WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors including gender

  1. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  2. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  3. Motivational factors, gender and engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne Schioldann

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students1 reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find...... programmes, we further show that these overall gender differences are subtle and that motivational factors are unequally important across the different educational programmes. The findings from this study clearly indicate that intrinsic and social motivations are the most important motivational factors......; however, gender and programme differentiation needs to be taken into account, and points towards diverse future strategies for attracting students to engineering education....

  4. Gender and cleaner production: toward a framework for including gender analysis when developing strategies and designing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sally; Quinn, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Environmental policies that do not consider global gender dimensions often create benefits for some people and ecosystems but result in costs for others, in particular women, at some point along the global chain of production and consumption. This article is intended to begin a dialogue about the importance of including gender analysis in the design of cleaner production strategies. We review global development policy and its critiques that have identified a need for gender awareness and analysis. This examination provides a backdrop for a discussion of how to include gender analysis in cleaner production planning and implementation. We invite researchers and practitioners to enter this dialogue to further the field and develop effective tools and policies to analyze gender dynamics, support gender equity, and find environmentally sound solutions that are sustainable for the long-term.

  5. GENDER FACTORS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kochkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of gender asymmetry on the socio-economic development of the country. Authors detected factors that determine with high level of the probability social development of the society. Econometric relationship between the level of GDP per capita in comparative prices and the socio-cultural and gender factors are developed and estimated. The analysis showed that the level of individualism, indulgence, economic participation, and political empowerment of women in the society have direct linear correlation with GDP per capita. Power distance has opposite inverse correlation with the level of GDP. Application of regression analysis gave the possibility to divide all countries into 9 clusters with similar features. Two-dimensional matrix included GDP per capita and coefficient of implementation of a country gender and sociocultural potential. The recommendations for stimulating economic growth by smoothing gender gaps are proposed.

  6. Assessing risk factors for migraine: differences in gender transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lemos

    Full Text Available AIM: Our aim was to assess which specific factors are contributing to an increased risk of migraine in a group of 131 Portuguese families. METHODS: We studied 319 first-degree relatives, using a multilevel approach to account for the dependency among members from the same family. We included in the model relative's gender, the proband's gender and age-at-onset, to evaluate if any of these variables were associated with relative's affection status. We also included in the model proband's migraine subtype. We further assessed female and male transmissions within the proband nuclear family. RESULTS: Relatives' gender was found to be a risk factor for migraine (Odds Ratio = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.75-4.67, with females at a higher risk. When splitting probands according to their migraine subtype, we found that none of the variables studied contributed to relatives of MA-probands affection-status. Our results also show a significant difference between proband's transmission and the gender of the parents and offspring. CONCLUSIONS: With this study, we showed that gender is truly a risk factor for migraine and that a gender-biased transmission is also observed. This reinforce the importance of identifying genes associated with migraine that are modulated by genes located in the sex chromosomes and the study of mitochondrial DNA or X-chromosome and hormonal-related effects associated with migraine susceptibility.

  7. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... abuse, and are at higher risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including. HIV.[2] Because of mistrust in the ... [5,6] In countries where legislation penalises .... HIV/ STI risks. Discuss health prevention needs of transgender men.

  8. Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  9. Gender factors of social anxiety in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova T.S.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety in adolescence is one of the most important factors of social and psychological maladjustment. The data of Russian and international research of the differences in the severity of social anxiety in boys and girls is not uniform. In a study conducted by the authors, participants were 183 adolescents aged 12-16 years (90 boys and 93 girls, students of VII-X grades. We measured the level of social anxiety and defined the type of gender identity. The results showed that biological sex does not influence the severity of social anxiety: there were no differences in this indicator between boys and girls. The factor influencing the level of social anxiety was gender identity, and gender identity types (masculinity, femininity, androgyny have approximately the same distributions in both boys and girls. The level of social anxiety shows inversed connection with level of masculinity in adolescents of both sexes and direct connection with femininity index. The magnitude of the gap between the real and the ideal of masculinity of the Self is more pronounced in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

  10. Gender Gaps in the Mathematical Sciences: The Creativity Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Theodore P

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview, and recent history, of studies of gender gaps in the mathematically-intensive sciences. Included are several statistics about gender differences in science, and about public resources aimed at addressing them. We then examine the role that gender differences in creativity play in explaining the recent and current gender differences in the mathematical sciences, and identify several constructive suggestions aimed at improving analytical creativity output in research institutions.

  11. A global call for action to include gender in research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Adam, Paula; Grant, Jonathan; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Graham, Kathryn E; Valentine, Pamela A; Sued, Omar; Boukhris, Omar F; Al Olaqi, Nada M; Al Rahbi, Idrees S; Dowd, Anne-Maree; Bice, Sara; Heiden, Tamika L; Fischer, Michael D; Dopson, Sue; Norton, Robyn; Pollitt, Alexandra; Wooding, Steven; Balling, Gert V; Jakobsen, Ulla; Kuhlmann, Ellen; Klinge, Ineke; Pololi, Linda H; Jagsi, Reshma; Smith, Helen Lawton; Etzkowitz, Henry; Nielsen, Mathias W; Carrion, Carme; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Vizcaino, Esther; Naing, Lin; Cheok, Quentin H N; Eckelmann, Baerbel; Simuyemba, Moses C; Msiska, Temwa; Declich, Giovanna; Edmunds, Laurel D; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Buchan, Alison M J; Williamson, Catherine; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Surender, Rebecca; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-07-19

    Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science or by failing to investigate topics that benefit women and men equitably). Women across the world tend to be significantly underrepresented in research both as researchers and research participants, receive less research funding, and appear less frequently than men as authors on research publications. There is also some evidence that women are relatively disadvantaged as the beneficiaries of research, in terms of its health, societal and economic impacts. Historical gender biases may have created a path dependency that means that the research system and the impacts of research are biased towards male researchers and male beneficiaries, making it inherently difficult (though not impossible) to eliminate gender bias. In this commentary, we - a group of scholars and practitioners from Africa, America, Asia and Europe - argue that gender-sensitive research impact assessment could become a force for good in moving science policy and practice towards gender equity. Research impact assessment is the multidisciplinary field of scientific inquiry that examines the research process to maximise scientific, societal and economic returns on investment in research. It encompasses many theoretical and methodological approaches that can be used to investigate gender bias and recommend actions for change to maximise research impact. We offer a set of recommendations to research funders, research institutions and research evaluators who conduct impact assessment on how to include and strengthen analysis of gender equity in research impact assessment and issue a global call for action.

  12. Determinant factors of gender identity: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lih-Mei; Audi, Laura; Magritte, Ellie; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Quigley, Charmian A

    2012-12-01

    Paediatric specialists involved in the care of children with disorders of sex development may be expected to provide straightforward answers to questions concerning the "true sex" of a child, reflecting common perceptions of sex/gender as an immutable binary biological reality. This article highlights how much more broad and complex the topic of gender identity and its development is. Many theories have been put forward to advance knowledge of gender identity. Against the breadth and depth of this vast topic, the current overview is inevitably incomplete. It begins by arguing for a more consistent use of 'sex' and 'gender'. It considers in turn three influential theoretical frameworks that lend themselves to empirical research. These are: 1) the role of the brain; 2) the role of socialisation; and 3) multi-dimensional gender development. The article ends by suggesting potentially fruitful questions and areas for future research.

  13. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems: An Analysis by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Tolchard, Barry; Nower, Lia

    2016-06-01

    Differences in problem gambling rates between males and females suggest that associated risk factors vary by gender. Previous combined analyses of male and female gambling may have obscured these distinctions. This study aimed to develop separate risk factor models for gambling problems for males and for females, and identify gender-based similarities and differences. It analysed data from the largest prevalence study in Victoria Australia (N = 15,000). Analyses determined factors differentiating non-problem from at-risk gamblers separately for women and men, then compared genders using interaction terms. Separate multivariate analyses determined significant results when controlling for all others. Variables included demographics, gambling behaviour, gambling motivations, money management, and mental and physical health. Significant predictors of at-risk status amongst female gamblers included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on private betting, electronic gaming machines (EGMs), scratch tickets or bingo, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. For males, risk factors included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, low education, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on EGMs, table games, races, sports or lotteries, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. High risk groups requiring appropriate interventions comprise young adults, especially males; middle-aged female EGM gamblers; non-English speaking populations; frequent EGM, table games, race and sports gamblers; and gamblers motivated by escape.

  14. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  15. Self Efficacy, Self Esteem, and Gender as Factors Predicting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self Efficacy, Self Esteem, and Gender as Factors Predicting Homesickness of Freshmen. ... The transition from high school to college/university often involves ... on homesickness among freshmen in a public higher institution of learning in ...

  16. Participatory modeling to support gender equality : The importance of including stakeholders in interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; van Engen, Marloes

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interventions to support gender equality in organisations are often unsuccessful. Stakeholders disagree about the causes and problem definition of gender equality or pay lip service to the principle of gender equality, but fail to implement gender equality in practice. The purpose of this

  17. Participatory modeling to support gender equality: The importance of including stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Engen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – Interventions to support gender equality in organisations are often unsuccessful. Stakeholders disagree about the causes and problem definition of gender equality or pay lip service to the principle of gender equality, but fail to implement gender equality in practice. The purpose of

  18. Motivational factors, gender and engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne Schioldann

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students1 reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find...... that women are significantly more influenced by mentors than men, while men tend to be more motivated by intrinsic and financial factors, and by the social importance of the engineering profession. Parental influence is low across all programmes and by differentiating between specific clusters of engineering...

  19. Motivational Factors, Gender and Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find that women are significantly more influenced by…

  20. The persistence of gender inequality in Zimbabwe: factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated and analysed the factors that women teachers consider as ... Gender stereotypes were shown to be one of the major causes of ... role in the family overrides all other roles; and lack of support from the home and the workplace.

  1. Risk factors and hospitalization costs of Dementia patients: Examining race and gender variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baqar Husaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To examine the variation in risk factors and hospitalization costs among four elderly dementia cohorts by race and gender. Materials and Methods: The 2008 Tennessee Hospital Discharged database was examined. The prevalence, risk factors and cost of inpatient care of dementia were examined for individuals aged 65 years and above, across the four race gender cohorts - white males (WM, black males (BM, white females (WF, and black females (BF. Results: 3.6% of patients hospitalized in 2008 had dementia. Dementia was higher among females than males, and higher among blacks than whites. Further, BF had higher prevalence of dementia than WF; similarly, BM had a higher prevalence of dementia than WM. Overall, six risk factors were associated with dementia for the entire sample including HTN, DM, CKD, CHF, COPD, and stroke. These risk factors varied slightly in predicting dementia by race and gender. Hospital costs were 14% higher among dementia patients compared to non-dementia patients. Conclusions: There exist significant race and gender disparities in prevalence of dementia. A greater degree of co-morbidity, increased duration of hospital stay, and more frequent hospitalizations, may result in a higher cost of inpatient dementia care. Aggressive management of risk factors may subsequently reduce stroke and cost of dementia care, especially in the black population. Race and gender dependent milestones for management of these risk factors should be considered.

  2. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Early adolescence (ages 10-14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes. To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural

  3. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    Full Text Available Early adolescence (ages 10-14 is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes.To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally.A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes.Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age. Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents.The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different

  4. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Early adolescence (ages 10–14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents’ personal gender attitudes. Objectives To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. Methods A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984–2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Results Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents’ construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. Conclusions The findings from this

  5. Factors Mediating the Effect of Gender on Ninth-Grade Turkish Students' Misconceptions Concerning Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencar, Selen; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and analyze possible factors that mediate the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits. A Simple Electric Circuit Concept Test (SECCT), including items with both practical and theoretical contexts, and an Interest-Experience Questionnaire about Electricity…

  6. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  7. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  8. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  9. Towards improved management of tropical invertebrate fisheries: including time series and gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fröcklin

    Full Text Available Invertebrate harvesting is an important livelihood in tropical settings providing income and food for numerous populations throughout the world. However, the lack of research, policy and management directed towards this livelihood hinders the analysis of time trends to evaluate invertebrate resources status. Another missing aspect is the consideration of gender analysis, i.e., the different roles and interests of men and women engaged in this activity. Based on interviews, catch assessments and inventories this multi-disciplinary study from Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, Tanzania shows how unregulated harvesting of invertebrates may result in sharp declines in animal abundance over a relatively short period of time (2005 to 2010, threatening the sustainability of the fishery. Specifically, the results show that catches in general, and prime target species of gastropods and bivalves in particular, had been significantly reduced in number and size. Interviews revealed gender disparities; female harvesters experienced less access to good fishing/collecting grounds and species of high value, which subsequently resulted in lower individual income. This is tightly linked to women's reproductive roles, which not only leads to limited mobility but also lessen their chances to accumulate livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social and human capital thus impacting livelihood strategies. To protect invertebrate resources from overexploitation, and assure a constant flow of income and food for future generations, this case study illustrates the need for formal monitoring to assess changes in invertebrate resources, and possible ecological consequences, over time. Managers and policy-makers must also address gender to evaluate the contribution of all resource users, their capacity to cope with changing conditions, as well as specific interests.

  10. Towards improved management of tropical invertebrate fisheries: including time series and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Håkansson, Elin; Carlsson, Anna; Magnusson, Madeleine; Jiddawi, Narriman S

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate harvesting is an important livelihood in tropical settings providing income and food for numerous populations throughout the world. However, the lack of research, policy and management directed towards this livelihood hinders the analysis of time trends to evaluate invertebrate resources status. Another missing aspect is the consideration of gender analysis, i.e., the different roles and interests of men and women engaged in this activity. Based on interviews, catch assessments and inventories this multi-disciplinary study from Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, Tanzania) shows how unregulated harvesting of invertebrates may result in sharp declines in animal abundance over a relatively short period of time (2005 to 2010), threatening the sustainability of the fishery. Specifically, the results show that catches in general, and prime target species of gastropods and bivalves in particular, had been significantly reduced in number and size. Interviews revealed gender disparities; female harvesters experienced less access to good fishing/collecting grounds and species of high value, which subsequently resulted in lower individual income. This is tightly linked to women's reproductive roles, which not only leads to limited mobility but also lessen their chances to accumulate livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social and human capital) thus impacting livelihood strategies. To protect invertebrate resources from overexploitation, and assure a constant flow of income and food for future generations, this case study illustrates the need for formal monitoring to assess changes in invertebrate resources, and possible ecological consequences, over time. Managers and policy-makers must also address gender to evaluate the contribution of all resource users, their capacity to cope with changing conditions, as well as specific interests.

  11. Gender differences in (metacognitive and motivational-emotional factors of reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Kolić-Vehovec

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to establish, from the aspect of gender, the degree to which reading comprehension is connected with students' academic achievement, potential gender differences between (metacognitive and motivational-emotional factors of reading comprehension, and to identify the most important predictors of reading comprehension for exploratory and narrative texts. The results of study, which included 380 Slovenian and Croatian students with the average age of 10;6 years, showed that: (i reading comprehension significantly determines academic achievement regardless of students' gender; (ii there are significant gender differences in most of the factors of reading comprehension (girls summarize texts better, have more metacognitive knowledge of reading, show greater reading interest, feel more competent for reading and in general feel better while reading; (iii the predictive value of cognitive, motivational, and emotional predictors differ for exploratory and narrative texts (for exploratory texts metacognitive factors have the greatest predictive value; for narrative texts motivatonal-emotional factors have the greatest predictive value for boys, and metacognitive factors for girls.

  12. [Socioeconomic inequalities and age and gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Ángel A; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Tauler, Pedro; Aguilo, Antoni; Tomàs-Salvà, Matias; Yáñez, Aina

    2015-01-01

    To describe the cardiovascular risk factors in a working population in the Balearic Islands and to examine whether differences by social class vary according to age and gender. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of active workers aged 20-65 years in the Balearic Islands. The participants were included in the study during their annual work health assessment in 2011. The following variables were collected: occupation, social class, age, gender, height, weight, smoking, blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using two different equations (Framingham and REGICOR). Differences by social class were observed for most cardiovascular risk factors. The pattern of these differences differed depending on age group and gender. Differences in obesity by social class increased with age in women but decreased in men. More differences in hypertension by social class were found among women than among men, with differences increasing with age in both genders. Significant differences by social class were found among women in lipid profile, and these differences increased with age, mainly for low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors by social class were higher among women than among men. Some cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and obesity showed significant inequalities from a very early age. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Factor Structure and Gender Stability of the Brazilian Version of the Pornography Consumption Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; de Oliveira, Vitor Henrique; de Souza Gatti, Ana Luísa; Junqueira Aguiar, Ana Saito; de Souza Aranha E Silva, Renata Almeida

    2016-10-02

    There are a few instruments available to measure pornograhy consumption-related constructs, and this lack of instruments can compromise the validity of research findings. The Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI) assesses four motivations for pornography consumption, and it has been validated in hypersexual men and medical students. However, whether the psychometric properties of this instrument are comparable across genders remains unclear. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was used to verify the invariance of the structure of the PCI across male (100) and female (105) university students. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for each group showed a reasonably good fit of the data to the four-factor model. The MGCFA model included only factor loadings constrained to be equal between both genders (ΔCFI 0.05). However, the ΔCFI did not support a strong and strict factorial invariance, ΔCFI > 0.01. Although both genders seemed to agree with the conceptualization of pornography and motivations for consuming it, the PCI was not gender-invariant, as men showed a stronger degree of motivation to consume pornographic material than women did. The implications of these findings regarding the measurement of motivations for pornography use are outlined.

  14. Perinatal risk factors including malformation; Perinatale Risikofaktoren einschliesslich Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project `Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria` is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG). [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die haeufigsten in der Literatur beschriebenen Faktoren, die einen unguenstigen Einfluss auf den Schwangerschaftsverlauf ausueben koennen, gegeben. Ein Hauptgewicht liegt dabei auf der Beschreibung von solchen Faktoren, die mit der Induktion von Fehlbildungen in Zusammenhang gebracht werden koennen, so unter anderem auch der praenatalen Strahlenexposition. Diese Arbeit, die im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens `Strahlenbiologisches Umweltmonitoring Bayern` angefertigt wurde, bildet die Grundlage einer im Sinne einer umweltbezogenen Gesundheitsberichterstattung retro- bzw. prospektiv angelegten Auswertung der Saeuglingssterblichkeit, des Perinatalgeschehens und der Fehlbildungshaeufigkeit in Bayern, wobei neben der ionisierenden Strahlung als Risikofaktor auch andere im Rahmen einer oekologischen Studie erfassbare Risiken, wie beispielsweise Industrieansiedlungen, Muellverbrennungsanlagen und -deponien oder Urbanitaet beruecksichtigt werden sollen. (orig./MG).

  15. Does Gender Moderate Factors Associated with Whether Spouses Are the Sole Providers of IADL Care to Their Partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Sheila; Dunkle, Ruth E; Schroepfer, Tracy; Shen, Huei-Wern

    2010-07-01

    We explored whether gender moderated the influence of other factors on solo spousal caregiving. The subsample (N = 452) from the AHEAD study included elderly care recipients (CRs) receiving IADL assistance and their spouses. Logistic regression modeled the likelihood of solo spousal IADL care. Gender moderation was tested by product terms between CRs' gender and measures of partners' health, potential helpers, and sociodemographic characteristics. As numbers of CRs' IADLs and couples' proximate daughters increased, wives less often received care solely from their husbands, but husbands' receipt of care from their wives was unaffected. Age differences between spouses and CRs affected solo spousal caregiving to wives and husbands in opposite ways. Regardless of gender, CRs' number of ADL limitations and spouses with IADL or ADL limitations reduced the likelihood of solo spouse care. Identifying circumstances influencing solo spouse caregiving differently among couples with frail wives and husbands facilitates gender sensitive services.

  16. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Martin

    Full Text Available Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to

  17. Factor structure of a multidimensional gender identity scale in a sample of Chinese elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Xie, Dong; Shek, Daniel T L

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001) in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to "Felt Pressure" and "Intergroup Bias" in the original model. The third factor "Gender Compatibility" appeared to be a combination of "Gender Typicality" and "Gender Contentment" in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.

  18. Factor Structure of a Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale in a Sample of Chinese Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001 in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to “Felt Pressure” and “Intergroup Bias” in the original model. The third factorGender Compatibility” appeared to be a combination of “Gender Typicality” and “Gender Contentment” in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.

  19. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronna C.; Lindsay, Harriet A.

    2003-05-01

    For many college students in the sciences, organic chemistry poses a difficult challenge. Indeed, success in organic chemistry has proven pivotal in the careers of a vast number of students in a variety of science disciplines. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to achievement in this course should contribute to efforts to increase the number of students in the science disciplines. Further, an awareness of gender differences in factors associated with achievement should aid efforts to bolster the participation of women in chemistry and related disciplines. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of several cognitive variables and noncognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. Cognitive variables included the second-semester general chemistry grade, the ACT English, math, reading, and science-reasoning scores, and scores from a spatial visualization test. Noncognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. The second-semester general chemistry grade was found to be the best indicator of performance in organic chemistry, while the effectiveness of other predictors varied between instructors. In addition, gender differences were found in the explanations of organic chemistry achievement variance provided by this study. In general, males exhibited stronger correlations between predictor variables and organic chemistry achievement than females.

  20. GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50 small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significantly different from male. For female small scale enterprise owners, marital status (64% Age of Children (68%, Role Model/ advisors (58% were significant factors that affect their business performance. For male small-scale enterprise owners, Friends (70%, a lack of Government support (80%, inability to display innovativeness (78% and Risk-Taking (84% were significant for male. Lack of availability of capital and finances were significant for the two. Other factors that affect performance include friends, inadequate training and business location. Adequate knowledge of factors that affect gender enterprise performance will go a long way in alleviating these problems. Small-scale enterprises should be supported for poverty alleviation, especially among women and for the nation’s economic development

  1. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender differences and gender similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.

  2. Pre-, peri- and postnatal risk factors associated with gender in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Correa, Dary Luz; Maestría en Neuropsicología Clínica, Universidad San Buenaventura, Bogotá; Utria Rodríguez, Oscar; Maestría en Neuropsicología Clínica, Universidad San Buenaventura, Bogotá; Ávila-Toscano, José Hernando; Corporación Universitaria Reformada, Barranquilla

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to identify the relationship between gender of children with autism and risk factors before/during pregnancy and childbirth. An analysis of 66 clinical records was divided into two groups defined by gender of children diagnosed with autism in Bogotá (Colombia). The data were collected with the Maternal Perinatal Risk Questionnaire and analyzed with Pearson Chi square. The most significant risks associated with gender in the minors were voluntary abortions, m...

  3. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  4. The interaction of ethnicity, sociocultural factors, and gender in clinical psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, K

    1996-01-01

    There is increased interest in the role that ethnicity, sociocultural factors, and gender play in research, health care delivery, and response to intervention. The impact of these factors on AIDS awareness programs, on the phenomenology of suicide and anorexia nervosa, and on clinical psychopharmacology in a homogeneous population is discussed. Risky sex practices can be related to cultural norms that stigmatize condom use and sex education; economic deprivation; and male dominance. Gender, cultural, and ethnic demographics can identify high-risk groups as well as influence effective interventions. Suicide rates and risk factors are compared in African-American, Canadian Native, and South Korean adolescents. Academic stress was a differential risk factor for the Koreans. Anorexia nervosa predominantly affects women and has cultural differences in prevalence. The homogeneous population in Hong Kong illustrates the impact of ethnicity, sociocultural factors, and gender on clinical psychopharmacology. Attention to ethnicity, sociocultural factors, and gender can individualize and improve the effectiveness of clinical psychopharmacology.

  5. Factorial invariance of the Five-Factor Model Rating Form across gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; South, Susan C; Griffin, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    The Five-Factor Model Rating Form (FFMRF) provides a brief, one-page assessment of the Five-Factor Model. An important and unique aspect of the FFMRF is that it is the only brief measure that includes scales for the 30 facets proposed by Costa and McCrae. The current study builds on existing validity support for the FFMRF by evaluating its factorial invariance across gender within a sample of 699 undergraduate students. Consistent with other measures of the Five-Factor Model, men scored lower than women on the domains of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness but slightly higher on openness. The novel contribution of the current study is the use of exploratory structural equation modeling to determine that the FFMRF displayed a five-factor structure that demonstrated strong measurement invariance across gender. This factorial invariance adds important support for the validity of the FFMRF as a self-report measure as it indicates that the scores assess the same latent constructs in men and women. Although future work is needed to clarify some facet-level findings and evaluate for potential predictive biases, the present results add to the increasing body of research supporting the validity of the FFMRF as a self-report measure of personality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Female gender is a risk factor for pain, discomfort, and fatigue after laparoscopic groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandfelt, P; Tolver, M A; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    Female gender is a risk factor for early pain after several specific surgical procedures but has not been studied in detail after laparoscopic groin hernia repair. The aim of this study was to compare early postoperative pain, discomfort, fatigue, and nausea and vomiting between genders undergoing...

  7. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  8. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  9. Gender Inequalities in Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors Among Indonesian Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Gender is an important determinant of health. We conducted a study to examine hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking behavior among adults aged >15 years in urban Indonesia. We compared the prevalence, predicted socioeconomic factors, the gender inequalities, and the contributing factors to the inequalities. Women had a higher risk of obesity and hypercholesterolemia and raised blood pressure in later life (Pgender inequalities in hypertension, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia can be accounted for by disparities in socioeconomic factors between men and women, particularly involvement in paid work. However, the inequalities were also accounted for by different effects of the socioeconomic factors in men and women. Gender is interlinked with socioeconomic and biological factors in determining health. This emphasizes the need of gender responsive policies to control and prevent chronic disease. © 2015 APJPH.

  10. Gender as a factor in delivering sustainable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Islam, A.K.M.S.; Infield, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of energy in contributing to the solution of a major development objective: moving people out of poverty. Understanding gender issues, especially the crucial role women play in household energy provision, is important in the design and implementation of appropriate energy

  11. Gender as a factor in delivering sustainable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, J.S.; Islam, A.K.M.S.; Infield, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of energy in contributing to the solution of a major development objective: moving people out of poverty. Understanding gender issues, especially the crucial role women play in household energy provision, is important in the design and implementation of appropriate energy

  12. Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrester-Knauss Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.

  13. The value of a formula including haematocrit, blood urea and gender (HUGE) as a screening test for chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gregori, J A; Robles, N R; Mena, C; Ardanuy, R; Jauregui, R; Macas-Nu Nunez, J F

    2011-06-01

    Despite increasing use in clinical practice, an estimated glomerular filtration rate value (eGFR) of HUGE formula. A formula including haematocrit , blood urea, and gender (HUGE), diagnoses CRI regardless of the variables of age, blood creatinine, creatinine clearance, or other eGFR. The HUGE formula is: L = 2.505458 - (0.264418 x Hematocrit) + (0.118100 x Urea) [+ 1.383960 if male]. If L is a negative number the individual does not have CRI; if L is a positive number, CRI is present. Our data demonstrate that the HUGE formula is more reliable than MDRD and CKD-EPI, particularly in persons aged over 70. Our HUGE screening formula offers a straightforward, easily available and inexpensive method for differentiating between CRI and eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 that will prevent a considerable number of aged healthy persons, as much as 1.700.000 in Spain and 2.600.000 in U.K., to be excluded from clinical assays or treatments contraindicated in CRI.

  14. Gender Differences in the Factors Explaining Risky Behavior Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Hagit; Mesch, Gustavo

    2016-05-01

    In searching for the social and cognitive antecedents of risky online behaviors, some studies have relied on the theory of planned behavior. According to the theory, three components serve as predictors of a given behavior-attitudes toward the behavior (beliefs that people hold about a given behavior), subjective norms (perceptions of what significant others think about the behavior) and perceived behavior control (perceptions about the ease or difficulty of engaging in a particular behavior). However, none of these studies considered the possibility that these factors work differently for boys and girls. We constructed models of the possible antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavior control) of risky behavior online and tested them using a representative sample of 495 sixth to eleventh grade students (46 % female) in a large city in Israel. We measured risky behavior online with items indicating the frequency of posting personal details, sending an insulting message and meeting face-to-face with a stranger met online. Structural equation modeling revealed that peers' subjective norms (beliefs that friends approve of engaging in risky online behaviors), parents' subjective norms (beliefs that parents accept involvement in risky online behaviors) and perceived behavior control were related to boys' risky behavior online, whereas for girls, only parents' subjective norms had such an association. Expanding the models to include other factors underscored that family factors were most strongly associated with girls' risky behavior online.

  15. Gender differences in risk factors for airway symptoms following tracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaensson, M; Gupta, A; Nilsson, U G

    2012-11-01

    A common complaint after endotracheal intubation is sore throat and hoarseness. The aim of this study was to describe gender differences and independent risk factors in the development of post-operative sore throat and hoarseness after endotracheal intubation in adults. This prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted at a university hospital in Sweden. A total of 495 patients were included (203 men and 292 women) and enrolled from a total of eight different surgical departments. Outcome variables were post-operative sore throat and hoarseness evaluated post-operatively in the post-anaesthesia care unit. A total of 31 variables were recorded which described the intubation process, intraoperative factors as well as the extubation process. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The overall incidence of post-operative sore throat was 35% and hoarseness 59%. The results show different predictors for men and women in the development of airway symptoms. The main risk factor for developing sore throat in men was intubation by personnel with endotracheal tube size 7.0 and multiple laryngoscopies during intubation. The main risk factors for hoarseness were cuff pressure for both men and women, and oesophageal temperature probe in women. Post-operative sore throat and hoarseness result from several factors, and the cause of these symptoms are multifactorial and differs by gender. Identification of these factors pre-operatively may increase awareness among anaesthesia personnel and possibly reduce the incidence of these minor but distressing symptoms. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2012 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  16. Resiliency as a factor protecting youths from risky behaviour: Moderating effects of gender and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Mariusz; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Jochimek, Magdalena; Krokosz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesised that resiliency may protect adolescents against risky behaviours, and that both the practicing of sports, and gender are moderating variables in relationships between resiliency and risky behaviours. The study included 18-year-old pupils from a selection of secondary schools (n = 556). A total of 188 individuals practiced competitive sports and the remaining 368 participants were non-athletes. The participants were examined with the Resiliency Assessment Scale for Children and Adolescents (SPP-18) and with a survey containing questions and statements related to high-risk "experiments with adulthood". Adolescent athletes showed higher levels of resiliency than their peers. The power of the "Determination and Persistence in Action" effect on "Alcohol" scale differed significantly between male athletes and male non-athletes. Only in the athletes groups were higher scores on this scale reflected by lower values on the "Drugs" scale. Moreover, it is possible to observe differences in undertaking risky behaviour between male and female athletes. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour suggests that sport is a risk factor for men, and a protective factor for women. These data suggest that consistent prophylactic and psycho-educative activities, with a special attention to differences between genders, should be provided to all the adolescents, irrespective of their sport performance levels.

  17. Factor structure of PTSD, and relation with gender in trauma survivors from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Charak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD has been extensively studied in Western countries. Some studies have assessed its factor structure in Asia (China, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia, but few have directly assessed the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian adult sample. Furthermore, in a largely patriarchal society in India with strong gender roles, it becomes imperative to assess the association between the factors of PTSD and gender. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian sample of trauma survivors based on prevailing models of PTSD defined in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000, and to assess the relation between PTSD factors and gender. Method: The sample comprised of 313 participants (55.9% female from Jammu and Kashmir, India, who had experienced a natural disaster (N=200 or displacement due to cross-border firing (N=113. Results: Three existing PTSD models—two four-factor models (Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria, and a five-factor model (Dysphoric Arousal—were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis with addition of gender as a covariate. The three competing models had similar fit indices although the Dysphoric Arousal model fit significantly better than Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. Gender differences were found across the factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. Conclusions: Findings indicate that the Dysphoric Arousal model of PTSD was the best model; albeit the fit indices of all models were fairly similar. Compared to males, females scored higher on factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. Gender differences found across two factors of PTSD are discussed in light of the social milieu in India.

  18. Stress levels, gender and personality factors in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, D; Abouserie, R

    1993-06-01

    The study reports an investigation of stress levels, gender and personality dimensions in a sample of school teachers. The Professional Life Stress Scale (PLSS) was used to assess teachers' stress levels and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) was used to define their personality dimensions (Extroversion-Introversion, Neuroticism-High Psychoticism-Low Psychoticism). The study sample consisted of 95 teachers, 51 females and 44 males. Results revealed that the majority of teachers sampled, 72.6 per cent, were experiencing moderate levels of stress, and 23.2 per cent serious levels. T-test results showed no significant difference between male and female teachers in stress levels. Correlation analysis between stress level and personality dimensions revealed significant positive correlation between stress and psychoticism. A significant negative correlation emerged between stress and extroversion, and a significant positive correlation between stress and neuroticism. A multiple regression analysis revealed that extroversion and neuroticism were the best predictors of stress levels. Overall, the results therefore indicated that personality dimensions appear to contribute more to stress levels than do the variables of either age or gender.

  19. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes: The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Janka I; Van der Velde, Mandy; Lammers, Joris

    2012-03-01

    PURPOSE: Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a "good" manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine characteristics and female leaders. This study examines if the gender of an employee, the gender of the manager, and the management gender ratio in an organization are related to employees' managerial stereotypes. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: 3229 respondents working in various organizations completed an electronic questionnaire. FINDINGS: The results confirm our hypotheses that, although the general stereotype of a manager is masculine and although most prefer a man as a manager, female employees, employees with a female manager, and employees working in an organization with a high percentage of female managers, have a stronger preference for feminine characteristics of managers and for female managers. Moreover, we find that proximal variables are much stronger predictors of these preferences than more distal variables. IMPLICATIONS: Our study suggests that managerial stereotypes could change as a result of personal experiences and changes in the organizational context. The results imply that increasing the proportion of female managers is an effective way to overcome managerial stereotyping. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study examines the influence on managerial stereotypes of various proximal and distal factors derived from theory among a large group of employees (in contrast to students).

  20. Gender identity outcomes in children with disorders/differences of sex development: Predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakula, Dana M; Mullins, Alexandria J; Sharkey, Christina M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Mullins, Larry L; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2017-06-01

    Disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) comprise multiple congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, and/or anatomical sex are discordant. The prediction of future gender identity (i.e., self-identifying as male, female, or other) in children with DSD can be imprecise, and current knowledge about the development of gender identity in people with, and without DSD, is limited. However, sex of rearing is the strongest predictor of gender identity for the majority of individuals with various DSD conditions. When making decisions regarding sex of rearing biological factors (e.g., possession of a Y chromosome, degree and duration of pre- and postnatal androgen exposure, phenotypic presentation of the external genitalia, and fertility potential), social and cultural factors, as well as quality of life should be considered. Information on gender identity outcomes across a range of DSD diagnoses is presented to aid in sex of rearing assignment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-medical opioid use in youth: Gender differences in risk factors and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Vicki; Serdarevic, Mirsada; Crooke, Hannah; Striley, Catherine; Cottler, Linda B

    2017-09-01

    Non-medical use (NMU) of prescription opioids in youth is of concern since they may continue this pattern into adulthood and become addicted or divert medications to others. Research into risk factors for NMU can help target interventions to prevent non-medical use of opioids in youth. The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) was conducted from 2008 to 2011. Participants 10-18years of age were recruited from entertainment venues in urban, rural and suburban areas of 10 US cities. Participants completed a survey including questions on their use of prescription opioids. NMU was defined as a non-labeled route of administration or using someone else's prescription. Information on age, gender, alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use was also collected. Summary descriptive, chi-square statistics and logistic regression were conducted using SAS 9.4. Of the 10,965 youth who provided information about past 30day prescription opioid use, prevalence of reported opioid use was 4.8% with 3.2% reported as NMU (n=345) and 1.6% as medical use (MU) only (n=180). More males than females (55.7% vs. 44.4%) reported opioid NMU (p<0.0001). Logistic regression revealed that among males (comparing NMU to MU only), current smokers were 4.4 times more likely to report opioid NMU than non-smokers (95% CI: 1.8, 10.7). Among females (comparing NMU to MU only), current smokers and alcohol users were more likely to report opioid NMU than those who had never smoked or used alcohol (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 7.0 and OR=4.1, 95% CI: 1.7, 10.4, respectively). These results suggest that further research on gender differences in opioid NMU is needed; interventions for opioid NMU may need to be gender specific to obtain the best results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sedentary risk factors across genders and job roles within a university campus workplace: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether sedentary job role and gender are reflected by sedentary risk factors within a university campus. Following institutional ethical approval, 80 U.K. university campus employees were recruited, and 34 of them (age 47.8 ± 11.9 years, height 169 ± 1.0 cm, body mass 72.0 ± 14.1 kg) were measured for their systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood glucose (Glu), total serum blood cholesterol (Cho), dominant (DHG) and nondominant handgrip strength (NHG), body fat percentage (Fat%), trunk flexibility (Flex), peak cardiorespiratory capacity (V.O2max), and answered a physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA with job role and gender as independent factors, and each measured risk as a dependent factor. Gender had significant effects (pvalues, with these risk factors being above the recommended healthy thresholds. IPAQ hours correlated positively with Glu (pworkplace.

  3. Factors associated with sexual orientation and gender disparities in chronic pain among U.S. adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sabra L. Katz-Wise; Bethany Everett; Scherer, Emily A.; Holly Gooding; Milliren, Carly E.; S. Bryn Austin

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated factors associated with sexual orientation disparities in chronic pain frequency among youth. Data were analyzed from 4534 female and 3785 male youth from Waves I–IV (1995–2009) of the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Gender-stratified weighted logistic regression models controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and included sexual orientation (primary predictor) and frequency of three types of chronic pain (outcomes). Models wit...

  4. Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Single and Recurrent Falls Among the Community-Dwelling Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mei O

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in risk factors of fall accidents among older people, and whether these factors differ between single and recurrent fallers. A total of 4,426 individuals aged ≥65 years from two large-scale health surveys provided data. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors and to determine the risk model for falling and recurrent falling in men and women separately. Three major risk factors for falling regardless of gender or fall history are fear of falling, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL, and age ≥75 years. Fear of falling remains one of the common modifiable risk factors. Among those without a fall history, the use of sedatives or tranquilizers increases the risk of falling. Regarding gender differences, ADL limitations and fear of falling appear to be stronger fall risk factors for men than for women. Among women, alcohol use and educational level are significant risk factors for falling, while loneliness is associated with recurrent falling. Men with fear of falling or ADL limitations are at higher risk to have a recurrent fall accident than women with these conditions. Having a visual impairment or living with someone is associated with recurrent falling among men. Our findings emphasize the importance of multifactorial fall interventions, taking into account a variety of subgroup characteristics such as gender and fall history.

  5. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  6. The Nature-Nurture Controversy Revisited: Divorce and Gender as Factors in Children's Racial Group Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Guidubaldi, John

    1997-01-01

    Examined divorce and gender as factors in racial differences in performance of elementary age children on Hahnemann Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test, Vineland Teachers Questionnaire, and an interview. Found more racial group differences within the divorced…

  7. Gender Differences in Suicide Risk by Socio-Demographic Factors in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.; Kwan, P.

    2005-01-01

    Some peculiarly low male-to-female suicide ratios have been reported in the Far Eastern populations. This article attempts to investigate whether there are gender differences in suicide risk by socio-demographic factors in Hong Kong, and hereby to explain the low male-to-female suicide ratios. The effects of marital status, duration-of-residence,…

  8. The Higher Order Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a…

  9. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  10. Factors of success and failure in the acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornips, L.; Hulk, A.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine the factors that are proposed in the literature to explain the success—failure in the child L2 (second language) acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch definite determiners. Focusing on four different groups of bilingual children, we discuss four external

  11. The Higher Order Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a…

  12. Factors of success and failure in the acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornips, L.; Hulk, A.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine the factors that are proposed in the literature to explain the success—failure in the child L2 (second language) acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch definite determiners. Focusing on four different groups of bilingual children, we discuss four external s

  13. Diversity in Primary Teacher Education : Gender differences in Student Factors and Curriculum perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Gerda; Bergen, T.; Dekkers, H.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands only a small number of male students opt for primary school teaching and a relatively large percentage of them leave without graduating. A small-scale research project was set up to explore the question: Can gender-specific student factors be identified in relation to the initial

  14. Research-Based Assessment of Students' Beliefs about Experimental Physics: When is Gender a Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    The existence of gender differences in student performance on conceptual assessments and their responses to attitudinal assessments has been repeatedly demonstrated. This difference is often present in students' preinstruction responses and persists in their postinstruction responses. However, one area in which the presence of gender differences has not been extensively explored is undergraduate laboratory courses. For example, one of the few laboratory focused research-based assessments, the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS), has not been tested for the existence of gender differences in students' responses. Here, we utilize a national data set of responses to the E-CLASS to determine if they demonstrate significant gender differences. We also investigate how these differences vary along multiple student and course demographic slices, including course level (first-year vs beyond-first-year) and major (physics vs nonphysics). We observe a gender gap in pre- and postinstruction E-CLASS scores in the aggregate data both for the overall score and for most items individually. However, for some subpopulations (e.g., beyond-first-year students) the size or even existence of the gender gap depends on another dimension (e.g., student major). We also find that for all groups the gap in postinstruction scores vanishes or is greatly reduced when controlling for preinstruction scores, course level, and student major.

  15. Gender differences of the influential factors on the mental health condition of teachers in the A university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Mika; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Okuda, Kikuko; Chiba, Shinichi; Tomotake, Masahito; King, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the gender differences of the influential factors on the mental health condition among university teachers in the A university in Japan. A questionnaire survey was mailed to 924 university teachers in Japan, with a survey return rate of 43.8% (N=405). The General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ-28), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), the Japanese version of the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) and the Work Situation Questionnaire (WSQ) developed by the authors were administered to subjects. The GHQ-28 total score and all of sub-score of the woman was significantly higher than men. In the correlated factor of mental health, level of job satisfaction and job control, social support of significant others was observed in the both sexes. However, gender differences was observed in the coping style. Some copings including self-distraction and self-blame were related to the men, but the woman was related to the substance use. University teachers had some gender differences in the factors affecting their mental health condition. In order to improve university teacher's mental health condition, it is necessary to increase their level of job satisfaction and feeling of job control in the workplace. Especially, it was considered women's coping using substance use was important.

  16. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  17. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  18. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): Factor Structure and Gender Equivalence in Norwegian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Breivik, Kyrre

    2016-01-01

    Although frequently used with older adolescents, few studies of the factor structure, internal consistency and gender equivalence of the SDQ exists for this age group, with inconsistent findings. In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the five-factor structure of the SDQ in a population sample of 10,254 16-18 year-olds from the youth@hordaland study. Measurement invariance across gender was assessed using multigroup CFA. A modestly modified five-factor solution fitted the data acceptably, accounting for one cross loading and some local dependencies. Importantly, partial measurement non-invariance was identified, with differential item functioning in eight items, and higher correlations between emotional and conduct problems for boys compared to girls. Implications for use clinically and in research are discussed.

  19. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: Factor Structure and Gender Equivalence in Norwegian Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormod Bøe

    Full Text Available Although frequently used with older adolescents, few studies of the factor structure, internal consistency and gender equivalence of the SDQ exists for this age group, with inconsistent findings. In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to evaluate the five-factor structure of the SDQ in a population sample of 10,254 16-18 year-olds from the youth@hordaland study. Measurement invariance across gender was assessed using multigroup CFA. A modestly modified five-factor solution fitted the data acceptably, accounting for one cross loading and some local dependencies. Importantly, partial measurement non-invariance was identified, with differential item functioning in eight items, and higher correlations between emotional and conduct problems for boys compared to girls. Implications for use clinically and in research are discussed.

