WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors including exposure

  1. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  2. Pesticide exposure as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including histopathological subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Akerman, Måns

    2008-10-01

    We report a population based case-control study of exposure to pesticides as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Male and female subjects aged 18-74 years living in Sweden were included during December 1, 1999, to April 30, 2002. Controls were selected from the national population registry. Exposure to different agents was assessed by questionnaire. In total 910 (91 %) cases and 1016 (92%) controls participated. Exposure to herbicides gave odds ratio (OR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.51. Regarding phenoxyacetic acids highest risk was calculated for MCPA; OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.27-6.22, all these cases had a latency period >10 years. Exposure to glyphosate gave OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.10-3.71 and with >10 years latency period OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.16-4.40. Insecticides overall gave OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.96-1.72 and impregnating agents OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.07-2.30. Results are also presented for different entities of NHL. In conclusion our study confirmed an association between exposure to phenoxyacetic acids and NHL and the association with glyphosate was considerably strengthened.

  3. Risk factors for exposure to influenza a viruses, including subtype H5 viruses, in Thai free-grazing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A L; Kitikoon, P; Schreiner, P J; Singer, R S; Sasipreeyajan, J; Amonsin, A; Gramer, M R; Pakinsee, S; Bender, J B

    2014-08-01

    Free-grazing ducks (FGD) have been associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks and may be a viral reservoir. In July-August 2010, we assessed influenza exposure of Thai FGD and risk factors thereof. Serum from 6254 ducks was analysed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to influenza A nucleoprotein (NP), and haemagglutinin H5 protein. Eighty-five per cent (5305 ducks) were seropositive for influenza A. Of the NP-seropositive sera tested with H5 assays (n = 1423), 553 (39%) were H5 ELISA positive and 57 (4%) suspect. Twelve per cent (74 of 610) of H5 ELISA-positive/suspect ducks had H5 titres ≥ 1 : 20 by haemagglutination inhibition. Risk factors for influenza A seropositivity include older age, poultry contact, flock visitors and older purchase age. Study flocks had H5 virus exposure as recently as March 2010, but no HPAI H5N1 outbreaks have been identified in Thailand since 2008, highlighting a need for rigorous FGD surveillance. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Rosemary T.; Egeghy, Peter P.; Hakkinen, Pertti J.

    2016-01-01

    This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children’s toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment. PMID:27455300

  6. 75 FR 5317 - Exposure Factors Handbook: 2009 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... chemicals. These factors include: Drinking water consumption; mouthing behavior; soil ingestion rates... document solely for the purpose of pre- dissemination peer review under applicable information quality... various factors used in assessing human exposure. This Handbook is aimed at exposure assessors inside the...

  7. Patient-based radiographic exposure factor selection: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, William; Robinson, John; McEntee, Mark, E-mail: mark.mcentee@sydney.edu.au [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Digital technology has wider exposure latitude and post-processing algorithms which can mask the evidence of underexposure and overexposure. Underexposure produces noisy, grainy images which can impede diagnosis and overexposure results in a greater radiation dose to the patient. These exposure errors can result from inaccurate adjustment of exposure factors in response to changes in patient thickness. This study aims to identify all published radiographic exposure adaptation systems which have been, or are being, used in general radiography and discuss their applicability to digital systems. Studies in EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were systematically reviewed. Some of the search terms used were exposure adaptation, exposure selection, exposure technique, 25% rule, 15% rule, DuPont™ Bit System and radiography. A manual journal-specific search was also conducted in The Radiographer and Radiologic Technology. Studies were included if they demonstrated a system of altering exposure factors to compensate for variations in patients for general radiography. Studies were excluded if they focused on finding optimal exposures for an ‘average’ patient or focused on the relationship between exposure factors and dose. The database search uncovered 11 articles and the journal-specific search uncovered 13 articles discussing systems of exposure adaptation. They can be categorised as simple one-step guidelines, comprehensive charts and computer programs. Only two papers assessed the efficacy of exposure adjustment systems. No literature compares the efficacy of exposure adaptations system for film/screen radiography with digital radiography technology nor is there literature on a digital specific exposure adaptation system.

  8. Patient-based radiographic exposure factor selection: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, William; Robinson, John; McEntee, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Digital technology has wider exposure latitude and post-processing algorithms which can mask the evidence of underexposure and overexposure. Underexposure produces noisy, grainy images which can impede diagnosis and overexposure results in a greater radiation dose to the patient. These exposure errors can result from inaccurate adjustment of exposure factors in response to changes in patient thickness. This study aims to identify all published radiographic exposure adaptation systems which have been, or are being, used in general radiography and discuss their applicability to digital systems. Studies in EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were systematically reviewed. Some of the search terms used were exposure adaptation, exposure selection, exposure technique, 25% rule, 15% rule, DuPont™ Bit System and radiography. A manual journal-specific search was also conducted in The Radiographer and Radiologic Technology. Studies were included if they demonstrated a system of altering exposure factors to compensate for variations in patients for general radiography. Studies were excluded if they focused on finding optimal exposures for an ‘average’ patient or focused on the relationship between exposure factors and dose. The database search uncovered 11 articles and the journal-specific search uncovered 13 articles discussing systems of exposure adaptation. They can be categorised as simple one-step guidelines, comprehensive charts and computer programs. Only two papers assessed the efficacy of exposure adjustment systems. No literature compares the efficacy of exposure adaptations system for film/screen radiography with digital radiography technology nor is there literature on a digital specific exposure adaptation system

  9. Exposure Factors Resources: Contrasting EPA’s Exposure Factors Handbook with International Sources (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to compile and standardize exposure human factors have resulted in the development of a variety of resources available to the scientific community. For example, the U.S. EPA developed the Exposure Factors Handbook and Child-specific Exposure Factors Handbook to promote c...

  10. Food Ingestion Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yeon Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  11. Food ingestion factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-Il

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  12. Conceptualizing a Dynamic Fall Risk Model Including Intrinsic Risks and Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Schwickert, Lars; Rapp, Kilan; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Todd, Chris; Lord, Stephen R; Kerse, Ngaire

    2017-11-01

    Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, leading to serious health and social consequences including fractures, poor quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To design and provide adequate prevention measures, accurate understanding and identification of person's individual fall risk is important. However, to date, the performance of fall risk models is weak compared with models estimating, for example, cardiovascular risk. This deficiency may result from 2 factors. First, current models consider risk factors to be stable for each person and not change over time, an assumption that does not reflect real-life experience. Second, current models do not consider the interplay of individual exposure including type of activity (eg, walking, undertaking transfers) and environmental risks (eg, lighting, floor conditions) in which activity is performed. Therefore, we posit a dynamic fall risk model consisting of intrinsic risk factors that vary over time and exposure (activity in context). eHealth sensor technology (eg, smartphones) begins to enable the continuous measurement of both the above factors. We illustrate our model with examples of real-world falls from the FARSEEING database. This dynamic framework for fall risk adds important aspects that may improve understanding of fall mechanisms, fall risk models, and the development of fall prevention interventions. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Overview of the development of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Myung, Hyung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics.

  14. Risk assessment of titanium dioxide nanoparticles via oral exposure, including toxicokinetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, Minne B; Geraets, Liesbeth; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Vandebriel, Rob J; de Jong, Wim H; Oomen, Agnes G

    2016-12-01

    Titanium dioxide white pigment consists of particles of various sizes, from which a fraction is in the nano range (food as additive E 171 as well as in other products, such as food supplements and toothpaste. Here, we assessed whether a human health risk can be expected from oral ingestion of these titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs), based on currently available information. Human health risks were assessed using two different approaches: Approach 1, based on intake, i.e. external doses, and Approach 2, based on internal organ concentrations using a kinetic model in order to account for accumulation over time (the preferred approach). Results showed that with Approach 1, a human health risk is not expected for effects in liver and spleen, but a human health risk cannot be excluded for effects on the ovaries. When based on organ concentrations by including the toxicokinetics of TiO 2 NPs (Approach 2), a potential risk for liver, ovaries and testes is found. This difference between the two approaches shows the importance of including toxicokinetic information. The currently estimated risk can be influenced by factors such as absorption, form of TiO 2 , particle fraction, particle size and physico-chemical properties in relation to toxicity, among others. Analysis of actual particle concentrations in human organs, as well as organ concentrations and effects in liver and the reproductive system after chronic exposure to well-characterized TiO 2 (NPs) in animals are recommended to refine this assessment.

  15. Exposure level of ergonomic risk factors in hotel industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Syahir Muhamad Jaffar, Mohd; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Zamani Ngali, Mohd; Pauline, Ong

    2017-08-01

    Ergonomic Risk Factors (ERFs) which contribute to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) among room attendants were considered as a problem or trouble since these ERFs would affect their work performance for hotel industries. The purpose of this study was to examine the exposure level of ERFs among room attendants in hotel industries. 65 of respondents were obtained from selected hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by direct observation via Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment (WERA) and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC). There were 36 males and 29 females room attendants involved throughout the research. Most of room attendants experienced high exposure level for back, leg, forceful and vibration based on the exposure level evaluation through WERA while QEC results showed that all room attendants were found to have moderate exposure level for risk factors including back for movement use, shoulders/arms, wrists/hands and neck. All the results obtained showed that the related ERFs for MSDs were associated and essential ergonomic interventions are needed in order to eliminate risk of exposures to MSDs among room attendants in hotel industries.

  16. Radiography simulation based on exposure buildup factors for multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, Predrag; Pesic, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo techniques were usually used to study the effect of scattered photons on a radiographic X-ray image. Such approach is accurate, but computer time consuming. On the other hand, the exposure buildup factors can be used as approximate and efficient assessment to account for the scattering of X-rays. This method uses the known radiography parameters to find the resulting detector exposure due to both scattered and un-collided photons. A model for radiography simulation, based on X-ray dose buildup factor, is proposed. This model includes non-uniform attenuation in voxelized object of imaging (patient body tissue). Composition of patient body is considered as a multi-layer structure. Various empirical formulas exist for multi-layer structure calculations and they all calculate multi-layer buildup factors by combining single-layer buildup factors. The proposed model is convenient in cases when more exact techniques (like Monte Carlo) are not economical. (author)

  17. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela [Fisica Sanitaria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (Italy); Granata, Claudio [UOC di Radiologia Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno-infantile ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Palermo (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDI{sub vol} (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen-pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen-pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). (orig.)

  18. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye

    2016-01-01

    , Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, Lind DV, Husby S, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Skakkebæk NE, Jensen TK. 2016. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Environ Health Perspect 124:1261-1268; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409637.......BACKGROUND: Triclosan (TCS) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in consumer products such as hand soap and toothpaste, and human exposure is widespread. TCS is suspected of having endocrine-disrupting properties, but few human studies have examined the developmental effects of prenatal TCS...

  19. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook (2008, Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment Staff (NCEA) have prepared this handbook to provide information on various physiological and behavioral factors commonly used in assessing children’s exposure to environmental chemicals. Children have different exposure circumstanc...

  20. Integrated toxic evaluation of sulfamethazine on zebrafish: Including two lifespan stages (embryo-larval and adult) and three exposure periods (exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Yang, Qiulian; Jiang, Weili; Lu, Jilai; Xiang, Zhongrun; Guo, Ruixin; Chen, Jianqiu

    2018-03-01

    Persistence of antibiotics in aquatic environment may pose a risk to the non-target aquatic organisms. This study provided an integrated evaluation to analyze the toxic stress of sulfamethazine (SMZ) on zebrafish in two lifespan stages (embryo-larval and adult) and three exposure periods (exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure). Zebrafish embryos and adult zebrafish were exposed to SMZ at 0.2, 20 and 2000 μg/L, respectively. The results showed that SMZ at any given concentration inhibited the hatching of embryos at 58-96 hpf (hours post-fertilization). Our result also indicated that two major kinds of the malformation, which was induced by the antibiotic, were edema and spinal curvature. Additionally, the antibiotic stimulated the heartbeat while reduced the body length of the embryo at 72 hpf. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents significantly increased at 120 hpf when the embryos were exposed to the lowest concentration (0.2 μg/L) of the antibiotic. On the other hand, the antibiotic induced SOD activities and MDA contents in adult zebrafish in the exposure and re-exposure periods. The MDA contents could recover while SOD activities still increased in 2 d after the exposure. Both SOD activities and MDA contents could recover in 7 d after the exposure. Levels of SOD and MDA in the re-exposure were higher than those in the first exposure. Our results suggested that SMZ had toxic effects on both embryos and adult zebrafish, and provided an integrated evaluation of the toxic effects of SMZ on zebrafish at a new perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterizing risk factors for pediatric lamp oil product exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, S; Chang, A; Kieszak, S; Law, R; Bennett, H K W; Ernst, E; Bond, G R; Spiller, H A; Schurz-Rogers, H; Chu, A; Bronstein, A C; Schier, J G

    2013-11-01

    Poisonings from lamp oil ingestion continue to occur worldwide among the pediatric population despite preventive measures such as restricted sale of colored and scented lamp oils. This suggests that optimal prevention practices for unintentional pediatric exposures to lamp oil have yet to be identified and/or properly implemented. To characterize demographic, health data, and potential risk factors associated with reported exposures to lamp oil by callers to poison centers (PCs) in the US and discuss their public health implications. This was a two part study in which the first part included characterizing all exposures to a lamp oil product reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) with regard to demographics, exposure, health, and outcome data from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2010. Regional penetrance was calculated using NPDS data by grouping states into four regions and dividing the number of exposure calls by pediatric population per region (from the 2000 US census). Temporal analyses were performed on NPDS data by comparing number of exposures by season and around the July 4th holiday. Poisson regression was used to model the count of exposures for these analyses. In the second part of this project, in order to identify risk factors we conducted a telephone-based survey to the parents of children from five PCs in five different states. The 10 most recent lamp oil product exposure calls for each poison center were systematically selected for inclusion. Calls in which a parent or guardian witnessed a pediatric lamp oil product ingestion were eligible for inclusion. Data on demographics, exposure information, behavioral traits, and health were collected. A descriptive analysis was performed and Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate associations between variables. All analyses were conducted using SAS v9.3. Among NPDS data, 2 years was the most common patient age reported and states in the Midwestern region had the highest numbers of exposure calls compared to

  2. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources URLs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset is a compilation of hyperlinks (URLs) for resources (databases, compendia, published articles, etc.) useful for exposure assessment specific to consumer...

  3. Affecting Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Korea: Focused on Different Exposure Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li Yuan; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Lee, Eun Whan; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Park, Jae Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) not only can cause serious illness, but is also an economic and social burden. Contextual and individual factors of non-smoker exposure to SHS depend on location. However, studies focusing on this subject are lacking. In this study, we described and compared the factors related to SHS exposure according to location in Korea. Regarding individual factors related to SHS exposure, a common individual variable model and location-specific variable model was used to evaluate SHS exposure at home/work/public locations based on sex. In common individual variables, such as age, and smoking status showed different relationships with SHS exposure in different locations. Among home-related variables, housing type and family with a single father and unmarried children showed the strongest positive relationships with SHS exposure in both males and females. In the workplace, service and sales workers, blue-collar workers, and manual laborers showed the strongest positive association with SHS exposure in males and females. For multilevel analysis in public places, only SHS exposure in females was positively related with cancer screening rate. Exposure to SHS in public places showed a positive relationship with drinking rate and single-parent family in males and females. The problem of SHS embodies social policies and interactions between individuals and social contextual factors. Policy makers should consider the contextual factors of specific locations and regional and individual context, along with differences between males and females, to develop effective strategies for reducing SHS exposure.

  4. Time-activity relationships to VOC personal exposure factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus D.; Schweizer, Christian; Llacqua, Vito; Lai, Hak Kan; Jantunen, Matti; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino

    Social and demographic factors have been found to play a significant role in differences between time-activity patterns of population subgroups. Since time-activity patterns largely influence personal exposure to compounds as individuals move across microenvironments, exposure subgroups within the population may be defined by factors that influence daily activity patterns. Socio-demographic and environmental factors that define time-activity subgroups also define quantifiable differences in VOC personal exposures to different sources and individual compounds in the Expolis study. Significant differences in exposures to traffic-related compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were observed in relation to gender, number of children and living alone. Categorization of exposures further indicated time exposed to traffic at work and time in a car as important determinants. Increased exposures to decane, nonane and undecane were observed for males, housewives and self-employed. Categorization of exposures indicated exposure subgroups related to workshop use and living downtown. Higher exposures to 3-carene and α-pinene commonly found in household cleaning products and fragrances were associated with more children, while exposures to traffic compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were reduced with more children. Considerable unexplained variation remained in categorization of exposures associated with home product use and fragrances, due to individual behavior and product choice. More targeted data collection methods in VOC exposure studies for these sources should be used. Living alone was associated with decreased exposures to 2-methyl-1-propanol and 1-butanol, and traffic-related compounds. Identification of these subgroups may help to reduce the large amount of unexplained variation in VOC exposure studies. Further they may help in assessing impacts of urban planning that result in changes in behavior of individuals, resulting in shifts in

  5. Exposure to psychosocial work factors in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, I; Sultan-Taïeb, H; Chastang, J-F; Vermeylen, G; Parent-Thirion, A

    2012-04-01

    Although psychosocial work factors are recognized as major occupational risk factors, little information is available regarding the prevalence of exposure to these factors and the differences in exposure between countries. To explore the differences in various psychosocial work exposures between 31 European countries. The study was based on a sample of 14,881 male and 14,799 female workers from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey. Eighteen psychosocial work factors were studied: low decision latitude (skill discretion and decision authority), high psychological demands, job strain, low social support, iso-strain, physical violence, sexual harassment, bullying, discrimination, work-family imbalance, long working hours, high effort, job insecurity, low job promotion, low reward and effort-reward imbalance. Covariates were age, number of workers in household, occupation, economic activity, self-employed/employee, public/private sector and part/full time work. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Significant differences in all psychosocial work factors were observed between countries. The rank of the countries varied according to the exposure considered. However, some countries, especially Denmark, Netherlands and Norway, displayed a significantly lower prevalence of exposure to four factors or more, while some Southern and Eastern countries, especially Czech Republic, Greece, Lithuania and Turkey, had a higher prevalence. Differences in psychosocial work exposures were found between countries. This study is the first to compare a large set of psychosocial work exposures between 31 European countries. These findings may be useful to guide prevention policies at European level.

