óptimamente gruesa como CO J = 1 0. No obstante, dado que el medio interestelar es inhomogéneo, los fragmentos de gas (es decir, grumos todavía pueden ser óptimamente delgadas hacia sus bordes y en las alas de los pérfiles de la línea. El tratamiento estadístico de Martin et al. (1984 de la transferencia radiativa a través una nube molecular con grumos se usa para derivar una expresión para el factor de conversión que su- pera los defectos de las explicaciones más tradicionales basadas en Dickman et al. (1986. Por un lado, el tratamiento presentado aquí posiblemente representa un avance importante al entender el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO pero, por otro lado, tiene sus propios defectos, que son discutidos aquí brevemente.

  6. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

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    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  7. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  8. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write) (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732), and duration of illness less than one year (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422) were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting.

  9. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Boru Bifftu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write (AOR=2.64, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227, difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (AOR=4.49, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732, and duration of illness less than one year (AOR=3.48, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422 were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write, difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting.

  10. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  11. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, among urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, M A; Boyer, C B

    1991-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of multiple psychosocial and knowledge-related antecedent factors that may predict sexual and alcohol and drug use behaviors that are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection. Five hundred forty-four ninth-grade urban high school students were surveyed regarding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to STDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that higher levels of STD and AIDS knowledge were associated with lower levels of STD and AIDS anxiety (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), fewer negative attitudes toward people with AIDS (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), stronger perceptions of self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.03; p less than 0.01), and stronger peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.05). Negative attitudes toward people with AIDS were inversely related to knowledge (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001), social support (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.01), and perceived self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.01; p less than 0.05). Predictors of alcohol and drug use included perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001) and strong peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.001). The best predictor of sexual risk behavior was alcohol and drug use (R2 delta = 0.07; p less than 0.001). Lower levels of knowledge (R2 delta = 0.14; p less than 0.01) and perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.05) predicted nonuse of condoms. Our results indicate that several factors relate to adolescent risk for STDs: the connection between peer influence and adolescent risk behaviors, the link between alcohol and drug use and sexual risk behavior, and the role of knowledge in determining nonuse of condoms.

  12. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  13. Are non-native plants perceived to be more risky? Factors influencing horticulturists' risk perceptions of ornamental plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Humair

    Full Text Available Horticultural trade is recognized as an important vector in promoting the introduction and dispersal of harmful non-native plant species. Understanding horticulturists' perceptions of biotic invasions is therefore important for effective species risk management. We conducted a large-scale survey among horticulturists in Switzerland (N = 625 to reveal horticulturists' risk and benefit perceptions from ornamental plant species, their attitudes towards the regulation of non-native species, as well as the factors decisive for environmental risk perceptions and horticulturists' willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Our results suggest that perceived familiarity with a plant species had a mitigating effect on risk perceptions, while perceptions of risk increased if a species was perceived to be non-native. However, perceptions of the non-native origin of ornamental plant species were often not congruent with scientific classifications. Horticulturists displayed positive attitudes towards mandatory trade regulations, particularly towards those targeted against known invasive species. Participants also expressed their willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Yet, positive effects of risk perceptions on the willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior were counteracted by perceptions of benefits from selling non-native ornamental species. Our results indicate that the prevalent practice in risk communication to emphasize the non-native origin of invasive species can be ineffective, especially in the case of species of high importance to local industries and people. This is because familiarity with these plants can reduce risk perceptions and be in conflict with scientific concepts of non-nativeness. In these cases, it might be more effective to focus communication on well-documented environmental impacts of harmful species.

  14. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    explosion, and the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, such an approach may have helped to maintain the integrity of the designed provisions against major deviations resulting in these disasters. In order to make this paradigm operational, safety management and in particular risk assessment tools need to be refined....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...... Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...

  15. [Perceived and imagined body image distortion: a possible factor for obesity and overweight in Mexicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-Suárez, Sebastián; López-Avila, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la obesidad es un efecto de la transición nutricional en varios países y es uno de los problemas de salud pública más graves en México. La distorsión de la imagen corporal es un posible factor importante en este asunto socialmente generalizado. El objetivo fue obtener tres indicadores (la representación del cuerpo imaginado, la imagen percibida del cuerpo y el índice de masa corporal —IMC—) para compararlos y conocer las diferencias entre la imagen real (IMC) con respecto a las otras dos imágenes. Métodos: la imprecisión al estimar el tamaño corporal se midió por medio de una encuesta con una escala graduada para determinar si la muestra (n = 579) tenía distorsión de la imagen corporal, qué grado de distorsión tenía y cómo se comportaba esta en los diferentes grupos de edad (15-69 años). Resultados: el grupo de edad de 15 a 19 años difirió significativamente de los demás grupos etarios, lo cual quedó demostrado al emplear una prueba Kruskal-Wallis. Las diferencias entre hombres y mujeres fueron encontradas a través de una prueba Mann-Whitney. Asimismo, se encontró una relación entre tipos de distorsión de imagen corporal y grado de distorsión observada por medio de un modelo de regresión logística multinomial. Conclusión: los factores culturales podrían esclarecer estos hallazgos. Si la imprecisión de la estimación del tamaño corporal puede ser asociada al sobrepeso y la obesidad en el futuro, estos resultados serán relevantes para su consecuente análisis.

  16. Contribution of Environmental Risk Factors Including Lifestyle to Inequalities Noncommunicable (Chronic Diseases such as Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Grochowska Niedworok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health inequalities: differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Some health inequalities are attributable to biological variations or free choice and others are attributable to the external environment and conditions mainly outside the control of the individuals concerned. 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2012 an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a normal body weight can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Risk factors: 1. Age- the prevalence of diabetes rises steeply with age: *one in twenty people over the age of 65 have diabetes, *and this rises to one in five people over the age of 85 years. The diagnosis of diabetes may be delayed in older people, with symptoms of diabetes being wrongly attributed to ageing. 2. Ethnic: type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in people of South Asian descent and up to three times more common in those of African and African-Caribbean descent then in the white population. It is also more common in people of Chinese descent and other non-Caucasian groups. 3. Gender: the frequency of diabetes usually is higher in men than in women. This may be because gender compounds other aspects of inequality- women often bear the brunt of poverty, and socio-economic differences in the prevalence of diabetes are more marked for women, probably because of differences in smoking rates, food choices and the prevalence of obesity. 4. Overweight/Obesity: every 1 kg/m2 more causes increase risk: cardiovascular diseases 2%, coronary artery disease- 3% , myocardial infarction- 5% , heart failure- 5% , peripheral vascular disease- 5%. Health inqualities important in diabetes -- modifiable:  social

  17. Religiousness and perceived social support as predictive factors for mental health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krok, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study: The study is to investigate predictive values of the religious meaning system, the centrality of religiosity and social support for mental health outcomes. Although there is some evidence about associations of religiousness and social support with mental health, insufficient data exists to explain which dimensions of religiousness and social support are related to mental health outcomes. Material and methods: Participants were 206 people (108 women and 98 men randomly recruited in southern parts of Poland. Their ages ranged from 18 to 78 years, with a mean age of 38.6 years (SD =16.44. All participants filled in the four questionnaires: The Religious Meaning System Questionnaire, The Centrality of Religiosity Scale, The Berlin Social Support Scales, and The General Health Questionnaire-28. Results: Both religiousness and social support are associated with mental health outcomes, but the character of these associations depends on particular dimensions. The religious meaning system and the centrality of religiosity showed negative links with the dimension of mental health called somatic symptoms. Actually received support was associated with better mental health, whereas need for support and protective buffering support were predictors of negative mental health outcomes. Discussion and conclusions: The findings support the hypotheses that religiousness and social support are predictive factors for mental health outcomes, though their effects are rather moderate or weak. Both religion and social support can influence mental health by imbuing life with a sense of meaning and significance, and offering fellowship in times of stress and suffering.

  18. [Structural analysis for psychosocial factors including health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) associated with lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Ogino, K; Ooshita, Y; Tsukahara, S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify psychosocial characteristics associated with preventive health behavior for lifestyle-related diseases. The author performed objective health examinations and gave questionnaires to 289 men (39.7 +/- 11.8 years, mean +/- SD) and 80 women (32.8 +/- 10.4 years) engaged in office work. Psychosocial factors included lifestyle and perceived stress, as well as the health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) as newly developed indicators for health behavior. The principal component analysis for men did not extract lifestyle from the psychosocial structures. Multiple regression analysis showed that internal HLC (IHLC), chance HLC (CHLC), professional HLC (PHLC) and stress significantly contributed to SOC. Principal component analysis using psychosocial factors in women showed two psychosocial structures, i.e. the second principal (high SOC, high lifestyle, and low stress) and the 4th principal components (high supernatural HLC, and high PHLC). Both components were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. SOC was recognized to be negatively associated with age, stress, and total cholesterol, and positively with IHLC, FHLC, lifestyle, and gamma-GTP using multiple regression analysis for women. These results indicated a distinguishable sex difference regarding the involvement of psychosocial factors including HLC and SOC in objective health. SOC seems likely to be involved not in objective health, but closely with stress, suggesting a direct influence on mental health. Lifestyle should be divided into more detailed categories such as smoking and salt intake. Structural analysis of women suggests that SOC is involved directly or indirectly through lifestyle in objective health, different from men. To further clarify causal relationships between psychosocial factors and risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases, a longitudinal study is necessary based on these results.

  19. Association of perceived stress with stressful life events, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors: a large-scale community-based study using logistic quantile regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Awat; Aliyari, Roqayeh; Roohafza, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aimed at investigating the association between perceived stress and major life events stressors in Iranian general population. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4583 people aged 19 and older, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Logistic quantile regression was used for modeling perceived stress, measured by GHQ questionnaire, as the bounded outcome (dependent), variable, and as a function of most important stressful life events, as the predictor variables, controlling for major lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. This model provides empirical evidence of the predictors' effects heterogeneity depending on individual location on the distribution of perceived stress. The results showed that among four stressful life events, family conflicts and social problems were more correlated with level of perceived stress. Higher levels of education were negatively associated with perceived stress and its coefficients monotonically decrease beyond the 30th percentile. Also, higher levels of physical activity were associated with perception of low levels of stress. The pattern of gender's coefficient over the majority of quantiles implied that females are more affected by stressors. Also high perceived stress was associated with low or middle levels of income. The results of current research suggested that in a developing society with high prevalence of stress, interventions targeted toward promoting financial and social equalities, social skills training, and healthy lifestyle may have the potential benefits for large parts of the population, most notably female and lower educated people.

  20. Association of Perceived Stress with Stressful Life Events, Lifestyle and Sociodemographic Factors: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Logistic Quantile Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awat Feizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present paper aimed at investigating the association between perceived stress and major life events stressors in Iranian general population. Methods. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4583 people aged 19 and older, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Logistic quantile regression was used for modeling perceived stress, measured by GHQ questionnaire, as the bounded outcome (dependent, variable, and as a function of most important stressful life events, as the predictor variables, controlling for major lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. This model provides empirical evidence of the predictors’ effects heterogeneity depending on individual location on the distribution of perceived stress. Results. The results showed that among four stressful life events, family conflicts and social problems were more correlated with level of perceived stress. Higher levels of education were negatively associated with perceived stress and its coefficients monotonically decrease beyond the 30th percentile. Also, higher levels of physical activity were associated with perception of low levels of stress. The pattern of gender’s coefficient over the majority of quantiles implied that females are more affected by stressors. Also high perceived stress was associated with low or middle levels of income. Conclusions. The results of current research suggested that in a developing society with high prevalence of stress, interventions targeted toward promoting financial and social equalities, social skills training, and healthy lifestyle may have the potential benefits for large parts of the population, most notably female and lower educated people.

  1. 旅游演艺游客感知影响因素及价值提升对策研究%Research on the Factors of the Tourism Performing Perceived Value and the Measures to Improve the Perceived Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方世敏; 杨静

    2012-01-01

    游客是旅游演艺活动的消费者,游客对旅游感知价值的大小直接决定旅游演艺项目的成败.旅游演艺感知价值包括产品价值感知、服务价值感知和认知成本感知3个维度,旅游演艺资源特色、旅游演艺解说系统、旅游演艺服务人员态度、与地区文化风俗匹配度、民俗风情以及旅游演艺产品门票价格等是旅游演艺感知价值的重要影响要素.旅游演艺需要通过突出项目特色.提升服务质量,制定合理的门票价格.设计新奇、互动的项目等措施来提升旅游演艺游客感知价值.%Tourists are consumers of tourism performing, and the tourism performing perceived value directly determines the suc- cess of tourism performing project. The tourism performing perceived value is determined by three dimensions of perceived value of tourism performing products, perceived value of its service quality and the cognitive of its cost. The important influence factors are characteristics of tourism performing resources, interpretation system, staff attitude, the level of matching local cultural cus- toms, customs and ticket prices. Related to the results, there are some measures to improve the perceived value, such as focusing tourist resource features and regional by the selection of performing projects; upgrading the quality of service; pricing reasonably; highlight novelty and interactivity of the project.

  2. Self-perceived facture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, M J; Ammentorp, J; Bech, M

    2015-01-01

    factors associated with this and to compare self-perceived risk with absolute fracture risk estimated by FRAX® in women aged 65-80 years. METHODS: Data from 20,905 questionnaires from the ROSE study were analyzed. The questionnaire included 25 items on osteoporosis, risk factors for fractures, and self......-perceived risk of fractures and enabled calculation of absolute fracture risk by FRAX®. Data were analyzed using bivariate tests and regression models. RESULTS: Women generally underestimated their fracture risk compared to absolute risk estimated by FRAX®. Women with risk factors for facture estimated......-rated heath, conditions related to secondary osteoporosis, and inability to do housework. CONCLUSIONS: These women aged 65-81 years underestimated their risk of fracture. However, they did seem to have an understanding of the importance of some risk factors such as previous fractures, parental hip fracture...

  3. Influential Factors for Knowledge Creation Practices of CTE Teachers: Mutual Impact of Perceived School Support, Transformational Leadership, and Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Hye Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the structural relationships among perceived school support, transformational leadership, teachers' work engagement, and teachers' knowledge creation practices. It also investigated the mediating effects of transformational leadership and work engagement in explaining the association between perceived school support…

  4. Perceived Teacher Factors in Relation to Students' Achievement-Related Outcomes in Science Classrooms in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiz, Gönül

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the roles that perceived teacher affective support (PTAS), perceived teacher mastery goal orientation (PTMGO), academic emotions, self-efficacy and behavioural engagement play on students' science achievement in elementary school science classrooms. The potential relations of different levels of…

  5. Influential Factors for Knowledge Creation Practices of CTE Teachers: Mutual Impact of Perceived School Support, Transformational Leadership, and Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Hye Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the structural relationships among perceived school support, transformational leadership, teachers' work engagement, and teachers' knowledge creation practices. It also investigated the mediating effects of transformational leadership and work engagement in explaining the association between perceived school support…

  6. Growth of self-perceived clinical competence in postgraduate training for general practice and its relation to potentially influencing factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, A.W.M.; Zuithoff, P.; Jansen, J.J.M.; Tan, L.H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the increase in self-perceived clinical competence during a three-year postgraduate training in general practice and to explore the relation between the growth of self-perceived competence and several background variables. DESIGN: Cohort, 1995-1998. SETTING: Three-year Postgrad

  7. Growth of Self-Perceived Clinical Competence in Postgraduate Training for General Practice and Its Relation to Potentially Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A. W. M.; Zuithoff, P.; Jansen, J. J. M.; Tan, L. H. C.; Grol, R. P. T. M.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the increase in self-perceived clinical competence during a three-year postgraduate training in general practice and to explore the relation between the growth of self-perceived competence and several background variables. Design: Cohort, 1995-1998. Setting: Three-year Postgraduate Training for General practice in the…

  8. Self-perceived halitosis and related factors among adults residing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Abdulrahman AlSadhan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of self-perceived halitosis among the population in Riyadh is within the range reported in other countries. Self-perceived halitosis is related to gender, inadequate oral hygiene practices and cigarettes and shisha smoking however, it is not related to age.

  9. Reassessment of the psychometric characteristics and factor structure of the 'Perceived Stress Questionnaire' (PSQ): analysis in a sample of dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marin, Jesús; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Pereira, Joao Paulo; Olea, Marina; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The training to become a dentist can create psychological distress. The present study evaluates the structure of the 'Perceived Stress Questionnaire' (PSQ), its internal consistency model and interrelatedness with burnout, anxiety, depression and resilience among dental students. The study employed a cross-sectional design. A sample of Spanish dental students (n = 314) completed the PSQ, the 'Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale' (GADS), 'Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale' (10-item CD-RISC) and 'Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey' (MBI-SS). The structure was estimated using Parallel Analysis from polychoric correlations. Unweighted Least Squares was the method for factor extraction, using the Item Response Theory to evaluate the discriminative power of items. Internal consistency was assessed by squaring the correlation between the latent true variable and the observed variable. The relationships between the PSQ and the other constructs were analysed using Spearman's coefficient. The results showed a PSQ structure through two sub-factors ('frustration' and 'tenseness') with regard to one general factor ('perceived stress'). Items that did not satisfy discriminative capacity were rejected. The model fit were acceptable (GFI = 0.98; RSMR = 0.06; AGFI = 0.98; NFI = 0.98; RFI = 0.98). All the factors showed adequate internal consistency as measured by the congeneric model (≥0.91). High and significant associations were observed between perceived stress and burnout, anxiety, depression and resilience. The PSQ showed a hierarchical bi-factor structure among Spanish dental students. Using the questionnaire as a uni-dimensional scale may be useful in perceived stress level discrimination, while the sub-factors could help us to refine perceived stress analysis and improve therapeutic processes.

  10. School Social Workers' Perceived Understanding of Inner City and Urban Community and Neighborhood Risk and Protective Factors and Effectiveness in Practice Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Martell; Randolph, Karen; Cho, Hyunkag

    2008-01-01

    This is an exploratory study that makes use of survey research methods and a convenience sample (N = 222) to examine how urban school social workers' perceived knowledge of neighborhood and community risk and protective factors affect their levels of self-reported effectiveness in practice tasks. Using hierarchical multiple regression, the…

  11. General practitioners' self-perceived ability to recognize severity of common mental disorders: an underestimated factor in case identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykletun Arnstein

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that general practitioners (GPs under-diagnose common mental disorders, and that training courses hardly improve this practice. The influence of GPs' self-perceived ability to recognize the severity of such disorders on these facts has not been investigated. This study explores: 1 GPs' perceived ability to recognize major depressive episode (MDE and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD in their patients; 2 The GPs' observed ability to recognize severity of these disorders; and 3 If the observed ability to recognize severity is associated with their perceived ability. Methods In a cross-sectional design 40 Norwegian GPs examined 15 – 28 patients each (total N = 724. The GPs' rated their perceived ability to recognize MDE and GAD on a four-point Likert-scale. The GPs' observed ability to recognize severity was defined as the mean of the correlations between the GPs rating of Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale and the diagnostic reference standards for MDE and GAD filled in by patients. Results Twenty-two GPs considered their perceived ability to recognize MDE as rather good, and the other 18 as moderate/bad. For GAD 12 GPs' perceived their ability as rather good, while 28 considered their ability to be moderate/bad. The observed ability to recognize severity concerning MDE was 0.63 and concerning GAD 0.45. There was no significant association between GPs' perceived and observed abilities to recognize MDE (p = 0.19 and GAD (p = 0.34 Conclusion This study found a discrepancy between the GPs' perceived and observed ability to recognize common mental disorders. The lack of association between GPs' perceived and observed ability to recognize such disorders indicate low understanding of own recognition abilities. This might contribute to explain the low effectiveness of interventions aimed to increase GPs' abilities to recognize mental disorders.

  12. Roles of the non-medical prescribing leads within organisations across a Strategic Health Authority: perceived functions and factors supporting the role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rosemary Hwee Mei; Courtenay, Molly; Fleming, Gail

    2013-04-01

    Extending the roles of nurses, pharmacists and allied health professionals to include prescribing has been identified as one way of improving service provision. In the UK, over 50 000 non-medical healthcare professionals are now qualified to prescribe. Implementation of non-medical prescribing ( NMP) is crucial to realise the potential return on investment. The UK Department of Health recommends a NMP lead to be responsible for the implementation of NMP within organisations. The aim of this study was to explore the role of NMP leads in organisations across one Strategic Health Authority (SHA) and to inform future planning with regards to the criteria for those adopting this role, the scope of the role and factors enabling the successful execution of the role. Thirty-nine NMP leads across one SHA were approached. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted. Issues explored included the perceived role of the NMP lead, safety and clinical governance procedures and facilitators to the role. Transcribed audiotapes were coded and analysed using thematic analytical techniques. In total, 27/39 (69.2%) NMP leads were interviewed. The findings highlight the key role that the NMP lead plays with regards to the support and development of NMP within National Health Service trusts. Processes used to appoint NMP leads lacked clarity and varied between trusts. Only two NMP leads had designated or protected time for their role. Strategic influence, operational management and clinical governance were identified as key functions. Factors that supported the role included organisational support, level of influence and dedicated time. The NMP lead plays a significant role in the development and implementation of NMP. Clear national guidance is needed with regards to the functions of this role, the necessary attributes for individuals recruited into this post and the time that should be designated to it. This is important as prescribing is extended to include other groups of

  13. Prevalence, Perceived Factors and Knowledge on Effects of Tobacco Use on Oral Health Among Secondary School Students in Dar es salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Kabulwa, Msafiri Nicodemus

    2011-01-01

    At the time of the conception of this study there was scant information on self reported prevalence, knowledge on detrimental effects on oral health and factors influencing tobacco use among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam region. To determine the prevalence, perceived factors that may lead and /or deter secondary school students to use tobacco and knowledge on effects of tobacco use on oral health among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam. This was a descriptive cross-secti...

  14. Perceived Motivating Factors and Barriers for the Completion of Postgraduate Training Among American Pharmacy Students Prior to Beginning Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Drayton A; Oyler, Douglas R; Devlin, John W; Painter, Jacob T; Bolesta, Scott; Swanson, Joseph M; Bailey, Brett J; Branan, Trisha; Barletta, Jeffrey F; Dunn, Brianne; Haney, Jason S; Juang, Paul; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Kiser, Tyree H; Shafeeq, Hira; Skaar, Debra; Smithburger, Pamela; Taylor, Jodi

    2017-06-01

    Objective. To examine perceived motivating factors and barriers (MFB) to postgraduate training (PGT) pursuit among pharmacy students. Methods. Third-year pharmacy students at 13 schools of pharmacy provided demographics and their plan and perceived MFBs for pursuing PGT. Responses were characterized using descriptive statistics. Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-proportions rank tests determined if differences in perceived MFBs existed between students based on plan to pursue PGT. Results. Among 1218 (69.5%) respondents, 37.1% planned to pursue PGT (32.9% did not, 30% were undecided). Students introduced to PGT prior to beginning pharmacy school more frequently planned to pursue PGT. More students who planned to pursue PGT had hospital work experience. The primary PGT rationale was, "I desire to gain more knowledge and experience." Student debt was the most commonly cited barrier. Conclusion. Introducing pharmacy students early to PGT options and establishing work experiences in the hospital setting may increase students' desire to pursue PGT.

  15. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included…

  16. Perceived Stigma of Sudden Bereavement as a Risk Factor for Suicidal Thoughts and Suicide Attempt: Analysis of British Cross-Sectional Survey Data on 3387 Young Bereaved Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Rantell, Khadija; Marston, Louise; King, Michael; Osborn, David

    2017-03-09

    The sudden death of a friend or relative, particularly by suicide, is a risk factor for suicide. People who experience sudden bereavement report feeling highly stigmatised by the loss, potentially influencing access to support. We assessed whether perceived stigma following sudden bereavement is associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt. We analysed cross-sectional survey data on 3387 young adults bereaved by the sudden death of a close contact. We tested the association of high versus low perceived stigma (on the stigma sub-scale of the Grief Experience Questionnaire) with post-bereavement suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, using random effects logistic regression, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, pre-bereavement psychopathology, and mode of sudden bereavement (natural causes/unnatural causes/suicide). Subjects with high perceived stigma scores were significantly more likely to report post-bereavement suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.93-3.89) and suicide attempt (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.33-3.18) than those with low stigma scores. People who feel highly stigmatised by a sudden bereavement are at increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt, even taking into account prior suicidal behaviour. General practitioners, bereavement counsellors, and others who support people bereaved suddenly, should consider inquiring about perceived stigma, mental wellbeing, and suicidal thoughts, and directing them to appropriate sources of support.

  17. Perceived Stigma of Sudden Bereavement as a Risk Factor for Suicidal Thoughts and Suicide Attempt: Analysis of British Cross-Sectional Survey Data on 3387 Young Bereaved Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pitman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The sudden death of a friend or relative, particularly by suicide, is a risk factor for suicide. People who experience sudden bereavement report feeling highly stigmatised by the loss, potentially influencing access to support. We assessed whether perceived stigma following sudden bereavement is associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt. We analysed cross-sectional survey data on 3387 young adults bereaved by the sudden death of a close contact. We tested the association of high versus low perceived stigma (on the stigma sub-scale of the Grief Experience Questionnaire with post-bereavement suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, using random effects logistic regression, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, pre-bereavement psychopathology, and mode of sudden bereavement (natural causes/unnatural causes/suicide. Subjects with high perceived stigma scores were significantly more likely to report post-bereavement suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.93–3.89 and suicide attempt (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.33–3.18 than those with low stigma scores. People who feel highly stigmatised by a sudden bereavement are at increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt, even taking into account prior suicidal behaviour. General practitioners, bereavement counsellors, and others who support people bereaved suddenly, should consider inquiring about perceived stigma, mental wellbeing, and suicidal thoughts, and directing them to appropriate sources of support.

  18. Subjective Outcome Evaluation Findings: Factors Related to the Perceived Effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After completion of the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes, 8,489 participants in 196 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C to assess their views of the program, program workers, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Four major program elements were identified, including programs based on the adventure-based counseling approach (n = 48, programs concentrated on volunteer training and services (n = 44, programs with both the adventure-based counseling approach and volunteer training activities (n = 63, and other programs with different foci (n = 41. Descriptive statistics showed that the respondents had positive perceptions of the program, workers, and benefits of the program. Perceived qualities of the program and the program workers were positively associated with perceived effectiveness of the program. Multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived qualities of the program, but not the program workers, predicted perceived effectiveness of the program. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Subjective outcome evaluation findings: factors related to the perceived effectiveness of the tier 2 program of the project P.A.T.H.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Ma, Cecilia M S

    2010-02-12

    After completion of the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes), 8,489 participants in 196 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C) to assess their views of the program, program workers, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Four major program elements were identified, including programs based on the adventure-based counseling approach (n = 48), programs concentrated on volunteer training and services (n = 44), programs with both the adventure-based counseling approach and volunteer training activities (n = 63), and other programs with different foci (n = 41). Descriptive statistics showed that the respondents had positive perceptions of the program, workers, and benefits of the program. Perceived qualities of the program and the program workers were positively associated with perceived effectiveness of the program. Multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived qualities of the program, but not the program workers, predicted perceived effectiveness of the program. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. Mad cows, mad corn and mad communities: the role of socio-cultural factors in the perceived risk of genetically-modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Melissa L

    2002-02-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for a knowledge base of reliable socio-cultural differences in perceptions, values and ways of thinking about new food technologies. Awareness of socio-cultural differences is important because collaborative efforts to deal with food hazards presuppose some understanding of where, how and why the viewpoints of various stakeholders may differ. In the present paper factors that influence public perceptions of genetically-modified (GM) food are discussed, with a special focus on the unique circumstances of populations in the USA, Europe and developing countries. It is argued that effective communication and decision making about the risk of GM food depends critically on understanding how socio-cultural groups differ in their values and in the way they deal with the risks and benefits of new technologies. The implications of psychological aspects of perceived risk (including the roles of qualitative dimensions of risk, world views and trust) for public acceptance of new food technologies are highlighted.

  1. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  2. Patterns, risk factors and characteristics of reported and perceived foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Mwiine, Frank N.;

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda were elucidated from spatial and temporal retrospective data retrieved from monthly reports from District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to the central administration for the years spanning 2001–2008. An assessment of perceived FMD...

  3. The voice handicap of student-teachers and risk factors perceived to have a negative influence on the voice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed. The objectives of the study were to assess the psychosocial impact of current voice complaints as perceived by student-teachers with voice complaints in comparison with student-teachers without voice complaints, and to observe the pattern of risk

  4. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  5. Analysis of Factors That Affects the Capital Structure within Companies Included In the Index of LQ45 During 2011 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominica Rufina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors of ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size affecting Capital Structure. The population in this study is the companies included in the Index LQ45 Indonesia Stock Exchange from the period 2011 to 2013, the data of a total of 270 listed companies in LQ45 during that period, only 90 corporate data that successively included in the index LQ45. The data used in this study uses secondary data from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website www.idx.co.id. In the process of data analysis and testing the assumptions of classical hypothesis testing using multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS v20.00. The results showed that partially variable ROA, Asset Structure, and Firm Size has a significant influence on the Capital Structure, Growth Sales whereas variable has no influence on the Capital Structure. Simultaneously ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size effect on Capital Structure.

  6. Perceived Value Factors of High-end Consumption%高端消费品感知价值影响因素的定量测度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅

    2015-01-01

    表面上来看,现阶段中国高端消费外流的原因在于境内外高端消费品的价格差异,实际上,高端消费外流的本质在于中国消费者对外国高端消费品的需求偏好。本文从微观消费决策角度出发,在综合考虑中国消费者高端消费行为特征的基础上构建高端消费品感知价值影响因素的理论模型,并采用结构方程对中国消费数据进行实证检验。实证研究发现:商品感知质量、品牌形象和社会价值对商品感知价值产生正向影响;品牌形象不仅直接作用于商品的感知价值,还通过影响商品的感知质量和社会价值间接作用于商品的感知价值。本文对中国消费者高端消费品感知价值影响因素的定量测度为中国提升自主品牌高端消费品供给能力提供了有益的思路。%On the surface , the reason of outflow of consumption away from China is the difference of price between China and other countries ,while the essence of this phenomenon is Chinese consumer prefer foreign brands .This paper builds a theoretical model of perceived value on the basic of the consideration of behavior characteristics of Chinese consumer,and uses the structural equation model to test the consumer data in China .The results show that perceived quality , brand image and social value has a positive influence on perceived value ,and brand image not only influences perceived value directly but also influences it indirectly through the factor of perceived quality and social value .The quantitative measurement of perceived value factors provides a beneficial thought for high -end consumer goods industry in China .

  7. Perceived Threat and Corroboration: Key Factors That Improve a Predictive Model of Trust in Internet-based Health Information and Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter R; Briggs, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Background How do people decide which sites to use when seeking health advice online? We can assume, from related work in e-commerce, that general design factors known to affect trust in the site are important, but in this paper we also address the impact of factors specific to the health domain. Objective The current study aimed to (1) assess the factorial structure of a general measure of Web trust, (2) model how the resultant factors predicted trust in, and readiness to act on, the advice found on health-related websites, and (3) test whether adding variables from social cognition models to capture elements of the response to threatening, online health-risk information enhanced the prediction of these outcomes. Methods Participants were asked to recall a site they had used to search for health-related information and to think of that site when answering an online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a general Web trust questionnaire plus items assessing appraisals of the site, including threat appraisals, information checking, and corroboration. It was promoted on the hungersite.com website. The URL was distributed via Yahoo and local print media. We assessed the factorial structure of the measures using principal components analysis and modeled how well they predicted the outcome measures using structural equation modeling (SEM) with EQS software. Results We report an analysis of the responses of participants who searched for health advice for themselves (N = 561). Analysis of the general Web trust questionnaire revealed 4 factors: information quality, personalization, impartiality, and credible design. In the final SEM model, information quality and impartiality were direct predictors of trust. However, variables specific to eHealth (perceived threat, coping, and corroboration) added substantially to the ability of the model to predict variance in trust and readiness to act on advice on the site. The final model achieved a satisfactory fit: χ2 5 = 10

  8. Self-perceived need for dental treatment and related factors. A cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Freitas Gomes e SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study compared adolescents’ self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment with the normative need for such treatment and investigated associations between socioeconomic and demographic variables and self-perceptions of dental malocclusion. This cross-sectional study involved 1015 schoolchildren aged 12–15 years in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. The following data were collected using a questionnaire and an orthodontic examination card: demographic and identifying data, socioeconomic data, educational levels of family, household income, economic classification criteria, and self-reported skin color behavioral data, and oral health data. Normative occlusal condition was examined using the Angle classification and Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test (to analyze differences in the frequency distribuition of qualitative variables and Poisson regression (to stimate associations between the perceived need of orthodontic treatment and study covariates, with a 5% significance level. Schoolchildren’s self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment was associated with sex (p = 0.022 and the normative need for treatment (p = 0.004. Among socioeconomic, demographic, and oral health variables, only sex [prevalence ratio (PR = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (95%CI = 1.04–1.28; p = 0.009] and the normative need for orthodontic treatment (PR = 1.19; 95%CI = 1.08–1.32; p < 0.001 were associated with the perception of malocclusion, with female adolescents reporting a greater need for orthodontic treatment. Female adolescents seems to be more sensitive to oral health problems. The results suggest that the DAI score might reflect a self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment and the Angle classification might overestimate the orthodontic treatment need.