  20. Influence of Socioeconomic Factors, Gender and Indigenous Status on Smoking in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Ting Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous Austronesian minority of Taiwan is heavily affected by health disparities which may include suffering from a greater burden of the tobacco epidemic. While a lack of representative data has historically precluded an investigation of the differences in smoking between Taiwanese ethnicities, these data have recently become available through an annual population-based telephone survey conducted by the Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare (previously known as the Bureau of Health Promotion (BHP, Department of Health. We used the BHP monitoring data to observe the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among indigenous and non-indigenous Taiwanese surrounding a tobacco welfare tax increase in 2006, investigate ethnic differences in smoking prevalence and environmental tobacco smoke exposure each year between 2005 and 2008, and perform multiple logistic regression to estimate measures of association between potential risk factors and smoking status. Despite significant ethnic and gender differences in smoking prevalence, smoking status was not found to be significantly associated with ethnicity after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  1. Age- and Gender-Specific Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 40 102 Patients With First-Ever Ischemic Stroke A Nationwide Danish Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Andersen, Z. J.; Olsen, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    underwent evaluation including stroke severity (Scandinavian Stroke Scale), CT, and cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, intermittent arterial claudication, previous myocardial infarction, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption. We estimated...... the independent effect of gender and age on prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and calculated age and gender-specific prevalence rates for each risk factor. Results—The register contained 47.9% women and 52.1% men. Men had more often diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction, intermittent arterial...... claudication, and over the limit alcohol consumption. Women had more often hypertension and obesity. Atrial fibrillation and smoking were equally frequent in both genders. Age stratification revealed that the lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors smoking, alcohol, and obesity were more common in the younger...

  2. Gender differences in the relations between work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and muscu

  3. Sexual Minority Health and Health Risk Factors: Intersection Effects of Gender, Race, and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ning; Ruther, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Although population studies have documented the poorer health outcomes of sexual minorities, few have taken an intersectionality approach to examine how sexual orientation, gender, and race jointly affect these outcomes. Moreover, little is known about how behavioral risks and healthcare access contribute to health disparities by sexual, gender, and racial identities. Using ordered and binary logistic regression models in 2015, data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=62,302) were analyzed to study disparities in self-rated health and functional limitation. This study examined how gender and race interact with sexual identity to create health disparities, and how these disparities are attributable to differential exposure to behavioral risks and access to care. Conditional on sociodemographic factors, all sexual, gender, and racial minority groups, except straight white women, gay white men, and bisexual non-white men, reported worse self-rated health than straight white men (pnon-white men, were more likely to report a functional limitation than straight white men (pgender, and racial minority groups. Sexual, gender, and racial identities interact with one another in a complex way to affect health experiences. Efforts to improve sexual minority health should consider heterogeneity in health risks and health outcomes among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anàlisi de la dimensió de gènere en el marc del projecte INCLUD-ED per a desenvolupar pràctiques educatives inclusives Analysis of gender aspects in the framework of the INCLUD-ED project to develop inclusive educational practices Análisis de la dimensión de género en el marco del proyecto INCLUD-ED para desarrollar prácticas educativas inclusivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Melgar

    2010-01-01

    ésultats académiquesVarious aspects, including gender, must be considered to boost the inclusivity of education. The risk of social exclusion may increase when gender is combined with other factors such as the cultural group, age or low socioeconomic level. Some studies have shown that there has been a significant improvement in girls’ academic results, which are better than those of boys in certain areas. However, the contribution of such studies is limited, as they describe the situation without examining its causes in-depth. This has led to new debates in the scientific community. The power relationships between the genders and the transmission traditional models of masculinity and femininity that can still be found in some school practices today have an impact on academic results.La promoción de la dimensión integradora de la educación debe contemplar las diferentes perspectivas, entre ellas la de género. El riesgo de exclusión social puede aumentar cuando la dimensión de género se combina con otras dimensiones como el grupo cultural, la edad o el bajo nivel socioeconómico. Algunos estudios indican que se ha producido una mejora significativa en los resultados académicos de las niñas, superando incluso los resultados de los niños en determinadas áreas. No obstante, las contribuciones aportadas son limitadas ya que describen la situación sin profundizar en las causas que llevan a esta situación. Ello ha reabierto recientemente nuevos debates en el marco de la comunidad científica. Las relaciones de poder entre género, así como la transmisión de modelos tradicionales de masculinidad y feminidad, que todavía se pueden observar hoy en día en algunas prácticas en las escuelas, tienen un impacto en los resultados académicos.

  5. The influence of gender on entrepreneurial intention: The mediating role of perceptual factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Camelo-Ordaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The empirical evidence devoted to analyze the impact of perceptual factors in explaining the differences in the entrepreneurial intention of men and women is still limited and not entirely conclusive (Shinnar et al., 2012; Wilson et al., 2009. This non-conclusive research is significantly more noteworthy when the analysis is focused on the entrepreneurial intention of men and women once they become entrepreneurs. Drawing on this gap and taking as starting point the premises of Social Feminist Theory, our paper aims to examine the mediating role of perceptual factors on the relationship between gender and entrepreneurial intention of non-entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs. Drawing on a sample provided by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Project of 21,697 Spanish non-entrepreneurs and 2899 Spanish entrepreneurs, our results have shown that, in general terms, perceptual factor fully mediate the relationship between gender and the entrepreneurial intention of non-entrepreneurs, whereas such mediating impact disappears when people become entrepreneurs.

  6. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  7. Gender Inequality at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  8. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Suicidal ideation in transgender people: Gender minority stress and interpersonal theory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Rylan J; Michaels, Matthew S; Bliss, Whitney; Rogers, Megan L; Balsam, Kimberly F; Joiner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Research has revealed alarmingly high rates of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts among transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people. This study aims to analyze the role of factors from the gender minority stress and resilience (GMSR) model (Testa, Habarth, Peta, Balsam, & Bockting, 2015), the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2010), and the potential integration of these factors, in explaining SI in this population. A convenience sample of 816 TGNC adults responded to measures of current SI, gender minority stressors, and IPTS factors. Path analysis was utilized to test 2 models. Model 1 evaluated the associations between external minority stressors and SI through internal minority stressors. Model 2 examined the relationships between internal minority stressors and SI through IPTS variables (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). All GMSR external stressors (rejection, nonaffirmation, victimization, and discrimination), internal stressors (internalized transphobia, negative expectations, and nondisclosure), and IPTS factors (thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness) were related to SI. Both models demonstrated good fit. Model 1 revealed that rejection, nonaffirmation, and victimization were related to SI through experiences of internalized transphobia and negative expectations. Model 2 indicated that internalized transphobia and negative expectations were associated with SI through IPTS factors. The models demonstrate pathways through which GMSR and IPTS constructs relate to one another and confer risk for SI among TGNC individuals. These pathways and several recently proposed constructs examined here provide promising directions for future research and clinical interventions in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Contribution of Environmental Risk Factors Including Lifestyle to Inequalities Noncommunicable (Chronic Diseases such as Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Grochowska Niedworok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health inequalities: differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Some health inequalities are attributable to biological variations or free choice and others are attributable to the external environment and conditions mainly outside the control of the individuals concerned. 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2012 an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a normal body weight can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Risk factors: 1. Age- the prevalence of diabetes rises steeply with age: *one in twenty people over the age of 65 have diabetes, *and this rises to one in five people over the age of 85 years. The diagnosis of diabetes may be delayed in older people, with symptoms of diabetes being wrongly attributed to ageing. 2. Ethnic: type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in people of South Asian descent and up to three times more common in those of African and African-Caribbean descent then in the white population. It is also more common in people of Chinese descent and other non-Caucasian groups. 3. Gender: the frequency of diabetes usually is higher in men than in women. This may be because gender compounds other aspects of inequality- women often bear the brunt of poverty, and socio-economic differences in the prevalence of diabetes are more marked for women, probably because of differences in smoking rates, food choices and the prevalence of obesity. 4. Overweight/Obesity: every 1 kg/m2 more causes increase risk: cardiovascular diseases 2%, coronary artery disease- 3% , myocardial infarction- 5% , heart failure- 5% , peripheral vascular disease- 5%. Health inqualities important in diabetes -- modifiable:  social

  11. Validation of the Crime and Violence Scale (CVS) against the Rasch Measurement Model Including Differences by Gender, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Riley, Barth B.; Conrad, Karen M.; Chan, Ya-Fen; Dennis, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    In assessing criminality, researchers have used counts of crimes, arrests, and so on, because interval measures were not available. Additionally, crime seriousness varies depending on demographic factors. This study examined the Crime and Violence Scale (CVS) regarding psychometric quality using item response theory (IRT) and invariance of the…

  12. Early-Life events, including mode of delivery and type of feeding, siblings and gender, shape the developing gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Yavuz, Aysun Cetinyurek; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with

  13. Early-Life events, including mode of delivery and type of feeding, siblings and gender, shape the developing gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Yavuz, Aysun Cetinyurek; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with

  14. Female migrant sex workers in Moscow: gender and power factors and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies.

  15. Surveying students' epistemologies about experimental physics: When is gender a factor?

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a gender performance gap has been repeatedly demonstrated in scores on conceptual and attitudinal assessments. This gap is often present in students' preinstruction scores and persists in their postinstruction scores. However, one area in which the gender gap has not been extensively explored is undergraduate laboratory courses. For example, one of the few laboratory focused research-based assessments, the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS), has not been tested for the existence of a gender gap in students' scores. Here, we utilize a national data set of responses to the E-CLASS to determine if they demonstrate a significant gender gap. We also investigate how this gap varies along multiple student and course demographic slices, including course level (first-year vs.\\ beyond-first-year) and major (physics vs.\\ non-physics). We observe a gender gap in pre- and postinstruction scores in the aggregate data; however, for some subpopulations (e.g., ...

  16. Gender Differences in Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Alcohol Use and Misuse in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Whitehorne-Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study sought to determine if there were gender differences in the impact of five psychosocial risk and protective factors for adolescent alcohol use. The five factors considered by the study were family relationships, self-esteem, peer pressure, religious involvement and school performance. Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study which utilized a 96-item self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire captured key demographic and alcohol-related information. It also consisted of three standardized scales: the Cernkovich and Giordano’s Family Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the CAGE questionnaire. Data were collected from students 12−18 years old in three schools in the Kingston and St Andrew area in Jamaica. Results: There were 240 participants in the study, 121 males and 119 females. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between male and female adolescent alcohol use in the last 30 days. There was also no significant difference between male and female adolescent risk of substance abuse. Logistic regression analysis of risk factor for each gender revealed that for males, their family relationship, peer pressure and self-esteem were significant predictors for alcohol use, while for females, peer pressure and school performance were significant predictors for alcohol use. Religious involvement was not found to be a significant protective factor for either gender. Conclusion: Gender differences in risk and protective factors exist among Jamaican adolescents. Further research needs to be done to determine the extent of these differences which need to be considered in the development of prevention and intervention programmes.

  17. Factors associated with sexual orientation and gender disparities in chronic pain among U.S. adolescents and young adults

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    Sabra L. Katz-Wise

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated factors associated with sexual orientation disparities in chronic pain frequency among youth. Data were analyzed from 4534 female and 3785 male youth from Waves I–IV (1995–2009 of the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Gender-stratified weighted logistic regression models controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and included sexual orientation (primary predictor and frequency of three types of chronic pain (outcomes. Models with sexual orientation only were compared to models with factors hypothesized to increase or decrease risk of pain. Significant odds ratios (OR for chronic pain frequency (daily/weekly vs. rarely with confidence intervals (CI and associated factors are reported. Compared to same-gender heterosexual females, mostly heterosexuals were more likely to report headaches (OR = 1.40, CI = 1.09, 1.79 and mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals were more likely to report muscle/joint pain (mostly heterosexual OR = 1.69, CI = 1.29, 2.20; bisexual OR = 1.87, CI = 1.03, 3.38. Compared to same-gender heterosexual males, gay males were more likely to report headaches (OR = 2.00, CI = 1.06, 3.82, but less likely to report muscle/joint pain (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.11, 0.74. Significant disparities were attenuated by up to 16% when associated factors were added to the model. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic pain were partially explained by associated factors, but more research is needed to develop intervention and prevention strategies.

  18. Differences in caregivers' psychological distress and associated factors by care recipients' gender and kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Noboru; Horiguchi, Kazuko

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we examined the level of psychological distress of Japanese caregivers according to various combinations of the gender of care recipients and the kinship of caregivers (spouse, son, daughter, or daughter-in-law). Furthermore, we explored the associated factors that could exacerbate or alleviate psychological distress. We utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design and implemented a self-administered questionnaire survey with a two-stage stratified sample of community-dwelling caregivers of frail elderly persons throughout Japan. We surveyed 1279 caregiving families, and 1020 questionnaires were completed by primary caregivers (response rate: 79.8%), with 945 respondents providing data on the Japanese version of the Kessler 6 psychological distress scale (K6). Caregivers' K6 scores varied significantly by care recipients' gender and their relationship with the caregiver. K6 scores were significantly higher among daughters-in-law caring for fathers-in-law than among daughters-in-law caring for mothers-in-law, wives caring for husbands, or daughters or sons caring for mothers. 'Negative influence of caregiving' and 'anxious about continuing caregiving' were factors that commonly exacerbated caregivers' psychological distress. Further analyses involving interactions indicated that the effects of 'anxious about continuing caregiving' and 'personal growth through caregiving' on the psychological distress of daughters-in-law varied by care recipients' gender as did the effects of an alleviating factor, 'keeping their own pace', on daughters. Psychological distress levels among family caregivers, as well as exacerbating and alleviating factors, varied depending on the gender and kinship of care recipients.

  19. Confirmatory factor analysis of a Spanish version of the sex fantasy questionnaire: assessing gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Juan Carlos; Ortega, Virgilio; Zubeidat, Ihab

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the factor structure of Wilson's Sex Fantasy Questionnaire (SFQ; Wilson, 1978; Wilson & Lang, 1981) using a Spanish version. In order to do this, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis on two nonclinical samples containing 195 men and 315 women. Both groups were tested for the structure proposed by Wilson and also for some alternative models. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that four factors were reasonably distinct, especially for the men. We proposed shortened version of the instrument that would have sufficient psychometric guarantees for assessing sexual fantasies in both genders. This abridged version improved the fit of the four-factor oblique factor equally for both the samples of men and women. In the light of the results of the validation hypothesis established with some criterion variables (dyadic sexual desire, unconventional sex, homophobia), we discuss discrepancies between both versions.

  20. [Gender-determinant factors in contraception: design and validation of a questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yago Simón, Teresa; Tomás Aznar, Concepción

    2013-10-01

    To design and validate a questionnaire for young women on gender-determinant factors in contraception. A questionnaire was developed from conversations with young women attending contraception clinic in the Health Promotion Municpal Centre, Zaragoza. A total of 200 young women between the ages of 13 and 24 self-completed the questionnaire, with only one no response. Several items were analysed: reliability, using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and construct validity by analysis of the main components with eigenvalues above 1, and Quartimax rotation with Kaiser normalisation. The questionnaire contained 36 items and took 10minutes to self-complete. There was good internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha 0,853. Twelve factors were established with an explanation of 61.42% variance, and three descriptive lines: relationship dimension («submissive attitude», «blind attitude», «let go due to affection», «dominant partner»), gender identity («maternity as identity», «non-idealised maternity», «traditional role», «insecurity», «shame») and caring. This questionnaire enabled gender determinant-factors that take part in contraception to be identified, and will be useful to find out how the different ways of relating between the sexes influence the problems of sexual and reproductive health in young women in our environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. A gender perspective on factors that influence outdoor recreational physical activity among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjögren Katarina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is part of a healthy lifestyle and prevents many chronic health problems, in addition to promoting mental health. PA performed outdoors has been found particularly good for promoting one's well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which outdoor recreational PA was carried out during 1 year, and the factors influencing such activities from a gender perspective among persons ≥ 60 years of age. Methods This study included 999 individuals 60-96 years of age living in the south eastern part of Sweden. Data collection was carried out during the years of 2001-2003. We measured the amount of regular light and/or intense outdoor recreational PA performed during the last year and determined the probability of performing PA as a function of 10 variables covering individual and socioeconomic factors. Results Our results suggest that being independent physically and healthy enough to manage one's personal hygiene and having access to areas for country walks were the most important factors associated with the probability of engaging in outdoor recreational PA for both men and women. Despite the level of performance being almost equal for the sexes as two-thirds of both had performed outdoor recreational PA during the preceding year more factors, i.e., living alone, being unable to cover an unexpected cost, fear of being violated, and fear of falling, were associated with the possibilities of engaging in outdoor recreational PA among women. Also increasing age seems to affect activities among women negatively to a higher extent than men. Conclusion Men and women seem to have different opportunities and needs with respect to performing PA. These considerations do not seem to be sufficiently taken into account today and improvements could be made concerning e.g., health-promoting activities suggested to the elderly by healthcare personnel and spatial planning within society. Promoting outdoor

  2. The roles of gender and personality factors in vandalism and scrawl-graffiti among Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmarker, Anki; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Perrin-Wallqvist, Renée; Archer, Trevor

    2016-09-01

    A total of 360 upper secondary school students in Sweden were divided into three grouping variables: gender (male, female), vandalism (involved, not involved), and scrawl-graffiti (involved, not involved). Relevant to the discussion of whether or not scrawl-graffiti may be construed as vandalism or art, the aim of the study was to explore whether or not personality factors known to be linked to vandalism in general (such as impulsivity, affectivity, emotional disability, and optimism) are related also to involvement in scrawl-graffiti, and, furthermore, how the gender factor relates to vandalism and scrawl-graffiti, respectively. The analysis showed that impulsiveness was a significant variable related to vandalism as well as to scrawl-graffiti. Further analysis indicated that vandalism was predicted by non-planning impulsiveness whereas scrawl-graffiti was predicted by motor impulsiveness. Analyses showed also that there were significant gender differences related to both vandalism and scrawl-graffiti, whereby male participants were significantly more involved in vandalism than female participants, while the latter were significantly more involved in scrawl-graffiti than the former. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Cardiovascular risk factors in overweight German children and adolescents: relation to gender, age and degree of overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Thomas; Andler, Werner; Denzer, Christian; Siegried, Wolfgang; Mayer, H; Wabitsch, Martin

    2005-06-01

    So far in Europe, no large studies have been published on the frequencies of the cardiovascular risk factors hypertension and dyslipidaemia in overweight children. Diagnosis of hypertension, decreased HDL-cholesterol, increased triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol were documented for 1004 overweight children and adolescents (aged 4-8 years, 52% girls, BMI-SDS in median 2.43) referred to four obesity centres. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were defined by cut off points above the 95th percentile of healthy children. Multivariate linear regression was conducted for the dependent variables systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-, LDL-, and total cholesterol, including gender, degree of overweight (SDS-BMI) and age as independent variables. Thirty-seven percent of the children studied suffered from hypertension, 27% displayed increased total cholesterol, 26% increased LDL-cholesterol, 20% increased triglycerides and 18% decreased HDL-cholesterol. Seventy percent of all children had at least one unfavourable cardiovascular risk factor. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were observed in any age group and in any degree of overweight at least twofold above the suspected rate of 5%. SDS-BMI was significantly related to blood pressure (systolic: coefficient 7.26, p European children and adolescents. They occurred mostly independently of age, gender and degree of overweight. Therefore, screening for cardiovascular risk factors seems meaningful at any age and degree of overweight in childhood.

  4. Gender Dimensions on the Factors Related to HIV/AIDS in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 张永泽; 许华; 杨运义; 高宝兴; 何景琳; 曾毅

    2004-01-01

    Abstract 5033 farmers were interviewed to participate in a cluster sampling survey on factors related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in one rural area in China. The results showed that females attended school for a shorter time than males, males had a higher awareness of HIV/AIDS and held more positive attitudes toward PLWHAs. Nearly equal percentages of men and women in the area surveyed, sold blood. Eleven percent more men than women had a history of migration. Condom use was quite low among the sexually active population surveyed. Results indicated that an education campaign on HIV/AIDS prevention in rural areas should integrate gender perspectives and ensure that the intervention covers women. Future interventions should be designed to target male and female migration, and should focus on modifying the perceptions of social norms governing gender roles in addition to providing HIV prevention information in order to contain the HIV/AIDS epidemic at its current stage in China.

  5. The association of patient-physician gender concordance with cardiovascular disease risk factor control and treatment in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittdiel, Julie A; Traylor, Ana; Uratsu, Connie S; Mangione, Carol M; Ferrara, Assiamira; Subramanian, Usha

    2009-12-01

    Gender concordance between patients and their physicians is related to prevention screening and other quality indicators. Research suggests female physicians may place greater emphasis on preventive care than male physicians; however, little is known about whether physician gender and patient-physician gender concordance are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor levels and treatment. Our objective was to examine associations between patient gender, physician gender, and their interaction with CVD risk factor control, medication adherence, and treatment intensification in diabetes. In this study, 157,458 Kaiser Permanente Northern California adult diabetes patients with a primary care physician (PCP) were assessed for above target levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (>or=8%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (>or=100 mg/dL), and systolic blood pressure (SBP>or=130 mm Hg) in 2005. Medication adherence and appropriate CVD treatment intensification were assessed using pharmacy data. Probit models assessed the adjusted marginal effects of patient gender, PCP gender, and their interaction on control, adherence, and intensification. Female patients had lower adjusted rates of LDL-C (46% vs. 55%, pgender dyads (70% vs. 66%-68%, pintensification for high SBP (60% vs. 57%, pgender and gender concordance are modestly associated with CVD risk factor control and treatment in diabetes. Further understanding of these differences could lead to improved CVD outcomes for women.

  6. Reviewing gender and cultural factors associated with HIV/AIDS among university students in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van Staden

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is in the midst of a catastrophic AIDS epidemic. HIV prevalence statistics in most countries indicate that up to 60% of all new infections occur among 15 to 24 year olds, whilst this group also boasts the highest incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Statistical findings among South African students predict a 10% increase in the HIV infection rate, highlighting the inability of universities to cope with societies’ demands for academically trained workers which, in the near future, will have a detrimental effect on the economy of South Africa. From the literature it is evident that HIV/AIDS is more than a health issue, it is an inter-sectoral challenge to any society. This paper explored the interplay of gender and cultural factors on South African students’ sexual behaviour by inter alia discussing the following factors that might put students at risk for HIV infection: male dominance vs. female submissiveness; age of first sexual encounter; gender-based violence; contraception; circumcision; financial status; myths and ‘othering’; demonstrating the need for effective strategies, policies and programmes to protect young people, especially females from sexual abuse/rape and its consequences, including HIV. The literature review revealed that South African students, despite adequate HIV/AIDS knowledge, demonstrated high rates of sexual practices that place them at risk for HIV infection, i.e. unprotected sex, multiple partners and ‘sugar-daddy practices’. The paper concludes with a discussion on recommendations for future HIV prevention/ intervention programmes, highlighting the fact that it acquires an inclusive approach. Such interventions should move beyond the individual level to be effective and target gender-based inequalities, human rights violations, including sexual violence and rape, as well as stigma and poverty reduction, both at community and tertiary educational level.

  7. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS IN THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lapshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides guidelines for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α  (TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis  (axSpA, including ankylosing spondylitis. It gives data on the efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with non-radiographic axSpA. By using international and Russian guidelines, the authors lay down indications for this therapy and criteria for evaluation of its efficiency and safety.

  8. Gender differences in factors influencing alcohol use and drinking progression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marya T; Ramo, Danielle; Brown, Sandra A

    2009-08-01

    While prevalence rates for alcohol use and related disorders differ widely between adult men and women, male and female adolescents do not exhibit the same disparity in alcohol consumption. Previous research and reviews do not address the emergence of differences in drinking patterns that occur during late adolescence. Therefore, a developmental perspective is presented for understanding how various risk and protective factors associated with problematic drinking affect diverging alcohol trajectories as youth move into young adulthood. This review examines factors associated with risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in adolescent girls and boys separately. Findings indicate that certain biological (i.e., genetic risk, neurological abnormalities associated with P300 amplitudes) and psychosocial (i.e., impact of positive drinking expectancies, personality characteristics, and deviance proneness) factors appear to impact boys and girls similarly. In contrast, physiological and social changes particular to adolescence appear to differentially affect boys and girls as they transition into adulthood. Specifically, boys begin to manifest a constellation of factors that place them at greater risk for disruptive drinking: low response to alcohol, later maturation in brain structures and executive function, greater estimates of perceived peer alcohol use, and socialization into traditional gender roles. On an individual level, interventions which challenge media-driven stereotypes of gender roles while simultaneously reinforcing personal values are suggested as a way to strengthen adolescent autonomy in terms of healthy drinking decisions. Moreover, parents and schools must improve consistency in rules and consequences regarding teen drinking across gender to avoid mixed messages about acceptable alcohol use for boys and girls.

  9. Age, gender and hypertension as major risk factors in development of subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajla Rahimić Ćatić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intima-media thickness (IMT measurement of the common carotid artery (CCA is considered as useful indicator of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors is important to prevent stroke and heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate which risk factors are better determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by common carotidartery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT.Methods: A total of 74 subjects were randomly selected in this cross – sectional study. Information on the patient’s medical history and laboratory fi ndings were obtained from their clinical records. Risk factors relevant to this study were age, gender, cigarette smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ultrasound scanning of carotid arteries was performed with a 7,5 MHz linear array transducer (GE Voluson730 pro. The highest value of six common carotid artery measurements was taken as the fi nal IMT. Increased CCA-IMT was defi ned when it was > 1 mm.Results: Our data demonstrated higher CCA-IMT values in male patients compared with female patients. Increased CCA-IMT was the most closely related to age (PConclusion: Age, gender and hypertension are the most important risk factors in development of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis among high-risk populations is important in order to prevent stroke and heart diseases, which are leading causes of death worldwide.

  10. Gender and respiratory factors associated with dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre-Jaime Armando

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale We had shown that COPD women expressed more dyspnea than men for the same degree of airway obstruction. Objectives Evaluate gender differences in respiratory factors associated with dyspnea in COPD patients. Methods In a FEV1 % matched population of 100 men and women with COPD we measured: age, MMRC, FEV1, FVC, TLC, IC/TLC, PaO2, PaCO2, DLCO, Pimax, P0.1, Ti/Ttot, BMI, ffmi, 6MWD and VAS scale before and after the test, the Charlson score and the SGRQ. We estimated the association between these parameters and MMRC scores. Multivariate analysis determined the independent strength of those associations. Results MMRC correlated with: BMI (men:-0.29, p = 0.04; women:-0.28, p = 0.05, ffmi (men:-0.39, p = 0.01, FEV1 % (men:-0.64, p 2 (men:-0.59, p 2 (men:0.27, p = 0.05, DLCO (men:-0.54, p 0.1/Pimax (men:0.46, p = 0.002; women:0.47, p = 0.005, dyspnea measured with the Visual Analog Scale before (men:0.37, p = 0.04; women:0.52, p = 0.004 and after 6MWD (men:0.52, p = 0.002; women:0.48, p = 0.004 and SGRQ total (men:0.50, p 0.1/Pimax in women (r2 = 0.30 and BMI, DLCO, PaO2 and P0.1/Pimax in men (r2 = 0.81 were the strongest predictors of MMRC scores. Conclusion In mild to severe COPD patients attending a pulmonary clinic, P0.1/Pimax was the unique predictor of MMRC scores only in women. Respiratory factors explain most of the variations of MMRC scores in men but not in women. Factors other than the respiratory ones should be included in the evaluation of dyspnea in women with COPD.

  11. Gender and Middle School Science: An Examination of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Affecting Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jennifer

    Gender differences in middle school science were examined utilizing a mixed-methods approach. The intrinsic and extrinsic experiences of male and female non-gifted high-achieving students were investigated through the administration of the CAIMI, student interviews, teacher questionnaires, observations, and document examination. Male and female students were selected from a rural Northeast Georgia school district based on their high performance and high growth during middle school science. Eighty-three percent of the student participants were white and 17% were Hispanic. Half of the male participants and one third of the female participants were eligible for free and reduced meals. Findings revealed that male participants were highly motivated, whereas female participants exhibited varying levels of motivation in science. Both male and female students identified similar instructional strategies as external factors that were beneficial to their success. Due to their selection by both genders, these instructional strategies were considered to be gender-neutral and thereby useful for inclusion within coeducational middle school science classrooms.

  12. Z' factor including siRNA design quality parameter in RNAi screening experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sławomir; Kozak, Karol

    2012-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) high-content screening (HCS) enables massive parallel gene silencing and is increasingly being used to reveal novel connections between genes and disease-relevant phenotypes. The application of genome-scale RNAi relies on the development of high quality HCS assays. The Z' factor statistic provides a way to evaluate whether or not screening run conditions (reagents, protocols, instrumentation, kinetics, and other conditions not directly related to the test compounds) are optimized. Z' factor, introduced by Zhang et al., ( 1) is a dimensionless value that represents both the variability and the dynamic range between two sets of sample control data. This paper describe a new extension of the Z' factor, which integrates bioinformatics RNAi non-target compounds for screening quality assessment. Currently presented Z' factor is based on positive and negative control, which may not be sufficient for RNAi experiments including oligonucleotides (oligo) with lack of knock-down. This paper proposes an algorithm which extends existing algorithm by using additional controls generetaed from on-target analysis.

  13. Gender gap on concept inventories in physics: What is consistent, what is inconsistent, and what factors influence the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-12-01

    We review the literature on the gender gap on concept inventories in physics. Across studies of the most commonly used mechanics concept inventories, the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, men’s average pretest scores are always higher than women’s, and in most cases men’s posttest scores are higher as well. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 13% for pretest scores, 12% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. This difference is much smaller than the average difference in normalized gain between traditional lecture and interactive engagement (25%), but it is large enough that it could impact the results of studies comparing the effectiveness of different teaching methods. There is sometimes a gender gap on commonly used electricity and magnetism concept inventories, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment and Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism, but it is usually much smaller and sometimes is zero or favors women. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 3.7% for pretest scores, 8.5% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. There are far fewer studies of the gender gap on electricity and magnetism concept inventories and much more variation in the existing studies. Based on our analysis of 26 published articles comparing the impact of 30 factors that could potentially influence the gender gap, no single factor is sufficient to explain the gap. Several high-profile studies that have claimed to account for or reduce the gender gap have failed to be replicated in subsequent studies, suggesting that isolated claims of explanations of the gender gap should be interpreted with caution. For example, claims that the gender gap could be eliminated through interactive engagement teaching methods or through a “values affirmation writing exercise” were not supported by subsequent studies. Suggestions that the gender gap might be reduced by changing the wording of

  14. Gender gap on concept inventories in physics: What is consistent, what is inconsistent, and what factors influence the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-12-01

    We review the literature on the gender gap on concept inventories in physics. Across studies of the most commonly used mechanics concept inventories, the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, men’s average pretest scores are always higher than women’s, and in most cases men’s posttest scores are higher as well. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 13% for pretest scores, 12% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. This difference is much smaller than the average difference in normalized gain between traditional lecture and interactive engagement (25%), but it is large enough that it could impact the results of studies comparing the effectiveness of different teaching methods. There is sometimes a gender gap on commonly used electricity and magnetism concept inventories, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment and Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism, but it is usually much smaller and sometimes is zero or favors women. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 3.7% for pretest scores, 8.5% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. There are far fewer studies of the gender gap on electricity and magnetism concept inventories and much more variation in the existing studies. Based on our analysis of 26 published articles comparing the impact of 30 factors that could potentially influence the gender gap, no single factor is sufficient to explain the gap. Several high-profile studies that have claimed to account for or reduce the gender gap have failed to be replicated in subsequent studies, suggesting that isolated claims of explanations of the gender gap should be interpreted with caution. For example, claims that the gender gap could be eliminated through interactive engagement teaching methods or through a “values affirmation writing exercise” were not supported by subsequent studies. Suggestions that the gender gap might be reduced by changing the wording of

  15. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  16. Gender differences in factors influencing sexual satisfaction in Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Jeon, Hae Ok

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the sex lives of Korean older adults (i.e., those over 60 years) and attempts to identify gender-related factors influencing sexual satisfaction. It used data from the 2008 Korean National Survey on Older Adults conducted by the Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Families. Of the 15,146 individuals who had taken part in the 2008 study, secondary analysis was conducted with data from 3360 persons who had spouses and were willing to respond to sex-related questions in a face-to-face interview. The mean age of male and female subjects was 67.34 and 66.86 years respectively. In the male subjects, sexual frequency, followed by marital satisfaction and cognitive function, had the greatest effect on sexual satisfaction. These three variables together accounted for 21% of the male subjects' sexual satisfaction. In the female subjects, marital satisfaction, followed by frequency of sexual activity, absence of depressive symptoms, age, and length of cohabitation with spouse, had the greatest effect on sexual satisfaction. These five variables together explained 11% of their sexual satisfaction. This study indicates that sexual frequency and physical factors have the most important effects on the sex lives of older men, while older women value psychosocial and relational factors more highly. Therefore, interventions aiming to improve sexual satisfaction in older adults should take gender differences into account.

  17. Emotional intelligence, personality, and gender as factors in disordered eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu

    2014-08-01

    We examined the hypotheses that proposing higher levels of emotional intelligence (ability test and self-report) and lower neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness associate with lower levels of disordered eating. In a correlational study, 126 Israeli college students completed two measures of emotional intelligence, a brief five-factor personality test, demographic data questionnaires, and questionnaires assessing food preoccupation, namely, the Body Weight, Image and Self-Esteem Scale and the Appearance Schema Inventory. Results suggested that ability emotional intelligence is associated with disordered eating beyond gender and personality. Self-reported emotional intelligence did not associate with any of the outcomes after controlling for personality. Implications and applications are briefly discussed.

  18. Measurement Invariance of Second-Order Factor Model of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across K-12 Principal Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihua; Wubbena, Zane; Stewart, Trae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12 school principals (n=6,317) in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Nine first-order factor models and four second-order factor models were tested using confirmatory…

  19. Measurement Invariance of Second-Order Factor Model of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across K-12 Principal Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihua; Wubbena, Zane; Stewart, Trae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12 school principals (n=6,317) in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Nine first-order factor models and four second-order factor models were tested using confirmatory…

  20. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  1. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song E Kim

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950 were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  2. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  3. Playing-related musculoskeletal problems in children learning instrumental music: the association between problem location and gender, age, and music exposure factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranelli, Sonia; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2011-09-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians, and risk factors include gender, music exposure, and particularly instrument type. Emerging evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP, both symptoms and disorders, and PRMP location in children and adolescents as well as the associations with gender, age, and music exposure factors such as type and number of instruments and playing time. This study surveyed 731 children (460 females), aged 7 to 17 years, studying instrumental music in government schools in Perth, Australia. Lifetime and monthly symptoms, monthly disorders (inability to play an instrument as usual), and PRMP location were examined. Chi-squared analyses were used to evaluate associations between gender, age, music exposure, and PRMP outcomes. Logistic regression evaluated the independent association of these potential risk factors with PRMP prevalence and location. RESULTS) Sixty-seven percent of students reported PRMP symptoms at some point, 56% reported them within the last month, and 30% reported an inability to play as usual within the last month. After adjustment for gender and age, the type of instrument played (upper and lower strings, woodwind, and brass) was significantly associated with all PRMP (pmusic exposure are associated with PRMP risk and need to be addressed to ensure musicians' personal well-being and musical longevity.

  4. Factors associated with gender difference in the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, T.-Y.; Lu, C.-H.; Lin, T.-K.; Liou, C.-W. [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Y.-C., E-mail: tengyeowtan@yahoo.co [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Schminke, U. [Department of Neurology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Greifswald (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Aim: To investigate the gender differences associated with a thinner intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) in women. Materials and methods: In a sample of 218 consecutive healthy volunteers comprising 110 men and 108 women, the IMT of the CCA was measured using B-mode ultrasonography. Blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, body mass index (BMI), blood lipid profile, homocysteine, folic acid, uric acid, high sensitive C-reactive protein, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were measured and compared with each other in both genders. Results: The IMT of the CCA was significantly thinner in women than in men (p = 0.012). Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, BMI, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine, uric acid, and TBARS were significantly (p < 0.05) lower, folic acid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in women compared with men. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher serum levels of homocysteine, uric acid, and TBARS, and lower serum levels of HDL-C were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with male sex. Multiple linear regression analysis further revealed that age, sex, and BMI were independently associated with CCA IMT. Conclusions: The IMT of the CCA was thinner in women than in men. Traditional vascular risk factors explain only a small amount of variance in multivariate regression models supporting the hypothesis that other behavioural, sex hormone-related or genetic factors, which have not been sufficiently explored so far, may play a role in the gender differences of IMT.

  5. Gender Differences in Coronary Artery Disease: Correlational Study on Dietary Pattern and Known Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Najafi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between diet and cardiovascular risk factors in men and women with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD has been the subject of recent studies. We studied a group of Iranian CAD patients to analyze any relationship between diet and CAD risk factors based on gender. Methods: In this study, 461 consecutive patients were assessed before their planned isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. They were interviewed to obtain the quantity and components of nutrients and micronutrients based on a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet scores were calculated in each dietary group and the total score was reported as the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (Med-DQI. Physical activity was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Functional class, EuroSCORE and the frequency of the known risk factors in the men and women were recorded as well. Results: The women were more likely than the men to present with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension (all Ps < 0.001. Also, the women had higher functional class and mean of EuroSCORE (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03. Only six women (5.7% reported to have regular physical activity. In addition, Women’s energy intake was more likely to be supplied through fat. Cereals, fruit, and vegetable consumption in both genders was within the safe recommended range, while olive and fish consumption was low in both sexes. MedDQI score was different between men and women with hypertension (P = 0.018 and obesity (P = 0.048. Conclusions: Modifiable classical risk factors for CAD, except for smoking, were more prevalent in women and were associated with their diet. Therefore, women probably need to maintain low calorie intake while improving physical activity and dietary patterns to decrease the frequency and severity of modifiable cardiac risk factors.

  6. Associated factors of unhealthy eating patterns among Spanish university students by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Ana; Carrobles, José Antonio; Gandarillas, Ana M

    2010-05-01

    This study has examined bio-socio-demographic and psychopathological factors probably associated with unhealthy eating patterns among university students and to estimate a multifactorial model following the associated factors by gender. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to describe associations on basis of Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) stratified by gender in a representative sample of Spanish university students (n = 2551). The high EDI scorers for both sexes presented higher prevalence of dieting, body dissatisfaction, levels of psychopathology and lower self-esteem than the low EDI scorers. The results suggest that older students and higher self-esteem scores present lower scores in the EDI. In the female population, depression, paranoid dimension, dieting and body dissatisfaction were associated with population with unhealthy eating patterns. In the male sample, dieting, body dissatisfaction and interpersonal sensibility were also associated with unhealthy eating patterns. The results corroborate that abnormal eating patterns tend to affect specific vulnerable groups. We do not know the precise mechanisms through which these risk behaviors and attitudes, such as dieting or body dissatisfaction, may facilitate the later development of an eating disorder.

  7. Mixed-gender groups: coping strategies and factors of psychological adaptation in a polar environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnet, Elisabeth; Jurion, Sylvie; Cazes, Geneviève; Bachelard, Claude

    2004-07-01

    The polar environment is often seen as a good analog for long-term space missions in terms of isolation and confinement. This paper focuses on the psychological adaptation of both the men and women in mixed-gender groups in the French polar station Dumont d'Urville. The first 49 expeditions to this station were composed of men only in groups of 25-30. In 2000, two women were included in the first mixed-gender wintering group, followed by five women in 2001. This study on coping strategies and psychological adaptation was included in an end-of-mission debriefing performed by a psychologist. Data were collected using a few quantitative tools and a semi-structured interview, and focused on adaptation to wintering, coping strategies, and information on interpersonal relationships. Including women in a wintering group seems to have had positive effects on the general climate of the group by reducing men's rude behavior, but it also seems to be an important stressor for both men and women when the females' average age is close to the males' because seduction behaviors appear and rivalry, frustration, and sexual harassment frequently result. The use of problem-oriented strategies helps women to adapt. There are strong arguments indicating that living in an isolated and confined environment magnifies the usual difficulties that arise in mixed-gender relationships. Difficulties may be magnified in space since the group size is smaller and the confinement more extreme. This implies the need for rigorous select-in criteria for both men and women, especially for relational criteria, and for group training after selection.

  8. Regarding gender relations: Gender identity or gender interaction styles?

    OpenAIRE

    Bazán Ramírez, Aldo

    1996-01-01

    This study discusses sorne assumptions from the social determinism in the construction of gender roles, gender-typed identities, and gender relarions inequities. Ir is proposed that gender sryles of interaction are relatively invariant forms or dispositions related ro specific contexts of social interaction. Iris not enough ro say that socialization factors such as the family, school, mass media, and rhe inirial social group relations generare a typed gender identity or gender seggregation, b...

  9. Prognostic factors of infantile spasms: role of treatment options including a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Yu, Hee Jun; Lee, Munhyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide additional evidences on prognostic factors for infantile spasms and the possible role of a ketogenic diet. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with infantile spasms who had been followed up for more than 6months between January 2000 and July 2012 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). We analyzed the association between possible prognostic factors and seizure/developmental outcomes. Sixty-nine patients were included in this study and their mean follow-up duration was 52.5 (9-147) months. In the patients who had been followed up for more than 2years, 53.6% (n=30/57) remained seizure-free at the last visit. Sixty patients (86.9%) showed developmental delay at last follow-up. Forty-two patients (60.9%) became spasm-free with one or two antiepileptic drugs, one patient with epilepsy surgery for a tumor, and seven patients with a ketogenic diet after the failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. The etiology and age of seizure onset were the significant prognostic factors. In this study, about 60% of the patients became spasm-free with vigabatrin and topiramate. Ketogenic diet increased the rate by 10% in the remaining antiepileptic drug resistant patients. However, 86.9% of the patients showed developmental delay, mostly a severe degree. Early diagnosis and prompt application of treatment options such as antiepileptic drugs, a ketogenic diet or epilepsy surgery can improve outcomes in patients with infantile spasms. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  11. Aberrant driving behaviour: homogeneity of a four-factor structure in samples differing in age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmö, P-A

    2002-06-20

    Four samples, representing a broad age range, were compared in confirmatory factor analyses with respect to a four-factor model of aberrant driving behaviour. With the restrictions imposed on the data by the model, an approximate fit was obtained for all four samples. Additional analyses, which tested equality of factor loadings and correlations for different age groups, also indicated that the model was a good fit. Separate analyses on male and female respondents yielded similar results. Although earlier results have shown that aberrant driving behaviours are differentially related to age and gender, the findings suggest that structural differences in relation to age and gender may be of minor importance. The four-factor model of aberrant driving behaviour sufficiently meets statistical criteria in a model-generating phase. In addition, it is an appropriate solution to apply on data obtained from respondents varying in age and gender.

  12. Impact of Gender, Co-Morbidity and Social Factors on Labour Market Affiliation after First Admission for Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Mårtensson, Solvej; Prescott, Eva

    2014-01-01

    ,714). For this population, data on sick leave, unemployment and retirement were obtained from an administrative register covering all citizens. The 21,926 patients, aged 18-63 years, who had survived 30 days and were part of the workforce at the time of diagnosis were included in the analyses where subsequent transition......BACKGROUND: Over the last decades survival after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has improved, leading to an increasing number of patients returning to work, but little is known about factors that may influence their labour market affiliation. This study examines the impact of gender, co...... between the above labour market states was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. FINDINGS: A total of 37% of patients were in work 30 days after first ACS diagnosis, while 55% were on sick leave and 8% were unemployed. Seventy-nine per cent returned to work once during...