  6. Military-Specific Exposure Factors Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lurker, Peter

    1998-01-01

    ...) provides many factors needed in the assessment of human health risk that were derived from general population studies or studies involving relatively small groups that may not be representative of military populations...

  7. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  8. Factors Associated with Younger Adolescents’ Exposure to Online Alcohol Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Shadel, William G.; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a two-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past two weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths’ risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% white, 27% black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for under-reporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents’ exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. PMID:27819430

  9. Factors associated with younger adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  11. The FARE: a new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  12. Factors impacting public acceptance of medical radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Satsuki; Kanda, Reiko

    2009-01-01

    We undertook a survey to determine the public acceptance of medical radiation exposure throughout Japan, and 1,357 responses (67.9% response rate) were obtained using a two-stage systematic stratified random sampling method. The acceptance of exposure of children was generally similar to that of adults. For each of the attributes, 45-60% of the participants were accepting of exposure for cancer treatment and diagnosis, but only 30% were accepting of exposure for X-ray diagnoses of bone fractures and dental caries. In general, the presence of a child did not markedly affect women's acceptance of exposure. Factor analyses identified 3 factors influencing the acceptance of child exposure: symptomatic diseases to determine treatment, the possibility of high-risk diseases (or major organ diseases), and the association with cancer. Cluster analysis showed 4 clusters: a positive group regarding children's exposure for the diagnosis of bone fractures and dental caries (12.9% of all participants), a positive group for major organ disease and cancer (15.5%), a negative group excluding cancer (55.2%), and a positive group for all cases (16.4%). The cluster distributions revealed that mothers with 10- to 18-year-old firstborn children showed a tendency to accept the medical radiation exposure of their children in all cases. (author)

  13. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.

  14. Urbanization and traffic related exposures as risk factors for Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    to nearest major road had no significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: The cause(s) or exposure(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk were closer related to the degree of urbanization than to the geographical distance to nearest major road. Traffic related exposures might thus be less......BACKGROUND: Urban birth or upbringing increase schizophrenia risk. Though unknown, the causes of these urban-rural differences have been hypothesized to include, e.g., infections, diet, toxic exposures, social class, or an artefact due to selective migration. METHODS: We investigated the hypothesis...... that traffic related exposures affect schizophrenia risk and that this potential effect is responsible for the urban-rural differences. The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road was used as a proxy variable for traffic related exposures. We used a large population-based sample...

  15. Standardized approach for developing probabilistic exposure factor distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2003-03-01

    The effectiveness of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) depends critically on the quality of input information that is available to the risk assessor and specifically on the probabilistic exposure factor distributions that are developed and used in the exposure and risk models. Deriving probabilistic distributions for model inputs can be time consuming and subjective. The absence of a standard approach for developing these distributions can result in PRAs that are inconsistent and difficult to review by regulatory agencies. We present an approach that reduces subjectivity in the distribution development process without limiting the flexibility needed to prepare relevant PRAs. The approach requires two steps. First, we analyze data pooled at a population scale to (1) identify the most robust demographic variables within the population for a given exposure factor, (2) partition the population data into subsets based on these variables, and (3) construct archetypal distributions for each subpopulation. Second, we sample from these archetypal distributions according to site- or scenario-specific conditions to simulate exposure factor values and use these values to construct the scenario-specific input distribution. It is envisaged that the archetypal distributions from step 1 will be generally applicable so risk assessors will not have to repeatedly collect and analyze raw data for each new assessment. We demonstrate the approach for two commonly used exposure factors--body weight (BW) and exposure duration (ED)--using data for the U.S. population. For these factors we provide a first set of subpopulation based archetypal distributions along with methodology for using these distributions to construct relevant scenario-specific probabilistic exposure factor distributions.

  16. Chemical composition dependence of exposure buildup factors for some polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Tejbir [Department of Physics, S.D.D.I.E.T., Barwala, District Panchkula, Haryana 134 118 (India)], E-mail: tejbir.s@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Naresh [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144 402 (India)], E-mail: naresh20dhiman@yahoo.com; Singh, Parjit S. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002 (India)], E-mail: dr_parjit@hotmail.com

    2009-01-15

    Exposure buildup factors for some polymers such as poly-acrylo-nitrile (PAN), poly-methyl-acrylate (PMA), poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC), synthetic rubber (SR), tetra-fluro-ethylene (Teflon) have been computed using the G.P. fitting method in the energy range of 0.015-15.0 MeV, up to the penetration of 40 mean free paths (mfp). The variation of exposure buildup factors for all the selected polymers with incident photon energy at the fixed penetration depths has been studied, mainly emphasizing on chemical composition (equivalent atomic number) of the selected polymers. It has been observed that for the lower penetration depths (below 10 mfp), the exposure buildup factor decreases with the increase in equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers at all the incident photon energies. However, at the penetration depth of 10 mfp and incident photon energy above 3 MeV, the exposure buildup factor becomes almost independent of the equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers. Further, above the fixed penetration depth of 15 mfp of the selected polymers and above the incident photon energy of 3 MeV, reversal in the trend has been observed, i.e., the exposure buildup factor increases with the increase in equivalent atomic number.

  17. Chemical composition dependence of exposure buildup factors for some polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Tejbir; Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Parjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure buildup factors for some polymers such as poly-acrylo-nitrile (PAN), poly-methyl-acrylate (PMA), poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC), synthetic rubber (SR), tetra-fluro-ethylene (Teflon) have been computed using the G.P. fitting method in the energy range of 0.015-15.0 MeV, up to the penetration of 40 mean free paths (mfp). The variation of exposure buildup factors for all the selected polymers with incident photon energy at the fixed penetration depths has been studied, mainly emphasizing on chemical composition (equivalent atomic number) of the selected polymers. It has been observed that for the lower penetration depths (below 10 mfp), the exposure buildup factor decreases with the increase in equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers at all the incident photon energies. However, at the penetration depth of 10 mfp and incident photon energy above 3 MeV, the exposure buildup factor becomes almost independent of the equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers. Further, above the fixed penetration depth of 15 mfp of the selected polymers and above the incident photon energy of 3 MeV, reversal in the trend has been observed, i.e., the exposure buildup factor increases with the increase in equivalent atomic number

  18. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6......). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish...

  19. Energy absorption and exposure build-up factors in teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, H.C.; Rudraswamy, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma and X-radiation are widely used in medical imaging and radiation therapy. The user of radioisotopes must have knowledge about how radiation interacts with matter, especially with the human body, because when photons enter the medium/body, they degrade their energy and build up in the medium, giving rise to secondary radiation which can be estimated by a factor which is called the 'build-up factor'. It is essential to study the exposure build up factor in radiation dosimetry. G.P. fitting method has been used to compute energy absorption and exposure build-up factor of teeth (enamel outer surface (EOS), enamel middle (EM), enamel dentin junction towards enamel (EDJE), enamel dentin junction towards dentin (EDJD), dentin middle (DM) and dentin inner surface (DIS)) for wide energy range (0.015 MeV-15 MeV) up to the penetration depth of 40 mean free path. The dependence of energy absorption and exposure build up factor on incident photon energy, Penetration depth and effective atomic number has also been assessed. The relative dose distribution at a distance r from the point source is also estimated. The computed exposure and absorption build-up factors are useful to estimate the gamma and Bremsstrahlung radiation dose distribution teeth which is useful in clinical dosimetry

  20. Factors influencing radiation exposure during the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Chuan Chen; Ying Huei Lee; Ming Tsun Chen; Jong Khing Huang; Luke S Chang (Division of Urology, Dept. of Surgery, National Yang-Ming Medical College and Veterans General Hospital-Taipei, Taiwan (China))

    1991-01-01

    A prospective evaluation of 89 consecutive sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was undertaken to try and find the best way of minimising the amount of exposure to radiation. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to undergo ESWL treatment by experienced surgeons (group A), and 47 to undergo the treatment by inexperienced surgeons (group B). The mean calculated entrance radiation exposure was 3.01 rads (group A: 2.64 (0.97) rads, range 1.00-4.48, group B: 3.38 (0.86) rads, range 1.11-5.75). Among factors that influenced radiation exposure, the tissue: air ratio should be borne in mind and the level of skill in controlling movement of gantry was the most important in reducing the exposure to radiation. (au).

  1. Factors influencing radiation exposure during the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Chuan Chen; Ying Huei Lee; Ming Tsun Chen; Jong Khing Huang; Luke S Chang

    1991-01-01

    A prospective evaluation of 89 consecutive sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was undertaken to try and find the best way of minimising the amount of exposure to radiation. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to undergo ESWL treatment by experienced surgeons (group A), and 47 to undergo the treatment by inexperienced surgeons (group B). The mean calculated entrance radiation exposure was 3.01 rads (group A: 2.64 (0.97) rads, range 1.00-4.48, group B: 3.38 (0.86) rads, range 1.11-5.75). Among factors that influenced radiation exposure, the tissue: air ratio should be borne in mind and the level of skill in controlling movement of gantry was the most important in reducing the exposure to radiation. (au)

  2. Calculating gamma dose factors for hot particle exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.

    1990-01-01

    For hot particle exposures to the skin, the beta component of radiation delivers the majority of the dose. However, in order to fully demonstrate regulatory compliance, licenses must ordinarily provide reasonable bases for assuming that both the gamma component of the skin dose and the whole body doses are negligible. While beta dose factors are commonly available in the literature, gamma dose factors are not. This paper describes in detail a method by which gamma skin dose factors may be calculated using the Specific Gamma-ray Constant, even if the particle is not located directly on the skin. Two common hot particle exposure geometries are considered: first, a single square centimeter of skin lying at density thickness of 7 mg/cm 2 and then at 1000 mg/cm 2 . A table provides example gamma dose factors for a number of isotopes encountered at power reactors

  3. Development and validation of a job exposure matrix for physical risk factors in low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Solovieva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim was to construct and validate a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM for physical exposures to be used in epidemiological studies of low back pain (LBP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized two large Finnish population surveys, one to construct the JEM and another to test matrix validity. The exposure axis of the matrix included exposures relevant to LBP (heavy physical work, heavy lifting, awkward trunk posture and whole body vibration and exposures that increase the biomechanical load on the low back (arm elevation or those that in combination with other known risk factors could be related to LBP (kneeling or squatting. Job titles with similar work tasks and exposures were grouped. Exposure information was based on face-to-face interviews. Validity of the matrix was explored by comparing the JEM (group-based binary measures with individual-based measures. The predictive validity of the matrix against LBP was evaluated by comparing the associations of the group-based (JEM exposures with those of individual-based exposures. RESULTS: The matrix includes 348 job titles, representing 81% of all Finnish job titles in the early 2000s. The specificity of the constructed matrix was good, especially in women. The validity measured with kappa-statistic ranged from good to poor, being fair for most exposures. In men, all group-based (JEM exposures were statistically significantly associated with one-month prevalence of LBP. In women, four out of six group-based exposures showed an association with LBP. CONCLUSIONS: The gender-specific JEM for physical exposures showed relatively high specificity without compromising sensitivity. The matrix can therefore be considered as a valid instrument for exposure assessment in large-scale epidemiological studies, when more precise but more labour-intensive methods are not feasible. Although the matrix was based on Finnish data we foresee that it could be applicable, with some modifications, in

  4. Development and validation of a job exposure matrix for physical risk factors in low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Svetlana; Pehkonen, Irmeli; Kausto, Johanna; Miranda, Helena; Shiri, Rahman; Kauppinen, Timo; Heliövaara, Markku; Burdorf, Alex; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to construct and validate a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM) for physical exposures to be used in epidemiological studies of low back pain (LBP). We utilized two large Finnish population surveys, one to construct the JEM and another to test matrix validity. The exposure axis of the matrix included exposures relevant to LBP (heavy physical work, heavy lifting, awkward trunk posture and whole body vibration) and exposures that increase the biomechanical load on the low back (arm elevation) or those that in combination with other known risk factors could be related to LBP (kneeling or squatting). Job titles with similar work tasks and exposures were grouped. Exposure information was based on face-to-face interviews. Validity of the matrix was explored by comparing the JEM (group-based) binary measures with individual-based measures. The predictive validity of the matrix against LBP was evaluated by comparing the associations of the group-based (JEM) exposures with those of individual-based exposures. The matrix includes 348 job titles, representing 81% of all Finnish job titles in the early 2000s. The specificity of the constructed matrix was good, especially in women. The validity measured with kappa-statistic ranged from good to poor, being fair for most exposures. In men, all group-based (JEM) exposures were statistically significantly associated with one-month prevalence of LBP. In women, four out of six group-based exposures showed an association with LBP. The gender-specific JEM for physical exposures showed relatively high specificity without compromising sensitivity. The matrix can therefore be considered as a valid instrument for exposure assessment in large-scale epidemiological studies, when more precise but more labour-intensive methods are not feasible. Although the matrix was based on Finnish data we foresee that it could be applicable, with some modifications, in other countries with a similar level of technology.

  5. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  6. Variability and uncertainty in Swedish exposure factors for use in quantitative exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipsson, Monika; Öberg, Tomas; Bergbäck, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Information of exposure factors used in quantitative risk assessments has previously been compiled and reported for U.S. and European populations. However, due to the advancement of science and knowledge, these reports are in continuous need of updating with new data. Equally important is the change over time of many exposure factors related to both physiological characteristics and human behavior. Body weight, skin surface, time use, and dietary habits are some of the most obvious examples covered here. A wealth of data is available from literature not primarily gathered for the purpose of risk assessment. Here we review a number of key exposure factors and compare these factors between northern Europe--here represented by Sweden--and the United States. Many previous compilations of exposure factor data focus on interindividual variability and variability between sexes and age groups, while uncertainty is mainly dealt with in a qualitative way. In this article variability is assessed along with uncertainty. As estimates of central tendency and interindividual variability, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and multiple percentiles were calculated, while uncertainty was characterized using 95% confidence intervals for these parameters. The presented statistics are appropriate for use in deterministic analyses using point estimates for each input parameter as well as in probabilistic assessments. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Prenatal exposure to environmental factors and congenital limb defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter G; Clark, Karen L; Tuan, Rocky S

    2016-09-01

    Limb congenital defects afflict approximately 0.6:1000 live births. In addition to genetic factors, prenatal exposure to drugs and environmental toxicants, represents a major contributing factor to limb defects. Examples of well-recognized limb teratogenic agents include thalidomide, warfarin, valproic acid, misoprostol, and phenytoin. While the mechanism by which these agents cause dymorphogenesis is increasingly clear, prediction of the limb teratogenicity of many thousands of as yet uncharacterized environmental factors (pollutants) remains inexact. This is limited by the insufficiencies of currently available models. Specifically, in vivo approaches using guideline animal models have inherently deficient predictive power due to genomic and anatomic differences that complicate mechanistic comparisons. On the other hand, in vitro two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, while accessible for cellular and molecular experimentation, do not reflect the three-dimensional (3D) morphogenetic events in vivo nor systemic influences. More robust and accessible models based on human cells that accurately replicate specific processes of embryonic limb development are needed to enhance limb teratogenesis prediction and to permit mechanistic analysis of the adverse outcome pathways. Recent advances in elucidating mechanisms of normal development will aid in the development of process-specific 3D cell cultures within specialized bioreactors to support multicellular microtissues or organoid constructs that will lead to increased understanding of cell functions, cell-to-cell signaling, pathway networks, and mechanisms of toxicity. The promise is prompting researchers to look to such 3D microphysiological systems to help sort out complex and often subtle interactions relevant to developmental malformations that would not be evident by standard 2D cell culture testing. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:243-273, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Factors that contribute to biomarker responses in humans including a study in individuals taking Vitamin C supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D

    2001-09-01

    It is possible in many situations to identify humans exposed to potentially toxic materials in the workplace and in the environment. As in most human studies, there tends to be a high degree of interindividual variability in response to chemical insults. Some non-exposed control individuals exhibit as high a level of damage as some exposed individuals and some of these have levels of damage as low as many of the controls. Thus, it is only the mean values of the groups that can substantiate an exposure-related problem; the data on an individual basis are still of limited use. While human lymphocytes remain the most popular cell type for monitoring purposes, sperm, buccal, nasal, epithelial and placental cells are also used. However, for interpretation of responses, the issue of confounding factors must be addressed. There are endogenous confounding factors, such as age, gender, and genetic make-up and exogenous ones, including lifestyle habits (smoking, drinking, etc.) There are biomarkers of exposure, effect/response and susceptibility and the last may be influenced by the genotype and polymorphism genes existing in a population. From our own studies, confounding effects on cytogenetic damage and ras oncoproteins will be considered in relation to workers exposed to vinyl chloride and petroleum emissions and to volunteers taking Vitamin C supplementation. Smoking history, exposure and duration of employment affected the worker studies. For petroleum emissions, so did gender and season of exposure. For the non-smoking volunteer Vitamin C supplementation study, cholesterol levels, plasma Vitamin C levels, lipid peroxidation products and DNA damage in the Comet assay were also measured. Gender affected differences in Vitamin C levels, antioxidant capacity and the number of chromosome aberrations induced by bleomycin challenge in vitro. The results were the same for both high and low cholesterol subjects. The relationship between biomarkers and the various factors which

  9. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  10. Self-reported noise exposure as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Lund, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    men and women when adjusting for demographic factors and health behavior. After further adjustment for physical workload at work the association between noise exposure and sickness absence disappeared for women, but not for men. Men that reported to be exposed to loud noise between one......Self-reported noise exposure is on the rise in Denmark. Little is known, however, about the social consequences, including sickness absence, of noise exposure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between self-reported noise exposure and long-term sickness absence....... The association was investigated using the Cox proportional hazards model to analyze outcomes in Danish register data on the basis of Danish survey data (5357 employees aged 18-69 in 2000). The analyses showed that self-reported noise exposure was significantly associated with long-term sickness absence for both...