  9. A profile of perceived stress factors among nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients at the Free State Psychiatric Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conradie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients experience unique stress factors that can influence their personal well-being and work performance. Objectives: To compile a profile of stress factors experienced by nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients at the Free State Psychiatric Complex (FSPC. Methods: This descriptive study included 89 nursing staff members from this environment. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information and determine personal and occupational stressors. The data were summarised by frequencies and percentages (categorical variables and means or percentiles (numerical variables. Results: Most participants were aged between 46 and 55 (41.2%, female (93.2% and black (93.2%, and 76.7% had children or dependant minors. The main stressors among participants were pressure providing financially for their children and dependant minors (71.2%, caring for them (39.4% and fearing them moving away (25.8%. Occupational stressors included high workload (66.3%, lack of decision-making by superiors (58.1%, underpayment (53.5%, endangerment of physical health (52.3% and safety (50.0%, working hours (51.2%, pressure of expectations from superiors (48.8%, uncertainty of employment (48.8%, work responsibilities (47.7% and perceiving that skills and training were not appreciated. They experienced stress regarding health issues such as hyper- and hypotension (35.3%. Because of stress 34.5% of participants took leave, 34.5% developed depression and 14.3% had panic attacks. Conclusion: Most of the respondents experienced personal and occupational stress that influenced their health, which poses serious challenges for the management of the FSPC. Security should be upgraded, medical and psychological support for the staff and care facilities for their dependants should be provided, and financial problems experienced by these staff members should be addressed. The workload of

  10. A new prognostic model for cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy including pretreatment thrombocytosis and standard pathological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Renninger, Markus; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

    2012-12-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (cohort series) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Preoperative thrombocytosis has been identified as a predictor of poor outcome in various cancer types. However, the prognostic role of platelet count in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy is unknown. The present study demonstrates that preoperative thrombocytosis is an independent risk factor for decreased cancer-specific survival after radical treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We developed a new prognostic scoring model for cancer-specific outcomes after radical cystectomy including platelet count and established pathological risk factors. Consideration of platelet count in the final model increased its predictive accuracy significantly. Thrombocytosis may be a useful parameter to include within established international bladder cancer nomograms. •  To investigate the oncological significance of preoperative thrombocytosis in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, as it has been reported as a marker for aggressive tumour biology in a variety of solid tumours. •  The series comprised 258 patients undergoing radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2010 in whom different clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed. •  Elevated platelet count was defined as >450 × 10(9) /L. •  Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariable analysis a new weighted scoring model was developed to predict cancer-specific outcomes. •  The median follow-up was 30 months (6-116). •  Of the 258 patients, 26 (10.1%) had elevated and 232 (89.9%) had normal platelet count. The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with normal and elevated platelet count was 61.5% and 32.7%, respectively (P thrombocytosis (2.68, 1.26-5.14; P= 0.011). •  The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with a score 0 (low risk), 1-2 (intermediate risk) and 3

  11. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context.

  12. National Differences in Perceived Benefit of Libraries May Be Due to Their Investments in Libraries, Library Supply, and Cultural Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Glusker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Vakkari, P., Aabø, S., Audunson, R., Huysmans, F, Kwon, N., Oomes, M., & Sin, S. (2016. Patterns of perceived public library outcomes in five countries. Journal of Documentation, 72(2, 342–361. http://dx.doi:org/10.1108/JD-08-2015-0103 Objective – To compare citizens' perceptions of the benefits of libraries in five culturally diverse countries. Design – Postal survey to a random stratified sample and web surveys (some with a sampling plan, some apparently not. Setting – Surveys were administered in Finland (by post, Norway, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and South Korea (online. Subjects – Selected or self-selected members of the general adult population in the specified countries who had used a public library within the past year. Methods – Surveys were administered and data were collected in each of the five countries. A dependent variable representing perceived outcomes was calculated from 19 outcome measures (related to life experiences. Within this, 4 indices were calculated from subsets of the 19 measures, relating to work, education, everyday activities, and leisure activities. Five independent variables were used: frequency of library use, number of services used, gender, age, and education level. Respondent country was also entered into analyses. Descriptive statistics and analysis of covariance results were presented.

  13. Low self-esteem as a risk factor for loneliness in adolescence: perceived - but not actual - social acceptance as an underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhalst, Janne; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Goossens, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Low self-esteem has been shown to relate to concurrent and later feelings of loneliness in adolescence. However, it remains unclear why low self-esteem puts adolescents at risk for experiencing loneliness. Further, longitudinal research on the direction of effects between loneliness and self-esteem is virtually non-existent. The present study aims to fill these gaps in the literature. First, the direction of effects between loneliness and self-esteem was investigated in two independent longitudinal studies: a five-wave study sampling Dutch adolescents (M age = 15.22 years at T1; 47 % female; N = 428) and a three-wave study sampling Belgian adolescents (M age = 14.95 years at T1; 63 % female; N = 882). Second, the underlying role of social acceptance was investigated in the latter sample by applying a multi-method approach that included actual (i.e., peer-reported) and perceived (i.e., self-reported) social acceptance. Results indicated that self-esteem and loneliness influenced one another in a reciprocal manner. Furthermore, the dominant path from self-esteem to loneliness was partially mediated by perceived--but not actual--social acceptance. The importance of distinguishing actual from perceived social acceptance is discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  14. Changing the personality of a face: Perceived Big Two and Big Five personality factors modeled in real photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mirella; Vetter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    General, spontaneous evaluations of strangers based on their faces have been shown to reflect judgments of these persons' intention and ability to harm. These evaluations can be mapped onto a 2D space defined by the dimensions trustworthiness (intention) and dominance (ability). Here we go beyond general evaluations and focus on more specific personality judgments derived from the Big Two and Big Five personality concepts. In particular, we investigate whether Big Two/Big Five personality judgments can be mapped onto the 2D space defined by the dimensions trustworthiness and dominance. Results indicate that judgments of the Big Two personality dimensions almost perfectly map onto the 2D space. In contrast, at least 3 of the Big Five dimensions (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness) go beyond the 2D space, indicating that additional dimensions are necessary to describe more specific face-based personality judgments accurately. Building on this evidence, we model the Big Two/Big Five personality dimensions in real facial photographs. Results from 2 validation studies show that the Big Two/Big Five are perceived reliably across different samples of faces and participants. Moreover, results reveal that participants differentiate reliably between the different Big Two/Big Five dimensions. Importantly, this high level of agreement and differentiation in personality judgments from faces likely creates a subjective reality which may have serious consequences for those being perceived-notably, these consequences ensue because the subjective reality is socially shared, irrespective of the judgments' validity. The methodological approach introduced here might prove useful in various psychological disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Expanded practice roles for community mental health nurses in Australia: confidence, critical factors for preparedness, and perceived barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsom, Stephen; Happell, Brenda; Manias, Elizabeth

    2008-07-01

    As the momentum for nurse practitioner roles rapidly increases in Australia, little scholarly attention has been directed towards barriers to role expansion, the confidence necessary to undertake expanded practice roles (other than prescription of medication), or the educational preparation required for expanded roles. This paper reports on community mental health nurses' views regarding confidence to undertake expanded roles, their opinions regarding the necessary preparation for such roles, and barriers to role expansion. An questionnaire was administered to 296 community mental health nurses employed in metropolitan and rural settings in Victoria, Australia. In regards to various domains of expanded practice, nurses were least confident about prescribing but more than half (54%) reported that they would either "definitely" or "probably" feel confident. Over 90% reported "probably" or "definitely" feeling confident to make recommendations for involuntary treatment. Eighty-four percent and 79% reported similar levels of confidence in relation to ordering diagnostic tests and referring patients to medical specialists, respectively. Most (95%) agreed that extra educational preparation was necessary in relation to undertaking expanded practice roles successfully. Factors considered most strongly as barriers to expanded nursing practice included the medical profession, followed by fear of litigation, and government departments and policies.

  16. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma.

  17. Online newspapers: the impact of culture, sex, and age on the perceived importance of specified quality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley G. Hope

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a proliferation of online newspapers over recent years. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, factors affecting the quality of online newspapers remain only partially understood. Based on a two-factor model of hygiene and motivator factors, this paper examines quality for online newspapers giving attention to differences across culture, sex, and age. Hygiene factors are essential requirements whose absence causes dissatisfaction, while motivators are desirable elements that add value and increase user satisfaction. The paper presents findings from an empirical study of eighty-four Web users. Results show that hygiene factors for our respondents were: Timeliness, Content attractiveness, Content coverage, Usefulness, and Navigation, while motivators were: Writing style, Layout, Archives, Services, Interactivity, and Multimedia presentation. Four factors were borderline: Journalism ethics, Ease of use, Front page and headlines, and Locating information. However, the research reveals some differences in classification of factors across culture, sex, and age.

  18. Analysis of factors regarding the perceived distance of tourists%旅游者感知距离的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芳如; 吴晋峰; 吴潘; 李佳丽; 杨春华; 吴宝清

    2016-01-01

    The perceived distance significantly influences the tourists'destination choice .This paper studies the fac‐tors affecting the tourists'perceived distance by independent‐sample T test and single factor variance analysis meth‐od .It arrives at the following conclusions :①The perceived distance differs significantly according to the character of tourists .For the same level of actual distance ,the perceived distance of extroverted tourists is much closer than those who are introverted .②Whether there are relatives and friends in the destination is another factor affecting the perception .And at the same level of actual distance ,the tourists who have relatives and friends in the destination may consider that the distance will be much closer than those who haven't .③The purpose of tourism is also a signif‐icant factor that influences the perception .For the same level of actual distance ,tourists with a clear purpose of bus‐iness or visiting friends and relatives may perceive a much closer distance than those whose purpose is just for pure travel .④The number of times the tourists traveling to the same destination affects the perception too .With the in‐creasing number of times ,the perceived distance of the tourists will become gradually closer .⑤Tourism experience is a significant factor influencing the perception ,and the perceived distance is closer for a rich experienced tourist than otherwise .⑥Factors regarding gender ,age ,education ,family income ,occupation of the tourists travel mode as well as manner of transportation have less impact on the perceived distance ,although ,in general ,the female tourists have a perception of closer distance than the male tourists ;tourists with higher family income have a percep‐tion of close distance than those with lower income ;team tourists may perceive aa closer distance than individual tourists and self‐driving tourists .%感知距离对旅游者的目的地选择行为具有重要影响.

  19. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency

  20. The Strategic Management of Store Brand Perceived Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defeng

    Store brand plays a vital role in the success of retailers. Perceived quality is one of important factors influencing consumers' store brand purchase intention. Store brand perceived quality is lower compared with objective quality or national brand. For this end, the purpose of this article is to examine how to manage store brand perceived quality in strategic level. This article firstly discusses how consumers evaluate product quality, and the theoretical background of the reason that store brand perceived quality is lower from the view of cue related theories. Then, consumers' store brand quality evaluation is explored. Finally, this article presents several strategic tactics to increase store brand perceived quality. These tactics include choosing store's name as store brand name, making large advertising investment, improving store brand product package, and strengthening the relationship with store brand product suppliers.

  1. Evaluation of What Parents Know about Their Children's Drug Use and How They Perceive the Most Common Family Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Jose-Ramon Fernandez; Villa, Roberto Secades; Seco, Guillermo Vallejo; Perez, Jose-Manuel Errasti

    2003-01-01

    Research on family risk factors for addictive behaviors in young people has not paid a great deal of attention to parents' knowledge of their children's addictive behaviors and of the family risk factors that affect such behaviors. The aim of this work is to compare knowledge about these two aspects in two groups of parents that differ regarding…

  2. Perceived Cause, Environmental Factors, and Consequences of Falls in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Preliminary Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prue Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Describe perceived cause, environmental influences, and consequences of falls or near-falls in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy (CP. Methods. Adults with CP completed postal surveys and follow-up semistructured interviews. Surveys sought information on demographic data, self-nominated Gross Motor Function Classification Score (GMFCS-E&R, falls, and near-falls. Interviews gathered additional information on falls experiences, near-falls, and physical and psychosocial consequences. Results. Thirty-four adults with CP participated. Thirty-three participants reported at least one fall in the previous year. Twenty-six participants reported near-falls. Most commonly, falls occurred indoors, at home, and whilst engaged in nonhazardous ambulation. Adults with CP experienced adverse falls consequences, lower limb injuries predominant (37%, and descriptions of fear, embarrassment, powerlessness, and isolation. Discussion. Adults with CP may experience injurious falls. Further investigation into the impact of falls on health-related quality of life and effective remediation strategies is warranted to provide comprehensive falls prevention programs for this population.

  3. Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were

  4. 脑梗死患者自我感受负担影响因素的临床研究%Clinical research in influencing factors of self-perceived burden among patients with cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜雅伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the influencing factors of self-perceived burden(SPB) among patients with cerebral infarction.Methods A total of 108 patients were included in the study,they were investigated by a self-designed demographic questionnaire and Self-Perceived Burden Scale(SPBS).Chisquare analysis,t test and multiple regression analysis were used to explore the influencing factors of SPB.Results The SPB of patients with cerebral infarction was (36.72±4.23) points.Self-care ability,hemiple-gia,language barriers and times of hospitslization were the influencing factors of SPB according to the mul-tiple regression analysis.Conclusions The patients with cerebral infarction have obvious SPB,which is influenced by multiple factors.Nurses should take proper measures to alleviate the patients' SPB.%目的 探讨脑梗死患者自我感受负担(SPB)的影响因素.方法 采用自我感受负担量表对108例脑梗死患者进行横断面调查,首先对可能的影响因素进行单因素分析,然后以SPB为应变量,以单因素分析有统计学意义的因素为自变量,进行多元回归分析.结果 脑梗死患者SPB平均分为(36.72±4.23)分;多元回归分析显示,生活自理能力、偏瘫、语言障碍、住院次数是脑梗死患者SPB的影响因素.结论 脑梗死患者存在SPB,护理人员应采取相应护理措施.

  5. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  6. The transition to hospital consultant: Denmark and the Netherlands compared on preparedness for practice, perceived intensity and contextual factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, M.; Teunissen, P.W.; Jorgensen, R.L.; Fokkema, J.P.; Siegert, C.E.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Ringsted, C.; Scheele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Danish and Dutch new consultants' perceptions regarding the transition to consultant were compared to gain insight into this period, particularly the influence of contextual factors concerning the organisation of specialty training and health care therein. Preparation for medical and

  7. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  8. Influence of Teachers' Perceived E-Portfolio Acceptance on Teacher Evaluation Effectiveness in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chun-Mei

    2012-01-01

    This study examines technological and vocational school teachers' perceived e-portfolio acceptance, computer self-efficacy, and evaluation effectiveness in Taiwan. Teachers' perceived e-portfolios acceptance includes four factors, namely, staff commitment, performance expectancy, performance expectancy, and technology training. Computer…

  9. The transition to hospital consultant: Denmark and the Netherlands compared on preparedness for practice, perceived intensity and contextual factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, M.; Teunissen, P.W.; Jorgensen, R.L.; Fokkema, J.P.; Siegert, C.E.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Ringsted, C.; Scheele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Danish and Dutch new consultants' perceptions regarding the transition to consultant were compared to gain insight into this period, particularly the influence of contextual factors concerning the organisation of specialty training and health care therein. Preparation for medical and g

  10. A Quantitative Study of Factors Contributing to Perceived Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals Working in California Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, James Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this replication study was to understand job satisfaction factors (work, pay, supervision, people, opportunities for promotion, and job in general) as measured by the abridged Job Descriptive Index (aJDI) and the abridged Job in General (aJIG) scale for information technology (IT) professionals working in California…

  11. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Policy 2450, Distance Education and the West Virginia Virtual School, as Perceived by Principals/Assistant Principals, Counselors, and Distance Learning Contacts and/or Course Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the factors important to the implementation of West Virginia Board of Education Policy 2450, Distance Learning and the West Virginia Virtual School. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that facilitated and impeded implementation of the policy, as perceived by principals/assistant principals, counselors, and…

  12. Factors Associated With High-Risk Alcohol Consumption Among LGB Older Adults: The Roles of Gender, Social Support, Perceived Stress, Discrimination, and Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Amanda E B; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults have elevated rates of high-risk alcohol consumption compared with heterosexual adults. Although drinking tends to decline with age in the general population, we know little about LGB older adults' drinking. Using 2014 data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS), we aimed to identify factors associated with high-risk drinking in LGB older adults. A U.S. sample of 2,351 LGB adults aged 50-98 years completed a survey about personal and social experiences, substance use, and health. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of past-month high-risk alcohol consumption. Approximately one fifth (20.6%) of LGB older adults reported high-risk drinking, with nonsignificantly different rates between men (22.4%) and women (18.4%). For women, current smoking and greater social support were associated with greater likelihood of high-risk drinking; older age, higher income, recovery from addiction, and greater perceived stress were associated with lower likelihood. For men, higher income, current smoking, and greater day-to-day discrimination were associated with greater likelihood of high-risk drinking; transgender identity and recovery from addiction were associated with lower likelihood. Social contexts and perceived drinking norms may encourage higher levels of alcohol consumption in LGB older women, whereas men's drinking may be linked with discrimination-related stress. Prevention and intervention with this population should take into account gender differences and sexual minority-specific risk factors. With future waves of data, we will be able to examine LGB older adults' drinking trajectories over time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Perceived Stress and Mortality in a Taiwanese Older Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A.; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Perceived stress is associated with poor health outcomes including negative affect, increased susceptibility to the common cold, and cardiovascular disease; the consequences of perceived stress for mortality, however, have received less attention. This study characterizes the relationship between perceived stress and 11-year mortality in a population of Taiwanese adults aged 53+. Using the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Near Elderly and Elderly of Taiwan, we calculated a composite measure of perceived stress based on six items pertaining to the health, financial situation, and occupation of the respondents and their families. Proportional hazard models were used to determine whether perceived stress predicted mortality. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors only, we found that a one standard deviation increase in perceived stress was associated with a 19% increase in all-cause mortality risk during the 11-year follow-up period (HR=1.19, 95% CI 1.13–1.26). The relationship was greatly attenuated when perceptions of stress regarding health were excluded, and was not significant after adjusting for medical conditions, mobility limitations, and depressive symptoms. We conclude that the association between perceived stress and mortality is explained by an individual's current health; however, our data do not allow us to distinguish between two possible interpretations of this conclusion: a) the relationship between perceived stress and mortality is spurious, or b) poor health acts as the mediator. PMID:23869432

  14. Perceived stress and mortality in a Taiwanese older adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2013-11-01

    Perceived stress is associated with poor health outcomes including negative affect, increased susceptibility to the common cold and cardiovascular disease; the consequences of perceived stress for mortality, however, have received less attention. This study characterizes the relationship between perceived stress and 11-year mortality in a population of Taiwanese adults aged 53+ years. Using the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Near Elderly and Elderly of Taiwan, we calculated a composite measure of perceived stress based on six items pertaining to the health, financial situation, and occupation of the respondents and their families. Proportional hazard models were used to determine whether perceived stress predicted mortality. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors only, we found that a one standard deviation increase in perceived stress was associated with a 19% increase in all-cause mortality risk during the 11-year follow-up period (hazard ratio, HR = 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.13-1.26). The relationship was greatly attenuated when perceptions of stress regarding health were excluded, and was not significant after adjusting for medical conditions, mobility limitations and depressive symptoms. We conclude that the association between perceived stress and mortality is explained by an individual's current health; however, our data do not allow us to distinguish between two possible interpretations of this conclusion: (a) the relationship between perceived stress and mortality is spurious, or (b) poor health acts as the mediator.

  15. Perceived barriers to guideline adherence: A survey among general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besters Casper F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite considerable efforts to promote and support guideline use, adherence is often suboptimal. Barriers to adherence vary not only across guidelines but also across recommendations within guidelines. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived barriers to guideline adherence among GPs by focusing on key recommendations within guidelines. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey among 703 GPs in the Netherlands. Sixteen key recommendations were derived from four national guidelines. Six statements were included to address the attitudes towards guidelines in general. In addition, GPs were asked to rate their perceived adherence (one statement and the perceived barriers (fourteen statements for each of the key recommendations, based on an existing framework. Results 264 GPs (38% completed the questionnaire. Although 35% of the GPs reported difficulties in changing routines and habits to follow guidelines, 89% believed that following guidelines leads to improved patient care. Perceived adherence varied between 52 and 95% across recommendations (mean: 77%. The most perceived barriers were related to external factors, in particular patient ability and behaviour (mean: 30% and patient preferences (mean: 23%. Lack of applicability of recommendations in general (mean: 22% and more specifically to individual patients (mean: 25% were also frequently perceived as barriers. The scores on perceived barriers differed largely between recommendations [minimum range 14%; maximum range 67%]. Conclusions Dutch GPs have a positive attitude towards the NHG guidelines, report high adherence rates and low levels of perceived barriers. However, the perceived adherence and perceived barriers varied largely across recommendations. The most perceived barriers across recommendations are patient related, suggesting that current guidelines do not always adequately incorporate patient preferences, needs and abilities. It may be

  16. Deduction of bond length changes of symmetric molecules from experimental vibrational progressions, including a topological mass factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wei, Fan; Schwarz, W H E; Li, Jun

    2012-12-20

    The change ΔR(x) of bond length R(x) for atom X in a molecule upon electronic transition can be derived from the intensities I(i) of the vibrational stretching progression v = 0 → i of the electronic absorption or emission spectrum. In many cases, a simple model is sufficient for a reasonable estimate of ΔR(x). For symmetric molecules, however, conceptual problems in the literature of many decades are evident. The breathing modes of various types of symmetric molecules X(n) and AX(n) (A at the center) are here discussed. In the simplest case of a harmonic vibration of the same mode in the initial and final electronic states, we obtain ΔR(x) ≈ [2S/(ωm(x))](1/2)/w(1/2) (all quantities in atomic units). ω and S are respectively the observed vibrational quanta and the Huang-Rhys factor (corresponding, e.g., to the vibrational intensity ratio I(1)/I(0) ≈ S), m(x) is the mass of vibrating atom X, and w is a topological factor for molecule X(n) or AX(n). The factor 1/w(1/2) in the expression for ΔR(x) must not be neglected. The spectra and bond length changes of several symmetric molecules AX(n) and X(n) are discussed. The experimental bond length changes correctly derived with factor 1/w(1/2) are verified by reliable quantum chemical calculations.

  17. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  18. Relationships of self-reported dietary factors and perceived acne severity in a cohort of New York young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Jennifer; Rietkerk, William; Woolf, Kathleen

    2014-03-01

    Recent observational and experimental evidence suggests that diet may contribute to acne prevalence. To examine the differences in select dietary factors (glycemic index [GI], total sugar, added sugar, fruit/fruit juice, fruit/vegetables, vegetables, saturated fat, trans fat, and number of milk and fish servings per day) between groups of self-reported acne severity. Secondary objectives were to investigate the differences in food-aggravated acne beliefs and acne-specific quality-of-life between groups of self-reported acne severity. This study utilized a cross-sectional design. A total of 248 (115 male, 133 female) participants, age 18 to 25 years, completed questionnaires designed to measure self-reported acne severity, select dietary factors, food-aggravated acne beliefs, acne-specific quality-of-life, and anthropometric and demographic characteristics. The Block fat/sugar/fruit/vegetable food frequency questionnaire assessed usual dietary intake. Data were collected in New York City between January and May 2012. One-way between groups analysis of variance examined differences in dietary factors, anthropometric characteristics, and acne-specific quality-of-life between groups of self-reported acne. χ² tests compared food-aggravated acne beliefs and demographic characteristics between groups of self-reported acne. Compared with participants with no or mild acne, participants with moderate to severe acne reported greater dietary GI (Pdiet to aggravate or influence acne. This study suggests that diet, particularly dietary GI, saturated fat, trans fat, milk, and fish may influence or aggravate acne development. Future research is necessary to elucidate the proposed mechanisms linking diet and acne and determine the impact of medical nutrition therapy on acne development. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Postnatal visual deprivation in rats regulates several retinal genes and proteins, including differentiation-associated fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Meyer zu Hoerste, Melissa; Mertsch, Sonja; Stupp, Tobias; Thanos, Solon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the retinal cellular basis of amblyopia, which is a developmental disease characterized by impaired visual acuity. This study examined the retinal transcripts associated with experimentally induced unilateral amblyopia in rats. Surgical tarsorrhaphy of the eyelids on one side was performed in pups prior to eye opening at postnatal day 14, thereby preventing any visual experience. This condition was maintained for over 2 months, after which electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded, the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) arrangement and number were determined using neuroanatomical tracing, the retinal transcripts were studied using microarray analysis, regulated mRNAs were confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, and proteins were stained using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. An attenuated ERG was found in eyes that were deprived of visual experience. Retrograde neuroanatomical staining disclosed a larger number of RGCs within the retina on the visually deprived side compared to the non-deprived, control side, and a multilayered distribution of RGCs. At the retinomic level, several transcripts associated with retinal differentiation, such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), were either up- or downregulated. Most of the transcripts could be verified at the mRNA level. To unravel the role of a differentiation-associated protein, we tested FGF-2 in dissociated postnatal retinal cell cultures and found that FGF-2 is a potent factor triggering ganglion cell differentiation. The data suggest that visual experience shapes the postnatal retinal differentiation, whereas visual deprivation induces changes at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within the retina.

  20. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  1. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  2. Perceived incivility during emergency department phone consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Amith L; Vaghasiya, Milan; Boddy, Rachel; Byth, Karen; Unwin, Danielle

    2016-06-01

    Perceived incivility during ED medical phone consultations is poorly researched. We aimed to determine frequency and factors influencing perceived incivility during ED phone consultations. We conducted a prospective self-reported survey of 40 consecutive phone consultations for 21 ED volunteer doctors. Consultations were classified based on the aim of consultation and deemed as 'positive', 'neutral' or 'negative' based on the perceptions of the consulting doctor. Training levels, time bands and specialty data were collected for both consulting and consulted parties. Fifty-seven of 714 included consultations (7.98%, 95% CI 6.2-10.2%) were reported as negative by ED medical staff. Factors associated with significant incidence of negative grading of consultation involved requests for investigations (19.3% vs 5.3%, P  4 (9.1% vs 3.8%, P incivility during ED phone consultations. Perceived incivility occurs infrequently during ED phone consultations. ED female medical staff are at an increased risk of perceived incivility during phone consultations with non-ED medical professionals. Health organisations should actively pursue programmes to investigate the occurrence of incivility during healthcare consultations and implement programmes to mitigate the risk of developing a negative workplace culture. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  3. Complex analysis of Askaryan radiation: A fully analytic treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jordan C.; Connolly, Amy L.

    2017-05-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from high-energy cascades in dense media with a collective charge. We present an analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the cascade, and quantum mechanical cascade elongation via the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect. These calculations, and the associated open-source code, allow the user to avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo cascade simulations. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan-based detectors benefit from computational speed, because scans of Askaryan parameter-space are required to match neutrino signals. The Askaryan field is derived from cascade equations verified with Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, instructive cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for correlations with event candidates.

  4. Complex Analysis of Askaryan Radiation: A Fully Analytic Treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Jordan C

    2016-01-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from the collective charge within high-energy cascades in dense media. We present the first fully analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the electromagnetic cascade and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect. Analytic calculations avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulations of the cascades. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan- based detectors benefit from computational speed, because neutrino event parameters affect the shape of the electromagnetic field, requiring scans of parameter space. The Askaryan field is derived and verified against Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, two special cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain, analytically. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for phase ...

  5. Perceived influence, decision-making and access to information in family services as factors of parental empowerment: a cross-sectional study of parents with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorenmaa, Maaret; Halme, Nina; Perälä, Marja-Leena; Kaunonen, Marja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2016-06-01

    Parental empowerment is known to increase parents' resources and to reduce stress, and therefore to improve family well-being. Professionals working in family services (child health clinics, school health care, day care, preschool and primary school) encounter families in various everyday settings and can significantly support parental empowerment. This study aimed (i) to identify associations between parental empowerment and demographic and family service characteristics (i.e. parents' participation and perceived influence, decision-making and access to information) and (ii) to identify predictors of maternal and paternal empowerment. Study design was cross-sectional. Participants were mothers (n = 571) and fathers (n = 384) of children aged 0-9 who were selected by stratified random sampling in 2009. Associations were analysed by t-test, one-way analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analysis. Sufficient perceived influence and joint decision-making by family and professionals on family service appointments emerged as significant variables of increased parental empowerment. Access to adequate information about municipal services was also associated with high empowerment. These family service characteristics were associated with parents' sense that they were able to manage in everyday life and had influence on specific service situations and family services in general. Mothers with a child aged under 3 or a child in home care or primary school, and fathers with a lower education feel less empowered in family services than other parents. Knowledge about the factors associated with parental empowerment can contribute to further reinforce parental empowerment, help identify parents who need special attention and contribute to the development of family services. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. Retention preferences and the relationship between total rewards, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilmien Smit; Karel Stanz; Mark Bussin

    2015-01-01

    .... Total reward factors, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support are distinct but related concepts, all of which appear to influence an employee's decision to stay at an organisation...

  7. Perceived Changes in Social Relations after Earthquake Trauma among Eastern Anatolian Women: Associated Factors and Mental Health Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, A Ufuk; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we examined social relations in women exposed to earthquake trauma in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. We examined women's perceptions regarding the changes in their social relations within their neighbourhood, within their marriage and with their children; analysed the factors that were associated with these relations; and tested the hypothesis that an improvement in social relations will protect women's mental health from the negative impact of earthquake trauma. Participants consisted of a random selection of 1253 women, who were interviewed regarding their psychosocial needs and mental health status 1 year after earthquake. They reported trauma-related changes in their social relations; their mental health was evaluated using the Post Traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory. Our study demonstrated severe earthquake trauma was associated with deteriorated social relations, especially neighbourhood and marital relations. Deteriorated marital and child relations were associated with increased levels of psychiatric distress; deteriorated neighbourhood relations were associated with intrusive posttraumatic stress symptoms. Improved neighbourhood relations, but not family relations, were able to protect women's mental health from the negative impact of trauma. The results are discussed regarding their relevance to gender effects and the provision of relation-specific and symptom-specific disaster relief. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabe de Vries

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors. RESULTS: Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality / coping problems, symptoms of depression and comorbid (health problems, employee feels misunderstood, and resuming work too soon, Work (troublesome work situation, too little support at work, and too little guidance at work and Healthcare (insufficient mental healthcare and insufficient care from occupational physician. All stakeholders regarded personality/coping problems and symptoms of depression as the most important impeding theme. In addition, supervisors emphasized the importance of mental healthcare underestimating the importance of the work environment, while occupational physicians stressed the importance of the lack of safety and support in the work environment. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the reduction of symptoms, more attention is needed on coping with depressive symptoms and personality problems in the work environment support in the work environment and for RTW in mental healthcare, to prevent long term sickness absence.