  13. Examination of Gender Differences on Cognitive and Motivational Factors That Influence 8th Graders' Science Achievement in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ömer; Türkmen, Lütfullah; Bilgin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of several students' cognitive and motivational factors on 8th graders' science achievement and also gender differences on factors that significantly contribute to the science achievement model. A total of 99 girls and 83 boys responded all the instruments used in this study. Results showed that girls outperformed boys on…

  14. Examination of Gender Differences on Cognitive and Motivational Factors That Influence 8th Graders' Science Achievement in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ömer; Türkmen, Lütfullah; Bilgin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of several students' cognitive and motivational factors on 8th graders' science achievement and also gender differences on factors that significantly contribute to the science achievement model. A total of 99 girls and 83 boys responded all the instruments used in this study. Results showed that girls outperformed boys on…

  15. Trend and risk factors of diverticulosis in Japan: age, gender, and lifestyle/metabolic-related factors may cooperatively affect on the colorectal diverticula formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutake Yamamichi

    Full Text Available Despite the marked increase of diverticulosis, its risk factors have not been adequately elucidated. We therefore aim to identify significantly associated factors with diverticulosis. We also aim to investigate the present state of diverticulosis in Japan.We reviewed the medical records from 1990 to 2010 that included the data of consecutive 62,503 asymptomatic colonoscopy examinees from the general population in Japan. Most recent 3,327 examinees were analyzed with 16 background factors.Among the 62,503 subjects (47,325 men and 15,178 women; 52.1 ± 9.2 years old, diverticulosis was detected in 11,771 subjects (18.8%; 10,023 men and 1,748 women. The incidences of diverticulosis in 1990-2000 and 2001-2010 were respectively 13.0% (3,771 of 29,071 and 23.9% (8,000 of 33,432: the latter was much higher than the former in all age groups and for both genders. Considering the anatomical locations of colorectal diverticula, left-sided ones have markedly increased with age but not significantly changed with times. Univariate analyses of the 3,327 subjects showed significant association of diverticulosis with four basic factors (age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, three life style-related factor (smoking, drinking, severe weight increase in adulthood, and two blood test values (triglyceride, HbA1c. The multiple logistic analysis calculating standardized coefficients (β and odds ratio (OR demonstrated that age (β = 0.217-0.674, OR = 1.24-1.96, male gender (β = 0.185, OR = 1.20, smoking (β = 0.142-0.200, OR = 1.15-1.22, severe weight increase in adulthood (β = 0.153, OR = 1.17, HbA1c (β = 0.136, OR = 1.15, drinking (β = 0.109, OR = 1.11, and serum triglyceride (β = 0.098, OR = 1.10 showed significantly positive association with diverticulosis whereas body mass index and blood pressure did not.The large-scale data of asymptomatic colonoscopy examinees from the general population from 1990 to 2010 indicated that the prevalence of

  16. Trend and risk factors of diverticulosis in Japan: age, gender, and lifestyle/metabolic-related factors may cooperatively affect on the colorectal diverticula formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Nobutake; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Takahashi, Yu; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Kakimoto, Hikaru; Matsuda, Rie; Kataoka, Yosuke; Saito, Itaru; Tsuji, Yosuke; Yakabi, Seiichi; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Niimi, Keiko; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Nakayama, Chiemi; Ono, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Yamaji, Yutaka; Wada, Ryoichi; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Despite the marked increase of diverticulosis, its risk factors have not been adequately elucidated. We therefore aim to identify significantly associated factors with diverticulosis. We also aim to investigate the present state of diverticulosis in Japan. We reviewed the medical records from 1990 to 2010 that included the data of consecutive 62,503 asymptomatic colonoscopy examinees from the general population in Japan. Most recent 3,327 examinees were analyzed with 16 background factors. Among the 62,503 subjects (47,325 men and 15,178 women; 52.1 ± 9.2 years old), diverticulosis was detected in 11,771 subjects (18.8%; 10,023 men and 1,748 women). The incidences of diverticulosis in 1990-2000 and 2001-2010 were respectively 13.0% (3,771 of 29,071) and 23.9% (8,000 of 33,432): the latter was much higher than the former in all age groups and for both genders. Considering the anatomical locations of colorectal diverticula, left-sided ones have markedly increased with age but not significantly changed with times. Univariate analyses of the 3,327 subjects showed significant association of diverticulosis with four basic factors (age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure), three life style-related factor (smoking, drinking, severe weight increase in adulthood), and two blood test values (triglyceride, HbA1c). The multiple logistic analysis calculating standardized coefficients (β) and odds ratio (OR) demonstrated that age (β = 0.217-0.674, OR = 1.24-1.96), male gender (β = 0.185, OR = 1.20), smoking (β = 0.142-0.200, OR = 1.15-1.22), severe weight increase in adulthood (β = 0.153, OR = 1.17), HbA1c (β = 0.136, OR = 1.15), drinking (β = 0.109, OR = 1.11), and serum triglyceride (β = 0.098, OR = 1.10) showed significantly positive association with diverticulosis whereas body mass index and blood pressure did not. The large-scale data of asymptomatic colonoscopy examinees from the general population from 1990 to 2010 indicated that the prevalence of diverticulosis

  17. Indigenous food security revival strategies at the village level: The gender factor implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred Lunga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on an evaluation concerning the practice of the Zunde raMambo concept (commonly referred to as Zunde in four of Zimbabwe’s 52 districts; (Mangwe, Lupane, Guruve and Hwedza. Zunde is a social security system providing protection against food shortages to vulnerable families and is coordinated by chiefs. The Zunde concept identifies with Ndebele and Shona rural communities in Zimbabwe. Thus, this evaluation sought to determine the relevance and fulfilment of the Zunde project objectives, namely: efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. The revived Zunde practice extends a long way in reducing food insecurity in vulnerable communities. Although the concept may be as old as the Zimbabwean culture, it had been abandoned as communities became urbanised. The Chief’s Council of Zimbabwe, in collaboration with the Nutrition Unit of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare have rekindled it. However, to revive this indigenous knowledge practice, there is need to assess the nature of existing social and economic structures, leadership, gender roles and the availability of resources such as land, inputs and implements. This article, which is based on both qualitative and quantitative data, collected between September 2013 and March 2014, goes on to reflect on policy issues surrounding disaster risk reduction (DRR and survival strategies used by vulnerable communities in rural areas of Zimbabwe. It recommends that the gender factor approach offers the best means possible to understand peoples’ needs and challenges as well as how these can be satisfied and resolved respectively.

  18. Problematic Internet Use in University Students: associated factors and differences of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Villa, Tania; Alguacil Ojeda, Juan; Almaraz Gómez, Ana; Cancela Carral, José María; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; García-Martín, Miguel; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Llorca, Javier; Molina, Antonio José; Ortíz Moncada, Rocío; Valero-Juan, Luiz Félix; Martín, Vicente

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to make a descriptive analysis of Problematic Internet Use in college students, evaluating the possible association with health problems and addictive behaviors, as well as gender differences in user types. A total of 2,780 students participated in the study between 2011 and 2014, 29% of them being males (age 20.8 ± 5.1 years) and 71% females (age 20.3 ± 4.4 years). The prevalence of Problematic Internet Use (PIU) assessed by the Internet Addiction Test was 6.08%. Being under 21 years of age and studying for degrees in subjects other than the health sciences were associated factors with a higher frequency of this problem, no differences by gender or type of address were found. The results show a significant association with some health problems (migraines, back pain, excess weight or obesity, insufficient rest), psychological aspects (risk of eating disorders, risk of mental disorder, depression), family problems and discrimination; with no associations with substance use (alcohol, cannabis or tobacco) being found. Concerning the time of Internet use, weekly hours were significantly higher in women than in men, both the total time as for leisure. The analysis of the profile use in problematic users revealed that males are related to aspects of entertainment such as games or shopping online and females are related to aspects of socialization, such as chats and social networks.

  19. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area.

  20. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  1. The influence of age, gender, lifestyle factors and sub-clinical neck pain on the cervical flexion-rotation test and cervical range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenric; Hall, Toby; Robinson, Kim

    2008-12-01

    The flexion-rotation test (FRT) is commonly used when assessing cervicogenic headache. Additionally, active range of motion (AROM) is frequently used to evaluate impairment in neck pain. No studies have investigated the interaction of the FRT and AROM with age, gender, pain and lifestyle factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of these factors on the FRT and cervical AROM. A group of 66 participants (aged 20-78) were studied, 28 experienced sub-clinical neck pain (recurrent neck pain or discomfort which has not received treatment from a healthcare professional) while 38 did not. Age, gender, lifestyle factors and sub-clinical neck pain were assessed using a questionnaire. Measurement of AROM was performed by two examiners blind to the results of the questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis found that 59% of the variance in the FRT was explained by the presence of sub-clinical pain and cervical lateral flexion measures. Secondly, 58-72% of the variance in active cervical ROM measures was influenced by factors including the FRT, gender and movements of the neck in other planes. This study found that lifestyle factors do not influence the cervical FRT and AROM.

  2. Gender Role and Social Identifications: The Two Major Factors to Shape Turkish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden-Imamoglu, Seval

    2013-01-01

    The process of being a woman starts with biological gender but it is shaped by learning the social gender roles. Besides social gender role; age, education, marriage, and motherhood supply social roles and attributions and they have an impact on women identification and their interpersonal relationships. The aim of the study is to investigate…

  3. Gender Role and Social Identifications: The Two Major Factors to Shape Turkish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden-Imamoglu, Seval

    2013-01-01

    The process of being a woman starts with biological gender but it is shaped by learning the social gender roles. Besides social gender role; age, education, marriage, and motherhood supply social roles and attributions and they have an impact on women identification and their interpersonal relationships. The aim of the study is to investigate…

  4. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Perceived Discrimination Is an Independent Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlbrenner, Verena; Deuba, Keshab; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Sexual and gender minorities experience an elevated burden of suicidality compared with the general population. Still, little is known about that burden and the factors generating it in the context of low- and middle-income countries. The present study assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, planned suicide, and attempted suicide among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG) in Nepal, and examined the association of perceived discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation with suicidal ideation and with attempted suicide. Data were obtained from a surveillance survey among MSM and TG in Nepal in 2012. A sample of 400 MSM and TG, recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a structured face-to-face interview. Throughout their lifetime, 26.8% of the participants had experienced suicidal ideation, 12.0% had made a suicide plan, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. In particular, more TG than MSM had experienced suicidal ideation (39.8% vs. 21.3%), had made a suicide plan (19.5% vs. 8.9%), and had attempted suicide (15.3% vs. 6.4%). Overall, the odds of having experienced suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the 38.3% of participants who had perceived discrimination based on their sexual orientation (AOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.83-5.48). Moreover, the odds of suicidal ideation was significantly higher as the extent of perceived discrimination increased (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60). However, the odds of attempted suicide was not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62-3.15). The findings highlight perceived discrimination as an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Future suicide prevention programs should target sexual and gender minorities and include elements focusing on discrimination.

  6. Perceived Discrimination Is an Independent Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Kohlbrenner

    Full Text Available Sexual and gender minorities experience an elevated burden of suicidality compared with the general population. Still, little is known about that burden and the factors generating it in the context of low- and middle-income countries. The present study assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, planned suicide, and attempted suicide among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender people (TG in Nepal, and examined the association of perceived discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation with suicidal ideation and with attempted suicide. Data were obtained from a surveillance survey among MSM and TG in Nepal in 2012. A sample of 400 MSM and TG, recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a structured face-to-face interview. Throughout their lifetime, 26.8% of the participants had experienced suicidal ideation, 12.0% had made a suicide plan, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. In particular, more TG than MSM had experienced suicidal ideation (39.8% vs. 21.3%, had made a suicide plan (19.5% vs. 8.9%, and had attempted suicide (15.3% vs. 6.4%. Overall, the odds of having experienced suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the 38.3% of participants who had perceived discrimination based on their sexual orientation (AOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.83-5.48. Moreover, the odds of suicidal ideation was significantly higher as the extent of perceived discrimination increased (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60. However, the odds of attempted suicide was not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62-3.15. The findings highlight perceived discrimination as an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Future suicide prevention programs should target sexual and gender minorities and include elements focusing on discrimination.

  7. The Correlation between Gender Inequalities and Their Health Related Factors in World Countries: A Global Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hassanzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate gender inequalities and their health associated factors in world countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken using data of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP and World Health Organization (WHO. The main variable in this study was gender inequality index (GII. All countries were stratified by WHO regions. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the linear correlation between GII and investigated factors by WHO regions. The mean of GII was greater in Africa and lower in Europe region. There was negative significant association between GII and life expectancy at birth and mean years of schooling, prevalence of current tobacco smoking, high blood pressure and overweight and obesity, alcohol consumption rate, and cancer death rate. But there was positive significant association between GII and noncommunicable diseases death rates. In conclusion, gender inequalities, though decreasing over the past decades in world, remain notably greater in Africa and Eastern Mediterranean regions than in Europe. Gender inequality is also an important issue which is related to health factors. Hence, countries will need to focus on public health intervention and equal distribution of economic resources to reduce gender inequality in society.

  8. Nightlife violence: a gender-specific view on risk factors for violence in nightlife settings: a cross-sectional study in nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged 16 to 35 assessed a variety of risk-taking traits, including violence, sexual, alcohol, and drug-related current and historic behaviors. Results show that the likelihood of having been involved in a physical fight in nightlife increases with younger age, drunkenness, and increasing preference for tolerant venues for both genders. The odds of involvement in a fight for females who were drunk five or more times in the past 4 weeks were almost five times higher than those who were never drunk (odds ratio for males 1.99). Use of cocaine more than doubled the risk of involvement in violence among males. However, no association was found for females. For heterosexual men, the odds for violence almost doubled compared with bisexual or homosexual men, whereas for women heterosexuality was a protective factor. The effects of structural risk factors (e.g., bar and club characteristics) for nightlife violence differed by gender. To develop effective violence prevention measures in nightlife, considerations need to be made regarding the demographic composition of patrons in addition to wider structural elements within the nighttime environment.

  9. Gender and social rejection as risk factors for engaging in risky sexual behavior among crack/cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopetz, Catalina; Pickover, Alison; Magidson, Jessica F; Richards, Jessica M; Iwamoto, Derek; Lejuez, C W

    2014-06-01

    Crack/cocaine and engagement in risky sexual behavior represent important contributors to the escalation of the HIV infection among women. Several lines of research have emphasized the role of social factors in women's vulnerability for such practices and stressed the importance of understanding such factors to better inform prevention efforts and improve their effectiveness and efficiency. However, few studies have attempted to pinpoint specific social/contextual factors particularly relevant to high-risk populations such as female crack/cocaine users. Extensive previous research has related the experience of social rejection to a variety of negative outcomes including, but not limited to, various forms of psychopathology, self-defeating, and self-harm behavior. Motivated by this research, the current study explored the role of laboratory-induced social rejection in moderating the relationship between gender and risky sexual behavior among a sample of crack/cocaine users (n = 211) at high risk for HIV. The results showed that among women, but not among men, experiencing social rejection was significantly associated with a greater number of sexual partners. Further, experiencing social rejection was not related to the frequency of condom use. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed.

  10. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.

  11. Factors Affecting Phenotype Variability in a Family with CMT2B: Gender and LRSAM1 Genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leema Reddy Peddareddygari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2 is an autosomal dominant axonal neuropathy caused by mutations in various genes. The subtype CMT2B results from missense mutations in RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family gene, whereas missense mutations in the Leucine-rich repeat and sterile alpha motif-containing protein 1 (LRSAM1 gene cause CMT2P. We describe the genotype/phenotype analysis of a family in which a previously described mutation in the RAB7A gene and a novel mutation in the LRSAM1 gene were identified. In this family, none of the individuals had ulceromutilating features, and there was a marked variability in the age of onset. We discuss the possible etiology of the observed phenotypic variability including the role of gender and possible RAB7A/LRSAM1 gene interactions.

  12. Gender perspective on the factors predicting recycling behavior: Implications from the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ceren; Teksöz, Gaye; Pamuk, Savas; Sahin, Elvan; Kilic, Dilek Sultan

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of some socio-psychological attributes in explaining recycling behavior of Turkish university community from a gender perspective within the context of the theory of planned behavior with an additional variable (past experience). The recycling behavior of whole sample, females and males, has been examined in 3 sessions -depending on the arguments that explain gendered pattern of private and public environmental behavior and sticking to the fact why females' stronger environmental values, beliefs, and attitudes do not translate consistently into greater engagement in public behavior. As a result of model runs, different variables shaping intention for behavior have been found, namely perceived behavior control for females and past behavior for males. Due to the low percent of the variance in explaining recycling behavior of females, they have been identified as the ones who do not carry out intentions (non-recyclers). Since intentions alone are capable of identifying recyclers accurately but not non-recyclers, there may be other factors to be considered to understand the reason for females not carrying out the intentions. The results of descriptive statistics supported the identification by attitudes toward recycling. Female attitudes were innate (recycling is good, necessary, useful and sensitive), whereas those of males were learnt (recycling is healthy, valuable and correct). Thus, it has been concluded that males' intention for recycling is shaped by their past behavior and the conclusion is supported by males having learnt attitude toward recycling whereas females' lack of intention for recycling is shaped by their perceived behavior control and is supported by their innate attitude for recycling. All in all, the results of the present study provide further support for the utility of the TPB as a model of behavioral prediction and concur with other studies examining the utility of the TPB in the context of recycling

  13. RECREATIONAL TENDENCIES AND THE FACTORS PREVENTING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS PARTICIPATING TO RECREATIONAL ACTIVITES ACCORDING TO GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar ÇORUH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study of university students according to gender; recreational activity participation trends and participation in these events in the factors which may impede the examination of population of the study, Agri Ibrahim Chechen University 2012 - 2013 academic year, students who are studying the sample group the Islamic Sciences Faculty, Faculty of Arts and Education at the Faculty of normal and used in teaching students selected by the random sampling method and volunteered to participate in the research consisted of 490 individuals . Working as a data collection tool "Leisure Barriers" scale is used. Working for the analysis of two independent sample t - test and ANOVA were applied, no significant differences found as a result of these practices in order to determine the source of the Duncan test was performed. The scale used in the study in three of the six factors of the variations observed according to the specified arguments, but this perspective more " time and lack of interest in" the focus has been understood that.

  14. Breaking the gender digital divide. Involved factors in the choice of a technological career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Sánchez Vadillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, only 17% of computer science students are women, a dramatically low tax, yet similar to the ones in the other western countries. This research analyses how some girls manage to overcome the gender digital divide, participating actively in a strongly masculinized world. To understand this process three young computer students girls technological life stories are analyzed. This research method allowed identifying the social practices surrounding the exceptional technological trajectories of these women. The results indicate that these girls have a high sense of technological competence; use self-learning strategies, scorning ICT formal education; and, have a developed taste for mathematics and logical processes. These factors may come from: a a favorable family environment, in which the absence of brothers which could compete for computers and consoles use appears as a one striking factor; and, b a fondness for videogames, that are, as literature signals, an important gateway to new technologies, which increase educational and professional opportunities. Finally, the research puts in evidence that, if a family environment favorable to technology exists, formal education processes can generate counteractive effects when comparing to fostering vocations capacity of informal learning.

  15. "It's not just economic factors...": The pervasive gender gap in 21st century Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    More than twenty-five years have passed since the Japanese government introduced legislation to address gender discrimination in the workplace. This has been followed by other legal measures to safeguard employment during childcare or eldercare leave, and most recently to promote the formation of a "gender-equal society." Yet, official policies and legal provisions have had only little impact on reshaping gender attitudes and role expectations, suggesting that top-down efforts to effect chang...

  16. Regulation of oxidative enzyme activity and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 in human skeletal muscle: influence of gender and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Schjerling, P.; Vistisen, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gender-related differences in the responses of oxidative enzymes and eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2) to exercise. METHODS: The influence of exercise (90 min, 60%VO(2peak)) on citrate synthase (CS) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity and mRNA content, to...

  17. The Influence of Gender, Parents and Background Factors on Grade 7 Students' Beliefs and Attitudes towards Mathematics in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimo, Adelino Evaristo

    2013-01-01

    The third study by the "Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality" (SACMEQ) revealed that achievement in mathematics among Grade 6 children in Mozambique is declining, and gender differences favouring boys persist. This study examined the contribution of parents, economic resources and cultural factors on…

  18. The Influence of Gender, Parents and Background Factors on Grade 7 Students' Beliefs and Attitudes towards Mathematics in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimo, Adelino Evaristo

    2013-01-01

    The third study by the "Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality" (SACMEQ) revealed that achievement in mathematics among Grade 6 children in Mozambique is declining, and gender differences favouring boys persist. This study examined the contribution of parents, economic resources and cultural factors on…

  19. Factors Affecting Gender Equity in the Choice of Science and Technology Careers among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Alutu, Azuka N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the factors affecting gender equity in science and technology among senior secondary school students. The study was carried out at the University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty students of average age 15 years in their penultimate year were administered the…

  20. Factorization of Radiative Leptonic Decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ Mesons Including the Soft Photon Region

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ji-Chong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the radiative leptonic decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ mesons using factorization approach. Factorization is proved to be valid explicitly at 1-loop level at any order of $O(\\Lambda _{\\rm QCD}\\left/m_Q\\right.)$. We consider the contribution in the soft photon region that $E_{\\gamma} \\sim \\left. \\Lambda^2 _{\\rm QCD} /\\right. m_Q$. The numerical results shows that, the soft photon region is very important for both the $B$ and $D$ mesons. The branching ratios of $B\\to \\gamma e\

  1. Examining the relationship of ethnicity, gender and social cognitive factors with the academic achievement of first-year engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Bruce Henry

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified

  2. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of th

  3. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  4. Clinico-biochemical factors to early predict biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis: age, female gender, and ALT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnescu, N O; Costea, R; Zarnescu Vasiliu, E C; Neagu, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/ Aims: Despite the existence of an easy tool to diagnose biliary tract disease as an etiology for acute pancreatitis (AP), the sensitivity of abdominal ultrasound is around 80%, which can be even lower in certain conditions. We have retrospectively reviewed data of 146 patients admitted for acute pancreatitis between 1999 and 2013. Bivariate analysis for clinical and biochemical variables was performed with respect to etiology of AP (biliary versus non-biliary). Multivariate analysis was performed by using binary logistic regression. There were 87 males (59.6%) and 59 females (40.4%), with a median age of 51. The etiology of acute pancreatitis was biliary in 71 patients (48.6%). Bivariate analysis found the following as significant association (p=0.001) with biliary pancreatitis: older age, female gender, and elevated AST, ALT. A binary logistic regression analysis identified as predictor factors for biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis: age OR = 1.031 (95% CI 1.004 - 1.059, p = 0.024), sex (female) OR = 2.34 (95% CI 1.022 - 5.359, p = 0.044) and ALT OR = 1.004 (95% CI 1.001 - 1.007, p =0.004). The two clinical scores included the three variables (A.S.ALT scores) in categorical format were generated and then checked with the ROC curves (areas under curve are 0.768 and 0.778). Age, female gender, and elevated ALT can help identifying cases with biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis.

  5. Are new medical students' specialty preferences gendered? Related motivational factors at a Dutch medical school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren-Alers, M.L.G. van; Esch, M. van der; Verdonk, P.; Johansson, E.; Hamberg, K.; Lagro-Janssen, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female students currently outnumber male students in most medical schools. Some medical specialties are highly gender segregated. Therefore, it is interesting to know whether medical students have early specialization preferences based on their gender. Consequently, we like to know impor

  6. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  7. The N(H2/I(CO Conversion Factor: A Treatment that Includes Radiative Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento que explica mejor el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO y que incluye la transferencia radiativa. A primera vista, incluir la transferencia radiativa parece superfluo para una línea óptimamente gruesa como CO J = 1 0. No obstante, dado que el medio interestelar es inhomogéneo, los fragmentos de gas (es decir, grumos todavía pueden ser óptimamente delgadas hacia sus bordes y en las alas de los pérfiles de la línea. El tratamiento estadístico de Martin et al. (1984 de la transferencia radiativa a través una nube molecular con grumos se usa para derivar una expresión para el factor de conversión que su- pera los defectos de las explicaciones más tradicionales basadas en Dickman et al. (1986. Por un lado, el tratamiento presentado aquí posiblemente representa un avance importante al entender el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO pero, por otro lado, tiene sus propios defectos, que son discutidos aquí brevemente.

  8. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  9. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  10. Complex interaction between symptoms, social factors, and gender in social functioning in a community-dwelling sample of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Rodriguez, F; Ochoa, S; Autonell, J; Usall, J; Haro, J M

    2011-12-01

    Social functioning (SF) is the ultimate target aimed in treatment plans in schizophrenia, thus it is critical to know what are the factors that determine SF. Gender is a well-established variable influencing SF, yet it is not known how social variables and symptoms interact in schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether the interaction between social variables and symptoms is different in men compared to women. Our aim is to test whether social variables are better predictors of SF in community-dwelled individuals with schizophrenia, and whether men and women differ in how symptoms and social variables interact to impact SF. Community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia (N = 231) were randomly selected from a register. Participants were assessed with symptom measures (PANSS), performance-based social scale (LSP), objective social and demographic variables. Stratification by gender and stepwise multivariate regression analyses by gender were used to find the best-fitting models that predict SF in both gender. Men had poorer SF than women in spite of showing similar symptom scores. On stepwise regression analyses, gender was the main variable explaining SF, with a significant contribution by disorganized and excitatory symptoms. Age of onset made a less marked, yet significant, contribution to explain SF. When the sample was stratified by gender, disorganized symptoms and 'Income' variable entered the model and accounted for a 30.8% of the SF variance in women. On the other hand, positive and disorganized symptoms entered the model and accounted for a 36.1% of the SF variance in men. Community-dwelling men and women with schizophrenia differ in the constellation of variables associated with SF. Symptom scores still account for most of the variance in SF in both genders.

  11. Does Performance in Digital Reading Relate to Computer Game Playing? A Study of Factor Structure and Gender Patterns in 15-Year-Olds' Reading Literacy Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmusson, Maria; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Data from a Swedish PISA-sample were used (1) to identify a digital reading factor, (2) to investigate gender differences in this factor (if found), and (3) to explore how computer game playing might relate to digital reading performance and gender. The analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling techniques. In addition to an overall…

  12. A review of problem drinking in young Mexicans and possible correlations with gender-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Quintero Soto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased alcohol consumption in the Mexican population has lead to serious problems around this addiction. The age of onset of alcohol intake is occurring at younger ages increasingly and first contact with alcohol tends to occur at the beginning of adolescence, a period of life fraught with conflicts. In some cases, the teenager will seek evasion or refuge in drinking, or social acceptance from peers and peer groups. In this critical phase, the individual is trying to forge his or her own identity and tends to rebel against figures of authority. All of this leads to a variety of behaviors that many times disregard possible consequences on oneself, one’s family and one’s community. By adopting a gender perspective, this article attempts to provide some insight as to how men and women develop problem-drinking, factors that may bear an effect on its occurrence, as well as to highlight some actions points that may help to solve and prevent this adverse problem.

  13. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  14. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  15. Gender-related factors influencing tuberculosis control in shantytowns: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Jessica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that female gender is associated with reduced likelihood of tuberculosis diagnosis and successful treatment. This study aimed to characterize gender-related barriers to tuberculosis control in Peruvian shantytowns. Methods We investigated attitudes and experiences relating gender to tuberculosis using the grounded theory approach to describe beliefs amongst key tuberculosis control stakeholders. These issues were explored in 22 semi-structured interviews and in four focus group discussions with 26 tuberculosis patients and 17 healthcare workers. Results We found that the tuberculosis program was perceived not to be gender discriminatory and provided equal tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment care to men and women. This contrasted with stereotypical gender roles in the broader community context and a commonly expressed belief amongst patients and healthcare workers that female health inherently has a lower priority than male health. This belief was principally associated with men's predominant role in the household economy and limited employment for women in this setting. Women were also generally reported to experience the adverse psychosocial and economic consequences of tuberculosis diagnosis more than men. Conclusions There was a common perception that women's tuberculosis care was of secondary importance to that of men. This reflected societal gender values and occurred despite apparent gender equality in care provision. The greatest opportunities for improving women's access to tuberculosis care appear to be in improving social, political and economic structures, more than tuberculosis program modification.

  16. Gender-related factors influencing tuberculosis control in shantytowns: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onifade, Dami A; Bayer, Angela M; Montoya, Rosario; Haro, Marie; Alva, Jessica; Franco, Jessica; Sosa, Rosario; Valiente, Betty; Valera, Enit; Ford, Carolyn M; Acosta, Colleen D; Evans, Carlton A

    2010-06-29

    There is evidence that female gender is associated with reduced likelihood of tuberculosis diagnosis and successful treatment. This study aimed to characterize gender-related barriers to tuberculosis control in Peruvian shantytowns. We investigated attitudes and experiences relating gender to tuberculosis using the grounded theory approach to describe beliefs amongst key tuberculosis control stakeholders. These issues were explored in 22 semi-structured interviews and in four focus group discussions with 26 tuberculosis patients and 17 healthcare workers. We found that the tuberculosis program was perceived not to be gender discriminatory and provided equal tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment care to men and women. This contrasted with stereotypical gender roles in the broader community context and a commonly expressed belief amongst patients and healthcare workers that female health inherently has a lower priority than male health. This belief was principally associated with men's predominant role in the household economy and limited employment for women in this setting. Women were also generally reported to experience the adverse psychosocial and economic consequences of tuberculosis diagnosis more than men. There was a common perception that women's tuberculosis care was of secondary importance to that of men. This reflected societal gender values and occurred despite apparent gender equality in care provision. The greatest opportunities for improving women's access to tuberculosis care appear to be in improving social, political and economic structures, more than tuberculosis program modification.

  17. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    explosion, and the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, such an approach may have helped to maintain the integrity of the designed provisions against major deviations resulting in these disasters. In order to make this paradigm operational, safety management and in particular risk assessment tools need to be refined....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...... Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...

  18. The gender gap on concept inventories in physics: what is consistent, what is inconsistent, and what factors influence the gap?

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Adrian; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2013-01-01

    We review the literature on the gender gap on concept inventories in physics. Across studies, men consistently score higher on pre-tests of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) by about 10%, and in most cases score higher on post-tests as well, also by about 10%. The average difference in normalized gain is about 6%. This difference is much smaller than the average difference in normalized gain between traditional lecture and interactive engagement (25%), but is large enough that it could impact the results of studies comparing the effectiveness of different teaching methods. Based on our analysis of 24 published articles comparing the impact of 34 factors that could potentially influence the gender gap, no single factor is sufficient to explain the gap. Several high-profile studies that have claimed to account for or reduce the gender gap have failed to be replicated, suggesting that isolated claims of explanations of the gender gap should be interpreted with ca...

  19. Gender and Space: Analysis of Factors Conditioning Equity in the Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Paramo Bernal, Pablo; Universidad Pedagógica Nacional; Burbano Arroyo, Andrea Milena; Universidad Piloto de Colombia

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses gender research in urban public space through three different perspectives: the social representations and differentiated uses of space, the division of roles in public and private spaces, and urban planning of public space. The paper gathers and analyses some studies that complement the state of art and literature on women and space giving evidence on how women have been segregated from public space and are victim of gender inequalities. Public space does not exist abs...

  20. Gender, anthropometric factors and risk of colorectal cancer with particular reference to tumour location and TNM stage: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brändstedt Jenny

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether the increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC associated with obesity differs by gender, distribution of fat, tumour location and clinical (TNM stage. The primary aim of this study was to examine these associations in 584 incident colorectal cancer cases from a Swedish prospective population-based cohort including 28098 men and women. Methods Seven anthropometric factors; height, weight, bodyfat percentage, hip circumference, waist circumference, BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR were categorized into quartiles of baseline anthropometric measurements. Relative risks of CRC, total risk as well as risk of different TNM stages, and risk of tumours located to the colon or rectum, were calculated for all cases, women and men, respectively, using multivariate Cox regression models. Results Obesity, as defined by all anthropometric variables, was significantly associated with an overall increased risk of CRC in both women and men. While none of the anthropometric measures was significantly associated with risk of tumour (T-stage 1 and 2 tumours, all anthropometric variables were significantly associated with an increased risk of T-stage 3 and 4, in particular in men. In men, increasing quartiles of weight, hip, waist, BMI and WHR were significantly associated with an increased risk of lymph node positive (N1 and N2 disease, and risk of both non-metastatic (M0 and metastatic (M1 disease. In women, there were no or weak associations between obesity and risk of node-positive disease, but statistically significant associations between increased weight, bodyfat percentage, hip, BMI and M0 disease. Interestingly, there was an increased risk of colon but not rectal cancer in men, and rectal but not colon cancer in women, by increased measures of weight, hip-, waist circumference and bodyfat percentage. Conclusions This study is the first to show a relationship between obesity, measured as several different

  1. Gender, anthropometric factors and risk of colorectal cancer with particular reference to tumour location and TNM stage: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändstedt, Jenny; Wangefjord, Sakarias; Nodin, Björn; Gaber, Alexander; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin

    2012-10-16

    It remains unclear whether the increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) associated with obesity differs by gender, distribution of fat, tumour location and clinical (TNM) stage. The primary aim of this study was to examine these associations in 584 incident colorectal cancer cases from a Swedish prospective population-based cohort including 28098 men and women. Seven anthropometric factors; height, weight, bodyfat percentage, hip circumference, waist circumference, BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were categorized into quartiles of baseline anthropometric measurements. Relative risks of CRC, total risk as well as risk of different TNM stages, and risk of tumours located to the colon or rectum, were calculated for all cases, women and men, respectively, using multivariate Cox regression models. Obesity, as defined by all anthropometric variables, was significantly associated with an overall increased risk of CRC in both women and men. While none of the anthropometric measures was significantly associated with risk of tumour (T)-stage 1 and 2 tumours, all anthropometric variables were significantly associated with an increased risk of T-stage 3 and 4, in particular in men. In men, increasing quartiles of weight, hip, waist, BMI and WHR were significantly associated with an increased risk of lymph node positive (N1 and N2) disease, and risk of both non-metastatic (M0) and metastatic (M1) disease. In women, there were no or weak associations between obesity and risk of node-positive disease, but statistically significant associations between increased weight, bodyfat percentage, hip, BMI and M0 disease. Interestingly, there was an increased risk of colon but not rectal cancer in men, and rectal but not colon cancer in women, by increased measures of weight, hip-, waist circumference and bodyfat percentage. This study is the first to show a relationship between obesity, measured as several different anthropometric factors, and an increased risk of colorectal cancer of

  2. Age- and Gender-Specific Prevalence of Risk Factors in Patients with First-Ever Ischemic Stroke in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ying Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidences are accumulating that age and gender have great impact on the distribution of stroke risk factors. Such data are lacking in Chinese population. Methods. 1027 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke (IS were recruited and divided into young adult (80 years groups according to stroke onset ages. Vascular risk factors were collected and compared among groups. Results. Female patients were globally older than male patients at stroke onset and having higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, heart diseases, and atrial fibrillation (AF. However, females were less likely to drink heavily or smoke than males. Young patients had a much higher proportion of smoking and drinking than middle-aged and very old patients and the highest family history of hypertension, while very old patients had the highest prevalence of heart diseases and AF but lowest proportion of positive family history of vascular diseases. Hypertension and DM were equally frequent among three groups. Conclusion. Our study showed that vascular risk factors had a specific age and gender distribution pattern in Chinese IS patients. Secondary prevention strategy should emphasize on the control of different risk factors based on patient’s age and gender.

  3. Market Openness and Culture as Factors that Shape the Gender Gap: a Comparative Study of Urban Latin America and East Asia (1960-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Enriqueta Camps

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present: 1. The available data on comparative gender inequality at the macroeconomic level and 2. Gender inequality measures at the microeconomic and case study level. We see that market openness has a significant effect on the narrowing of the human capital gender gap. Globalization and market openness stand as factors that improve both the human capital endowments of women and their economic position. But we also see that the effects of culture and religious beliefs are ver...

  4. Gender and age effects on risk factor-based prediction of coronary artery calcium in symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, R; Wiklund, U; Zhao, Y;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The influence of gender and age on risk factor prediction of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in symptomatic patients is unclear. METHODS: From the European Calcific Coronary Artery Disease (EURO-CCAD) cohort, we retrospectively investigated 6309 symptomatic patients, 62......% male, from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and USA. All of them underwent risk factor assessment and CT scanning for CAC scoring. RESULTS: The prevalence of CAC among females was lower than among males in all age groups. Using multivariate logistic regression, age, dyslipidaemia, hypertension......, diabetes and smoking were independently predictive of CAC presence in both genders. In addition to a progressive increase in CAC with age, the most important predictors of CAC presence were dyslipidaemia and diabetes (β = 0.64 and 0.63, respectively) in males and diabetes (β = 1.08) followed by smoking (β...

  5. Association between symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and gender, morphological occlusion, and psychological factors in a group of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Bonjardim Leonardo; Lopes-Filho Ricardo; Amado Guilherme; Albuquerque Ricardo; Goncalves Suzane

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in a sample of university students and its relationship to gender, occlusion, and psychological factors. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 196 subjects, aged 18-25 years. The TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification (classes I, II, and III). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a 14-...

  6. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Song E; Han-Na Kim; Juhee Cho; Min-Jung Kwon; Yoosoo Chang; Seungho Ryu; Hocheol Shin; Hyung-Lae Kim

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed usi...

  7. Gender-specific risk factors for virologic failure in KwaZulu-Natal: automobile ownership and financial insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Anna Q; Ordóñez, Claudia E; Johnson, Brent A; Del Rio, Carlos; Kearns, Rachel A; Wu, Baohua; Hampton, Jane; Wu, Peng; Sunpath, Henry; Marconi, Vincent C

    2014-11-01

    We sought to examine which socioeconomic indicators are risk factors for virologic failure among HIV-1 infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A case-control study of virologic failure was conducted among patients recruited from the outpatient clinic at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa between October 1, 2010 and June 30, 2012. Cases were those failing first-line ART, defined as viral load >1,000 copies/mL. Univariate logistic regression was performed on sociodemographic data for the outcome of virologic failure. Variables found significant (p automobile ownership was a risk factor among males, while variables of financial insecurity (unemployment, non-spouse family paying for care, staying with family) were risk factors for women. In this cohort, financial insecurity among women and automobile ownership among men were risk factors for virologic failure. Risk factor differences between genders demonstrate limitations of generalized risk factor analysis.

  8. Sex and gender differences in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Seeland, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Sex and gender differences in frequent diseases are more widespread than one may assume. In addition, they have significant yet frequently underestimated consequences on the daily practice of medicine, on outcomes and effects of therapies. Gender medicine is a novel medical discipline that takes into account the effects of sex and gender on the health of women and men. The major goal is to improve health and health care for both, for women as well as for men. We give in this chapter an overview on sex and gender differences in a number of clinical areas, in cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, gastroenterology and hepatology, in nephrology, autoimmune diseases, endocrinology, hematology, neurology. We discuss the preferential use of male animals in drug development, the underrepresentation of women in early and cardiovascular clinical trials, sex and gender differences in pharmacology, in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, in management and drug use. Most guidelines do not include even well-known sex and gender differences. European guidelines for the management of cardiovascular diseases in pregnancy have only recently been published. Personalized medicine cannot replace gender-based medicine. Large databases reveal that gender remains an independent risk factor after ethnicity, age, comorbidities, and scored risk factors have been taken into account. Some genetic variants carry a different risk in women and men. The sociocultural dimension of gender integrating lifestyle, environment, stress, and other variables cannot be replaced by a sum of biological parameters. Because of this prominent role of gender, clinical care algorithms must include gender-based assessment.

  9. Gender Differences in Patients' Beliefs About Biological, Environmental, Behavioral, and Psychological Risk Factors in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are significant gender differences in the epidemiology and presentation of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, physiological aspects of CVDs, response to diagnostic tests or interventions, and prevalence or incidence of the associated risk factors. Considering the independent influence of gender on early dire consequences of such diseases, this study was conducted to investigate gender differences in patients' beliefs about biological, environmental, behavioral, and psychological risk factors in a cardiac rehabilitation program. Materials and Methods: This study has cross sectional design. The sample was composed of 775 patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation unit in Imam Ali Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. The data were collected using clinical interview and patients’ medical records. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and chi-square test​​. To do the statistical analysis, SPSS version 20 was utilized. Results: As the results indicated, there was a significant difference between the beliefs of men and women about risk factors of heart disease (X2= 48.36; P

  10. The association between depression and craving in alcohol dependency is moderated by gender and by alexithymia factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Olivier; Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Mariana; Fantini, Carole; de Timary, Philippe

    2016-05-30

    Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality trait that involves difficulties in identifying and describing feelings to others, a poor fantasy life and an externally oriented cognitive style. Alexithymia has been described as a vulnerability factor for mental and physical diseases. We investigated in a group of 158 alcohol-dependent patients (103 men, 55 women) the association between depression and craving for alcohol when these patients were starting a detoxification program, and the moderating impact of gender and alexithymia on this relation. We first found an interaction between depression and gender in the prediction of craving in the sense that only for women an increase in depressive mood was related to an increase in total craving. When examining gender separately, we found that alexithymia factors acted as moderators. For women, the link between depression and craving was strengthened for the ones scoring higher on "difficulties describing feelings". But for men, the link between depression and craving was reduced for the ones scoring higher on "externally-oriented thinking". These findings suggest that in some cases that need to be identified more systematically in the future, the "externally-oriented thinking" alexithymia factor can exert - at least in the short term - some protective effects.

  11. [Frequency-spatial organization of brain electrical activity in creative verbal thinking: role of the gender factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, O M; Bryzgalova, A O

    2005-01-01

    Gender differences in EEG patterns associated with verbal creativity were studied by EEG mapping. The EEGs of 18 males and 21 females (right-handed university students) were recorded during a performance of Remote Associates Task (RAT) compared with the letter-fluency and simple associate's tasks. Gender differences were found in a factor structure of the indices of verbal thinking and a score of generating words was greater in women than men. No significant gender differences in originality of associations were revealed, however, gender-related differences in the EEG-patterns were found at the final and initial stages of RAT. In men, the beta2-power was increased in both hemispheres at the beginning of test. To the end of testing, the power of oscillations in the beta2 band increased only in the central part of the cortex. In women, the beta2-power was increased to a greater extent in the right than in the left hemisphere at the initial stage of task performance, whereas the final stage was characterized by a relative decrease in beta-activity in parietotemporal cortical regions and increase in the left prefrontal region. It is suggested that the verbal creative thinking in men is based mostly on "insight" strategy whereas women additionally involve the "intellectual" strategy.

  12. Significant gender difference in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 in Danish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic factor with effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, and shown to be elevated in diseases related to metabolic syndrome. Due to the increasing frequency of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population, and as FGF21 studies...... in children are limited, we investigated baseline serum levels of FGF21 in healthy children during an oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A total of 179 children and adolescents from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study were included. An OGTT with glucose and insulin measurements, a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...... (DXA) scan and a clinical examination including pubertal staging were done on all subjects. Serum levels of FGF21, adiponectin, and leptin were determined by immunoassays at baseline. RESULTS: The girls had significantly higher levels of FGF21 compared with boys (155 pg/mL vs. 105 pg/mL, P = 0.04). 38...

  13. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Gender as a factor in differentiating strategies of coping with stress used by physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Guszkowska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Students are exposed to numerous stressors associated with their integration into their university education, their relationships with friends, and anxiety about the future. Given that stress may be related to university students’ academic performance, understanding the coping strategies used by students may be important in facilitating a positive transition to a university setting. The aim of this study was to determine the gender-based variation of strategies for coping with stress used by students, as well as to determine the correlation between these strategies and the students’ academic achievements. Participants and procedure The study design was cross sectional and included 376 first-year undergraduate students (227 men and 149 women enrolled in the physical education and sport programme at the University of Physical Education in Warsaw. The Polish adaptation of Carver, Scheier and Weintraub’s Multidimensional Inventory for Measuring Stress Coping – COPE and the mean grade from all first-year university courses (the indicator of academic achievements were used. Results Men definitely preferred task-oriented strategies, while women preferred to look for support (instrumental and emotional and placed higher importance on the focusing on and venting of emotions. Academic achievement correlated positively with task-oriented strategies and negatively with avoidance-oriented strategies. These relationships were partly confirmed by regression analyses. Conclusions The results of the study provide support for sex differences in the most frequently applied coping strategies. The results also suggest that avoidance-oriented strategies do not facilitate academic achievement, while active coping strategies correlate with greater success in studies.

  15. Gender as a factor in differentiating strategies of coping with stress used by physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Guszkowska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Students are exposed to numerous stressors associated with their integration into their university education, their relationships with friends, and anxiety about the future. Given that stress may be related to university students’ academic performance, understanding the coping strategies used by students may be important in facilitating a positive transition to a university setting. The aim of this study was to determine the gender-based variation of strategies for coping with stress used by students, as well as to determine the correlation between these strategies and the students’ academic achievements. Participants and procedure The study design was cross sectional and included 376 first-year undergraduate students (227 men and 149 women enrolled in the physical education and sport programme at the University of Physical Education in Warsaw. The Polish adaptation of Carver, Scheier and Weintraub’s Multidimensional Inventory for Measuring Stress Coping – COPE and the mean grade from all first-year university courses (the indicator of academic achievements were used. Results Men definitely preferred task-oriented strategies, while women preferred to look for support (instrumental and emotional and placed higher importance on the focusing on and venting of emotions. Academic achievement correlated positively with task-oriented strategies and negatively with avoidance-oriented strategies. These relationships were partly confirmed by regression analyses. Conclusions The results of the study provide support for sex differences in the most frequently applied coping strategies. The results also suggest that avoidance-oriented strategies do not facilitate academic achievement, while active coping strategies correlate with greater success in studies.