  11. Urbanization and traffic related exposures as risk factors for Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    : The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road had a significant effect. The highest risk was found in children living 500-1000 metres from nearest major road (RR=1.30 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.17-1.44). However, when we accounted for the degree of urbanization, the geographical distance...... that traffic related exposures affect schizophrenia risk and that this potential effect is responsible for the urban-rural differences. The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road was used as a proxy variable for traffic related exposures. We used a large population-based sample......BACKGROUND: Urban birth or upbringing increase schizophrenia risk. Though unknown, the causes of these urban-rural differences have been hypothesized to include, e.g., infections, diet, toxic exposures, social class, or an artefact due to selective migration. METHODS: We investigated the hypothesis...

  12. Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke: 2. Exposure-relevant emission factors and indirect exposures from habitual smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

    Sorption of emitted gas-phase organic compounds onto material surfaces affects environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) composition and exposures indoors. We have introduced a new metric, the exposure relevant emission factor (EREF) that accounts for sorptive uptake and reemission to give the mass of individual ETS constituents available for exposure over a day in which smoking occurs. This paper describes month-long experiments to investigate sorption effects on EREFs and potential ETS exposures under habitual smoking conditions. Cigarettes were smoked in a 50-m 3 furnished room over a 3-h period 6-7 days per week, with continuous ventilation at 0.3, 0.6, or 2.1 h -1. Organic gas concentrations were measured every few days over 4-h "smoking", 10-h "post-smoking" and 10-h "background" periods. Concentration patterns of volatile ETS components including 1,3-butadiene, benzene and acrolein were similar to those calculated for a theoretical non-sorbing tracer, indicating limited sorption. Concentrations of ETS tracers, e.g. 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) and nicotine, and lower volatility toxic air contaminants including phenol, cresols, and naphthalene increased as experiments progressed, indicating mass accumulation on surfaces and higher desorption rates. Daily patterns stabilized after week 2, yielding a steady daily cycle of ETS concentrations associated with habitual smoking. EREFs for sorbing compounds were higher under steady cycle versus single-day smoking conditions by ˜50% for 3-EP, and by 2-3 times for nicotine, phenol, cresols, naphthalene, and methylnaphthalenes. Our results provide relevant information about potential indirect exposures from residual ETS (non-smoker enters room shortly after smoker finishes) and from reemission, and their importance relative to direct exposures (non-smoker present during smoking). Under the conditions examined, indirect exposures accounted for a larger fraction of total potential exposures for sorbing versus non-sorbing compounds

  13. Woodstove exposure as a risk factor for airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Mpagordakis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent financial crisis in Greece has significantly increased woodstove use and therefore the indoor air pollution of the household atmosphere. Related studies have shown that indoor air pollution is associated with the onset of obstructive airway diseases, especially in women who are occupied with household duties. Aim: To investigate whether the woodstove exposure is a risk factor of obstructive airway disease especially in nonsmoking women. Methods: In this cross-sectional study participated 410 individuals (51.7% women, mean age 56,1 ± 13,0 years, ranging from 40 to 93 years old who visited eight Primary Health Care Settings on the island of Crete, Greece. A spirometry testing was performed to assess the degree of airflow limitation setting criteria the fixed ratio of spirometry values (FEV1 / FVC 17] were establish in non-smoker women who were exposed for 30.2 years to woodstove smoke compared to non-COPD non-smoker women (11.8 years exposure, despite the fact that interactions terms (female gender, smoking, woodstove use, cough with sputum production were not associated with COPD development. Conclusion: The present study confirms that woodstove exposure (about 30 years is associated with Airway Obstruction in non-smoker women. Also, a greater woodstove exposure is indicative of a greater prevalence of airflow limitation and a greater COPD-related symptoms.

  14. Factors associated with secondhand smoke exposure in different settings: Results from the German Health Update (GEDA) 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian; Kraemer, Alexander

    2016-04-14

    The ubiquity of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home or in private establishments, workplaces and public areas poses several challenges for the reduction of SHS exposure. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of SHS exposure in Germany and key factors associated with exposure. Results were also differentiated by place of exposure. A secondary data analysis based on the public use file of the German Health Update 2012 was conducted (n = 13,933). Only non-smokers were included in the analysis. In a multivariable logistic regression model the factors associated with SHS exposure were calculated. In addition, a further set of multivariable logistic regressions were calculated for factors associated with the place of SHS exposure (workplace, at home, bars/discotheques, restaurants, at the house of a friend). More than a quarter of non-smoking study participants were exposed to SHS. The main area of exposure was the workplace (40.9 %). The multivariable logistic regression indicated young age as the most important factor associated with SHS exposure. The odds for SHS exposure was higher in men than in women. The likelihood of SHS exposure decreased with higher education. SHS exposure and the associated factors varied between different places of exposure. Despite several actions to protect non-smokers which were implemented in Germany during the past years, SHS exposure still remains a relevant risk factor at a population level. According to the results of this study, particularly the workplace and other public places such as bars and discotheques have to be taken into account for the development of strategies to reduce SHS exposure.

  15. Exposure Scenarios and Unit Dose Factors for the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-12-29

    Exposure scenarios are defined to identify potential pathways and combinations of pathways that could lead to radiation exposure from immobilized tank waste. Appropriate data and models are selected to permit calculation of dose factors for each exposure

  16. Developmental Effects of Exposures to Environmental Factors: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polanska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure—cord blood lead level, for mercury—maternal hair mercury level, for ETS—cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH—1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects and 24 months (198 subjects children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development (β = −2.6; P=0.02 and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive (β = −0.2; P=0.05 and motor functions (β = −0.5; P=0.01 were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance (β = −6.2; P=0.06. The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  17. On the use of risk-informed regulation including organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, S.M.O.; Alvarenga, M.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Risk-Informed Regulation (RIR) can be applied by using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as a basic tool. Traditionally, PSA methodology encompasses the calculation of failure probabilities of Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) and direct associated human errors. However, there are indirect causes related to human failures, associated with Organizational Factors, which are normally not included in fault trees, that may influence plant risk evaluation. This paper discusses on possible applications of RIR and on Organizational Factors. It also presents a classification of Angra-1 NPP unresolved issues, aiming a future inclusion of these factors into a PSA calculation. (author)

  18. The Role of Arsenic Speciation in Dietary Exposure Assessment and the Need to Include Bioaccessibility and Biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical form specific exposure assessment for arsenic has long been identified as a source of uncertainty in estimating the risk associated with the aggregate exposure for a population. Some speciation based assessments document occurrence within an exposure route; however, the...

  19. Analyzing seasonal patterns of wildfire exposure factors in Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Alcasena, Fermin J; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Spano, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we applied landscape scale wildfire simulation modeling to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We also performed wildfire exposure analysis for selected highly valued resources on the island to identify areas characterized by high risk. We observed substantial variation in burn probability, fire size, and flame length among time periods within the fire season, which starts in early June and ends in late September. Peak burn probability and flame length were observed in late July. We found that patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity were mainly related to spatiotemporal variation in ignition locations, fuel moisture, and wind vectors. Our modeling approach allowed consideration of historical patterns of winds, ignition locations, and live and dead fuel moisture on fire exposure factors. The methodology proposed can be useful for analyzing potential wildfire risk and effects at landscape scale, evaluating historical changes and future trends in wildfire exposure, as well as for addressing and informing fuel management and risk mitigation issues.

  20. Some factors including radiation affecting the productivity of proteinase enzymes by mucor lamprosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.I.

    1996-01-01

    In the present time, great attention has been focused on the production of milk clotting enzymes from microbial source for use as remain substitute due to the increasing demands on rennin for cheese making and the prohibition of the slaughter of small calves. The present investigation included the isolation and identification of remin-like enzyme fungal producers from different egyptian food and soil samples. Different factors including gamma radiation affecting the capability of selected isolate to produce the enzyme was also included. Special attention has also given to study the effect of different purification methods of the produced enzyme. The properties of the purified enzyme were also investigated

  1. An ignored risk factor in toxicology: The total imprecision of exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    twice as much for maternal hair. The total imprecision of these biomarkers much exceeded the normal laboratory variability of less than 5%. Such imprecision can cause underestimation of dose-related toxicity, and data analysis should therefore include sensitivity analyses that take this factor...... were determined in cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair. We determined their mutual correlations and their associations with the child's neurobehavioral effect variables at age 7 years. The exposure biomarkers correlated well with one another, but the cord blood mercury concentration showed......Quality assurance of exposure biomarkers usually focuses on laboratory performance only. Using data from a prospective birth cohort study in the Faroe Islands, we have assessed the total imprecision of exposure biomarkers. As biomarkers of prenatal methylmercury exposure, mercury concentrations...

  2. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational.

  3. Psychological impact of a possible radiation exposure including psychosocial support required in case of such a scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, Kaustubh

    2014-01-01

    In the early years of the Atomic Age, radiation accidents or exposure was limited to laboratories or facilities. After the major accidents at TMI, Goainia, Chernobyl, when a large proportion of the population were exposed, interest in the psychosocial aspects has developed. In order to understand the psychological impact, an understanding of the causation of symptoms is necessary. Stress, anxiety, fear, physiological correlates and psychological consequences are thus explained. The different clinical entities and the ways and means of tackling them are described. Further, 'psychological first aid' and ameliorating measures are discussed too. Finally, prevention of psychological impact including education, community support, information dissemination etc. is described. (author)

  4. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level and individual (lower level exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure. More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure. In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models.Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure.Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions.When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation

  5. Assessment of relevant factors and relationships concerning human dermal exposure to pesticides in greenhouse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Vidal, Jose L; Egea González, Francisco J; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Galera, María; Aguilera, Pedro A; López Carrique, Enrique

    2002-08-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the gas chromatographic data obtained from 23 different greenhouse trials. This was used to establish which factors, including application technique (very small, small, medium and large drop-size), crop characteristics (short/tall, thin/dense) and pattern application of the operator (walking towards or away from the treated area) are relevant to the dermal exposure levels of greenhouse applicators. The results showed that the highest exposure by pesticides during field applications in greenhouses, in the climatic conditions and in the crop conditions typical of a southern European country, occurs on the lower legs and front thighs of the applicators. Similar results were obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Drop-size seems to be very important in determining total exposure, while height and density of crops have little influence on total exposure under the conditions of the present study. No pesticide type is a major factor in total exposure. The application of multiple regression analysis (MRA) allowed assessment of the relationships between the pesticide exposure of the less affected parts of the body with the most affected parts.

  6. Toddler exposure to flame retardant chemicals: Magnitude, health concern and potential risk- or protective factors of exposure: Observational studies summarized in a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Eva J; de Cock, Marijke; Schoonmade, Linda J; van de Bor, Margot

    2017-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting flame retardant (FR) chemicals form a human health concern, that is investigated mostly from the perspective of adult- and early life exposure. No overview of studies on toddler exposure and health effects exist. However, toddlerhood is a critical developmental period and toddlers are at increased risk for exposure because of their age-specific behavior. This systematic review encompasses toddler FR exposure studies in three countries, associated health effects and potential environmental, demographic, or behavioral risk- or protective factors for toddler exposure. A systematic literature search in four databases (PubMed, Embase.com, The Cochrane Library (via Wiley) and Web of Science Core collection) resulted in the identification of ten publications representing seven unique studies that measured brominated and/or phosphorylated FRs in toddlers' (8-24 month-old) serum, urine, hand wipes and feces. This review showed that toddlers are exposed to a range of FRs, that thyroid hormone disruption is associated with FR exposure and that factors in the indoor environment, including products such as plastic toys, might increase FR exposure. Considering the limited amount of studies, and the variety of biological matrices, FRs, and risk- and protective factors, this review did not reveal a uniform pattern of toddler exposure across the different cohorts studied. More evidence is necessary and considering the feasibility of invasive sampling in young children, we suggest to emphasize research on non-invasive matrices. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S 11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance. (paper)

  8. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance.

  9. Policies for including disabled people in education. obstacles and facilitating factors for their implementation: Bucaramanga, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Serrano R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to explore the factors enabling or hindering the implementation of inclusive education policies for the disabled population of Bucaramanga. Methodology: a descriptive study, involving representatives from governmental agencies (EG, members of the faculty boards of educational institutions (DIE and guardians of disabled individuals (APSD. Physical, social, and political obstacles and facilitating factors that could potentially determine the implementation of these policies were analyzed. Data was collected through interviews. Results: there was a total of 2, 32, and 34 participants from the EG, DIE, and APSD groups respectively. Identified obstacles included: lack of strategies to support educational institutions, poor or limited teacher training, high tuition fees, and negative attitude towards disability. The facilitating factors included: availability of places, inclusion of this issue in the political agenda, and desire of the disabled individuals’ families to provide them with education. Discussion: These findings provide useful information for further research on this issue and show how action has been taken, as well as how urgent it is to establish a direct relationship between academia and the public sector to propose strategies for assessing and modifying these policies.

  10. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  11. Factors influencing adherence with therapeutic sunlight exposure in older people in intermediate care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durvasula, Seeta; Sambrook, Philip N; Cameron, Ian D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing low adherence with therapeutic sunlight exposure in a randomized controlled trial conducted with older people living in intermediate care facilities. The study involved participants in the FREEDOM (Falls Risk Epidemiology: Effect of vitamin D on skeletal Outcomes and other Measures) study, a randomized controlled trial of therapeutic sun exposure to reduce falls in older people in intermediate care facilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty participants in the FREEDOM trial, and with ten sunlight officers who were employed to facilitate the sun exposure. Two focus groups involving 10 participants in the FREEDOM trial were also held at the end of the intervention period. Common themes were derived from the interview and focus group transcripts. The study showed that the perceived health benefits did not influence adherence with the sun exposure. Factors such as socializing with others and being outdoors were more important in encouraging attendance. The main barriers to adherence included the perceived inflexibility and regimentation of daily attendance, clash with other activities, unsuitable timing and heat discomfort. This study showed that providing greater flexibility and autonomy to older people in how and when they receive sun exposure is likely to improve adherence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  13. Concept of malignant significant factor and its applicability for and occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Tadashi; Maruyama, Takashi; Tateno, Yukio

    1980-01-01

    In the medical and occupational exposures, there is a tradition to use the genetically significant dose as an index of harm to the population although it only includes the genetical effects from ionizing radiations. A similar significant dose for somatic effects such as radiation leukemogenesis and carcinogenesis should be added to the genetically significant dose in order to approach an index of total harm to the population from medical and occupational exposures. For this purpose, leukemia and malignant significant factors were determined based on the induction of malignant diseases including leukemia for the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the life expectancy of individuals subject to medical examinations or treatments as well as radiation workers, taking account of the possibility of their deaths due to other diseases or accidents during a latent period of malignant diseases. The resultant significant factors were tabulated as a function of life expectancy for their application to medical and occupational exposures. For an example, the malignant significant factor for a person having the life expectancy of 60, 40 and 20 years was about 0.87, 0.45 and 0.10, respectively. This paper will discuss the applicability of the leukemia and malignant significant factors to the risk estimation of medical and occupational exposures; namely (1) the risk estimation for an individual in the population; (2) the risk estimation for individuals in a given age group who were continuously irradiated with natural radiations or received occupational exposures; (3) the risk estimation for the pupulation in a given age distribution and (4) the risk estimation for individuals after retirement of radiation works. (author)

  14. Effects of prolonged exposure to space flight factors for 175 days on lettuce seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maximova, E.N.; Akatov, Yu.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of prolonged (up to 175 days) exposure of Lactuca sativa seeds to space flight factors, including primary cosmic radiation heavy ions have been studied. The data obtained evidence a significant fourfold increase of spontaneous mutagenesis in seeds both with regard to the total number of aberrant cells as well as the formation of single cells with multiple aberrations. Comparison of the present experiment with earlier works shows that the frequency of such aberrations increases with the duration of the flight

  15. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.