  9. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pyoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  10. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motykova, Eva; Zlatohlavek, Lukáš; Prusikova, Martina; Lanska, Vera; Ceska, Richard; Vasickova, Ludmila; Vrablik, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased inflammation which represents a link to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent marker of inflammation and atherosclerosis risk. To assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic markers of atherosclerosis including Lp-PLA2 we examined a group of Czech non-diabetic obese/overweight children exposed to a lifestyle intervention. Fourty unrelated overweight/obese non-diabetic Czech children (13.7 ± 2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 29.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2) underwent 4 weeks of lifestyle modification (reduction of energy intake to age matched optimum and supervised physical activity). Anthropometrical and biochemical variables were determined at baseline and after the intervention. Lp-PLA2 mass concentration was assessed using the ELISA kit. Wilcocson's rank test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A significant decrease of BMI and waist circumference was associated with significant changes of plasma lipoprotein and glycaemia levels. Mass concentration of Lp-PLA2 at the baseline was 402 ± 94 μg/ml, after the intervention 368 ± 105 μg/ml (p=0.008). Change in Lp-PLA2 was associated with triglyceride level decrease (p=0.009). Intensive lifestyle modification leading to body weight decrease results in significant changes of plasma lipoprotein levels and, also, a drop of Lp-PLA2 levels in paediatric obese patients. However, even after the intervention Lp-PLA2 concentrations in this patient group remain elevated suggesting possible increased atherosclerosis risk in later life. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  11. Factors perceived to influence exercise adherence in women with breast cancer participating in an exercise programme during adjuvant chemotherapy: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde; Karlsen, Bjørg; Allan, Helen; Søreide, Jon Arne; Bru, Edvin

    2015-02-01

    To explore factors influencing exercise adherence among women with breast cancer while following an exercise programme. Earlier research shows that women with breast cancer decrease physical activity following the cancer diagnosis and that adhering to exercise interventions can be a challenge. Research is needed to identify motivational factors and barriers for exercise adherence among women during treatment for breast cancer. This was a qualitative study to explore patient's perceptions of the challenges to exercise adherence during a randomised, controlled trial. Twenty-seven women with early-stage breast cancer were purposively sampled for focus group interviews during 2011-2012 from their participation in the exercise intervention group during 2010-2012. Five focus groups were performed, and data analysis was completed using the systematic text condensation method. During the focus group study, five main themes were identified, which described factors participants perceived to influence their adherence to exercise during chemotherapy: 'side effects of breast cancer treatment as a barrier to exercise', 'restoring and maintaining normality in daily life motivates exercise', 'other valued activities compete with exercise', 'constructive support enhances exercise' and 'positive beliefs about efficacy and outcomes motivate exercise'. Adherence to exercise in women with breast cancer is challenged by internal and external conditions and may be improved by attention to the impact of treatment side effects and by supporting patient self-efficacy towards changing health behaviour. Nurses should be aware that exercise adherence could be a challenge among women with breast cancer. They should help identify obstacles to exercise for women and ways to overcome them, as well as support them in their beliefs that they are capable of changing their health behaviour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nana; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shirata, Toshinori; Otani, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Depressed patients are prone to perceive that they were exposed to affectionless control by parents. Meanwhile, high neuroticism is a well-established risk factor for developing depression. Therefore, this study examined whether perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism. The subjects were 664 healthy Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental care and protection were assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Parental rearing was categorized into either optimal parenting (high care/low protection) or three dysfunctional parenting styles including affectionless control (low care/high protection). Neuroticism was evaluated by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. The subjects with paternal affectionless control had higher neuroticism scores than those with paternal optimal parenting. Similar tendency was observed in maternal rearing. Neuroticism scores increased in a stepwise manner with respect to the increase in the number of parents with affectionless control. The present study shows that perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism, suggesting that this parental style increases neuroticism in recipients.

  13. Prognostic factors and course for successful clinical outcome quality of life and patients' perceived effect after a cognitive behavior therapy for chronic non-specific low back pain: A 12-months prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, K.; Luijsterburg, P.A.J.; Heymans, M.W.; Ronchetti, I.; Miedema, H.S.; Koes, B.W.; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the clinical course of and prognostic factors for quality of life (Short Form 36 items Health survey (SF-36)) and global perceived effect (GPE) in patients treated for chronic nonspecific low back pain at 5 and 12-months follow-up. Data from a prospective cohort (n ¼ 1760) of

  14. The Development of Perceived Scholastic Competence and Global Self-Worth in African American Adolescents from Low-Income Families: The Roles of Family Factors, Early Educational Intervention, and Academic Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Frances A.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Miller-Johnson, Shari

    2002-01-01

    Examined early childhood and concurrent factors associated with adolescents' self-perceptions of scholastic competence and global self-worth. Found that family conflict in adolescence, early childhood educational intervention (Abecedarian Project), and academic achievement predicted perceived scholastic competence. Perceptions of scholastic,…

  15. Prognostic factors and course for successful clinical outcome quality of life and patients' perceived effect after a cognitive behavior therapy for chronic non-specific low back pain: A 12-months prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Karin; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Heymans, Martijn W; Ronchetti, Inge; Miedema, Harald S; Koes, Bart W; Pool-Goudzwaard, Annelies

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the clinical course of and prognostic factors for quality of life (Short Form 36 items Health survey (SF-36)) and global perceived effect (GPE) in patients treated for chronic non-specific low back pain at 5 and 12-months follow-up. Data from a prospective cohort (n = 1760) of a rehabilitation center were used, where patients followed a 2-months cognitive behavior treatment. The outcome 'improvement in quality of life (SF-36)' was defined as a 10% increase in score on the SF-36 at follow-up compared with baseline. On the GPE scale, patients who indicated to be 'much improved' were coded as 'clinically improved'. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 23 baseline characteristics. At 5-months follow-up, scores on the SF-36 Mental Component Scale (SF-36; MCS) and the Physical Component Scale (SF-36; PCS) had increased from 46.6 (SD 10.3) to 50.4 (SD 9.8) and from 31.9 (SD 7.1) to 46.6 (SD 10.3), respectively. At 5-months follow-up, 53.0% of the patients reported clinical improvement (GPE) which increased to 60.3% at 12-months follow-up. The 10% improvement in quality of life (SF-36 MCS) at 5-months follow-up was associated with patient characteristics and psychological factors. At 5-months follow-up, the 10% improvement in quality of life (SF-36 PCS) and GPE was associated with patient characteristics, physical examination, work-related factors and psychological factors; for GPE, an association was also found with clinical status. At 12-months follow-up GPE was associated with patient characteristics, clinical status, physical examination and work-related factors. The next phase in this prognostic research is external validation of these results.

  16. Drinking water from alternative water sources: differences in beliefs, social norms and factors of perceived behavioural control across eight Australian locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, S; Hurlimann, A

    2009-01-01

    Australia is facing serious challenges in the management of water in various urban and regional locations. Two popular responses to these challenges are increasing supply through alternative water sources such as recycled and desalinated water. However, significant gaps exist in our knowledge of community attitudes to these alternative sources of water, particularly for potable use. This paper reports results from an Australian study of community attitudes to alternative water sources. Sixty six qualitative interviews were held at eight locations with distinctly different water situations. This paper explores all three antecedents to the behaviour of drinking recycled water and desalinated water as postulated by the Theory of Planned Behaviour: attitudes, social norms and factors of perceived behavioural control. Key results indicate that while people hold both positive and negative beliefs (mostly cost, health and environmental concerns) about water from alternative sources, nearly all of them are willing to drink it if the water crisis were to deteriorate further. People also feel they lack knowledge and state that information from scientists would influence their decision to drink recycled and desalinated water most. Friends and relatives are most influential in preventing people from drinking recycled water. The findings reported in this paper have major implications for water policy, and will be of particular interest to water engineers. The paper raises a provocative question: Is it better to avoid public consultation in introducing water from alternative sources?

  17. Empirical Research on Methods of Identification for the Driving Factors of Customer Perceived Value of Higher Vocational Education%高职教育顾客感知价值驱动因素识别实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈民利

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates a model of perceived customer value in polytechnic education.An exploratory study is conducted through the questionnaire survey and the in-depth interview.Based on the exploratory factor analysis,four factors,including the emotional value,the services value,the environmental value and the development value are discovered,and some conclusions and suggestions are put forward.%基于顾客感知价值驱动因素的实证研究方法,通过深度访谈和问卷调查,进行探索性因子分析,获得高职教育感知价值驱动因素的四个因子:情感价值、服务价值、环境价值及发展价值;在对四个因子进行分析的基础上提出了相关的结论和建议。

  18. Impact on total population health and societal cost-effectiveness of including tumour necrosis factor- antagonists in management of ankylosing spondylitis: a dynamic population modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tran-Duy (An); A. Boonen (Annelies); M.A.F.J. van de Laar (Martin); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background: Sequential treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that includes tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF agents) has been applied in most of the Western countries. Existing cost-effectiveness (CE) models almost exclusively presented the incremental

  19. Clinic Attendance for Antiretroviral Pills Pick-Up among HIV-Positive People in Nepal: Roles of Perceived Family Support and Associated Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Ayer

    Full Text Available HIV-positive people's clinic attendance for medication pick-up is critical for successful HIV treatment. However, limited evidence exists on it especially in low-income settings such as Nepal. Moreover, the role of family support in clinic attendance remains under-explored. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the association between perceived family support and regular clinic attendance and to assess factors associated with regular clinic attendance for antiretroviral pills pick-up among HIV-positive individuals in Nepal.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 HIV-positive people in three districts of Nepal. Clinic attendance was assessed retrospectively for the period of 12 months. To assess the factors associated, an interview survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire from July to August, 2015. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the factors associated with regular clinic attendance.Of 423 HIV-positive people, only 32.6% attended the clinics regularly. They were more likely to attend them regularly when they received high family support (AOR = 3.98, 95% CI = 2.29, 6.92, participated in support programs (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.00, 2.82, and had knowledge on the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.15, 5.99. In contrast, they were less likely to attend them regularly when they commuted more than 60 minutes to the clinics (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.30, 0.93, when they self-rated their health status as being very good (AOR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.44, good (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.46, and fair (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.70.HIV-positive individuals are more likely to attend the clinics regularly when they receive high family support, know the benefits of antiretroviral therapy, and participate in support programs. To improve clinic attendance, family support should be incorporated with HIV care programs in resource limited settings. Service providers should also

  20. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena P. Ilieva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially energy and motivation, and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including effects on "attention."

  1. Study on status quo and influencing factors of self perceived burden (SPB)in patients with middle and high risk of diabetic foot%糖尿病中高危足病人自我感受负担的现状及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云云; 何红; 张晓义

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the status quo of self perceived burden in patients with middle and high risk of diabetic foot and its influencing factors.Methods:A total of 100 inpatients with middle and high risk of diabetic foot were investigated by using general information questionnaire and self perceived burden scale, and to analyze the influencing factors.Results:The total average score of SPB in all patients was(29.30±7.76), 88% of patients had different degrees of self perceived burden;the multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that the important influencing factors included the income,caregiver’s health status,perceived disease severity,fasting plasma glucose,job and the ability to pay.Conclusion:The self perceived burden of patients with middle and high risk of diabetic foot is significant,and it is influenced by many factors.So clinical nursing workers should take effective inventions,reduce their self perceived burden and improve their quality of life.%[目的]调查糖尿病中、高危足病人自我感受负担的现状,分析其影响因素。[方法]采用一般资料调查表和自我感受负担量表对100例糖尿病中、高危足住院病人进行调查,并分析其影响因素。[结果]100例糖尿病中、高危足病人自我感受负担总分为(29.30±7.76)分,88%的病人存在不同程度的自我感受负担;多元逐步回归分析显示其主要影响因素包括收入水平、照顾者健康状况、自觉病情严重度、空腹血糖、职业、支付能力。[结论]糖尿病中、高危足病人自我感受负担明显,且受多种因素影响,临床护理工作者应采取有效干预措施,减轻其自我感受负担,提高其生活质量。

  2. Biographic Characteristics and Factors Perceived as Affecting Female and Male Careers in Academic Surgery: The Tenured Gender Battle to Make It to the Top.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Laura; Sippel, Sonia; Entwistle, Andrew; Hell, Anna Kathrin; Koenig, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Given the high attrition rate in the field of academic surgery, we aimed to characterise the professional and personal situations of female and male academic surgeons as well as to gather data on their respective perceptions of career advancement and work satisfaction. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Germany, inviting all identifiable academically highly qualified female surgeons and their male counterparts in a 1:2 ratio to participate. An anonymous 103-item online questionnaire was designed and the data collected between July and September 2014. The questionnaire was sent to 93 female and 200 male surgeons, of whom 63 women (67.7%) and 70 men (35.0%) replied. The average age was 47.5 and 47.1 years, respectively. Respondents identified 'high degree of expertise', 'ambition', and 'clarity of one's professional aims' as important factors affecting professional career development. Both groups felt 'workload', 'working hours/shifts', and 'gender' to be a hindrance, the latter of significantly greater importance to female surgeons. The mean work satisfaction scores were high in both female (69.5%) and male (75.7%) surgeons. The predictors 'support from superiors' (standardised β coefficient = 0.41) and 'manual aptitude' (β = 0.41) contributed incrementally to the variance in 'high degree of work satisfaction' (90-100%) observed for female surgeons. However, childcare provided by 'kindergarten/crèche/after-school care' had the greatest negative predictive value (β = -1.33). Although there are many parallels, female faculty members experience the culture of academic surgery to some extent differently from their male counterparts, especially when impacted by parenthood and childcare. Faculty development programmes need to develop strategies to improve perceived equality in career opportunities by respecting individuals' requirements as well as offering gender-appropriate career guidance. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province as perceived by professional midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thivhulawi Malwela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional midwives have an important role to play in midwifery training to produce a competent midwife. According to the social learning theory, professional midwives act as role models for students. When allocated for clinical learning experiences in the training hospitals, students will have the opportunity to observe the well-trained, skilled, and experienced professional midwives. The whole process will enable students to integrate theory with practice and they will become competent.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice as perceived by midwives.Setting: The study was conducted at the training hospitals in Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. These hospitals were: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini.Methods: A qualitative explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. A Nonprobability, convenient sampling method was used to select 11 midwives from the following hospitals: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini, in Vhembe district. In-depth individual interviews were conducted. Data were analysed through open coding method.Result: One theme and five sub-themes emerged from the analysed data, namely: shortage of midwives, attitudes towards student midwives, reluctance to perform teaching functions, language barriers, and declining midwifery practice standards.Conclusion: Shortage of midwives in the clinical areas led to fewer numbers of mentors whom the students could observe and imitate to acquire clinical skills. Some of the midwives were reluctant to teach students. Recommendations were made for both training institutions and hospitals to employ preceptors for students in the clinical practical.

  4. The Empirical Study of Public Transport Passengers’ Behavioral Intentions: The Roles of Service Quality, Perceived Sacrifice, Perceived Value, and Satisfaction (Case Study: Paratransit Passengers in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sik Sumaedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral intentions have been much discussed in marketing literature. Surprisingly, except for airline industry, few studies have been found in transportation industries. This paper studies the public transport passengers’ behavioral intentions in Jakarta city, especially paratransit’s passengers. This paper explores the relationship between passengers’ behavioral intentions and other latent factors, including satisfaction, perceived value, perceived sacrifice, and service quality. The empirical data were drawn from 339 paratransit’s passengers using questionnaire method. Structural Equation Modeling technique is used to analyze the conceptualized relationship model. The empirical results reveal that perceived value and service quality significantly affect passengers’ behavioral intention. The results also show that perceived value is significantly affected by service quality and perceived sacrifice. From the empirical results, managerial implications are discussed.

  5. The Impact of Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Subjective Norm, and Experience Toward Student’s Intention to Use Internet Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Danurdoro; Dwi Wulandari

    2016-01-01

    The development of internet in Indonesia is quite fast and the majority of users are students. Internet growth made every fields include banking provided internet based service that called internet banking. The purpose of this research is to explore the factors that affect student’s intention to use internet banking by used the combination model of TAM (Technology Acceptance Model). Independent variables used in this research are Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Subjective Norm, a...

  6. Gas-phase and Ar-matrix SQM scaling factors for various DFT functionals with basis sets including polarization and diffuse functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábri, Csaba; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2011-05-12

    Scaling factors for Pulay's scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) scheme have been determined for four different widely used DFT functionals (PBE, B3LYP, B3PW91, and M06-2X) and for two basis sets (6-31++G** and aug-cc-pVTZ) by fitting computed results to 347 fundamental experimental vibrational frequencies of 33 molecules. Measurements in the gas phase and in solid argon matrices were used independently in the fitting procedure in order to provide a simple method of estimating matrix shifts. The accuracy of the new scaling factors is demonstrated on test molecules including hydrogen-bonded systems and molecules containing chlorine and sulfur atoms.

  7. Perceived Discrimination and Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping Among Hispanics: The Influence of Social Support and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos Jose; Gwathmey, TanYa M; Jin, Zhezhen; Schwartz, Joseph; Beech, Bettina M; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the relationship of perceived racism to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in Hispanics. We explored possible associations between ABP nocturnal dipping and perceived racism in a Hispanic cohort. Participants included 180 community-dwelling Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study. Measures included perceived racism, socioeconomic status, social support, and ABP monitoring. Nocturnal ABP nondipping was defined as a less than 10% decline in the average asleep systolic blood pressure relative to the awake systolic blood pressure. Overall, 77.8% of participants reported some form of perceived racism (Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire scores >1.0). Greater social support was associated with less perceived discrimination (Spearman r = -0.54, p < .001). Those with higher perceived discrimination scores reported more depressive symptoms (r = 0.25, p < .001). Those with higher Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire scores were less likely to show nocturnal ABP nondipping in multivariate models (odds ratio = 0.40, confidence interval = 0.17-0.98, p = .045). Among those with low perceived racism, black Hispanic participants were more likely to have nocturnal ABP nondipping (82.6%) compared with white Hispanics (53.9%; p = .02). Among those with high perceived racism, no associations between race and the prevalence of ABP nondipping was found (black Hispanic = 61.5% versus white Hispanic = 51.4%, p = .39; p interaction = .89). Perceived racism is relatively common among US Hispanics and is associated with ABP. Nondipping of ABP, a potential cardiovascular risk factor, was more common in black Hispanic participants with low perceived racism. This finding may reflect different coping mechanisms between black versus white Hispanics and related blood pressure levels during daytime exposures to discrimination.

  8. Scales Designing of the Balance Factors of Perceived Value of Bank Financial Customers%银行理财顾客感知价值权衡因素的测评体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张童

    2012-01-01

    针对银行理财产品营销实践中仅仅关注顾客感知风险的片面做法,从感知利益与感知风险的双重视角对影响理财顾客感知价值的核心权衡因素进行了测评。结合文献回顾与内容分析的结果,构建了银行理财顾客感知价值权衡因素测评指标体系,从感知利益与感知风险的构成维度开发出一套测度量表,并通过对1010位银行个人理财顾客的调研验证了量表的信度与效度。%Based on the problem of financial products marketing practice which only focus on customer perceived risk, this arti- cle develops indicators and scales of the balance factors of perceived value from dual perspective of perceived benefit and perceived risk. Based on literature review and the result of depth interviews and content analysis, this research constructs the dimensions of the balance factors of perceived value and designs a set of measurement scales, and then tests the reliability and validity of the scales by data collected from research of 1010 bank personal financial customers. The results of this research provide a good reference for future studies and gives management advices for the practice of bank financial product marketing.

  9. The influence of diet and other factors on owner-perceived obesity in privately owned cats from metropolitan Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, I D

    1999-05-31

    A randomly selected group of cat-owning households (n = 458) were interviewed to determine the diet of their cats (n = 644) in the week prior to the survey and to identify dietary and other factors which were associated with obesity. All cats were categorised by their owners as underweight, correct-weight or overweight and the weight of 127 cats was also recorded. Nearly all cats were fed commercially prepared dry pet food (90.5%) or canned pet food (84.6%) in the week prior to the survey. Nineteen percent of cats were classified as overweight. Although the make-up of a cat's diet was found not to be associated with its weight or weight category, cats fed dietary supplements or those which had not received a specific kitten diet when effect of putative risk factors on obesity while controlling for other factors. Overweight cats were more likely to be cross-bred (OR = 2.1), neutered (OR = 2.8), living in houses with only one or two cats (OR = 1.8), male (OR = 1.4) and predominantly confined inside a house (OR = 1.4). Obesity is influenced by a variety of factors including host, dietary and management factors and these must be considered when developing weight control programmes for cats.

  10. Can the Factor Structure of Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) Contribute to Our Understanding of Parental Acceptance/Rejection, Bullying, Victimization and Perceived Well-Being in Greek Early Adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Theodoros Giovazolias; Evangelia Karagiannopoulou; Effrosyni Mitsopoulou

    2017-01-01

    Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) is a self-report instrument designed to measure defense mechanisms. Although commonly used, the DSQ-40 has not been validated in early adolescent populations. The present study sought to determine the factor validity of the DSQ-40 in a sample of Greek primary school students (N = 265). Further, it aimed to investigate the relationship between defense mechanisms and perceived parental acceptance/rejection, the participation in bullying (either as bully or vict...

  11. Correlates of Couples’ Perceived Similarity at the Initiation Stage and Currently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sprecher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research (Montoya, Horton, & Kirchner, 2008 has indicated that perceived similarity is more important than actual similarity as a predictor of satisfaction and attraction, there is a lack of research on factors associated with couples’ perceptions of similarity in their relationship. In the present study, a sample of couples (both partners provided ratings of the degree to which they perceived similarity in six areas (background characteristics, attitudes and beliefs, leisure pursuits and interests, communication style, personality, and physical attributes for two stages in their relationship: currently and at the initiation stage (viewed retrospectively. The couples perceived greater similarity for the current stage of their relationship than for the beginning stage of their relationship. Factors found to be associated with perceived similarity included positive social network reactions, overlap in social networks (predictor of current perceived similarity only, perceived compatibility, and satisfaction and commitment (examined only for current perceived similarity. Of the various types of perceived similarity considered in this study, similarity in attitudes and beliefs was most consistently associated with the various predictor variables. Implications of these results for enhancing couple relationships are discussed.

  12. The contribution of work engagement to self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan J W; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether work engagement influences self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related characteristics. Methods: Employees of two organizations participated in a 6-month longitudinal study (n = 733). Using questionnaires, infor

  13. Investigating the Impact of Personality Factors on Perceived Communication Mobility of Non-Native English Speaking Thai Professionals in International Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Olga A.; Rajprasit, Krich

    2014-01-01

    Communication mobility has been suggested as an element of the complex construct of professional communicative competence, with a shared core of English in the oral mode, for professional international communication. This study aims (1) to investigate the possible correlation between the perceived level of communication mobility, and the influence…

  14. Factors Related to In-Class Spiritual Experience: Relationship between Pre-Class Scripture Reading, In-Class Note-Taking, and Perceived In-Class Spiritual Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John, III; Sweat, Anthony R.; Plummer, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student in-class note-taking and pre-class reading with perceived in-class spiritual and religious outcomes. This study surveyed 620 students enrolled in six different sections of an introductory religion course at a private religious university. Full-time religious faculty members…

  15. The Ugandan Youth Quality of Life index: assessing the relevance of incorporating perceived importance into the quality of life measure and factors associated with the quality of life among youth in slum areas of Kampala, Uganda

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    Andre M. N. Renzaho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: While quality of life (QoL has long been an explicit policy goal for international development programmes, no instruments have specifically been developed for measuring health-related QoL in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a QoL instrument for use in international aid and development programmes and to assess factors associated with QoL among youth participating in a civic engagement project in Kampala. Design: Using systematic random sampling, data were collected on 663 participants aged between 13 and 24 years in Kampala. The QoL questionnaire included 36 questions divided into a two-part scale: 18 questions rated for satisfaction (Part 1 and 18 other questions rated on importance (Part 2. The total sample was randomly divided into two split-half samples: one for the exploratory factor analysis (EFA; N=310 and the other for the confirmatorty factor analysis (CFA; N=353. The effect of demographic, socio-economic, and lifestyle factors on QoL was assessed using linear regressions. Results: The EFA yielded three factors: living conditions and lifestyle (seven items, α=0.84, social relationships (five items, α=0.86, and personal independence (five items, α=0.76. In the CFA, the initial model demonstrated a poor to marginal fit model. Its re-specification by examining modification indices resulted in a good model fit: Comparative Fit Index=0.95, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.06, and p of Close Fit >0.05. The model incorporating perceived importance had lower Akaike Information Criteria and Bayesian Information Criteria values than the unweighted model, thereby providing very strong support to weight satisfaction scores with importance ratings when measuring QoL in Uganda. Poor QoL was associated with poor educational attainment, drug and substance misuse, and family disruption. Conclusions: The findings suggest that there is a relationship between QoL and lifestyle and

  16. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  17. Perceived sleep quality of psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, G. J. (Gerrit); Tiemens, B. G. (Bea); Lendemeijer, H. H. G. M. (Bert); Hutschemaekers, G. J. M. (Giel)

    This paper aims at acquiring knowledge about the quality of sleep of adult and elderly psychiatric patients who receive clinical or outpatient nursing care, and identifying key factors in perceiving a sleep problem. To do so, a sample of 1699 psychiatric patients were asked whether they perceived a

  18. Can the Factor Structure of Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) Contribute to Our Understanding of Parental Acceptance/Rejection, Bullying, Victimization and Perceived Well-Being in Greek Early Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovazolias, Theodoros; Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Mitsopoulou, Effrosyni

    2017-05-01

    Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) is a self-report instrument designed to measure defense mechanisms. Although commonly used, the DSQ-40 has not been validated in early adolescent populations. The present study sought to determine the factor validity of the DSQ-40 in a sample of Greek primary school students (N = 265). Further, it aimed to investigate the relationship between defense mechanisms and perceived parental acceptance/rejection, the participation in bullying (either as bully or victim) as well as self-reported well being. Participants completed the Greek version of DSQ-40, adapted for use by this particular age group as well as measures in order to examine its convergent and discriminant validity. The findings support a four-factor solution as the most adequate for our data. Further, it was found that defense mechanisms are related to perceived parental acceptance and rejection. Finally, the results showed that the DSQ-40 can effectively discriminate participants with high/low bullying/victimization and perceived well-being. Our results indicate that the DSQ-40 is appropriate for use in late childhood. Implications for clinical practice and future studies that would confirm the appropriateness of the scale's use in younger populations are also discussed.

  19. Can the Factor Structure of Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 Contribute to Our Understanding of Parental Acceptance/Rejection, Bullying, Victimization and Perceived Well-Being in Greek Early Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Giovazolias

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ is a self-report instrument designed to measure defense mechanisms. Although commonly used, the DSQ-40 has not been validated in early adolescent populations. The present study sought to determine the factor validity of the DSQ-40 in a sample of Greek primary school students (N = 265. Further, it aimed to investigate the relationship between defense mechanisms and perceived parental acceptance/rejection, the participation in bullying (either as bully or victim as well as self-reported well being. Participants completed the Greek version of DSQ-40, adapted for use by this particular age group as well as measures in order to examine its convergent and discriminant validity. The findings support a four-factor solution as the most adequate for our data. Further, it was found that defense mechanisms are related to perceived parental acceptance and rejection. Finally, the results showed that the DSQ-40 can effectively discriminate participants with high/low bullying/victimization and perceived well-being. Our results indicate that the DSQ-40 is appropriate for use in late childhood. Implications for clinical practice and future studies that would confirm the appropriateness of the scale’s use in younger populations are also discussed.

  20. Concomitants of perceived trust in hospital and medical services following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Goodwin, Robin; Palgi, Yuval; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Crawford, Marsha Zibalese; Weinberger, Aviva; Hamama-Raz, Yaira

    2014-12-30

    The relationship between factors associated with perceived trust in hospital and medical services in the aftermath of a natural disaster is understudied. An online sample of 1000 people mainly from affected states was surveyed after Hurricane Sandy. Participants completed a survey which included disaster related questions and PTSD symptoms. Logistic regression revealed a significant association between perceived trust in hospital services to education, subjective well-being, being scared for the life of a loved one and perceived trust in emergency services. These findings may emphasis the positive association between maintaining active hospital services and mental health among the general population during crisis.

  1. Association between Cerebral Amyloid Deposition and Clinical Factors Including Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression: Pilot Study Using Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Geum; Kong, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Eun-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Koo, Bon-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebral amyloid deposition and overall clinical factors including cognitive functions in geriatric depression by using 18F-florbetaben positron emission tomography. Thirteen subjects aged over 60 years who had a history of major depressive disorder and also had subjective memory complaint were included. Of all subjects, 3 subjects judged as amyloid positive, and the others judged as amyloid negative. Their memory, visuospatial functions and attention abilities were negatively correlated with amyloid deposition in specific brain regions, but their language and recognition abilities were not correlated with any region. The amyloid deposition of the whole brain region was significantly negatively correlated with immediate memory. PMID:27776391

  2. Family affection as a protective factor against the negative effects of perceived Asian values gap on the parent-child relationship for Asian American male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong S; Vo, Leyna P; Tsong, Yuying

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether family affection (i.e., affective responsiveness, affectionate communication, and affective orientation) protected against the negative effects of perceived parent-child Asian values gap on the quality of their parent relationships for 259 female and 77 male Asian American college students. Asian values gap was higher for women than men, and inversely related to a perceived healthy parent-child relationship for both genders. Participants rated the relationship with their mothers as more positive and affectionate than with their fathers. Both parents were reported to communicate more supportive affection than verbal and nonverbal affection. Affective responsiveness was identified as a protective factor in the father-son relationship whereas verbal affection protected the mother-daughter relationship. The study also revealed that daughters' affective orientation had beneficial effects on the father-daughter relationship at lower levels of Asian values gap. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Determinants of perceived sexism and their role on the association of sexism with mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Gil-González, Diana; Pérez, Katherine; Pérez, Glòria; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Rohlfs, Izabella

    2011-08-31

    The authors of this study sought to compare the socioeconomic factors related to perceived sexism in employed and non-employed Spanish women and to examine whether the relationship of perceived sexism with mental health outcomes is reduced when such factors are taken into account. Data were taken from the 2006 Spanish Health Survey, including women aged 20-64 years (n=10,927). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the independent relationships between socioeconomic variables and perceived sexism and also between perceived sexism and poor mental health. In this latter case, socioeconomic variables were included by blocks in the logistic models. Perceived sexism was higher among employed women (3.9% vs. 2.8% among non-employed) and mainly among those in a managerial position (11.35%; adjusted OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.30-5.67) and having irregular working hours (5.5%; adjusted OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.10-2.34). Socioeconomic and family characteristics were associated with perceived sexism among women. Perceived sexism was associated with poor mental health, and this remained the case when different independent variables were taken into account. These results highlight the importance of taking into account gender discrimination in different aspects of our society, such as work and family organization, and in planning mental health interventions.

  4. Subjective Outcome Evaluation and Factors Related to Perceived Effectiveness of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a sample of 24,457 participated students, the present study investigated participants' subjective evaluation of the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in the 2009/2010 academic year. Participants generally held positive views toward the Tier 2 Program and program instructor and perceived the program to be beneficial to their development. Programs involving adolescents alone were evaluated more positively than programs involving parents and/or teachers. Students' grade and program type did not show significant impact on participants' subjective evaluation of the project. Consistent with previous reports, perceived effectiveness of the program was significantly predicted by students' perceptions about the program and program instructor. These findings provide further support that the Tier 2 Program is effective in promoting positive development among adolescents with greater psychosocial needs.

  5. Subjective outcome evaluation and factors related to perceived effectiveness of the project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu; Ho, Vicky Y T

    2012-01-01

    Based on a sample of 24,457 participated students, the present study investigated participants' subjective evaluation of the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in the 2009/2010 academic year. Participants generally held positive views toward the Tier 2 Program and program instructor and perceived the program to be beneficial to their development. Programs involving adolescents alone were evaluated more positively than programs involving parents and/or teachers. Students' grade and program type did not show significant impact on participants' subjective evaluation of the project. Consistent with previous reports, perceived effectiveness of the program was significantly predicted by students' perceptions about the program and program instructor. These findings provide further support that the Tier 2 Program is effective in promoting positive development among adolescents with greater psychosocial needs.