  16. CYP450 polymorphisms as risk factors for early-onset lung cancer: gender-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Maria N; Kropp, Silke; Sauter, Wiebke; Beckmann, Lars; Rosenberger, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Jäger, Birgit; Mittelstrass, Kirstin; Dienemann, Hendrik; Bartsch, Helmut; Bickeböller, Heike; Chang-Claude, Jenny C; Risch, Angela; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich

    2009-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, involved in metabolism of tobacco carcinogens, are also involved in estrogen metabolism and many are regulated by estrogens. These genes may thus be of relevance to gender-specific differences in lung cancer risk, particularly in early-onset lung cancer, where a high proportion of women is observed. We conducted a case-control study to investigate genetic polymorphisms in cytochromes that might modify the risk of developing early-onset lung cancer. In total, 638 Caucasian patients under the age of 51 with primary lung cancer and 1300 cancer-free control individuals, matched by age and sex, were included in this analysis. Thirteen polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A13, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes were analyzed. No significant association was found for any of the analyzed polymorphisms and lung cancer risk overall. However, among women, a significantly increased risk of early-onset lung cancer was observed for carriers of the minor allele of CYP1B1 SNP rs1056836 [odds ratio (OR) 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.94; P lung cancer risk was observed in the group of women carriers of the minor allele of CYP2A13 SNP rs1709084 (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.00-2.70; P = 0.05). The effect of these two polymorphisms was shown to be modified by smoking. Haplotype analysis was performed for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13. No differences between cases and controls were observed for both genes (P = 0.63 and P = 0.42 for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13, respectively). Our results suggest that the CYP1B1 and the CYP2A13 genotypes may contribute to individual susceptibility to early-onset lung cancer in women.

  17. Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported disability: a comparison between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicíssimo, Mônica Faria; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Andrade, Roseli Gomes de; Costa, Dário Alves da Silva; Xavier, César Coelho; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of disability and its association with sociodemographic and health characteristics stratified by sex. This is a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample including 4,048 residents aged ≥ 18 years in two health districts of Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil, during the period from 2008 to 2009. The outcome variable "disability" was established based on self-reported problems in body functions or structures. Sociodemographic characteristics ("sex," "age," "skin color," "marital status," "years of schooling," and "family income") and health ("reported morbidity," "health self-assessment," "quality of life," and "life satisfaction") were the explanatory variables. We applied the multivariate decision tree analysis by using the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector algorithm. The overall prevalence of disability corresponded to 10.4% and it was higher in females (11.9%; confidence interval - 95%CI 10.2 - 13.6) than in males (8.7%; 95%CI 6.8 - 10.5). In the multivariate analysis, "age" and "morbidity" in females, and "low educational level" and "poor health self-assessment" in males were the variables that best discriminated disability. Disability self-reporting was more frequent among women of working age (40 to 59 years-old) and with lower incomes, as well as in men with lower educational levels and incomes. With regard to health conditions, the highest disability percentages were seen among subjects of both genders that reported three or more diseases and worsened perception of health. Results reinforce the need for a distinct approach, since women of working age and men with lower educational level are more vulnerable to the occurrence of disability.

  18. Gender and Space: Analysis of Factors Conditioning Equity in the Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Paramo Bernal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses gender research in urban public space through three different perspectives: the social representations and differentiated uses of space, the division of roles in public and private spaces, and urban planning of public space. The paper gathers and analyses some studies that complement the state of art and literature on women and space giving evidence on how women have been segregated from public space and are victim of gender inequalities. Public space does not exist absolutely nor gender; instead both are socially constructed by social order and reproduced by social practices. Finally, some suggestions for urban planning and research are given in order to respond women’s needs in public space.

  19. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo Helen P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Methods Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters, we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1 parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2 factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. Results With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes. Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Conclusions Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent

  20. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ellen K; Koo, Helen P

    2010-12-14

    In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters), we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1) parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2) factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes). Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers) talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics and identifies gender differences in

  1. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included…

  2. Is gender a predictive factor for satisfaction among patients undergoing sympathectomy to treat palmar hyperhidrosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wolosker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy (VATS is currently the procedure of choise for the definitive treatment of primary hyperhidrosis because it is an effective, safe, and minimally invasive method. The aim of VATS treatment is to improve the quality of life through the reduction of excessive sudoresis. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of life after VATS for treating palmar hyperhidrosis according to gender. METHODS: A total of 1044 patients who submitted to the surgical treatment for palmar hyperhidrosis from June 2000 to February 2008 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups according to gender [719 (68.8% females and 325 (31.2% males]. RESULTS: There are no statistically significant differences between genders with regard to the quality of life in palmar hyperhidrosis patients (p = 0.726. In the interview that was performed 30 days after surgery, the quality of life in the two groups had improved, with no statistical difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with palmar hyperhidrosis present with an improvement in the quality of life after VATS regardless of gender.

  3. Is gender a risk factor for pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Hay-Younes, Jasmin; Condarco, Madelaine A

    2013-01-01

    This study compares gender differences regarding knowledge, practice, and symptoms of intoxication when handling pesticides in farming. Data were gathered in La Paz County, Bolivia, in 2008 and 2009. Poor knowledge on safe handling, hazardous working practices, and use of very toxic pesticides were...... symptoms. To minimize this gap, education and agricultural services should be made more accessible to female farmers in Bolivia....

  4. Authoritarianism as an element of social character and a factor of gendered social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovančević Saša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The immediacy of daily encounters with gender roles, as well as the specific features of authoritarian mediation in their social shaping, make an analysis of gendered social interaction indispensable. In this paper the analysis is centered on the concept of social character, with special emphasis on authoritarianism as a continuous determinant of the transformation of natural sex into social construct of gender. It is precisely the authoritarian personality type that is the basis for alienated gender, dominated by sexism, a “natural” belonging to the private or the public sphere of social life, suppression of individual human capacities, and reduction of choice. After a review of the theoretical conceptions of social character and authoritarianism, a historical-comparative analysis of authoritarianism is offered, where the latter is seen as an element of the social character within the perspective of the typology traditional - modern - postmodern society. It is argued in conclusion that, in spite of certain emancipatory achievements, men and women still tend to escape into the security of authoritarian alienation. Feminist theory remains a basic source for reflecting on these processes; therefore the author pleads for a wider acceptance of feminist insights as contributions to establishing a postmodern, interpretive “sociology in a new key”.

  5. Gender-Specific Association of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Arab Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Khadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The impact of gender difference on the association between metabolic stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD remains unclear. We have investigated, for the first time, the gender effect on the oxidative and inflammatory stress responses and assessed their correlation with classical cardiometabolites in Arab population. Methods. A total of 378 adult Arab participants (193 females were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma levels of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, ROS, TBARs, and PON1 were measured and correlated with anthropometric and cardiometabolite parameters of the study population. Results. Compared to females, males had significantly higher FBG, HbA1c, TG, and blood pressure but lower BMI, TC, and HDL (P < 0.05. After adjustment for BMI and WC, females had higher levels of ROS, TBARS, and CRP (P < 0.001 whereas males had increased levels of IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α (P < 0.05. Moreover, after adjustment for age, BMI, and gender, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and ROS were associated with central obesity but not general obesity. Conclusion. Inflammation and oxidative stress contribution to CVD risk in Arab population linked to gender and this risk is better reflected by central obesity. Arab females might be at risk of CVD complications due to increased oxidative stress.

  6. Is Gender a Predictive Factor for Satisfaction among Patients Undergoing Sympathectomy to Treat Palmar Hyperhidrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolosker, Nelson; Munia, Marco Antonio Soares; Kauffman, Paulo; de Campos, José Ribas Milanez; Yazbek, Guilherme; Puech-Leão, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy (VATS) is currently the procedure of choise for the definitive treatment of primary hyperhidrosis because it is an effective, safe, and minimally invasive method. The aim of VATS treatment is to improve the quality of life through the reduction of excessive sudoresis. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of life after VATS for treating palmar hyperhidrosis according to gender. METHODS: A total of 1044 patients who submitted to the surgical treatment for palmar hyperhidrosis from June 2000 to February 2008 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups according to gender [719 (68.8%) females and 325 (31.2%) males]. RESULTS: There are no statistically significant differences between genders with regard to the quality of life in palmar hyperhidrosis patients (p = 0.726). In the interview that was performed 30 days after surgery, the quality of life in the two groups had improved, with no statistical difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with palmar hyperhidrosis present with an improvement in the quality of life after VATS regardless of gender. PMID:20613933

  7. How Factors of Personal Attitudes and Learning Environments Affect Gender Difference toward Mobile Distance Learning Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Me

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology for learning empowers the shift from traditionally pure instructor-centered classroom teaching to fully learner-centered educational settings. Although mobile learning (m-learning) accessing Internet resources anytime and anywhere and it may cause gender difference toward it; thus the issue of the relationship between gender…

  8. Female Gender and Reproductive Factors Affecting Risk, Relapses and Progression in Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; D'Hooghe, T.; De Keyser, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and degenerative disease of the central nervous system, is a frequent cause of neurological disability in young adults. Female predominance has increased over the last decades. Although female gender carries a higher risk of developing re

  9. Socio-economic factors, gender and smoking as determinants of COPD in a low-income country of sub-Saharan Africa : FRESH AIR Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Frederik; Chavannes, Niels; Kirenga, Bruce; Jones, Rupert; Williams, Sian; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Vonk, Judith; Kocks, Janwillem; de Jong, Corina; van der Molen, Thys

    2016-01-01

    In Uganda, biomass smoke seems to be the largest risk factor for the development of COPD, but socio-economic factors and gender may have a role. Therefore, more in-depth research is needed to understand the risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic factors a

  10. A comparison of educational factors promoting or discouraging the intent to remain in engineering by gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelink, Catherine T.; Meszaros, Peggy S.

    2011-03-01

    This study seeks to examine key extrinsic and intrinsic factors that encourage or discourage persistence in attaining an engineering degree and pursuing an engineering-related career among both male and female undergraduates. Quantitative and qualitative findings from nine participating undergraduate degree programmes reveal that career expectations formulated through educational experiences as undergraduates play a key role in motivating students. Among females, faculty interaction in the classroom, such as feedback received and the degree to which the faculty treat them with respect, is an important encouraging factor. For both males and females, discouraging elements of the undergraduate experience include the amount of time for coursework, competition in engineering classes and grades. The findings have several practical implications that faculty and administrators can employ in shaping the undergraduate experience to encourage short- and long-term interest in engineering among both male and female students.

  11. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women: The Role of Gender-Based Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Bonomi, Amy E; Lu, Bo; Lomax, Richard G; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2016-12-01

    Women living in Ohio Appalachia experience cervical cancer at disproportionately high rates. Intimate partner and sexual gender-based violence (GBV) and smoking are independent risk factors for cervical cancer and interact to heighten risk. Appalachian women smoke at higher rates than other Ohio women, but little is known about GBV exposure in the region. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of women's exposure to GBV in Ohio Appalachia and examine the association between GBV and smoking among women in the region. A two-phase address-based random sampling approach was used in three purposefully selected Ohio Appalachian counties to identify women to complete an interviewer administered cross-sectional survey (n = 398). The primary exposure variable was GBV Index Score, a 4 level indices representing increasing exposure to eight abuse types. Correlation analysis and logistic regression were used to examine smoking correlations and risk. Almost 57% of women in the three selected Ohio Appalachian counties experienced GBV, with rate increasing to 77.5% among current smokers. The distribution of the GBV Exposure Index Score was significantly different across smoking status (p < = 0.0001), with exposure of GBV increasing when moving from never, to former, to current smokers. When controlling for depression, age, and adult socioeconomic position, GBV Exposure Index was significantly associated with current smoking behavior (OR:1.62, 95% CI [1.21-2.17]). Professionals working to reduce disparate disease burden among women in Ohio Appalachia should consider the role GBV plays in health behavior and behavioral change interventions, including smoking and smoking cessation.

  12. Gender as a factor in differentiating strategies of coping with stress used by physical education students

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Guszkowska; Adriana Zagórska-Pachucka; Anna Kuk; Katarzyna Skwarek

    2016-01-01

    Background Students are exposed to numerous stressors associated with their integration into their university education, their relationships with friends, and anxiety about the future. Given that stress may be related to university students’ academic performance, understanding the coping strategies used by students may be important in facilitating a positive transition to a university setting. The aim of this study was to determine the gender-based variation of strategies for coping with...

  13. Depression Vulnerability Predicts Cigarette Smoking among College Students: Gender and Negative Reinforcement Expectancies as Contributing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between vulnerability to depression and smoking behavior in college students in 1214 college students (54% female), and evaluated gender and expectancies of negative affect reduction as moderators or mediators of this relationship. Depression vulnerability predicted smoking in females, but not males. The relationship between depression vulnerability and smoking status was mediated by expectancies of negative affect reduction in females only. Female college ...

  14. Computer Breakdown as a Stress Factor during Task Completion under Time Pressure: Identifying Gender Differences Based on Skin Conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Riedl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, as computers, the Internet, and mobile phones pervade almost every corner of life, the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT on humans is dramatic. The use of ICT, however, may also have a negative side. Human interaction with technology may lead to notable stress perceptions, a phenomenon referred to as technostress. An investigation of the literature reveals that computer users’ gender has largely been ignored in technostress research, treating users as “gender-neutral.” To close this significant research gap, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which we investigated users’ physiological reaction to the malfunctioning of technology. Based on theories which explain that men, in contrast to women, are more sensitive to “achievement stress,” we predicted that male users would exhibit higher levels of stress than women in cases of system breakdown during the execution of a human-computer interaction task under time pressure, if compared to a breakdown situation without time pressure. Using skin conductance as a stress indicator, the hypothesis was confirmed. Thus, this study shows that user gender is crucial to better understanding the influence of stress factors such as computer malfunctions on physiological stress reactions.

  15. Association between symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and gender, morphological occlusion, and psychological factors in a group of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonjardim Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD in a sample of university students and its relationship to gender, occlusion, and psychological factors. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 196 subjects, aged 18-25 years. The TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification (classes I, II, and III. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, a 14-item self-administered rating scale developed specifically to identify anxiety and depression in nonpsychiatric medical outpatients, was used to assess the levels of anxiety (HADSa and depression (HADSd. Statistical Analysis: The incidence of TMD level, malocclusion, anxiety, and depression in both genders was calculated as percentages. Association between TMD degree and occlusion, HADSa, and HADSd was tested using the Chi-square test. Results: According to our results, 50% of the subjects had TMD, but it was of moderate or severe degree in only 9.18% of them. No statistically significant association could be found between TMD and gender or occlusion. TMD was found to have statistically significant association with HADSa but not with HADSd. Conclusion : A high prevalence of TMD was found in this student population; however, most of the cases could be classified as mild. Of the variables studied, only HADSa had a statistically significant association with TMD.

  16. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene: a gender-specific role in cognitive function during normal cognitive aging of the MEMO-Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Katharine R; Mitchell, David; Wersching, Heike; Czira, Maria E; Berger, Klaus; Baune, Bernhard T

    2012-08-01

    Cognitive aging processes are underpinned by multiple processes including genetic factors. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in age-related cognitive decline in otherwise healthy individuals. The gender-specific role of the BDNF gene in cognitive aging remains unclear. The identification of genetic biomarkers might be a useful approach to identify individuals at risk of cognitive decline during healthy aging processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BDNF gene and domains of cognitive functioning in normal cognitive aging. The sample, comprising 369 participants (M = 72.7 years, SD = 4.45 years), completed an extensive neuropsychological test battery measuring memory, motor function, and perceptual speed. The relationships between the SNPs rs6265, rs7103411, and rs7124442 and cognitive domains were examined. While significant main effects of BDNF SNPs on cognitive function were found for the association between rs7103411 and memory performance, gender-specific analyses revealed for females significant main effects of rs7103411 for memory and of rs6265 for perceptual speed independent of the APOE*E4 status and education. The finding for the association between rs6265 and perceptual speed in females remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. None of the analyses showed significant results for males. This study is the first to implicate that the SNPs rs6265 and rs7103411 affect cognitive function in the elderly in a gender-specific way.

  18. Gender perspective of risk factors associated with disclosure of HIV status, a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Longinetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV status disclosure has been shown to provide several benefits, both at the individual and societal levels. AIM: To determine risk factors associated with disclosing HIV status among antiretroviral therapy (ART recipients in South Africa. SETTING: A cross-sectional study on risk factors for viremia and drug resistance took place at two outpatient HIV clinics in 2008, at a large hospital located in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis on socio-economic characteristics and HIV status disclosure to anyone, focusing on gender differences. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to model the associations between risk factors and HIV status disclosure. Additionally, descriptive analysis was conducted to describe gender differences of HIV status disclosure to partner, parents, parents in law, partner, child, family, employer, and other. PATIENTS: A total of 883 patients were interviewed. The majority were women (73% with median age of 39 years. RESULTS: Employed patients were less likely to disclose than unemployed (odds ratio (OR 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.1-1.0; p = 0.05. Women with higher income were more likely to disclose (OR 3.25; 95% CI 0.90-11.7; p = 0.07 than women with lower income, while men with higher income were less likely (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.02-1.99; p = 0.17 than men with lower income. Men were more likely than women to disclose to their partner (p<0.01, and to partner and family (p<0.01, women were more likely than men to disclose to child and family (p<0.01, to child, family and others (p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Being employed imposed a risk factor for HIV status disclosure, additionally we found an interaction effect of gender and income on disclosure. Interventions designed to reduce workplace discrimination and gender-sensitive interventions promoting disclosure are strongly recommended.

  19. ACCEPTABILITY EVALUATION FOR USING ICRP TISSUE WEIGHTING FACTORS TO CALCULATE EFFECTIVE DOSE VALUE FOR SEPARATE GENDER-AGE GROUPS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.

  20. Socio-cultural factors, gender roles and religious ideologies contributing to Caesarian-section refusal in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Nnanna U; de Kok, Bregje

    2015-08-12

    The death of women from pregnancy-related causes is a serious challenge that international development initiatives, including the Millennium Development Goals, have been trying to redress for decades. The majority of these pregnancy-related deaths occur in developing countries especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The provision of Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC), including Caesarean section (CS) has been identified as one of the key ingredients necessary for the reduction of high maternal mortality ratios. However, it appears that creating access to EmOC facilities is not all that is required to reduce maternal mortality: socio-cultural issues in Sub-Saharan countries including Nigeria seem to deter women from accepting CS. This study seeks to explore some of the socio-cultural concerns that reinforce delays and non-acceptance of CS in a Nigerian community. This is a mixed method study that combined both qualitative and quantitative strategies of enquiry. The hospital's delivery records from 2006-2010 provided data for quantitative analysis. This quantitative data was supplemented with prospective data collected during one month. Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGD) and informal observations served as the sources of data on the qualitative end. In total, 22% of maternity clients refused CS and more than 90% of the CSs in the focal hospital were emergencies which may indicate late arrival at the hospital after seeking assistance elsewhere. The qualitative analysis reveals that socio-cultural meanings informed by gender and religious ideologies, the relational consequences of having a C-section, and the role of alternative providers are some key factors which influence when, where and whether women will accept C-section or not. There is need to find means of facilitating necessary CS by addressing the prevailing socio-cultural norms and expectations that hinder its acceptance. Engaging and guiding alternative providers (traditional birth attendants

  1. Leptin, vitamin D, and cardiorespiratory fitness as risk factors for insulin resistance in European adolescents: gender differences in the HELENA Study.

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    Jiménez-Pavón, David; Sesé, María A; Valtueña, Jara; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Widhalm, Kurt; de Henauw, Stefaan; Polito, Angela; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the relevance of a set of risk factors for insulin resistance in adolescents from Europe and to consider their possible gender-specific associations. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in 1053 European adolescents (mean age, 14.9 years) in a school setting in 9 countries. Three anthropometric markers of body fat and a dietary index were calculated. Total energy intake was estimated from a questionnaire. C-reactive protein, leptin, and vitamin D were assessed, and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength were measured. Center, socioeconomic status, pubertal status, and season were used as potential confounders. The main outcome was the homeostasis model assessment used as a marker of insulin resistance. Correlations, analyses of covariance, and logistic regression models were used. In males, leptin was the only risk factor for insulin resistance after adjusting for confounders including markers of body fat (odds ratios (ORs) from 1.49 to 1.60). In females, leptin, vitamin D, and fitness were the remaining independent risk factors for insulin resistance after adjustments (OR 2.11; 95% confidential interval (CI) 1.29-3.45; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.80; and OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.87, respectively). Our observations suggest a gender dimorphism in the identification of risk factors for high insulin resistance. Preventive strategies should focus on improving modifiable factors such as cardiorespiratory fitness and on ensuring vitamin D sufficiency. Randomized controlled trials focusing on these strategies are necessary to test their efficacy.

  2. Measurement Invariance of Big-Five Factors over the Life Span: ESEM Tests of Gender, Age, Plasticity, Maturity, and La Dolce Vita Effects

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    Marsh, Herbert W.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2013-01-01

    This substantive-methodological synergy applies evolving approaches to factor analysis to substantively important developmental issues of how five-factor-approach (FFA) personality measures vary with gender, age, and their interaction. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) conducted at the item level often do not support a priori FFA structures, due…

  3. AGE AND GENDER RELATED ANALYSIS OF PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS IN ATTEMPTED SUICIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.N. Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Hundred consecutive suicide attempters admitted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit(MlCU) of Christian Medical College, Vellore during the period December 1991 to December 1992 were evaluated in detail with respect to all psycho-socio-demographic variables. Instruments used included a specially designed sociodemographic proforma, Gurmeet Singh's Presumptive Stressful Life Event Scale, Suicide Intent Questionnaire and DSM III R Diagnostic Criteria. Young males constituted major part of the sample. Organophosphorus poisoning was the commonest mode of suicide attempt. More than 90% had psychiatric diagnosis. Adjustment disorder was the commonest psychiatric diagnosis followed by major depression and alcohol abuse/dependence. Many of the risk factors reported earlier was found to be operating in older age group only. Among males the commonest mode of attempt was organophosphorus poisoning whereas in females it was drug over dose and native poisoning. The implication of these findings are discussed in the context of prevention and further management strategies. PMID:21494498

  4. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

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    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-12-12

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations.

  5. Gender in the Geosciences: Factors Supporting the Recruitment and Retention of Women in the Undergraduate Major

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    Riggs, E. M.; Sexton, J. M.; Pugh, K.; Bergstrom, C.; Parmley, R.; Phillips, M.

    2014-12-01

    The proportion of women earning undergraduate geoscience degrees has remained about 40% for over a decade. Little research has investigated why women select and persist in a geoscience major. This study addresses why students major in the geosciences and why some programs are more successful at recruiting and retaining female students. We collected interview and survey data from faculty and students at six public US universities. Four sites had a low proportion of female degree recipients ( 48%). 408 students (64% female) completed surveys. Interviews were conducted with 49 faculty members and 151 students. Survey data analysis showed that interest/identity and transformative experiences were significant predictors of students' decision to major in geoscience. Institutional barriers and supports were significant predictors of confidence in the major while connection to instructor predicted students' intent to major. Analysis of pre- and post-course surveys show that students with a greater connection to instructors and students whose instructors expressed more passion for the content also reported higher levels of transformative experiences. This effect was especially pronounced for women and was a significant predictor of persistence in the major. Qualitative data show differences in departmental practices and climate between low and high female graduation sites. High sites used many student-centered approaches to teaching, had extensive opportunities for and a high number of undergraduate students involved in research, and had many opportunities for faculty-student interaction outside of class. Low sites had few of these practices. Qualitative data also showed differences in the gendered equity climate between high and low sites. High sites had more positive gender equity climates and low sites had more negative gender equity climates. At this time, we do not fully understand the causal relationships among all of these findings and higher female graduation rates

  6. The Effect of Gender on Stress Factors: An Exploratory Study among University Students

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    Michelle Calvarese

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between gender and reactions to stress among university students. University students were surveyed on how they typically responded when under perceived stress. There were significant differences between males and females concerning their reactions to stress. Overall, more females experienced higher levels of depression, frustration, and anxiety than their male counterparts when reacting to stress. Males also tended to have other psychological reactions different from those listed on the survey. In addition, while the stress reaction of anger was barely statistically insignificant, more females expressed anger than males as a reaction to stress.

  7. Depression vulnerability predicts cigarette smoking among college students: Gender and negative reinforcement expectancies as contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E R; Cohen, Lee M; McChargue, Dennis E

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the association between vulnerability to depression and smoking behavior in 1214 college students (54% female), and evaluated gender and expectancies of negative affect reduction as moderators or mediators of this relationship. Depression vulnerability predicted smoking in females, but not males. The relationship between depression vulnerability and smoking status was mediated by expectancies of negative affect reduction in females only. Female college students who are vulnerable to depression may smoke because they expect smoking to relieve negative affect. Smoking interventions for college females may increase in effectiveness by targeting depression and emphasizing mood regulation.

  8. Intra-individual reaction time variability in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: gender, processing load and speed factors.

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    Michelle Phillips

    Full Text Available Compared to cognitively healthy ageing (CH, intra-individual variability in reaction time (IIV(RT, a behavioural marker of neurological integrity, is commonly reported to increase in both Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. It varies in MCI with respect to whether it represents the pro-dromal stages of dementia or not; being greatest in those most likely to convert. Abnormal IIV(RT in MCI therefore represents a potential measure of underlying functional integrity that may serve to differentiate MCI from CH and to help identify those patients for whom MCI is the result of a progressive pathological process. As the clinical approach to MCI is increasingly stratified with respect to gender, we investigated whether this factor could influence study outcome. The influence of RTSPEED and processing load upon IIV(RT was also examined. Under low processing load conditions, IIV(RT was significantly increased in both MCI and AD compared to CH. However, correcting for an individual's processing speed abolished this effect in MCI but not in AD, indicating that the increased IIV(RT in MCI and AD may result from different factors. In MCI but not in CH, IIV(RT was significantly greater for females. Increasing task processing load by adding distracting information, although increasing overall IIV(RT, failed to improve the differentiation between CH and both MCI and AD, and in MCI resulted in a reduction in the influence of gender upon study outcome. The outcome of studies investigating IIV(RT in MCI and AD compared to CH therefore appear influenced by the gender of the participants, by task-related processing load and processing speed.

  9. [Gender violence and other factors associated with emotional distress in female users of public health services in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Salgado-de Snyder, V Nelly; Agoff, Carolina; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Híjar, Martha C

    2006-01-01

    To identify and describe the factors associated with emotional distress in a national sample of women users of public health services in Mexico, such a Secretaria de Salud (SSA), Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE). This research study was conducted using the database of the National Survey of Violence against Women that consisted of the responses of a total of 26 042 female users of health care services provided by the Mexican government health agencies. The Personal Health Scale (ESP per its initials in Spanish) was used to assess emotional distress. To measure violence a 19-item scale which explores different types of violence as well as severity was used. The relationship between emotional distress and gender violence was determined through a binary logistic regression model, as were economic status and demographic variables. One of the most important findings of this study is the high prevalence of emotional distress (15.3%) among women seeking health care services from the public sector and the relationship of such emotional distress with the experience of marital physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Factors associated with emotional distress among female users of health care services were age (26 and older); activity (laborer); working hours (71 hours a week or more); alcohol intake (greater intake); abuse during childhood (frequency and types of abuse); severity of marital violence (severe violence); socioeconomic status (very low SES); and type of dwelling (urban). The principal predictor of emotional distress was intimate partner abuse, especially in severe expression. The next predictor was violence in childhood. Taking into consideration these predictors it is recommended to use screening instruments to identify emotional distress and gender violence in health setting. It is important to design and implement attention and reference programs in public

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  11. Gender differences and psychological factors associated with suicidal ideation among youth in Malaysia

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    Ibrahim N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Norhayati Ibrahim, Noh Amit, Normah Che Din, Hui Chien Ong Health Psychology Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Suicide is a global phenomenon that has been showing an upward trend in recent years. It is the second leading cause of death among youth. Studies on suicidal ideation warrant greater attention, as it leads to suicide attempts and other health risk behaviors. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare gender differences in suicidal ideation and determine the predictors of suicidal ideation among youth. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 232 youths aged between 15 and 25 years from selected urban areas in Malaysia. The results showed that suicidal ideation was higher among male participants compared with female participants. Age was the predictor of suicidal ideation for males, while depression and loss of motivation, as components of hopelessness, were the predictors of suicidal ideation among females. Hence, it is important that professionals conduct early identification tests for suicidality among young people. This will facilitate the early detection of depression and hopelessness, which is important, in order to prevent suicidal behaviors or other problems before these occur. Keywords: suicidal ideation, youth, depression, hopelessness, gender

  12. Gender as a risk factor for pulmonary embolism after air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapostolle, Frédéric; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Chassery, Carine; Galinski, Michel; Ameur, Lydia; Jabre, Patricia; Lapandry, Claude; Adnet, Frédéric

    2009-12-01

    It was the objective of this study to confirm the hypothesis that women experience an increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) and/or thromboembolic events after long-distance air travel. We systematically reviewed the records of all patients with confirmed pulmonary embolism after arrival at Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle (CDG) Airport (Paris, France) during a 13-year period. The incidence of PE was calculated as a function of distance travelled and gender using Bayesian conditional probabilities obtained in part from a control population of long-distance travellers arriving in French Polynesia (Tahiti). A total of 287.6 million passengers landed at CDG airport during the study period. The proportion of male to female long-distance travellers was estimated to be 50.5% to 49.5%. Overall, 116 patients experienced PE after landing [90 females (78%), 26 males (22%)]. The estimated incidence of PE was 0.61 (0.61-0.61) cases per million passengers in females and 0.2 (0.20-0.20) in males, and reached 7.24 (7.17-7.31) and 2.35 (2.33-2.38) cases, respectively, in passengers travelling over 10,000 km. Our study strongly suggests that there is a relationship between risk of PE after air travel and gender. This relationship needs to be confirmed in order to develop the best strategy for prophylaxis.

  13. The persistence of gender inequality in Zimbabwe: factors that impede the advancement of women into leadership positions in primary schools

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    Owence Chabaya

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated and analysed the factors that women teachers consider as barriers to their advancement to headship positions in Zimbabwean primary schools. Specifically, we sought to identify the factors perceived by women school heads to be causes of persistent under-representation of women in school headship positions. Data were collected through structured face-to-face inter­views and focus group discussions with 13 experienced women school heads. The findings revealed that although the majority of the women teachers in the study sample were qualified for promotion to school headship positions, they had not attempted to apply for them. The majority of the women teachers in the study sample were adequately qualified for promotion to school headship positions. Indeed, a large number of them either had a university degree or were pursuing degree studies and also had extensive experience. But most of them had not attempted to apply for school headship and hence were still class teachers. Gender stereotypes were shown to be one of the major causes of persistent under-representation of women in primary school headship. The influence of gender role stereotypes was found to manifest in the form of low self esteem; lack of confidence; women's perception that their role in the family overrides all other roles; and lack of support from the home and the workplace.

  14. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with fish consumption in men and women: a study of whether gender differences can result in gender-specific confounding

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    Wennberg Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a prospective study from northern Sweden showed that high consumption of fish is associated with an increased risk of stroke in men, but not in women. The current study aimed to determine if fish consumption is differently related to lifestyle in men compared with women in northern Sweden. Methods Lifestyle information on 32,782 men and 34,866 women (aged 30–60 years was collected between 1992 and 2006 within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (a health intervention in northern Sweden. Spearman correlations coefficients (Rs were calculated between self-reported consumption of fish and other food items. Lifestyle variables were compared between fish consumption categories. Results Fish consumption was positively associated with other foods considered healthy (e.g., root vegetables, lettuce/cabbage/spinach/broccoli, chicken, and berries; Rs = 0.21-0.30, as well as with other healthy lifestyle factors (e.g., exercise and not smoking and a higher educational level, in both men and women. The only gender difference found, concerned the association between fish consumption and alcohol consumption. Men who were high consumers of fish had a higher intake of all types of alcohol compared with low to moderate fish consumers. For women, this was true only for wine. Conclusions Except for alcohol, the association between fish consumption and healthy lifestyle did not differ between men and women in northern Sweden. It is important to adjust for other lifestyle variables and socioeconomic variables in studies concerning the effect of fish consumption on disease outcome.

  15. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

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    Adriana Lúcia Meireles

    Full Text Available Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6 of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys. Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds, family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds, and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds. Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4, life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8, underweight status (OR = 6.7, and overweight status (OR = 2.7 were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence

  16. Validating the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale: testing factor structure and measurement invariance across child gender and age in a Dutch sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomen, Helma M Y; Verschueren, Karine; van Schooten, Erik; Jak, Suzanne; Pianta, Robert C

    2012-04-01

    The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) is widely used to examine teachers' relationships with young students in terms of closeness, conflict, and dependency. This study aimed to verify the dimensional structure of the STRS with confirmatory factor analysis, test its measurement invariance across child gender and age, improve its measurement of the dependency construct, and extend its age range. Teachers completed a slightly adapted STRS for a Dutch sample of 2335 children aged 3 to 12. Overall, the 3-factor model showed an acceptable fit. Results indicated metric invariance across gender and age up to 8years. Scalar invariance generally did not hold. Lack of metric invariance at ages 8 to 12 primarily involved Conflict items, whereas scale differences across gender and age primarily involved Closeness items. The adapted Dependency scale showed strong invariance and higher internal consistencies than the original scale for this Dutch sample. Importantly, the revealed non-invariance for gender and age did not influence mean group comparisons.

  17. Analysis of Factors That Affects the Capital Structure within Companies Included In the Index of LQ45 During 2011 - 2013

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    Dominica Rufina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors of ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size affecting Capital Structure. The population in this study is the companies included in the Index LQ45 Indonesia Stock Exchange from the period 2011 to 2013, the data of a total of 270 listed companies in LQ45 during that period, only 90 corporate data that successively included in the index LQ45. The data used in this study uses secondary data from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website www.idx.co.id. In the process of data analysis and testing the assumptions of classical hypothesis testing using multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS v20.00. The results showed that partially variable ROA, Asset Structure, and Firm Size has a significant influence on the Capital Structure, Growth Sales whereas variable has no influence on the Capital Structure. Simultaneously ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size effect on Capital Structure.

  18. Sleep Quality Changes during Overwintering at the German Antarctic Stations Neumayer II and III: The Gender Factor.

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    Mathias Steinach

    Full Text Available Antarctic residence holds many challenges to human physiology, like increased psycho-social tension and altered circadian rhythm, known to influence sleep. We assessed changes in sleep patterns during 13 months of overwintering at the German Stations Neumayer II and III from 2008 to 2014, with focus on gender, as many previous investigations were inconclusive regarding gender-based differences or had only included men.Time in bed, sleep time, sleep efficiency, number of arousals, sleep latency, sleep onset, sleep offset, and physical activity level were determined twice per month during seven overwintering campaigns of n = 54 participants (37 male, 17 female using actimetry. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression and analysis of covariance for change over time with the covariates gender, inhabited station, overwintering season and influence of physical activity and local sunshine radiation.We found overall longer times in bed (p = 0.004 and sleep time (p = 0.014 for women. The covariate gender had a significant influence on time in bed (p<0.001, sleep time (p<0.001, number of arousals (p = 0.04, sleep latency (p = 0.04, and sleep onset (p<0.001. Women separately (p = 0.02, but not men (p = 0.165, showed a linear increase in number of arousals. Physical activity decreased over overwintering time for men (p = 0.003, but not for women (p = 0.174. The decline in local sunshine radiation led to a 48 minutes longer time in bed (p<0.001, 3.8% lower sleep efficiency (p<0.001, a delay of 32 minutes in sleep onset (p<0.001, a delay of 54 minutes in sleep offset (p<0.001, and 11% less daily energy expenditure (p<0.001, for all participants in reaction to the Antarctic winter's darkness-phase.Overwinterings at the Stations Neumayer II and III are associated with significant changes in sleep patterns, with dependences from overwintering time and local sunshine radiation. Gender appears to be an influence, as women showed a declining sleep quality

  19. Gender differences in factors affecting rejection of food in healthy young Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, S; Broman, D A; Garvill, J; Nyroos, M

    2004-12-01

    With the objectives to better understand gender-related differences in variables of importance for food intake, and interrelations between these variables, 100 healthy, young women and 100 healthy, young men responded to self-administrated questionnaires about general food rejection, learned illness-associated food aversions, disgust (the Disgust Scale), food neophobia (the Food Neophobia Scale), nausea and appetite. The results show that food rejection and aversions were more common in women (69 and 38%, respectively) than in men (47 and 18%), and that women are more disgust sensitive than men. However, no differences between women and men were observed regarding reasons for rejecting food (predominantly sensory attributes), prevalence of gastrointestinal illness as an associated aversion symptom (95 vs 89%), type of aversive food due to associated illness (predominantly high protein items), or food neophobia. Based on path analyses, a model is proposed of interrelations between disgust, food neophobia, learned food aversions, nausea, appetite, and general food rejection in healthy young adults.

  20. Factors influencing performance of competitive and amateur rhythmic gymnastics--gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Baldari, Carlo; Battaglia, Claudia; Monteiro, Maria Dolores; Pappalardo, Alessandra; Piazza, Marina; Guidetti, Laura

    2009-05-01

    During last decade, male athletes were involved in official rhythmic gymnastics (RG) competitions. Aim of this study was to examine anthropometric characteristics and motor skills of male rhythmic gymnasts to identify guidelines in talent identification, selection and development training plans. Twenty-four gymnasts (age range 22+/-4 years), 12 male athletes and 12 female athletes, underwent two testing sessions: the previous session to assess anthropometric measures, and the second one to evaluate jumping ability using Optojump. Three vertical jumps: squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), hopping test (HT) and three different technical jumps (Split Leap with stretched legs (SL); Cossack with 180 degrees of rotation (CK); Jeté with turn (JWT)) were evaluated. Male gymnasts had significant higher values in each anthropometric measure than females (pgymnasts' gender. Reactivity and elastic muscle properties of the legs have to be research both in male and female athletes.

  1. CRITICAL THINKING TENDENCY LEVELS OF CANDITATE TEACHER OF VISUAL ARTS IN TERMS OF GENDER FACTOR

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    Asuman Aypek Arslan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking is an organized process aiming at obtaining knowledge in an original way, comparing, using and evaluating it. Critical thinking is a power triggering the knowledge production process and is the energy of knowledge. Science cannot be improved with the verification and repetition of what is known. It is only improved through questioning, emerging new information and new views. One of the high level needs of man in Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy is the realization of oneself. Individuals being able to realize themselves can decide what is true, what is wrong with their free wills. The most important task of education and the education of visual arts is to train creative and productive individuals being able to think all-round, learn how to learn, solve problems, respectful to humans, tolerant, having improved communication skills. It is of great importance to improve critical thinking skills at students in making them attain it. In making them attain these behaviours, it is of vital importance to improve critical thinking skills at students. In the current study, it was aimed to determine critical thinking levels of the candidates of visual arts and to determine whether the tendency of critical thinking differed in terms of gender. The data of the study was gathered through California Critical Thinking Tendency Scale. At the end of the study, it was found that candidate teachers of visual arts had tendency at medium level in general critical thinking. It was also found that the critical thinking tendencies of the candidate teachers of visual arts did not differ in terms of gender.

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism affects sympathetic tone in a gender-specific way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An; Chen, Tien-Yu; Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    The Val/Val genotype of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism (Val66Met) has been reported to affect human anxiety-related phenotypes. Substantial research has demonstrated that anxiety is associated with sympathetic activation, while sex steroid hormones have been shown to exert differential actions in regulating BDNF expression. Thus, we examined whether the BDNF variant modulates autonomic function in a gender-dependent manner. From 708 adults initially screened for medical and psychiatric illnesses, a final cohort of 583 drug-free healthy Han Chinese (355 males, 228 females; age 34.43±8.42 years) was recruited for BDNF genotyping (Val/Val: 136, 23.3%, Val/Met: 294, 50.4%, and Met/Met: 153, 26.2%). Time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) were used to assess autonomic outflow to the heart. Significant genotype-by-gender interaction effects were found on HRV indices. Even after adjusting for possible confounders, male participants bearing the Val/Val genotype had significant increases in low frequency (LF), LF% and LF/high frequency (HF) ratio, indicating altered sympathovagal balance with increased sympathetic modulation, compared to male Met/Met homozygotes. Females, however, showed an opposite but non-significant pattern. These results suggest that the studied BDNF polymorphism is associated with sympathetic control in a gender-specific way. The findings here support the view that male subjects with the Val/Val genotype have increased risk of anxiety by association with sympathetic activation.

  3. Nightlife Violence: A Gender-Specific View on Risk Factors for Violence in Nightlife Settings--A Cross-Sectional Study in Nine European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A.; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged…

  4. Nightlife Violence: A Gender-Specific View on Risk Factors for Violence in Nightlife Settings--A Cross-Sectional Study in Nine European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A.; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged…

  5. Gender and line size factors modulate the deviations of the subjective visual vertical induced by head tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyat Marion

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subjective visual vertical (SVV, the visual estimation of gravitational direction is commonly considered as an indicator of the sense of orientation. The present study examined the impact of two methodological factors (the angle size of the stimulus and the participant's gender on deviations of the SVV caused by head tilt. Forty healthy participants (20 men and 20 women were asked to make visual vertical adjustments of a light bar with their head held vertically or roll-tilted by 30° to the left or to the right. Line angle sizes of 0.95° and 18.92° were presented. Results The SVV tended to move in the direction of head tilt in women but away from the direction of head tilt in men. Moreover, the head-tilt effect was also modulated by the stimulus' angle size. The large angle size led to deviations in the direction of head-tilt, whereas the small angle size had the opposite effect. Conclusions Our results showed that gender and line angle size have an impact on the evaluation of the SVV. These findings must be taken into account in the growing body of research that uses the SVV paradigm in disease settings. Moreover, this methodological issue may explain (at least in part the discrepancies found in the literature on the head-tilt effect.

  6. Frequency-spatial organization of brain electrical activity in creative verbal thought: the role of the gender factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, O M; Bryzgalov, A O

    2006-07-01

    Gender-related differences in the EEG correlates of creative thought were studied by mapping EEG power during performance of a Remote Associations Task as compared with verbal word-generation and simple association tasks. Right-handed students (18 male, 21 female) took part in the studies. Gender-related differences were seen in the factor structure of measures of verbal activity and in the larger number of words generated for a given letter in women than in men. In terms of the originality of the associations, men and women showed no significant difference, though the dynamics of the power of the beta-2 rhythm during creative thought differed. In males, the search for original associations was accompanied by increases in beta-2 power in both hemispheres at the initial stages of performing the task, with local increases in the beta-2 rhythm in the central parts of the cortex at the end of testing. In women, the increase in beta-2 power was initially greater in the right hemisphere than the left, while there was a relative decrease in beta activity in the parietal-temporal areas of the cortex and an increase in the left anterior frontal areas at the terminal stage of task performance. It is suggested that creative verbal thought is based mostly on an "insight" strategy in males, while women additionally use an "intellectual" strategy.

  7. Job stress, occupational position and gender as factors differentiating workplace bullying experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Drabek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The results of our research broaden the knowledge concerning the correlates of mobbing. The study is aimed at finding out whether an employee's gender, his/her occupational position and level of occupational stress are related to bullying experience. Material and Methods: 1313 employees of a transport company participated in the study. The relationships between gender, occupational position, the level of stress and bullying were analysed. Bullying was measured by the use of the MDM Questionnaire, while work environment was assessed using the Subjective Assessment of Work Questionnaire. Results: It was found that women were generally more exposed to bullying than men (Z = –1.999; p < 0.05. Women experienced more bullying by their colleagues than men did (Z = –2.712; p < 0.01, in particular: bullying by colleagues that destroys the worker's image (Z = –2.922; p < 0.01 and bullying by colleagues that destroys social relations (Z = –3.004; p < 0.01. Individuals with managerial jobs experienced overall bullying (Z = –2.762; p < 0.01, bullying by colleagues (Z = –0.014; p < 0.05 and bullying by colleagues that destroys social relations (Z = –2.260; p < 0.05 more often than the individuals with non-management positions. The results of the study also indicated that employees with higher level of stress in comparison with less stressed co-workers reported more incidents of bullying behaviour (overall bullying – Z = –8.171; p < 0.001, bullying by colleagues – Z = –7.114; p < 0.001, bullying by supervisors – Z = –6.716; p < 0.001, all types of behaviour – p < 0.001. Conclusions: Comparing the results of our study to the previous research, it seems that the pattern of relationships between individual characteristics and bullying is rooted in the wider cultural context, the specificity of the company, its organisational culture as well as its situation. Therefore it's difficult to talk about irrefutable individual

  8. The HR factor: codes of conduct and gender issues as levers of innovation in geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbia, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    Professional geosciences organizations which support governments, industry and academic institutions in setting standards for communication, responsible use of geosciences information and continuing professional development do have codes of professional conduct, binding their members. "The geologist is responsible for the impression he gives of his profession in the opinion of those around him and of the public at large" reads one principle of the Code of Professional Conduct of the European Federation of Geologists. Several higher education institutions and public research bodies inspire their regulations to the European Charter of Researchers. In strengthening the relationships of professional organizations with industry, society and academy, it becomes interesting to highlight similarities and fruitful points of contacts between codes of professional ethics and the Charter of Researchers. Ethical principles, professional responsibility and attitude, accountability, dissemination and exploitation of results, public engagement, continuing professional development are some of the remarkable principles. Gender issues are also vital, as starting point to rethink processes in the knowledge society. Structural changes in institutions to improve excellence in research need more women in decision-making bodies, practices of work-family balance and codes of conduct which prevent hidden discriminations. In communication of natural hazards that have societal impact, the diversity management of both target public and communicators can make the difference between a generic communication and an effective one which is more tailored to information needs of women and men acting in the society.