  16. Is exposure to cyanobacteria an environmental risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Walter G.; Borenstein, Amy R.; Nelson, Lorene M.; Codd, Geoffrey A.; Rosen, Barry H.; Stommel, Elijah W.; Cox, Paul Alan

    2013-01-01

    There is a broad scientific consensus that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by gene-environment interactions. Mutations in genes underlying familial ALS (fALS) have been discovered in only 5–10% of the total population of ALS patients. Relatively little attention has been paid to environmental and lifestyle factors that may trigger the cascade of motor neuron death leading to the syndrome of ALS, although exposure to chemicals including lead and pesticides, and to agricultural environments, smoking, certain sports, and trauma have all been identified with an increased risk of ALS. There is a need for research to quantify the relative roles of each of the identified risk factors for ALS. Recent evidence has strengthened the theory that chronic environmental exposure to the neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced by cyanobacteria may be an environmental risk factor for ALS. Here we describe methods that may be used to assess exposure to cyanobacteria, and hence potentially to BMAA, namely an epidemiologic questionnaire and direct and indirect methods for estimating the cyanobacterial load in ecosystems. Rigorous epidemiologic studies could determine the risks associated with exposure to cyanobacteria, and if combined with genetic analysis of ALS cases and controls could reveal etiologically important gene-environment interactions in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  17. Predictive factors for percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposure among healthcare workers in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Türe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors for percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures in healthcare workers (HCW in one of the largest centers of a middle income country, Turkey. This study has a retrospective design. HCWs who presented between August 2011 and June 2013, with Occupational Exposures (OEs (cases and those without (controls were included. Demographic information was collected from infection control committee documents. A questionnaire was used to ask the HCWs about their awareness of preventive measures. HCWs who work with intensive work loads such as those found in emergency departments or intensive care units have a higher risk of OEs. Having heavy workloads and hours increases the risk of percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures. For that reason the most common occupation groups are nurses and cleaning staff who are at risk of OEs. Increasing work experience has reduced the frequency of OEs.

  18. Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovak, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

  19. Determination of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays including incoherent and coherent scattering for aluminum, iron, lead, and water by discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Assad, A.; Diop, C.M.; Nimal, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure and energy absorption buildup factors for aluminum, iron, lead, and water are calculated by the SNID discrete ordinates code for an isotropic point source in a homogeneous medium. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the effects of both bound-electron Compton (incoherent) and coherent (Rayleigh) scattering. A comparison with buildup factors from the literature shows that these two effects greatly increase the buildup factors for energies below a few hundred kilo-electron-volts, and thus the new results are improved relative to the experiment. This greater accuracy is due to the increase in the linear attenuation coefficient, which leads to the calculation of the buildup factors for a mean free path with a smaller shield thickness. On the other hand, for the same shield thickness, exposure increases when only incoherent scattering is included and decreases when only coherent scattering is included, so that the exposure finally decreases when both effects are included. Great care must also be taken when checking the approximations for gamma-ray deep-penetration transport calculations, as well as for the cross-section treatment and origin

  20. Tobacco Smoke Exposure Impairs Brain Insulin/IGF Signaling: Potential Co-Factor Role in Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deochand, Chetram; Tong, Ming; Agarwal, Amit R; Cadenas, Enrique; de la Monte, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Human studies suggest tobacco smoking is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, experimental data linking tobacco smoke exposures to underlying mediators of neurodegeneration, including impairments in brain insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in AD are lacking. This study tests the hypothesis that cigarette smoke (CS) exposures can impair brain insulin/IGF signaling and alter expression of AD-associated proteins. Adult male A/J mice were exposed to air for 8 weeks (A8), CS for 4 or 8 weeks (CS4, CS8), or CS8 followed by 2 weeks recovery (CS8+R). Gene expression was measured by qRT-PCR analysis and proteins were measured by multiplex bead-based or direct binding duplex ELISAs. CS exposure effects on insulin/IGF and insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins and phosphorylated proteins were striking compared with the mRNA. The main consequences of CS4 or CS8 exposures were to significantly reduce insulin R, IGF-1R, IRS-1, and tyrosine phosphorylated insulin R and IGF-1R proteins. Paradoxically, these effects were even greater in the CS8+R group. In addition, relative levels of S312-IRS-1, which inhibits downstream signaling, were increased in the CS4, CS8, and CS8+R groups. Correspondingly, CS and CS8+R exposures inhibited expression of proteins and phosphoproteins required for signaling through Akt, PRAS40, and/or p70S6K, increased AβPP-Aβ, and reduced ASPH protein, which is a target of insulin/IGF-1 signaling. Secondhand CS exposures caused molecular and biochemical abnormalities in brain that overlap with the findings in AD, and many of these effects were sustained or worsened despite short-term CS withdrawal.

  1. A constriction factor based particle swarm optimisation algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem including losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Steven; Montakhab, Mohammad; Nouri, Hassan

    2011-07-15

    Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the most important problems to be solved in power generation as fractional percentage fuel reductions represent significant cost savings. ED wishes to optimise the power generated by each generating unit in a system in order to find the minimum operating cost at a required load demand, whilst ensuring both equality and inequality constraints are met. For the process of optimisation, a model must be created for each generating unit. The particle swarm optimisation technique is an evolutionary computation technique with one of the most powerful methods for solving global optimisation problems. The aim of this paper is to add in a constriction factor to the particle swarm optimisation algorithm (CFBPSO). Results show that the algorithm is very good at solving the ED problem and that CFBPSO must be able to work in a practical environment and so a valve point effect with transmission losses should be included in future work.

  2. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  3. Development and evaluation of probability density functions for a set of human exposure factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, R.L.; McKone, T.E.; Bodnar, A.; Jacobson, J.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe efforts carried out during 1998 and 1999 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to assist the U.S. EPA in developing and ranking the robustness of a set of default probability distributions for exposure assessment factors. Among the current needs of the exposure-assessment community is the need to provide data for linking exposure, dose, and health information in ways that improve environmental surveillance, improve predictive models, and enhance risk assessment and risk management (NAS, 1994). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) plays a lead role in developing national guidance and planning future activities that support the EPA Superfund Program. OERR is in the process of updating its 1989 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) as part of the EPA Superfund reform activities. Volume III of RAGS, when completed in 1999 will provide guidance for conducting probabilistic risk assessments. This revised document will contain technical information including probability density functions (PDFs) and methods used to develop and evaluate these PDFs. The PDFs provided in this EPA document are limited to those relating to exposure factors.

  4. Development and evaluation of probability density functions for a set of human exposure factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena, R.L.; McKone, T.E.; Bodnar, A.; Jacobson, J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe efforts carried out during 1998 and 1999 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to assist the U.S. EPA in developing and ranking the robustness of a set of default probability distributions for exposure assessment factors. Among the current needs of the exposure-assessment community is the need to provide data for linking exposure, dose, and health information in ways that improve environmental surveillance, improve predictive models, and enhance risk assessment and risk management (NAS, 1994). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) plays a lead role in developing national guidance and planning future activities that support the EPA Superfund Program. OERR is in the process of updating its 1989 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) as part of the EPA Superfund reform activities. Volume III of RAGS, when completed in 1999 will provide guidance for conducting probabilistic risk assessments. This revised document will contain technical information including probability density functions (PDFs) and methods used to develop and evaluate these PDFs. The PDFs provided in this EPA document are limited to those relating to exposure factors

  5. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  6. Radiation Exposure in Endovascular Infra-Renal Aortic Aneurysm Repair and Factors that Influence It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The endovascular repair of aortic abdominal aneurysms exposes the patients and surgical team to ionizing radiation with risk of direct tissue damage and induction of gene mutation. This study aims to describe our standard of radiation exposure in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and the factors that influence it. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a prospective database of patients with abdominal infra-renal aortic aneurysms submitted to endovascular repair. This study evaluated the radiation doses (dose area product (DAP, fluoroscopy durations and their relationships to the patients, aneurysms, and stent-graft characteristics. Results: This study included 127 patients with a mean age of 73 years. The mean DAP was 4.8 mGy.m2, and the fluoroscopy time was 21.8 minutes. Aortic bilateral iliac aneurysms, higher body mass index, aneurysms with diameters larger than 60 mm, necks with diameters larger than 28 mm, common iliac arteries with diameters larger than 20 mm, and neck angulations superior to 50 degrees were associated with an increased radiation dose. The number of anatomic risk factors present was associated with increased radiation exposure and fluoroscopy time, regardless of the anatomical risk factors. Conclusion: The radiation exposure during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair is significant (mean DAP 4.8 mGy.m2 with potential hazards to the surgical team and the patients. The anatomical characteristics of the aneurysm, patient characteristics, and the procedure's technical difficulty were all related to increased radiation exposure during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair procedures. Approximately 40% of radiation exposure can be explained by body mass index, neck angulation, aneurysm diameter, neck diameter, and aneurysm type.

  7. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to

  8. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  9. Measuring lifetime stress exposure and protective factors in life course research on racial inequality and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malat, Jennifer; Jacquez, Farrah; Slavich, George M

    2017-07-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in better understanding how social factors contribute to racial disparities in health, including birth outcomes. A recent emphasis in this context has been on identifying the effects of stress exposure and protective factors experienced over the entire lifetime. Yet despite repeated calls for a life course approach to research on this topic, very few studies have actually assessed how stressors and protective factors occurring over women's lives relate to birth outcomes. We discuss this issue here by describing how challenges in the measurement of lifetime stress exposure and protective factors have prevented researchers from developing an empirically-based life course perspective on health. First, we summarize prevailing views on racial inequality and birth outcomes; second, we discuss measurement challenges that exist in this context; and finally, we describe both new tools and needed tools for assessing lifetime stress exposure and suggest opportunities for integrating information on stress exposure and psychosocial protective factors. We conclude that more studies are needed that integrate information about lifetime stress exposures and the protective factors that promote resilience against such exposures to inform policy and practice recommendations to reduce racial disparities in birth outcomes.

  10. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Pipe elbow stiffness coefficients including shear and bend flexibility factors for use in direct stiffness codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Historically, developments of computer codes used for piping analysis were based upon the flexibility method of structural analysis. Because of the specialized techniques employed in this method, the codes handled systems composed of only piping elements. Over the past ten years, the direct stiffness method has gained great popularity because of its systematic solution procedure regardless of the type of structural elements composing the system. A great advantage is realized with a direct stiffness code that combines piping elements along with other structural elements such as beams, plates, and shells, in a single model. One common problem, however, has been the lack of an accurate pipe elbow element that would adequately represent the effects of transverse shear and bend flexibility factors. The purpose of the present paper is to present a systematic derivation of the required 12x12 stiffness matrix and load vectors for a three dimensional pipe elbow element which includes the effects of transverse shear and pipe bend flexibility according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. The results are presented analytically and as FORTRAN subroutines to be directly incorporated into existing direct stiffness codes. (Auth.)

  12. Influence of various factors on individual radiation exposure from the chernobyl disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar Alexandra

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The explosion at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was one of the greatest known nuclear disasters of the 20th century. To reduce individual exposure to ionizing radiation the Soviet Union government introduced a number of counter-measures. This article presents a description of how historical events conspired to disrupt these efforts and affect residents in exposed areas. Methods This study employed an extensive review of data on radionuclide deposition, contamination patterns and lifestyle characteristics. Data were obtained from the Ukraine Ministry of Health and the Ukraine Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Results Data are presented on annual contamination rates in selected locales as well as data on local food consumption patterns. Historical factors including economic and political circumstances are also highlighted. Results show the diminution of individual doses between 1987 and 1991 and then an increase between 1991 and 1994 and the relationship between this increase and changes in the lifestyle of the local population. Conclusion A number of factors played direct and indirect roles in contributing to the populace's cumulative radiation exposure. Future post-contamination studies need to consider these factors when estimating individual exposures.

  13. Influence of various factors on individual radiation exposure from the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamostian, Pavlo; Moysich, Kirsten B; Mahoney, Martin C; McCarthy, Philip; Bondar, Alexandra; Noschenko, Andrey G; Michalek, Arthur M

    2002-10-29

    The explosion at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was one of the greatest known nuclear disasters of the 20th century. To reduce individual exposure to ionizing radiation the Soviet Union government introduced a number of counter-measures. This article presents a description of how historical events conspired to disrupt these efforts and affect residents in exposed areas. This study employed an extensive review of data on radionuclide deposition, contamination patterns and lifestyle characteristics. Data were obtained from the Ukraine Ministry of Health and the Ukraine Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Data are presented on annual contamination rates in selected locales as well as data on local food consumption patterns. Historical factors including economic and political circumstances are also highlighted. Results show the diminution of individual doses between 1987 and 1991 and then an increase between 1991 and 1994 and the relationship between this increase and changes in the lifestyle of the local population. A number of factors played direct and indirect roles in contributing to the populace's cumulative radiation exposure. Future post-contamination studies need to consider these factors when estimating individual exposures.

  14. Mathematical modeling of HIV prevention measures including pre-exposure prophylaxis on HIV incidence in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Yoon, Myoungho; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Changsoo; Kwon, Hee-Dae; Lee, Jeehyun; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong

    2014-01-01

    Multiple prevention measures have the possibility of impacting HIV incidence in South Korea, including early diagnosis, early treatment, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated how each of these interventions could impact the local HIV epidemic, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), who have become the major risk group in South Korea. A mathematical model was used to estimate the effects of each these interventions on the HIV epidemic in South Korea over the next 40 years, as compared to the current situation. We constructed a mathematical model of HIV infection among MSM in South Korea, dividing the MSM population into seven groups, and simulated the effects of early antiretroviral therapy (ART), early diagnosis, PrEP, and combination interventions on the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection, as compared to the current situation that would be expected without any new prevention measures. Overall, the model suggested that the most effective prevention measure would be PrEP. Even though PrEP effectiveness could be lessened by increased unsafe sex behavior, PrEP use was still more beneficial than the current situation. In the model, early diagnosis of HIV infection was also effectively decreased HIV incidence. However, early ART did not show considerable effectiveness. As expected, it would be most effective if all interventions (PrEP, early diagnosis and early treatment) were implemented together. This model suggests that PrEP and early diagnosis could be a very effective way to reduce HIV incidence in South Korea among MSM.

  15. Television exposure as a risk factor for aggressive behavior among 3-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer A; Taylor, Catherine A

    2009-11-01

    To examine associations of child television (TV) exposure and household TV use with aggressive behavior among 3-year-old children while controlling for demographic characteristics and risk and protective factors for aggression. The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a prospective cohort study. Data collected at home and by telephone from parents of children born from 1998 to 2000 from 20 cities. Mothers who completed a 36-month in-home survey and met inclusion criteria (n = 3128). Direct child TV exposure and household TV use were the primary explanatory variables. Additional risk factors included neighborhood disorder and maternal factors like depression. Childhood aggression was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine associations between TV measures, additional risk factors, and childhood aggression. Children who were spanked in the past month (beta = 1.24, P < .001), lived in a disorderly neighborhood (beta = 2.07, P < .001), and had a mother reporting depression (beta = 0.92, P < .001) and parenting stress (beta = 0.16, P < .001) were significantly more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior. Direct child TV exposure (beta = 0.16, P < .001) and household TV use (beta = 0.09, P < .001) were also significantly associated with childhood aggression, even when controlling for other factors. Three-year-old children exposed to more TV, both directly and indirectly, are at increased risk for exhibiting aggressive behavior. Further research is essential to determine whether pediatric recommendations concerning TV and children should include limits for general household TV use.

  16. Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Meijer, Arjen; Demou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    of magnitude, due to the variability of ventilation rate, building occupation, and volume. To compare health impacts as a result of indoor exposure with those from outdoor exposure, the indoor exposure characterization factors determined with the modified USEtox model were applied in a case study on cooking...