  6. Is there a need to include HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the Saudi premarital screening program on the basis of their prevalence and transmission risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, F M; O'Brien, S J

    2010-11-01

    In January 2008, the Saudi Arabian health authority included mandatory testing for HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the premarital screening program. Epidemiologically, there were few justifications for their inclusion as disease prevalences and distributions are poorly understood in the population. This study aims to provide information about HBV, HCV and HIV prevalences and risk factors for disease transmission and so produce evidence for informed decision-making on the inclusion of these infectious diseases in the screening program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74,662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540). The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses. The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.

  7. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

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    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  8. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

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    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  9. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

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    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  10. Relationship between perceived organizational politics, organizational trust, human resource management practices and turnover intention among Nigerian nurses

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    Ramatu Abdulkareem Abubakar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has indicated that employee turnover is detrimental to both individuals and organisations. Because a turnover intention in the workplace is detrimental, several factors have been suggested to better understand the reasons why employees may decide to leave their organisations. Some of the organizational-related factors that have been considered by previous research include perceived organizational justice, job satisfaction, perceived psychological contract breach, and perceived organizational support, among others. Despite these empirical studies, literatures indicate that less attention has been paid to the influence of perceived organisational politics, organizational trust, and perceived human resource practices management (HRM practices on employee turnover. Hence, the present study fills in the gap by examining the relationship between perceived organisational politics, organizational trust, perceived human resource management practices and employee turnover among Registered Nurses in Nigerian public hospitals using multiple regression analysis technique. One hundred and seventy five Registered Nurses participated in the study. Result indicated that perceived organisational politics was significantly and positively related to turnover intentions. The result also showed that both organizational trust and perceived human resource practices were significantly and negatively related to turnover intentions. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  11. Prevalence study and risk factor analysis of selected bacterial, protozoal and viral, including vector-borne, pathogens in cats from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Sarvani, Elpida; Knowles, Toby G; Mengi, Sena; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-03-13

    Feline infectious agent studies are lacking in Cyprus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for various feline infectious agents, including feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP), in cats from Cyprus. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was performed on 174 feline samples [138 owned and 36 shelter-feral, including both healthy (43) and non-healthy (131), cats] from private veterinary clinics from all six districts of Cyprus. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (CMt). The population was tested for four FVBP including Bartonella henselae and Leishmania spp. using qPCR, while conventional PCR assays were used to detect Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Hepatozoon spp. Serological assays were performed to detect Leishmania infantum antibodies, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed to test associations and possible risk factors between variables and infectious agents. Ninety-six (55.2%) of the 174 cats were PCR-positive for at least one infectious agent. Forty-six cats (26.4%) were haemoplasma positive, including 13 (7.5%) for Mhf, 36 (20.7%) for CMhm and 12 (6.9%) for CMt. Sixty-six cats (37.9%) were positive for Hepatozoon spp., while 19 (10.9%) were positive for B. henselae, four (2.3%) for Leishmania spp. and one (0.6%) for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. Sequencing revealed the presence of Hepatozoon felis, L. infantum and Anaplasma platys. Of the 164 cats that underwent retroviral serology, 10 (6.1%) were FeLV-positive and 31 (18.9%) were FIV-positive, while L. infantum serology was positive in 7 (4.4%) of the 160 cats tested. Multivariable logistic regression revealed significant associations for various infectious agents including L. infantum with each of Hepatozoon spp. and CMt

  12. Physicians' cultural competency as perceived by African American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Georgia; Falzarano, Pamela; Arfken, Cynthia; Rosenberg, David

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the association between African American patients' perceptions of physician cultural competency and patient satisfaction with the visit, independent of other factors, including physician and patient race concordance. African American participants were surveyed at urban clinics. Cultural competency (Perceived Cultural Competency scale) was based on the 3-factor model that includes patients' perception of (1) physicians' cultural knowledge, (2) physicians' cultural awareness, and (3) physicians' cultural skill. The results confirmed that patients' perceptions of physician cultural competency are independently associated with satisfaction with the visit. These results further validate use of the Perceived Cultural Competency scale as a tool to measure patients' perceptions of physicians' cultural competency.

  13. Mental well-being mediates the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Hui Chian; Archer, Josephine A; Chang, Weining; Chen, S H Annabel

    2015-02-01

    The association between stress and health has been well researched in the past; however, comparatively few mediators have been tested to understand the underlying mechanism. With increasing awareness on mental well-being, this study evaluated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health and examined mental well-being as a mediator. Two-hundred undergraduates aged 21 to 26 years completed the English Perceived Stress Scale, Health Status Questionnaire and Asian Mental Well-Being Scale that assess perceived stress, perceived health and mental well-being, respectively. Factor analysis and structural equation modelling on the Perceived Stress Scale replicated the reported two-factor structure after excluding an insignificant item. Linear multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived stress was negatively associated with perceived health. Results showed that mental well-being partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health, although it is acknowledged that this association could be bidirectional. Findings from the present study suggest that future research could focus on reducing stress and improving mental well-being to alleviate the effect of stress on health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Percepção de saúde e fatores associados em industriários de Santa Catarina, Brasil Self-perceived health and associated factors in industrial workers from Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Silvio Aparecido Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi identificar a prevalência e os fatores associados à percepção negativa de saúde em trabalhadores da indústria no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Para tanto, foi realizado estudo transversal em amostra representativa de 2.574 sujeitos (62,5% - homens. A percepção negativa de saúde foi o desfecho investigado em relação a variáveis demográficas, sócio-econômicas, perceptivas (estresse e sono e de saúde. Análise de regressão logística multivariável não condicional baseada em modelo hierárquico foi utilizada para explorar associações. A percepção negativa de saúde foi baixa (11,8% e positivamente associada com a faixa etária, atividade física de lazer, percepção da qualidade do sono, percepção do estresse e sexo. Em contrapartida, a renda familiar bruta e o nível de escolaridade associaram-se inversamente ao desfecho. Industriários que exerciam trabalhos de maior demanda física e aqueles classificados nos extremos das categorias do índice de massa corporal (30kg/m² apresentaram maiores prevalências de percepção negativa de saúde. Diferenças significativas de acordo com o estado civil, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas (binge drinking e tabagismo não foram verificadas. Poucas associações foram reveladas para o sexo feminino.The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of negative self-perceived health and associated factors among industrial workers in Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted with a representative sample of 2,574 subjects (62.5% men. Negative self-perceived health (fair or poor was the outcome investigated in association with demographic, socioeconomic, and other health indicators. Multivariate analysis was performed through logistic regression based on a hierarchical model. Negative self-perceived health was exceptional (11.8%, but positively associated with age, leisure physical activity, perceived quality of

  15. 中学生攻击行为与自感青春发动时相及学校因素的关系%Association of aggressive behavior with perceived pubertal timing and school factors in middle school students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞荷俊; 乔淮燕; 张戎; 周英; 姚荣英

    2013-01-01

    目的 按不同性别探索中学生攻击行为与自感青春发动时相及学校因素的关系.方法 对2 791名中学生进行青春发育状况、攻击行为的问卷调查.结果 不同自感青春发动时相中学生攻击行为得分差异有统计学意义(F=14.676,P<0.05);不同学校风气、师生关系、同学关系、好朋友数中学生攻击行为得分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);多重线性回归显示,男生攻击行为的影响因素为学校风气、自感青春发动时相、师生关系(β分别为-0.134、-0.114、-0.098,P<0.05);女生攻击行为的影响因素为师生关系、好朋友数、学校风气、自感青春发动时相(β分别为-0.120、-0.103、-0.102、-0.089,P<0.05).结论 自感青春发动时相及学校因素对中学生攻击行为的影响存在性别差异,在预防上应将时相偏离(提前或推迟)的男生,时相提前的女生列入重点对象.%Objective To explore the relationship between perceived pubertal timing together with school factors and the aggressive behavior in middle school students with different genders.Methods A total of 2 791 middle school students were surveyed by a questionnaire for youth development status and aggressive behavior.Results The score of aggressive behavior was significantly different in middle school students with different perceived pubertal timing (F =14.676,P < 0.05).The score of aggressive behavior was significantly different in middle school students with different general mood of school,relationship between classmates and teachers and the number of close friends (P < 0.05).Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the influencing factors of male students' aggressive behavior were general mood of school,perceived pubertal timing and the relationship with teachers (β =-0.134,-0.114,-0.098,respectively,P < 0.05).The influencing factors of female students' aggressive behavior were the relationship with teachers,the number of

  16. Study on the social maturity, self-perception, and associated factors, including motor coordination, of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumiko; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of social maturity and self-perception in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to elucidate associated factors, including motor coordination. The subjects were 15 children (14 boys and 1 girl, in elementary school grades 3 to 6). Their characteristics were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), the Japanese version of the Social Maturity Scale-R (S-M scale), and Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). The results of the study suggested that most of the subjects had some degree of motor problem and delay of social maturity. They also suggested an association between social maturity and static-dynamic balance, which was one of the indices of motor coordination.

  17. Risk factors for bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: A focus on antimicrobials including cefepime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Teena; Marchaim, Dror; Johnson, Paul C; Chalana, Indu K; Tamam, Zeinab; Mohammed, Mazin; Alkatib, Shatha; Tansek, Ryan; Chaudhry, Khawar; Zhao, Jing J; Pogue, Jason M; Kaye, Keith S

    2015-07-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens represent increasing challenges to physicians because of rising prevalence, high mortality, and challenging treatment. Identifying high risks and early appropriate therapy is critical to favorable outcomes. This is a 5-year retrospective case-case-control study performed at the Detroit Medical Center on adult patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae, each compared with uninfected controls. Data were collected from December 2004-August 2009. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Participants included 103 patients with BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens and 79 patients with BSI caused by pathogens that did not produce ESBLs. The mean age of patients in the ESBL group was 67 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 77% were black, and 38% (n = 39) died in hospital. The mean age of patients in the non-ESBL group was 58 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 92% were black, and 22% (n = 17) died in hospital. On multivariate analysis, predictors of BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens included central venous catheter (odds ratio [OR], 29.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-288.3), prior β-lactam-/β-lactamase-inhibitor therapy (OR, 28.1; 95% CI, 1.99-396.5), and prior cefepime therapy (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 2.7-192.4). The only risk factor for BSI caused by non-ESBL-producing pathogens was urinary catheter insertion (OR, 18.2; 95% CI, 3.3-100.3). Prior antimicrobial therapy, particularly with β-lactam, was the strongest unique risk factor for BSI caused by ESBL-producing E coli or K pneumoniae. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    : how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...

  19. The Impact of Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Subjective Norm, and Experience Toward Student’s Intention to Use Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Danurdoro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of internet in Indonesia is quite fast and the majority of users are students. Internet growth made every fields include banking provided internet based service that called internet banking. The purpose of this research is to explore the factors that affect student’s intention to use internet banking by used the combination model of TAM (Technology Acceptance Model. Independent variables used in this research are Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Subjective Norm, and Experience. While the dependent variable is Student’s Intention to Use Internet Banking. The results show that perceived ease of use and experience are significantly influence students to use internet banking and perceived usefulness and subjective norm are unsignificantly influence students to use internet banking. The usefulness of internet banking did not make the students feel interested to use internet banking, one of the reasons is usefulness of internet banking is limited to non-cash transaction

  20. Retention preferences and the relationship between total rewards, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmien Smit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Currently there is much debate whether modifying traditional reward packages to focus on the preferences of multi-generations would be essential in attracting, motivating and retaining talent. Total reward factors, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support are distinct but related concepts, all of which appear to influence an employee’s decision to stay at an organisation.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the different total reward components that multi-generations prefer as most important for retention. In essence, the study aims to establish possible relationships between multi-generations’ total reward components, perceived organisational support, and perceived supervisor support.Motivation for the study: This study is useful as it conducts a contemporary retention exploration that considers both the emerging demographic workforce shift and the new paradigm shift towards talent management.Research methodology: A quantitative, cross-sectional research design was applied to gather data from employees (N = 303 from different industry sectors in South African organisations.Main findings: The results showed that performance management and remuneration are considered to be the most important retention factors amongst multi-generation groups. Differences between total reward preferences and demographical variables, which include age, gender, race, industry and job level, were found.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should design their reward packages by taking employees preferences into account. More specifically, organisations should focus on remuneration, performance management and development opportunities in order to retain scarce skills.Contribution/value additions: The results of the study can assist managers to design effective retention strategies, whilst also providing crucial information for the retention and motivation of employees.

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PERCEIVED APPLICABILITY OF HONEY BEE MATING OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM (HBMO AND PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION (PSO ALGORITHM BY APPLYING THREE FACTOR THEORY AMONG RESEARCHERS IN TAMIL NADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kalyani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The perceived applicability of honey bee mating optimization HBMO and Particle Swarm Optimization PSO among the research scholars in Tamil Nadu are understudied. The purpose of the present study is to address this dearth in the literature in three ways: (i providing descriptive data related to the applicability of these algorithm in their area of study. (ii Applying Three Factor theory to assess the perceived range of applicability of the two said theories and to develop, a theoretically-based model that predicts the applicability and robustness of the algorithm in comparative basis grounded on the perceptual data collected from the research scholars from all over Tamil Nadu. (iii Attempting to compare the strength and form of correlation between the factors of influence and perceived applicability of the algorithms in the research process by the researchers. Self-report data were collected from Researchers in Tamil Nadu (n = 869, assessing the levels of individual personal belief factors in influencing the scholars perception of applicability of the algorithm for a range of issues, perception based on the results produced by the application of the algorithm. Perceptions formed in conformity with a group of researchers were analyzed through statistical tools. From the findings analysis, it is evident that perceptions of personal belief level and perception based on conformity with peer group perceptions have significant influences in predicting the applicability of the Algorithms. However, the study results suggest that empirical result is based in on the specified context and level of investigation on which it can produce similar or varied outcomes when the study is conducted to larger domain of subjects.

  2. Dimensions of Consumer's Perceived Risk in Online Shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Naiyi

    2004-01-01

    Perceived risk is an important concept in consumer behavior in online shopping. It impedes the adopting online shopping. A structure model with seven factors of consumer's perceived risk in online shopping is developed in this paper. The results have the descriptive power about Chinese consumers' perceived risk in Internet shopping and provide framework for managerial use in China's e-commerce market environment.

  3. Personal Innovativeness, Perceived Organizational Innovativeness, and Computer Anxiety: Updated Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses personal innovativeness, perceived organizational innovativeness, and computer anxiety in relation to distance education. Investigates the reliability of measures used in relevant research studies, including the Innovativeness Scale, Perceived Organizational Innovativeness Scale, and Computer Anxiety Index. (Contains 12 references.) (LRW)

  4. Perceived stress among tomorrow’s attorneys in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Amr

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Few data are available on the level and sources of stress among law students in the Middle East generally and in Egypt specifically. We conducted this study to identify the prevalence and predictors of perceived stress among law students in Mansoura University, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study covered 426 law students selected through a stratified cluster sampling method. The questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items on sources of stress (stressors. Perceived stress scale and Hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.Results: A high level of perceived stress, anxiety and depression were reported by 42.2%, 59.2% and 18.2%, respectively. On the scale for sources of stress, 80% experienced personal troubles and two thirds of the sample had relationship, academic and environmental problems. Conclusions: It appears that the law students have a high level of perceived stress and majority of it is generated from personal factors and less from the academic or environmental factors. Additional studies are needed to improve our understanding of the causes and consequences of law students' stress.

  5. The use of electronic collars for training domestic dogs: estimated prevalence, reasons and risk factors for use, and owner perceived success as compared to other training methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackwell Emily J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of electronic training devices for dog training is controversial. The aims of this study were to give an indication of the extent to which dog owners use these devices in England, identify factors associated with their use, and compare owner report of outcomes. A convenience sample of dog owners in England was used to identify numbers using electronic training devices and identify reasons for use. Factors associated with use of remote e-collars only were determined by comparing dogs trained using these devices with two control populations matched for reason of use (recall / chasing problems. Comparison groups were: those using other ‘negative reinforcement / positive punishment’ training techniques, and those using ‘positive reinforcement / negative punishment’ based methods. A multinominal logistic regression model was used to compare factors between categories of training method. Owner reported success for use was compared using chi-squared analysis. Results For England only, 3.3% (n = 133 owners reported using remote activated e-collars, 1.4% (n = 54 reported use of bark activated e-collars, and 0.9% (n = 36 reported using electronic boundary fences. In comparison with the e-collar group, owners using reward based training methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to be female and 2.7 times less likely to have attended agility training. Owners using other aversive methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to have attended puppy classes than those using e-collars. However, the model only explained 10% variance between groups. A significantly higher proportion of owners in the reward group reported training success than those in the e-collar group. Conclusions In conclusion, a fairly low proportion of owners select to use electronic training devices. For a population matched by reason for training method use, characteristics of dogs, including occurrence of undesired

  6. Including the spatial variability of metal speciation in the effect factor in life cycle impact assessment: Limits of the equilibrium partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, Clara; Bulle, Cécile; Deschênes, Louise

    2017-03-01

    In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach. Alternatively, the TBLM (Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model) has been used to determine an EF that accounts for speciation, but is not available for metals; hence it cannot be consistently applied to metals in an LCA context. This paper proposes an approach to include metal speciation by regionalizing the EqP method for Cu, Ni and Zn with a geochemical speciation model (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model 7.0), for 5213 soils selected from the Harmonized World Soil Database. Results obtained by this approach (EF(EqP)regionalized) are compared to the EFs calculated with the conventional EqP method, to the EFs based on available terrestrial data and to the EFs calculated with the TBLM (EF(TBLM)regionalized) when available. The spatial variability contribution of the EF to the overall spatial variability of the characterization factor (CF) has been analyzed. It was found that the EFs(EqP)regionalized show a significant spatial variability. The EFs calculated with the two non-regionalized methods (EqP and terrestrial data) fall within the range of the EFs(EqP)regionalized. The EFs(TBLM)regionalized cover a larger range of values than the EFs(EqP)regionalized but the two methods are not correlated. This paper highlights the importance of including speciation into the terrestrial EF and shows that using the regionalized EqP approach is not an

  7. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT WITH THE INHIBITORS OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR OF THE CHRONIC UVEITIS REFRACTORY TO THE BASIC THERAPY (INCLUDING AN ASSOCIATED WITH JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rudakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy of chronic uveitis refractory to the basic treatment, in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a very complex problem in pediatrics. Substantial progress in this area resulted after the implementation in practice of inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, as the most effective in such clinical situation drugs adalimumab and infliximab are considered (although infliximab was not officially approved in JIA. Objective. To estimate the cost effectiveness of TNF inhibitors — adalimumab, and infliximab in chronic uveitis, refractory to the basic therapy (including associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. A modeling on the basis of a comparative prospective cohort clinical study was carried out. The analysis was performed by the method «cost–effectiveness» from a position of health and social accounting perspective. Results. It was shown that the frequency and time of remission did not differ when treatment with infliximab (5 mg/kg at 0–2–6 weeks and further once in 6–8 weeks and adalimumab (24 mg/m2 once in 2 weeks. Adalimumab provides a long-term maintenance of remission (no recurrence in 60% of patients within 40 months of observation, whereas 1 year after the treatment with infliximab the frequency of exacerbations was returned to that observed before therapy. The proportion of patients without relapse in the treatment with infliximab for 40 months was 18.8%. Similar results were obtained in a subset of patients with chronic uveitis associated with JIA (with follow-up of 20 months of in a group of infliximab number patients without relapse was 11.1%, with adalimumab therapy — 63.6%. In the general population of patients with refractory chronic uveitis the factor «cost–effectiveness» calculated for a patient with the maintenance of remission for 3 years with adalimumab therapy was in 2,1–2,8 times less than in the treatment with infliximab. In chronic uveitis associated with JIA, the coefficient of

  8. Effect of perceived Price, Brand Image, perceived Quality and Trust on Consumer’s buying Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Afsar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect of factors such as perceived price, brand image, perceived quality and trust on consumers' evaluative judgments for beautification products. Results showed that brand image has positive and significant impact on consumer trust. Increase in perceived quality and trust depicted increase in a particular brand preference. Decrease in perceived price showed significant and positive impact on brand preference. This study measured the effect of brand image, price, quality and consumer trust information on how individuals subjectively evaluate a brand.

  9. 产品因素对网络促销消费者感知风险影响研究%Impact of Product Factors on Perceived Risk of Promotion Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂晶晶; 简迎辉

    2015-01-01

    Researching on the impact of product factors on perceived risk of promotion online can explain the consumer buy -ing behavior further .It has positive guidance and reference significance for merchants to carry out the network promotion . Through the questionnaire survey and statistical analysis , the relationship of product factors and perceived risk's dimension of pro-motion online is as follows:product information negatively affects time , product performance and security risk;compared with ex-perience-based goods, consumers tend more to search -type commodity, the time, product performance, financial and security will have the lower risks .Brand awareness negatively affects perceived risk's dimension of promotion online .Price level negatively affects financial risk .%研究产品因素对网络促销消费者感知风险的影响,可以更好地解释消费者的购买行为,对商家开展网络促销活动有积极的指导和借鉴意义。经过问卷调查及统计分析,产品因素与网络促销消费者感知风险各维度之间的关系如下:产品信息度与时间、产品效果和保障风险呈负相关关系;相对于体验型商品,消费者越倾向于搜索型商品,时间、产品效果、财务和保障风险越低;品牌知名度与感知风险各维度呈负相关关系;价格优惠度与财务风险呈负相关关系。

  10. Fatores relacionados à autopercepção da necessidade de tratamento odontológico entre idosos Factors associated to self perceived need of dental care among Brazilian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar fatores associados à autopercepção da necessidade de tratamento odontológico entre idosos. MÉTODOS: Foram pesquisados 5.326 indivíduos incluídos em amostra dos idosos (65-74 anos brasileiros do inquérito domiciliar de saúde bucal realizado em 2002/2003 pelo Ministério da Saúde. A análise foi baseada no modelo de Gift, Atchison & Drury e foi utilizada a regressão de Poisson para análise de inquéritos com amostras complexas. RESULTADOS: Do total da amostra, 2.928 (55% idosos relataram necessitar tratamento odontológico. A autopercepção dessa necessidade foi menor entre aqueles com 70 anos ou mais (RP=0,94; IC 95%: 0,89;0,99, que não receberam informações sobre como evitar problemas bucais (RP=0,89; IC 95%: 0,83;0,95 e que eram edentados (RP=0,68; IC 95%: 0,62;0,74. Foi maior entre aqueles que autoperceberam: saúde bucal regular (RP=1,31; IC 95%: 1,21;1,41 ou ruim/péssima (RP=1,29; IC 95%: 1,19;1,41; aparência como regular (RP=1,23; IC 95%: 1,15;1,32 ou ruim/péssima (RP=1,28; IC 95%:1,18;1,39; mastigação como regular (RP=1,08; IC 95%: 1,01;1,15 ou ruim péssima (RP=1,13; IC 95%:1,05;1,21; os que relataram dor nos dentes ou gengivas nos seis meses anteriores ao inquérito (RP=1,27; IC 95%: 1,18;1,36; os que necessitavam de prótese em uma arcada (RP=1,29; IC 95%: 1,19-1,39 ou em ambas (RP=1,27; IC 95%: 1,16;1,40. CONCLUSÕES: Informação, condições de saúde bucal e questões subjetivas estiveram associadas à autopercepção da necessidade de tratamento odontológico. Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de capacitar os indivíduos para realizarem o auto-exame bucal e identificar precocemente os sinais e sintomas não dolorosos das lesões da mucosa, da cárie e da doença periodontal.OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with the self-perceived need for dental treatment among elderly people. METHODS: A total of 5,326 individuals who were included in a sample of Brazilian elderly people aged 65

  11. Field Worker Evaluation of Dengue Vector Surveillance Methods: Factors That Determine Perceived Ease, Difficulty, Value, and Time Effectiveness in Australia and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azil, Aishah H; Ritchie, Scott A; Williams, Craig R

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study aimed to describe field worker perceptions, evaluations of worth, and time costs of routine dengue vector surveillance methods in Cairns (Australia), Kuala Lumpur and Petaling District (Malaysia). In Cairns, the BG-Sentinel trap is a favored method for field workers because of its user-friendliness, but is not as cost-efficient as the sticky ovitrap. In Kuala Lumpur, the Mosquito Larvae Trapping Device is perceived as a solution for the inaccessibility of premises to larval surveys. Nonetheless, the larval survey method is retained in Malaysia for prompt detection of dengue vectors. For dengue vector surveillance to be successful, there needs to be not only technical, quantitative evaluations of method performance but also an appreciation of how amenable field workers are to using particular methods. Here, we report novel field worker perceptions of dengue vector surveillance methods in addition to time analysis for each method. © 2014 APJPH.

  12. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p  Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

  13. Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence and Online Gaming Addiction in Adolescence: The Indirect Effects of Two Facets of Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Dexin; Hu, Jianping; Zhen, Shuangju; Yu, Chengfu; Li, Bin; Chang, Xi; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This study tested a parallel two-mediator model in which the relationship between dimensions of emotional intelligence and online gaming addiction are mediated by perceived helplessness and perceived self-efficacy, respectively. The sample included 931 male adolescents (mean age = 16.18 years, SD = 0.95) from southern China. Data on emotional intelligence (four dimensions, including self-management of emotion, social skills, empathy and utilization of emotions), perceived stress (two facets, including perceived self-efficacy and perceived helplessness) and online gaming addiction were collected, and bootstrap methods were used to test this parallel two-mediator model. Our findings revealed that perceived self-efficacy mediated the relationship between three dimensions of emotional intelligence (i.e., self-management, social skills, and empathy) and online gaming addiction, and perceived helplessness mediated the relationship between two dimensions of emotional intelligence (i.e., self-management and emotion utilization) and online gaming addiction. These findings underscore the importance of separating the four dimensions of emotional intelligence and two facets of perceived stress to understand the complex relationship between these factors and online gaming addiction.

  14. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  15. The perceived happiness and its related factors among nurses working in operating room%手术室护理人员总体幸福感及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁雪梅

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the impact of weekend operations arrangement upon perceived happiness among nurses, in order to provide information for improving nursing management strategy. Methods: 139 nurses from operating room involved the study and completed a questionnaire which included General Weil-Being Scale. Results: The reported general well-being in this study was lower than the average level (P<0.05). Factors included the length of employment, professional position, family structure, acceptability of workload, weekend duty, satisfaction with payment were considered relevant to the general well-being among these nurses. Conclusions: Workforce should be provided sufficiently with flexible shift arrangement in order to improve the general well-being of the nurses to enhance their work efficiency.%目的:了解医院开展的周末手术对护理人员总体幸福程度的影响,以及影响护理人员总体幸福感的因素,为护理管理方法的改进提供理论依据.方法:采用总体幸福感量表(GWB)对139名手术室护理人员进行调查.结果:手术室护理人员的总体幸福感得分低于全国常模(P<0.05).职称、工作年限、有无子女、是否值班、觉得工作量是否能接受及对报酬是否满意等因子是护理人员总体幸福感的影响因素.结论:护理管理者应合理配备人力资源,建立合理、灵活的排班制度,使护理人员的体力和精神能够得到及时的调整,从而提高护理人员的幸福感指数,提高工作效率.

  16. Perceived stress has genetic influences distinct from neuroticism and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietschel, Liz; Zhu, Gu; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Strohmaier, Jana; Wüst, Stefan; Rietschel, Marcella; Martin, Nicholas G

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated whether the genetic determinants of neuroticism and depressive symptoms differ from those underlying perceived psychological stress. Multivariate structural equation models, which included age and sex as modifiers, were fitted to the total sample of 798 adolescents and young adults (female, n = 459; mean age 15.5 years). The sample included 139 monozygotic and 241 dizygotic twin pairs. Stress was measured using item response theory (IRT) scores, as derived from the Perceived Stress Scale and/or the Daily Life and Stressors Scale. Neuroticism was measured using the Neo-Five Factor Inventory or the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, depending on the age of the participant. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the IRT-scores of the Somatic and Psychological Health Report. The results suggest that the genetic effects underlying perceived psychological stress are largely shared with those that influence neuroticism and liability to depressive symptoms. However, separate genetic effects for perceived psychological stress that are not shared with neuroticism and depressive symptoms were also identified. The source of the identified trait specific effects requires further investigation.

  17. Perceived stress and its predictors in people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hye-Jin; Seo, Jong-Geun; Park, Sung-Pa

    2016-09-01

    Perceived stress in people with epilepsy (PWE) is one of the major precipitants for seizures. We investigated the degree of perceived stress in PWE and its predictors. We also aimed to reveal the interrelationships among the predictors. This was a case-control study. Consecutive patients visiting a tertiary care epilepsy clinic completed self-reported questionnaires including the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Revised Stigma Scale (RSS), Korean version of the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (K-NDDI-E), Generalized Anxiety Disorder - 7 (GAD-7), and short forms of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System - Sleep Disturbance (PROMIS-SD) and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System - Sleep-Related Impairment (PROMIS-SRI) scales. The mean score of the PSS was significantly lower in patients with well-controlled epilepsy (WCE) and higher in those with uncontrolled epilepsy compared with controls. Although several factors including demographic, socioeconomic, psychosomatic, and epilepsy-related factors were associated with the PSS score, the strongest predictor for the PSS score was the K-NDDI-E score, followed by the PROMIS-SRI score, the GAD-7 score, and seizure control. Psychosomatic factors exerted both a direct effect on the PSS score and an indirect effect on the PSS score through seizure control. Rapid detection and appropriate management of psychiatric and sleep-related problems in PWE may lessen stress and aid in preventing further seizures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple factors, including non-motor impairments, influence decision making with regard to exercise participation in Parkinson's disease: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine; Clemson, Lindy; Canning, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    To explore how the meaning of exercise and other factors interact and influence the exercise behaviour of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled in a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program to prevent falls, regardless of whether they completed the prescribed exercise or not. This qualitative study utilised in-depth semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory methodology. Four main themes were constructed from the data: adapting to change and loss, the influence of others, making sense of the exercise experience and hope for a more active future. Participation in the PD-specific physiotherapy program involving group exercise provided an opportunity for participants to reframe their identity of their "active" self. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified and explored: non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, the belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. A model was developed incorporating the themes and influences to explain decision-making for exercise participation in this group. Complex and interacting issues, including non-motor impairments, need to be considered in order to enhance the development and ongoing implementation of effective exercise programmes for people with PD. Exercise participation can assist individuals to reframe their identity as they are faced with losses associated with Parkinson's disease and ageing. Non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue may influence exercise participation in people with Parkinson's disease. Particular attention needs to be paid to the provision of feedback in exercise programs for people with Parkinson's disease as it important for their decision-making about continuing exercise.

  20. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  1. Laser Microdissection Unravels Cell-Type-Specific Transcription in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots, Including CAAT-Box Transcription Factor Gene Expression Correlating with Fungal Contact and Spread1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogekamp, Claudia; Arndt, Damaris; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Becker, Jörg D.; Hohnjec, Natalija; Küster, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis. PMID:22034628

  2. Perceived discrimination, social support, and perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Chen, Lin; Choi, K C; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guanglu; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan

    2013-01-01

    Perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) was associated with severe mental health problems and risk behaviors. Discrimination toward PLWH in China is prevalent. Both perceived discrimination and social supports are determinants of the stress level among PLWH. Psychological support services for PLWH in China are scarce. It is unknown whether social support is a buffer between the perceived discrimination and perceived stress. With written consent, this study surveyed 258 PLWH recruited from multiple sources in two cities in China. Instruments were validated in previous or the present study, including the perceived stress scale for PLWH (PSSHIV), the perceived social support scale (PSSS), and the perceived discrimination scale for PLWH (PDSHIV). Pearson correlations and multiple regression models were fit. PDSHIV was associated with the Overall Scale and all subscales of PSSHIV, whilst lower socioeconomic status in general and lower scores of PSSS were associated with various subscales of PSSHIV. The interaction item (PSSS×PSDHIV) was nonsignificant in modeling PSSHIV, hence no significant moderating effect was detected. Whilst perceived discrimination is a major source of stress and social support can reduce stress among PLWH in China, improved social support cannot buffer the stressful consequences due to perceived discrimination. The results highlight the importance to reduce discrimination toward PLWH and the difficulty to alleviate its negative consequences. It is warranted to improve mental health among PLWH in China and it is still important to foster social support among PLWH as it has direct effects on perceived stress.