  9. Gender, culture, and mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet S; Mertz, Janet E

    2009-06-02

    Using contemporary data from the U.S. and other nations, we address 3 questions: Do gender differences in mathematics performance exist in the general population? Do gender differences exist among the mathematically talented? Do females exist who possess profound mathematical talent? In regard to the first question, contemporary data indicate that girls in the U.S. have reached parity with boys in mathematics performance, a pattern that is found in some other nations as well. Focusing on the second question, studies find more males than females scoring above the 95th or 99th percentile, but this gender gap has significantly narrowed over time in the U.S. and is not found among some ethnic groups and in some nations. Furthermore, data from several studies indicate that greater male variability with respect to mathematics is not ubiquitous. Rather, its presence correlates with several measures of gender inequality. Thus, it is largely an artifact of changeable sociocultural factors, not immutable, innate biological differences between the sexes. Responding to the third question, we document the existence of females who possess profound mathematical talent. Finally, we review mounting evidence that both the magnitude of mean math gender differences and the frequency of identification of gifted and profoundly gifted females significantly correlate with sociocultural factors, including measures of gender equality across nations.

  10. Analysis on Overcoming Level of Stress of Athletes Joined in Adults Taekwondo National Team Eliminations in Terms of Gender Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ACET

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to determine level of coping with stress of athletes joined in Adults Taekwondo National Team eliminations. Sample group of the research was consisted of elite 56 female, and 118 male athletes joined in the eliminations in Alanya, Antalya. Average age of females was 20, 48, males 'was 21.00. A - five - point coping with Stress S cale of Likert type developed by A.Sibel Türküm (1999 was used to identify the level of the athletes’ stress. No outstanding differences were found between the genders (p=0,987. However, in terms of the factor to cope with stress, meaningful difference w as found between groups (p=0,031. Taking into consideration this fact, mean of females was found pretty higher than the males

  11. A new prognostic model for cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy including pretreatment thrombocytosis and standard pathological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Renninger, Markus; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

    2012-12-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (cohort series) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Preoperative thrombocytosis has been identified as a predictor of poor outcome in various cancer types. However, the prognostic role of platelet count in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy is unknown. The present study demonstrates that preoperative thrombocytosis is an independent risk factor for decreased cancer-specific survival after radical treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We developed a new prognostic scoring model for cancer-specific outcomes after radical cystectomy including platelet count and established pathological risk factors. Consideration of platelet count in the final model increased its predictive accuracy significantly. Thrombocytosis may be a useful parameter to include within established international bladder cancer nomograms. •  To investigate the oncological significance of preoperative thrombocytosis in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, as it has been reported as a marker for aggressive tumour biology in a variety of solid tumours. •  The series comprised 258 patients undergoing radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2010 in whom different clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed. •  Elevated platelet count was defined as >450 × 10(9) /L. •  Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariable analysis a new weighted scoring model was developed to predict cancer-specific outcomes. •  The median follow-up was 30 months (6-116). •  Of the 258 patients, 26 (10.1%) had elevated and 232 (89.9%) had normal platelet count. The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with normal and elevated platelet count was 61.5% and 32.7%, respectively (P thrombocytosis (2.68, 1.26-5.14; P= 0.011). •  The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with a score 0 (low risk), 1-2 (intermediate risk) and 3

  12. Specialty preferences of 1st year medical students in a Saudi Medical School – Factors affecting these choices and the influence of gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Qureshi, Habib; Al Wadani, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of career preference in medicine as it affects student learning and academic performance. Various factors influence the specialty choices of medical students. Some specialties tend to attract students more than others. One possible consequence of this would be a mismatch between health needs and specialist numbers in the region. This study investigated the career preferences of 1st year medical students in a Saudi medical school and to assess factors affecting these choices. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey carried out on the 1st year undergraduate students in the college of medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A total of 109 students (57 female and 52 males) responded to the questionnaire which was initially administered to all the students of the 1st year – A total of 120 students (response rate was 90.8%). A mixed method approach was used and qualitative data from open-ended questions were analyzed based on thematic analysis. Results: The top choices were general surgery, internal medicine, and pediatrics. Among female students; the top specialty choices were: General surgery (23%), pediatrics (18%), and dermatology (15%). Among the male students; the top choices were: General surgery (54%) and internal medicine (23%). Of the total, 57% of the students agreed or strongly agreed that primary aptitude was the main factor affecting the choice. Only 31% felt that there was a significant influence of role model, 48% felt that the advice of others – peers and family, would be a factor influencing their choices, and 53% agreed that specialty choice would influence their future learning patterns. Males were more likely to choose a specialty based on actual aptitude for the specialty, financial rewards, and scope for research; and this gender difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Surgery was the top-choice in both genders

  13. Adiponectin provides additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis in both genders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. METHODS: We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima-media-thickness (CIMT was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC, the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI were calculated. RESULTS: After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25-0.72 in men and 0.47 (0.29-0.75 in women. The area under the curve (AUC on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041. The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13-0.50, p<0.001, and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01-0.04, p<0.001 for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02-0.34, p = 0.031 and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: -0.002-0.008, p = 0.189. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis.

  14. Examination of Turkish extreme athletes' personality traits in terms of gender and some demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Ceylan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for the purpose of examining the personality traits of extreme athletes. In line with this purpose a total of 227 extreme athletes, as 86 female and 141 male athletes selected through judgment sampling, that either actively compete or trains to compete in any of the branches of snowboarding, snowkiting, kitesurfing, windsurfing, river kayaking, mountain biking, free diving, paragliding and rafting were included within the sample group of the study. Questionnaire applications were carried out in extreme sports facilities throughout the country. Within the scope of the study, an 85-item short form of the Five Factor Personality Scale developed by Somer, Korkmaz and Tatar was used as the data collection tool. Data analysis was carried out by means of the SPSS 16.0 software and the percentages frequencies, mean, standard deviation and to find the differences between the sexes "independent t" test were calculated. Examining the obtained results showed that the male athletes have higher extravertion level from female athletes (p <0.05. This finding obtained in our study suggest that, in an essentially male-dominant society, the higher level of pressure women are subjected to in social, economic, cultural and psychological terms and the difficulties and pressure they experience in the working life are significant factors for women to be more introvert.     Özet Bu araştırma, ekstrem sporcuların kişilik özelliklerinin incelemesi amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırmaya, yargısal örnekleme yöntemiyle seçilmiş, snowboard, snowkite, uçurtma sörfü, rüzgar sörfü, akarsu ve nehir kanosu, dağ bisikleti, serbest dalış, yamaç paraşütü, kaya tırmanışı ve rafting branşlarında yarışmacı olan ya da bir yarışmaya katılmak için hazırlık yapan, 86’sı kadın, 141’i erkek olmak üzere 227 ekstrem sporcu katılmıştır.  Anket uygulamaları, ülke genelinde bulunan

  15. Math Achievement is Important, but Task Values are Critical, Too: Examining the Intellectual and Motivational Factors Leading to Gender Disparities in STEM Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingte eWang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some STEM occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1 which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2 whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in twelfth grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  16. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  17. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  18. The semiotics of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, J

    1992-01-01

    The semiotics of gender are investigated in this article for the purpose of exploring the way that deep unconscious motives in relationship to cultural biases give rise to gender concepts. Theories of semiotic processes, including Jacques Lacan's concept of the psychoanalytic signifier, are explained briefly and applied to the signs of gender. The article concludes that gender concepts develop out of biology, unconscious feelings, and social patterning, and are not given, natural, and irrevocable.

  19. Gender Differences in Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidal Ideation among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Lester, David

    2013-01-01

    The correlates and predictors of suicidal ideation were examined in 303 male and 691 female undergraduates. Results indicated that hopelessness predicted suicidal ideation in both samples; however, depression was found to be a significant suicide risk factor only in women. In contrast, alcohol-related problems and social support from family…

  20. Gender specific associations of serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, Marc L.; Bus, Boudewijn A. A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Prickaerts, Jos; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Whereas animal models indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in anxiety-related behaviour, little is known about BDNF in patients with an anxiety disorder. We tested the hypothesis that serum BDNF levels are low in patients with an anxiety disorder as compare

  1. [Methylmercury exposure in the general population; toxicokinetics; differences by gender, nutritional and genetic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José M; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Sáinz-Martín, María; Bretón-Lesmes, Irene; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Llorente-Ballesteros, M Teresa; Martínez-García, M José; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Cuadrado-Cenzual, M Ángeles; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability.

  2. Engaging Online Adult Learners in Higher Education: Motivational Factors Impacted by Gender, Age, and Prior Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wenhao David

    2013-01-01

    As the number of online degree programs continues to grow among higher education institutions in the United States, engaging online adult learners to online degree programs is getting more difficult than before. Therefore, this study, situated in a land grant university, investigated the motivational factors that contribute to adult learners'…

  3. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  4. Gender Differences in Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidal Ideation among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Lester, David

    2013-01-01

    The correlates and predictors of suicidal ideation were examined in 303 male and 691 female undergraduates. Results indicated that hopelessness predicted suicidal ideation in both samples; however, depression was found to be a significant suicide risk factor only in women. In contrast, alcohol-related problems and social support from family…

  5. Diversity in primary teacher education gender differences in student factors and curriculum perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, G.M.T.; Bergen, T.C.M.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands only a small number of male students opt for primary school teaching and a relatively large percentage of them leave without graduating. A small-scale research project was set up to explore the question: Can genderspecific student factors be identified in relation to the initial

  6. Gender Differences in Factors Associated with How Parents Communicate with School in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Chin, Meejung

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored different factors that were associated with mothers' and fathers' choice between two forms of parent-school communication: school briefing sessions and parent-teacher conferences. A total of 585 parents--295 mothers and 290 fathers from different households--who had at least one child enrolled in middle school in Korea were…

  7. Diversity in primary teacher education gender differences in student factors and curriculum perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, G.M.T.; Bergen, T.C.M.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands only a small number of male students opt for primary school teaching and a relatively large percentage of them leave without graduating. A small-scale research project was set up to explore the question: Can genderspecific student factors be identified in relation to the initial t

  8. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma.

  9. Core features of suicide. Gender, age, alcohol and other putative risk factors in a low-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stora, T.; Wang, August Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    information. Results showed that suicide rate had been low since the Second World War. However, there was an increase throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Supposed core features of suicide, such as gender, marital status, former psychiatric admittance, former suicidal behaviour, alcohol and method preference were......The aim of the study was to elucidate some supposed core features of suicide through a study of suicide in a low-incidence population. The material covered all suicides and undetermined deaths 1945-2004 in the Faroe Islands (a low-incidence population) and the study made use of all available...... confirmed. Others were not, such as an increasing rate with old age. In diagnostics, the role of psychiatric disorders was confirmed, but so was a substantial role of "no disorder". Increase period revealed a high proportion of cases with alcohol involved and a substantial part included males, in age groups...

  10. Core features of suicide. Gender, age, alcohol and other putative risk factors in a low-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, August G; Stórá, Tormódur

    2009-01-01

    confirmed. Others were not, such as an increasing rate with old age. In diagnostics, the role of psychiatric disorders was confirmed, but so was a substantial role of "no disorder". Increase period revealed a high proportion of cases with alcohol involved and a substantial part included males, in age groups...... 25-64 years, unmarried, divorced and alcohol intoxicated. The main conclusion was that a low-incidence population of suicide population confirmed some supposed core features of the suicide phenomenon. Others, related to age and psychiatric disorders, were only partially confirmed. In periods...... information. Results showed that suicide rate had been low since the Second World War. However, there was an increase throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Supposed core features of suicide, such as gender, marital status, former psychiatric admittance, former suicidal behaviour, alcohol and method preference were...

  11. Gender differences in the relationship of partner's social class to behavioural risk factors and social support in the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, M; Martikainen, P; Shipley, M; Marmot, M

    2004-11-01

    In most countries health inequality in women appears to be greater when their socio-economic position is measured according to the occupation of male partners or spouses than the women's own occupations. Very few studies show social gradients in men's health according to the occupation of their female partners. This paper aims to explore the reasons for the differences in social inequality in cardiovascular disease between men and women by analysing the associations between own or spouses (or partners) socio-economic position and a set of risk factors for prevalent chronic diseases. Study participants were married or cohabiting London based civil servants included in the Whitehall II study. Socio-economic position of study participants was measured according to civil service grade; socio-economic position of the spouses and partners according to the Registrar General's social class schema. Risk factors were smoking, diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, and measures of social support. In no case was risk factor exposure more affected by the socio-economic position of a female partner than that of a male study participant. Wives' social class membership made no difference at all to the likelihood that male Whitehall participants were smokers, or took little exercise. Female participants' exercise and particularly smoking habit was, in contrast, related to their spouse's social class independently of their own grade of employment. Diet quality was affected equally by the socio-economic position of both male and female partners. Unlike the behavioural risk factors, the degree of social support reported by women participants was in general not strongly negatively affected by their husband or partner being in a less advantaged social class. However, non-employment in the husband or partner was associated with relatively lower levels of positive, and higher negative social support, while men with non-working wives or partners were unaffected. Studying gender differences

  12. Gender Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖敏慧

    2014-01-01

    Gender discrimination in language is usually defined as discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women. With the rise of women’s liberation movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and the improvement of women’s social status in recent years, gender discrimination in English attracts more and more attention. Based on previous studies, this thesis first dis⁃cusses the manifestations of gender discrimination in English vocabulary and address terms, then analyzes the factors of gender dis⁃crimination in English from social and cultural perspectives, finally puts forward some methods that are good for avoiding or elim⁃inating gender discrimination in English.

  13. Testosterone during Pregnancy and Gender Role Behavior of Preschool Children: A Longitudinal, Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Johnston, Katie J.; Golding, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Related blood levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in pregnant women to gender role behavior among 342 male and 337 female offspring at 3.5 years. Found that testosterone levels related linearly to girls' gender role behavior. Neither hormone related to boys' gender role behavior. Other factors, including older brothers or…

  14. Influence of Aging and Gender Differences on Feeding Behavior and Ghrelin-Related Factors during Social Isolation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihiro; Saegusa, Yayoi; Nahata, Miwa; Sadakane, Chiharu; Hattori, Tomohisa; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress due to social isolation is known to cause abnormal feeding behaviors, but the influences of gender and aging on subchronic stress-induced changes in feeding behaviors are unknown. Thus, we examined the changes in body weight, food intake, and orexigenic ghrelin-related factors during 2 weeks of isolation stress in young and aged mice. Food intake increased significantly in young mice in the isolation group compared with the group-housed control throughout the experimental period. This isolation-induced increase in food intake was not observed in aged mice. In young mice, there were no significant differences in body weight between the isolated group and group-housed control up to 2 weeks. However, aged male mice exhibited significant weight loss at 2 weeks and a similar tendency was observed in aged female mice. Young male mice, but not female mice, had significantly increased (2.2-fold) plasma acylated ghrelin levels after 1 week of isolation compared with the group-housed control. A significant but lower increase (1.3-fold) was also observed in aged male mice. Hypothalamic preproghrelin gene expression decreased significantly with isolation in young male mice, whereas it increased significantly in female mice. The expression levels of NPY and AGRP in the hypothalamus, which are transmitted by elevated peripheral ghrelin signals, increased significantly in isolated young male mice, whereas the AGRP expression levels decreased significantly in young female mice. Isolation caused no significant differences in the expression levels of these genes in aged mice. In isolation, young female mice exhibited markedly increased dark- and light-phase locomotor activities compared with male mice, whereas male and female aged mice exhibited no obvious increases in activity immediately after the dark phase started. We conclude that the gender-specific homeostatic regulatory mechanisms required to maintain body weight operated during subchronic psychological

  15. Gender discrimination in undernutrition with mediating factors among Bengalee school children from Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Prakash Ranjan; Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2012-04-01

    NS were also significant predictors of stunting (Wald=8.16), underweight (Wald=7.68) and stunting (Wald=6.97) respectively. The present study revealed that the nutritional status of the children was unsatisfactory and it is of paramount importance not only to increase the amount of food supplementation given but also to promote gender equality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP Analysis on Depressed Mood in Korea: The Impact of Gender Differences and Other Socio-Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gitto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people’s quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on Korea. In fact, in spite of the great amount of empirical studies carried out for other countries, few epidemiological studies have examined the socio-economic determinants of depression in Korea and they were either limited to samples of employed women or did not control for individual health status. Moreover, as the likely data endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of correlation between the dependent variable and the error term as a result of autocorrelation or simultaneity, such as, in this case, the depressed mood due to health factors that, in turn might be caused by depression, might bias the results, the present study proposes an empirical approach, based on instrumental variables, to deal with this problem. Methods Data for the year 2008 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES were employed. About seven thousands of people (N= 6,751, of which 43% were males and 57% females, aged from 19 to 75 years old, were included in the sample considered in the analysis. In order to take into account the possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables, two Instrumental Variables Probit (IVP regressions were estimated; the variables for which instrumental equations were estimated were related to the participation of women to the workforce and to good health, as reported by people in the sample. Explanatory variables were related to age, gender, family factors (such as the number of family members and marital status and socio

  17. Gender Differences in Lifestyle Factors Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Preliminary Metabolic Syndrome in the General Population: The Watari Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Tomomi; Konno, Satoshi; Munakata, Masanori

    2017-09-01

    Objective In Japan, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and preliminary metabolic syndrome (preMetS) are more prevalent in men; however, it remains unclear whether the relationship between these metabolic disorders and lifestyle factors is similar between genders. Methods We examined waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood, and various lifestyle factors in 3,166 individuals aged from 30-79 years of age from the Japanese general population. MetS was diagnosed on the basis of central obesity - assessed by waist circumference - plus two or more of the following cardio-metabolic risks according to Japanese criteria: high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and lipid abnormality. Central obesity plus one of the risks was defined as preMetS. Results Men had a significantly higher prevalence of MetS (23.3% vs. 8.7%, p<0.001) and preMetS (21.2% vs. 10.2%, p<0.001) than women. An age-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that heavy drinkers were associated with an increased probability of MetS (odds ratio, 1.91: 95% confidence interval, 1.29-2.83) and preMetS (1.69: 1.11-2.58); fast eaters were also related to preMetS (1.83: 1.33-2.55) and MetS (1.55: 1.12-2.15) in men. Lacking regular exercise was significantly associated with preMetS (1.38: 1.03-1.85), but not MetS. In women, preMetS was significantly associated with fast eaters and lacking regular exercise (1.44: 1.01-2.07 and 1.41: 1.02-1.96, respectively); a stepwise increase in each odds ratio (2.02: 1.40-2.91 and 1.47: 1.03-2.09, respectively) was also observed for MetS. Conclusion The relationships between lifestyle factors and MetS or preMetS differed between men and women, which suggests the need for gender-specific lifestyle modification to effectively prevent MetS.

  18. Gender-Based Correlation Profiles Among the Release Factors and Distance Thrown in Paralympic Seated Shot Put.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangwoo; Davis, Ronald; Judge, Lawrence W; Kwon, Young-Hoo; Han, Kihoon; Kim, Jemin; Kim, Jaewoong; Kim, Jaehwa

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among release factors (speed, height, and angle) and distance thrown in Paralympic seated shot put. Forty-eight trials performed by 11 men and 5 women during the 2012 US Paralympic trials in track and field were analyzed. With both genders combined, release speed (r = .95, p < .01) and angle (r = .51, p < .01) showed significant correlations to distance thrown. Release speed (r = .94, p < .01) in men and all release factors (r = .60-.98, p < .02) in women showed significant correlations to distance. Release speed and angle were identified as important predictors of the distance, explaining over 89-96% of the variance in distance thrown. Unlike athletes without disability, seated shot-putters exhibited significant positive speed-angle correlations (combined: r = .37, p < .01; women: r = .57, p = .03). Application of these results should address a focus in training on generating speed through the release point with a consistent release angle.

  19. Correlates of Chilean Adolescents’ Negative Attitudes Toward Cigarettes: The Role of Gender, Peer, Parental, and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. Results: For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Conclusion: Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls’ but not boys’ attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking. PMID:22157230

  20. Correlates of chilean adolescents' negative attitudes toward cigarettes: the role of gender, peer, parental, and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth's attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls' but not boys' attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth's attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking.

  1. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An examination of the factors by gender and race/ethnicity influencing science, mathematics, and engineering undergraduate degree recipients to enroll in graduate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasiewski, Doreen Kovacsofsky

    Lack of growth in the science talent pool raises concerns about the ability of colleges and universities to meet the demands of the nation's labor market for scientists and engineers. Previous research has focused on ways to improve the K--16 learning environment and increase retention rates of undergraduate students in the sciences. This study extends previous work by considering the next stage in the educational pipeline---the transition to graduate study. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of factors related to science, mathematics, and engineering (SME) undergraduate degree recipients' subsequent enrollment in graduate study. This research utilizes 1994 data from the first follow-up of the 1993 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study by the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES). Four groups of factors were examined---pre-college characteristics, personal characteristics, institutional characteristics, and the college experience. Analyses were conducted on the overall sample and by gender and race/ethnicity. Male and female subjects were equally likely to enroll in graduate school. White and non-White subjects were equally likely to enroll in graduate school. The best factor to predict enrollment in graduate study for all samples was cumulative grade point average. The models suggested, however, two different journeys taken by SME bachelor's degree recipients. Along one path taken by male and White students, factors associated with graduate school enrollment included having well-educated parents, at least a middle class family background, a good mathematics grade point average, being satisfied with the undergraduate curriculum, being less than twenty-three years old, and having participated in community service. Women and minority students, however, traveled a different path, where marriage negatively influenced enrollment in graduate study. In addition, having children and being over the age of twenty-three were negative factors for

  3. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  4. Gender and School Choice: Factors Influencing Parents When Choosing Single-Sex or Co-Educational Independent Schools for Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carolyn; Bisset, Moray

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores factors influencing parents' choices of single-sex or co-educational schools in the independent sector. In doing so, it explores two relatively under-researched aspects of school choice by focusing upon gender and upon the middle classes. The paper draws upon research conducted in three independent schools--a boys' school, a…

  5. Confirmatory factor analytic investigation of variance composition, gender invariance, and validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; McDermott, Ryon C; Hewitt, Amber A; Alto, Kathleen M; Harris, Kyle T

    2016-10-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis of responses to the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r) from 384 middle school students (163 boys, 221 girls) indicated that the best fit to the data was a bifactor model incorporating the hypothesized 3-factor structure while explicitly modeling an additional, general factor. Specifically, each item-level indicator loaded simultaneously on 2 factors: a general traditional masculinity ideology factor and a specific factor corresponding to 1 of the 3 hypothesized masculine norms for adolescents: Emotionally Detached Dominance, Toughness, and Avoidance of Femininity. Invariance testing across gender supported metric invariance for the general factor only. Although item loadings on the general factor were similar across boys and girls, the specific factor loadings varied substantially, with many becoming nonsignificant in the presence of the general factor for girls. A structural regression analysis predicting latent variables of the Meanings of Adolescent Masculinity Scale (MAMS), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Discipline, School Difficulties, and Positive Behavior Scale (DSDPBS) indicated that the general factor was a strong predictor of MAMS for both genders and DSDPBS for girls. Findings indicate that the MRNI-A-r general factor is a valid and reliable indicator of overall internalization of traditional masculinity ideology in adolescents; however, the specific factors may have different meanings for boys as compared with girls and lack validity in the presence of the general factor. These findings are consistent with a developmental perspective of gender ideology that views adolescence as a time when a differentiated cognitive schema of masculine norms is beginning to develop. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Manifestations and Causes of Gender Differences in Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴维

    2015-01-01

    Language is the direct reflection of social reality and the real reflection of social traditions,customs and cultural awareness.It is the inevitable requirement of social development to conduct the research on the relationship between gender and language.The manifestations of language and gender mainly involve in pronunciation,intonation,vocabulary and semantic.The causes of gender differences in language include society,psychological factor,physiological aspects and culture etc.

  7. The relationship between culture, gender, structural factors, abuse, trauma, and HIV/AIDS for Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Claudia L

    2007-03-01

    The study, in which the author aim to understand the contextual risks of HIV-positive serostatus and intimate partner violence (IPV) of 32 Latina women, involved focus groups, in-depth face-to-face narratives, and community meetings. The data emerged into four themes: histories of trauma, living with HIV, vulnerability, and la suerte (luck). In addition to the themes, women in this study talked about how structural and cultural factors such as machismo, marianismo, and fatalism are implicated in the risk for HIV and IPV. Women in the study reconceptualized the notion of IPV to denote a form of situational abuse, such as threats of deportation, that is exacerbated by their HIV status.

  8. Prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorders in outpatients at Al-Badar Dental College and Hospital and its relationship to age, gender, occlusion and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheel Ahmed Syed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is a collective term that encompasses many clinical problems involving the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joints (TMJ and associated structures and it has high prevalence among populations. Aims and objectives: To determine the prevalence of TMD and its relationship to age, gender, occlusion and psychological factors and to evaluate which age group, gender, malocclusion parameters and psychological factors contribute to the prevalence of TMD. Materials and methods: The study includes a sample of 250 young adults (134 girls and 116 boys with age ranging from 18 to 25 years, the presence and severity of TMD was determined using a self-administered anamnestic questionnaire composed of 10 questions regarding common TMD symptoms. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle′s classification (molar classes I, II, III and to evaluate the psychological factors, The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS developed by Zigmond and Snaith was used. Results: Data were computerized and the SPSS package (version 11.2 was used and nonparametric test of Chi-square for data analysis and unpaired t-test was also used for statistical data analysis. Anamnestic index (AI showed that the percentage of women (5522% had higher degree of TMD symptoms than compared with men (50.86%, comparing the age of men and women free TMD and with TMD, the statistical difference was not significant as (t = 1.35, p > 0.5, distribution of the cases among Angle′s class I, II, III occlusion the difference was not statistically significant as (p > 0.5, the degree of anxiety and TMD degree among men and women patients, women had higher anxiety levels as compared to men and no statistical difference was found between the cases of men and women in the depression levels. Conclusion: Prevalence of TMD symptoms in our sample of 250 patients was high for women- Morphologic occlusion was not associated with the presence of TMD

  9. Gender awareness among physicians--the effect of specialty and gender. A study of teachers at a Swedish medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, Gunilla; Hamberg, Katarina; Johansson, Eva E

    2003-10-27

    An important goal for medical education today is professional development including gender equality and awareness of gender issues. Are medical teachers prepared for this task? We investigated gender awareness among physician teachers, expressed as their attitudes towards the role of gender in professional relationships, and how it varied with physician gender and specialty. We discuss how this might be related to the gender climate and sex segregation in different specialties. Questionnaires were sent to all 468 specialists in the clinical departments and in family medicine, who were engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of preceptor and student gender in clinical tutoring and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between family physicians, surgical, and non-surgical hospital doctors, and between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The response rate was 65 %. There were differences between specialty groups in all investigated areas mainly due to disparities among men. The odds for a male family physician to assess gender important were three times higher, and for a male non-surgical doctor two times higher when compared to a male surgical doctor. Female teachers assessed gender important to a higher degree than men. Among women there were no significant differences between specialty groups. There was an interaction between physician teachers' gender and specialty as to whether they identified gender as important in professional relationships. Male physicians, especially from the surgical group, assessed gender important to a significantly lower degree than female physicians. Physicians' degree of gender awareness may, as one of many factors, affect working climate and the distribution of women and men in different specialties. Therefore, to

  10. Gender awareness among physicians – the effect of specialty and gender. A study of teachers at a Swedish medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamberg Katarina

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important goal for medical education today is professional development including gender equality and awareness of gender issues. Are medical teachers prepared for this task? We investigated gender awareness among physician teachers, expressed as their attitudes towards the role of gender in professional relationships, and how it varied with physician gender and specialty. We discuss how this might be related to the gender climate and sex segregation in different specialties. Method Questionnaires were sent to all 468 specialists in the clinical departments and in family medicine, who were engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of preceptor and student gender in clinical tutoring and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between family physicians, surgical, and non-surgical hospital doctors, and between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The response rate was 65 %. There were differences between specialty groups in all investigated areas mainly due to disparities among men. The odds for a male family physician to assess gender important were three times higher, and for a male non-surgical doctor two times higher when compared to a male surgical doctor. Female teachers assessed gender important to a higher degree than men. Among women there were no significant differences between specialty groups. Conclusions There was an interaction between physician teachers' gender and specialty as to whether they identified gender as important in professional relationships. Male physicians, especially from the surgical group, assessed gender important to a significantly lower degree than female physicians. Physicians' degree of gender awareness may, as one of many factors, affect working climate and the

  11. Identifying the Gender Dimension in Research Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.; Lalonde, B.St.L.; Tippett, C.; Archambault, E.; Callaert, J.; Mantouvalou, K.; Arora, L.

    2016-07-01

    Globally, there is an increasing interest in integrating the gender dimension in research content (GDRC). As a first step towards monitoring progress in this area, a new indicator measuring the proportion of a country’s scientific publications integrating a gender dimension in their subject matter was developed for the European Commission’s She Figures 2015 publication. This indicator is based on a keyword-based query covering both sex-related terms (biological characteristics of both women and men) and gender-related terms (social/cultural factors of both women and men). The final GDRC dataset consisted of some 212,600 distinct publications including a gender dimension in their research content. Findings suggest that integrating a gender dimension into research content is relatively rare. Unsurprisingly, it was less common for scientific articles in the fields of agricultural sciences, engineering and technology, and natural sciences to do so, and more common in the social sciences. (Author)

  12. Gender Differences in Factors Related to HIV Risk Behaviors among People Who Inject Drugs in North-East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, Allison M.; Solomon, Sunil S.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K.; Anand, Santhanam; Celentano, David D.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Kumar, Suresh; Lucas, Gregory M.

    2017-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) in India are at high risk for HIV, with women being at elevated risk. Using a socio-ecological framework, this study assessed whether factors associated with HIV transmission risk behaviors differed across men and women PWID. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 6449 PWID in 7 cities in Northeast India. Men (n = 5653) and women (n = 796) PWID were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). We assessed sex differences in two recent HIV transmission risk behaviors: multiple sex partners and needle/syringe sharing. We used multi-level logistic regression models, which incorporated sampling weights and random intercepts for city, to assess factors associated with these HIV risks, separately among men and women. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among women than men (53% vs 18.4%, p<0.01). Nearly 13% of men and 8% of women (p = .30) had multiple partners. Employment in men and relationship status and stigma in women were significantly associated with multiple partners. Approximately 25% of men and 19% of women engaged in needle sharing (p = .16). Younger age in women and depression symptoms in men were significantly associated with increased risk for sharing needles. We found that sexual and drug related risk behaviors were common among PWID in Northeast India, and there were differences between men and women in the socio-ecologic correlates of these behaviors. Contextually-integrated and gender-specific HIV prevention and intervention efforts are needed that consider factors at individual, interpersonal- and community-levels that uniquely impact HIV risks among PWID. PMID:28099458

  13. Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were

  14. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Pavlova

    Full Text Available Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  15. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  16. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  17. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  18. Gender-Related Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms and Disordered Eating in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of…

  19. The Association of Age and Gender with Risk Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases among Employees in West of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Nahid; Babanejad, Mehran; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Karim, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationships that age and gender share with risk factors (RFs) of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) were assessed among a large-scale employ in Western Iran. Methods: In this epidemiologic cross-sectional study, 7129 employees from Kermanshah Province were assessed using a census method in 2012. Data on RFs of NCD were collected using a standard questionnaire. Demographic information, diet, physical activity, tobacco use, and history of hypertension, history of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and cancer were studied. Results: The proportion of ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables consumption per day was lower in higher ages (P = 0.001), and this proportion was greater in females than males (72.1% vs. 47.8%; P < 0.0001). Tobacco use was more in higher ages and was higher among males than females (13.3% vs. 0.6%; P < 0.0001). Overweight and obesity prevalence increased in higher ages and was more prominent among males than females (67.8% vs. 55.3%; P < 0.0001). Overall, the prevalence of having 3–5 RFs was greater among those with ≥55 years and among males than females (20.4% vs. 6.6%; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The prevalence of major RFs of NCDs was greater among older persons and male participants. More preventive programs such as health education on employees of Kermanshah are recommended.

  20. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  1. Age and Gender Differences in the Social Patterning of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Switzerland: The CoLaus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Spencer, Brenda; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gerard; Vollenweider, Peter; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examined the social distribution of a comprehensive range of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a Swiss population and assessed whether socioeconomic differences varied by age and gender. Methods Participants were 2960 men and 3343 women aged 35–75 years from a population-based survey conducted in Lausanne, Switzerland (CoLaus study). Educational level was the indicator of socioeconomic status used in this study. Analyses were stratified by gender and age group (35–54 years; 55–75 years). Results There were large educational differences in the prevalence of CVRF such as current smoking (Δ = absolute difference in prevalence between highest and lowest educational group:15.1%/12.6% in men/women aged 35–54 years), physical inactivity (Δ = 25.3%/22.7% in men/women aged 35–54 years), overweight and obesity (Δ = 14.6%/14.8% in men/women aged 55–75 years for obesity), hypertension (Δ = 16.7%/11.4% in men/women aged 55–75 years), dyslipidemia (Δ = 2.8%/6.2% in men/women aged 35–54 years for high LDL-cholesterol) and diabetes (Δ = 6.0%/2.6% in men/women aged 55–75 years). Educational inequalities in the distribution of CVRF were larger in women than in men for alcohol consumption, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia (p<0.05). Relative educational inequalities in CVRF tended to be greater among the younger (35–54 years) than among the older age group (55–75 years), particularly for behavioral CVRF and abdominal obesity among men and for physiological CVRF among women (p<0.05). Conclusion Large absolute differences in the prevalence of CVRF according to education categories were observed in this Swiss population. The socioeconomic gradient in CVRF tended to be larger in women and in younger persons. PMID:23152909

  2. Age and gender differences in the social patterning of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland: the CoLaus study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Stringhini

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We examined the social distribution of a comprehensive range of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF in a Swiss population and assessed whether socioeconomic differences varied by age and gender. METHODS: Participants were 2960 men and 3343 women aged 35-75 years from a population-based survey conducted in Lausanne, Switzerland (CoLaus study. Educational level was the indicator of socioeconomic status used in this study. Analyses were stratified by gender and age group (35-54 years; 55-75 years. RESULTS: There were large educational differences in the prevalence of CVRF such as current smoking (Δ = absolute difference in prevalence between highest and lowest educational group:15.1%/12.6% in men/women aged 35-54 years, physical inactivity (Δ = 25.3%/22.7% in men/women aged 35-54 years, overweight and obesity (Δ = 14.6%/14.8% in men/women aged 55-75 years for obesity, hypertension (Δ = 16.7%/11.4% in men/women aged 55-75 years, dyslipidemia (Δ = 2.8%/6.2% in men/women aged 35-54 years for high LDL-cholesterol and diabetes (Δ = 6.0%/2.6% in men/women aged 55-75 years. Educational inequalities in the distribution of CVRF were larger in women than in men for alcohol consumption, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia (p<0.05. Relative educational inequalities in CVRF tended to be greater among the younger (35-54 years than among the older age group (55-75 years, particularly for behavioral CVRF and abdominal obesity among men and for physiological CVRF among women (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Large absolute differences in the prevalence of CVRF according to education categories were observed in this Swiss population. The socioeconomic gradient in CVRF tended to be larger in women and in younger persons.

  3. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  4. The gender specific risk factors for prolonged hospitalization due to acute pyelonephritis in a Japanese tertiary emergency center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneishi, Risa; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Wada, Koichiro; Hsiao, Philip; Eguchi, Jun; Araki, Motoo; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Nasu, Yasutomo; Akebi, Naoki

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the potential differences between male and female patients with acute pyelonephritis (AP) and to predict the severity of AP based on the length of hospital stay. We conducted a retrospective medical chart review of 172 consecutive adult patients who were hospitalized in Tsuyama Central Hospital due to AP from January 2007 through June 2012. We analyzed the length of hospital stay by the proportional hazard model. A total of 172 patients were identified who were admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of AP. Of them, 62% (106/172) were female. Except for urological malignancy, there was no significant difference between men and women in underlying disease. Out of 26 variables, univariate analysis in male showed that only urolithiasis (OR 1.75, p = 0.0294) was significantly associated with longer hospital stay, while septic shock (OR 3.18, P = 0.003), urological malignancy (OR 2.94, P = 0.002), age over 65 (OR 1.66, p = 0.018) and neurogenic bladder (OR 1.92, p = 0.014) were all associated with longer hospital stay in female patients. This is the first report to identify the risk factors for prolonged hospital stay for the patients who were admitted with AP in the Japanese population. The risk factors causing prolonged hospital stay were totally different between males and females. Reviewing the medical history based on sex gender might enable a clinician to predict the severity of acute pyelonephritis during the initial evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Deduction of bond length changes of symmetric molecules from experimental vibrational progressions, including a topological mass factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wei, Fan; Schwarz, W H E; Li, Jun

    2012-12-20

    The change ΔR(x) of bond length R(x) for atom X in a molecule upon electronic transition can be derived from the intensities I(i) of the vibrational stretching progression v = 0 → i of the electronic absorption or emission spectrum. In many cases, a simple model is sufficient for a reasonable estimate of ΔR(x). For symmetric molecules, however, conceptual problems in the literature of many decades are evident. The breathing modes of various types of symmetric molecules X(n) and AX(n) (A at the center) are here discussed. In the simplest case of a harmonic vibration of the same mode in the initial and final electronic states, we obtain ΔR(x) ≈ [2S/(ωm(x))](1/2)/w(1/2) (all quantities in atomic units). ω and S are respectively the observed vibrational quanta and the Huang-Rhys factor (corresponding, e.g., to the vibrational intensity ratio I(1)/I(0) ≈ S), m(x) is the mass of vibrating atom X, and w is a topological factor for molecule X(n) or AX(n). The factor 1/w(1/2) in the expression for ΔR(x) must not be neglected. The spectra and bond length changes of several symmetric molecules AX(n) and X(n) are discussed. The experimental bond length changes correctly derived with factor 1/w(1/2) are verified by reliable quantum chemical calculations.

  6. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  7. Brief report: a qualitative study of gender preferences and motivational factors for physical activity in underserved adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K; Williams, Joel; Evans, Alexandra; Mixon, Gary; Rheaume, Carol

    2005-01-01

    This study used focus groups to identify preferences for physical activity (PA) and motivational themes for increasing PA in underserved adolescents. Fifty-one adolescents, on the free lunch program (25 males and 26 females; ages 10-13 years; 72% African-American, 19% white, and 9% other minorities) participated in focus groups (6-10 children per group; same gender). The data were transcribed and coded into themes. A content analysis was performed using QSR NVivo. Boys rated their favorite activities as playing basketball, football, soccer, and baseball. Girls rated their favorite activities as playing basketball, swimming, and roller-skating. For motivational themes, boys and girls most frequently stated that they would participate in PA if it was a fun, provided a health benefit, and if there were a variety of choices offered. Being involved with friends was also identified as important to both boys and girls. The findings from this qualitative study suggest that including components of choice and a variety of physical activities may be important elements for intervention programs in underserved adolescents.

  8. Personality, Gender, and Crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Heck, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in crying as well as associations between basic personality traits and self-reported indices of crying. Forty-eight men and 56 women completed the Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Adult Crying Inventory. Substantial gender differences were demonstrated

  9. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES in eight countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Fleming

    Full Text Available This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806 that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC, men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.

  10. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  11. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES) in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.

  12. Postnatal visual deprivation in rats regulates several retinal genes and proteins, including differentiation-associated fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Meyer zu Hoerste, Melissa; Mertsch, Sonja; Stupp, Tobias; Thanos, Solon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the retinal cellular basis of amblyopia, which is a developmental disease characterized by impaired visual acuity. This study examined the retinal transcripts associated with experimentally induced unilateral amblyopia in rats. Surgical tarsorrhaphy of the eyelids on one side was performed in pups prior to eye opening at postnatal day 14, thereby preventing any visual experience. This condition was maintained for over 2 months, after which electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded, the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) arrangement and number were determined using neuroanatomical tracing, the retinal transcripts were studied using microarray analysis, regulated mRNAs were confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, and proteins were stained using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. An attenuated ERG was found in eyes that were deprived of visual experience. Retrograde neuroanatomical staining disclosed a larger number of RGCs within the retina on the visually deprived side compared to the non-deprived, control side, and a multilayered distribution of RGCs. At the retinomic level, several transcripts associated with retinal differentiation, such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), were either up- or downregulated. Most of the transcripts could be verified at the mRNA level. To unravel the role of a differentiation-associated protein, we tested FGF-2 in dissociated postnatal retinal cell cultures and found that FGF-2 is a potent factor triggering ganglion cell differentiation. The data suggest that visual experience shapes the postnatal retinal differentiation, whereas visual deprivation induces changes at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within the retina.

  13. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  14. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  15. Defining gender disparities in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leresche, Linda

    2011-07-01

    Prevalence rates of most musculoskeletal pain conditions are higher among women than men. Reasons for these prevalence disparities likely include sex differences in basic pain mechanisms and gender differences in psychosocial factors. The purposes of this review were to (1) identify reasons for differences in pain prevalence between men and women, (2) assess whether musculoskeletal pain conditions are differently treated in men and women, and (3) identify reasons for sex/gender disparities in pain treatment. A MEDLINE search was conducted using the terms "pain" or "musculoskeletal pain" and "gender differences" or "sex differences" with "health care," "health services," and "physician, attitude." Articles judged relevant were selected for inclusion. WHERE ARE WE NOW?: Higher pain prevalence in women is consistently observed but not well understood. The relative contributions of sex differences in pain mechanisms and gender differences in psychosocial factors (eg, coping, social roles) to explaining differences in prevalence are not yet clear. Gender disparities in the amount of healthcare use for pain may be partially explained by the experience of higher-intensity pain in women. Pain intensity also seems to be a major factor influencing treatment, especially the prescription of medications for acute pain. However, clinicians' gender stereotypes, as well as the clinician's own gender, appear to influence diagnostic and treatment decisions for more persistent pain problems. WHERE DO WE NEED TO GO?: The ultimate goal is optimal pain control for each individual, with gender being one difference between individuals. HOW DO WE GET THERE?: Further research is needed to address all three major purposes, with particular attention to whether gender-specific pain treatment may sometimes be warranted.

  16. Complex analysis of Askaryan radiation: A fully analytic treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jordan C.; Connolly, Amy L.

    2017-05-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from high-energy cascades in dense media with a collective charge. We present an analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the cascade, and quantum mechanical cascade elongation via the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect. These calculations, and the associated open-source code, allow the user to avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo cascade simulations. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan-based detectors benefit from computational speed, because scans of Askaryan parameter-space are required to match neutrino signals. The Askaryan field is derived from cascade equations verified with Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, instructive cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for correlations with event candidates.

  17. Complex Analysis of Askaryan Radiation: A Fully Analytic Treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Jordan C

    2016-01-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from the collective charge within high-energy cascades in dense media. We present the first fully analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the electromagnetic cascade and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect. Analytic calculations avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulations of the cascades. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan- based detectors benefit from computational speed, because neutrino event parameters affect the shape of the electromagnetic field, requiring scans of parameter space. The Askaryan field is derived and verified against Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, two special cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain, analytically. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for phase ...