  17. Using the SRQ–20 Factor Structure to Examine Changes in Mental Distress Following Typhoon Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Kelcey J.; Richardson, Lisa K.; Tran, Trinh Luong; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Aggen, Steven H.; Berenz, Erin C.; Trung, Lam Tu; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research is limited regarding postdisaster assessment of distress in developing nations. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ–20) before and after an acute trauma, Typhoon Xangsane, in order to examine changes in mental health symptoms in an epidemiologic sample of Vietnamese adults. The study examined a model estimating individual item factor loadings, thresholds, and a latent change factor for the SRQ–20's single “general distress” common factor. The covariates of sex, age, and severity of typhoon exposure were used to evaluate the disaster-induced changes in SRQ–20 scores while accounting for possible differences in the relationship between individual measurement scale items and the latent mental health construct. Evidence for measurement noninvariance was found. However, allowing sex and age effects on the pre-typhoon and post-typhoon factors accounted for much of the noninvariance in the SRQ–20 measurement structure. A test of no latent change failed, indicating that the SRQ–20 detected significant individual differences in distress between pre- and post-typhoon assessment. Conditioning on age and sex, several typhoon exposure variables differentially predicted levels of distress change, including evacuation, personal injury, and peri-event fear. On average, females and older individuals reported higher levels of distress than males and younger individuals, respectively. The SRQ–20 is a valid and reasonably stable instrument that may be used in postdisaster contexts to assess emotional distress and individual changes in mental health symptoms. PMID:24512425

  18. Exposure to psychosocial risk factors in the context of work: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cláudia; Pereira, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms “psychosocial factors” AND “COPSOQ” in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking. PMID:27253900

  19. Exposure to psychosocial risk factors in the context of work: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms “psychosocial factors” AND “COPSOQ” in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking.

  20. Factors affecting occupational exposure to needlestick and sharps injuries among dentists in Taiwan: a nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the risks of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs for dentists are well recognized, most papers published only described the frequency of occupational exposure to NSIs. Less has been reported assessing factors contributing to exposure to NSIs. The purpose of this study was to update the epidemiology of NSIs among dentists in Taiwan and identify factors affecting NSIs in order to find preventive strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nationwide survey was conducted in dentists at 60 hospitals and 340 clinics in Taiwan. The survey included questions about factors supposedly affecting exposure to NSIs, such as dentist and facility characteristics, knowledge and attitudes about infectious diseases, and practices related to infection control. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between risk factors and exposure to NSIs. In total, 434 (74.8% of 580 dentists returned the survey questionnaires, and 100 (23.0% reported that they had experienced more than one NSI per week. Our data showed that the risk of occupational NSIs is similarly heightened by an older age (odds ratio [OR], 3.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62-6.25, more years in practice (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.41-4.69, working in clinics (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.08-2.77, exhibiting less compliance with infection-control procedures (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04-3.18, having insufficient knowledge of blood-borne pathogens (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.04-2.67, and being more worried about being infected by blood-borne pathogens (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.05-3.13. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High rates of NSIs and low compliance with infection-control procedures highly contribute to the chance of acquiring a blood-borne pathogen infection and threaten occupational safety. This study reveals the possible affecting factors and helps in designing prevention strategies for occupational exposure to NSIs.

  1. Risk Factor Analysis for AKI Including Laboratory Indicators: a Nationwide Multicenter Study of Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Nie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Risk factor studies for acute kidney injury (AKI in China are lacking, especially those regarding non-traditional risk factors, such as laboratory indicators. Methods: All adult patients admitted to 38 tertiary and 22 secondary hospitals in China in any one month between July and December 2014 were surveyed. AKI patients were screened according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes’ definition of AKI. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for AKI, and Cox regression was used to analyze the risk of in-hospital mortality for AKI patients; additionally, a propensity score analysis was used to reconfirm the risk factors among laboratory indicators for mortality. Results: The morbidity of AKI was 0.97%. Independent risk factors for AKI were advancing age, male gender, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. All-cause mortality was 16.5%. The predictors of mortality in AKI patients were advancing age, tumor, higher uric acid level and increases in Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. The hazard ratio (HR for mortality with uric acid levels > 9.1 mg/dl compared with ≤ 5.2 mg/dl was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.58 for the AKI patients as a group, and was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.24 to 2.42 for a propensity score-matched set. Conclusion: In addition to traditional risk factors, uric acid level is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality after AKI.

  2. Biomedical HIV Prevention Including Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Opiate Agonist Therapy for Women Who Inject Drugs: State of Research and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kimberly; Tsui, Judith; Maher, Lisa; Choopanya, Kachit; Vanichseni, Suphak; Mock, Philip A; Celum, Connie; Martin, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at higher risk of HIV compared with their male counterparts as a result of multiple factors, including biological, behavioral, and sociostructural factors, yet comparatively little effort has been invested in testing and delivering prevention methods that directly target this group. In this article, we discuss the need for expanded prevention interventions for WWID, focusing on 2 safe, effective, and approved, yet underutilized biomedical prevention methods: opiate agonist therapy (OAT) and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Although both interventions are well researched, they have not been well examined in the context of gender. We discuss the drivers of women injectors' higher HIV risk, review the effectiveness of OAT and PrEP interventions among women, and explain why these new HIV prevention tools should be prioritized for WWID. There is substantial potential for impact of OAT and PrEP programs for WWID in the context of broader gender-responsive HIV prevention initiatives. Although awaiting efficacy data on other biomedical approaches in the HIV prevention research "pipeline," we propose that the scale-up and implementation of these proven, safe, and effective interventions are needed now.

  3. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of

  4. A comparison of important international and national standards for limiting exposure to EMF including the scientific rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Colin R; Martin, Lindsay J

    2007-06-01

    A comparison of Eastern (from Russia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, and the Czech Republic) and Western (represented by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers standards) radiofrequency standards reveals key differences. The Eastern approach is to protect against non-thermal effects caused by chronic exposure to low level exposure, and the occupational basic restriction is power load (the product of intensity and exposure duration). In contrast, the Western approach is to protect against established acute biological effects that could signal an adverse health effect, and the principal basic restriction is the specific absorption rate to protect against thermal effects. All of the standards are science-based, but a fundamental difference arises from a lack of agreement on the composition of the reference scientific database and of which adverse effect needs to be protected against. However, differences also exist between the ICNIRP and IEEE standards. An additional complication arises when standards are derived or modified using a precautionary approach. For ELF the differences between ICNIRP and IEEE are more fundamental; namely, differences in the basic restriction used (induced current; in-situ electric field) and the location of breakpoints in the strength-frequency curves result in large differences. In 2006, ICNIRP will initiate the review of their ELF and radiofrequency guidelines, and this will provide an opportunity to address differences in standards and the move towards harmonization of EMF standards and guidelines.

  5. Adolescent Weight Preoccupation: Influencing Factors and Entertainment Media Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, John; Yoo, Jeong-Ju

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how boys' and girls' weight preoccupation varied by grade level, parent-child relationships, self-classified weight, entertainment media exposure levels, and gender. Seventh-grade girls (n = 190) and boys (n = 132) and 10th-grade girls (n = 99) and boys (n = 67) participated. Girls were more likely to report weight…

  6. A comparative assessment of human exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A and eight bisphenols including bisphenol A via indoor dust ingestion in twelve countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Abualnaja, Khalid O; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Covaci, Adrian; Gevao, Bondi; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kumosani, Taha A; Malarvannan, Govindan; Minh, Tu Binh; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sinha, Ravindra K; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-10-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and eight bisphenol analogues (BPs) including bisphenol A (BPA) were determined in 388 indoor (including homes and microenvironments) dust samples collected from 12 countries (China, Colombia, Greece, India, Japan, Kuwait, Pakistan, Romania, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, U.S., and Vietnam). The concentrations of TBBPA and sum of eight bisphenols (ƩBPs) in dust samples ranged from exposure doses through diet, dust ingestion accounted for less than 10% of the total exposure doses in China and the U.S. For TBBPA, the EDI for infants and toddlers ranged from 0.01 to 3.4 ng/kg bw/day, and dust ingestion is an important pathway for exposure accounting for 3.8-35% (median) of exposure doses in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-10-11

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lack of a role for AP1 in GPEI mediated trans-activation in F9 cells, although endogenously present AP1 can influence GPEI in HeLa cells. Co-transfection of delta fosB with c-jun, which forms an inactive c-Jun/delta FosB heterodimer that binds TRE sequences, inhibits GPEI-mediated transcription in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well as AP1-containing HeLa cells. These data suggest novel factor(s) other than AP1 are influencing GPEI. Binding studies reveal multiple nucleoproteins bind to GPEI. These factors are likely responsible for the high level of GPEI-mediated transcription observed in the absence of AP1 and during hepatocarcinogenesis.

  8. A case-control study of hormonal exposures as etiologic factors for ALS in women : Euro-MOTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooney, James P K; Visser, Anne E; D'Ovidio, Fabrizio; Vermeulen, Roel; Beghi, Ettore; Chio, Adriano; Veldink, Jan H.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of hormonal risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among women from 3 European countries. METHODS: ALS cases and matched controls were recruited over 4 years in Ireland, Italy, and the Netherlands. Hormonal exposures, including reproductive history,

  9. The Evaluation of Conventional X-ray Exposure Parameters Including Tube Voltage and Exposure Time in Private and Governmental Hospitals of Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Gholami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In radiography, dose and image quality are dependent on radiographic parameters. The problem is caused from incorrect use of radiography equipment and from the radiation exposure to patients much more than required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to implement a quality-control program to detect changes in exposure parameters, which may affect diagnosis or patient radiation dose. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on seven stationary X-ray units in sixhospitals of Lorestan province. The measurements were performed, using a factory-calibrated Barracuda dosimeter (model: SE-43137. Results According to the results, the highest output was obtained in A Hospital (M1 device, ranging from 107×10-3 to 147×10-3 mGy/mAs. The evaluation of tube voltage accuracy showed a deviation from the standard value, which ranged between 0.81% (M1 device and 17.94% (M2 device at A Hospital. The deviation ranges at other hospitals were as follows: 0.30-27.52% in B Hospital (the highest in this study, 8.11-20.34% in C Hospital, 1.68-2.58% in D Hospital, 0.90-2.42% in E Hospital and 0.10-1.63% in F Hospital. The evaluation of exposure time accuracy showed that E, C, D and A (M2 device hospitals complied with the requirements (allowing a deviation of ±5%, whereas A (M1 device, F and B hospitals exceeded the permitted limit. Conclusion The results of this study showed that old X-ray equipments with poor or no maintenance are probably the main sources of reducing radiographic image quality and increasing patient radiation dose.

  10. Environmental exposures as a risk factor for fibrolamellar carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rondell P; Craig, John R; Jin, Long; Oliveira, Andre M; Bergquist, John R; Truty, Mark J; Mounajjed, Taofic; Greipp, Patricia T; Torbenson, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Fibrolamellar carcinoma was first described in 1956. Subsequent large studies failed to identify cases before 1939 (the start of the World War II). This finding, combined with the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptors on the tumor cells, have suggested that fibrolamellar carcinomas may be caused by environmental exposures that are new since World War II. To investigate this possibility, the surgical pathology files before 1939 were reviewed for hepatocellular carcinomas resected in young individuals. Two cases of fibrolamellar carcinoma were identified, from 1915 to 1924. The diagnosis of fibrolamellar carcinoma was confirmed at the histologic, ultrastructural and proteomic levels. These two fibrolamellar carcinoma cases clarify a key aspect of fibrolamellar carcinoma biology, reducing the likelihood that these tumors result exclusively from post World War II environmental exposures.

  11. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that traditional safety management needs to be improved on the aspect of preparedness for coping with expected and unexpected deviations, avoiding an overly optimistic reliance on safety systems. Remembering recent major accidents, such as the Deep Water Horizon, the Texas City....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...

  12. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  13. De-novo discovery of differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites including their positional preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilwagen, Jens; Grau, Jan; Paponov, Ivan A; Posch, Stefan; Strickert, Marc; Grosse, Ivo

    2011-02-10

    Transcription factors are a main component of gene regulation as they activate or repress gene expression by binding to specific binding sites in promoters. The de-novo discovery of transcription factor binding sites in target regions obtained by wet-lab experiments is a challenging problem in computational biology, which has not been fully solved yet. Here, we present a de-novo motif discovery tool called Dispom for finding differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites that models existing positional preferences of binding sites and adjusts the length of the motif in the learning process. Evaluating Dispom, we find that its prediction performance is superior to existing tools for de-novo motif discovery for 18 benchmark data sets with planted binding sites, and for a metazoan compendium based on experimental data from micro-array, ChIP-chip, ChIP-DSL, and DamID as well as Gene Ontology data. Finally, we apply Dispom to find binding sites differentially abundant in promoters of auxin-responsive genes extracted from Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, and we find a motif that can be interpreted as a refined auxin responsive element predominately positioned in the 250-bp region upstream of the transcription start site. Using an independent data set of auxin-responsive genes, we find in genome-wide predictions that the refined motif is more specific for auxin-responsive genes than the canonical auxin-responsive element. In general, Dispom can be used to find differentially abundant motifs in sequences of any origin. However, the positional distribution learned by Dispom is especially beneficial if all sequences are aligned to some anchor point like the transcription start site in case of promoter sequences. We demonstrate that the combination of searching for differentially abundant motifs and inferring a position distribution from the data is beneficial for de-novo motif discovery. Hence, we make the tool freely available as a component of the open

  14. The influence of chemical degradation during dietary exposures to fish on biomagnification factors and bioaccumulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnot, Jon A; Mackay, Donald

    2018-01-24

    The chemical dietary absorption efficiency (E D ) quantifies the amount of chemical absorbed by an organism relative to the amount of chemical an organism is exposed to following ingestion. In particular, E D can influence the extent of bioaccumulation and biomagnification for hydrophobic chemicals. A new E D model is developed to quantify chemical process rates in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The new model is calibrated with critically evaluated measured E D values (n = 250) for 80 hydrophobic persistent chemicals. The new E D model is subsequently used to estimate chemical reaction rate constants (k R ) assumed to occur in the lumen of the GIT from experimental dietary exposure tests (n = 255) for 165 chemicals. The new k R estimates are corroborated with k R estimates for the same chemicals from the same data derived previously by other methods. The roles of k R and the biotransformation rate constant (k B ) on biomagnification factors (BMFs) determined under laboratory test conditions and on BMFs and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in the environment are examined with the new model. In this regard, differences in lab and field BMFs are highlighted. Recommendations to address uncertainty in E D and k R data are provided.

  15. Induced Systemic Tolerance to Multiple Stresses Including Biotic and Abiotic Factors by Rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Je Yoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, global warming and drastic climate change are the greatest threat to the world. The climate change can affect plant productivity by reducing plant adaptation to diverse environments including frequent high temperature; worsen drought condition and increased pathogen transmission and infection. Plants have to survive in this condition with a variety of biotic (pathogen/pest attack and abiotic stress (salt, high/low temperature, drought. Plants can interact with beneficial microbes including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, which help plant mitigate biotic and abiotic stress. This overview presents that rhizobacteria plays an important role in induced systemic resistance (ISR to biotic stress or induced systemic tolerance (IST to abiotic stress condition; bacterial determinants related to ISR and/or IST. In addition, we describe effects of rhizobacteria on defense/tolerance related signal pathway in plants. We also review recent information including plant resistance or tolerance against multiple stresses (bioticabiotic. We desire that this review contribute to expand understanding and knowledge on the microbial application in a constantly varying agroecosystem, and suggest beneficial microbes as one of alternative environment-friendly application to alleviate multiple stresses.

  16. Psychosocial Factors at Work and Blood-Borne Exposure among Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to human blood and body fluids is a common risk for nurses. Many factors can affect the prevalence and incidence of this occupational hazard. Psychosocial factors at work may be a risk factor for the exposure. Objective: To assess needle stick, sharp injury and mucus exposure to blood-borne pathogens among nurses in Iran and to determine the association between these exposures and psychosocial factors at work. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses in a public hospital, Tehran, Iran. 364 nurses received and 339 completed and returned a self-reported questionnaire containing demographic data, history of exposure to blood-borne pathogens at work during previous year and the General Nordic questionnaire for psychological and social factors at work (QPS Nordic 34+ Questionnaire. Results: Of 339 participants, 197 (58.1% reported needle-stick injury, 186 (54.6% reported another type of sharp injury, and 112 (33% reported a mucous membrane exposure during the previous year. More than half of the participants who had history of exposure, had not reported it. Those with middle or high level of stress had higher crude and adjusted odds than those with lower stress for all kinds of exposure. Adjusted odds ratios for high stress group (ranging from 2.8 to 4.4 were statistically different from 1. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of needle-stick and sharp injury and mucous membrane exposure to patients' blood or body fluids among studied nurses. There is a significant association between increasing psychosocial factors at work and exposure to blood-borne pathogens among this group of nurses.