  3. The Indirect Effect of Perceived Criticism on Suicide Ideation and Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Christopher R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-08-03

    The effect of perceived criticism from others is one potentially important risk factor for suicide that has received scant attention, despite decades of research on the role of criticism in the treatment and course of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. This study analyzed the effect of perceived criticism's association with suicidal ideation and attempts as well as its connection with the suicide related constructs thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness as described in the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide. Fifty participants (66% female, MAge = 18.7), 18 of whom had previously made one or more suicide attempts, completed a battery of self-report assessments as well as two in-person, structured clinical interviews. Analyses demonstrated that perceived parental criticism is a significant indicator of suicide ideation (β = .297, p = .003) and attempts (β = .373, p criticism from close friends is a significant indicator of suicide attempts (β = .297, p = .006). Perceived criticism has a strong indirect effect on suicide ideation and attempts through its effect on thwarted belongingness, but not perceived burdensomeness, while controlling for mental illnesses. Some limitations of this study include the cross-sectional design and the use of a relatively small, restricted age sample. Treatment designed to mitigate perceived criticism and thwarted belongingness may be an important component in combatting suicidal ideation and attempts, particularly among young adults.

  4. Perceived Stress and Coping Styles among Malay Caregivers of Children with Learning Disabilities in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Saat, Nur Zakiah Mohd; Din, Normah Che; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ismail, Muhammad Faiz Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Caregivers of children with learning disabilities have been shown to experience increased stress and greater negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There remains a lack of studies focusing on stress and coping mechanisms among caregivers of a wider age group and diagnosis of individuals with disabilities in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and associated child and caregiver factors among caregivers of children with learning disabilities in the Malaysian context. An additional aim was to determine whether caregiver coping styles may be predictors of perceived stress. The Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale with 10 items and the Brief COPE Scale were administered to a sample of 190 Malay caregivers of children with learning disabilities registered with community-based rehabilitation centres in Kelantan, a state in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress. The mean total perceived stress score of caregivers was 16.96 (SD = 4.66). The most frequently used coping styles found among caregivers included religion, acceptance and positive reframing, while substance use and behavioural disengagement were least frequently used. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers with fewer children, frequent use of instrumental support and behavioural disengagement coping, and lack of emotional support and religious coping. Findings indicate that the perceived stress levels among caregivers were significantly predicted by different coping styles. It is vital to help the caregivers improve their good coping styles in order to reduce their stress levels.

  5. Perceiving others' personalities: examining the dimensionality, assumed similarity to the self, and stability of perceiver effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Guglielmo, Steve; Beer, Jennifer S

    2010-03-01

    In interpersonal perception, "perceiver effects" are tendencies of perceivers to see other people in a particular way. Two studies of naturalistic interactions examined perceiver effects for personality traits: seeing a typical other as sympathetic or quarrelsome, responsible or careless, and so forth. Several basic questions were addressed. First, are perceiver effects organized as a global evaluative halo, or do perceptions of different traits vary in distinct ways? Second, does assumed similarity (as evidenced by self-perceiver correlations) reflect broad evaluative consistency or trait-specific content? Third, are perceiver effects a manifestation of stable beliefs about the generalized other, or do they form in specific contexts as group-specific stereotypes? Findings indicated that perceiver effects were better described by a differentiated, multidimensional structure with both trait-specific content and a higher order global evaluation factor. Assumed similarity was at least partially attributable to trait-specific content, not just to broad evaluative similarity between self and others. Perceiver effects were correlated with gender and attachment style, but in newly formed groups, they became more stable over time, suggesting that they grew dynamically as group stereotypes. Implications for the interpretation of perceiver effects and for research on personality assessment and psychopathology are discussed.

  6. Perceived environmental restrictions for the participation of children with mild developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, L; Ratzon, N Z; Jarus, T; Bart, O

    2012-11-01

    In light of the International Classification of Functioning, and Health (ICF) model, to assess whether parents of children with mild developmental disabilities perceived various environmental factors as barriers to their child's participation, and whether these factors have a unique contribution to the total explained variance of participation, beyond personal factors. Seventy-nine kindergarten children (mean age 5.20 ± 0.52 years old) with mild developmental disabilities and their parents participated in the study. Three questionnaires measuring the child's participation, performance skills and environmental factors were completed by the parents. Parents perceived environmental factors as slightly restricting to their child's participation. Associations were found between home and education factors and the dimensions of child participation - independence, enjoyment and parental satisfaction. Although parents perceived human environmental factors as more restricting than physical factors at home, regression analysis revealed that the latter was found to affect the child participation dimension of independence beyond the contribution of personal factors. These findings are the first, to our knowledge, to support the contribution of environmental factors to the participation of young children with mild developmental disabilities. The results show that environmental factors have significant slight contribution to child's independence in participation beyond other predictors (i.e. personal factors). Therefore, it is recommended to include environmental restrictions measurement in the child evaluation process to facilitate effective intervention programs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The Role of Motivation, Perceived Constraints, and Constraint Negotiation Strategies in Students' Internship Selection Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the factors (i.e., motivation and perceived constraints) and processes (i.e., constraint negotiation) that influence students' selection of and satisfaction with their internship choice. The study was conducted using a quantitative approach, which included a focus group, a pilot study, and a…

  8. The Role of Motivation, Perceived Constraints, and Constraint Negotiation Strategies in Students' Internship Selection Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the factors (i.e., motivation and perceived constraints) and processes (i.e., constraint negotiation) that influence students' selection of and satisfaction with their internship choice. The study was conducted using a quantitative approach, which included a focus group, a pilot study, and a…

  9. Perceived Racism and Discrimination in Children and Youths: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Lee M.; Bernstein, Bruce A.; Szalacha, Laura A.; Garcia Coll, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Racism may be a factor contributing to poor health and health care disparities in minority children through multiple mechanisms, including effects on psychological and physical well-being. Little is known about the experiences of racism that children encounter in their lives. This study describes the occurrences of perceived racism in children,…

  10. Psychological and Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Social Sustainability through Impacts on Perceived Health Care Quality and Public Health: The Case of Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quan-Hoang Vuong; Thu-Trang Vuong; Tung Manh Ho; Ha Viet Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    A study on over 2000 patients has been conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam, to explore the influences of psychological and socio-economic factors on the evaluation of healthcare quality and public health by patients...

  11. Factors affecting farmers’ coping and adaptation strategies to perceived trends of declining rainfall and crop productivity in the central Rift valley of Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad

    2016-01-01

    .... A better understanding of the factors affecting farmers’ coping and adaptation strategies to counteract both trends is crucial for policies and programs that aim at promoting successful rainfed agriculture in Ethiopia...

  12. An literature Review on the Factors That Affect Consumers’ Perceived Credibility of Online Reviews%消费者对在线评论可信度感知的影响因素研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧; 李季; 孙鲁平

    2016-01-01

    IPrevious research has shown that online reviews significantly influence consumer purchasing decision. However, with the flooding of fake reviews, more and more consumers come to realize that not all the reviews are real. What factors can affect consumers' perceived credibility of online reviews?This article conducts an extensive review of existing literature on the dimensions that are found to affect consumers' perceived credibility of online reviews , and further proposes some future research directions.%前人的研究已经证明,在线评论对消费者购买决策有很大的影响力,然而随着网络虚假评论的泛滥,越来越多的消费者认识到在线评论并非全都真实。那么哪些因素会影响消费者对在线评论的可信度感知呢?基于此,本文对现有研究的相关结论进行了系统的梳理和归纳,并对未来研究方向进行了展望。

  13. Retrospective evaluation of crib-biting and windsucking behaviours and owner-perceived behavioural traits as risk factors for colic in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, R; Berger, J; Bain, M J; Kass, P; Spier, S J

    2010-11-01

    Although crib-biting (cribbing)/windsucking has previously been associated with 2 types of colic, additional research into the possible role of other behaviours on incidence of colic by type and severity has not been undertaken. To investigate: a relationship between cribbing/windsucking and colic; a relationship between cribbing/windsucking and different types of colic, both medical and surgical; and whether horses displaying specific behaviour traits were more likely to have had colic. A matched case-control retrospective study was conducted evaluating horses with various surgical and medical colic diagnoses, admitted to a referral hospital over a 3 year period. Computerised records and a validated internet questionnaire were used to obtain information on owner-perceived behavioural traits and repetitive behaviours. Cribbing/windsucking was significantly associated with colic but was unassociated with one category or severity of colic over another. No other repetitive behaviour was associated with colic. Age (≥20 years) was significantly associated with colic. An anxious temperament was not associated with risk of colic. Animals at higher risk for colic may be identified based on history of cribbing/windsucking behaviour, but this behaviour was unassociated with increased risk for a particular category or severity of colic. Horses characterised as being more anxious were not at increased risk for colic. There is a need to elucidate a causal relationship between cribbing/windsucking and gastrointestinal function as development of more effective and humane strategies to treat cribbing/windsucking behaviour may help to improve equine welfare and reduce the risk of colic. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nana Takahashi, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata, Koichi Otani Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Depressed patients are prone to perceive that they were exposed to affectionless control by parents. Meanwhile, high neuroticism is a well-established risk factor for developing depression. Therefore, this study examined whether perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism.Methods: The subjects were 664 healthy Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental care and protection were assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Parental rearing was categorized into either optimal parenting (high care/low protection or three dysfunctional parenting styles including affectionless control (low care/high protection. Neuroticism was evaluated by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised.Results: The subjects with paternal affectionless control had higher neuroticism scores than those with paternal optimal parenting. Similar tendency was observed in maternal rearing. Neuroticism scores increased in a stepwise manner with respect to the increase in the number of parents with affectionless control.Conclusion: The present study shows that perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism, suggesting that this parental style increases neuroticism in recipients. Keywords: parenting, attachment, personality, vulnerability, depression, PBI, NEO PI-R

  15. 我国肺结核患者污名感受的现状及其影响因素%Current Status and Influencing Factors of Perceived Stigma in Patients with Tuberculosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爱青; 吴沛霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the current status and its' influencing factors of tuberculosis-related stigma in patients with tuberculosis in China.Methods Using convinience sampling 330 patients with tuberculosis were assessed with tuberculosis-related stigma scale(TSS),rosenberg self-esteem scale(SES),medical coping modes questionnaire(MCMQ) and social support rating scale(SSRS).Results Altogether 302(91.5%) participants completed the survey.Univariate analysis of TSS scores indicated significant differences between gender,educational level, family financial income, treatment and hemoptysis symptoms(P<0.05 or P<0.01).Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that TSS scores were correlated with SES、MCMQ and SSRS.Multiple regression analysis showed that 5 variables enrolled into multiple stepwise regression model including haemoptysis,self-esteem level,social support - exploitation degree,coping styles - facing,coping styles avoidance,which accounted for 38.3% of total variance of TSS scores.Conclusion Perceived tuberculosis-related stigma is related to many psychosocial factors, but the strongest predictor is hemoptysis.These factors should be emphasized when we design and implement intervention programs to reduce tuberculosis-related stigma.%目的 探讨我国肺结核患者污名感受的现状及其影响因素.方法 采用结核病污名感受量表(tuberculosis-related stigma scale,TSS)、自尊量表(rosenberg self-esteem scale,SES)、医学应对问卷(medical coping modes questionnaire,MCMQ)、社会支持量表(social support rating scal,SSRS)对方便抽样的330名肺结核患者进行测评.结果 共302名(91.5%)结核病患者完成调查.单因素分析显示:不同性别、文化程度、家庭收入、治疗情况、有无咯血的患者在TSS得分上的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).相关分析显示,TSS评分与SES、MCMQ及SSRS 评分中的多个因子相关.多元回归分析示,咯血、自尊水平、社会支持-利用度

  16. Predictors of discordance between perceived and objective neighborhood data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Erin J; Malecki, Kristen C; Engelman, Corinne D; Walsh, Matthew C; Bersch, Andrew J; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Peppard, Paul E; Nieto, F Javier

    2014-03-01

    Pathways by which the social and built environments affect health can be influenced by differences between perception and reality. This discordance is important for understanding health impacts of the built environment. This study examines associations between perceived and objective measures of 12 nonresidential destinations, as well as previously unexplored sociodemographic, lifestyle, neighborhood, and urbanicity predictors of discordance. Perceived neighborhood data were collected from participants of the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, using a self-administered questionnaire. Objective data were collected using the Wisconsin Assessment of the Social and Built Environment, an audit-based instrument assessing built environment features around each participant's residence. Overall, there was relatively high agreement, ranging from 50% for proximity to parks to more than 90% for golf courses. Higher education, positive neighborhood perceptions, and rurality were negatively associated with discordance. Associations between discordance and depression, disease status, and lifestyle factors appeared to be modified by urbanicity level. These data show perceived and objective neighborhood environment data are not interchangeable and the level of discordance is associated with or modified by individual and neighborhood factors, including the level of urbanicity. These results suggest that consideration should be given to including both types of measures in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  18. The Relationship between Social Capital Dimensions and Perceived Health in Yazd Urban Society, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Bahrami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health is the most fundamental parameter of society welfare and more than medical interferences is related to social factors. The concept of social capital, because of its nature and content, nearly is related to all under consideration subjects and topics in health, social and human areas. Social capital and social topics have a close connection with health. So the purpose of this research is the assessment of the social capital dimensions and perceived health in Yazd urban society. Methods: This research is analytic and temporary. The researched society includes all citizens of Yazd city. The number of sample volume equals 380 persons who have been chosen with random clustered sampling method. Data gathering tool was questionnaire including two questionnaires of social capital and perceived health. Results: Between dimensions of social capital; feeling of confidence and safety, the quality of family relationships, value of life, tolerance in the field of cultural variety and the quality of work relationships with perceived health there is a direct and meaningful connection but between participation in local society activities, proactivity in social context and the quality of relationships between neighbors with perceived health there is no meaningful connection. Conclusion: There is a direct and meaningful connection between social capital and it’s dimensions with perceived health. So, with increase in social capital the amount of perceived health increases too.

  19. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Hees, H.L.; Koeter, M.W.; Lagerveld, S.E.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and

  20. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: A concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Hees, H.L.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Lagerveld, S.E.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and

  1. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  2. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Yu Bai

    Full Text Available Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  3. Perceived justice and recovery satisfaction: the moderating role of customer-perceived quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Subhash

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recovery strategies are critical to service providers in their efforts to maintain satisfied and loyal customers. While the existing research shows that recovery satisfaction is a function of customer perception of distributive, procedural and interactional justice, the present study considers an important contextual factor - customer-perceived quality of the service provider in the evaluation of justice dimensions and satisfaction. To test the hypotheses proposed, a survey was carried out in the mobile services context. The findings reveal that customer-perceived quality affects the evaluation of justice dimensions and its outcomes. The findings reveal that while distributive justice enhances recovery satisfaction for low perceived quality services, the procedural justice resulted in greater satisfaction in high perceived quality services. Thus, by understanding the role of customer-perceived quality, service managers can deliver effective recovery strategies thereby enhancing satisfaction and loyalty.

  4. The Components of Self-Perceived Health in the Kailali District of Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Freidoony

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-perceived health is a health measure with well-established links with mortality, healthcare services utilization, and future health. Various components of self-perceived health have been identified in different populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the components of self-perceived health in a Nepali population. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in the Kailali district of Nepal in 2014. The sample was initially consisted of 309 households, representative of the population of one municipality and one village; however, 304 participants were included in the analyses. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, health condition, satisfaction with healthcare services, psychological factors, and health behaviors was extracted. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify putative components of self-perceived health. Among the 304 respondents, 244 (80.3% and 60 (19.7% perceived their health as good and poor, respectively. Middle age and lower satisfaction with healthcare services were associated with worse self-perceived health, accounting for 10.3% of variance. No regular exercise, drinking, smoking, and being unhappy were also related with worse self-perceived health, after adjustment for age and satisfaction level. In the final model, however, drinking status did not significantly contribute. Our findings support previous findings that individuals with positive health behaviors and psychological wellbeing are more likely to perceive their health better. This study may direct public health policies toward more targeted interventions.

  5. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Gerrit W; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer) versus away from the target (appearing further). This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  6. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit W Maus

    Full Text Available Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer versus away from the target (appearing further. This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  7. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor....... In conclusion, spironolactone inhibits production of several proinflammatory cytokines considered to be of pathogenic importance in many immunoinflammatory diseases and shows positive effect in patients with chronic arthritis. Its effect as an anti-inflammatory drug should be explored, because prolonged...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  8. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    ,000 genes) and enzyme immunoassay for quantitating secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of spironolactone as an anti-inflammatory drug 21 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) or other arthritides were treated...... for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  9. The Study on the Subjective Life Satisfaction That the Elderly Perceives in Long-term Care Facility and on the Influence Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chu- yong; Jung, Yun-Tae

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate influences of environmental factors in elderly long-term care facility on life satisfaction of the elderly who live in the facility; to derive major determinants that affect level of life satisfaction; and thus to provide fundamental information for use in improving life satisfaction of the elderly in currently operating long-term care facilities as well as newly constructed elderly long-term care facilities. This study targeted at 252 of the elder...

  10. Lineages of human T-cell clones, including T helper 17/T helper 1 cells, isolated at different stages of anti–factor VIII immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Ettinger, Ruth A.; James, Eddie A.; Kwok, William W.; Arthur R Thompson; Pratt, Kathleen P.

    2009-01-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) after factor VIII (FVIII) infusions is a serious complication that affects approximately one-quarter of hemophilia A patients who have access to replacement therapy. To investigate the differentiation of naive T cells into FVIII-specific helper T cells that promote B-cell activation and antibody secretion, HLA-DRA-DRB1*0101-restricted T-cell clones that respond to a specific epitope in FVIII were isolated from a mild hemophilia A subject...

  11. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; van Lankveld, Wim G J M; Vonk, Madelon C; Becker, Eni S; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. In total, 215 patients with SSc completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, physical functioning (HAQ-DI), pain (VAS), fatigue (CIS), psychosocial characteristics (CISS, ICQ, PRQ, ASE, FoP-Q-SF) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). Disease characteristics (disease duration, disease subtype, modified Rodnan Skin Score) were collected. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess associations with depressive symptoms. The mean CES-D score was 12.9 (SD=9.7) and the prevalence of patients scoring>= 16 and>=19 were 32.1% and 25.1%, respectively. The variance explained by sociodemographics and disease characteristics was negligible (R(2)≤.09). Fatigue and pain were independently associated with depressive symptoms (R(2) change=.35). After adding psychological factors (R(2) change=.21), satisfaction with social support, emotion-focused coping and helplessness were also significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher fear of progression was associated with more depressive symptoms (P≤.01), and appearance self-esteem showed a marginally significant association (P=.08). Depressive symptoms were common in the present sample of patients with SSc and were independently associated with pain, fatigue, social support, emotion-focused coping, helplessness and fear of progression. Results suggest that, in addition to assessment of disease characteristics, attention should be given also to psychosocial factors found to be associated with depressive symptoms. For the development and trialling of psychological interventions, fear of progression could be an important target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 华南地区哮喘患者控制感知力及影响因素分析%Investigation of the level of perceived control of asthma and the factors affecting such perception in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕燕华; 赵海金; 刘来昱; 蔡绍曦; 朱顺芳; 梁振宇; 吴月仙

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查华南地区哮喘患者哮喘控制感知力(PCA)水平,探讨影响PCA水平的主要因素.方法 入选我院门诊2009年3月~2010年4月就诊150例哮喘患者,年龄19~65(38.6±11.7)岁,男86例,女64例;间歇和轻度持续患者46例、中度持续49例、重度持续55例,调查其人口学特征、完成哮喘控制感知力问卷(PCAQ-6)、哮喘控制问卷(ACT)、标准化哮喘患者生活质量问卷(AQLQ(S)),并收集患者填写问卷当日肺功能检查结果、外周血、诱导痰细胞分类计数.结果 我院150例符合入组条件患者均完成PCAQ-6填写及上述指标采集,PCAQ-6评分范围在10~26(18.75+3.42)分.男性(18.6±3.28)分,女性(18.95±3.6)分,显著低于国外调查水平(P<0.001).PCA与哮喘控制水平(rP=0.377,P=0.000)及哮喘相关生活质最(rP=0.675,P=0.000)显著相关.多元线性回归分析结果示:PCA与FEVl占预计值百分比(FEVl%)及与外周血嗜中性粒细胞百分比显著正相关,而与哮喘病程(年)显著负相关.结论 我国华南地区哮喘患者PCA水平低下,PCA可影响哮喘控制水平及哮喘生活质量,哮喘病程(年)及肺功能水平及外周血中性粒细胞百分比是PCA主要影响因素.%Objective To investigate the level of the patients' perceived control of asthma (PCA) in South China and analyze the risk factors contributing to inadequate PCA. Methods A total of 150 asthmatic out-patients consisting of 86 males and 64 females aged 19-65 (38.6±11.7) years were enrolled in this investigation. The patients were asked to complete questionnaires of the demographic data, perceived control of asthma (PCAQ-6) scales, asthma control test (ACT) scales and Standard asthma-specific quality of life [AQLQ(S)] scale. The data of spirometric measurements, blood cell count and induced sputum cell count were also collected. Results All the 150 asthmatic out-patients recruited completed the questionnaires and examinations. The PCAQ-6 scores ranged from 10

  13. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Kepka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13–17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen for male adolescents ages 13–17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  14. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Hawkins, Amy J; Warner, Echo L; Boucher, Kenneth M

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13-17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for male adolescents ages 13-17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  15. Gender and contraction mode on perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincivero, D M; Polen, R R; Byrd, B N

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceived exertion responses during concentric and eccentric elbow flexor contractions between young adult men and women. Thirty healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions. During the first session, subjects performed five concentric isokinetic maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of elbow flexion, followed by nine, randomly-ordered sub-maximal contractions (10-90% MVC). The same procedures were repeated during the second session, with the exception that eccentric contractions were performed. Subjects rated their perceived exertion following the sub-maximal contractions with the Borg category-ratio scale. Perceived exertion was significantly (pMVC. A three-factor interaction between 30-40% MVC indicated that perceived exertion increased more during the eccentric, than concentric, contractions in women, while the opposite pattern was evident for the men. There were no significant contraction mode or gender differences. Power function modeling revealed that perceived exertion increased in a negatively accelerating manner, except for the men performing eccentric exercise. Perceived exertion increases in a similar non-linear manner between men and women during concentric contractions, while men exhibited a statistically linear pattern during eccentric contractions.

  16. Perceived neighborhood social cohesion and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Research in the last three decades has shown that negative neighborhood factors such as neighborhood violence, noise, traffic, litter, low neighborhood socioeconomic status, and poor air quality increase the risk of poor health. Fewer studies have examined the potential protective effect that neighborhood factors can have on health, particularly stroke. We examined whether higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with lower stroke incidence after adjusting for traditional risk and psychological factors that have been linked with stroke risk. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study--a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50--were used. Analyses were conducted on a subset of 6740 adults who were stroke-free at baseline. Analyses adjusted for chronic illnesses and relevant sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. Over a four-year follow-up, higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of stroke. Each standard deviation increase in perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (O.R.) of 0.85 for stroke incidence (95% CI, 0.75-0.97, p social cohesion remained significant after adjusting for a comprehensive set of risk factors. Therefore, perceived neighborhood social cohesion plays an important role in protecting against stroke.

  17. Dimensions of Racial Identity and Perceived Discrimination in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Oates, Gabriela R

    2016-10-20

    Perceived discrimination is an important risk factor for minority health. Drawing from the scholarship on multidimensionality of race, this study examines the relationships between perceived discrimination in health care and two dimensions of racial identity: self-identified race/ethnicity and perceived attributed race/ethnicity (respondents' perceptions of how they are racially classified by others). We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data collected in 2004-2013 and we specifically examined the data on perceived racial discrimination in health care during the past 12 months, perceived attributed race/ethnicity, and self-identified race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for sociodemographic and other factors, both dimensions of racial/ethnic identity contributed independently to perceived discrimination in health care. After controlling for self-identified race/ethnicity, respondents who reported being classified as Black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American had higher likelihood of perceived discrimination than respondents who reported being classified as White. Similarly, after taking perceived attributed race/ethnicity into account, self-identified Blacks, Native Americans, and multiracial respondents were more likely to report perceived discrimination than counterparts who self-identified as White. The model using only perceived attributed race/ethnicity to predict perceived discrimination showed a superior fit with the data than the model using only self-identified race/ethnicity. Perceived attributed race/ethnicity captures an aspect of racial/ethnic identity that is correlated, but not interchangeable, with self-identified race/ethnicity and contributes uniquely to perceived discrimination in health care. Applying the concept of multidimensionality of race/ethnicity to health disparities research may reveal understudied mechanisms linking race/ethnicity to health risks.

  18. A Study on Influencing Factors of Enterprises’ Willingness for Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Based on Perceived Support%企业节能减排意愿的影响因素分析——基于节能减排支持度感知角度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,energy-saving and emission-reduction has been playing an increasingly important role in most countries for the sustainability of energy and the environment.Of all energy consumers,the enterprise is the most essential one,so it would be of great importance to improve their willingness for energy-saving and emission-reduction through unraveling influencing factors of enterprises’ willingness for energy-saving and emission-reduction.In this study,a survey questionnaire of perceived support for energy-saving and emission-reduction including 32 items was developed based on in-depth interviews of 12 enterprises that conducted energy-saving and emission-reduction and on the literature.Then 300 enterprises with varying registrations,sizes,industries,time to construct and enter this industry,return levels,certification systems and the leaders’ education degree from Jiangxi and Jiangsu Provinces were investigated.Exploratory factor analysis shows that their perceived support contains four factors of 14 items,i.e.,support for sustainable development,governmental support,support for performance,and social and environmental support,which can explain 81.26% of the whole variance.Reliability tests were computed that coefficient α ranged from 0.807 to 0.919 and the split-half reliability ranged from 0.813 to 0.921.The correlation coefficient between factors and summation was higher than between factors,which demonstrates that the reliability and validity of the questionnaire were excellent and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the factor validity of this questionnaire.Regarding the personal characters of enterprises as the reason variables,above 4 factors of perceived support as media variables,the Logistic regression analysis and diagnosis were applied to show the influencing factors.It was concluded that the enterprises’ willingness for energy-saving and emission-reduction was affected primarily by 7 personal factors of enterprises through the 4

  19. Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine M; Brennan Ramirez, Laura K; Elliott, Michael B; Handy, Susan L; Brownson, Ross C

    2005-02-01

    Enhancing community environments to support walking and bicycling serves as a promising approach to increase population levels of physical activity. However, few studies have simultaneously assessed perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors and their relative association with transportation or recreational physical activity. For this cross-sectional study, high- and low-income study areas were selected among census tracts in St. Louis MO ("low-walkable" city) and Savannah GA ("high-walkable" city). Between February and June 2002, a telephone survey of 1068 adults provided measures of the perceived environment and physical activity behavior. In this timeframe, objective measures were collected through environmental audits of all street segments (n =1158). These measures were summarized using 400-m buffers surrounding each respondent. Neighborhood characteristics included the land use environment, transportation environment, recreational facilities, aesthetics, and social environment. Associations were examined between neighborhood features and transportation- and recreation-based activity. After adjusting for age, gender, and education, transportation activity was negatively associated with objective measures of sidewalk levelness and perceived and objective neighborhood aesthetics. It was positively associated with perceived and objectively measured number of destinations and public transit, perceived access to bike lanes, and objective counts of active people in the neighborhood. Recreational activity was positively associated with perceived access to recreational facilities and objective measures of attractive features. These findings indicate that physical activities for transportation or recreational are associated with different perceived and objective environmental characteristics. Modifications to these features may change the physical activity behavior of residents exposed to them.

  20. Schizotypal personality can be perceived as a personality trait and considered as a dimension. In recent decades, this way of thinking has been promoted by a British psychologist Gordon Clar - idge, the main author of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE schizotypy scale, which is the subject of this arti - cle. In such dimensional model, schizotypy rep - resents a continuum, including the characteris - tics predisposing to psychosis. Thus, schizotypal features are observed in the general population, Daria Dembińska-Krajewska, Janusz Rybakowski : De - patrtment of Adult Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Scienc - es. Correspondence address : dembinska.daria@gmail.com Acknowledgements : The authors thank Prof. Geoffrey Shaw for his linguistic review of the text . and they may sometimes be linked with health and sometimes with disease [1, 2]. Schizophren - ic subjects, even when in remission, achieve high scores on schizotypy tests. However, “non-clini - cal” subjects can obtain high scores on these tests but do not necessarily present symptoms of the schizophrenia spectrum [3]. Schizotypal dimensions correspond to the fac - torial models of schizophrenia. The two-factor model reflects both positive and negative schizo - typy. The three-factor model adds cognitive dis - organization. Negative schizotypal symptoms include withdrawal from social activities, distur - bances in close relationships and anhedonia, all similar to the symptoms of schizophrenic defi - cit. Positive schizotypy includes features such as ideas of reference, perceptual and cognitive dis - tortion and magical thinking, all related to psy - chotic symptoms [4]. The positive schizotypal The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE schizotypy scale in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembińska-Krajewska, Daria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe a schizotypy scale, the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE, and its use in psychiatry. Schizotypy is a strongly biologically determined personality phenomenon. Schizotypal disorder, as a diagnostic category in contemporary psychiatric classifications, has been included in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. This may reflect similarities in neurobiological and neuropsychological features between persons with schizotypy and patients with schizophrenia. However, schizotypal traits are also more marked in bipolar disorder (BD compared with those in healthy subjects. The O-LIFE was created by Claridge and his co-workers and consists of four dimensions: unusual expe - riences, cognitive disorganisation, introvertive anhedonia and impulsive nonconformity. Studies using O- LIFE in psychiatry, demonstrated a number of associations between the dimensions of the O-LIFE and the clinical features of schizophrenia, in mood disorders and in healthy persons. In patients with BD treat - ed with lithium carbonate, worse effects of lithium were observed in subjects with high scores on the O- LIFE dimensions (particularly cognitive disorganisation. Recently, some molecular-genetic associations have also been shown between O-LIFE dimensions and polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system and circadian rhythm genes.

  1. Perceived social support among students of medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Alavijeh, Freshteh; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Raeesi; Shahry, Parvin

    2017-06-01

    Social support is emotional and instrumental assistance from family, friends or neighbors, and has an important but different impact on individuals, mainly depending on contextual factors. To determine the status of perceived social support and related personal and family characteristics of medical sciences students in Ahvaz, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the target population included the students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in the second semester of 2013-2014, of whom 763 were selected by cluster random sampling method. The study tool was a two-part questionnaire containing 48 self-administered questions including 25 questions of measurements of personal and family characteristics and a Persian modified version of Vaux's social support scale (Cronbach's α=0.745). Data were analyzed with T test, ANOVA and chi-square and using SPSS version 16 and 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. The mean score of the perceived social support was 17.06±3.6 and 60.3% of them reported low social support. There was a significant relationship among the perceived social support and sex (p=0.02), faculty (psocial support and importance of social support in reducing stress and academic failure, the planners need to provide efficient supportive interventions for students.

  2. Development of multidrug resistance due to multiple factors including P-glycoprotein overexpression under K-selection after MYC and HRAS oncogene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukari; Sato, Hiroyuki; Motokura, Toru

    2006-05-15

    Multistep tumorigenesis is a form of microevolution consisting of mutation and selection. To clarify the role of selection modalities in tumor development, we examined two alternative evolutionary conditions, r-selection in sparse culture, which allows cells to proliferate rapidly, and K-selection in confluent culture, in which overcrowding constrains cell proliferation. Using MYC- and EJ-RAS-transformed rat embryo fibroblasts, we found that K-selected cells acquired and stably maintained multidrug resistance (MDR) to DOX, VCR, MTX and Ara-C. Then, we examined the involvement of a number of factors potentially causal of the development of MDR, that is, ploidy, Tp53 mutation, doubling time and the expression levels of genes related to drug resistance. Although ploidy status and Tp53 mutations did not correlate with MDR, we found that Abcb1/Mdr1, encoding P-glycoprotein (Pgp), was significantly upregulated after K-selection. Cyclosporin A, a competitive inhibitor of Pgp, increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX and reduced the resistance to it. Indeed, the population of Pgp-transfected cells significantly expanded under K-, but not under r-selection. In addition to Pgp upregulation, altered expression of other genes such as Cda/cytidine deaminase and Slc29a1/equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 and prolonged doubling times were associated with MDR. This system reproduces events associated with MDR in vivo and would be useful for analysis of MDR development.