  18. Trends in gender differences in accidents mortality: Relationships to changing gender roles and other societal trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Earle

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable or increased; these trends often resulted from the differential impact on male and female mortality of general societal trends such as increased illicit drug use or improved health care. Similarly, trends in gender differences in accident-related behavior have shown substantial variation and appear to have been influenced by multiple factors, including gender differences in rates of adoption of different types of innovations.

  19. Gender Issues in Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Prabhakarrao Doke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender wise analysis of data brings out biological, behavioural and social variables which indicate inequality in the health parameters in male and female sex. There is discrimination against women. Right to birth is denied by sex selective elimination, right to survival is denied by the neglect of girl child resulting in declining trend of child sex ratio which has reached an alarming low level of 914 in 2011 in spite of the fact that the female sex is biologically stronger. The mortality and morbidity indicators are unfavourable to the females. Maternal mortality in developing countries including India is unacceptably high. There is a failure of achievement of Millennium Development Goals in relation to maternal mortality and gender equality and empowerment of women. Crime against women is increasing. Violence is domestic or at workplace or occurring in public places. Social factors like male dominance and subordinate status of women make them vulnerable to unfair treatment, discrimination, denial of basic human rights to survival, education, health, inheritance, etc. The preventive measures in the form of education of masses for effective change in behaviour against gender discrimination, provision of facilities for achieving gender equality, and legislative measures for controlling violence against women at domestic and public level need intensification to achieve social justice of gender equality.

  20. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP) Analysis on Depressed Mood in Korea: The Impact of Gender Differences and Other Socio-Economic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Gitto; Yong-Hwan Noh; Antonio Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people’s quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on...

  1. Gender and Religiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Modiri

    2013-08-01

    As mentioned before, Collet link gender differences to the power structure of family, asserting that girls who have been raised in patriarchal families have higher risk aversion and therefore are more religious. According to the findings of this research, however, these assumptions are not statistically acceptable. Therefore, the assertion that religiousness of women depends on the type of family (patriarchal or egalitarian is rejected. The third assumption which, based on Collet theory, asserts that women in patriarchal families are more religious is rejected. These findings are highly important in view of sociological theory, because in the contemporary world in which power structure in most societies, including Iran, proceeds towards egalitarianism (Inglehart, 1993, (Azadarmaki, 2010, the rejection of this relation may denote the emergence of new structures in families and the possibility to preserve religious inclinations at the same time. The fact is that that acceptance of egalitarianism by families does not necessarily mean a reduction in religiosity. Considering gender studies which often emphasize discrimination against women due to social backgrounds and their inequality with men in some social aspects, studies such as the present one, which shows that gender differences are in favor of women, can have a positive effect on women. Their awareness about such abilities can help them play a more efficient role in their family and in their society, whereby improving their living standards and develop a better generation. In view of the importance of the subject, it is recommended that quantitative and qualitative studies to be conducted on gender differences in religiosity, its reasons and its contributing factors.

  2. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pyoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  3. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motykova, Eva; Zlatohlavek, Lukáš; Prusikova, Martina; Lanska, Vera; Ceska, Richard; Vasickova, Ludmila; Vrablik, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased inflammation which represents a link to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent marker of inflammation and atherosclerosis risk. To assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic markers of atherosclerosis including Lp-PLA2 we examined a group of Czech non-diabetic obese/overweight children exposed to a lifestyle intervention. Fourty unrelated overweight/obese non-diabetic Czech children (13.7 ± 2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 29.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2) underwent 4 weeks of lifestyle modification (reduction of energy intake to age matched optimum and supervised physical activity). Anthropometrical and biochemical variables were determined at baseline and after the intervention. Lp-PLA2 mass concentration was assessed using the ELISA kit. Wilcocson's rank test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A significant decrease of BMI and waist circumference was associated with significant changes of plasma lipoprotein and glycaemia levels. Mass concentration of Lp-PLA2 at the baseline was 402 ± 94 μg/ml, after the intervention 368 ± 105 μg/ml (p=0.008). Change in Lp-PLA2 was associated with triglyceride level decrease (p=0.009). Intensive lifestyle modification leading to body weight decrease results in significant changes of plasma lipoprotein levels and, also, a drop of Lp-PLA2 levels in paediatric obese patients. However, even after the intervention Lp-PLA2 concentrations in this patient group remain elevated suggesting possible increased atherosclerosis risk in later life. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  4. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  5. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility : An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  6. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility : An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  7. The gender specific frequency of risk factor and CHD diagnoses prior to incident MI: a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter C; Yawn, Roy A; Jacobsen, Steven J; Roger, Veronique

    2007-04-04

    CHD is a chronic disease often present years prior to incident AMI. Earlier recognition of CHD may be associated with higher levels of recognition and treatment of CHD risk factors that may delay incident AMI. To assess timing of CHD and CHD risk factor diagnoses prior to incident AMI. This is a 10-year population based medical record review study that included all medical care providers in Olmsted County, Minnesota for all women and a sample of men residing in Olmsted County, MN with confirmed incident AMI between 1995 and 2000. All medical care for the 10 years prior to incident AMI was reviewed for 150 women and 148 men (38% sample) in Olmsted County, MN. On average, women were older than men at the time of incident AMI (74.7 versus 65.9 years, p < 0.0001). 30.4% of the men and 52.0% of the women received diagnoses of CHD prior to incident AMI (p = 0.0002). Unrecognized and untreated CHD risk factors were present in both men (45% of men 5 years prior to AMI) and women (22% of women 5 years prior to first AMI), more common in men and those without a diagnosis of CHD prior to incident AMI (p < 0.0001). A CHD diagnosis prior to incident AMI is associated with higher rates of recognition and treatment of CHD risk factors suggesting that diagnosing CHD prior to AMI enhances opportunities to lower the risk of future CHD events.

  8. Gender Differences in Patterns of Experienced Sexual Coercion and Associated Vulnerability Factors among Young People in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; de Wit, John; Smolenski, Derek; Adam, Philippe; Woertman, Liesbeth; van Berlo, Willy

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective policies and programs to prevent sexual coercion among young people requires thorough understanding of the diversity of coercive sexual experiences, patterns in such types of experiences, and similarities and differences between subgroups, especially by gender, in patterns of coercive sexual experiences and…

  9. Gender Differences in Solving Mathematics Problems among Two-Year College Students in a Developmental Algebra Class and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Ann K.

    A study was conducted at the University of Maine at Orono (UMO) to examine gender differences with respect to mathematical problem-solving ability, visual spatial ability, abstract reasoning ability, field independence/dependence, independent learning style, and developmental problem-solving ability (i.e., formal reasoning ability). Subjects…

  10. The Effect of Parents' Attitudes toward Divorce on Offspring's Attitudes: Gender and Parental Divorce as Mediating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinus, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses three questions: (a) What influence do parents' attitudes toward divorce have on offspring's attitudes? (b) How are offspring's attitudes toward divorce influenced by parental divorce, and do the effects vary depending on the gender of the child? and (c) How do conditions surrounding parental divorce influence young adults'…

  11. 性别角色变迁及其影响因素的研究%Studies on Change of Gender Roles and Necessary Determining Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳晓磊

    2013-01-01

      对性别角色的演变过程进行了总结和回顾,并通过对影响性别角色形成的因素进行总结。强调个体应根据情景,有弹性的表现男性特质和女性特质,打破性别角色刻板印象的束缚,从而使得个体能够最大自由的发挥所长。%This essay reviews the evolution of gender roles and summarizes determining factors for the formation of those roles .What is stressed is that to suit different situations ,individuals should be flexible and show feminine and masculine features accordingly .only w hen stereotypes of gender roles are broken can individuals bring their ow n advantages to full play .

  12. The missing women in STEM? Assessing gender differentials in the factors associated with transition to first jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassler, Sharon; Glass, Jennifer; Levitte, Yael; Michelmore, Katherine M

    2017-03-01

    Women remain underrepresented in the STEM workforce. We assess explanations for women's underrepresentation in STEM jobs, focusing on a cohort that came of age in the 1980s and 1990s, when women dramatically increased their representation in the scientific labor force. Data are from the NLSY79, and our analysis focuses on members of this cohort who received a college degree, with an emphasis on those who completed a degree in a STEM field. Our analyses test the extent to which college major, expectations to work in STEM, and family expectations shaped transitions into STEM occupations within two years of degree completion. Among those majoring in STEM fields there were no gender differences in transitioning into STEM jobs, though there were sizable differences in transitions to STEM employment by field of study. Of note are gender differences in associations between family expectations and transitions into STEM employment. The most career oriented women, who expected to marry late and limit fertility, were no more likely to enter STEM jobs than were women who anticipated marrying young and having two or more children. The men most likely to enter STEM occupations, in contrast, adhered to significantly more conventional gender ideologies than their female counterparts, expecting to marry at younger ages but also to remain childless. Results of our regression decomposition indicated that marriage and family expectations and gender ideology worked in opposite directions for men and women. Nonetheless, the majority of the gender disparity in transitions into STEM jobs was related to women's underrepresentation in engineering and computer science fields of study.

  13. Hydrogeological challenges through gender approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Maria Rosaria; Saltari, Davide; Di Giacomo, Tullia Valeria

    2017-04-01

    Women and Men play a different role in the society, tied from the differences (physical, biological, somatic, etc…) typical of each one. In the last decades, more gender approach has been introduced in a number of fields including the hydrogeological risk. Experiences, needs and potential of each one, women and men, covers both the risk reduction before the occurrence of extreme events (vulnerability assessment and prediction of the expected risk), then in the next emergency and intervention in follow-up actions to the overcoming of the event for the return to everyday life. The response of the extreme hydrological events are also subordinated from gender participation and it is closely related from other aspects, as natural disasters (flood events), gender inequalities and urban floodings. These aspects are also scheduled by the different approaches: a woman focuses different primary and social aspects than a man. How women can help organizations offering new 'policies' and government is the main aspect to be considered and how a gender approach can mitigate disasters to hydrological risk. It depends on some factors: gender inequalities (gender perception and sensibility), importance of natural disasters and urban floodings. Gender inequalities can match both in the natural disasters and urban floodings in a relevant way. ICT solutions can also give a helpful framework to accelerate and focus the quicker condition to get the better approach and solution. Gender has a particular significant, explanatory variable in disaster research. Many studies, show how women have higher mortality and morbidity rates than men during natural disasters, especially in lower income countries. In the aftermath disasters, at the same time, specific responsibilities on women are imposed from the gendered division of labour. Furthermore gender differences are sometimes attributed to traditional women's roles, discrimination, lower physical strength, nutritional deficiencies, etc. as

  14. Gender Differences in Risk Factor of Hypertension%高血压发病危险因素的性别差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施惠华

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨原发性高血压发病危险因素的性别差异,为临床区别地防治高血压提供科学依据.方法 结合调查问卷方式和血清学检查方法,以2011年3月~2012年9月上海浦东新区机场社区卫生服务中心住院治疗的原发性高血压患者为研究对象,从中选取1 429个病例.调查内容包括患者基本情况、家族史、吸烟、饮酒、钠盐摄入量等生活习性;血清学检查包括血脂4项和肝肾功能部分指标.记录数据,进行统计分析.结果 ①原发性高血压患者不同性别之间、遗传性因素和生活习性因素在疾病的发生中差异具有统计学显著性意义(P<0.05).在生活习性的体重指数、饮酒史、吸烟史、钠盐摄入量四个方面男性组较女性组高,差异有统计学意义(T/χ2=4.47~7.81,P值均<0.05).而在性格类型上,女性患者A型性格(0.714)比例比男性高(0.6543),(T/χ2=5.31,P=0.002).②血清学指标在不同性别间的差异:女性组血脂4项(TC,LDL-C,HDL-C,TG)高于男性组,(T/χ2=3.39~5.51,P值均<0.05),而男性组肝肾功能指标(ALT,Cr,UA,Cys-C)高于女性组(T/χ2=3.45~5.31,P值均<0.05).结论 遗传因素和生活习性对发病的影响在男、女患者之间存在差异性.发病危险因素在性别之间的差异有助于针对性地开展高血压预防,也有助于提高治疗效果.%Objective The gender differences in the risk factors of essential hypertension,and provide scientific basis for prevention and treatment of hypertension clinical distinction. Methods Based on the survey questionnaire and serological methods, in 2011 March to 2012 September in Shanghai Pudong New Area airport, community health service center hospital treatment of primary hypertension patients as the research object,selects 1 429 cases from. The survey includes the basic situation of patients,family history,smoking,drinking, salt intake and living habits; serologic tests including 4 blood lipids and liver and

  15. Real-world Experience with Sofosbuvir-based Regimens for Chronic Hepatitis C, Including Patients with Factors Previously Associated with Inferior Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christina J; Roytman, Marina M; Hong, Leena K; Huddleston, Leslie; Trujillo, Ruby; Cheung, Alvin; Poerzgen, Peter; Tsai, Naoky C S

    2015-09-01

    The introduction of sofosbuvir, a direct acting antiviral, has revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Phase 3 clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy, simplicity, and tolerability of sofosbuvir-based regimens and report high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) rates. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical trial findings translate into a real-world setting, particularly with treatment of chronic HCV in our diverse, multiethnic population of Hawai'i. Retrospective analysis was performed for 113 patients with genotype 1-6 HCV infection being treated at the Queen's Liver Center between January 2014 and March 2015. SVR rates for our cohort were slightly lower than the rates published by the clinical trials. Data analysis also suggested that most baseline characteristics previously associated with inferior response might not be as significant for sofosbuvir-based regimens; in our cohort, male gender was the only factor significantly related to increased risk of virologic relapse. Pacific Islanders also had higher rate of relapse compared to other ethnic groups, but the small number of patients treated in this subgroup make it difficult to validate this finding. While newer all-oral treatment regimens have been introduced since this study, we highlight the importance of comparing real-world versus clinical trial results for new treatments, and provide data analyses for treatment of chronic HCV in Hawai'i.

  16. Gender-Specific Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Kim, Bo Hyun; Je, Hyung Gon; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the gender-specific associations between psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. We examined 4,689 Korean adults aged 20-79 years who participated in the 2013 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. With regard to SES, occupation status (none, manual, and nonmanual), marital status (single, married, divorced, and widowed), and psychological factors (detection of stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts) were determined via questionnaires. Compared with married men, single and divorced men exhibited ORs (95% confidence interval [CIs]) for MetS of 0.45 (0.31-0.65) and 1.61 (1.02-2.55), respectively, after adjusting for covariates. However, this association was not significant in women. Compared with those in the lowest household income group and least educated group in women, the ORs for MetS in the highest income group and the most educated group were 0.63 (CI 0.46-0.86) and 0.46 (CI 0.32-0.67), respectively. Suicidal thoughts in men (OR 1.64, CI 1.03-2.61) and perceived stress in women (OR 1.26, CI 1.01-1.59) were associated with MetS. In this study, MetS has gender-specific associations with lower SES and psychological factors. Thus, gender-specific public health interventions based on SES and psychological factors are needed to prevent and treat MetS and reduce additional cardiovascular disease risk.

  17. Gender-Specific Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Im Cho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess the gender-specific associations between psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES and metabolic syndrome (MetS in Korean adults. We examined 4,689 Korean adults aged 20–79 years who participated in the 2013 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. With regard to SES, occupation status (none, manual, and nonmanual, marital status (single, married, divorced, and widowed, and psychological factors (detection of stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts were determined via questionnaires. Compared with married men, single and divorced men exhibited ORs (95% confidence interval [CIs] for MetS of 0.45 (0.31–0.65 and 1.61 (1.02–2.55, respectively, after adjusting for covariates. However, this association was not significant in women. Compared with those in the lowest household income group and least educated group in women, the ORs for MetS in the highest income group and the most educated group were 0.63 (CI 0.46–0.86 and 0.46 (CI 0.32–0.67, respectively. Suicidal thoughts in men (OR 1.64, CI 1.03–2.61 and perceived stress in women (OR 1.26, CI 1.01–1.59 were associated with MetS. In this study, MetS has gender-specific associations with lower SES and psychological factors. Thus, gender-specific public health interventions based on SES and psychological factors are needed to prevent and treat MetS and reduce additional cardiovascular disease risk.

  18. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  19. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  20. The gender specific frequency of risk factor and CHD diagnoses prior to incident MI: A community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Steven J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CHD is a chronic disease often present years prior to incident AMI. Earlier recognition of CHD may be associated with higher levels of recognition and treatment of CHD risk factors that may delay incident AMI. To assess timing of CHD and CHD risk factor diagnoses prior to incident AMI. Methods This is a 10-year population based medical record review study that included all medical care providers in Olmsted County, Minnesota for all women and a sample of men residing in Olmsted County, MN with confirmed incident AMI between 1995 and 2000. Results All medical care for the 10 years prior to incident AMI was reviewed for 150 women and 148 men (38% sample in Olmsted County, MN. On average, women were older than men at the time of incident AMI (74.7 versus 65.9 years, p Conclusion A CHD diagnosis prior to incident AMI is associated with higher rates of recognition and treatment of CHD risk factors suggesting that diagnosing CHD prior to AMI enhances opportunities to lower the risk of future CHD events.

  1. Increased Cross-Gender Identification Independent of Gender Role Behavior in Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Results from a Standardized Assessment of 4- to 11-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie; Zucker, Kenneth J; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    While reports showing a link between prenatal androgen exposure and human gender role behavior are consistent and the effects are robust, associations to gender identity or cross-gender identification are less clear. The aim of the current study was to investigate potential cross-gender identification in girls exposed prenatally to high concentrations of androgens due to classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Assessment included two standardized measures and a short parent interview assessing frequency of behavioral features of cross-gender identification as conceptualized in Part A of the diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) in the DSM-IV-TR. Next, because existing measures may have conflated gender role behavior with gender identity and because the distinction is potentially informative, we factor analyzed items from the measures which included both gender identity and gender role items to establish the independence of the two constructs. Participants were 43 girls and 38 boys with CAH and 41 unaffected female and 31 unaffected male relatives, aged 4- to 11-years. Girls with CAH had more cross-gender responses than female controls on all three measures of cross-gender identification as well as on a composite measure of gender identity independent of gender role behavior. Furthermore, parent report indicated that 5/39 (12.8 %) of the girls with CAH exhibited cross-gender behavior in all five behavioral domains which comprise the cross-gender identification component of GID compared to 0/105 (0.0 %) of the children in the other three groups combined. These data suggest that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally are more likely to show cross-gender identification than girls without CAH or boys with and without CAH. Our findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure could play a role in gender identity development in healthy children, and may be relevant to gender assignment in cases of prenatal hormone disruption

  2. Gender, age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with major dietary patterns in the Spanish Project SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villegas, A; Delgado-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-González, M A; De Irala-Estévez, J

    2003-02-01

    To ascertain the major dietary patterns in the cohort 'SUN' and to assess the association of several sociodemographic (including age and gender) and lifestyle variables with the adherence to these dietary patterns. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 3847 subjects (1587 men and 2260 women) belonging to a prospective cohort study based on self-reported questionnaires. A factor analysis based on 30 predefined food groups was conducted to ascertain the major dietary patterns in the cohort. Multiple regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between several sociodemographic and lifestyle variables and the adherence to these dietary patterns (measured using two scores with observed values ranging from -3.2 to +4.6 for the Western pattern and -3.1 to +5.5 for the Mediterranean pattern). Two major dietary patterns were found. The first pattern was labelled as a 'Western' dietary pattern and the other as a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' dietary pattern. Younger subjects were more likely to follow a 'Western' dietary pattern; the coefficient representing the change for every 10 y increase in age was b=-0.24 (P<0.001) for men and b=-0.12 (P<0.001) for women. More physically active subjects were less likely to follow a 'Western' dietary pattern and more likely to follow a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' dietary pattern. An association between a higher level of physical activity during leisure time and adherence to a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' diet was apparent. However, the profile of being a young, sedentary and single male was identified as the most likely to exhibit a departure from the traditional 'Spanish-Mediterranean' diet and follow a 'Western' dietary pattern.

  3. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W M; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L M

    2009-03-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly, medicine is said to be 'male biased' because the largest body of knowledge on health and illness is about men and their health. Thirdly, gender role ideology negatively influences treatment and health outcomes. Finally, gender inequality has been overlooked as a determinant of health and illness. The uptake of gender issues in medical education brings about specific challenges for several reasons. For instance, the political-ideological connotations of gender issues create resistance especially in traditionalists in medical schools. Secondly, it is necessary to clarify which gender issues must be integrated in which domains. Also, some are interdisciplinary issues and as such more difficult to integrate. Finally, schools need assistance with implementation. The integration of psychosocial issues along with biomedical ones in clinical cases, the dissemination of literature and education material, staff education, and efforts towards structural embedding of gender in curricula are determining factors for successful implementation. Gender equity is not a spontaneous process. Medical education provides specific opportunities that may contribute to transformation for medical schools educate future doctors for future patients in future settings. Consequently, future benefits legitimize the integration of gender as a qualitative investment in medical education.

  4. Gender-Specific Analyses of the Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Bosniak Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Zenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity and religion are known to be important factors associated with substance use and misuse (SUM. Ethnic Bosniaks, Muslims by religion, are the third largest ethnic group in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, but no study has examined SUM patterns among them. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of SUM and to examine scholastic-, familial- and sport-factors associated with SUM in adolescent Bosniaks from Bosnia-and-Herzegovina. The sample comprised 970 17-to-18-year-old adolescents (48% boys. Testing was performed using an previously validated questionnaire investigating socio-demographic-factors, scholastic-variables, and sport-factors, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, simultaneous smoking and drinking (multiple SUM, and the consumption of other drugs. The 30% of boys and 32% of girls smoke (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.86–1.49, 41% of boys and 27% of girls are defined as harmful alcohol drinkers (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.48–2.54, multiple SUM is prevalent in 17% of boys and 15% of girls (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.79–1.56, while the consumption of other drugs, including sedatives, is higher in girls (6% and 15% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.89–4.70. Scholastic achievement is negatively associated with SUM. SUM is more prevalent in those girls who report higher income, and boys who report a worse familial financial situation. The study revealed more negative than positive associations between sport participation and SUM, especially among girls. Results can help public health authorities to develop more effective prevention campaign against SUM in adolescence.

  5. Gender aspects of the relationship between migraine and cardiovascular risk factors: A cross-sectional evaluation in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and migraine is controversial and might be different in both genders. These associations were evaluated in Brazilian middle-aged men and women from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The cross-sectional relationship between our main outcome, which was migraine headache (definite, probable and overall), and CVRF was evaluated in the total sample and according to gender. We calculated frequencies and odds ratios (95% CI) for this relationship using binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses in crude, age-adjusted and multivariable models adjusted by potential confounders. Of 14,953 individuals who completed the data about headache and CVRF, the frequency of one-year migraine was of 29.5% (22.5% in women and 7.0% in men). In the multivariable-adjusted regression analyses, an inverse association between hypertension (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36-0.79), metabolic syndrome (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.99) and definite migraine were confirmed for men, but not for women. In the opposite direction, a positive association between migraine headaches (definite, probable and overall) and dyslipidemia (overall migraine OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13-1.38) was observed only for women, but not for men. A gender influence on the relationship between migraine and CVRF was verified in the ELSA-Brasil. © International Headache Society 2015.

  6. Impact on total population health and societal cost-effectiveness of including tumour necrosis factor- antagonists in management of ankylosing spondylitis: a dynamic population modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tran-Duy (An); A. Boonen (Annelies); M.A.F.J. van de Laar (Martin); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background: Sequential treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that includes tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF agents) has been applied in most of the Western countries. Existing cost-effectiveness (CE) models almost exclusively presented the incremental

  7. Modelling Gender Pay Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroductionThere has been little change in the full-time gender pay gap since the mid 1990s andin the female part-time/male full-time pay gap since the mid 1970s. The gender gapin hourly earnings for those employed full-time in Britain in 2003 was 18 per cent,while that between women working part-time and men working full-time was 40 percent.This research uses statistical methods to identify how much of the gender pay gap isassociated with different factors. The data set ana...

  8. Association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders in women: a population-based study of 5703 married rural women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidhaye, Rahul; Patel, Vikram

    2010-12-01

    There are few population-based studies from low- and middle-income countries that have described the association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders (CMDs) in rural women. Population-based study of currently married rural women in the age group of 15-39 years. The baseline data are from the National Family Health Survey-II conducted in 1998. A follow-up study was conducted 4 years later in 2002-03. The outcome of CMD was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Due to the hierarchical nature and complex survey design, data were analysed using mixed-effect logistic regression with random intercept model. A total of 5703 women (representing 83.5% of eligible women) completed follow-up. The outcome of CMD was observed in 609 women (10.7%, 95% confidence interval 9.8-11.6). The following factors were independently associated with the outcome of CMD in the final multivariable model: higher age, low education, low standard of living, recent intimate partner violence (IPV), husband's unsatisfactory reaction to dowry, husband's alcohol use and women's own tobacco use. Socio-economic and gender disadvantage factors are independently associated with CMDs in this population of women. Strategies that address structural determinants, for example to promote women's education and reduce their exposure to IPV, may reduce the burden of CMDs in women.

  9. Factors Affecting Gender Differences in the Association between Health-Related Quality of Life and Metabolic Syndrome Components: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Amiri

    Full Text Available Using structural equation modeling, this study is one of the first efforts aimed at assessing influential factors causing gender differences in the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL and metabolic syndrome.A sample of 950 adults, from Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study were recruited for this cross sectional study in 2005-2007. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Iranian version of SF-36. Metabolic syndrome components (MetSCs and physical and mental HRQoL were considered as continuous latent constructs explaining the variances of their observed components. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the association between the constructs of MetSCs and the physical and mental HRQoL within the two gender groups.Based on the primary hypothesis, MetSCs and HRQoL were fitted in a model. The negative effect of MetSCs on HRQoL was found to be significant only in the physical domain and only in women. The proportion of all the cardio-metabolic risk factors as well as subscales of physical HRQoL that have been explained via the two constructs of MetSCs and HRQoL, respectively, were significantly higher in women. Physical activity in both men (β = 3.19, p<0.05 and women (β = 3.94, p<0.05, age (β = -3.28, p<0.05, education (β = 2.63, p<0.05 only in women and smoking (β = 2.28, p<0.05 just in men, directly affected physical HRQoL. Regarding the mental domain, physical activity (β = 3.37, p<0.05 and marital status (β = 3.44, p<0.05 in women and age (β = 2.01, p<0.05 in men were direct effective factors. Age and education in women as well as smoking in men indirectly affected physical HRQoL via MetSCs.Gender differences in the association between MetSCs and physical HRQoL could mostly be attributed to the different structures of both MetSCs and physical HRQoL constructs in men and women. Age and smoking are the most important socio-behavioral factors which could affect this gender-specific association in

  10. Gendered Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position o...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  11. Gender-related differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates in urban Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finkelstein Julia L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban areas in Africa suffer a serious problem with dual burden of infectious diseases and emerging chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes which pose a serious threat to population health and health care resources. However in East Africa, there is limited literature in this research area. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates among adults in Temeke, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results of this study will help inform future research and potential preventive and therapeutic interventions against such chronic diseases. Methods The study design was a cross sectional epidemiological study. A total of 209 participants aged between 44 and 66 years were included in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to measure lipid profile and fasting glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk factors were defined using World Health Organization criteria. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 was 13% and 35%, among men and women (p = 0.0003, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 11% and 58% (p 0.9, women: >0.85 was 51% and 73% (p = 0.002 for men and women respectively. Women had 4.3 times greater odds of obesity (95% CI: 1.9–10.1, 14.2–fold increased odds for abdominal adiposity (95% CI: 5.8–34.6, and 2.8 times greater odds of high waist-hip-ratio (95% CI: 1.4–5.7, compared to men. Women had more than three-fold greater odds of having metabolic syndrome (p = 0.001 compared to male counterparts, including abdominal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol, and high fasting blood glucose components. In contrast, female participants had 50% lower odds of having hypertension, compared to men (95%CI: 0.3–1.0. Among men, BMI and waist circumference were significantly correlated with blood pressure, triglycerides

  12. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  13. Gender of rearing and psychosocial aspect in 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arushi Gangaher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH with ambiguous genitalia, assigning gender of rearing can be complex, especially If genitalia is highly virilized. Apart from karyotype, prenatal androgen exposure, patient's gender orientation, sociocultural, and parental influences play a role. The aim of this study was to assess gender dysphoria and psychosocial issues in patients of CAH raised as males and females. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that includes patients (old and new with CAH who were treated by us in the last 6 months. A semi-structured interview proforma was used to elicit history and psychosocial background of the patients. The clinical and biochemical details were noted. For psychological analysis, patients were screened for gender dysphoria using Parent Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for children <12 years and Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. Results: We analyzed 22 46 XX CAH patients among which, 3 were reared as males and 19 as females. Among the 19 patients reared as females, 17 patients showed no gender dysphoria. Two patients revealed gender dysphoria as indicated by their marginally low scores on the gender dysphoria assessment. However, in view of current literature and the age groups of the patients, behavior of the 6-year-old patient can be best understood as being tomboyish. Gender dysphoria in the 22-year-old can be explained by the dominance of psychosocial factors and not hormones alone. Among the three patients reared as males, two prepubertal were satisfied with their male gender identity. The third patient, aged 32 years, had gender dysphoria when reared as a male that resolved when gender was reassigned as female and feminizing surgery was done. Conclusion: Gender assignment in 46 XX CAH is guided by factors such as degree of virilization of genitalia, gender orientation, patient involvement, sociocultural, and parental influences.

  14. Gas-phase and Ar-matrix SQM scaling factors for various DFT functionals with basis sets including polarization and diffuse functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábri, Csaba; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2011-05-12

    Scaling factors for Pulay's scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) scheme have been determined for four different widely used DFT functionals (PBE, B3LYP, B3PW91, and M06-2X) and for two basis sets (6-31++G** and aug-cc-pVTZ) by fitting computed results to 347 fundamental experimental vibrational frequencies of 33 molecules. Measurements in the gas phase and in solid argon matrices were used independently in the fitting procedure in order to provide a simple method of estimating matrix shifts. The accuracy of the new scaling factors is demonstrated on test molecules including hydrogen-bonded systems and molecules containing chlorine and sulfur atoms.

  15. Chronic Lead Exposure and Mixed Factors of Gender×Age×Brain Regions Interactions on Dendrite Growth, Spine Maturity and NDR Kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Du

    Full Text Available NDR1/2 kinase is essential in dendrite morphology and spine formation, which is regulated by cellular Ca2+. Lead (Pb is a potent blocker of L-type calcium channel and our recent work showed Pb exposure impairs dendritic spine outgrowth in hippocampal neurons in rats. But the sensitivity of Pb-induced spine maturity with mixed factors (gender×age×brain regions remains unknown. This study aimed to systematically investigate the effect of Pb exposure on spine maturity in rat brain with three factors (gender×age×brain regions, as well as the NDR1/2 kinase expression. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Pb from parturition to postnatal day 30, 60, 90, respectively. Golgi-Cox staining was used to examine spine maturity. Western blot assay was applied to measure protein expression and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR assay was used to examine mRNA levels. The results showed chronic Pb exposure significantly decreased dendritic length and impaired spine maturity in both rat hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The impairment of dendritic length induced by Pb exposure tended to adolescence > adulthood, hippocampus > medial prefrontal cortex and female > male. Pb exposure induced significant damage in spine maturity during adolescence and early adult while little damage during adult in male rat brain and female medial prefrontal cortex. Besides, there was sustained impairment from adolescence to adulthood in female hippocampus. Interestingly, impairment of spine maturity followed by Pb exposure was correlated with NDR1/2 kinase. The reduction of NDR1/2 kinase protein expression after Pb exposure was similar to the result of spine maturity. In addition, NDR2 and their substrate Rabin3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased by Pb exposure in developmental rat brain. Taken together, Pb exposure impaired dendrite growth and maturity which was subject to gender×age×brain regions effects and related to NDR1/2 signal expression.

  16. Age and gender, two key factors in the associations between physical activity and strength during the ageing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Carnicero, Jose A; Alonso-Bouzón, Cristina; Tresguerres, Jesús Ángel; Alfaro-Acha, Ana; Ara, Ignacio; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; García-García, Francisco-José

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify if the associations of physical activity (PA) and muscle strength may vary throughout the ageing process; to study the differences among genders in the relationships between PA and strength in elderly people and to test whether these differences are explained by the hormonal, nutritional and inflammatory status. A total of 1741 people ≥65 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. Upper- and lower-limbs maximal voluntary isometric strength was obtained using standardized techniques and equipment. PA was recorded by a validated questionnaire. The associations of PA with strength were assessed using generalized linear regression models with a Gamma-distributed dependent variable. A significant gender by PA interaction was found for all strength-related variables (all P<0.01). Moreover, when sexual hormones, albumin or C-Reactive protein were taken into account in the model, the results did not significantly change. In women, PA was positively associated with upper and lower-body strength; however in men, PA was only associated with grip and knee strength (both P<0.01). Higher strength values were associated with higher levels of PA, especially in women. However, this tendency had a different pattern across the age range, showing a stronger association in the 'young' elderly compared with the 'old' elderly. Higher levels of PA are related to greater muscle strength, especially in women and those who were younger. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender and Racial Differences in the Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Overweight and Obese Rural Adults, Kuching and Samarahan Division, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whye Lian Cheah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to determine whether gender and ethnic differences had an effect on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese rural adults in Sarawak. Design and Setting. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in rural communities in Kuching and Samarahan division, Malaysia. Data was obtained using a set of questionnaire (sociodemographic data and physical activity, measurement of blood pressure, height, weight (body mass index, BMI, body fat percentage, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile from three ethnic groups—Iban, Malay, and Bidayuh. Analysis of data was done using SPSS version 23.0. Results. A total of 155 respondents participated in the study (81.6% response rate. The levels of physical activity, BMI status, body fat, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia were similar across the three ethnic groups and both females and males. Iban and Bidayuh had significant higher Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP when compared to the Malay (Bidayuh OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.12, 0.78; Iban OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.12, 0.69. Conclusions. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors varied according to ethnic groups and gender. A better understanding of these differences would help in the design and implementation of intervention programme for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  19. Manifestations and Causes of Gender Differences in Language Differences in Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴维

    2015-01-01

    Language is the direct reflection of social reality and the real reflection of social traditions,customs and cultural awareness.It is the inevitable requirement of social development to conduct the research on the relationship between gender and language.The manifestations of language and gender mainly involve in pronunciation,intonation,vocabulary and semantic.The causes of gender differences in language include society,psychological factor,physiological aspects and culture etc.

  20. Gender Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  1. Gender Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Fan-min

    2016-01-01

    Gender discourse was paid much attention in recent years. The primary objective of this fundamental research is to perceive the distinction between direct and indirect in gender discourse. The method used in this study is known as contrastive and analysis which illustrates men and women's differences.

  2. On Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores differences between males and females and their manifestation in biology and culture. Cultures differ, not in whether they cope with the socialization of males to invest in child rearing, but in how they deal with this problem. Issues of gender and power and gender and child rearing are discussed. (SLD)

  3. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...

  4. GENDER IN LOW- AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bradley, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    How do girls and boys in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in the majority world vary with respect to central indicators of child growth and mortality, parental caregiving, discipline and violence, and child labor? How do key indicators of national gender equity and economic development relate to gender similarities and differences in each of these substantive areas of child development? This monograph of the SRCD is concerned with central topics of child gender, gendered parenting, gendered environments, and gendered behaviors and socializing practices in the underresearched and underserved world of LMIC. To examine protective and risk factors related to child gender in LMIC around the world, we used data from more than 2 million individuals in 400,000 families in 41 LMIC collected in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, a household survey that includes nationally representative samples of participating countries. In the first chapter of this monograph, we describe the conceptual "gender similarities" and "bioecological" frameworks that helped guide the monograph. In the second chapter, we detail the general methodology adhered to in the substantive chapters. Then, in topical chapters, we describe the situations of girls and boys with successive foci on child growth and mortality, parental caregiving, family discipline and violence, and child labor. We conclude with a general discussion of findings from the substantive chapters in the context of gender and bioecological theories. Across 41 LMIC and four substantive areas of child development, few major gender differences emerged. Our data support a gender similarities view and suggest that general emphases on early child gender differences may be overstated at least for the developing world of LMIC.

  5. Gender Differences in Baseline Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Plasma of Alaskan Sled Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. Kemp

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis and vasculogenesis are two very important processes in the development and maintenance of mammalian health. In sled dogs, the angiogenic role is to supply and support tissue with ample vasculature, thus providing a route of access for the transportation of essential nutrients, including oxygen and the removal of waste in a sustained fashion. VEGF has been shown to be a key mediating factor in the underlying cascade of chemical events leading to angiogenesis, which makes it a very important precursor molecule for both muscle development and early neoplasia detection. The overall purpose of this study was to establish circulatory baseline VEGF levels in healthy dogs to develop an alternative mammalian model. Mean VEGF levels were 19 pg mL‾1 in sled dogs (n=20 and 5 pg mL‾1 in beagles (n=4. There were significant baseline VEGF-ir differences between male and female dogs and exercising males and exercising females. In addition preliminary data on beagles suggest that breed may play a role in baseline VEGF-ir levels. This study is the first step in the biotechnological development of a diagnostic VEGF assay in dogs.

  6. Gender and pensions: an analysis of factors affecting women's private pension scheme membership in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Liam; Smetherham, Jon

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the future sustainability of pension provision and, in particular, the precarious position of many female pensioners. The reasons for women's lower participation rates in private pensions than men's require greater investigation. Using the General Lifestyle Survey (GLF) 2008, this article examines the impact of various characteristics on the likelihood of contributing to a private pension, such as educational attainments, income, occupational group, full-time/part-time status, and whether an individual has any dependent children. It shows that these characteristics play an important role in access to private pensions. Finally, it suggests that strategies to alleviate disadvantages must take into account the complex circumstances that individuals experience throughout the life course, which result in gendered pension provision.

  7. Gender and Degree Programs: The Interest for an Academic Field, a Factor that Influences the Choice of a Bachelors Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gamboa García

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of a study on the expectations of benefit of higher education applicants, this article approaches the choice of a degree program according to the academic interest from the perspective of the rational analysis. Applicants who took the admissions test in two institutions were surveyed in order to carry out later statistical analysis with the purpose of finding a multivariate model. The obtained results showed that gender, work, and age were related to the applicants’ interest on certain academic degree program. The interest for a degree program tends to be unimportant in employed women’s choices, aged 20 years or older. Among applicants whose father considered higher education very important, the probability to consider one’s interest on the choice of a bachelor’s degree was higher for male applicants. The above information confirms the variation in rational calculations regarding social characteristics.

  8. [Structural analysis for psychosocial factors including health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) associated with lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Ogino, K; Ooshita, Y; Tsukahara, S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify psychosocial characteristics associated with preventive health behavior for lifestyle-related diseases. The author performed objective health examinations and gave questionnaires to 289 men (39.7 +/- 11.8 years, mean +/- SD) and 80 women (32.8 +/- 10.4 years) engaged in office work. Psychosocial factors included lifestyle and perceived stress, as well as the health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) as newly developed indicators for health behavior. The principal component analysis for men did not extract lifestyle from the psychosocial structures. Multiple regression analysis showed that internal HLC (IHLC), chance HLC (CHLC), professional HLC (PHLC) and stress significantly contributed to SOC. Principal component analysis using psychosocial factors in women showed two psychosocial structures, i.e. the second principal (high SOC, high lifestyle, and low stress) and the 4th principal components (high supernatural HLC, and high PHLC). Both components were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. SOC was recognized to be negatively associated with age, stress, and total cholesterol, and positively with IHLC, FHLC, lifestyle, and gamma-GTP using multiple regression analysis for women. These results indicated a distinguishable sex difference regarding the involvement of psychosocial factors including HLC and SOC in objective health. SOC seems likely to be involved not in objective health, but closely with stress, suggesting a direct influence on mental health. Lifestyle should be divided into more detailed categories such as smoking and salt intake. Structural analysis of women suggests that SOC is involved directly or indirectly through lifestyle in objective health, different from men. To further clarify causal relationships between psychosocial factors and risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases, a longitudinal study is necessary based on these results.

  9. Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship: Final Report to the MCM 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender equality is not just about economic empowerment. It is a moral imperative, it is about fairness and equity, and includes many political, social and cultural dimensions. Gender equality, however, is also a key factor in self-reported well-being and happiness across the world. In the aftermath of the Great Recession, there is now an urgent…

  10. Gender differences in the variables of exercise treadmill test in type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exercise capacity, like some other variables of exercise stress test, is a ... Many confounding factors, including gender, have been found to affect exercise capacity. ... Males had faster heart rate recovery (HRR) than females.

  11. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Men's Attitudes Toward Cosmetic Surgery: Body Image, Media Exposure, Social Network Use, Masculine Gender Role Stress and Religious Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ozan Luay; Karadavut, Ufuk

    2017-04-27

    Cosmetic surgery is no longer just for females. More men are opting for cosmetic procedures, with marked increases seen in both minimally invasive and surgical options over the last decade. Compared to females, relatively little work has specifically focused on factors predicting males' attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Therefore, we evaluated a number of variables that may predict some facet of men's attitudes toward cosmetic surgery according to evidence reported in the literature METHODS: A total of 151 male patients who applied for a surgical or minimally invasive cosmetic surgery procedure (patient group) and 151 healthy male volunteers who do not desire any type of cosmetic procedure (control group) were asked to fill out questionnaires about measures of body image, media exposure (television and magazine), social network site use, masculine gender role stress and religious attitudes. Our findings showed that lower ratings of body image satisfaction, increased time spent watching television, more frequent social network site use and higher degrees of masculine gender role stress were all significant predictors of attitudes toward cosmetic surgery among males. The current study confirmed the importance of body image dissatisfaction as a predictor of the choice to undergo cosmetic procedure. More importantly, a new predictor of cosmetic procedure attitudes was identified, namely masculine gender role stress. Finally, we demonstrated the effects television exposure and social network site use in promoting acceptance of surgical and nonsurgical routes to appearance enhancement. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  12. Influence of gender, working field and psychosocial factors on the vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff: results of an Austrian cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadenhofer, Petra; Kundi, Michael; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Stummer, Harald; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2017-08-14

    According to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), hospitals represent a work environment with high job strain. Prolonged perceived occupational stress may result in symptoms of burnout, such as emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Understanding which factors may reduce vulnerability for burnout is an important requirement for well-targeted occupational stress prevention in mental hospital staff. To identify the influence of gender, age, working field, family structure, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job on occupational stress perception. In a cross-sectional design, 491 employees (311 female, 180 male) of an Austrian mental health centre participated in the study. The extent of perceived occupational stress was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with the scales for emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Participants were divided according to their working field in those working with/without patients. Prevalence of emotional exhaustion was higher in women working with patients compared to men working with patients (25% vs. 18%, p = 0.003). Age above 45 years was significantly associated with decreased vulnerability for burnout in men (EE p = 0.040, DP p = 0.010, PA p = 0.007), but not in women. A lower level of education had a significant impact on depersonalisation in both sexes (p = 0.001 for men, p = 0.048 for women). Length of stay on job showed a significant influence on emotional exhaustion. No significant relationship was found between family structure and vulnerability for burnout. Gender had a differential effect on perceived occupational stress indicating a need for gender-tailored preventive strategies. Age, working field, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job affect vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff.

  13. The health of women and girls: how can we address gender equality and gender equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the health of women and girls, and the role of addressing gender inequalities experienced by women and girls. The health of both males and females is influenced by sex, or biological factors, and gender, or socially constructed influences, including gender differences in the distribution and impact of social determinants of health, access to health promoting resources, health behaviors and gender discourse, and the ways in which health systems are organized and financed, and how they deliver care. Various strategies to address the health of women and girls have been developed at intergovernmental, regional, and national level, and by international nongovernmental organizations. These include vertical programs which aim to target specific health risks and deliver services to meet women and girl's needs, and more cross-cutting approaches which aim at "gender" policy making. Much of this work has developed following the adoption of gender mainstreaming principles across different policy arenas and scales of policy making, and this article reviews some of these strategies and the evidence for their success, before concluding with a consideration of future directions in global policy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  15. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... and in the surrounding society. Their gender constructions cannot be understood only in light of cultural influence, as if on a scale running from conformity to parents? culture to conformity to Norwegian culture. There is something really new in the making ­ new combinations and new creations ­ reflecting...