  17. Human factors design of nuclear power plant control rooms including computer-based operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.; Felkel, L.; Becker, G.; Bohr, E.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific handling of human factors problems in control rooms began around 1970 on the basis of safety considerations. Some recent research work deals with the development of computerized systems like plant balance calculation, safety parameter display, alarm reduction and disturbance analysis. For disturbance analysis purposes it is necessary to homogenize the information presented to the operator according to the actual plant situation in order to supply the operator with the information he most urgently needs at the time. Different approaches for solving this problem are discussed, and an overview is given on what is being done. Other research projects concentrate on the detailed analysis of operators' diagnosis strategies in unexpected situations, in order to obtain a better understanding of their mental processes and the influences upon them when such situations occur. This project involves the use of a simulator and sophisticated recording and analysis methods. Control rooms are currently designed with the aid of mock-ups. They enable operators to contribute their experience to the optimization of the arrangement of displays and controls. Modern control rooms are characterized by increasing use of process computers and CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) displays. A general concept for the integration of the new computerized system and the conventional control panels is needed. The technical changes modify operators' tasks, and future ergonomic work in nuclear plants will need to consider the re-allocation of function between man and machine, the incorporation of task changes in training programmes, and the optimal design of information presentation using CRTs. Aspects of developments in control room design are detailed, typical research results are dealt with, and a brief forecast of the ergonomic contribution to be made in the Federal Republic of Germany is given

  18. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Perelló, Gemma; Llebaria, Xavier; Bigas, Esther; Martí-Cid, Roser; Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  19. Exposure to biomass smoke as a risk factor for oesophageal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to biomass smoke as a risk factor for oesophageal and gastric cancer in low-income populations: A systematic review. Violet Kayamba, Douglas C. Heimburger, Douglas R. Morgan, Masharip Atadzhanov, Paul Kelly ...

  20. Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; Santos, Iná da Silva dos; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index.

  1. Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. OBJECTIVE We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. METHODS We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. RESULTS Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. CONCLUSION Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index. PMID:24068126

  2. Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.

    2006-03-01

    Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

  3. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Naozuka, Juliana; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso

    2010-10-01

    To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 1418 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old) exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97); and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00). Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03) and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28) were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  4. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97; and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00. Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03 and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28 were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  5. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelli Dubay

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR, and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3. We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%, IBR (7.9%, Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%, L. i. bratislava (1.0%, L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5% and L. i. hardjo (0.3%. Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119 were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens.

  6. Calculation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Methods are presented for the calculation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radioactive decay. A dose-rate conversion factor is defined as the dose-equivalent rate per unit radionuclide concentration. Exposure modes considered are immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and irradiation from a contaminated ground surface. For each radiation type and exposure mode, dose-rate conversion factors are derived for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. In addition, photon dose-rate conversion factors are estimated for 22 body organs. The calculations are based on the assumption that the exposure medium is infinite in extent and that the radionuclide concentration is uniform. The dose-rate conversion factors for immersion in contaminated air and water then follow from the requirement that all of the energy emitted in the radioactive decay is absorbed in the infinite medium. Dose-rate conversion factors for ground-surface exposure are calculated at a reference location above a smooth, infinite plane using the point-kernel integration method and known specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in air

  7. Programme for reducing the risk factors due to prenatal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranz, L.; Ferrer, N.; Sastre, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    When a patient is not aware of her pregnancy, the foetus/embryo may be inadvertently irradiated during a diagnostic exploration or therapeutic intervention. The radiosensitivity of the foetus/embryo changes during the different periods of gestation. For this reason there are different risk factors for each moment at which the patient may suffer irradiation. In the past 7 years, the Department of Radiophysics and Radiation Protection has been consulted 75 times for this reason, to evaluate the dose received in the uterus. Since the establishment of a programme to avoid inadvertent irradiation of the foetus/embryo, these consultations have been reduced. This programme is based on informing the patients and on training the medical staff. (author)

  8. Factors contributing to background television exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Background television (TV) exposure is harmful to young children, yet few studies have focused on predictors of exposure. This study’s objectives were to elucidate demographic, environmental, and behavioral correlates of background TV exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers and to explore caregiver beliefs about the impact of such exposure. Methods A convenience sample of low-income Mexican American female primary caregivers of preschoolers (3–5 years old, n=309), recruited in safety-net clinics, were surveyed by phone. Caregivers reported the frequency of their child’s exposure to background TV and responded to questions on the home media environment, TV use, and whether they had thought about background TV exposure and its impact on their child. Results Background TV exposure was common; 43% reported that their child was often, very often, or always exposed to background TV. More hours of TV viewing by the caregiver and greater frequency of TV viewing during meals were associated with an increased frequency of exposure to background TV. Only 49% of participants had ever thought about the impact of background TV. Believing that background TV is not harmful was associated with higher levels of background TV exposure. Conclusions Findings suggest that background TV exposure is frequent and caregiver awareness of its potential impact is low in low-income Mexican American families. Beliefs that background TV is not harmful may predict risk of exposure. Potential targets for interventions focused on reducing background TV exposure in this population include increasing caregiver awareness of the potential negative impact of such TV exposure. PMID:27007983

  9. Exploring violence exposure, stress, protective factors and behavioral problems among inner-city youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstrom, Eric; Weist, Mark D; Albus, Kathleen E

    2003-09-01

    This study examined relationships between violence exposure, other stressors, family support, and self-concept on self-reported behavioral problems among 320 urban adolescents (aged 11-18) referred for mental health treatment. Overall, participants reported high levels of violence exposure, with a median of six past encounters with violence as a witness, victim, or through the experiences of associates. All forms of violence exposure (witnessing, being a victim, knowing of victims) were correlated with internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems for males and females. Total violence exposure predicted behavioral problems among participants, even after controlling for the effects of other risk, demographic and protective factors. Family support and self-concept moderated the influence of life stress and cumulative risk on problem behavior outcomes, but these protective variables did not significantly moderate violence exposure.

  10. Psychosocial factor exposures in the workplace: differences between immigrants and Spaniards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Ariadna; Moncada, Salvador; Llorens, Clara; Benavides, Fernando G

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse psychosocial factor exposures in the workplace for immigrant workers in Spain and identify differences in exposure at work between immigrants and Spaniards. A multi-stage sample was taken by conglomerates (final sample size: 7555 workers). The information was obtained in 2004 and 2005 using a standardized questionnaire administered by interviewing participants in their homes. The analysis focused on eight psychosocial factors. For quantitative demands and insecurity, the exposure was defined according to the higher third, and for the others, the exposure was defined according to the lower third. The prevalence ratio (PR) and confidence interval (CI) for unfavourable psychosocial factor, both crude and adjusted, were calculated using log binomial models. Those with highest prevalence of unfavourable psychosocial factor were immigrant manual workers, particularly in low possibilities for development (PR=2.87; 95% CI 2.44-3.73), and immigrant women, particularly in low control over working times (PR=1.72; 95% CI 1.55-1.91). Immigrant workers with manual jobs and immigrant women are the groups most exposed to psychosocial factor. In efforts to prevent these exposures, these inequalities should be taken into account.

  11. Occupational exposure to organic solvents: a risk factor for pulmonary veno-occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, David; Lau, Edmund M; Descatha, Alexis; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Andujar, Pascal; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Girerd, Barbara; Zendah, Inès; Le Pavec, Jerome; Seferian, Andrei; Perros, Frédéric; Dorfmüller, Peter; Fadel, Elie; Soubrier, Florent; Sitbon, Oliver; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension characterised by predominant remodelling of pulmonary venules. Bi-allelic mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 4 (EIF2AK4) gene were recently described as the major cause of heritable PVOD, but risk factors associated with PVOD remain poorly understood. Occupational exposures have been proposed as a potential risk factor for PVOD, but epidemiological studies are lacking.A case-control study was conducted in consecutive PVOD (cases, n=33) and pulmonary arterial hypertension patients (controls, n=65). Occupational exposure was evaluated via questionnaire interview with blinded assessments using an expert consensus approach and a job exposure matrix (JEM).Using the expert consensus approach, PVOD was significantly associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents (adjusted OR 12.8, 95% CI 2.7-60.8), with trichloroethylene being the main agent implicated (adjusted OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.4-49.4). JEM analysis independently confirmed the association between PVOD and trichloroethylene exposure. Absence of significant trichloroethylene exposure was associated with a younger age of disease (54.8±21.4 years, p=0.037) and a high prevalence of harbouring bi-allelic EIF2AK4 mutations (41.7% versus 0%, p=0.015).Occupational exposure to organic solvents may represent a novel risk factor for PVOD. Genetic background and environmental exposure appear to influence the phenotypic expression of the disease. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  12. Analysis of the risk factors for exposure of the lung to low irradiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogeweg, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this report a description is presented of the risk factors for induction of lungtumours. The contribution of natural radioactivity from uranium and thorium to the lungs is mainly caused by inhalation of alpha-emitting radon and thorium daughter products. Apart from exposure by inhalation the lungs are also exposed to external radiation. For internal as well as external exposure a value of 10 -3 lungcancers per Sv lung dose equivalence is found to be acceptable for the riskfactor. (Auth.)

  13. Impact of developmental lead exposure on splenic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Heo, Yong; Lawrence, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is known to alter the functions of numerous organ systems, including the hematopoietic and immune systems. Pb can induce anemia and can lower host resistance to bacterial and viral infections. The anemia is due to Pb's inhibition of hemoglobin synthesis and Pb's induction of membrane changes, leading to early erythrocyte senescence. Pb also increases B-cell activation/proliferation and skews T-cell help (Th) toward Th2 subset generation. The specific mechanisms for many of the Pb effects are, as yet, not completely understood. Therefore, we performed gene expression analysis, via microarray, on RNA from the spleens of developmentally Pb-exposed mice, in order to gain further insight into these Pb effects. Splenic RNA microarray analysis indicated strong up-regulation of genes coding for proteolytic enzymes, lipases, amylase, and RNaseA. The data also showed that Pb affected the expression of many genes associated with innate immunity. Analysis of the microarray results via GeneSifter software indicated that Pb increased apoptosis, B-cell differentiation, and Th2 development. Direct up-regulation by Pb of expression of the gene encoding the heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI) suggested that Pb can decrease erythropoiesis by blocking globin mRNA translation. Pb's high elevation of digestive/catabolizing enzymes could generate immunogenic self peptides. With Pb's potential to induce new self-peptides and to enhance the expression of caspases, cytokines, and other immunomodulators, further evaluation of Pb's involvement in autoimmune phenomena, especially Th2-mediated autoantibody production, and alteration of organ system activities is warranted.

  14. Factors associated with occupational exposure to biological material among nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrinho, Nádia Bruna da Silva; Malaguti-Toffano, Silmara Elaine; Reis, Renata Karina; Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Gir, Elucir

    2017-01-01

    to identify factors associated with occupational exposure to biological material among nursing professionals. a cross-sectional study was conducted in a high complexity hospital of a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Nursing professionals were interviewed from March to November 2015. All ethical aspects were observed. among the 226 professionals interviewed, 17.3% suffered occupational exposure to potentially contaminated biological material, with 61.5% being percutaneous. Factors such as age (p=0.003), professional experience in nursing (p=0.015), and experience at the institution (p=0.032) were associated with the accidents with biological material. most accidents with biological material among nursing professionals were percutaneous. Age, professional experience, and experience at the institution were considered factors associated with occupational exposure.

  15. Systematic correlation of environmental exposure and physiological and self-reported behaviour factors with leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag J; Manrai, Arjun K; Corona, Erik; Kohane, Isaac S

    2017-02-01

    It is hypothesized that environmental exposures and behaviour influence telomere length, an indicator of cellular ageing. We systematically associated 461 indicators of environmental exposures, physiology and self-reported behaviour with telomere length in data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999-2002. Further, we tested whether factors identified in the NHANES participants are also correlated with gene expression of telomere length modifying genes. We correlated 461 environmental exposures, behaviours and clinical variables with telomere length, using survey-weighted linear regression, adjusting for sex, age, age squared, race/ethnicity, poverty level, education and born outside the USA, and estimated the false discovery rate to adjust for multiple hypotheses. We conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the correlation between identified environmental variables and gene expression levels of telomere-associated genes in publicly available gene expression samples. After correlating 461 variables with telomere length, we found 22 variables significantly associated with telomere length after adjustment for multiple hypotheses. Of these varaibales, 14 were associated with longer telomeres, including biomarkers of polychlorinated biphenyls([PCBs; 0.1 to 0.2 standard deviation (SD) increase for 1 SD increase in PCB level, P  environmental exposures and chronic disease-related risk factors may play a role in telomere length. Our secondary analysis found no evidence of association between PCBs/smoking and gene expression of telomere-associated genes. All correlations between exposures, behaviours and clinical factors and changes in telomere length will require further investigation regarding biological influence of exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  16. Prenatal exposure to residential air pollution and infant mental development: modulation by antioxidants and detoxification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Mendez, Michelle A; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution effects on children's neurodevelopment have recently been suggested to occur most likely through the oxidative stress pathway. We aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to residential air pollution is associated with impaired infant mental development, and whether antioxidant/detoxification factors modulate this association. In the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; Environment and Childhood) Project, 2,644 pregnant women were recruited during their first trimester. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene were measured with passive samplers covering the study areas. Land use regression models were developed for each pollutant to predict average outdoor air pollution levels for the entire pregnancy at each residential address. Maternal diet was obtained at first trimester through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Around 14 months, infant mental development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Among the 1,889 children included in the analysis, mean exposure during pregnancy was 29.0 μg/m3 for NO2 and 1.5 μg/m3 for benzene. Exposure to NO2 and benzene showed an inverse association with mental development, although not statistically significant, after adjusting for potential confounders [β (95% confidence interval) = -0.95 (-3.90, 1.89) and -1.57 (-3.69, 0.56), respectively, for a doubling of each compound]. Stronger inverse associations were estimated for both pollutants among infants whose mothers reported low intakes of fruits/vegetables during pregnancy [-4.13 (-7.06, -1.21) and -4.37 (-6.89, -1.86) for NO2 and benzene, respectively], with little evidence of associations in the high-intake group (interaction p-values of 0.073 and 0.047). Inverse associations were also stronger in non-breast-fed infants and infants with low maternal vitamin D, but effect estimates and interactions were not significant. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to residential air pollutants may adversely affect infant mental

  17. [Prenatal lead exposure related to cord blood brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and impaired neonatal neurobehavioral development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L H; Mu, X Y; Chen, H Y; Yang, H L; Qi, W

    2016-06-01

    To explore the relationship between umbilical cord blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neonatal neurobehavioral development in lead exposure infants. All infants and their mother were randomly selected during 2011 to 2012, subjects were selected according to the umbilical cord blood lead concentrations, which contcentration of lead was higher than 0.48 μmol/L were taken into high lead exposure group, about 60 subjects included. Comparing to the high lead exposure group, according to gender, weight, pregnant week, length and head circumferenece, the level of cord blood lead concentration under 0.48 μmol/L were taken into control group, 60 cases included. Lead content was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was used to determine the development of neonatal neuronal behavior. The content of BDNF was detected by ELISA. Comparing the BDNF and the NBNA score between two groups, and linear correlation was given on analysis the correlation between lead concentration in cord blood and BDNF, BDNF and the NBNA score. Lead content in high exposure group was (0.613±0.139) μmol/L, and higher than (0.336±0.142) μmol/L in low exposure group (t=3.21, PBDNF content in high exposure group which was (3.538±1.203) ng/ml was higher than low exposure group (2.464±0.918) ng/ml (t=7.60, PBDNF content was negatively correlated with NBNA summary score, passive muscle tension and active muscle tone score (r was -0.27, -0.29, -0.30, respectively, P values were BDNF was negatively correlated with neonatal neurodevelopment, may serve as a useful biomarker.