  3. Real-world Experience with Sofosbuvir-based Regimens for Chronic Hepatitis C, Including Patients with Factors Previously Associated with Inferior Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christina J; Roytman, Marina M; Hong, Leena K; Huddleston, Leslie; Trujillo, Ruby; Cheung, Alvin; Poerzgen, Peter; Tsai, Naoky C S

    2015-09-01

    The introduction of sofosbuvir, a direct acting antiviral, has revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Phase 3 clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy, simplicity, and tolerability of sofosbuvir-based regimens and report high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) rates. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical trial findings translate into a real-world setting, particularly with treatment of chronic HCV in our diverse, multiethnic population of Hawai'i. Retrospective analysis was performed for 113 patients with genotype 1-6 HCV infection being treated at the Queen's Liver Center between January 2014 and March 2015. SVR rates for our cohort were slightly lower than the rates published by the clinical trials. Data analysis also suggested that most baseline characteristics previously associated with inferior response might not be as significant for sofosbuvir-based regimens; in our cohort, male gender was the only factor significantly related to increased risk of virologic relapse. Pacific Islanders also had higher rate of relapse compared to other ethnic groups, but the small number of patients treated in this subgroup make it difficult to validate this finding. While newer all-oral treatment regimens have been introduced since this study, we highlight the importance of comparing real-world versus clinical trial results for new treatments, and provide data analyses for treatment of chronic HCV in Hawai'i.

  4. Evaluating the prevalence of canceling surgical operations,including its influencing factors at Imam Khomeini hospital in Sari during 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zamani kiasari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Hospital admission for surgery is an important event for patients. Canceling surgical procedures produce several unpleasant results for patients such as waste of time, including payment. The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence and causes of canceling surgical procedures, in order to achieve problem solving methods.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Statistical data regarding all surgical procedures (without sampling performed during 2006 to 2007, were recorded in a checklist. Study variables were identified based on surgical procedures that were canceled during this study. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and statistical analysis tests.Results: Of 4,711 scheduled patients, 510 (10/9% surgical operations were canceled. The highest number of patient candidates for surgical operation was related to gynecology, orthopedic, urology, while the least were related to reconstructive and vascular surgery groups respectively. The most canceled surgical procedures were related to neurosurgical operation 32/4% (68 from 207 cases while the least canceled cases belonged to gynecology 4/4% (48 from 1094 cases.Conclusion: The results of our study showed that 54/2% of canceled cases were preventable. The results of this study and similar studies demonstrate that traditional pre-operative preparation for surgical scheduling, day before surgery is in need of serious consideration. We recommend a fundamental change by discarding traditional methods and creating a new committee including specialized bed or resource groups, monthly management meetings to discuss causes of canceling surgical procedures, in order to reduce its occurrence. Thus, decreasing the rate of canceling surgical wasted, while reducing anxiety in patients and their family. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(65:52-62 (Persian

  5. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim Chor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N = 25, PAD (N = 31, VTD (N = 35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2 years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

  6. Borrelidin Isolated from Streptomyces sp. Inhibited Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells via Several Factors Including GATA-Binding Protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Kondo, Yoshiyuki; Kawasaki, Takashi; Tokuyama, Shinji; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    An inhibitor of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was isolated from Streptomyces sp. TK08330 and identified by spectroscopy as the 18-membered macrolide borrelidin. Treatment with 1.0 μM borrelidin suppressed intracellular lipid accumulation by 80% and inhibited the expression of adipocyte-specific genes. Borrelidin suppressed the mRNA expression of two master regulators of adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα). Studies on well-known upstream regulators of PPARγ revealed that borrelidin down-regulated C/EBPδ mRNA expression but did not affect expression of C/EBPβ. Borrelidin increased mRNA expression of negative regulators of differentiation such as GATA-binding protein (GATA) 3, Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 3 and KLF7, as well as positive regulators, KLF4, KLF6 and KLF15, at early stages of differentiation. To elucidate a primary mediator of borrelidin differentiation inhibitory activity, small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection experiments were performed. The mRNA expression of PPARγ, which was down-regulated by borrelidin, was not changed by KLF3 and KLF7 siRNA treatment. In contrast, expression of PPARγ in GATA-3 siRNA-treated cells was not significantly different from that of control siRNA-treated cells. Borrelidin significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in control siRNA-treated cells, and treatment with GATA-3 siRNA slightly reduced the inhibitory effect of borrelidin. These results indicate that borrelidin inhibited adipocyte differentiation partially via GATA-3.

  7. Human CD34+ CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells cultured with growth factors including Angptl5 efficiently engraft adult NOD-SCID Il2rγ-/- (NSG mice.

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    Adam C Drake

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in clinical and research applications necessitates expansion of HSCs in vitro. Before these cells can be used they must be carefully evaluated to assess their stem cell activity. Here, we expanded cord blood CD34(+ CD133(+ cells in a defined medium containing angiopoietin like 5 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 and evaluated the cells for stem cell activity in NOD-SCID Il2rg(-/- (NSG mice by multi-lineage engraftment, long term reconstitution, limiting dilution and serial reconstitution. The phenotype of expanded cells was characterized by flow cytometry during the course of expansion and following engraftment in mice. We show that the SCID repopulating activity resides in the CD34(+ CD133(+ fraction of expanded cells and that CD34(+ CD133(+ cell number correlates with SCID repopulating activity before and after culture. The expanded cells mediate long-term hematopoiesis and serial reconstitution in NSG mice. Furthermore, they efficiently reconstitute not only neonate but also adult NSG recipients, generating human blood cell populations similar to those reported in mice reconstituted with uncultured human HSCs. These findings suggest an expansion of long term HSCs in our culture and show that expression of CD34 and CD133 serves as a marker for HSC activity in human cord blood cell cultures. The ability to expand human HSCs in vitro should facilitate clinical use of HSCs and large-scale construction of humanized mice from the same donor for research applications.

  8. 某汽车制造企业工人自感健康评分及其影响因素%Perceived health score and its influencing factors of workers in an auto mobile manufacturing enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 张文勇; 杨跃林; 王静; 杨屹; 余登来

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective]To understand the status of perceived health of workers in an automobile manufacturing enterprise, and provide scientific evidence for developing related measures. [Methods] Worker of 2 shifts from4 workshops were selected. Workers of 1 shift were investigated with percentage score questionnaire. [ Results] A total of 550 valid questionnaires were obtained. The average scores of perceived health was 65.64 ± 19.78. The scores of male were 66.29-19.26 and 59.76-23.41 offemale, with significant difference (P < 0. 05 ). Workers who wearing personal protection equipments during operation had the higher scores (66.58 ± 18.96) than that (59.32 ± 23.84) of workers without protection equipments during operation (P <0.05). The scores of workers satisfied with their work were higher than that of workers unsatisfied with their work. Workers from assembly shop had the lowest scores than other shops, which was 57.08-22.41. The result of multiple linear regression showed that recent unhealthy feelings, the assembly plant work, unsatisfied with his work and expose to vibration, dust were risk factors to- Perceived health of workers. [Conclusion] Workers in automobile manufacturing enterprise had a low level of perceived health, which is associated with workers'service length, gender, education, job satisfaction, production workshops, occupational hazards exposure and personal protection status.%目的 了解汽车制造工人自感健康水平及其影响因素,为制定相关措施提供科学依据.方法 采用刻度尺百分制法自感健康调查问卷方法,选择某汽车制造企业4生产车间2个工作班,其中1个班的全体工人进行自填问卷调查.结果 共收回有效问卷550份.调查对象自感健康评分为65.64±19.78.男性工人的自感健康评分为66.29±19.26,高于女性工人的59.76±23.41(P<0.05);工作时穿戴个人防护用品工人自感健康水平为66.58±18.96,高于不穿戴组的59.32±23.84(P<0.01).对目前

  9. Parenting and adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2003-01-01

    What determines adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values? The current study examined potential predictors including parental value communication, family value agreement, and parenting styles. In the study, 547 Israeli adolescents (aged 16 to 18) of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds participated with their parents. Adolescents reported the values they perceive their parents want them to hold. Parents reported their socialization values. Accuracy in perceiving parents' overall value system correlated positively with parents' actual and perceived value agreement and perceived parental warmth and responsiveness, but negatively with perceived value conflict, indifferent parenting, and autocratic parenting in all gender compositions of parent-child dyads. Other associations varied by dyad type. Findings were similar for predicting accuracy in perceiving two specific values: tradition and hedonism. The article discusses implications for the processes that underlie accurate perception, gender differences, and other potential influences on accuracy in value perception.

  10. 脑卒中偏瘫患者自我感受负担及影响因素分析%Self-perceived burden of post-stroke hemiplegic patients and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹小琼; 许少英; 余田桂; 李瑞金

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查脑卒中偏瘫患者自我感受负担(self perceived burden ,SPB)水平,分析其影响因素。方法采用一般资料问卷、自我感受负担量表、心理弹性量表和中文版照顾者负担量表对130例脑卒中偏瘫患者及其主要照顾者进行问卷调查。结果患者的 SPB 得分为(37.75±6.30)分,其中91.54%的患者存在不同程度的 SPB 。 Pearson 分析结果显示,心理弹性与 SPB 呈负相关(r =-0.431,P =0.007),照顾者负担与 SPB 呈正相关(r =0.509,P =0.001)。回归分析显示:家庭经济负担、患病时间、心理弹性、照顾者负担是患者 SPB 的影响因素。结论 SPB 在脑卒中偏瘫患者中具有普遍存在性,护理人员应做好相关评估及采取针对性的措施减轻患者的 SPB 。%Objective To investigate the self-perceived burden (SPB) in hemiplegic patients after stroke and analyze its influencing factors .Methods Totally 130 post-stroke hemiplegic patients and their primary caregivers were investigated using self-designed demographic questionnaire ,self-perceived burden scale (SPBS) ,connor-davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC) and Chinese version of caregiver burden inventory (CBI) . Results The average SPB score was (37 .75 ± 6 .30 ) , and 91 .54% of the patients showed different level of SPB . Pearson analysis showed that mental resilience was negatively correlated to SPB (r = - 0 .431 ,P = 0 .007) ,but the burden of caregivers was positively related to SPB(r = 0 .509 ,P = 0 .001) .Multiple regression analysis found that family economic burden ,time of illness ,resilience and caregiver burden were the influencing factors of SPB .Conclusion SPB is common among hemiplegic patients after stroke .Nurses should evaluate the influencing factors of SPB among the patients and take targeted measures to alleviate it .

  11. Perceived stress and gastrointestinal symptoms in nursing students in Korea: A cross-sectional survey

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    Lee Eun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although nursing students experience a high level of stress during their training, there has been limited research on stress and its impact on the student's physical responses, such as gastrointestinal symptoms. The aims of this study are to assess the prevalence of GI symptoms in nursing students in Korea and to examine the association between the perceived stress and GI symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. A total of 715 students of a three-year associate degree nursing program in a Korean college participated. The Perceived Stress Scale and a GI Symptoms Questionnaire were administered through a self-reported system. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression analysis were performed using SPSS 17.0. Results Sixty-five percent of the nursing students experienced more than one GI symptom, with 31.1% of students reporting more than three GI symptoms. Most of the nursing students complained of upper dysmotility and bowel symptoms. In addition, students who reported higher perceived stress were significantly more likely to complain of GI symptoms. Compared to nursing students with the lowest perceived stress level, the adjusted odds ratio (OR for GI symptoms in students with the highest perceived stress level was 3.52 times higher (95% CI = 2.05-6.06. Conclusions GI symptoms that are highly prevalent among nursing students are significantly associated with the perceived stress level. High perceived stress should be considered a risk factor for GI symptoms. To reduce perceived stress, stress management programs including cognitive reappraisal training are needed in nursing curriculum.

  12. Patient race and perceived illness responsibility: effects on provider helping and bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazione, Samantha; Silk, Kami J

    2013-08-01

    Health care disparities represent a major issue impacting the quality of care in the USA. Provider biases have been identified as contributing to health care disparities. This study examined the helping intentions and biases reported by medical students based on patient race and perceived patient responsibility. The study was guided by the responsibility-affect-helping model (RAHM), which proposes that helping behaviour is a function of perceived responsibility and affect. In a 2 × 3 online experiment, medical students (n = 231) viewed a health chart and dialogue for either a Black or a White patient, in which the dialogue included a manipulation of the patient's rationales for his non-compliance with diet recommendations (responsible, not responsible, no responsibility assigned). After viewing the manipulation, medical students completed measures regarding perceived patient responsibility, affect, intention to help, perceptions of the patient and ethnocentrism. The RAHM was supported, such that increased perceived patient responsibility led to increased provider anger and reduced provider helping intentions, whereas decreased perceived patient responsibility led to increased provider empathy and helping intentions. Additionally, an interaction effect between race and perceived patient responsibility occurred such that bias toward the Black patient was most likely to occur in the control condition. Perceived patient responsibility affects provider helping intentions and interacts with patient race to influence provider perceptions of patient characteristics. Communication on rationales for non-compliance as associated with perceived responsibility may lead to better or worse patient care as providers make attributions about patients based on these factors. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Modifiable risk factors including sunlight exposure and fish consumption are associated with risk of hypertension in a large representative population from Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liang; Ho, Jacky; Feng, Jianzhang; Mpofu, Elias; Dibley, Michael J; Feng, Xiuhua; Van, Florance; Leong, Sokman; Lau, Winne; Lueng, Petra; Kowk, Carrie; Li, Yan; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye E

    2014-10-01

    Chinese populations are known to be at risk for vitamin D deficiency, with some evidence that this is due to lack of exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency and/or low sun exposure have been associated with higher incidence of hypertension in Caucasians. Thus, we investigated these associations in a Chinese population with a high rate of hypertension. From a random household survey of 1410 residents aged ≥18 years, height, weight and blood pressure were measured and demographic, exercise and dietary data were collected, as well as estimated hours of sunlight exposure on weekdays and weekends (in winter and summer). Modifiable predictors of hypertension in these data were lack of sunlight exposure and low intake of fish as well as smoking, obesity and lack of exercise. When investigated in a linear model, sunlight exposure was negatively associated with hypertension (β=-0.072, pexposure per day compared to none was associated with less hypertension (OR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Similarly, consuming either oily fish or seafood more than four times per week compared to less was also associated with less hypertension (oily fish (OR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.5); seafood consumption (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9)). Having daily moderate physical activity compared to none was also associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9). In contrast, being obese compared to normal weight and having more than five pack-years of smoking compared to none were associated with a higher risk of hypertension (OR=4.6, 95% CI: 3.7-5.7; OR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8, respectively). The major new findings of this study are that more sun exposure and high weekly fish consumption (especially oily fish) may be potentially modifiable independent factors for protecting against risk of hypertension in this population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceived social position and health: Is there a reciprocal relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana

    2010-03-01

    Recent work exploring the relationship between socioeconomic status and health has employed a psychosocial concept called perceived social position as a predictor of health. Perceived social position is likely the "cognitive averaging" (Singh-Manoux, Marmot, & Adler, 2005) of socioeconomic characteristics over time and, like other socioeconomic factors, is subject to interplay with health over the life course. Based on the hypothesis that health can also affect perceived social position, in this paper we used structural equation modeling to examine whether perceived social position and three different health outcomes were reciprocally related in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal cohort study of older adults in the United States. The relationship between perceived social position and health differed across health outcomes-self-reported health, the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms-as well as across operationalization of perceived social position-compared to the population of the United States, compared to one's community, and a latent variable of which the two items are indicators. We found that perceived social position affected self-reported health when operationalized as latent and US perceived social position, yet there was a reciprocal relationship between self-reported health and community perceived social position. There was a reciprocal relationship between perceived social position and the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms affected perceived social position for all operationalization of perceived social position. The findings suggest that the causal relationship hypothesized in prior studies--that perceived social position affects health--does not necessarily hold in empirical models of reciprocal relationships. Future research should interrogate the relationship between perceived social position and health rather than assume the direction of causality in their relationship.

  15. Typology of Perceived Risk in Foreign Traveling (Case Study: Inbound Tourists who Visited Isfahan

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    Amin Tslimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful of a tourism destination is depended on reinforcement of tourist’s encouraging factors and elimination of discouraging factors. Tourist’s perception of risk is a disincentive factor that influences tourist’s intention for traveling to that tourism destination. That is why this study has focused to identify and typology the perceived risks by inbound tourists who visited Isfahan. The statistical population of the study is inbound tourists who visited Isfahan during April and March of 2012. A sample of 300 tourists has been selected by convenience sampling method. A self-administrated questionnaire with 29 items has been used to gathering data. The results of exploratory factor analysis identified four types of risks which have been perceived by tourists who visited Isfahan. These include health, socio-cultural, life, and economic risks. Finally some of empirical suggestions have been offered.

  16. Perceived stress in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a normal physiological response to events that make us feel threatened, or upset our balance in some way. In medicine, it is known that stress, as an emotional state, can be a trigger for many psychosomatic disorders. Work stress and burnout are considered to be serious professional risks in dentistry. The dentist should be aware of these stressors and attempt to manage them in order to avoid becoming occupationally dissatisfied. On the other hand, the other common characteristic of modern life is a growing burden of different chronic diseases. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived stress in patients with periodontal pathologies, and to compare it with the stress in doctors-dentists and students of dentistry as future professionals. Our study confirmed the presence of significant stress in all three groups of examinees (patients, doctors, and students). Surprisingly, the obtained PSQ scores are similar in the examined groups. In addition, no differences between perceived stress in males and females have been found. There is a minimal positive correlation between age and obtained scores. However, stress must be evaluated as a risk factor both for professionals or for chronic dental patients and some response measures must be undertaken.

  17. Relationships between the perceived neighborhood social environment and walking for transportation among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Buffel, Tine; De Witte, Nico; Dury, Sarah; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-03-01

    Ecological models state that physical activity (PA) behaviors can be explained by the interplay between individuals and their surrounding physical and social environment. However, the majority of research on PA-environment relationships has focused upon the physical environment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between the perceived social environment and older adults' walking for transportation, while adjusting for individual and perceived physical environmental factors. Questionnaires were used to collect data on walking for transportation, individual, perceived physical and social environmental factors in 50,986 Flemish older adults (≥65 years) in the period of 2004-2010. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the relationships between perceived social environmental factors and the odds of daily walking for transportation. The final models showed significant positive relationships for frequency of contacts with neighbors, neighbors' social support, too many immigrants residing in the neighborhood, neighborhood involvement, participation, and volunteering. These results emphasize the need for including social environmental factors in future studies examining correlates of older adults' physical activity. Current findings suggest that projects stimulating interpersonal relationships, place attachment, and formal community engagement might promote walking for transportation among older adults. Future research should try to further disentangle the complex (inter)relationships and causal mechanisms between older individuals, their environments, and their walking for transportation behavior.

  18. Perceived Multicultural Counseling Competence of Malaysian Counselors: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aga Mohd Jaladin, Rafidah

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the nature and extent of perceived multicultural counseling competence (MCC) of 508 professional counselors in Malaysia using a national survey approach. Differences in counselors' perceived MCC pertaining to gender, ethnicity, highest education, and multicultural training were examined. Results revealed 5 factors as…

  19. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  20. Investigation of status quo of self-perceived burden of young and middle-aged patients with first-attack of ischemic stroke and analysis of its influencing factors%中青年首发缺血性脑卒中患者自我感受负担现状调查与影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘莉; 杨蓉; 耿丹

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解中青年缺血性脑卒中患者的自我感受负担(self-perceived burden,SPB)情况,分析SPB的影响因素以及与生存质量的相关性.方法 采用自制患者一般资料问卷、SPB自评量表、生存质量精简量表(QOL-BREF),对中青年缺血性脑卒中住院患者进行调查分析.结果 共纳入100例患者,其中男66例,女34例,年龄19.4~59.0岁,平均年龄(50.80±7.98)岁;总体SPB得分为(24.21±7.39)分,处于中等水平.其中,无明显SPB者31例占31%,轻中度SPB者65例占65%,重度SPB者4例占4%; SPB与生存质量存在负相关性;经多因素分析显示,性别、对疾病的了解情况、照顾者健康状况是患者SPB的影响因素.结论 自我感受负担在中青年缺血性脑卒中住院患者中普遍存在,临床护理人员应及时评估患者自我感受负担情况,提供有针对性的护理措施与健康教育,从而减轻患者自我感受负担,提高其身心健康水平.%Objective To know the self-perceived burden (SPB) of young and middle-aged patients with first-attack of ischemic stroke and to analyze the influential factors of SPB as well as its relevance to the quality of life.Methods The patients' general information questionnaire,SPB Self-evaluation Scale,QOL-BREF were adopted to investigate young and middle-aged patients with first-attack of ischemic stroke.Results 100 patients were included,66 were male,34 were female.The Minimum age was 19.4 years old.The maximum age was 59 years old.The mean age was (50.80 ± 7.98) years old.The average SPB score was (24.21 ± 7.39) points,which was in the medium level.31 cases (31%) didn't have obvious SPB; 65 cases (65%) suffered mild-to-moderate SPB; 4 cases (4%) claimed they had severe SPB.There was negative correlation between the SPB and their quality of life.The multi-factor analysis showed that gender,the patients' understanding of disease,and caregivers' health situation were the influential factors of SPB

  1. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

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    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  2. Determinants of radicalization of Islamic youth in the Netherlands: personal uncertainty, perceived injustice, and perceived group threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, B.; Loseman, A.; van den Bos, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this study among Dutch Muslim youth (N = 131), we focus on the process of radicalization. We hypothesize that this process is driven by three main factors: (a) personal uncertainty, (b) perceived injustice, and (c) perceived group threat. Using structural equation modeling, we demonstrate that pe

  3. Associations Between Adolescents’ Perceived Discrimination and Prosocial Tendencies: The Mediating Role of Mexican American Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P.; Carlo, Gustavo; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences with perceived discrimination (e.g., perceptions of being treated unfairly due to race or ethnicity) are expected to impact negatively youths’ prosocial development. However, resilience often occurs in light of such experiences through cultural factors. The current longitudinal study examined the influence of perceived discrimination on the emergence of Mexican American adolescents’ later prosocial tendencies, and examined the mediating role of Mexican American values (e.g., familism, respect, and religiosity). Participants included 749 adolescents (49 % female) interviewed at 5th, 7th, and 10th grade. Results of the current study suggested that, although perceived discrimination was associated negatively with some types of prosocial tendencies (e.g., compliant, emotional, and dire) and related positively to public prosocial helping, the associations were mediated by youths’ Mexican American values. Directions for future research are presented and practical implications for promoting adolescents’ resilience are discussed. PMID:23152074

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF BRAND AWARENESS IN CONSUMERS’ BUYING DECISION AND PERCEIVED RISK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu MOISESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness, as one of the fundamental dimensions of brand equity, isoften considered to be a prerequisite of consumers’ buying decision, as itrepresents the main factor for including a brand in the consideration set.Brand awareness can also influence consumers’ perceived risk assessmentand their confidence in the purchase decision, due to familiarity with thebrand and its characteristics. On the other hand, brand awareness can bedepicted into at least two facets – unaided (brand recall and aided (brandrecognition – each of the two facets having its more or less effectiveinfluence on buying decision and perceived risk assessment. This paper triesto reveal, on one hand, the importance of unaided brand awareness when itcomes to consumers’ buying decision and, on the other hand, the importanceof aided brand awareness when assessing the perceived risk associated withthe purchase. The analysis is conducted in a comparative manner,considering the case of durable versus non-durable products, and with focuson urban Romanian consumers.

  5. Associations between Parents' Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China.

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    Hua Qian

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children's allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1-8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents' perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P < 0.05. Both perceived dry and humid air were found to be positively associated with dampness indices, and we present evidence that the sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents' perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children's allergic diseases.

  6. Work perceiving by employees and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Izabela Baruk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of work perceiving by employees of scientific organizations in the context of marketing orientation rules were presented. It has the theoretical-empirical character. The following research goals were to be gained: identifying the way of work perceiving by respondents; defining the potential dependences between the way of work perceiving (especially its stress dimension and chosen aspects of professional life. 4 research hypotheses were to be verified. In the empirical part the results of the field researches were presented. To analyse gathered field data the method of correspondence analysis was used. It allowed to gain the research goals and to verify the hypotheses. All of these hypotheses were confirmed. It means that there are statistically significant dependences between the way of work perceiving (especially as stress factor and analysed row variables. They are relatively the strongest in the case of respondents’ openness for improvement of their intellectual potential. The gained results show that scientific organizations playing the role of employers must conduct activities leading up to positive work perceiving by employees. In this case employees want to improve their knowledge and skills. They are ready to co-create the positive image of given employer too.

  7. Perceived controllability and fairness in performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schiehll

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of environmental uncertainty, decentralization of decisions rights, and the use of subjective performance measures on managers’ perceptions of outcome controllability and performance evaluation fairness. Based on a survey of 339 middle- and upper- level managers, our results suggest that environmental uncertainty adversely affects perceptions of outcome controllability and that this effect is not moderated by the decentralization of decision rights. Our results also show a positive association between perceived controllability and performance evaluation fairness. Although we found no direct effect of the use of subjective performance measures on perceived performance evaluation fairness, it appears to moderate the positive effect of perceived controllability on fairness. We also show that the positive effect of the use of subjective measures may depend on contextual and job-related factors. The overall results underscore the need to consider the organizational context (environmental uncertainty and decentralization of decision rights to investigate how performance measures affect perceived controllability and fairness. Because perceived controllability and fairness affect individual attitudes and behaviors within an organization, our results have important implications for the design and use of performance evaluation systems.

  8. Perceived Support from Adults, Interactions with Police, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptomology: An Examination of Sex, Race, and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Several risk factors, including female sex, racial minority status, and family poverty, have been implicated in adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the role of one specific aspect of adolescents' ecological context, interactions with adults, in depressive symptomology. We examined the relationship between perceived support from…

  9. Effects of Perceived Trust and Perceived Price on Customers’ Intention to Buy in Online Store in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Setiawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Price and trust are important factors that influence customer purchasing decision in online shopping. However, the synergy of these two factors in customer intention to buy still needs to get higher attention. This paper examines the relative influence of perceived trust and perceived price on customers intention to buy, both for customers who have bought item from the store (repeat customers and who have not (potential customers, and examines whether a difference exists on the strength of influence of price and trust to purchase intention in those groups. Data are analyzed with the multiple group analysis structural equation modeling, comparing the repeat customers and potential customers. The results of this paper reveal that there is no significant difference of effect between perceived trust and perceived price on intention to buy between potential and repeat customers and that perceived trust exerts a stronger effect than perceived price on purchase intentions for both potential and repeat customers of an online vendor. This paper also reveals that while perceived trust exerts a positive influence, perceived price exerts a negative influence on both perceived value and intention to buy.

  10. Effect of ventilation on perceived quality of air polluted by building materials. A summary of reported data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Vondruskova, J. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-02-15

    This paper summarizes existing data on how varying ventilation rates affect the perceived quality of air polluted by building materials. This is done by reviewing literature dealing with exposure-response relationships, i.e. the log-linear relationships between the concentration of pollutants (exposure) and the perceived air quality (response). The reviewed data originate from studies with single building materials performed in small-scale ventilated chambers and from studies carried out in a full-scale setting resembling normal offices. Perceived air quality expressed in terms of acceptability as assessed by untrained panels was included. The results show that the exposure-response relationships vary for different building materials as regards the impact of changing ventilation rate on perceived air quality and the level of perceived air quality at a constant ventilation rate. This applies both for the data collected in small-scale and in full-scale experiments. The differences may be caused by the experimental conditions, psychological factors, physiological factors, and chemical/physical factors. A well controlled study taking these factors into account with several different building materials, is thus recommended to further study whether the observed results have practical significance. These experiments should be carried out under realistic fullscale conditions. (au)

  11. Students' perceived supervisory needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, S; Wittkopp, J

    1982-07-01

    One hundred and ninety-one students from six Michigan University speech-language pathology training programs completed a 43-item questionnaire concerning their perceived supervisory needs in five areas: lesson plan and report writing, supervisor observation, conferencing, professional responsibility, and general supervisory practices. Selection criteria for students were academic status, university attended, and earned clinical clock hours. Student's perceptions of positive and negative supervisory practices differed significantly as a function of earned clinical clock hours and site of training. However, there were no differences in perception between undergraduate and graduate students.

  12. Chinese American adolescents: perceived parenting styles and adolescents' psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwen, W; Chen, A C C

    2013-06-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing minority groups in the USA, and Chinese constitute the largest group. Evidence suggests that Asian American adolescents experience higher levels of depressive symptoms than their same-gender white counterparts. Quantitative findings suggest associations between parenting factors and Chinese American adolescents' mental health. A qualitative understanding regarding Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and its relationship with adolescents' psychosocial health is warranted. To gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and how parenting styles might influence adolescents' psychosocial health. In this qualitative study, we recruited 15 Chinese American adolescents aged 12-17 years in a southwest metropolitan area. We conducted two focus group interviews. Participants also filled out a brief questionnaire that included their socio-demographic information, immigration history and level of acculturation. Participants reported perceiving that parents had high expectations about academic performance and moral values. They also perceived stricter family rules regarding choices of friends compared with their non-Asian peers. Parents tended to be more protective of girls than of boys. Both Chinese American boys and girls reported poor or ineffective communication with their parents, which contributed to increased conflict between parents and adolescents and emotional distress of the adolescents. The findings provide evidence for nurses to develop linguistically and culturally tailored resources (e.g. parent support groups, programs aimed to improving parent-child communication) or connect these families with existing resources to enhance parenting skills and consequently reduce emotional distress of their adolescent children. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Survey of perceived stress and work demands of consultant doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, R M; Blenkin, H; Deary, I J; Zealley, H E; Wood, R A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the work demands as potential stressors of health service consultants, and to describe the development of tools for measuring stress experiences of consultants. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 500 NHS consultants in Scotland was targeted by a postal questionnaire and 375 (75%) returned a valid response. They completed questionnaires, including information on demographic factors, work demands, occupational stressors, and burnout. RESULTS: Principal components analysis showed that professional work demands of consultants fell into three categories: clinical, academic, and administrative. Their perceived stressors separated into four main factors: clinical responsibility, demands on time, organisational constraints, and personal confidence. These were assessed by 25 questions in the specialist doctors' stress inventory. Specific questions about perceived stressors which resulted in a high positive response included questions about demands on time, and organisational change in the NHS. CONCLUSION: These self reported data characterise and measure the consultants' work demands and their role as potential stressors. These measurements could form the basis for strategies to reduce occupational stress in these workers. PMID:8664957

  14. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Malecki, Kristen M; Hoormann, Kelly A; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics--particularly area level socioeconomic factors--have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008-2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n = 1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior.

  15. Effect on Perceived Stimulation dan Perceived Crowding on the Decision of the Unplanned Purchase (Impulse Buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggal Sriwardiningsih

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purchase decisions aren’t made necessarily planned, because impulsive buying is such a result of environmental stimuli shopping. Things affecting unplanned purchasing decisions are perceived by stimulation and crowding. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are influences between perceived crowding and stimulation of impulse buying simultaneously or partial. The object used is one of the largest retailers in Cilegon. This research design is quantitative analysis of the consumer unit. The collecting data technique includes using questionnaires, interviews, and literature from previous research. Data processed using the SPSS 16.0 program through the validity and reliability, normality test, and regression analysis. The study states that there is significant influence between perceived crowding and perceived stimulation both simultaneous and partial response to impulse buying. 

  16. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  17. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  18. Analysis of Factors in Technological and Vocational School Teachers' Perceived Organizational Innovative Climate And Continuous Use of E-Teaching: Using Computer Self-Efficacy as an Intervening Variable

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chun-Mei CHOU; His-Chi HSIAO; Chien-Hua SHEN; Su-Chang CHEN

    2010-01-01

      This study aims to analyze the correlation (N=335) among technological and vocational school teachers' perceived organizational innovative climate, computer self-efficacy, and continuous use of e-teaching in Taiwan...