  16. Central gender theoretical concepts in health research: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Anne; Johansson, Klara; Annandale, Ellen; Ahlgren, Christina; Aléx, Lena; Christianson, Monica; Elwér, Sofia; Eriksson, Carola; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Gilenstam, Kajsa; Gustafsson, Per E; Harryson, Lisa; Lehti, Arja; Stenberg, Gunilla; Verdonk, Petra

    2014-02-01

    Despite increasing awareness of the importance of gender perspectives in health science, there is conceptual confusion regarding the meaning and the use of central gender theoretical concepts. We argue that it is essential to clarify how central concepts are used within gender theory and how to apply them to health research. We identify six gender theoretical concepts as central and interlinked-but problematic and ambiguous in health science: sex, gender, intersectionality, embodiment, gender equity and gender equality. Our recommendations are that: the concepts sex and gender can benefit from a gender relational theoretical approach (i.e., a focus on social processes and structures) but with additional attention to the interrelations between sex and gender; intersectionality should go beyond additive analyses to study complex intersections between the major factors which potentially influence health and ensure that gendered power relations and social context are included; we need to be aware of the various meanings given to embodiment, which achieve an integration of gender and health and attend to different levels of analyses to varying degrees; and appreciate that gender equality concerns absence of discrimination between women and men while gender equity focuses on women's and men's health needs, whether similar or different. We conclude that there is a constant need to justify and clarify our use of these concepts in order to advance gender theoretical development. Our analysis is an invitation for dialogue but also a call to make more effective use of the knowledge base which has already developed among gender theorists in health sciences in the manner proposed in this paper.

  17. Anhedonic depression, history of depression, and anxiety as gender-specific risk factors of myocardial infarction in healthy men and women: The HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Langvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study examines gender-specific psychological risk factors of myocardial infarction. Out of 41,248 participants free of coronary heart disease at baseline, 822 cases of myocardial infarction were identified in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study or the mortality register. The participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist–hip ratio were measured by medical staff. Smoking, diabetes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and history of depressive episode were self-reported. Anhedonic depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D ≥8 was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in women but not in men. Gender difference in risk estimate based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D was significant ( p  < .01. History of depressive episode was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in men. Symptoms of anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A ≥8 reduced the risk of having a myocardial infarction.

  18. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  19. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  20. Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in Algerian and Tunisian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Atek

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004 and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379. Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI = weight/height <18.5 kg/m(2, obesity as BMI ≥30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ≥0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9-8.7]. Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8-32.4] and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4-39.6]. It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1-11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2-15.4].The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4-5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1-4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9-3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0-5.5] in Algeria. Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must

  1. Are gender, marital status or parenthood risk factors for outcome of treatment for chronic disabling spinal disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatchel, Robert J; Mayer, Tom G; Kidner, Cindy L; McGeary, Donald D

    2005-06-01

    Recent clinical research has suggested that single working mothers may differ in their response to health treatment and outcomes, relative to their married female or male counterparts. The present study explored, on an a priori basis, the existence and extent of differences in chronic pain rehabilitation outcomes of pain report, return-to-work and future health utilization for single working mothers, relative to other patients. A cohort of 1,679 consecutive chronically disabled work related spinal disorder (CDWRSD) patients were placed into one of eight groups as a function of gender, marital status (single/married), and parenthood (with/without children). All patients completed an assessment battery measuring psychosocial variables at pre- and post-treatment, and a structured clinical interview evaluating socioeconomic outcomes at 1 year following completion of a 5-7 week functional restoration program. Results revealed that single females with children differed from all other groups in racial representation, with 57.1% of these individuals being African American, widely disparate from the prevailing local ethnicity. Single females and males with children were represented by a higher incidence of cervical injuries (25.0% and 26.7%, respectively) than all other groups (5.4-16.6%, p single females with children group did display greater levels of depression pre-treatment compared to the other groups. However, at post-treatment, these differences no longer existed. This investigation is one of the first to examine if the combination of gender and parenthood distinguishes significantly among CDWRSD patients. Overall, contrary to expectation, the single mothers did not show any significant differences in CDWRSD outcome at one-year post-rehab follow-up, and the single mothers and fathers showed no differences in depression or pain severity post-treatment. Thus, in spite of the societal belief to the contrary, it seems that single parent patients can show similar chronic

  2. Testing a Four-Factor Model of Psychopathy and Its Association With Ethnicity, Gender, Intelligence, and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacco, Michael J.; Neumann, Craig S.; Jackson, Rebecca L.

    2005-01-01

    Although a 2-factor model has advanced research on the psychopathy construct, a 3-factor model was recently developed that emphasized pathological personality and eliminated antisocial behavior. However, dropping antisocial behavior from the psychopathy construct may not be advantageous. Using a large sample of psychiatric patients from the…

  3. Changes in Attitude towards Gender Inequality in the

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vakil Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gender inequality stems from social factors in each society. In theories of gender inequality, it has been assumed that family role in reproduction of gender inequality is of crucial importance...

  4. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes its starting point in the problem faced by a specific Danish bank that women are grossly underrepresented in management positions, in spite of the great measure of initiatives taken over more than a century to ensure equal opportunities in Denmark. Danish women got the vote in 1915......, there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...

  5. Gender dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concept Gender dysphoria is not the same as homosexuality. Identity conflicts need to continue over time to ... to be the opposite sex. Treatment Individual and family therapy is recommended for children to create a ...

  6. [Gender-difference in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Ai; Ishigaki, Yasushi

    2015-04-01

    Gender-difference is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of glucose metabolism. Imbalances in sex hormones, such as increasing levels of progesterone or testosterone, are associated with systemic insulin resistance. After menopause, women are at an increased risk to develop visceral obesity due to the loss of endogenous ovarian hormone production. On the other hand, insulin resistance caused excess secretion of androgen, leading to menstrual disorder in obese young female. For the better management of glucose intolerance in pregnancy, the diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes was revised in Japan. Although glucose intolerance in pregnancy is usually recovered after delivery, the subjects who diagnosed gestational diabetes need to be followed for an early detection of type 2 diabetes development. In addition, gender-differences in living practice and attitude are related to their lifestyle, including diet and exercise, therefore, gender-specific medicine increasingly plays key roles in the treatment of diabetes.

  7. Selected scientific aspects of marathon racing. An update on fluid replacement, immune function, psychological factors and the gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, P B; Nieman, D C; O'Connor, P J

    1993-02-01

    Four topics are addressed: fluid/fuel replacement during the marathon, marathoning and susceptibility to infection, psychological aspects of elite marathoners and the gender gap in marathon performance. Although these topics are diverse, they all relate to practical questions raised by coaches and athletes. Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that it is advisable for marathoners to consume 800 to 1000 L/h of sports drink providing 45 to 60 g/h of carbohydrate. It is strongly suggested to practice fluid consumption during training sessions as it is probable that tolerance to drinking during running is a trainable adaptation. Epidemiological and clinical research support the concept that marathon training and racing increase the runner's risk of upper respiratory tract infections because of negative changes in immune function. Susceptibility to infection may be reduced by proper nutrition, adequate sleep, appropriate recovery between vigorous workouts and minimal exposure to sick people during periods of heavy training and major races. Although psychological research in this area is still limited, evidence suggests that elite marathoners rely primarily on associative strategies during competition while judiciously dissociating in order to cope with pain. It is recommended that coaches and athletes interested in employing psychological interventions seek assistance from professionals well trained in the fields of both psychology and exercise science. Will women soon outrun men? Over the past 2 decades societal views and training practices of women distance runners have changed greatly, yet certain performance-related biological differences between men and women are unlikely to change.

  8. Association between Cerebral Amyloid Deposition and Clinical Factors Including Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression: Pilot Study Using Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Geum; Kong, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Eun-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Koo, Bon-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebral amyloid deposition and overall clinical factors including cognitive functions in geriatric depression by using 18F-florbetaben positron emission tomography. Thirteen subjects aged over 60 years who had a history of major depressive disorder and also had subjective memory complaint were included. Of all subjects, 3 subjects judged as amyloid positive, and the others judged as amyloid negative. Their memory, visuospatial functions and attention abilities were negatively correlated with amyloid deposition in specific brain regions, but their language and recognition abilities were not correlated with any region. The amyloid deposition of the whole brain region was significantly negatively correlated with immediate memory. PMID:27776391

  9. Is there a need to include HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the Saudi premarital screening program on the basis of their prevalence and transmission risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, F M; O'Brien, S J

    2010-11-01

    In January 2008, the Saudi Arabian health authority included mandatory testing for HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the premarital screening program. Epidemiologically, there were few justifications for their inclusion as disease prevalences and distributions are poorly understood in the population. This study aims to provide information about HBV, HCV and HIV prevalences and risk factors for disease transmission and so produce evidence for informed decision-making on the inclusion of these infectious diseases in the screening program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74,662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540). The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses. The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.

  10. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  11. Implementation factors of soft EU legislation in the field of gender equality. An example of the balanced representation of women and men in decision-making processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Topolinjak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines various implementation factors of the European Union’s soft policy in the field of gender equality in Slovenia. We focus on implementation of the principle of the balanced representation of women and men in decision-making processes in the fields of politics, science and the economy, where the proportion of women in top positions remains low. Based on an analysis of EU and Slovenian legislation and interviews with relevant governmental and non-governmental actors at the EU and national levels, it was found that because of the adopted soft law in this area it is the national government, which can select public policy instruments and adapt them to its own aspirations, that is the most important player when it comes to implementation. Pressure from the EU was stronger in the accession negotiations when Slovenia was joining the EU and also when interest groups work together.

  12. Professional care seeking for mental health problems among women and men in Europe: the role of socioeconomic, family-related and mental health status factors in explaining gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, V; Van de Velde, S; Bracke, P

    2014-10-01

    This comparative study examines cross-national variation in gender differences in primary and specialized mental health care use in Europe. We investigate to what extent socioeconomic, family-related, and mental health factors explain the gender difference, and how the impact of these groups of determinants on gender differences in mental health care use varies between countries. Data from the Eurobarometer 248 (2005-2006) for 29 European countries is used and country-specific logistic regression analyses are performed. Gender differences in professional care seeking are largely need based. In almost one-third of the countries examined, the gender difference is mainly attributable to women's poorer mental health status. However, in some countries, family and socioeconomic characteristics also have an independent contribution to the gender difference in mental health care use. Women's higher likelihood of a lower socioeconomic position, might partly explain their higher primary care use, while in some countries, it restricts their specialized care use. In addition, some social conditions, as having children and being widowed, seem to function in a few countries as suppressors of women's care use. Our study has shown that the gender difference in mental health care use, with women having a higher care use, is not a consistent European phenomenon and is dependent on the type of care provider, with greater gender inequity in the use of primary health care. The social roles adopted by men and women have in some countries on top of the mental health status a relevant influence on the greater tendency among women to contact a care provider. How the socioeconomic and family characteristics moderate the relation between gender and mental health care use is not straightforward and country dependent.

  13. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  14. Factors Associated With High-Risk Alcohol Consumption Among LGB Older Adults: The Roles of Gender, Social Support, Perceived Stress, Discrimination, and Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Amanda E B; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults have elevated rates of high-risk alcohol consumption compared with heterosexual adults. Although drinking tends to decline with age in the general population, we know little about LGB older adults' drinking. Using 2014 data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS), we aimed to identify factors associated with high-risk drinking in LGB older adults. A U.S. sample of 2,351 LGB adults aged 50-98 years completed a survey about personal and social experiences, substance use, and health. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of past-month high-risk alcohol consumption. Approximately one fifth (20.6%) of LGB older adults reported high-risk drinking, with nonsignificantly different rates between men (22.4%) and women (18.4%). For women, current smoking and greater social support were associated with greater likelihood of high-risk drinking; older age, higher income, recovery from addiction, and greater perceived stress were associated with lower likelihood. For men, higher income, current smoking, and greater day-to-day discrimination were associated with greater likelihood of high-risk drinking; transgender identity and recovery from addiction were associated with lower likelihood. Social contexts and perceived drinking norms may encourage higher levels of alcohol consumption in LGB older women, whereas men's drinking may be linked with discrimination-related stress. Prevention and intervention with this population should take into account gender differences and sexual minority-specific risk factors. With future waves of data, we will be able to examine LGB older adults' drinking trajectories over time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Gender theory and the family business

    OpenAIRE

    Staffansson Pauli, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Gender Theory started in understanding and explain women's role in society and are also now including men and masculinities, Gender Theory has recently been adapted to family business research. This chapter will briefly introduce Gender Theory and its development, before reviewing how it has been used in family business research. Arguing that the family business context is suitable in studying gender phenomena, the chapter outlines several ways through which Gender Theory could yield new insi...

  16. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1-S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients.

  17. Prevalence study and risk factor analysis of selected bacterial, protozoal and viral, including vector-borne, pathogens in cats from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Sarvani, Elpida; Knowles, Toby G; Mengi, Sena; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-03-13

    Feline infectious agent studies are lacking in Cyprus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for various feline infectious agents, including feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP), in cats from Cyprus. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was performed on 174 feline samples [138 owned and 36 shelter-feral, including both healthy (43) and non-healthy (131), cats] from private veterinary clinics from all six districts of Cyprus. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (CMt). The population was tested for four FVBP including Bartonella henselae and Leishmania spp. using qPCR, while conventional PCR assays were used to detect Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Hepatozoon spp. Serological assays were performed to detect Leishmania infantum antibodies, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed to test associations and possible risk factors between variables and infectious agents. Ninety-six (55.2%) of the 174 cats were PCR-positive for at least one infectious agent. Forty-six cats (26.4%) were haemoplasma positive, including 13 (7.5%) for Mhf, 36 (20.7%) for CMhm and 12 (6.9%) for CMt. Sixty-six cats (37.9%) were positive for Hepatozoon spp., while 19 (10.9%) were positive for B. henselae, four (2.3%) for Leishmania spp. and one (0.6%) for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. Sequencing revealed the presence of Hepatozoon felis, L. infantum and Anaplasma platys. Of the 164 cats that underwent retroviral serology, 10 (6.1%) were FeLV-positive and 31 (18.9%) were FIV-positive, while L. infantum serology was positive in 7 (4.4%) of the 160 cats tested. Multivariable logistic regression revealed significant associations for various infectious agents including L. infantum with each of Hepatozoon spp. and CMt

  18. Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in Algerian and Tunisian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atek, Madjid; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Laid, Youcef; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Mézimèche, Nadia; Bougatef, Souha; Béji, Chiraz; Boutekdjiret, Leila; Martin-Prével, Yves; Lebcir, Hassiba; Gartner, Agnès; Kolsteren, Patrick; Delpeuch, Francis; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Maire, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004) and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight/height education, profession and household welfare were assessed. Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9-8.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8-32.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4-39.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1-11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2-15.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4-5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1-4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9-3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0-5.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must be taken into account in the management of obesity inequalities.

  19. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFICACY OF RISK FACTORS CORRECTION AND TREATMENT COMPLIANCE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Efanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the efficacy of correction of modifiable risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD, and treatment compliance within 6 months of observation in group of men and group of women after acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Material and мethods. Patients (n=147: 100 men and 47 women aged under 70 years who underwent ACS were examined. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and frequency of basic drugs taking were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months. The efficacy of risk factors correction in men was compared with this in women. Results. A general number of patients with effective blood pressure (BP control as well as patients who reached the target levels of total cholesterol (TC <4.5 mmol/l and cholesterol of low>density lipoproteins (LDC <2.5 mmol/l after 6 months increased significantly in comparison with this before observation. Taking of drugs from all main groups left unsatisfactory and did not>reach the advisable values. Women have better antihypertensive treatment compliance, but worse lipidemia level control; they more often have glucose metabolism disorders, arterial hypertension and obesity. Men smoked more often, but have better BP, TC and cholesterol LDC control. Conclusion. The high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors requires intensification of preventive activity regarding IHD onset and progression among both men and women.

  20. Exposure assessment in epidemiology: does gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Susan M; Koehoorn, Mieke

    2003-12-01

    The pathway from potential hazards in the work environment to the measurement or estimation of personal exposure for epidemiologic studies comprises many steps, each of which can be influenced by factors that may or may not differ by gender. This article explores this pathway to address the question, "Should the potential for gender differences be taken into account in the activity of exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies?" Evidence from previously published studies and data from the investigators' own research were examined to explore whether or not several theoretical sources of gender 'bias' in exposure assessment have been found in actual studies. Sources of bias examined included: differences in job tasks despite same job titles; differences in delivered exposure due to differences in protective equipment, body size, or other relationships to exposure sources; and differences in estimated exposure arising from study methods or design. Evidence was found for gender differences (and thus potential bias) from all these sources, at least in some studies. We conclude that the answer to the question posed, "Does gender matter, in exposure assessment for epidemiology?" is a qualified 'yes,' but that the magnitude and direction of the potential bias cannot be predicted, a priori. Am. J. Ind. Med. 44:576-583, 2003. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Gender Equality From A Gender Budgeting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani; Nogget Matope; Efiritha Chauraya

    2012-01-01

    Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion is to highlight the importance of gender budgeting in addressing gender disparities while...

  2. Study on the social maturity, self-perception, and associated factors, including motor coordination, of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumiko; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of social maturity and self-perception in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to elucidate associated factors, including motor coordination. The subjects were 15 children (14 boys and 1 girl, in elementary school grades 3 to 6). Their characteristics were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), the Japanese version of the Social Maturity Scale-R (S-M scale), and Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). The results of the study suggested that most of the subjects had some degree of motor problem and delay of social maturity. They also suggested an association between social maturity and static-dynamic balance, which was one of the indices of motor coordination.

  3. FURTHER ASPECTS OF GENDER MARKING IN ENGLISH AND ROMANIAN

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin MANEA

    2011-01-01

    The paper reverts to some of the main issues posed by the expression of the grammatical and conceptual notion of gender in English and Romanian. It revisits some aspects of defining gender and gender classes (including the epicene, common gender and neuter gender), neutralization, the idea of fuzziness in treating gender, and some of the errors and inconsistencies linked with the expression of gender in the light of the more recent linguistic approaches flawed by excessive feminism. The exist...

  4. 农村养老性别偏好影响因素分析%Analysis of Influencing Factors of Gender Preference for Endowment in the Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏利香; 钟涨宝

    2015-01-01

    Based on a rural survey in Xunwu ,Yibin ,Guangshui and Wenzhou ,we analyze whether the rural people have gender preference for endowment and the influencing factors of gender preference .The results of logis‐tic regression analysis show that:On the one hand ,rural people’s endowment gender preference is different ,the acceptance of daughter endow ment is different in various regions .On the other hand ,the traditional idea of “rai‐sing sons to support elderly parents”still has a far‐reaching influence on the rural people ,the majority of rural peo‐ple still has strong endowment gender preference ,and they are more willing to live with sons to get endowment re‐sources .Age ,marital status ,number of children and family income have significant influences on people’s accept‐ance for living with daughter to get support when they are old .The people aged ,married ,have more children , have more family income ,the more possible they can’t accept the daughter to support them w hen they are old ,and they show stronger endowment gender preference .Gender ,education and family income have significant influences on living with the son or daughter to get endowment resources .The male ,those who have lower education ,have more family income ,are more willing to live with son to get endowment resources ,they showed stronger endow‐ment gender preference .Annual household income has positive influence on both whether one can accept to get en‐dowment resources from daughter and prefer to live with son or daughter ,it shows the importance of family re‐sources for endowment gender preference .%基于对寻乌、宜宾、广水、温州农村的问卷调查,实证分析了农村是否存在养老性别偏好以及影响养老性别偏好的因素。养老性别偏好影响因素的Logistic回归分析结果显示:一方面农村人的养老性别偏好呈现差异性,各个地区对于在女儿家里养老的接受程度不同。另一方面,“养

  5. Risk factors for bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: A focus on antimicrobials including cefepime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Teena; Marchaim, Dror; Johnson, Paul C; Chalana, Indu K; Tamam, Zeinab; Mohammed, Mazin; Alkatib, Shatha; Tansek, Ryan; Chaudhry, Khawar; Zhao, Jing J; Pogue, Jason M; Kaye, Keith S

    2015-07-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens represent increasing challenges to physicians because of rising prevalence, high mortality, and challenging treatment. Identifying high risks and early appropriate therapy is critical to favorable outcomes. This is a 5-year retrospective case-case-control study performed at the Detroit Medical Center on adult patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae, each compared with uninfected controls. Data were collected from December 2004-August 2009. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Participants included 103 patients with BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens and 79 patients with BSI caused by pathogens that did not produce ESBLs. The mean age of patients in the ESBL group was 67 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 77% were black, and 38% (n = 39) died in hospital. The mean age of patients in the non-ESBL group was 58 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 92% were black, and 22% (n = 17) died in hospital. On multivariate analysis, predictors of BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens included central venous catheter (odds ratio [OR], 29.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-288.3), prior β-lactam-/β-lactamase-inhibitor therapy (OR, 28.1; 95% CI, 1.99-396.5), and prior cefepime therapy (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 2.7-192.4). The only risk factor for BSI caused by non-ESBL-producing pathogens was urinary catheter insertion (OR, 18.2; 95% CI, 3.3-100.3). Prior antimicrobial therapy, particularly with β-lactam, was the strongest unique risk factor for BSI caused by ESBL-producing E coli or K pneumoniae. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  7. Gender stereotypes in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on stereotypes of women as managers. The literature review summarizes the most common areas of gender stereotypes. In the empirical part we conducted research on a sample of 111 respondents (students. Research data was obtained by administration of translated and adapted questionnaire Women as Managers Scale (L. Peters et al.. Psychometric analysis of the questionnaire was conducted and its factor structure verified. The goal of this study was to create and pilot Czech adaptation of the questionnaire as an instrument for diagnostics of gender stereotypes in different types of organizations

  8. Gender medicine: an up-date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Politi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Women get sick more, use more health services, take more drugs, and have a higher frequency of serious adverse reactions. Despite this, the drugs we use are little studied in women: both clinical studies and pre-clinical experiments are carried out predominantly in males and the young. Before 1990, no more than 26-30% of women were usually enrolled in a trial, so we lacked the statistical power of showing the efficacy and safety of the drugs being studied in the whole population. The gender blindness (transposition of the male studies in female populations resulted in a lack of awareness of the differences between males and females, and this prevented both genders from receiving the best possible care. This gender bias also, to a lower degree, hurts men: depression, migraines, osteoporosis have not been studied properly in males. Although the process is slow, the scientific community has begun to pay more attention to direct and indirect influences that gender exercise on biological mechanisms, and this includes both internal and external cultural and environmental factors. Therefore, the differences between the old, the young, children, and pregnant women (considered the third gender group will become increasingly more important as care becomes more personalized. The first course of gender medicine was established only in 2002 at Columbia University, New York, USA. The World Health Organization has incorporated gender medicine into the Equity Act. This implies that the treatment given must be the most appropriate and best suited the individual patient’s gender. The Committee on Women’s Health of the Ministry of Health in Italy was established in 2007. Institutions now pay great attention to the importance of this clinical perspective and are sensitive to the need for change. This review focuses on specific open questions regarding gender: pharmacology, clinical trial recruitment, cardiovascular prevention, stroke, osteoporosis, chronic

  9. Gender-based reciprocal expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase in a rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loughran Patricia A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pluripotent cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 is the central regulator of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS that is responsible for nitric oxide (NO production in inflammatory settings. Previous studies have implicated a role for NO, presumably derived from iNOS, in cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced cystitis in the bladder. TGF-β1 is produced in latent form and requires dissociation from the latency-associated peptide (LAP to act as primary anti-inflammatory and pro-healing modulator following tissue injury in the upper urinary tract. Since the role of TGF-β1 in lower urinary tract inflammation is currently unknown, and since gender-based differences exist in the setting of interstitial cystitis (IC, the present study examined the relationship between TGF-β1 and iNOS/NO in the pathogenesis of CYP-induced cystitis in both male and female rats. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats, 4 months of age, of either gender were given 150 mg/kg CYP intraperitoneally. Urinary and bladder tissue TGF-β1 and NO reaction products (NO2-/NO3- were quantified as a function of time following CYP. Expression of active and latent TGF-β1 as well as iNOS in harvested bladder tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Female rats had significantly higher levels of NO2-/NO3- in urine even at baseline as compared to male rats (p 2-/NO3- and TGF-β1. Male rats responded to CYP with significantly lower levels of NO2-/NO3- and significantly higher levels of TGF-β1 in urine (p 2-/NO3- after CYP were inversely correlated to latent and active TGF-β1 (Pearson coefficient of -0.72 and -0.69 in females and -0.89 and -0.76 in males, respectively; p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that there exists an inverse relationship between the expression of TGF-β1 and iNOS/NO2-/NO3- in CYP-inflamed bladder. The gender of the animal appears to magnify the differences in urine levels of TGF-β1 and NO2-/NO3- in this inflammatory

  10. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...... of connectivity might endure, as Capetonian politics assumes a post-apartheid structure....

  11. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  12. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... the particular social situation of the young people of immigrant origin. The feelings of obligations and debt toward the parents are strong, as well as the adherence to traditional family values. Still there is clearly a tendency that ideas about individual rights, such as women?s and children?s rights to decide...

  13. Gender-Inclusive Practices in Campus Women's and Gender Centers: Benefits, Challenges, and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Susan B.; Helfrich, Gina; Randhawa, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Women's and gender centers have provided a home for feminist activism, education, and empowerment on the college campus since the 1970s. Recently, some women's and gender centers have undertaken practices of gender inclusion--expanding their missions and programming to include cisgender men and trans* people of all genders. This exploratory study…

  14. Biographic Characteristics and Factors Perceived as Affecting Female and Male Careers in Academic Surgery: The Tenured Gender Battle to Make It to the Top.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Laura; Sippel, Sonia; Entwistle, Andrew; Hell, Anna Kathrin; Koenig, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Given the high attrition rate in the field of academic surgery, we aimed to characterise the professional and personal situations of female and male academic surgeons as well as to gather data on their respective perceptions of career advancement and work satisfaction. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Germany, inviting all identifiable academically highly qualified female surgeons and their male counterparts in a 1:2 ratio to participate. An anonymous 103-item online questionnaire was designed and the data collected between July and September 2014. The questionnaire was sent to 93 female and 200 male surgeons, of whom 63 women (67.7%) and 70 men (35.0%) replied. The average age was 47.5 and 47.1 years, respectively. Respondents identified 'high degree of expertise', 'ambition', and 'clarity of one's professional aims' as important factors affecting professional career development. Both groups felt 'workload', 'working hours/shifts', and 'gender' to be a hindrance, the latter of significantly greater importance to female surgeons. The mean work satisfaction scores were high in both female (69.5%) and male (75.7%) surgeons. The predictors 'support from superiors' (standardised β coefficient = 0.41) and 'manual aptitude' (β = 0.41) contributed incrementally to the variance in 'high degree of work satisfaction' (90-100%) observed for female surgeons. However, childcare provided by 'kindergarten/crèche/after-school care' had the greatest negative predictive value (β = -1.33). Although there are many parallels, female faculty members experience the culture of academic surgery to some extent differently from their male counterparts, especially when impacted by parenthood and childcare. Faculty development programmes need to develop strategies to improve perceived equality in career opportunities by respecting individuals' requirements as well as offering gender-appropriate career guidance. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Factors associated with "Ikigai" among members of a public temporary employment agency for seniors (Silver Human Resources Centre in Japan; gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoda Yasuhiro

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Ikigai" is culturally defined in the society of Japan as a comprehensive concept describing subjective well-being. It is considered to be related to life-satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, happiness as well as evaluation towards meaning of one's life. Although previous studies examined factors associated with Ikigai with smaller samples, consistent results have not been obtained, especially from the viewpoint of gender differences. Identification of gender-specific factors related with Ikigai among the elderly, may be of value to enhance subjective well-being. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 4,737 randomly selected members of the Silver Human Resources Centre (SHRC, a public temporary employment agency for seniors, in Osaka, Japan. This represents about 10% of all registered members (n = 41,593 in the 38 SHRC centres in Osaka. A total of 4,376 subjects (male: 2,913; female: 1,463 provided a satisfactory response to the questionnaire (response rate: 92%. The status whether they have "Ikigai" or not was evaluated by self-anchoring scale ranging from 0 to 5 (0 = lowest rate and 5 = highest rate of having "Ikigai". Also, self-rated life-change score through work (-3 to 3 was evaluated by three items, i.e. changes in (1 the number of friends through work, (2 social interests and (3 the quantity of conversation with others (1 = increase, 0 = no change, and -1 = decrease. Results The factors associated with "Ikigai" for total subjects were the number of rooms in one's residence, annual income, healthy life style score (Breslow, the number of working days through SHRC, satisfaction with one's life history and life-change sore through work. The multivariable odds ratio (95%CI of having "Ikigai" was 1.9 (1.1–3.3 for persons with no change in life thorough work compared with subjects with a score of ≦-1. Moreover, the multivariable odds ratios were 3.5 (1.9–6.6 for a life-change score = 1, 3.1 (1

  16. 性别视角下影响女性干部成长因素浅议%Discussing Factors Influencing Women Leaders' Development from a Gender Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春祥

    2012-01-01

    In current society, more and more women have stepped into the leadership positions. Female leaders have their unique advan- tages, but at the same time, they have come to a career botdeneck. This paper explores the external cultural factors and internal psycho- logical factors that have an impact on the development of female leaders from a gender perspective so as to provide reference for women leaders to pursue their career.%摘要:当今社会越来越多的女性走上领导岗位,女性领导有着自身独特的优异。同时也遭遇了事业发展的瓶颈“天花板”现象,本文从性别视角出发,对影响女性领导事业发展的外在文化因素和内在心理内索进行探究。以期为女性领导事业的发展提供借鉴。

  17. Gender and psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyle in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Chor, Dora; Aquino, Estela M L

    2017-08-28

    It has been estimated that over 50% of the premature deaths occurring in Western countries can be attributed to causes rooted in lifestyle. In turn, leading a healthy lifestyle has also been associated with a wide range of psychosocial factors. Today, it is known that these differ among men and women. The present article aimed to identify, from a gender-based perspective, the psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyles in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort, the largest study concerning adult health conducted in Latin America to date. This cross-sectional study was conducted using ELSA-Brasil baseline data, collected between 2008 and 2010. Six Brazilian public higher education and research institutions. The ELSA-Brasil cohort consists of approximately 15 000 employees (8218 women and 6887 men), both currently working and retired. The lifestyle indicator was constructed by summing the scores attributed to four different behaviours. The women of the ELSA-Brasil cohort have healthier lifestyles than men. In women, strong associations were found between a healthy lifestyle and age 60 years or older, Asian race and university level of education or higher. In men, being 60 years or older, of Asian or Caucasian race, having a high-school equivalent level of education or higher, being retired, having a housekeeper, having a good or very good self-perception of health and being satisfied with body image were the psychosocial factors associated with leading a healthy lifestyle. The factors that influenced healthy lifestyles were found to differ among men and women, a fact that must be addressed when developing programmes designed to promote health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Interaction Effects between Exposure to Sexually Explicit Online Materials and Individual, Family, and Extrafamilial Factors on Hong Kong High School Students' Beliefs about Gender Role Equality and Body-Centered Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Siu-ming; Kan, Siu-mee Iu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effects between Hong Kong adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit online materials (SEOM) and individual, family, peer, and cultural factors on their beliefs about gender role equality and body-centered sexuality. Based on a survey design with a sample of 503 high school students in Hong Kong, the results…

  19. Interaction Effects between Exposure to Sexually Explicit Online Materials and Individual, Family, and Extrafamilial Factors on Hong Kong High School Students' Beliefs about Gender Role Equality and Body-Centered Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Siu-ming; Kan, Siu-mee Iu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effects between Hong Kong adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit online materials (SEOM) and individual, family, peer, and cultural factors on their beliefs about gender role equality and body-centered sexuality. Based on a survey design with a sample of 503 high school students in Hong Kong, the results…

  20. Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannawa, Kevin K; Eliason, Jonathan L; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the tenth leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65 to 74 years of age and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA, with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine-driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues owing to excessive local production of matrix-degrading enzymes and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, no medical therapies are available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation is critical as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms.

  1. Including the spatial variability of metal speciation in the effect factor in life cycle impact assessment: Limits of the equilibrium partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, Clara; Bulle, Cécile; Deschênes, Louise

    2017-03-01

    In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach. Alternatively, the TBLM (Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model) has been used to determine an EF that accounts for speciation, but is not available for metals; hence it cannot be consistently applied to metals in an LCA context. This paper proposes an approach to include metal speciation by regionalizing the EqP method for Cu, Ni and Zn with a geochemical speciation model (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model 7.0), for 5213 soils selected from the Harmonized World Soil Database. Results obtained by this approach (EF(EqP)regionalized) are compared to the EFs calculated with the conventional EqP method, to the EFs based on available terrestrial data and to the EFs calculated with the TBLM (EF(TBLM)regionalized) when available. The spatial variability contribution of the EF to the overall spatial variability of the characterization factor (CF) has been analyzed. It was found that the EFs(EqP)regionalized show a significant spatial variability. The EFs calculated with the two non-regionalized methods (EqP and terrestrial data) fall within the range of the EFs(EqP)regionalized. The EFs(TBLM)regionalized cover a larger range of values than the EFs(EqP)regionalized but the two methods are not correlated. This paper highlights the importance of including speciation into the terrestrial EF and shows that using the regionalized EqP approach is not an

  2. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT WITH THE INHIBITORS OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR OF THE CHRONIC UVEITIS REFRACTORY TO THE BASIC THERAPY (INCLUDING AN ASSOCIATED WITH JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rudakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy of chronic uveitis refractory to the basic treatment, in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a very complex problem in pediatrics. Substantial progress in this area resulted after the implementation in practice of inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, as the most effective in such clinical situation drugs adalimumab and infliximab are considered (although infliximab was not officially approved in JIA. Objective. To estimate the cost effectiveness of TNF inhibitors — adalimumab, and infliximab in chronic uveitis, refractory to the basic therapy (including associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. A modeling on the basis of a comparative prospective cohort clinical study was carried out. The analysis was performed by the method «cost–effectiveness» from a position of health and social accounting perspective. Results. It was shown that the frequency and time of remission did not differ when treatment with infliximab (5 mg/kg at 0–2–6 weeks and further once in 6–8 weeks and adalimumab (24 mg/m2 once in 2 weeks. Adalimumab provides a long-term maintenance of remission (no recurrence in 60% of patients within 40 months of observation, whereas 1 year after the treatment with infliximab the frequency of exacerbations was returned to that observed before therapy. The proportion of patients without relapse in the treatment with infliximab for 40 months was 18.8%. Similar results were obtained in a subset of patients with chronic uveitis associated with JIA (with follow-up of 20 months of in a group of infliximab number patients without relapse was 11.1%, with adalimumab therapy — 63.6%. In the general population of patients with refractory chronic uveitis the factor «cost–effectiveness» calculated for a patient with the maintenance of remission for 3 years with adalimumab therapy was in 2,1–2,8 times less than in the treatment with infliximab. In chronic uveitis associated with JIA, the coefficient of

  3. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, among urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, M A; Boyer, C B

    1991-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of multiple psychosocial and knowledge-related antecedent factors that may predict sexual and alcohol and drug use behaviors that are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection. Five hundred forty-four ninth-grade urban high school students were surveyed regarding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to STDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that higher levels of STD and AIDS knowledge were associated with lower levels of STD and AIDS anxiety (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), fewer negative attitudes toward people with AIDS (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), stronger perceptions of self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.03; p less than 0.01), and stronger peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.05). Negative attitudes toward people with AIDS were inversely related to knowledge (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001), social support (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.01), and perceived self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.01; p less than 0.05). Predictors of alcohol and drug use included perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001) and strong peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.001). The best predictor of sexual risk behavior was alcohol and drug use (R2 delta = 0.07; p less than 0.001). Lower levels of knowledge (R2 delta = 0.14; p less than 0.01) and perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.05) predicted nonuse of condoms. Our results indicate that several factors relate to adolescent risk for STDs: the connection between peer influence and adolescent risk behaviors, the link between alcohol and drug use and sexual risk behavior, and the role of knowledge in determining nonuse of condoms.

  4. Gender, politics, and regionalism: factors in the evolution of registered psychiatric nursing in Manitoba, 1920-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, psychiatric nursing care is provided by two kinds of nurses. East of Manitoba, it is provided by registered nurses who may or may not have specialized psychiatric nursing education. In the four western provinces, a distinct professional group, registered psychiatric nurses, also provide care. Saskatchewan was the first province to achieve distinct legislation, in 1948, followed by British Columbia in 1951, Alberta in 1955, and Manitoba in 1960. Several factors coalesced to sway Manitoba to adopt the distinct profession model. First, there was little interest by the general nursing body in mental hospital nursing. Second, the other three western provinces had formed a Canadian Council of Psychiatric Nursing that encouraged mental hospital attendants and nurses in Manitoba. Third, a group of male attendants took on leadership roles supported by the mental hospital superintendents. Finally, Manitoba was culturally and geographically more aligned with western than eastern Canada.

  5. Gendered war and gendered peace: truth commissions and postconflict gender violence: lessons from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Tristan Anne

    2009-10-01

    That war is profoundly gendered has long been recognized by feminist international relations scholars. What is less recognized is that the postwar period is equally gendered. Currently undertheorized is how truth-seeking exercises in the aftermath of conflict should respond to this fact. What happens to women victims of war violence? The difficulties of foregrounding gendered wartime violence in truth telling are illustrated by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The article explores some consequences of the failure to uncover gendered truth, including its impact on the government's reparations policy, and continued "peacetime" violence perpetrated against women in South Africa.

  6. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  7. Impact of gender, co-morbidity and social factors on labour market affiliation after first admission for acute coronary syndrome. A cohort study of Danish patients 2001-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Osler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decades survival after acute coronary syndrome (ACS has improved, leading to an increasing number of patients returning to work, but little is known about factors that may influence their labour market affiliation. This study examines the impact of gender, co-morbidity and socio-economic position on subsequent labour market affiliation and transition between various social services in patients admitted for the first time with ACS. METHODS: From 2001 to 2009 all first-time hospitalisations for ACS were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry (n = 79,714. For this population, data on sick leave, unemployment and retirement were obtained from an administrative register covering all citizens. The 21,926 patients, aged 18-63 years, who had survived 30 days and were part of the workforce at the time of diagnosis were included in the analyses where subsequent transition between the above labour market states was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. FINDINGS: A total of 37% of patients were in work 30 days after first ACS diagnosis, while 55% were on sick leave and 8% were unemployed. Seventy-nine per cent returned to work once during follow-up. This probability was highest among males, those below 50 years, living with a partner, the highest educated, with higher occupations, having specific events (NSTEMI, and percutaneous coronary intervention and with no co-morbidity. During five years follow-up, 43% retired due to disability or voluntary early pension. Female gender, low education, basic occupation, co-morbidity and having a severer event (invasive procedures and receiving sickness benefits or being unemployed 30 days after admission were associated with increased probability of early retirement. CONCLUSION: About half of patients with first-time ACS stay in or return to work shortly after the event. Women, the socially disadvantaged, those with presumed severer events

  8. Dietary Patterns Derived Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis are Stable and Generalizable Across Race, Region, and Gender Subgroups in the REGARDS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Shikany, James M.; Roth, David L.; Newby, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of intake patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups. Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who completed the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, and sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the “Convenience” pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the “Plant-based” pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the “Sweets/Fats” pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the “Southern” pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the “Alcohol/Salads” pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusion: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex, and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts. PMID:25988129

  9. Gender and Behaviour: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour Ife Centre for Psychological Studies and Service. ... On page 1, type article title, author name(s), affiliation(s) address phone and fax ... the manuscript includes only original materials test has not been published and that ...

  10. Gender matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina; Bjerge, Benedikte; Trifkovic, Neda

    such training may be in closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer–employee panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated......, firm-sponsored on-the-job training helps close the gender wage gap.......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...

  11. [Nursing education: integrating gender equity consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Shih, Hsin-Hsin; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Gender sensitivity influences the way a nurse handles the nursing process and can influence both patient care and public perception of the nursing profession. Nurses unaware of the influences of gender are unable to perform holistic nursing, the practice of which centers on patient-centered care. Education is essential to promote gender consciousness. Providing scenario-based education to apply gender consciousness can help nursing students integrate gender and nursing care concepts and improve nursing care quality. In addition to raising attention to this important issue, this article makes comprehensive suggestions on how to apply gender concepts in nursing education. These suggestions include requiring instructors to consider and assess their own gender consciousness in order to enhance positive gender consciousness; reviewing teaching materials to identify and remove content tainted by sexual discrimination, and emphasizing gender education in the nursing education curriculum.

  12. Valuing gender diversity in teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Villeseche, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Team gender diversity has been much debated in many different contexts – not least since the search for a main effect of diversity on performance was launched. However, results have so far been inconclusive, and a number of scholars suggest that more attention should be directed at contextual...... factors which could influence the effect of gender diversity on team performance. In this study, we explore the effect of positive diversity attitudes and assess the degree of gender diversity where such group attitudes have greater impact. This is done by using a sample of 1085 leaders of academic...... research teams. Findings show that positive diversity attitude in the form of group openness to diversity is strongly associated with team performance. We also find a moderating effect of gender diversity meaning that the effect of openness to diversity is stronger when gender groups are more balanced...

  13. Valuing Gender Diversity in Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Villeseche, Florence

    Team gender diversity has been much debated in many different contexts – not least since the search for a main effect of diversity on performance was launched. However, results have so far been inconclusive, and a number of scholars suggest that more attention should be directed at contextual...... factors which could influence the effect of gender diversity on team performance. In this study, we explore the effect of positive diversity attitudes and assess the degree of gender diversity where such group attitudes have greater impact. This is done by using a sample of 1085 leaders of academic...... research teams. Findings show that positive diversity attitude in the form of group openness to diversity is strongly associated with team performance. We also find a moderating effect of gender diversity meaning that the effect of openness to diversity is stronger when gender groups are more balanced...

  14. Multiple factors, including non-motor impairments, influence decision making with regard to exercise participation in Parkinson's disease: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine; Clemson, Lindy; Canning, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    To explore how the meaning of exercise and other factors interact and influence the exercise behaviour of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled in a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program to prevent falls, regardless of whether they completed the prescribed exercise or not. This qualitative study utilised in-depth semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory methodology. Four main themes were constructed from the data: adapting to change and loss, the influence of others, making sense of the exercise experience and hope for a more active future. Participation in the PD-specific physiotherapy program involving group exercise provided an opportunity for participants to reframe their identity of their "active" self. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified and explored: non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, the belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. A model was developed incorporating the themes and influences to explain decision-making for exercise participation in this group. Complex and interacting issues, including non-motor impairments, need to be considered in order to enhance the development and ongoing implementation of effective exercise programmes for people with PD. Exercise participation can assist individuals to reframe their identity as they are faced with losses associated with Parkinson's disease and ageing. Non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue may influence exercise participation in people with Parkinson's disease. Particular attention needs to be paid to the provision of feedback in exercise programs for people with Parkinson's disease as it important for their decision-making about continuing exercise.

  15. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  16. Laser Microdissection Unravels Cell-Type-Specific Transcription in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots, Including CAAT-Box Transcription Factor Gene Expression Correlating with Fungal Contact and Spread1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogekamp, Claudia; Arndt, Damaris; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Becker, Jörg D.; Hohnjec, Natalija; Küster, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis. PMID:22034628

  17. Leadership: Why gender and culture matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayman, Roya; Korabik, Karen

    2010-04-01

    For decades, understanding of leadership has been largely based on the results of studies carried out on White men in the United States. We review major theories and models of leadership as they pertain to either gender or culture. We focus on 3 approaches to leadership: trait (including leadership categorization or implicit leadership theory), behavioral (including the two-factor, transformational-transactional leadership, and leader-member exchange models), and contingency (i.e., contingency model of leadership effectiveness and normative decision making). We discuss how dynamics related to either culture or gender (e.g., stereotypes and schemas, ingroup-outgroup interaction, role expectations, power and status differentials) can have an important impact on many aspects of leadership.