  18. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Haustermans, Karin; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011–0.013) clinical factor was “previous abdominal surgery.” As second significant (p = 0.012–0.016) factor, “cardiac history” was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including “diabetes” was significant (p = 0.039–0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003–0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D 50 . Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions

  19. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  20. Risk factors for tube exposure as a late complication of glaucoma drainage implant surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaku M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Meenakshi Chaku,1 Peter A Netland,2 Kyoko Ishida,3 Douglas J Rhee4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for tube exposure after glaucoma drainage implant surgery.Patients and methods: This was a retrospective case-controlled observational study of 64 eyes from 64 patients. Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients with tube erosion requiring surgical revision were compared with 32 matched control eyes of 32 patients. Univariate and multivariate risk factor analyses were performed.Results: Mean age was significantly younger in the tube exposure group compared with the control group (48.2±28.1 years versus 67.3±18.0 years, respectively; P=0.003. The proportion of diabetic patients (12.5% in the tube exposure group was significantly less (P=0.041 compared with the control group (37.5%. Comparisons of the type and position of the drainage implant were not significantly different between the two groups. The average time to tube exposure was 17.2±18.0 months after implantation of the drainage device. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, younger age (P=0.005 and P=0.027 and inflammation prior to tube exposure (P≤0.001 and P=0.004 were significant risk factors. Diabetes was a significant risk factor only in the univariate analysis (P=0.027.Conclusion: Younger age and inflammation were significant risk factors for tube exposure after drainage implant surgery. Keywords: glaucoma drainage implant complications, Ahmed Glaucoma Valve, Baerveldt implant, tube erosion, pericardial patch graft

  1. Dose factors to calculate the radiation exposure due to radioactive waste air from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenk, H.D.; Vogt, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the environmental impact of nuclear plants according to paragraph 45 of the Radiation Protection Directive of the Federal Republic of Germany requires the calculation of dose conversion factors indicating the correlation between the contaminated medium and individual radiation exposure. The present study is to be conceived as a contribution to discussion on this subject. For the determination of radiation exposure caused by the waste air of nuclear plants, models are being specified for computing the dose conversion factors for the external exposure pathways of β-submersion, γ-submersion and γ-radiation from contaminated ground as well as the internal exposure pathways of inhalation and ingestion, which further elaborate and improve the models previously applied, especially as far as the ingestion pathway is concerned, which distinguishes between 6 major food categories. The computer models are applied to those radionuclides which are significan for nuclear emitters, in particular nuclear light-water power stations. The results obtained for the individual exposure pathways and affected organs are specified in the form of tables. For this purpose, calculations were first of all carried out for the so-called 'reference man'. The results can be transferred to population groups with different consumption habits (e.g. vegetarians) by the application of correction factors. The models are capable of being extended with a view to covering other age groups. (orig.) [de

  2. Street characteristics and traffic factors determining road users' exposure to black carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dons, Evi; Temmerman, Philip; Van Poppel, Martine; Bellemans, Tom; Wets, Geert; Int Panis, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many studies nowadays make the effort of determining personal exposure rather than estimating exposure at the residential address only. While intra-urban air pollution can be modeled quite easily using interpolation methods, estimating exposure in transport is more challenging. The aim of this study is to investigate which factors determine black carbon (BC) concentrations in transport microenvironments. Therefore personal exposure measurements are carried out using portable aethalometers, trip diaries and GPS devices. More than 1500 trips, both by active modes and by motorized transport, are evaluated in Flanders, Belgium. GPS coordinates are assigned to road segments to allow BC concentrations to be linked with trip and road characteristics (trip duration, degree of urbanization, road type, traffic intensity, travel speed and road speed). Average BC concentrations on highways (10.7 μg/m 3 ) are comparable to concentrations on urban roads (9.6 μg/m 3 ), but levels are significantly higher than concentrations on rural roads (6.1 μg/m 3 ). Highways yield higher BC exposures for motorists compared to exposure on major roads and local roads. Overall BC concentrations are elevated at lower speeds ( 3 for roads with less than 500 veh/h, up to 12 μg/m 3 for roads with over 2500 veh/h). Traffic intensity proved to be the major explanatory variable for in-vehicle BC exposure, together with timing of the trip and urbanization. For cyclists and pedestrians the range in BC exposure is smaller and models are less predictive; for active modes exposure seems to be influenced by timing and degree of urbanization only. - Highlights: ► Aethalometers, an electronic diary and GPS were used to measure exposure in transport ► More than 1500 trips with active modes and in motorized transport are studied ► Exposure is higher on highways, in urban areas and during traffic peak hours. ► Traffic intensity is the major explanatory variable for in-vehicle BC exposure. ► Exposure

  3. Inequities in exposure to occupational risk factors between Māori and non-Māori workers in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Hayley J; Eng, Amanda; Barnes, Lucy A; Cheng, Soo; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Haddock, Katharine; Douwes, Jeroen; Pearce, Neil; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis

    2018-05-02

    Health inequities between indigenous and non-indigenous people are well documented. However, the contribution of differential exposure to risk factors in the occupational environment remains unclear. This study assessed differences in the prevalence of self-reported exposure to disease risk factors, including dust and chemicals, physical factors and organisational factors, between Māori and non-Māori workers in New Zealand. Potential participants were sampled from the New Zealand electoral rolls and invited to take part in a telephone interview, which included questions about current workplace exposures. Logistic regression, accounting for differences in age, socioeconomic status and occupational distribution between Māori and non-Māori, was used to assess differences in exposures. In total, 2344 Māori and 2710 non-Māori participants were included in the analyses. Māori had greater exposure to occupational risk factors than non-Māori. For dust and chemical exposures, the main differences related to Māori working in occupations where these exposures are more common. However, even within the same job, Māori were more likely to be exposed to physical factors such as heavy lifting and loud noise, and organisational factors such as carrying out repetitive tasks and working to tight deadlines compared with non-Māori. This is one of the first studies internationally to compare occupational risk factors between indigenous and non-indigenous people. These findings suggest that the contribution of the occupational environment to health inequities between Māori and non-Māori has been underestimated and that work tasks may be unequally distributed according to ethnicity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Physical Activity, a Critical Exposure Factor of Environmental Pollution in Children and Adolescents Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingmei; Zhang, Su; Xia, Li; Yu, Yi; Hu, Shuangshuang; Sun, Jingyu; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Peijie

    2018-01-23

    It is an extremely urgent problem that physical fitness promotion must face not only the increasing air pollution but also the decline of physical activity level of children and adolescents worldwide at present, which is the major reason that forms an inactive lifestyle and does harm to adolescents' health. Thus, it is necessary to focus on the exposure factor in environmental health risk assessment (EHRA) which conducts supervision of environmental pollution and survey of adolescents' activity patterns according to the harmful characteristics of air pollutant and relationship between dose and response. Some countries, such as USA, Canada and Australia, regard both respiratory rate and physical activity pattern as main exposure factors for adolescents in both air pollution health risk assessment and exercise risk assessment to forecast a safe exposing condition of pollutant for adolescents while they are doing exercise outdoors. In addition, it suggests that the testing indexes and testing methods of these two exposure factors, such as investigating the time of daily physical activity, strength, and characteristic of frequency, help to set up the quantitative relationship between environmental pollution index and the time, strength, frequency of daily activities, and formulate children's and adolescents' activity instructions under different levels of environmental pollutions. As smog becomes increasingly serious at present, it is meaningful to take physical activity as a critical composition of exposure factor and establish physical activity guideline, so as to reduce the risk of air pollution, and promote physical health of children and adolescents effectively.

  5. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  6. Aging: Characteristics, Exposure Factors, Epigenetics, and Assessment of Health Risks of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is organized into three sections. The first part describes the characteristics of the older adult population and the U.S. EPA’s efforts to protect elders form environmental hazards. Section II covers available exposure factor data, activity pattern and the pot...

  7. Physical Activity, a Critical Exposure Factor of Environmental Pollution in Children and Adolescents Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Xia, Li; Yu, Yi; Hu, Shuangshuang; Sun, Jingyu; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Peijie

    2018-01-01

    It is an extremely urgent problem that physical fitness promotion must face not only the increasing air pollution but also the decline of physical activity level of children and adolescents worldwide at present, which is the major reason that forms an inactive lifestyle and does harm to adolescents’ health. Thus, it is necessary to focus on the exposure factor in environmental health risk assessment (EHRA) which conducts supervision of environmental pollution and survey of adolescents’ activity patterns according to the harmful characteristics of air pollutant and relationship between dose and response. Some countries, such as USA, Canada and Australia, regard both respiratory rate and physical activity pattern as main exposure factors for adolescents in both air pollution health risk assessment and exercise risk assessment to forecast a safe exposing condition of pollutant for adolescents while they are doing exercise outdoors. In addition, it suggests that the testing indexes and testing methods of these two exposure factors, such as investigating the time of daily physical activity, strength, and characteristic of frequency, help to set up the quantitative relationship between environmental pollution index and the time, strength, frequency of daily activities, and formulate children’s and adolescents’ activity instructions under different levels of environmental pollutions. As smog becomes increasingly serious at present, it is meaningful to take physical activity as a critical composition of exposure factor and establish physical activity guideline, so as to reduce the risk of air pollution, and promote physical health of children and adolescents effectively. PMID:29360730

  8. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Delinquency: Examining a Spectrum of Promotive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Voisin, Dexter R.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether promotive factors (future expectations, family warmth, school attachment, and neighborhood cohesion) moderated relationships between community violence exposure and youth delinquency. Analyses were conducted using N = 2,980 sixth to eighth graders (M[subscript age] = 12.48; 41.1% males) from a racially, ethnically, and…

  9. Physical Activity, a Critical Exposure Factor of Environmental Pollution in Children and Adolescents Health Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmei Dong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is an extremely urgent problem that physical fitness promotion must face not only the increasing air pollution but also the decline of physical activity level of children and adolescents worldwide at present, which is the major reason that forms an inactive lifestyle and does harm to adolescents’ health. Thus, it is necessary to focus on the exposure factor in environmental health risk assessment (EHRA which conducts supervision of environmental pollution and survey of adolescents’ activity patterns according to the harmful characteristics of air pollutant and relationship between dose and response. Some countries, such as USA, Canada and Australia, regard both respiratory rate and physical activity pattern as main exposure factors for adolescents in both air pollution health risk assessment and exercise risk assessment to forecast a safe exposing condition of pollutant for adolescents while they are doing exercise outdoors. In addition, it suggests that the testing indexes and testing methods of these two exposure factors, such as investigating the time of daily physical activity, strength, and characteristic of frequency, help to set up the quantitative relationship between environmental pollution index and the time, strength, frequency of daily activities, and formulate children’s and adolescents’ activity instructions under different levels of environmental pollutions. As smog becomes increasingly serious at present, it is meaningful to take physical activity as a critical composition of exposure factor and establish physical activity guideline, so as to reduce the risk of air pollution, and promote physical health of children and adolescents effectively.

  10. The effects of exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability: An ecological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Epstein, Yoram; Yaakov, Yaron; Hermesh, Hagai; Brenner, Shmuel; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    The impact of human exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was examined in the urban space of Tel-Aviv-Jaffa. Four environmental factors were investigated: thermal and social loads; CO concentrations and noise. Levels of HRV are explained mainly by subjective social stresses, noise and CO. The most interesting result is the fact that while subjective social stress and noise increase HRV, low levels of CO are reducing HRV to some extent moderating the impact of subjective social stress and noise. Beyond the poisoning effect of CO and the fact that extremely low levels of HRV associated with high dozes of CO increase risk for life, low levels of CO may have a narcotic effect, as it is measured by HRV. The effects of thermal loads on HRV are negligible probably due to the use of behavioral means in order to neutralize heat and cold effects. -- Highlights: ► The impact of human exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was examined. ► Previous studies measured human exposure to pollution by fixed monitoring stations. ► This study measured actual personal exposure by mini sensors. ► High level of subjective social load and noise increase HRV. ► Low levels of CO may have a narcotic effect, as it is measured by HRV. -- The research focuses on the effects of environmental factors; noise, subjective social stress, thermal load and CO on Heart Rate Variability

  11. Factors affecting the local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Yamashita, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors. Between June 2006 and June 2009, 159 lung tumors in 144 patients (primary lung cancer, 128; metastatic lung tumor, 31) were treated with SBRT with 48-60 Gy (mean 50.1 Gy) in 4-5 fractions. Higher doses were given to larger tumors and metastatic tumors in principle. Assessed factors were age, gender, tumor origin (primary vs. metastatic), histological subtype, tumor size, tumor appearance (solid vs. ground glass opacity), maximum standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography using 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and SBRT doses. Follow-up time was 1-60 months (median 18 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year local failure-free rates of all lesions were 90, 80, and 77%, respectively. On univariate analysis, metastatic tumors (p<0.0001), solid tumors (p=0.0246), and higher SBRT doses (p=0.0334) were the statistically significant unfavorable factors for local control. On multivariate analysis, only tumor origin was statistically significant (p=0.0027). The 2-year local failure-free rates of primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors were 87 and 50%, respectively. A metastatic tumor was the only independently significant unfavorable factor for local control after SBRT. (author)

  12. Exposure to sun radiation as a risk factor for the occurrence of basal cell carcinoma in the Montenegrian population

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    Maksimović Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgound/aim: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent form of carcinomas in the whites. Among the environmental factors, the most important risk factor for its occurrence is the exposure to sun radiation. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the sun radiation in the development of basal cell carcinoma BCC in the Montenegrian population. Methods. A case-control study was conducted in a period from 2002-2003. The study group included 100 histopatologically confirmed cases with BCC, while the control group included 100 patients from the same population, who did not present skin cancer and who were individually matched with the cases from the study group by sex and age (± 5 years. All the participants were interviewed using an epidemiological questionnaire. For statistical analysis, the χ2 test and univariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results. The risk for development of BCC was increased in the persons: that always had burns with no tan during the exposure to sunlight (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.20-2.55; p = 0.003; that developed sunburns after two hours of the exposure to sunlight (OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.39-5.79; p < 0.001 that kept light tan or remained without changes in childhood and adolescence after the repeated exposures to sunlight (OR = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.89-4.52; p < 0.001 that often had severe and painful sunburns (OR = 4.48; 95% CI = 2.74-7.33; p < 0.001. Conclusion. Our study confirmed the significance of sunlight exposure for the development of BCC.

  13. Comments on the exposure distance as a factor of severity of A-bomb cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S [Sugimoto Ophthalmological Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1976-09-01

    In the study of A-bomb disorders, it is important in decision of exposure dose to consider not only exposure distance from the hypocenter but also shelter factors, and 8 cases were reported as examples. Group 1 (4 cases) was exposed to A-bomb in the train 750 m east of the hypocenter, and group 2 (4 cases) was exposed in the concrete steel building 620 m east of the hypocenter. Age, exposure distance, exposure place, shelter condition, wounds, acute symptoms due to A-bomb exposure, radiation dose, condition of turbidity of the crystalline lens, effect of A-bomb on visual acuity of eight cases were listed in table. Group 1 was exposed to A-bomb at the place 130 m from the place where group 2 was exposed, but the exposed dose of group 1 was equivalent to twice that of group 2. Acute symptoms due to A-bomb exposure, turbidity of the crystalline lens, and effect of A-bomb on visual acuity were by far stronger in group 1 than in group 2. It was stressed that physical history and treatment course of the patients with A-bomb cataract were enough to be important materials on the study of A-bomb disorders.

  14. Within and between Individual Variability of Exposure to Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder Risk Factors

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    Mohsen Zare

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Industrial companies indicate a tendency to eliminate variations in operator strategies, particularly following implementation of the lean principle. Companies believe when the operators perform the same prescribed tasks, they have to execute them in the same manner (completing the same gestures and being exposed to the same risk factors. They attempt to achieve better product quality by standardizing and reducing operational leeway. However, operators adjust and modify ways of performing tasks to balance between their abilities and the requirements of the job. This study aims to investigate the variability of exposure to physical risk factors within and between operators when executing the same prescribed tasks. The Ergonomic Standard method was used to evaluate two workstations. Seven operators were observed thirty times between repeated cycle times at those workstations. The results revealed the variability of exposure to risk factors between and within operators in the repeated execution of the same tasks. Individual characteristics and operators’ strategies might generate the variability of exposure to risk factors that may be an opportunity to reduce the risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WR-MSDs. However, sometimes operators’ strategies may cause overexposure to risk factors; operators most often adopt such strategies to undertake their tasks while reducing the workload.

  15. Environmental exposure of pregnant women to tobacco smoke and selected socio-economic factors

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    Paweł Kalinowski

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. Study results indicate the problem of exposure of pregnant women to smoke. Studied socio-economic factors affect the degree of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. There is a need to implement systematic activities in the field of social education about the influence of tobacco smoke on intrauterine development of the fetus. For this purpose it would be useful to develop a health program for women of child-bearing age with focus on the most vulnerable social groups of women. It is also necessary to provide people actively smoking from pregnant women, in particular of home environment, with health education.