  19. Perceived Severity and Susceptibility of Diabetes Complications and its Relation to Self-care Behaviors among Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Morowaty Sharifabad

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes is a disease with long cardiovascular, renal, eye and neural complications. It is prevalent all around the world including Iran and especially in Yazd province and its prevalence is increasing. Higher perceived severity and susceptibility of its complications may cause a higher level of self care behaviors in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the constructs’ status and their related factors in diabetic patients. Materials & Methods: This analytical study was carried out on 120 diabetic patients referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center which were recruited with a sampling method. A questionnaire was used for data collection which measured the perceived severity and susceptibility and self care behaviors. Subjects’ demographic variables such as age, sex, education level, job, history of diabetes duration and type of diabetes were also recorded. Results: The subjects reported 86.72, 55.72 and 62.79% of receivable scores of perceived severity, perceived susceptibility and self care score, respectively. Deteriorating eyesight was perceived at the highest level of severity and circulatory problems in the feet were at the lowest level. Deteriorating eyesight and aching legs and blurred vision was at the highest level of perceived susceptibility while high and low sugar coma was at the lowest level. Men had a higher level of perceived severity than women. There was a significant correlation between history of diabetes duration and perceived susceptibility and severity × susceptibility. Perceived susceptibility and severity, and severity × susceptibility and self care behaviors had a significant correlation with each other at 0.01 level. Perceived susceptibility and severity predicted 12.1% of variances in self care behaviors while severity × susceptibility predicted 12% of variances in self care behaviors. Conclusion: Despite the fact that perceived severity of diabetes complications among

  20. Perceived value creation process: focus on the company offer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Pandža Bajs

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the competitive business environment, as the number of rational consumers faced with many choices increases, companies can achieve their dominance best by applying the business concepts oriented to consumers in order to deliver a value which is different and better than that of their competitors. Among the various products on the market, an educated consumer chooses the offer that provides the greatest value for him/her. Therefore, it is essential for each company to determine how consumers perceive the value of its offer, and which factors determine the high level of perceived value for current and potential consumers. An analysis of these factors provides guidance on how to improve the existing offer and what the offer to be delivered in the future should be like. That could increase the perceived value of the company offer and result in a positive impact on consumer satisfaction and on establishing a stronger, longterm relationship with consumers. The process of defining the perceived value of a particular market offer is affected by the factors of the respective company’s offer as well as by competition factors, consumer factors and buying process factors. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relevant knowledge about the process of creating the perceived value of the company’s market offer and the factors that influence this process. The paper presents a conceptual model of the perceived value creation process in consumers’ mind.

  1. Perceived risks and perceived benefits of different nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Stampfli, Nathalie; Kastenholz, Hans; Keller, Carmen

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to generate new food products and new food packaging. In a mail survey in the German speaking part of Switzerland, lay people's (N=337) perceptions of 19 nanotechnology applications were examined. The goal was to identify food applications that are more likely and food applications that are less likely to be accepted by the public. The psychometric paradigm was employed, and applications were described in short scenarios. Results suggest that affect and perceived control are important factors influencing risk and benefit perception. Nanotechnology food packaging was assessed as less problematic than nanotechnology foods. Analyses of individual data showed that the importance of naturalness in food products and trust were significant factors influencing the perceived risk and the perceived benefit of nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.

  2. Perceived Stress and Coping Styles among Malay Caregivers of Children with Learning Disabilities in Kelantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Saat, Nur Zakiah Mohd; Din, Normah Che; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ismail, Muhammad Faiz Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Background Caregivers of children with learning disabilities have been shown to experience increased stress and greater negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There remains a lack of studies focusing on stress and coping mechanisms among caregivers of a wider age group and diagnosis of individuals with disabilities in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and associated child and caregiver factors among caregivers of children with learning disabilities in the Malaysian context. An additional aim was to determine whether caregiver coping styles may be predictors of perceived stress. Methods The Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale with 10 items and the Brief COPE Scale were administered to a sample of 190 Malay caregivers of children with learning disabilities registered with community-based rehabilitation centres in Kelantan, a state in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress. Results The mean total perceived stress score of caregivers was 16.96 (SD = 4.66). The most frequently used coping styles found among caregivers included religion, acceptance and positive reframing, while substance use and behavioural disengagement were least frequently used. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers with fewer children, frequent use of instrumental support and behavioural disengagement coping, and lack of emotional support and religious coping. Conclusion Findings indicate that the perceived stress levels among caregivers were significantly predicted by different coping styles. It is vital to help the caregivers improve their good coping styles in order to reduce their stress levels. PMID:28381931

  3. Complex interplay between health and successful aging: role of perceived stress, resilience, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C; Eyler, Lisa T; Mausbach, Brent T; Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Thompson, Wesley K; Peavy, Guerry; Fazeli, Pariya L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-06-01

    Psychological and psychosocial resources, including resilience and social support, have traditionally been studied in the context of the stress paradigm and, more recently, in the context of successful aging. This study used moderated mediation analyses to examine the role of perceived stress in the relationships between physical and mental health functioning and self-rated successful aging (SRSA) and whether differences between people in level of resilience and social support changes the role of perceived stress in these relationships. A cross-sectional study of 1,006 older adults (mean age: 77 years) completed scales addressing SRSA, physical and mental health functioning, perceived stress, resilience, and social support. Results indicated that the strength of relationships between both physical and mental health functioning and SRSA were reduced after accounting for variation in level of perceived stress. The role of perceived stress in the association between mental health functioning and SRSA was found to be stronger among participants with the highest levels of resilience, and the influence of perceived stress on the degree of relationship between physical health functioning and SRSA was stronger among those with greatest social support. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce perceived stress may help break the link between disability and poor well-being in older adults. The findings further suggest that the impact of such interventions might differ depending on psychological resources (i.e., resilience) for mental health disabilities and external resources (i.e., social support) for those with physical health problems. The complex interplay of these factors should be taken into account in clinical settings.

  4. Perceived Relevance of an Introductory Information Systems Course to Prospective Business Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Govender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is designed to examine students’ perceptions of the introductory Information Systems (IS course. It was an exploratory study in which 67 students participated. A quantitative approach was followed making use of questionnaires for the collection of data. Using the theory of reasoned action as a framework, the study explores the factors that influence non-IS major students’ perceived relevance of the IS introductory course. The analysis of collected data included descriptive and inferential statistics. Using multiple regression analysis, the results suggest that overall, the independent variables, relevance of the content, previous IT knowledge, relevance for professional practice, IT preference in courses and peers’ influence may account for 72% of the explanatory power for the dependent variable, perceived relevance of the IS course. In addition, the results have shown some strong predictors (IT preference and peers’ influence that influence students’ perceived relevance of the IS course. Practical work was found to be a strong mediating variable toward positive perceptions of IS. The results of this study suggest that students do indeed perceive the introductory IS course to be relevant and match their professional needs, but more practical work would enhance their learning. Implications for theory and practice are discussed as a result of the behavioural intention to perceive the IS course to be relevant and eventually to recruit more IS students.

  5. The relationship of perceived campus culture to mental health help-seeking intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason I; Romero, Gabriela D; Karver, Marc S

    2016-11-01

    Despite mental health issues being widespread on college campuses, the majority of college students do not seek help. Prior research suggests several individual factors that may be related to mental health help-seeking including age, gender, and prior treatment experience. However, there has been little work considering the broader role of the college environment on person-level predictors of mental health help-seeking, specifically the relationship with perceived campus culture. Thus, informed by the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived campus cultural perspectives on different personal processes, such as attitudes toward treatment, stigma, and treatment barriers that are believed to relate to mental health help-seeking intentions. Participants were 212 undergraduate students from a large university in the southeastern United States. As hypothesized, we found a significant mediation relationship for personal attitudes in the relationship between perceived campus attitudes and help-seeking intentions. In contrast, analyses did not support mediation relationships for personal barriers or personal stigma. These findings suggest that perceived campus culture may serve an important role in personal mental health treatment beliefs. Campus mental health policies and prevention programming may consider targeting perceived campus culture as an important means for increasing personal positive beliefs toward mental health treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on Hormo

  7. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on

  8. The relationship of individual characteristics, perceived worksite support and perceived creativity to clinical nurses' innovative outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Liou, Shwu-Ru; Hsiao, Ya-Chu; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2013-09-01

    To understand the relationship of individual characteristics, perceived worksite support and perceived personal creativity to clinical nurses' innovative outcome (receiving the Nursing Innovation Award). Since the idea of applying creativity and innovation to clinical nursing practice and management was first advocated in the Nursing Administration Quarterly in 1982, the topic of nursing innovation has gained worldwide attention. To increase the prevalence of nursing innovation, it is important to identify and understand the related factors that influence nurses' innovative outcome. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 32 award winners and 506 nonawarded clinical nurses in Taiwan. The level of creativity perceived by all participants was moderate-to-high. Individual characteristics (r = 0·61) and worksite support (r = 0·27) were both correlated with perceived creativity. Individual characteristics and worksite support showed some correlation as well (r = 0·21). Individual characteristics and worksite support could predict perceived creativity after controlling for demographic variables, but only individual characteristics had an effect on innovative outcome. Perceived creativity did not have mediation effects either between individual characteristics and innovative outcome or between worksite support and innovative outcome. Clinical nurses' individual characteristics had a direct relationship to innovative outcome, whereas neither worksite support nor creativity was correlated with innovative outcome. Although worksite support did not show effects on innovative outcome, it was related to both perceived creativity and individual characteristics. As suggested by other scholars, there might be other related factors between creativity and innovative outcome. Although worksite support did not have effect on clinical nurses' innovative outcome, it was related to individual characteristics

  9. Stressors and coping mechanisms associated with perceived stress in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Sasha M; Gavin, Jennifer K; Diaz, Vanessa A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between causes of perceived stress and the coping mechanisms used by Latino adults with perceived stress. This cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 200 Latino adults (aged ≥18 years). They were recruited from clinics, migrant camps, community events, and churches located in Charleston, S.C. This survey included questions regarding causes of perceived stress, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale 10), coping mechanisms (Brief COPE), and depression (Perceived Health Questionnaire 9). High perceived stress (PSS ≥15) was the primary outcome measure. Coping mechanisms and stressors were secondary outcomes. Most (92%) of the sample was born outside the United States, and 66% reported high perceived stress. Stressors associated with high perceived stress included discrimination (P=.0010), lack of insurance (P=.0193), health problems (P=.0058), and lack of money (P=.0015). The most frequently utilized coping mechanisms were self-distraction (54.77%), active coping (69.85%), positive reframing (56.78%), planning (63.82%), acceptance (57.87%), and religion (57.79%). Latinos with higher perceived stress were more likely to report discrimination (OR: 3.401; 95%CI 1.285-9.004) and health problems (OR: 2.782; 95%CI 1.088-7.111) as stressors, and to use denial as a coping mechanism (OR: 2.904; 95%CI 1.280-6.589). An increased prevalence of perceived stress among the Latinos evaluated in this study was associated with using denial as a coping mechanism, and encountering discrimination and health problems as sources of perceived stress. Most individuals responded to stressors by utilizing a variety of both adaptive and maladaptive coping mechanisms.

  10. Perceived Parenting Styles as Predictor of Internet Addiction in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Huseyin; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Bozdas, Canan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parenting styles as predictors of Internet addiction in adolescence. The participants of the study were a total of 419 high school students including 238 girl and 181 boy students whose mean age was 16.5. Personal information form, "Internet Addiction Test" and "Perceived Parenting Style Scale"…

  11. Addressing Perceived Skill Deficiencies in Student Affairs Graduate Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.; Eckerle, Kayle; Martin, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    This article explores existing literature on perceived skill deficiencies among entry-level student affairs practitioners. Through a review of recent literature, seven perceived skill deficiencies were identified, including budgeting and financial management, strategic planning, research and assessment, legal knowledge and standards, supervision,…

  12. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  13. Perceiving persons and groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J

    1996-04-01

    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed.

  14. Perceived parental behavior and the social desirability response set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, W E; Struble, K D

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of the social desirability response set as a confounding variable in research involving self-report measures of perceived parental behavior. Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS) were correlated with each of the three factors on the Bronfenbrenner Parental Behavior Scale (BPB): (1) Loving, (2) Punishing, and (3) Demanding. Fifty-eight young adults participated in the study; the sample included roughly equal numbers of black and white subjects, male and female subjects, and college students and other community residents. Scores were analyzed by sex of subject and sex of parent as well as in combined groups. Significant correlations (p<.05, p<.01) were obtained from female subjects on BPB factors 2 and 3. Implications for the BPB's validity and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  15. Past racial discrimination exacerbates the effects of racial exclusion on negative affect, perceived control, and alcohol-risk cognitions among Black young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Molloy, Brianne K; Lambert, Sharon F

    2017-06-01

    Racial discrimination is associated with alcohol use and risky sex cognitions and behaviors, which are risk factors for negative health outcomes, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current study investigated the causal impact of racial discrimination on alcohol and sexual-risk cognitions while exploring potential mediators that might help explain this relation: negative affect, perceived control, and meaningful existence. We also examined if past discrimination impacts the strength of (moderates) these effects. Participants were 287 Black/African American young adults aged 18-25. They were randomly assigned to be excluded or included by White peers via the game Cyberball. Racial exclusion (vs. inclusion) predicted greater: perceived racial discrimination, negative affect, alcohol use willingness, and reduced perceived control and meaningful existence. Furthermore, excluded participants who experienced more past racial discrimination reported the lowest perceived control, and greatest negative affect and alcohol-risk cognitions. The findings suggest that past racial discrimination exacerbates the harmful health effects of immediate experiences of discrimination.

  16. Perceived criticism : Associations with perceiver characteristics and interpersonal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlsma, C.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Hale III, W.W; van Hout, Wiljo

    2009-01-01

    Perceived Criticism (PC) evolved in the context of Expressed Emotion (EE) research and, like EE, predicts the course of various psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about PC's validity. We examined (in Study 1) to what extent PC reflects the perceiver's current depressive and marital

  17. 恶性血液病病人自我感受负担及影响因素调查分析%Survey and analysis of self perceived burden of patients with malignant hematologic diseases and its influencing fac-tors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景颖颖; 李燕; 张蕙

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and analyze the main influencing factors of self perceived burden of patients with malignant hematologic diseases.Methods:A total of 1 1 0 patients with malignant hematologic diseases re-ceived the questionnaire by using the general information questionnaire,daily life ability scale (ADL)and self perceived burden scale (SPBS).Results:The score of self perceived burden of patients with malignant hemato-logic diseases was (34.73±6.48),97.27% of patients had different levels of self perceived burden.The multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that marital status,family per capita monthly income,daily life ability were the influencing factors of patients with malignant hematologic diseases.Conclusion:Patients with malignant he-matologic diseases had obvious self perceived burden usually,the clinical nursing personnel should understand the influencing factors of patients’self perceived burden and give them the corresponding interventions,so as to lighten their self perceived burden and improve their physical and mental health and quality of life.%[目的]调查分析影响恶性血液病病人自我感受负担的主要因素。[方法]采用自行设计的一般资料调查表、日常生活能力量表(ADL)及自我感受负担量表(SPBS )对110例恶性血液病病人进行问卷调查。[结果]恶性血液病病人的自我感受负担得分为34.73分±6.48分,97.27%病人存在不同程度的自我感受负担。多元逐步回归分析结果显示,婚姻状况、家庭人均月收入、日常生活能力等是恶性血液病病人自我感受负担的影响因素。[结论]恶性血液病病人普遍存在明显的自我感受负担,临床护理人员应了解病人自我感受负担的影响因素并给予相应的干预措施,从而减轻恶性血液病病人的自我感受负担,提高其身心健康和生活质量。

  18. Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Ju; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M; Eisenmann, David M

    2014-05-13

    Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo. We used the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) method to screen for factors that bound to 13 fragments from the lin-39 region: twelve fragments contained sequences conserved between C. elegans and two other nematode species, while one fragment was known to drive reporter gene expression in the early embryo in cells that generate the VPCs. Sixteen transcription factors that bind to eight lin-39 genomic fragments were identified in yeast, and we characterized several factors by verifying their physical interactions in vitro, and showing that reduction of their function leads to alterations in lin-39 levels and lin-39::GFP reporter expression in vivo. Three factors, the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NHR-43, the hypodermal fate regulator LIN-26, and the GATA factor ELT-6 positively regulate lin-39 expression in the embryonic precursors to the VPCs. In particular, ELT-6 interacts with an enhancer that drives GFP expression in the early embryo, and the ELT-6 site we identified is necessary for proper embryonic expression. These three factors, along with the factors ZTF-17, BED-3 and TBX-9, also positively regulate lin-39 expression in the larval VPCs. These results significantly expand the number of factors known to directly bind and regulate lin-39 expression, identify the first factors required for lin-39 expression in the embryo, and hint at a

  19. Perceived discrimination and depression among new migrants to Hong Kong: the moderating role of social support and neighborhood collective efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2012-04-01

    Although it is well known that perceived discrimination is a risk factor contributing to depressive symptoms among immigrants, most previous studies (1) did not distinguish between discrimination based on immigrant status and race and (2) used cross-sectional data. To address these limitations, the present study examined whether perceived discrimination affects depressive symptomatology in a representative sample of newly arrived immigrants from Mainland China to Hong Kong using longitudinal data over a period of one year. A representative sample of 347 migrants aged 18 and older were interviewed face to face in 2007 and 2008. The 20-item Center for Epidemiology Studies of Depression (CES-D) scale was used to measure depressive symptoms and a series of sociodemographic questions (age, gender, marital status, education, and personal income), stress due to perceived discrimination, social support, and neighborhood collective efficacy were also included. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depressive symptoms one year later, after adjusting for depressive symptoms at baseline assessment, sociodemographic characteristics, social support, and neighborhood collective efficacy. Moreover, both social support and neighborhood collective efficacy moderated the effect of perceived discrimination on depressive symptoms. Perceived discrimination is a common experience for new Mainland immigrants to Hong Kong, and it predicts depressive symptoms. Therefore, interventions that reduce discrimination and strengthen social support and neighborhood collective efficacy should be designed and implemented to improve the mental health of new immigrants in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Overweight, perceived overweight and involvement in bullying in middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lankinen, Vilma; Marttunen, Mauri; Lindberg, Nina; Fröjd, Sari

    2016-04-01

    Overweight is reportedly a risk factor for being bullied, and body image may mediate this association. Research on associations between overweight and bullying has so far only focused on children and early adolescents. We explored associations between actual and perceived overweight at age 15 and involvement in bullying at ages 15 and 17. A total of 2070 Finnish adolescents responded to a survey at ages 15 and 17. Self-reported weight and height, perceived weight and involvement in bullying were elicited. Being overweight at age 15 was not associated with being bullied or with being a bully at age 15 or 17. Perceived overweight among girls was associated with subsequent involvement in bullying as a bully and in feeling shunned. Weight related bullying may decrease from pre- and early adolescence to middle adolescence. The associations between perceived overweight and self-identification as a bully, and those between perceived overweight and feeling isolated may be explained by the phenomena representing psychological dysfunction.

  1. Exploring determinants of perceived interfirm dependence in industrial supplier relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorderhaven, N.G.; Nooteboom, B.; Berger, H.

    1995-01-01

    Three groups of sources of supplier dependence are discussed in the literature: factors related to goal mediation, factors related to relation-specific assets, and factors related to network embeddedness. This paper explores the influence on the dependence of ego and alter, as perceived by the suppl

  2. Pre-school Teachers’ Perceived Control and Behaviour Problems in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarberg, Annie

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, pre-school teachers’ perceived control, is examined in relation to problem behaviours of children and the actions of teachers in the classroom. In addition, other factors that are thought to relate to teachers’ perceived control were studied. The results of Study I indicate that pre-school teachers’ high perceived control was related to high intentions to act in the event of child behaviour problems. Teachers’ high satisfaction with their work was also related to high perceive...

  3. Perceived suprathreshold depth under conditions that elevate the stereothreshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Harold E; Gantz, Liat; Jackson, Danielle N

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies considered the possibility that individuals with impaired stereoacuity can be identified by estimating the perceived depth of a target with a suprathreshold retinal image disparity. These studies showed that perceived suprathreshold depth is reduced when the image presented to one eye is blurred, but they did not address whether a similar reduction of perceived depth occurs when the stereothreshold is elevated using other manipulations. Stereothresholds were measured in six adult observers for a pair of bright 1-degree vertical lines during normal viewing and under five conditions that elevated the stereothreshold: monocular dioptric blur, monocular glare, binocular luminance reduction, monocular luminance reduction, and imposed disjunctive image motion. The observers subsequently matched the perceived depth of degraded targets presented with crossed or uncrossed disparities corresponding to two, four, and six times the elevated stereothreshold for each stimulus condition. The image manipulations used elevated the stereothreshold by a factor of 3.7 to 5.5 times. For targets with suprathreshold disparities, monocular blur, monocular luminance reduction, and disjunctive image motion resulted in a significant decrease in perceived depth. However, the magnitude of perceived suprathreshold depth was unaffected when monocular glare was introduced or the binocular luminance of the stereotargets was reduced. Not all conditions that increase the stereothreshold reduce the perceived depth of targets with suprathreshold disparities. Observers who have poor stereopsis therefore may or may not exhibit an associated reduction of perceived suprathreshold depth.

  4. Intention to Use Smartphone Through Perceived Compatibility, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harries Arizonia Ismail

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to test the influence of perceived compatibility perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and intention to use smartphone using five hypotheses. Purposive sampling was used as the technique of sample collection. There are representative samples that are 92 respondents, consists of lecturers, students, and employees from AKI University in Semarang city. The data had been analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and it was processed using AMOS program version 16.0. The result of the hypothesis shows that there is a positive and significant influence on perceived compatibility toward perceived usefulness, perceived compatibility toward perceived ease of use, perceived ease of use toward perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use toward intention to use. However, perceived usefulness toward intention to use is not significant. It can be caused that reason of owning smartphones is only a prestige and the users do not understand benefit of it’s features.Tujuan penelitian ini menguji pengaruh persepsi kesesuaian, persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kemudahan dan minat penggunaan smartphone. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 92 responden yang terdiri dari dosen, mahasiswa dan karyawan universitas AKI di kota Semarang. Data dianalisis menggunakan Structural Equation Modelling (SEM dan diolah dengan program AMOS versi 16.0. Hasil pengujian hipotesis menunjukkan pengaruh positif dan signifikan pada persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemudahan penggunaan, persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan dan persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap minat penggunaan. Namun demikian, pengaruh persepsi kemanfaatan terhadap minat penggunaan hasil dinyatakan tidak signifikan. Hal ini dikarenakan responden hanya menggunakan smartphones untuk prestis.JEL Classification: M3, M31

  5. Predicting perceived health in Angolan elderly: the moderator effect of being oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, José Manuel; Gutiérrez, Melchor; Sancho, Patricia; Galiana, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the predicting effects of variables measuring social support, dependence/active perceptions, and generativity, on this facet of well-being when controlled for socio-demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, and institutionalization). The research tries to extend previous literature by assessing them in a multivariate context, studying differential effects of these variables in young old and oldest old, and offering evidence of the scarcely studied population of Angola. The sample was formed by 737 young old and 266 oldest old. It was built a hierarchical regression, in which, among the different predictors, interactions effects between age and the psychosocial factors were included. Results provide evidence of the qualitative different perceived health and well-being of the young old and oldest old. When predicting perceived health of the Angolan oldest old, psychosocial factors lose much of its importance, and age itself and the limitations that accompanied it seem to be the key point.

  6. Perceived game realism: a test of three alternative models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbens, Wannes

    2013-01-01

    Perceived realism is considered a key concept in explaining the mental processing of media messages and the societal impact of media. Despite its importance, little is known about its conceptualization and dimensional structure, especially with regard to digital games. The aim of this study was to test a six-factor model of perceived game realism comprised of simulational realism, freedom of choice, perceptual pervasiveness, social realism, authenticity, and character involvement and to assess it against an alternative single- and five-factor model. Data were collected from 380 male digital game users who judged the realism of the first-person shooter Half-Life 2 based upon their previous experience with the game. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to investigate which model fits the data best. The results support the six-factor model over the single- and five-factor solutions. The study contributes to our knowledge of perceived game realism by further developing its conceptualization and measurement.

  7. Perceived parent-adolescent relationship, perceived parental online behaviors and pathological internet use among adolescents: gender-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents' perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People's Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents' age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention.

  8. Households' Perceived Responsibilities in Flood Risk Management in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Teun; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Flood risk management in the Netherlands is on the eve of shifting primarily from prevention towards risk management, including disaster preparedness and response and citizen participation. This study explores Dutch households' perceived responsibility for taking private protection measures. Survey

  9. From classroom environment to mathematics achievement: The mediating role of self-perceived ability and subject interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosto, Maria G; Asbury, Kathryn; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Petrill, Stephen A; Kovas, Yulia

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation model, perceived classroom environment and three intrapersonal factors (mathematics self-efficacy, maths interest and academic self-concept) were considered as predictors of test performance in two correlated mathematics assessments: a public examination (GCSE) and an on-line test, both taken by UK pupils at age 16 (n = 6689). Intrapersonal factors were significantly associated with both test scores, even when the alternative score was taken into account. Classroom environment did not correlate with mathematics achievement once intrapersonal factors and alternative test performance were included in the model, but was associated with subject interest and academic self-concept. Perceptions of classroom environment may exercise an indirect influence on achievement by boosting interest and self-concept. In turn, these intrapersonal factors have direct relationships with achievement and were found to mediate the relationship between perceived classroom environment and maths performance. Findings and their implications for mathematics education are discussed.

  10. Nursing students’ perceived stress and influences in clinical performance

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Akhu-Zaheya; Insaf Shaban; Wejdan Khater

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is known that stress related to clinical training among nursing students could contribute to many physical and mental problems. However, little empirical evidence about the influence of stress in nurse students’ clinical performance Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the association between perceived stresses, stress related factors, and students’ clinical performance. Method: Using the perceived stress scale, 539 Jordanian nursing students from 2 publ...

  11. Perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi N; Suzuki A; Matsumoto Y; Shirata T; Otani K

    2017-01-01

    Nana Takahashi, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata, Koichi Otani Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Depressed patients are prone to perceive that they were exposed to affectionless control by parents. Meanwhile, high neuroticism is a well-established risk factor for developing depression. Therefore, this study examined whether perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism.Methods: Th...

  12. Long-term physical health consequences of perceived inequality: Results from a twin comparison design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has identified long-term exposure to stress as a risk factor for negative mental and physical health outcomes. This pattern of findings suggests that environmental stimuli that evoke feelings of stress or strain may also result in physiological responses, which may accumulate over the life course and ultimately increase the overall risk of various physical health conditions. This physiological "wear and tear" resulting from sustained levels of stress or strain has been previously operationalized as allostatic load (AL), a comprehensive indicator of stress exposure. The current study examines the association between one potential environmental stressor-perceived inequality-and AL with a research design aimed at addressing both observed and unobserved sources of confounding; it also employs a more comprehensive AL measure (comprised of 24 biomarkers tapping seven physiological systems) than previous studies. The biomarker twin sample from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study was used to estimate a series of twin comparison models, which include controls for latent sources of influence that cluster within families. The sibling comparison models also included additional controls for lifestyle choices, overall physical health, and demographics which may confound the examined associations. The results revealed significant associations between greater perceptions of inequality and greater overall levels of AL. The association persisted even after including controls for both observed and unobserved influences that may confound the examined associations but was limited to more recent measures of perceived inequality. Associations involving earlier measures of perceived inequality, along with a lifetime measure, failed to reach conventional levels of significance. Perceived inequality appears to be a robust predictor of AL and potentially contributes to subsequent physical health problems, particularly for more proximate forms of

  13. Perceived Competence and Autonomy as Moderators of the Effects of Achievement Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, YoonJung; Weinstein, Claire Ellen; Wicker, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of two moderators--perceived competence and perceived autonomy--in the relationships of achievement goal orientations with a broad range of learning-related variables, including interest, effort, learning strategy use and academic achievement. Perceived competence and autonomy played…

  14. Employees' Perceptions of the Opportunities to Utilize Their Competences: Exploring the Role of Perceived Competence Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Perceived competence mobilization is the degree to which employees perceive that they have adequate opportunities to utilize their competences in their current jobs. The findings of the research reported here suggest that employees' perceived competence mobilization is associated with a number of favourable employee attitudes, including intrinsic…

  15. What characterizes persons with high levels of perceived stress in Denmark? A national representative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Curtis, Tine; Kristensen, Tage S

    2008-01-01

    -sectional design. Information on neighbourhood factors was derived from a national registry. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression models. RESULTS: Low education, heavy smoking, physical inactivity, lack of social network and poor working conditions were associated with perceived stress. For women...... perceived stress is characterized by individual and neighbourhood factors with negative impacts on quality of life and risk of illness. This knowledge can guide future stress prevention efforts. Additionally, the results suggest a negative social component where perceived stress, unhealthy lifestyle and low...... social status are accumulated, and perceived stress might be used as a measure to identify groups characterized by accumulation of risk factors....

  16. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  17. Consumer-perceived quality in 'traditional' food chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chryssochoidis, George; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    and to develop the profile of different consumer segments in relation to these perceptions. The substantial findings of the survey include the fact that, despite their enormous per capita consumption, the majority of consumers are not particularly involved in the meat-purchasing process. Rather they attach......Recent food scares have increased consumer concern about meat safety. However, the Greek 'traditional' meat supply chain from producers to local butchers does not seem to realise the pressing consumer demand for certified meat quality. Or is it that, in such food chains, this demand is not so...... pressing yet? The present paper seeks to answer this question based on a survey conducted in the Athens area, involving a sample of 268 participants responsible for food purchasing decisions. The survey mainly aims to develop an integrated model of factors that affect consumer-perceived meat quality...

  18. Predicting Perceived Isolation among Midlife and Older LGBT Adults: The Role of Welcoming Aging Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Chu, Yoosun; Salmon, Mary Anne

    2017-06-16

    Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults are more likely to live alone and less likely to have children compared with their heterosexual counterparts. The lack of immediate family system can render older LGBT adults particularly vulnerable to social isolation and its consequences. The current study utilizes social exclusion theory, which asserts that not only material resources but also engagement with and inclusion into the society are necessary for marginalized people to be integrated into the mainstream. The study examines whether aging service providers (e.g., senior centers, adult day care, transportation, employment services) who are perceived by older LGBT adults as welcoming to LGBT people may reduce this population's perceived isolation. Data were collected through a needs assessment survey designed for the aging LGBT community in North Carolina. Adults aged 45 and over who self-identified as LGBT were recruited at several formal and informal groups. The survey yielded 222 valid responses. The outcome variable was perceived isolation. Key independent variables included having experienced welcoming aging service providers and living alone. After controlling for potential confounders and demographics, logistic regression results showed that having experienced welcoming aging service providers was a protective factor against perceived isolation and it also buffered the negative impact of living alone. The findings provided preliminary evidence for a new direction of intervention research-targeting LGBT cultural competence training for medical and social service providers.

  19. Relationship between the 3x2 achievement goals and perceived competence in Physical Education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Garcia-Romero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth affiliation to physical activity and their active implication in sport throughout life, are two of the main objectives in Physical Education. In this research we examine the relationship between the achievement goals and the perceived competence in Physical Education since the recent theoretical framework of 3x2 achievement goals. The sample comprised 205 (113 boys and 92 girls, aged 12 and 18 years (M =14,02; SD = 1,70, all of them belonging to two Secondary School in the North of Spain. These students completed the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire (CML3x2-EF and the perceived competence subscale factor included in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES, also adapted to Physical Education. We performed descriptive analysis (M and DT, Cronbach alphas and linear regression analysis by stepwise. The results showed a positive correlation between the six goals of achievement and the perceived competence, being particularly high value of approach-task and approach-self. The three approach goals (approach-task, approach-self, approach-other significantly predicted the perceived competence (ß = 0,43; 0,18; 0,20, respectively.