  18. Role of gender, family, lifestyle and psychological factors in self-rated health among urban adolescents in Peru: a school-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Dohyeong; Yoon, Young Min; Kim, Yeunju; Kim, Ha Yun

    2016-02-03

    We examined the role of gender, family, lifestyle and psychological factors in self-rated health. Cross-sectional study. A total of 970 randomly selected students from 11 secondary schools in Lima and Callao, Peru, participated in 2014. Self-rated health was measured with a single item: 'In general, how would you rate your health?' Responses were arranged along a five-point Likert-type scale: 'excellent', 'very good', 'good', 'fair' and 'poor'. The outcome variable was dichotomised as 'good' (excellent, very good or good) or 'poor/fair' (poor or fair). We calculated adjusted ORs (AORs) and 95% CIs for poor/fair self-rated health using multivariate logistic regression analyses at 3-graded levels. 32.5% of the respondents had fair/poor self-rated health, 23.7% of the total males and 40.0% of the total female samples. Males were less likely to have poor/fair self-rated health (AOR 0.61; CI 0.41 to 0.91). Poor family support strongly increased the likelihood of having poor/fair self-rated health (no support, (AOR 3.15; CI 1.63 to 6.09); low support, (AOR 2.50; CI 1.29 to 4.85)). The other associated variables were missed meals due to a shortage of food (AOR 1.97; CI 1.15 to 3.36), television watching during leisure time (AOR 1.70; CI 1.09 to 2.67), low physical activity (AOR 1.49; CI 1.03 to 2.15), school absenteeism (AOR 1.54; CI 1.03 to 2.31) and perceived life satisfaction (AOR 0.28; CI 0.15 to 0.25). Gender, missing meals due to a shortage of food, family support, physical activity and life satisfaction influenced self-rated health among adolescents in Peru. Interventions that focus on promoting physical activity for at least 1 h each day for 3 or more days per week, food security and strengthening supportive family roles may improve self-rated health during adolescence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Gender-related urocortin 1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the adult human midbrain of suicide victims with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicz, T; Tilburg-Ouwens, D; Faludi, G; Palkovits, M; Roubos, E

    2008-04-09

    In postmortem brains of patients with major depression, the expression of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is enhanced and that of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreased. In mice over-expressing neuronal CRF (an animal model for depression) the expression of urocortin 1 (Ucn1) in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW) is strongly down-regulated. Therefore, we hypothesized that an altered activity of Ucn1 neurons in the npEW would contribute to the pathogenesis of major depression. To test this hypothesis we measured Ucn1 mRNA and BDNF mRNA levels in the npEW of seven male and four female, drug-free suicide victims with major depression, and compared the data with those obtained from 10 male and seven female individuals without neurological and psychiatric disorders (controls). We show that compared with controls, the Ucn1-mRNA level in npEW neurons is about 9.12 times higher in male but unchanged in female suicide victims. Furthermore, BDNF mRNA expression in microdissections of npEW was 3.36 times lower in male suicide victims, but 5.27 times higher in female victims, compared with controls. Our data also show that male suicide victims had almost 11.47 times more Ucn1 and 4.26 times less BDNF mRNA in the npEW than female suicide victims. We discuss the significance of these data for npEW Ucn1 and BDNF, and propose that altered expressions of Ucn1 and BDNF in the npEW contribute to the pathogenesis of major depression and/or suicidality in a gender-specific manner.

  20. [Gender mainstreaming and nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2011-12-01

    Gender mainstreaming is one of the most important strategies in promoting global gender equality. The Taiwan government launched policies on gender mainstreaming and gender impact assessment in 2007 in response to strong public and academic advocacy work. With rising awareness of gender issues, nursing professionals in Taiwan should keep pace with global trends and become actively involved in advancing gender-mainstreaming policies. This article shows that nursing professionals should prepare themselves by cultivating gender competence, understanding gender-related regulations, recognizing the importance of gender impact assessment implementation, integrating gender issues into nursing education, conducting gender-related research and participating in decision-making processes that promote gender mainstreaming. Nursing professionals should enhance their knowledge and understanding of gender mainstreaming-related issues and get involved in the gender-related decision-making process in order to enhance gender awareness and women's health and further the professional development of nurses.

  1. Gender differences in the VDR-FokI polymorphism and conventional non-genetic risk factors in association with lumbar spine pathologies in an Italian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Alessandra; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Ferino, Lucia; Lombardi, Giovanni; Maione, Vincenzo; Banfi, Giuseppe; Cauci, Sabina

    2015-02-09

    Recently, the FokI polymorphism (rs2228570) in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and conventional risk factors were associated with spine disorders in the Italian population, but without gender analysis. Two-hundred and sixty-seven patients (149 males, 118 females) with lumbar spine disorders were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 254 (127 males, 127 females) asymptomatic controls were enrolled. The exposure to putative risk factors was evaluated and FokI polymorphism was detected by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). An association between lumbar spine pathologies and higher than average age; overweight; family history; lower leisure physical activity; smoking habit; higher number of hours/day exposure to vibration and more sedentary or intense physical job demand was observed in male patients. In contrast, in females, only higher age, overweight, family history and lower leisure physical activity were risk factors. FF genotype was a 2-fold risk factor to develop discopathies and/or osteochondrosis concomitant with disc herniation for both gender patients, while heterozygous Ff was protective for females only. In males only ff genotype was protective for discopathies and/or osteochondrosis and F allele was a 2-fold risk factor for hernia; discopathies; discopathies and/or osteochondrosis. Sex-related differences in voluntary behaviors, exposure to environmental risks and genetic background could be crucial for a gender-differentiated management of patients with spine disorders.

  2. Gender Differences in the VDR-FokI Polymorphism and Conventional Non-Genetic Risk Factors in Association with Lumbar Spine Pathologies in an Italian Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Colombini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the FokI polymorphism (rs2228570 in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR and conventional risk factors were associated with spine disorders in the Italian population, but without gender analysis. Two-hundred and sixty-seven patients (149 males, 118 females with lumbar spine disorders were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and 254 (127 males, 127 females asymptomatic controls were enrolled. The exposure to putative risk factors was evaluated and FokI polymorphism was detected by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. An association between lumbar spine pathologies and higher than average age; overweight; family history; lower leisure physical activity; smoking habit; higher number of hours/day exposure to vibration and more sedentary or intense physical job demand was observed in male patients. In contrast, in females, only higher age, overweight, family history and lower leisure physical activity were risk factors. FF genotype was a 2-fold risk factor to develop discopathies and/or osteochondrosis concomitant with disc herniation for both gender patients, while heterozygous Ff was protective for females only. In males only ff genotype was protective for discopathies and/or osteochondrosis and F allele was a 2-fold risk factor for hernia; discopathies; discopathies and/or osteochondrosis. Sex-related differences in voluntary behaviors, exposure to environmental risks and genetic background could be crucial for a gender-differentiated management of patients with spine disorders.

  3. Gender Identity and Gender Confusion in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Gender Identity Development in Children Page Content Article Body ​What's the ... children, the match between biological sex and gender identity is not so ... gender development in children. See the related article, Gender Non- ...

  4. Gender change from female to male in classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, H F; Gruen, R S; New, M I; Bell, J J; Morishima, A; Shimshi, M; Bueno, Y; Vargas, I; Baker, S W

    1996-12-01

    The psychoendocrinology of the development of normal gender identity and its variations is poorly understood. Studies of gender development in individuals born with endocrinologically well-characterized intersex conditions are heuristically valuable for the disaggregation of factors that are acting in concert during normal development. Four 46,XX individuals with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and atypical gender identity entered a comprehensive research protocol including systematic interviews and self-report inventories on gender role behavior and identity, sexual history, and psychiatric history. Some of the data on gender variables were compared to data from 12 CAH women with the salt-wasting variant (CAH-SW) with female gender identity. The four patients (ages 28, 35, 38, and 30 years) represented three different subtypes of classical early-onset CAH: 21-OH deficiency, simple virilizing (CAH-SV); 21-OH deficiency, salt-wasting (CAH-SW); and 11-beta-OH deficiency. Their medical histories were characterized by delay beyond infancy or lack of surgical feminization of the external genitalia and progressive virilization with inconsistent or absent glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Although three patients had undergone one or more genital surgeries, all had retained at least some orgasmic capacity. In regard to childhood gender-role behavior, the four gender-change patients tended to be more masculine or less feminine than (behaviorally masculinized) CAH-SW controls. All patients were sexually attracted to females only. The process of gender change was gradual and extended well into adulthood. The most plausible factors contributing to cross-gender identity development in these patients appeared to be neither a particular genotype or endocrinotype nor a sex-typing bias on the part of the parents but a combination of a gender-atypical behavioral self-image, a gender-atypical body image, and the development of erotic attraction to women. Implications

  5. Gender and Working Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio Bergholm

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of occupational segregation by sex and gendered practices in the workplace are complex, multidimensional and contested fields of research and academic discourse. Since the 1960s, we have seen a rapid growth in both quantity and quality of academic work in this field. Earlier simplistic main (male stream as well as straightforward feminist explanations has been roundly criticised and deconstructed. It is now clear that the study of gender relations in working life is far more complicated than it was believed decades ago. The central question in gender research is how gendered structures – in which men in general have more power, more prestigious positions and higher pay – are reproduced in a world in which demography, economy, production, education and therefore society and family have changed over time. Nordic countries represents an interesting geographical arena to examine gender relations in working life, because many factors, which have been seen in other countries as causes for female subordination, appear in other forms. At present, the labour force participation rate of women in Nordic countries is nearly equal to that of men, but there are still substantial differences. Women are better educated than men, and also, to a large extent unionised. Although these factors make Nordic women stand out globally, gender equality at work or at home has not yet been achieved. The male breadwinner is still a societal norm and a construct, which conditions the behaviour of organisations and individuals in many circumstances in working life. This influence can be obvious or obscure. From the 1990s, research has turned to focus also on the fate of the male workforce during deindustrialisation and global restructuring. Participation rate of men in gainful employment have diminished in all industrialised countries (Crouch; 1999, Walby; 1997. Nordic countries are not an exception to this trend. Men’s difficulties to adapt to a new service

  6. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include...

  7. Gender-specific factors associated with the suicidal ideation of children in Taiwan: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Peng, Wu-Der; Lin, Ying-Chun; Lee, Chien-Hung; Hu, Chih-Yang; Huang, Shun-Te

    2017-07-06

    We examined the relationship between suicidal ideation (SI) and the depressed mood, life stress and parenting styles in children. A large-scale survey was conducted including 5328 children from 65 elementary schools in Taiwan. SI was measured by asking children if any suicidal thoughts had occurred in the previous month. A series of regression models was analysed separately for male and female students. Compared with boys, girls demonstrated a higher proportion of SI. Among boys, SI was significantly associated with a high level of perceived environmental stress (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.61), a high degree of depressed mood (aOR = 2.39), authoritative (aOR = 1.72) and authoritarian (aOR = 2.53) parenting styles and two or more life-stress events (aOR = 1.45). A high level of perceived environmental stress (aOR = 2.09), a high degree of depressed mood (aOR = 2.89) and an authoritarian parenting style (aOR = 1.76) were significantly associated with the SI in girls. Gender-specific interventions aimed at preventing SI must enhance support systems at school and at home, particularly for students who suffer from a high degree of stress and depressed mood, and are subjected to an authoritarian parenting style. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Gender and Gender Role Differences in Student-Teachers' Commitment to Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Ikupa; Admiraal, Wilfried F.; Berry, Amanda K.

    2016-01-01

    Low commitment to teaching amongst teachers is a problem facing the teaching profession in many countries. Gender might be an important factor in explaining what kinds of prospective teachers are attracted to teaching. This empirical study examined the relationship between student-teachers' gender, gender roles and commitment to teaching within…

  9. Gender and Gender Role Differences in Student-Teachers' Commitment to Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Ikupa; Admiraal, Wilfried F.; Berry, Amanda K.

    2016-01-01

    Low commitment to teaching amongst teachers is a problem facing the teaching profession in many countries. Gender might be an important factor in explaining what kinds of prospective teachers are attracted to teaching. This empirical study examined the relationship between student-teachers' gender, gender roles and commitment to teaching within…

  10. A meta-analysis of gender stereotypes and bias in experimental simulations of employment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Amanda J; D'Mello, Susan D; Sackett, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Gender bias continues to be a concern in many work settings, leading researchers to identify factors that influence workplace decisions. In this study we examine several of these factors, using an organizing framework of sex distribution within jobs (including male- and female-dominated jobs as well as sex-balanced, or integrated, jobs). We conducted random effects meta-analyses including 136 independent effect sizes from experimental studies (N = 22,348) and examined the effects of decision-maker gender, amount and content of information available to the decision maker, type of evaluation, and motivation to make careful decisions on gender bias in organizational decisions. We also examined study characteristics such as type of participant, publication year, and study design. Our findings revealed that men were preferred for male-dominated jobs (i.e., gender-role congruity bias), whereas no strong preference for either gender was found for female-dominated or integrated jobs. Second, male raters exhibited greater gender-role congruity bias than did female raters for male-dominated jobs. Third, gender-role congruity bias did not consistently decrease when decision makers were provided with additional information about those they were rating, but gender-role congruity bias was reduced when information clearly indicated high competence of those being evaluated. Fourth, gender-role congruity bias did not differ between decisions that required comparisons among ratees and decisions made about individual ratees. Fifth, decision makers who were motivated to make careful decisions tended to exhibit less gender-role congruity bias for male-dominated jobs. Finally, for male-dominated jobs, experienced professionals showed smaller gender-role congruity bias than did undergraduates or working adults.

  11. The influence of gender attitudes on contraceptive use in Tanzania: new evidence using husbands' and wives' survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Geeta; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Lenzi, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores the hypothesis that gender attitude scales (which measure the degree of equity in gender attitudes) are associated with contraceptive use. Four hundred male and female respondents (200 couples) were interviewed using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Analyses included comparisons of means and prevalence rates on gender equity indicators, other related factors and socio-demographic characteristics; t-tests to compare mean scores on each gender scale for wives and husbands to identify any significant differences; chi-squared tests to compare associations between individual attributes, attitudes and contraceptive use; and multivariate logistic regression to examine associations between each gender scale and contraceptive use. The findings revealed that, on average, wives endorsed more inequitable gender attitudes compared with husbands on all gender attitude scales. For wives, more equitable gender attitudes were positively associated with contraceptive use. For husbands, the role of gender attitudes had no significant association with wives' reported contraceptive use. Family planning programmes that aim to challenge inegalitarian gender norms should not overlook women in their efforts since both men and women often accept and support inequality in a social system and, in some cases, it may be women's gender attitudes that most influence family planning decisions.

  12. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  13. Gender Track: Research on High School Tracking Systems According to Gender Roles

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Sociologists of education have used the concept of tracking to analyze educational and occupational differentiation. Previous researches have been gender-biased and overlooked intragender differentiation. This article aims to show : 1) high schools work as an allocation system based on non-meritocratic factors like gender roles ; and 2) each high school can be seen as a "gender track," which allocates students according to gender roles that schools transmit. The author administered a question...

  14. Gender and ethnic differences in the control of hyperlipidaemia and other vascular risk factors: insights from the CEntralised Pan-South African survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolaemia (CEPHEUS SA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapeport, Naomi; Schamroth, Colin Leslie; Blom, Dirk Jacobus

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the CEntralised Pan-South African survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolaemia (CEPHEUS SA) was to evaluate the current use and efficacy of lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) in urban patients of different ethnicity with hyperlipidaemia, and to identify possible patient characteristics associated with failure to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets. There is little published data on LDL-C attainment from developing countries. The survey was conducted in 69 study centres in South Africa and recruited consecutive patients who had been prescribed LLDs for at least three months with no dose adjustment for six weeks. All patients provided written consent. One visit was scheduled for data collection, including fasting lipid and glucose, and HbA1c levels. Of the 3 001 patients recruited, 2 996 were included in the final analyses; 1 385 subjects were of Caucasian origin (818 male), 510 of African ancestry (168 male), 481 of mixed ancestry (222 male) and 620 of Asian origin (364 male). Only 60.5% of patients on LLDs for at least three months achieved the LDL-C targets recommended by the NCEP ATP III/2004 updated NCEP ATP III guidelines and 52.3% the fourth JETF/South African guidelines. African females were on average younger than females of other ethnic origins, and had the lowest smoking rates but the highest prevalence of obesity, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus (DM), with the worst glycaemic control. Although women were less likely than men to reach goal [OR 0.65 (CI 0.54-0.77), p < 0.001 for NCEP ATP III guidelines and OR 0.76 (CI 0.64-0.91), p < 0.003 for fourth JETF guidelines], women of African ancestry were just as likely not to reach goal as their Caucasian counterparts. The results of this survey highlight the sub-optimal lipid control achieved in many South African patients, and profile important gender and ethnic differences. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors across gender and ethnic

  15. The linguistics of gender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, J.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter explores grammatical gender as a linguistic phenomenon. First, I define gender in terms of agreement, and look at the parts of speech that can take gender agreement. Because it relates to assumptions underlying much psycholinguistic gender research, I also examine the reasons why gender

  16. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor....... In conclusion, spironolactone inhibits production of several proinflammatory cytokines considered to be of pathogenic importance in many immunoinflammatory diseases and shows positive effect in patients with chronic arthritis. Its effect as an anti-inflammatory drug should be explored, because prolonged...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  17. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    ,000 genes) and enzyme immunoassay for quantitating secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of spironolactone as an anti-inflammatory drug 21 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) or other arthritides were treated...... for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  18. Lineages of human T-cell clones, including T helper 17/T helper 1 cells, isolated at different stages of anti–factor VIII immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Ettinger, Ruth A.; James, Eddie A.; Kwok, William W.; Arthur R Thompson; Pratt, Kathleen P.

    2009-01-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) after factor VIII (FVIII) infusions is a serious complication that affects approximately one-quarter of hemophilia A patients who have access to replacement therapy. To investigate the differentiation of naive T cells into FVIII-specific helper T cells that promote B-cell activation and antibody secretion, HLA-DRA-DRB1*0101-restricted T-cell clones that respond to a specific epitope in FVIII were isolated from a mild hemophilia A subject...

  19. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; van Lankveld, Wim G J M; Vonk, Madelon C; Becker, Eni S; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. In total, 215 patients with SSc completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, physical functioning (HAQ-DI), pain (VAS), fatigue (CIS), psychosocial characteristics (CISS, ICQ, PRQ, ASE, FoP-Q-SF) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). Disease characteristics (disease duration, disease subtype, modified Rodnan Skin Score) were collected. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess associations with depressive symptoms. The mean CES-D score was 12.9 (SD=9.7) and the prevalence of patients scoring>= 16 and>=19 were 32.1% and 25.1%, respectively. The variance explained by sociodemographics and disease characteristics was negligible (R(2)≤.09). Fatigue and pain were independently associated with depressive symptoms (R(2) change=.35). After adding psychological factors (R(2) change=.21), satisfaction with social support, emotion-focused coping and helplessness were also significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher fear of progression was associated with more depressive symptoms (P≤.01), and appearance self-esteem showed a marginally significant association (P=.08). Depressive symptoms were common in the present sample of patients with SSc and were independently associated with pain, fatigue, social support, emotion-focused coping, helplessness and fear of progression. Results suggest that, in addition to assessment of disease characteristics, attention should be given also to psychosocial factors found to be associated with depressive symptoms. For the development and trialling of psychological interventions, fear of progression could be an important target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender identity disorder and schizophrenia: neurodevelopmental disorders with common causal mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed.

  1. Gender Identity Disorder and Schizophrenia: Neurodevelopmental Disorders with Common Causal Mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed. PMID:25548672

  2. Gender differences in suicide in Serbia within the period 2006-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Dedić Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. The complex multifactorial etiology of suicide suggests the need to consider gender differences when developing effective strategies for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to examine the suicide rates and/or trends obtained for population as a whole, including gender differences in cases of committed suicide and to consider factors (age groups, education, employment, marital status, nationality and methods) associated with it in S...

  3. GENDER IDENTITY AND GENDER ROLE IN DSD PATIENTS RAISED AS FEMALES:A PRELIMINARY OUTCOME STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya eErcan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients.After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD,11 patients 46XY DSD answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI questionnaire including 60- item Masculinity-Femininity (MF subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n:50 were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist(D.I. on MMPI .For statistical purposes, 7 findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these 7 findings (S1-S7, two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4 and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S3 and S4 respectively. In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively.There was no significant difference between 46XX DSD patients and 46XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the 7 findings. Two patients requested gender change to male;only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions(S7.In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients

  4. Gender bias in academic recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that women are underrepresented in the academic systems of many countries. Gender discrimination is one of the factors that could contribute to this phenomenon. This study considers a recent national academic recruitment campaign in Italy, examining whether women are subject...... to more or less bias than men. The findings show that no gender-related differences occur among the candidates who benefit from positive bias, while among those candidates affected by negative bias, the incidence of women is lower than that of men. Among the factors that determine success in a competition...... for an academic position, the number of the applicant’s career years in the same university as the committee members assumes greater weight for male candidates than for females. Being of the same gender as the committee president is also a factor that assumes greater weight for male applicants. On the other hand...

  5. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Kepka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13–17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen for male adolescents ages 13–17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  6. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Hawkins, Amy J; Warner, Echo L; Boucher, Kenneth M

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13-17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for male adolescents ages 13-17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  7. Gender differences in cooperation: experimental evidence on high school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alberto Molina

    Full Text Available The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences.

  8. Gender differences in cooperation: experimental evidence on high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, J Alberto; Giménez-Nadal, J Ignacio; Cuesta, José A; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir; Sanchez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences.

  9. Dietary cholesterol, female gender and n-3 fatty acid deficiency are more important factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than the saturation index of the fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Caraballo Sonia C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central feature of NAFLD is a disturbed fatty-acid metabolism with hepatic lipid accumulation. However, the factors that determine the severity of NAFLD, including the role of nutrition, gender, and plasma lipid levels, remain to be determined. Methods High-fat diets (42 en% fat, containing 0.2% cholesterol, were fed to male and female wild-type and hyperlipidemic APOE2ki C57BL/6J mice for three weeks. The fats were, in order of decreasing saturation, fractionated palm fat (fPF; ~95%, cocoa butter (CB; ~60%, olive oil (OO; ~15%, sunflower oil (SO; ~12%, and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (hoSO; ~7%. Plasma and liver triglycerides (concentration and composition, liver inflammation (Ccl2, Cd68, Tnf-α mRNA, and infiltration of macrophages (Cd68, Cd11b immunohistochemistry and neutrophils (Mpo were quantified. Results Addition of cholesterol to a low-fat diet decreased plasma HDL and increased (VLDL levels in APOE2ki mice. Plasma cholesterol levels in female, but not male APOE2ki mice correlated significantly with inflammation. Kupffer cells of inflamed livers were swollen. Wild-type mice refused the highly saturated fPF diet. The high-fat CB, OO, and SO diets induced hyperglycemia and a 2-fold increase in hepatic fat content in male, but not female wild-type mice (in females, hepatic fat content was similar to that in males fed a high-fat diet. All high-fat diets induced macrovesicular setatosis. APOE2ki mice were protected against high-fat diet-induced steatosis and hyperglycemia, except when fed a hoSO diet. This diet caused a 5-fold increase in liver triglyceride and mead-acid content, and an increased expression of lipogenic genes, suggesting a deficiency in poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Irrespective of the composition of the high-fat diet, oleic acid was the main triglyceride component of liver fat in wild-type and APOE2ki mouse livers. Liver inflammation was dependent on genotype (APOE2ki > wild type, gender (female

  10. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    長坂, 達彦; ナガサカ, タツヒコ; Tatsuhiko, Nagasaka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  11. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  12. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  13. Gender differences in the learning and teaching of surgery: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore evidence concerning gender differences in teaching and learning in surgery to guide future initiatives. Methods This systematic review was conducted searching in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed. All studies related to gender differences in surgical education, teaching or learning of surgery at an undergraduate level were included. Data was extracted and critically appraised. Gender differences in learning, teaching, skills acquisition, perceptions and attitudes, interest on surgery, personality and factors influencing interest in surgical careers were differentiated. Results There is an underrepresentation of women in surgical academia, due to lack of role models and gender awareness. It is not clear whether or not gender itself is a factor that affects the learning of surgical tasks. Female students pursuing a surgical career had experienced sexual harassment and gender discrimination that can have an effect on the professional identity formation and specialty choice. There are differences in personality among female and male students interested in surgery. Gender is a determining factor to choose surgery, with a consistent lower proportion of women compared interested in pursuing a surgical career. Mentoring and personality fit are important in medical student’s specialty selection. Female students are more likely to be discouraged from pursuing a surgical career by a lack of female role models. Conclusions Bias against women in surgery still exists. There is a lack of studies that investigate the role of women in the teaching of surgery. PMID:25341220

  14. Gender differences in the learning and teaching of surgery: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Carmen M; Josephson, Anna

    2014-06-15

    To explore evidence concerning gender differences in teaching and learning in surgery to guide future initiatives. This systematic review was conducted searching in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed. All studies related to gender differences in surgical education, teaching or learning of surgery at an undergraduate level were included. Data was extracted and critically appraised. Gender differences in learning, teaching, skills acquisition, perceptions and attitudes, interest on surgery, personality and factors influencing interest in surgical careers were differentiated. There is an underrepresentation of women in surgical academia, due to lack of role models and gender awareness. It is not clear whether or not gender itself is a factor that affects the learning of surgical tasks. Female students pursuing a surgical career had experienced sexual harassment and gender discrimination that can have an effect on the professional identity formation and specialty choice. There are differences in personality among female and male students interested in surgery. Gender is a determining factor to choose surgery, with a consistent lower proportion of women compared interested in pursuing a surgical career. Mentoring and personality fit are important in medical student's specialty selection. Female students are more likely to be discouraged from pursuing a surgical career by a lack of female role models. Bias against women in surgery still exists. There is a lack of studies that investigate the role of women in the teaching of surgery.

  15. Effects of Single-Gender Middle School Classes on Science Achievement and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tanisha

    Many girls continue to achieve below their male counterparts and portray negative attitudes towards science classes. Some school districts are using single-gender education as a way to shrink the gender gap in school achievement and science related attitude. The purpose of this study was to compare achievement and science-related attitudes of 7th grade girls in single-gender education to 7th grade girls in mixed-gender education. The theoretical base for this study included knowledge from brain-based learning and assimilation, accommodation and age factors of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The 12-week study included 48 7th grade girls, 21 in the single-gender classroom and 14 in each mixed-gender classroom. This quantitative randomized posttest only control group design utilized the TerraNova Science Assessment and the Test of Science Related Attitudes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed in the achievement and attitudes of girls in single and mixed-gender science classes. ANOVA analyses revealed that the girls in the single-gender classroom showed a significantly higher achievement level when compared to girls in the mixed-gender classrooms. Results showed no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The results of this study contribute to social change by raising awareness about gender issues in science achievement and attitude, addressing a deficiency in the single-gender science education literature, and assisting educational systems in decision making to address achievement gaps while moving toward adequate yearly progress and meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

  16. Procrastination and suicide proneness: A moderated-mediation model for cognitive schemas and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibert, Jeffrey; LeLeux-LaBarge, Kayla; Tarantino, Nicholas; Yancey, Thresa; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect paths between procrastination and suicide proneness while considering gender differences. Participants included 547 undergraduates from a southeastern university. Procrastination was positively related to suicide proneness for both genders, although this relation was stronger for women. Moderated-mediation analyses with bootstrapping highlighted insufficient self-control schemas as a mediator in the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness. However, indirect pathways did not vary by gender. Results represent an extension of the Procrastination-Health Model by highlighting the contribution of cognitive factors in explaining the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness.

  17. Factors associated with HPV-DNA clearance in a cohort of HIV-positive patients: role of cART and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Suardi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We aimed to assess any factors associated with dysplasia regression and with HPV clearance in a cohort of HIV+ patients, with particular focus on cART and gender. Methods: Asymptomatic HIV+ patients of the San Paolo Infectious Disease (SPID cohort who underwent anoscopy/gynaecological evaluation were enrolled. Anal/cervical brushing were analyzed for: HPV-PCR detection/genotyping (HR-HPV, cytologic abnormalities (Bethesda System 2001: LSIL-HSIL. Demographics and HIV-related parameters were evaluated at baseline. Activated CD8+/CD38+ lymphocytes were measured (flow citometry. Patients were examined at baseline (T0 and at 12–18 months visit (T1. HPV clearance was defined as negativisation of HPV at T1; SIL regression (SIL-R and progression (SIL-P were defined as change from HSIL/LSIL to a lower-grade/absence of dysplasia and as change from absence of HSIL/LSIL to a higher-grade dysplasia at T1, respectively. Mann Whitney test, Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used. Results: A total of 189 patients were examined, 60 (32% were women. One hundred fifty patients (79% were HPV+, 113 (75% harboured HR-HPV; 103 (68% showed LSIL/HSIL at T0 (32% of women and 65% of men (all were HPV-positive. No differences in demographics and HIV-related markers were found between patients with SIL-P (33, 41% and patients with SIL-R (47, 59%. HPV+ patients who cleared HPV (28, 18% were found to be more frequently female, heterosexual infected, more frequently on cART and with lower Log10 HIV-RNA and lower levels of CD8+/CD38+ % compared with HPV persistence group (Table 1.No differences in PI exposure were found between the two groups (p=.08. Interestingly, also when only HR-HPV were considered, clearance was associated with exposure to cART (naïve 4%, vs cART 86%, p=.048. In multivariate analysis, heterosexuals (AOR 5.123, 95% CI 1.5–17.5 vs homosexuals were independently associated to HPV clearance, whereas CD8+/CD38+% (AOR 0

  18. Factors associated with HPV-DNA clearance in a cohort of HIV-positive patients: role of cART and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi, Elisa; Bai, Francesca; Comi, Laura; Pandolfo, Alessandro; Rovati, Marco; Barco, Ambra; Dalzero, Serena; Cassani, Barbara; Marchetti, Giulia; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to assess any factors associated with dysplasia regression and with HPV clearance in a cohort of HIV+ patients, with particular focus on cART and gender. Methods Asymptomatic HIV+ patients of the San Paolo Infectious Disease (SPID) cohort who underwent anoscopy/gynaecological evaluation were enrolled. Anal/cervical brushing were analyzed for: HPV-PCR detection/genotyping (HR-HPV), cytologic abnormalities (Bethesda System 2001: LSIL-HSIL). Demographics and HIV-related parameters were evaluated at baseline. Activated CD8+/CD38+ lymphocytes were measured (flow citometry). Patients were examined at baseline (T0) and at 12–18 months visit (T1). HPV clearance was defined as negativisation of HPV at T1; SIL regression (SIL-R) and progression (SIL-P) were defined as change from HSIL/LSIL to a lower-grade/absence of dysplasia and as change from absence of HSIL/LSIL to a higher-grade dysplasia at T1, respectively. Mann Whitney test, Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used. Results A total of 189 patients were examined, 60 (32%) were women. One hundred fifty patients (79%) were HPV+, 113 (75%) harboured HR-HPV; 103 (68%) showed LSIL/HSIL at T0 (32% of women and 65% of men) (all were HPV-positive). No differences in demographics and HIV-related markers were found between patients with SIL-P (33, 41%) and patients with SIL-R (47, 59%). HPV+ patients who cleared HPV (28, 18%) were found to be more frequently female, heterosexual infected, more frequently on cART and with lower Log10 HIV-RNA and lower levels of CD8+/CD38+ % compared with HPV persistence group (Table 1). No differences in PI exposure were found between the two groups (p=.08). Interestingly, also when only HR-HPV were considered, clearance was associated with exposure to cART (naïve 4%, vs cART 86%, p=.048). In multivariate analysis, heterosexuals (AOR 5.123, 95% CI 1.5–17.5 vs homosexuals) were independently associated to HPV clearance, whereas CD8+/CD38+% (AOR 0

  19. Country, age, and gender differences in the prevalence of screen-based behaviour and family-related factors among school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: New information and communication technologies have become an important part of adolescents' everyday lives. However, the sedentary behaviour of young people in Central Europe has become more similar to that found in Western European countries. This study can provide baseline data for a future comparison and investigation of lifestyle and health behaviours in this region in the future. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess country, age, and gender differences in the prevalence of sedentary behaviour activities and family-related factors among school-aged children. Methods: Using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study was performed in 2013, collecting data from 11- and 15-year-old Slovak (n = 488 and Czech (n = 418 children. The data was explored using c2 tests to determine statistical significance. Results: Two-thirds of the respondents watch television or use a computer for at least two hours a day. The older children (older vs. younger: 73.6% vs. 53.9%, c2 = 35.6, p < .001 spent excessive amounts of time watching television. More than half of the children have a television (51.9% or a computer (73.0% in their bedroom. More than half of their parents rarely or never apply rules about how long they can watch TV (63.9% or time spent on the computer (55.5%. The Slovak children reported watching television together with their parents every day significantly more frequently than their Czech peers (Slovak vs. Czech children 31.0% vs. 18.7%, c2 = 17.9, p < .001. Conclusions: The prevalence of screen-based behaviour is relatively high, as is screen time spent together with parents, especially among the Slovak children. Moreover, many children reported that their parents rarely or never applied rules about the length and content of their television watching or time spent on the computer.

  20. Choosing to Lose our Gender Expertise: Queering Sex/Gender in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Most people, school teachers and children included, are altogether too sure about what gender is: there are two "opposite" sexes, man and woman, and gender is the inevitable categorical expression of natural sex. Like all commonsense views, however, the gender binary has been socially constructed through normalising discourses that frame…

  1. Association of daily physical activity level with health-related factors by gender and age-specific differences among Korean adults based on the sixth (2014-2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Nana; Park, Hun-Young; Park, Mi-Young; Hwang, Yoon-Young; Lee, Chi-Ho; Han, Jin-Soo; So, Jaemoo; Kim, Jisu; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2017-06-30

    This study examined the effects of daily physical activity level on health-related factors according to gender and identified age-specific differences among Korean adults. Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2014-2015), we selected adults aged 19-64 years who participated in both a health examination and health interview survey. The study included 6,457 participants 19-64 years of age (2,611 men, 3,846 women). Assessment of the differences in health-related factors according to age and physical activity in men and women by repeated two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant interaction effects on total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in male participants, but there were no significant interaction effects for any health-related factors in female participants. The group of female participants aged 40-64 years with daily physical activity levels over 200 kcal showed a significantly increased prevalence of 46% for dyslipidemia compared to that in female participants with daily physical activity levels below 200 kcal. Physical activity was positively correlated with weight and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in men 19-39 years of age, compared to weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and DBP in men 40-64 years of age, and weight, WC, BMI, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and triglyceride (TG) levels in women 19-39 years of age. In women 40- 64 years of age, physical activity was especially significantly positively correlated with weight, BMI, HDL-C and negatively correlated with fasting glucose and TG levels. In male and female participants, the 40-64-year age group showed negative results for health-related factors compared to those in the 19-39-year age group. The higher the weight, WC, BMI, the higher is the physical activity level. Physical activity levels were significantly positively correlated with health-related variables.

  2. Few gender differences in specialty preferences and motivational factors: A cross-sectional Swedish study on last-year medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderichsen, S.; Johansson, E.E.; Verdonk, P.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Hamberg, K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Today, women constitute about half of medical students in several Western societies, yet women physicians are still underrepresented in surgical specialties and clustered in other branches of medicine. Gender segregation in specialty preference has been found already in medical school. I

  3. Development of multidrug resistance due to multiple factors including P-glycoprotein overexpression under K-selection after MYC and HRAS oncogene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukari; Sato, Hiroyuki; Motokura, Toru

    2006-05-15

    Multistep tumorigenesis is a form of microevolution consisting of mutation and selection. To clarify the role of selection modalities in tumor development, we examined two alternative evolutionary conditions, r-selection in sparse culture, which allows cells to proliferate rapidly, and K-selection in confluent culture, in which overcrowding constrains cell proliferation. Using MYC- and EJ-RAS-transformed rat embryo fibroblasts, we found that K-selected cells acquired and stably maintained multidrug resistance (MDR) to DOX, VCR, MTX and Ara-C. Then, we examined the involvement of a number of factors potentially causal of the development of MDR, that is, ploidy, Tp53 mutation, doubling time and the expression levels of genes related to drug resistance. Although ploidy status and Tp53 mutations did not correlate with MDR, we found that Abcb1/Mdr1, encoding P-glycoprotein (Pgp), was significantly upregulated after K-selection. Cyclosporin A, a competitive inhibitor of Pgp, increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX and reduced the resistance to it. Indeed, the population of Pgp-transfected cells significantly expanded under K-, but not under r-selection. In addition to Pgp upregulation, altered expression of other genes such as Cda/cytidine deaminase and Slc29a1/equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 and prolonged doubling times were associated with MDR. This system reproduces events associated with MDR in vivo and would be useful for analysis of MDR development.

  4. Gender difference in influencing factors of personality in school children%学龄儿童个性影响因素的性别差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 何宏灵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the gender difference in school children' s personality and their influencing factors so as to provide theoretical evidence for cultivating healthy personality. Methods Two classes from each of grade four, five and six in one school which was randomly selected from each of seven districts of Xi an were recruited. Altogether 2 000 school children were surveyed with Eysenck personality questionnaire ( EPQ ) ( for children ) and self-designed general information questionnaires. The data was analyzed by multiple stepwise regression analysis. Results The P( psychoticism ) dimension of girls was influenced by school achievements( t = -4. 653, P < 0.01 ), and that of boys was influenced by the factors of school achievements( t= -3.278, P<0.01 ), parents' relationship( t=3.058, P <0. 01 ) and father' s occupation( t = 3. 397 ,P < 0. 01 ). The E( extrovision and introvision ) dimension of girls was influenced by the factors of whether being a class cadre( t= - 4. 527,P <0. 01 ), self-evaluation in class ( t = - 3. 357,P <0.01 ), education level of father ( t = 2. 609 ,P < 0. 01 )and parents' relationship( t = -2. 279, P < 0. 01 ), while that of boys was influenced by the factors of self-evaluation in class( t = - 5. 056,P <0. 01 ) and parents' relationship( t = -2. 098, P <0. 01 ). The N( neuroticism ) dimension of girls and boys was both influenced by the factor of school achievements( girls: t = - 2. 966, P < 0. 01; boys: t = - 5. 092, P < 0. 01 )and parents' relationship( girls:t =4. 100,P <0. 01; boys:t =4. 255, P<0.0l). Conclusion There is no remarkable difference in influencing factors of personality between girls and boys in school children. Personality is influenced by many factors from family to school environment. Teachers and parents should provide a good family and social environment, keep hopeful in sentiments and avoid negative influence on children, so as to bring about positive development of personality.%目的 分析学龄儿童个性

  5. Adolescents' reasoning about parental gender roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Sara J; Conry-Murray, Clare; Turiel, Elliot

    2013-01-01

    In an examination of how adolescents reason about several factors related to division of childcare labor, 38 adolescents, including 20 girls (M age = 16.36 years, SD = .50) and 18 boys (M age = 16.59 years, SD = .62) were interviewed about conflicts between a mother and a father over which parent should stay home with the child, the authority of the father, and similar issues in a traditional culture. The relative income of each parent was varied. Participants considered the needs of the child most when reasoning about infants, and the right to work most frequently when reasoning about preschoolers (p gender equity and adolescents' future goals were discussed.

  6. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    , we investigate the role of gender as a factor that contributes to eye colour variation and suggest that the gender effect on eye colour is population specific. A total of 230 Italian individuals were typed for the six IrisPlex SNPs (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs12896399, rs1393350, rs16891982 and rs......In two recent studies of Spanish individuals [1,2], gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model [3]. In this study...... eye colour independently of ancestry. Furthermore, we found gender to be significantly associated with quantitative eye colour measurements in the Italian population sample. We found that the association was statistically significant only among Italian individuals typed as heterozygote GA for HERC2 rs...

  7. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    , we investigate the role of gender as a factor that contributes to eye colour variation and suggest that the gender effect on eye colour is population specific. A total of 230 Italian individuals were typed for the six IrisPlex SNPs (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs12896399, rs1393350, rs16891982 and rs......In two recent studies of Spanish individuals [1,2], gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model [3]. In this study...... eye colour independently of ancestry. Furthermore, we found gender to be significantly associated with quantitative eye colour measurements in the Italian population sample. We found that the association was statistically significant only among Italian individuals typed as heterozygote GA for HERC2 rs...

  8. Evaluating the prevalence of canceling surgical operations,including its influencing factors at Imam Khomeini hospital in Sari during 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zamani kiasari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Hospital admission for surgery is an important event for patients. Canceling surgical procedures produce several unpleasant results for patients such as waste of time, including payment. The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence and causes of canceling surgical procedures, in order to achieve problem solving methods.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Statistical data regarding all surgical procedures (without sampling performed during 2006 to 2007, were recorded in a checklist. Study variables were identified based on surgical procedures that were canceled during this study. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and statistical analysis tests.Results: Of 4,711 scheduled patients, 510 (10/9% surgical operations were canceled. The highest number of patient candidates for surgical operation was related to gynecology, orthopedic, urology, while the least were related to reconstructive and vascular surgery groups respectively. The most canceled surgical procedures were related to neurosurgical operation 32/4% (68 from 207 cases while the least canceled cases belonged to gynecology 4/4% (48 from 1094 cases.Conclusion: The results of our study showed that 54/2% of canceled cases were preventable. The results of this study and similar studies demonstrate that traditional pre-operative preparation for surgical scheduling, day before surgery is in need of serious consideration. We recommend a fundamental change by discarding traditional methods and creating a new committee including specialized bed or resource groups, monthly management meetings to discuss causes of canceling surgical procedures, in order to reduce its occurrence. Thus, decreasing the rate of canceling surgical wasted, while reducing anxiety in patients and their family. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(65:52-62 (Persian

  9. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim Chor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N = 25, PAD (N = 31, VTD (N = 35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2 years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

  10. Borrelidin Isolated from Streptomyces sp. Inhibited Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells via Several Factors Including GATA-Binding Protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Kondo, Yoshiyuki; Kawasaki, Takashi; Tokuyama, Shinji; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    An inhibitor of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was isolated from Streptomyces sp. TK08330 and identified by spectroscopy as the 18-membered macrolide borrelidin. Treatment with 1.0 μM borrelidin suppressed intracellular lipid accumulation by 80% and inhibited the expression of adipocyte-specific genes. Borrelidin suppressed the mRNA expression of two master regulators of adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα). Studies on well-known upstream regulators of PPARγ revealed that borrelidin down-regulated C/EBPδ mRNA expression but did not affect expression of C/EBPβ. Borrelidin increased mRNA expression of negative regulators of differentiation such as GATA-binding protein (GATA) 3, Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 3 and KLF7, as well as positive regulators, KLF4, KLF6 and KLF15, at early stages of differentiation. To elucidate a primary mediator of borrelidin differentiation inhibitory activity, small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection experiments were performed. The mRNA expression of PPARγ, which was down-regulated by borrelidin, was not changed by KLF3 and KLF7 siRNA treatment. In contrast, expression of PPARγ in GATA-3 siRNA-treated cells was not significantly different from that of control siRNA-treated cells. Borrelidin significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in control siRNA-treated cells, and treatment with GATA-3 siRNA slightly reduced the inhibitory effect of borrelidin. These results indicate that borrelidin inhibited adipocyte differentiation partially via GATA-3.

  11. Human CD34+ CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells cultured with growth factors including Angptl5 efficiently engraft adult NOD-SCID Il2rγ-/- (NSG mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Drake

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in clinical and research applications necessitates expansion of HSCs in vitro. Before these cells can be used they must be carefully evaluated to assess their stem cell activity. Here, we expanded cord blood CD34(+ CD133(+ cells in a defined medium containing angiopoietin like 5 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 and evaluated the cells for stem cell activity in NOD-SCID Il2rg(-/- (NSG mice by multi-lineage engraftment, long term reconstitution, limiting dilution and serial reconstitution. The phenotype of expanded cells was characterized by flow cytometry during the course of expansion and following engraftment in mice. We show that the SCID repopulating activity resides in the CD34(+ CD133(+ fraction of expanded cells and that CD34(+ CD133(+ cell number correlates with SCID repopulating activity before and after culture. The expanded cells mediate long-term hematopoiesis and serial reconstitution in NSG mice. Furthermore, they efficiently reconstitute not only neonate but also adult NSG recipients, generating human blood cell populations similar to those reported in mice reconstituted with uncultured human HSCs. These findings suggest an expansion of long term HSCs in our culture and show that expression of CD34 and CD133 serves as a marker for HSC activity in human cord blood cell cultures. The ability to expand human HSCs in vitro should facilitate clinical use of HSCs and large-scale construction of humanized mice from the same donor for research applications.

  12. Women, Gender and the evolving tactics of Boko Haram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Zenn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Ava