  20. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  1. Investigating students’ attitude towards the importance of factors included in the teaching evaluation forms of School of Public Health of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Dehghani Tafti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: students’ attitudes about teaching methodology have been widely recognised as a valid tool of evaluating teaching activities of faculty members. This study aims to determine the importance of the factors included in the teaching evaluation, from the students’ point of view. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Using a random cluster sampling, 332 students of the school of public health of Shahid Sadoughi University were selected .To collect data, a questionnaire containing three partswere used. These were demographic items, teachers’ evaluation (14 items and self-evaluation (4 items. Results: The students (80% scoredpersonal characteristics more. Among different fields of study, those studying occupational health scored the factorsless than others, and those studying at masters level scored them more than others.   The results indicated that there are significant correlation between age, marital status, and employment status of the students and the total average score.   The students scored the self-evaluation items more than 60%, There was a significant correlation between the average scores of evaluation and self-evaluation items. The students at bachelor level scored the factor more than masters students. Conclusion: The students’ focus on personal characteristics of teachers was remarkable. There is a need to revise the process of academics’ recruitment based on these findings. There is also a need to review the items included in evaluation forms of the school.

  2. Scale Development for Perceived School Climate for Girls' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls' physical activity in middle school girls. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers' and boys' behaviors,…

  3. The Case for the Perceived Social Competence Scale II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Amorose, Anthony J.; Lower, Leeann M.; Riley, Allison; Gibson, Allison; Ruch, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the psychometric properties of the revised Perceived Social Competence Scale (PSCS), a brief, user-friendly tool used to assess social competence among youth. Method: Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) examined the factor structure and invariance of an enhanced scale (PSCS-II), among a sample of 420 youth.…

  4. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  5. Association between perceived social support and anxiety in pregnant adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia J. Peter

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between perceived social support and anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 871 pregnant women aged 10 to 19 years who received prenatal care in the national public health care system in the urban area of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. We assessed perceived social support and anxiety disorders using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information. Results: The prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 13.6%. Pregnant adolescents with an anxiety disorder reported less perceived social support in all domains (affectionate, emotional, tangible, informational, and positive social interaction. Older teenagers reported lower perceived support in the emotional, informational, and positive social interaction domains, whereas those with low socioeconomic status reported lower perceived social support in the material domain. Women who did not live with a partner had less perceived social support in the affectionate and positive social interaction domains. Conclusion: Perceived social support seems to be a protective factor against anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents, with a positive effect on mental health.

  6. Association between perceived social support and anxiety in pregnant adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Patrícia J; de Mola, Christian L; de Matos, Mariana B; Coelho, Fábio M; Pinheiro, Karen A; da Silva, Ricardo A; Castelli, Rochele D; Pinheiro, Ricardo T; Quevedo, Luciana A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association between perceived social support and anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 871 pregnant women aged 10 to 19 years who received prenatal care in the national public health care system in the urban area of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. We assessed perceived social support and anxiety disorders using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information. The prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 13.6%. Pregnant adolescents with an anxiety disorder reported less perceived social support in all domains (affectionate, emotional, tangible, informational, and positive social interaction). Older teenagers reported lower perceived support in the emotional, informational, and positive social interaction domains, whereas those with low socioeconomic status reported lower perceived social support in the material domain. Women who did not live with a partner had less perceived social support in the affectionate and positive social interaction domains. Perceived social support seems to be a protective factor against anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents, with a positive effect on mental health.

  7. Study on the self-perceived learning pressure and its influence factors among medical students%医学生学习压力状况及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管超萍; 梁渊; 温小飘; 龚言红; 马建辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the learning pressure and its influencing factors among medical students. Methods 1751 students of five majors in five grades were investigated by stratified cluster sampling. A self-made questionnaire on self-perceived learning pressure was used. Results Compared to freshmen, the students in other grades had greater learning pressure ( OR values were 2. 67, 2. 58 , 1. 44 and 1. 92 ). Students in Preventive Medicine and Pharmacy had lower learning pressure than clinical medicine students ( OR values were 0. 64 and 0. 40). The students who hoped to get instruction strongly and fairly had greater learning pressure ( OR values were 2. 25 and 1. 39). The students who hoped to join and actively joined scientific research activities fairly had lower learning pressure ( OR values were 0. 53 and 0. 71). Conclusion Students who were sophomore, junior, grade five, clinical, and students who hoped to get more teachers' instructor or feel disappeared should be target population and paid more attention.%目的 分析医学生的学习压力现状,探讨学习压力的影响因素.方法 通过分层整群抽样,对武汉某高校5个年级的5个专业的1751名在校大学生进行调查.结果 相对于大一学生,大二、大三、大四、大五学生学习压力更大(OR值分别为2.67、2.58、1.44和1.92);预防医学和药学专业的学生比临床医学专业的学生学习压力小(OR值分别为0.64和0.40);希望得到老师指导程度强和一般的学生较不希望得到指导的学生学习压力大(OR值分别为2.25和1.39);参加老师科研活动意愿和次数一般的学生学习压力更小(OR值分别为0.53和0.71).结论 大二、大三的学生以及临床医学专业、希望得到老师指导和感到悲观失望的学生是学习压力干预关注的重点.

  8. Perceived incompetence moderates the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier-Auerbach, Amanda G; Martens, Matthew P

    2009-01-01

    Maladaptive perfectionism and perceived incompetence are two factors associated with disordered eating. In this study, we examined whether perceived incompetence moderated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and disordered eating. Three hundred fifteen college women completed surveys assessing eating habits and levels of perceived incompetence and perfectionism. Results supported a moderating effect of perceived incompetence such that as levels of perceived incompetence increased, the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and disordered eating became increasingly strong. These results imply that clinicians may want to focus efforts on helping clients learn to set healthy goals and improve their perception of competence in life domains.

  9. Problem-solving skills and perceived stress among undergraduate students: The moderating role of hardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Carlbring, Per; Harvey, Richard; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-06-26

    This study was designed to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills, hardiness, and perceived stress and to test the moderating role of hardiness in the relationship between problem-solving skills and perceived stress among 500 undergraduates from Malaysian public universities. The analyses showed that undergraduates with poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and approach-avoidance style were more likely to report perceived stress. Hardiness moderated the relationships between problem-solving skills and perceived stress. These findings reinforce the importance of moderating role of hardiness as an influencing factor that explains how problem-solving skills affect perceived stress among undergraduates.

  10. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following......: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...... the social context (both at a macro and at a micro level) in the definition and use of creativity in engineering education....

  11. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Busk Kofoed, Lise

    2013-10-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including the social context (both at a macro and at a micro level) in the definition and use of creativity in engineering education.

  12. Overview of the perceived risk of transboundary pig diseases in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japhta M. Mokoele

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pig production is one of the most important animal agricultural activities in South Africa, and plays a definite role in providing food security for certain population groups in the country. As with all animal production systems, it is subject to the risk of outbreak of transboundary diseases. In the present overview, evaluations of the perceived risk of selected transboundary animal diseases of pigs, as collated from the willing participants from the provincial veterinary services of South Africa, are presented. A scenario tree revealed that infected but undetected pigs were the greatest perceived threat. The provincial veterinary services, according to participants in the study, face certain difficulties, including the reporting of disease and the flow of disease information amongst farmers. Perceived strengths in surveillance and disease monitoring include the swiftness of sample despatch to the national testing laboratory, as well as the ease of flow of information between the provincial and national agricultural authorities. The four factors were identified that were perceived to most influence animal health-service delivery: transport, access, livestock policy and resources. African swine fever was perceived to be the most important pig disease in South Africa. Because the decentralisation of veterinary services in South Africa was identified as a potential weakness, it is recommended that national and provincial veterinary services need to work together and interdependently to achieve centrally controlled surveillance systems. Regionally-coordinated surveillance activities for certain transboundary diseases were identified as needing priority for the southern African region. It is proposed that an emergency preparedness document be made available and regularly revised according to the potential risks identified on a continuous basis for South Africa.

  13. Autopercepção da saúde bucal em idosos e fatores associados em Campinas, SP, 2008-2009 Autopercepción de la salud bucal en ancianos y factores asociados en Campinas, Sureste de Brasil, 2008-2009 Self-perceived oral health and associated factors among the elderly in Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Dias da Silva

    2011-12-01

    (GOHAI. Los individuos fueron clasificados según características sociodemográficas, odontológicas y prevalencia de fragilidad biológica. El estudio de asociaciones utilizó análisis de regresión de Poisson; el análisis consideró los pesos muestrales y la estructura compleja de la muestra por conglomerados. RESULTADOS: El promedio de edad de los individuos fuese 72,8 años; 70,1% eran mujeres. La proporción de individuos congas de 20 dientes presentes fue 17,2%; 38,2% usaban prótesis dentaria total en ambos arcos; 8,5% necesitaban de tal recurso en al menos un arco dentario. En promedio, el indice GOHAI fue elevado: 33,9 (máximo posible 36,0. Mantener 20 dientes o más, usar prótesis total en los dos arcos, no necesitar de este tratamiento, no presentar alteraciones de mucosa oral y no presentar fragilidad biológica fueron los factores significativamente asociados con mejor autopercepción de salud bucal (pOBJECTIVE: To describe self-perceived oral health among elderly people and assess associated sociodemographic and clinical factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 876 participants forming a representative sample of elderly people (65 years of age or over in Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, in 2008-2009. Dental examinations were conducted in accordance with criteria standardized by the World Health Organization for epidemiological surveys on oral health. Self-perceived oral health was evaluated using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI. Individuals were classified according to sociodemographic characteristics, dental factors and prevalence of biological frailty. Associations were assessed using Poisson regression analysis, taking into consideration sample weights and the complex structure of the cluster sampling. RESULTS: The subjects' mean age was 72.8 years; 70.1% were women. The proportion of the individuals with more than 20 teeth present was 17.2%; 38.2% were using full dentures in both arches; 8.5% needed dental

  14. Perceived service quality, perceived value, overall satisfaction and happiness of outlook for long-term care institution residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Hsiao, Chih-Tung; Glen, Robert; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Zeng, Sin-Huei

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the psychometric properties and relationships of perceived service quality, perceived value and overall satisfaction for residents with respect to their long-term care institutions. The five-point Likert scale questionnaire administered through facetoface interviews. Fourteen long-term care institutions located in central and southern Taiwan stratified according to services and accommodation population. One hundred and eighty long-term institutional care residents. Perceived service quality (the SERVPERF model), perceived value and overall satisfaction (models based on the literature on perceived value and satisfaction). Student's t-test on institutional location shows a significant difference between overall satisfaction for central and southern institution long-term care recipients. The correlation test revealed that the higher a resident's level of education, the higher the scores for perceived value. The factor loading results of confirmation factor analysis show acceptable levels of reliability and index-of-model fits for perceived service, perceived value and overall satisfaction. In addition, the results suggest that an additional construct, a positive attitude (happiness of outlook) towards long-term care institutions, is also an important factor in residents' overall satisfaction. The primary goal of long-term institutional care policy in Taiwan, as in other countries, is to provide residents with practical, cost-effective but high-quality care. On the basis of the results of in-depth interviews with long-term institutional care residents, this study suggests long-term care institutions arrange more family visit days to increase the accessibility and interaction of family and residents and thereby increase the happiness of outlook of the residents. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  16. The roles of social factor and internet self-efficacy in nurses' web-based continuing learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to explore the relationships among social factor, Internet self-efficacy and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning in a clinical nursing setting. The participants recruited were 244 in-service nurses from hospitals in Taiwan. Three instruments were used to assess their perceptions of social factor, Internet self-efficacy (including basic and advanced Internet self-efficacy) and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning (including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, affection and behavior). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to identify the hypothesized structural model. The results of this study support that social factor is a significant factor correlated to Internet self-efficacy and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning (including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and affection). In addition, nurses' basic Internet self-efficacy plays a key role in attitudes including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and affection. However, advanced self-efficacy was not correlated to any of the attitudes. The behavior dimension was not linked to social factor or Internet self-efficacy, but was linked to perceived ease of use and affection.

  17. Continued Attachment to Parents: Its Relationship To Affect Regulation and Perceived Stress among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Moller, Naomi P.; Fouladi, Rachel T.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the factor pattern of parental attachment measures as well as the relationship of the resultant oblique factors to emotional functioning and perceived stress. Results reveal that individuals who reported higher levels of parental attachment reported lower levels of perceived stress and greater confidence in their ability to attend to and…

  18. Relations between Big Five personality characteristics and perceived support in adolescents' families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branje, S.J.T.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Aken, M.A.G. van

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the longitudinal relations between family members' Big Five personality factors and perceived support. Members of 285 two-parent families with 2 adolescent children judged their own and other family members' Big Five factors and the support perceived from the other members o

  19. Social determinants of self-perceived discrimination in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-González, D; Vives-Cases, C; Borrell, C; Agudelo-Suárez, A A; Álvarez-Dardet, C

    2013-03-01

    To analyse the association between self-perceived discrimination and social determinants (social class, gender, country of origin) in Spain, and further to describe contextual factors which contribute to self-perceived discrimination. Cross-sectional design using data from the Spanish National Health Survey (2006). The dependent variable was self-perceived discrimination, and independent and stratifying variables were sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. sex, social class, country of origin, educational level). Logistic regression was used. The prevalence of self-perceived discrimination was 4.2% for men and 6.3% for women. The likelihood of self-perceived discrimination was higher in people who originated from low-income countries: men, odds ratio (OR) 5.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55-6.87]; women, OR 4.06 (95% CI 3.42-4.83). Women were more likely to report self-perceived discrimination by their partner at home than men [OR 8.35 (95% CI 4.70-14.84)]. The likelihood of self-perceived discrimination when seeking work was higher among people who originated from low-income countries than their Spanish counterparts: men, OR 13.65 (95% CI 9.62-19.35); women, OR 10.64 (95% CI 8.31-13.62). In comparison with Spaniards, male white-collar workers who originated from low-income countries [OR 11.93 (95% CI 8.26-17.23)] and female blue-collar workers who originated from low-income countries (OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.08-2.39)] reported higher levels of self-perceived discrimination. Self-perceived discrimination is distributed unevenly in Spain and interacts with social inequalities. This particularly affects women and immigrants. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  1. The impact of user's perceived ability on online health information acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Eun; Han, Sang Sook; Yoo, Keun Hee; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain how perceived ability affects users' acceptance of online health information in Korea. Data were collected by a Web-based survey, and, in total, 449 samples were used for final analysis. The hypothetical model of this study was based on the Technology Acceptance Model. A structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between the included variables. The final model with appropriate relations exhibited an adequate fit to the data. This study provides evidence that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived credibility significantly affect how individuals use health information from the Internet. The subjective health knowledge and Internet efficacy exerted strong indirect effects on users' attitude and intention to use the online health information via the mediators of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived credibility. This study supports the hypothesis that the perceived ability of users is related to their acceptance of online health information. Users' perceived ability, including subjective health knowledge and Internet efficacy, was confirmed as a prerequisite for their health information use on the Internet. The results demonstrated that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived credibility are substantive mediators. Future research should consider a wider array of characteristics of health information and users and incorporate these characteristics for the provision of more useful, user-centered health information.

  2. Perceived injustice predicts stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Miriam O; Molokie, Robert E; Wilkie, Diana J; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei

    2015-06-01

    Research evidence shows that perceived injustice is a context-based unfair treatment that has negative influence on health outcomes. We examined the contribution of patients' perceived injustice regarding interactions with health care providers to stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). This study was a cross-sectional correlational pilot study. Included in the study were adults with SCD who received their care from a university-affiliated comprehensive sickle cell clinic. Participants were 52 adults whose mean age was 34 ± 11 years (minimum [min] 20 years, maximum [max] 70 years). Most of the patients were African American (n = 48, 92%) and female (n = 41, 79%). Forty-eight patients (92%) reported having a high school diploma or higher. Participants completed the perceived injustice questionnaire, perceived stress questionnaire, and the PAINReportIt, which includes questions to measure pain and demographics. We analyzed the data using the linear regression analyses. Perceived injustice from doctors was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p Perceived injustice from nurses also was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p perceived injustice attributed to both doctors and nurses consistently predicted patients' perceived stress, but only the procedural and distributive domains of perceived injustice consistently predicted patients' pain. Findings suggest that perceived injustice was negatively associated with stress and pain in adults with SCD and warrant further investigation in a larger sample. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Do we see how they perceive risk? An integrated analysis of risk perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nini; Wang, Xueqing; Griffin, Mark A; Wu, Chunlin; Liu, Bingsheng

    2017-06-20

    While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers' direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers' risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  5. Perceived workplace health support is associated with employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Hannon, Peggy A; Laing, Sharon S; Kohn, Marlana J; Clark, Kathleen; Pritchard, Scott; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between perceived workplace health support and employee productivity. A quantitative cross-sectional study. Washington State agencies. A total of 3528 employees from six state agencies were included in this analysis. Perceived workplace health support was assessed by two questions that queried respondents on how often they felt supported by the workplace for healthy living and physical activity. The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire was used to measure health-related absenteeism and presenteeism in the past 7 days. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the mean differences in productivity by levels of perceived health support. Most participants were between 45 and 64 years of age and were predominantly non-Hispanic white. Presenteeism varied significantly by the level of perceived workplace health support, with those who felt least supported having higher presenteeism than those who felt most supported. The difference in presenteeism by perceived workplace support remained significant in models adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics (mean difference: 7.1% for support for healthy living, 95% confidence interval: 3.7%, 10.4%; 4.3% for support for physical activity, 95% confidence interval: 1.7%, 6.8%). Absenteeism was not associated with perceived workplace health support. Higher perceived workplace health support is independently associated with higher work productivity. Employers may see productivity benefit from wellness programs through improved perceptions of workplace health support.

  6. Associations between Parents' Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua; Zheng, Xiaohong; Zhang, Min; Weschler, Louise; Sundell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children's allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1-8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents' perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents' perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children's allergic diseases.

  7. Associations between Parents’ Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua; Zheng, Xiaohong; Zhang, Min; Weschler, Louise; Sundell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children’s allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1–8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents’ perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents’ perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children’s allergic diseases. PMID:27191186

  8. Exploring the Key Factors of Knowledge Sharing via Employee Weblogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Rahimi Moghadam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two dependent variables of individual's intention and attitude have been defined for knowledge sharing via the employee weblog and independent variables have been determined in 3 groups of social influence factor, technology acceptance factor and social cognitive factor with subset variables including the subjective norm, social identity, group norm (first group, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment (second group, self-efficacy, personal outcome expectation, altruism and trust (third group. This research reviews the previous studies in the field of knowledge sharing via the employee weblog. The main difference of this research with other studies is to collect and complete a full set of factors affecting the knowledge sharing according to the factors raised in previous studies. Finally the suggestions have been provided for conducting the statistical studies in Iran.

  9. Obesity as a perceived social signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasee Mankar

    Full Text Available Fat accumulation has been classically considered as a means of energy storage. Obese people are theorized as metabolically 'thrifty', saving energy during times of food abundance. However, recent research has highlighted many neuro-behavioral and social aspects of obesity, with a suggestion that obesity, abdominal obesity in particular, may have evolved as a social signal. We tested here whether body proportions, and abdominal obesity in particular, are perceived as signals revealing personality traits. Faceless drawings of three male body forms namely lean, muscular and feminine, each with and without abdominal obesity were shown in a randomized order to a group of 222 respondents. A list of 30 different adjectives or short descriptions of personality traits was given to each respondent and they were asked to allocate the most appropriate figure to each of them independently. The traits included those directly related to physique, those related to nature, attitude and moral character and also those related to social status. For 29 out of the 30 adjectives people consistently attributed specific body forms. Based on common choices, the 30 traits could be clustered into distinct 'personalities' which were strongly associated with particular body forms. A centrally obese figure was perceived as "lethargic, greedy, political, money-minded, selfish and rich". The results show that body proportions are perceived to reflect personality traits and this raises the possibility that in addition to energy storage, social selection may have played some role in shaping the biology of obesity.

  10. Development Strategy of Primary Health Care Institutions under the Perspective of Customer Perceived Value--Based on Exploratory Factor Analysis%顾客感知价值下的基层医疗卫生机构发展策略研究--基于探索性因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪波; 段琪

    2014-01-01

    Based on the customer perceived value theory, this article extracts six factors from the patient perceived value of the primary health care institutions through factor analysis, which are the functional value, emotional value, image value, special value, the cost of time, and the cost of money, and each dimension has a reliable reliability. It applies the multiple regression method to analyze how the six factors influence the willingness to take treatment in the primary health care institutions. Based on conclusions, developing strategies are put forward for the primary health care institutions on how to attract the patients through raising patients’ customer perceived value.%以顾客感知价值为理论基础,运用探索性因子分析法,提取出基层医疗卫生机构患者价值感知的六类因子,分别是功能价值、情感价值、形象价值、特殊价值、时间成本和货币成本,且各维度具有较高信度。应用多元回归技术验证了六类因子对患者到基层医疗卫生机构就诊意愿的影响程度。并基于结论提出了基层医疗卫生机构如何通过提高患者感知价值以吸引患者的发展策略。

  11. The factors of coping and perceived social support scale on juvenile violent prisoners in Shanxi Province%应对方式和领悟社会支持对山西省青少年暴力犯罪的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志晶; 王志中; 樊鑫

    2012-01-01

      Objective:The objective of this paper is to explore the factors of coping and perceived social support scale on juvenile violent prisoners in Shanxi Province. Methods:789 juvenile violent prisoners were surveyed with Revised Aggression Questionnaire,Coping Questionnaire and Perceived Social Support Scale Questionnaire. Results:There were significantly different problems-solving,self-accusation, illusions,retreat,rationalization and perceived social support scale with factors of Coping Questionnaire,but help-seeking. Conclusion:The juvenile violent prisoners to use mostly immature or mixed coping style, instead of mature coping style;perceived social support scale is lower;problems-solving,self-accusation,illusions, rationalization and perceived social support scale are effectiveness to violent attacks .%  目的:探讨应对方式和领悟社会支持对山西省青少年暴力犯罪的影响。方法:采用修订后攻击问卷、应对方式问卷和领悟社会支持PSSS问卷对789名山西青少年犯进行心理测量。结果:除求助外,解决问题、自责、幻想、退避、合理化和PSSS与《攻击问卷》各因素之间有着十分显著的关系;言语攻击、愤怒和敌意与PSSS之间有十分显著地关系,身体攻击与PSSS之间的关系不大。结论:青少年暴力犯多采用不成熟或者混合型的应对方式,而不是求助等成熟的应对方式;对于社会中的支持感受较低;解决问题、自责、幻想、合理化、PSSS对暴力攻击有影响效力。

  12. Contraction of Perceived Size and Perceived Depth in Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Atsuki; Shimono, Koichi; Zaitsu, Wataru

    2005-01-01

    We investigated how size and depth are perceived in a plane or convex mirror. In Experiment 1, using a plane or convex mirror, 20 observers viewed a separation between two objects that were presented at a constant distance and reproduced it by a separation between other two objects in a natural viewing situation. The mean matches generally…

  13. Adolescents' perceived risk for STDs and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, J M; Boyer, C B; Tschann, J M; Shafer, M A

    1996-03-01

    In 1991, 881 urban US high school students participated in a survey designed to determine their perceptions of risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and to test whether results of a previously reported clinic-based study on perceptions of risk are generalizable. Of the students, 278 had engaged in sexual intercourse, and 231 of these returned questionnaires with usable answers to each question. The analysis was based on this latter cohort. The mean age of this group was 15.5 years. 53% were male, 34% Black, 27% Hispanic, 14% Asian, 9% White, and 16% other. The perceived relative risks for STDs and HIV (dependent measures) were submitted to separate analysis using the 5-point Likert scales. Independent measures included demographic variables, STD and HIV anxiety, condom use, number of partners, and STD and HIV beliefs. It was found that 24% never used a condom and 43% always used condoms. The subjects showed no optimistic bias in their perceptions of the relative risk of STDs or HIV (they believed their risks to be the same as those of other people their age). The only variance found was that the White subjects believed themselves at less relative risk than the other subjects. These findings contrast those of the clinic-based study and suggest that perceptions of risk may vary among different cohorts. Higher levels of anxiety were also found to be associated with higher levels of perceived risk whereas other factors were not. A possible limitation of this study was that the group to which the study population was asked to compare itself was not clearly defined. However, this study indicates that sexually active adolescents are well aware of their STD and HIV risks and that their decision to engage in risky behavior may be due to factors other than a heightened sense of invulnerability (such as perception of social norms or alcohol use).

  14. Perceived Stigma and Quality of Life in Patients Following Recovery From Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kang, Hee-Ju; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2017-07-01

    To elucidate the factors related to perceived stigma and quality of life (QoL) in patients who have recovered from delirium. This prospective cohort investigation of patients with delirium, as diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, was conducted from July 2011 to May 2013. The perceived stigma level and QoL of each patient was assessed using the Perceived Stigma of Delirium Scale (PSDS) and European Quality of Life Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS), respectively, following recovery from delirium. Several clinical characteristics were assessed at baseline and after recovery from delirium, and a multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted. This study included 128 patients who completed a follow-up assessment after recovery from delirium. A multivariate analysis revealed that patients who had a history of depression (B = 3.34, P = .026), could recall their experiences with delirium (B = 1.71, P = .011), and had a longer duration from delirium detection to recovery (B = 1.39, P = .012) obtained higher PSDS scores than patients without these characteristics. The ability to recall delirium experiences (B = -7.17, P = .026) and the use of antipsychotics at follow-up assessment (B = -7.87, P = .039) were associated with lower EQ-VAS scores. Additionally, PSDS scores were negatively correlated with EQ-VAS scores (r = -0.37, P delirium reported varying degrees of perceived stigma and that the ability to recall their delirium experiences was associated with a higher stigma and a poorer QoL. These findings suggest that care teams should pay more attention to perceived stigma in patients with delirium.

  15. Individual differences in delay discounting under acute stress: the role of trait perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina M. Lempert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance. They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises a stressful situation interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision making.

  16. Personality as a Predictor of First-Semester Adjustment to College: The Mediational Role of Perceived Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidy, Kara M.; Kahn, Jeffrey H.

    2006-01-01

    Personality was hypothesized to predict college adjustment because of the role of perceived social support. A sample of III freshmen completed measures of personality, perceived social support, and college adjustment twice in their 1st semester. Perceived social support mediated the relationships between 3 personality factors (Emotional Stability,…

  17. The mediating roles of perceived stress and health behaviors in the relation between objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status and perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2014-10-01

    Objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with perceived health, morbidity, and mortality. We investigated whether perceived stress and health behaviors mediated the relation between the three types of SES and perceived health. Participants (N = 508) attending a public clinic completed a computerized survey assessing objective SES (income, education, employment); health behaviors; perceived stress; and perceived health. They also indicated their social standing relative to others (subjective SES) and provided their current address to determine neighborhood SES. In a structural equation model including all three SES types, lower objective and subjective SES were related to poorer perceived health. When mediators were included in the model, there were significant indirect effects of (a) SES on health through stress and (b) SES on health through stress and health-compromising behaviors. Interventions to reduce the impact of stressors could improve the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals.

  18. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Jonathan E; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Benedict, Ashwini; Costantino, Julie; Ward, Michael; Peyser, Brian D; Retterer, Cary J; Tressler, Lyal E; Wanner, Laura M; McGovern, Hugh F; Zaidi, Anum; Anthony, Scott M; Kota, Krishna P; Bavari, Sina; Hakami, Ramin M

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  19. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Nuss

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  20. Fatores clínicos, funcionais e inflamatórios associados à fadiga muscular e à fadiga autopercebida em idosas da comunidade Clinical, functional and inflammatory factors associated with muscle fatigue and self-perceived fatigue in elderly community-dwelling women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juscelio P. Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A fadiga é um sintoma comum e inespecífico associado aos problemas crônicos de saúde nos idosos. As alterações e adaptações do processo de envelhecimento associadas à natureza complexa e multidimensional da fadiga favorecem a interação de múltiplos fatores na gênese desse fenômeno. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a associação dos fatores clínicos, funcionais e inflamatórios com a fadiga muscular e a autopercebida em idosas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 135 idosas sedentárias da comunidade, com média de idade de 71,2±4,57. Questionário estruturado e teste funcional foram utilizados para avaliar as características clínicas e funcionais. As concentrações plasmáticas dos mediadores inflamatórios (IL-6 e sTNFR1 foram dosadas pelo método ELISA. A fadiga muscular foi mensurada pelo dinamômetro isocinético, e a fadiga autopercebida, pela Escala Visual Analógica (EVA. A análise estatística foi realizada pela regressão linear múltipla e pelo Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Os modelos de regressão demonstraram que os fatores idade, índice de massa corporal (IMC, nível de atividade física, capacidade funcional e pico de torque foram associados à fadiga muscular (R²=0,216, pBACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common and nonspecific symptom associated with chronic health problems in the elderly. The modifications and adaptations of the aging process associated with complex and multidimensional nature of fatigue favors the interaction of multiple factors in the genesis of this phenomenon. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of clinical, functional and inflammatory factors with muscle fatigue and self perceived fatigue in elderly women. METHODS: Participated in the study one hundred and thirty five community elderly women, all sedentary, with a mean age of 71.2±4.57. A structured questionnaire and functional testing were used to evaluate clinical and functional

  1. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers among power wheelchair soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J P; Malone, Laurie A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of exercise is a major risk factor for secondary conditions among persons dependent upon motorized wheelchairs. Power wheelchair soccer is a unique exercise opportunity for this population, and understanding factors that influence exercise decision-making is necessary for clinicians to help those in motorized chairs reduce their secondary risk. Therefore, this study examined differences in perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among power wheelchair soccer players using a mixed-methods analysis. The most common perceived benefit to exercise was "Exercising lets me have contact with friends and persons I enjoy." Post hoc comparisons of quantitative data indicated that persons with muscular dystrophy perceived exercise to be significantly less important than did other disability groups (p wheelchair users.

  2. Perceived Justice in Political Marketing: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihwan Susila

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to criticize and develop the construct of equity theory within the framework of perceived justice. Specifically, this study aims to investigate perceived justice construct in political marketing perspective. Sample of the research consist of voters of political parties in Indonesia.Data were collected through interviews and a survey using a structured questionnaire with a purposive sampling method to 150 respondents. The study use exploratory factor analyses and Cronbach Alpha method to test the construct validity. The research also use measurement model of structural equation model (SEM which is the same as confirmatory factor analysis procedure. Qualitative method also used in this research to investigate the new construct of perceived justice in political marketing. Result of the study found that procedural justice has weak construct validity and the definition of the construct is not clear. Findings the new concept of justice in a political marketing perspective discussed in this article.

  3. Perceiving Tonal Structure in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses research that may broaden understanding of how music of other styles and cultures is perceived and remembered. Experiments examined serve to isolate similarities and differences that exist across musical cultures and characterize their psychological effects and to study perception of compositional styles in Western music outside the…

  4. Perceived prominence and scale types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøndering, John; Jensen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Three different scales which have been used to measure perceived prominence are evaluated in a perceptual experiment. Average scores of raters using a multi-level (31-point) scale, a simple binary (2-point) scale and an intermediate 4-point scale are almost identical. The potentially finer gradat...

  5. A prospective study of return to work across health conditions: perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Sandra; Reneman, Michiel F; Bültmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct subgroup-analyses in a prospective cohort of workers on long-term sickness absence to investigate whether associations between perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and time to RTW differ across different health conditions. The study was based on a sample of 926 workers on sickness absence (6-12 weeks). The participants filled out a baseline questionnaire and were subsequently followed until the tenth month after listing sick. Perceived work attitude was measured with a Dutch language version of the Work Involvement Scale. Perceived social support was measured with a self-constructed standardized scale reflecting a person's perception of social support regarding RTW. Self-efficacy was measured with the standardised Dutch version of the General self-efficacy scale, assessing the subjects' expectations of their general capacities. The sample was divided into three subgroups: musculoskeletal health conditions, other physical health conditions and mental health conditions. Anova analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify differences in association between the three factors and the time to RTW between different subgroups. The associations between the perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and the time to RTW vary across different health condition subgroups, not only with regard to the strength of the association but also for the type of factor. In the multivariate model, hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75) in the musculoskeletal subgroup, and 1.26 (95% CI 0.89-1.78) in the other physical subgroup were found in perceived work attitude. With regard to perceived social support HRs of 1.39 (95% CI 1.12-1.99) respectively 1.51 (1.05-2.17) in the same subgroups were found. Only self-efficacy remained in the multivariate model in all subgroups with HRs of 1.49 (95% CI 1.12-1.99) in the musculoskeletal subgroup, 1.53 (95% CI 1