  16. Prognostic factors for head and neck cancer of unknown primary including the impact of human papilloma virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Lars; Nyman, Jan; Haugen-Cange, Hedda; Bove, Mogens; Johansson, Leif; De Lara, Shahin; Kovács, Anikó; Hammerlid, Eva

    2017-06-10

    Head and neck cancer of unknown primary (HNCUP) is rare and prospective studies are lacking. The impact of different prognostic factors such as age and N stage is not completely known, the optimal treatment is not yet established, and the reported survival rates vary. In the last decade, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been identified as a common cause of and important prognostic factor in oropharyngeal cancer, and there is now growing interest in the importance of HPV for HNCUP. The aim of the present study on curatively treated HNCUP was to investigate the prognostic importance of different factors, including HPV status, treatment, and overall survival. A search for HNCUP was performed in the Swedish Cancer Registry, Western health district, between the years 1992-2009. The medical records were reviewed, and only patients with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma treated with curative intent were included. The tumor specimens were retrospectively analyzed for HPV with p16 immunostaining. Sixty-eight patients were included. The mean age was 59 years. The majority were males, and had N2 tumors. Sixty-nine percent of the tumors were HPV positive using p16 staining. Patients who were older than 70 years, patients with N3-stage tumors, and patients with tumors that were p16 negative had a significantly worse prognosis. The overall 5-year survival rate for patients with p16-positive tumors was 88% vs 61% for p16-negative tumors. Treatment with neck dissection and postoperative radiation or (chemo) radiation had 81 and 88% 5-year survival rates, respectively. The overall and disease-free 5-year survival rates for all patients in the study were 82 and 74%. Curatively treated HNCUP had good survival. HPV infection was common. Independent prognostic factors for survival were age over 70 years, HPV status and N3 stage. We recommend that HPV analysis should be performed routinely for HNCUP. Treatment with neck dissection and postoperative radiation or

  17. Socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors affecting children's exposure to VOCs in urban areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyaejeong; Ryu, Kyongnam; Jang, Kyungjo; Bae, Hyunjoo; Kim, Dongjin; Shin, Hosung; Chu, Jangmin; Yoon, Chungsik

    2010-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to cause adverse health effects. We investigated the relationships between children's VOC exposure and socioeconomic and human activity factors with passive personal samplers, questionnaires, and time-activity diaries (TAD). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.1, and the results were organized using SigmaPlot 8.0 software. Chemicals such as benzene, toluene, 2-butanone, ethylbenzene, xylene, chloroform, n-hexane, heptane, and some kinds of decanes, which are known to adversely affect public health, were identified in measured samples. These were mainly emitted from outdoor sources (e.g., vehicular traffic) or indoor sources (e.g., household activities such as cooking and cleaning) or both. We concluded that region was the most important socioeconomic factor affecting children's VOC exposure, and the significant compounds were n-hexane (p = 0.006), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (p = 0.001), benzene (p = 0.003), toluene (p = 0.002), ethylbenzene (p = 0.020), m-, p-xylene (p = 0.014), dodecane (p = 0.003), and hexadecane (p = 0.001). Parental education, year of home construction and type of housing were also slightly correlated with personal VOC exposure. Only the concentration of o-xylene (p = 0.027) was significantly affected by the parental education, and the concentrations of benzene (p = 0.030) and 2-butanone (p = 0.049) by the type of housing. Also, tridecane (p = 0.049) and n-hexane (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with the year of home construction. When household activities such as cooking were performed indoors, children's VOC concentrations tended to be higher, especially for n-hexane, chloroform, heptane, toluene (p factors simultaneously, socioeconomic factors such as region had a greater effect on children's VOC exposures than indoor activities. From this study, we can suggest that socioeconomic factors as well as environmental factors should be considered when formulating environmental policy to

  18. Seasonal correction factors in radon exposure assessment: are they help or hindrance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C.; Crockett, R.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Northern Hemisphere radon levels are generally higher in Winter than in Summer, primarily due to the increased interior/exterior temperature difference during the heating season, which results in greater atmospheric pressure differential and enhanced radon ingress. Following a survey of domestic radon levels in the United Kingdom (UK), the former National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) established measurement protocols and promulgated nationally-applicable Seasonal Correction Factors (SCF). These factors convert a one-month or three-month radon concentration measurement, commencing in any month of the year, to an annual mean radon concentration. Subsequent study suggests that this approach may not be sufficiently sensitive to local conditions, and a major independent investigation reported seasonal correction factors specific to nine geographic regions, together with a composite set applicable to all regions. Similar geographical variability has been observed in other countries. In a recent evaluation of the applicability of short-term exposures in quantifying long-term domestic radon levels, radon levels in 34 houses were monitored over a 12-month period with 1-week, 1-month and 3-month exposures. Radon concentration variation departed significantly from that expected on the basis of the recommended SCFs, with year-end discontinuities at all exposure durations. Weekly monitoring with electrets was continued in three of these locations for four years. Short-term variations in radon levels were observed, particularly during the shorter exposures, and this dataset has also shown year-on-year variations. Overall, SCFs derived from this dataset are significantly lower than those recommended, but are comparable with other results from the UK and elsewhere, particularly those that recognise geological diversity and are consequently prepared on a regional rather than a national basis. These findings call into question the validity of using nationally

  19. Geographic variation in risk factors for SFG rickettsial and leptospiral exposure in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabha, Harish; Hidalgo, Marylin; Valbuena, Gustavo; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Galeano, Armando; Puerta, Henry; Cantillo, Cesar; Mantilla, Gilma

    2009-10-01

    In order to characterize the patterns of human exposure to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsial and leptospiral infection, IgG surveys were conducted on 642 residents of ten different areas of the rural district of Necoclí, Colombia. Areas were selected based on forest cover and human settlement pattern, and individual risk factors were elucidated through multivariate logistic models, controlling for variance clustering within communities. Overall, prevalence of high antibody titers indicating previous exposure to SFG rickettsia and leptospira was 29.2% and 35.6%, respectively, and both were most prevalent in the same peri-urban neighborhood. Forest cover .10% demonstrated the strongest independent association with leptospiral exposure, followed by homes with outdoor storage sheds. Isolated rural housing was the only variable independently associated with SFG rickettsia exposure. Community-level variables significantly modified the effects of individual risk factors. For both pathogens the eldest quartile was less exposed in periurban areas although there was no age effect overall for either. Females living in population settlements were more exposed to SFG rickettsiae but there was no sex association in isolated rural houses. Similarly, in sites with forest cover .10%, individuals working at home had higher leptospira seroprevalence, but place of work was not a risk factor in areas of forest cover ,10%. These data suggest that the patterns of maintenance and/or exposure to leptospira and rickettsia vary across different human created landscapes and settlement patterns. While contrasting risk factors may reflect the unique transmission cycles of each pathogen, the observed patterns of geographic variation suggest that both diseases may respond similarly larger scale human-ecological dynamics.

  20. A National Study on Nurses' Exposure to Occupational Violence in Lebanon: Prevalence, Consequences and Associated Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Alameddine

    Full Text Available Healthcare institutions have commonly reported exposure of employees, particularly nurses, to high levels of occupational violence. Despite such evidence in the Middle East Region, there is a dearth of national studies that have systematically investigated this phenomenon. This study investigates the prevalence, characteristics, consequences and factors associated with nurses' exposure to occupational violence in Lebanon.A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey a nationally representative sample of 915 nurses registered with the Order of Nurses in Lebanon. Stratified random sampling by governorate was utilized. Individually-mailed questionnaires collected information on exposure to violence, degree of burnout and demographic/professional background. The main outcome variables were exposure to verbal abuse (never, 1-3, 4-9 and 10+ times and physical violence (never, ever over the past 12-months. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate prevalence of violence. Multivariable, binomial and multinomial regression models were carried out to investigate the correlates of exposure to verbal abuse and physical violence, respectively.Response rate was 64.8%. Over the last year, prevalence of nurses' exposure to verbal abuse was 62%, (CI: 58-65% and physical violence was 10%, (CI: 8-13%. Among respondents, 31.7% of nurses indicated likelihood to quit their jobs and 22.3% were undetermined. Furthermore, 54.1% reported high levels of emotional exhaustion and 28.8% reported high levels of depersonalization. Compared to nurses with no exposure to verbal abuse, nurses reporting high exposure had high levels of emotional exhaustion (OR:6.4; CI:1.76-23.32, depersonalization (OR:6.8; CI: 3-15 and intention to quit job (OR:3.9; CI: 1.8-8.3. They further reported absence of anti-violence policies at their institutions (OR: 3; CI: 1.5-6.3. Nurses that were ever exposed to physical violence were more likely to be males (OR: 2.2; CI: 1.1-4.3, working day and

  1. Music exposure differentially alters the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in the mouse hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Francesco; Ricci, Enzo; Padua, Luca; Sabino, Andrea; Tonali, Pietro Attilio

    2007-12-18

    It has been reported that music may have physiological effects on blood pressure, cardiac heartbeat, respiration, and improve mood state in people affected by anxiety, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, the physiological bases of these phenomena are not clear. Hypothalamus is a brain region involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression through the modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hypothalamic functions are also influenced by the presence of the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), which are proteins involved in the growth, survival and function of neurons in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music exposure in mice on hypothalamic levels of BDNF and NGF. We exposed young adult mice to slow rhythm music (6h per day; mild sound pressure levels, between 50 and 60 dB) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment mice were sacrificed and BDNF and NGF levels in the hypothalamus were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that music exposure significantly enhanced BDNF levels in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, we observed that music-exposed mice had decreased NGF hypothalamic levels. Our results demonstrate that exposure to music in mice can influence neurotrophin production in the hypothalamus. Our findings also suggest that physiological effects of music might be in part mediated by modulation of neurotrophins.

  2. Comparative quantification of alcohol exposure as risk factor for global burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Klotsche, Jens; Patra, Jayadeep

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol has been identified as one of the most important risk factors in the burden experienced as a result of disease. The objective of the present contribution is to establish a framework to comparatively quantify alcohol exposure as it is relevant for burden of disease. Different key indicators are combined to derive this quantification. First, adult per capita consumption, composed of recorded and unrecorded consumption, yields the best overall estimate of alcohol exposure for a country or region. Second, survey information is used to allocate the per capita consumption into sex and age groups. Third, an index for detrimental patterns of drinking is used to determine the additional impact on injury and cardiovascular burden. The methodology is applied to estimate global alcohol exposure for the year 2002. Finally, assumptions and potential problems of the approach are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Uveal melanoma in relation to ultraviolet light exposure and host factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, E A; Aston, D A; Char, D H; Kristiansen, J J; Ahn, D K

    1990-09-15

    We conducted a case-control interview study among 1277 subjects (407 patients, 870 controls selected by using random digit dial) in 11 western United States to determine whether uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma shared common risk factors. After adjustment for other factors, the risk of uveal melanoma was increased for those with green, gray, or hazel eyes [relative risk (RR) = 2.5, P less than 0.001] or blue eyes (RR = 2.2, P less than 0.001) when compared to brown. A tendency to sunburn after 0.5 h midday summer sun exposure increased risk for uveal melanoma (burn with tanning RR = 1.5, P = 0.02; burn with little tanning RR = 1.8, P less than 0.001; burn with no tanning RR = 1.7, P = 0.002); as did exposure to UV or black lights (RR = 3.7, P = 0.003); and welding burn, sunburn of the eye, or snow blindness (RR = 7.2, P less than 0.001). An association with uveal melanoma was also noted with an increasing number of large nevi (P = 0.04 for trend), although the individual risk estimates were not remarkable. These data suggest that host factors and exposure to UV light are risk factors for uveal melanoma.

  4. The Situation of Pregnant Women Exposure to Violence by Husband and the Factors Associated With Violence

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    Tulay Sagkal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was planned to determine the pregnant women living in rural areas exposure the situation to violence by husband and the factors associated with violence. METHODS: This descriptive cross-section research was conducted all of 5 Family Health Center located in the center of Odemis in izmir. The study sample consisted of 230 pregnant women who are willing to participate in the study, which surveyed admitted to Family Health Center between December 2011 - February 2012. Data are collected through a questionnaire prepared by examining the literature. The questionnaire consists of a total of 20 questions which including socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant women (8 questions, pregnancy, physical, emotional, economic and sexual violence, to determine (12 questions. Data were collected by face to face interviews by the researchers, were evaluated with number, percentage and chi-square tests. RESULTS: The average age of pregnant women was 25.75 +/- 4.63 (min:15-max:40, who was 83% of willingly got pregnant, 43% of first pregnancy, 79.6% of during pregnancy support of husband, 67% of the support of the family, % 32.6 of her husband doesn and #8217;t use substance but use alcohol, 10.9% of pregnant women reported physical, 52.6% of emotional, 31.7% of economic and 8.3% were exposed to sexual violence. CONCLUSiON: In this study, having pregnant woman and her husband to have graduated from primary school, moderate of the economic situation, unwilling pregnancy, lack of family support were the factors most strongly associated with violence. It is suggested that by health care institutions and health care providers must be routine screenings to determine violence during pregnancy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 381-390

  5. Exposure to occupational therapy as a factor influencing recruitment to the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    This article provides insight into the impact that exposure to an occupational therapist, in personal capacity or via a professional interaction, has on the decision to enter an occupational therapy undergraduate programme. A quantitative survey was completed by 139 occupational therapy students. The survey tool focussed on the students' exposure to a range of allied health professions (e.g. occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology) and investigated how exposure to occupational therapy had influenced their decision to enter the programme. The results indicated that over 70% of respondents had personal professional exposure to occupational therapy prior to making a career decision. Exposure most frequently involved occupational therapy intervention of a friend or family member. The majority of students who had professional exposure to occupational therapy (e.g. family, self, friend received occupational therapy) identified that it was the most influential factor in their career choice. Forty per cent of the occupational therapy students did not enter the programme straight from school and the influence of 'working with an occupational therapist' was noteworthy for mature aged students. Occupational therapists need to consider that every interaction they have with the community provides valuable information regarding the profession and gives insight into occupational therapy as a potential career path for other people. Additionally, the current research identifies there were differences in the impact, type and number of exposures for different student groups, and this potentially offers some insight into ways in which occupational therapy could target specific groups within the community to increase future diversity in the profession. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  6. Personal factors influencing agreement between expert and self-reported assessments of an occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Heather K; Sass-Kortsak, Andrea; Lou, W Y Wendy; Purdham, James T

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify personal factors associated with expert and respondent agreement on past occupational exposure. Epidemiologic data was collected from 1995 to 1998 in a community-based, case-control study of prostate cancer. Using longest jobs and excluding agreement on "never" exposure, self-reported and expert estimates of ever/ never exposure, by skin or ingestion, to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were compared. Agreement between respondents and the expert was 53.9 percent (N=1,038), with overreporting being more common than underreporting relative to the expert (31.8 percent versus 14.4 percent). In multiple logistic regression models, white-collar occupational status was significantly associated with overreporting (odds ratio [OR] = 0.142; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.095-0.211; blue-collar versus white-collar), while age was associated with underreporting (OR=1.077; 95 percent CI: 1.043-1.112; one-year increase). Neither job satisfaction nor risk perception appeared to confound other associations. In future studies, overreporting by white-collar workers might be avoided by providing clearer definitions of exposure, whereas elderly respondents may require aids to enhance exposure recall.

  7. Heat exposure and socio-economic vulnerability as synergistic factors in heat-wave-related mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Gregoire; Fouillet, Anne; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Frayssinet, Philippe; Dufour, Anne; Jougla, Eric; Hemon, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Heat waves may become a serious threat to the health and safety of people who currently live in temperate climates. It was therefore of interest to investigate whether more deprived populations are more vulnerable to heat waves. In order to address the question on a fine geographical scale, the spatial heterogeneity of the excess mortality in France associated with the European heat wave of August 2003 was analysed. A deprivation index and a heat exposure index were used jointly to describe the heterogeneity on the Canton scale (3,706 spatial units). During the heat wave period, the heat exposure index explained 68% of the extra-Poisson spatial variability of the heat wave mortality ratios. The heat exposure index was greater in the most urbanized areas. For the three upper quintiles of heat exposure in the densely populated Paris area, excess mortality rates were twofold higher in the most deprived Cantons (about 20 excess deaths/100,000 people/day) than in the least deprived Cantons (about 10 excess deaths/100,000 people/day). No such interaction was observed for the rest of France, which was less exposed to heat and less heterogeneous in terms of deprivation. Although a marked increase in mortality was associated with heat wave exposure for all degrees of deprivation, deprivation appears to be a vulnerability factor with respect to heat-wave-associated mortality.

  8. Optimization of exposure factors for X-ray radiography non-destructive testing of pearl oyster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo; Yulianti, I.; Addawiyah, A.; Setiawan, R.

    2018-03-01

    One of the processes in pearl oyster cultivation is detecting the pearl nucleus to gain information whether the pearl nucleus is still attached in the shell or vomited. The common tool used to detect pearl nucleus is an X-ray machine. However, an X-ray machine has a drawback that is the energy used is higher than that used by digital radiography. The high energy make the resulted image is difficult to be analysed. One of the advantages of digital radiography is the energy used can be adjusted so that the resulted image can be analysed easily. To obtain a high quality of pearl image using digital radiography, the exposure factors should be optimized. In this work, optimization was done by varying the voltage, current, and exposure time. Then, the radiography images were analysed using Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR). From the analysis, it can be determined that the optimum exposure factors are 60 kV of voltage, 16 mA of current, and 0.125 s of exposure time which result in CNR of 5.71.

  9. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  10. Association of Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Poursafa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk factors of non-communicable disease (NCD origin from early life, and exposure to environmental pollutant may be a predisposing factor. This study aimed to investigate the association of air quality index (AQI and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 with some NCD risk factors in a sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 to 2016 among children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, in Isfahan, Iran. Physical examination, including weight, height, and blood pressure, was conducted by standard methods. Fasting blood sample was obtained for fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, and triglycerides. The mean AQI and PM2.5 values from the study time till one year prior to the survey were used. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted for the association of AQI and PM2.5 with other variables. Results: Participants consisted of 186 children and adolescents with mean (SD age of 10.52(2.38 years. Exposure to higher level of PM2.5 had significant associations with higher levels of systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. It also had positive relationship with other risk factors and inverse association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, but these associations were not statistically significant. The corresponding figures were not significant for AQI. Conclusion: At current study results showed that exposure to higher levels of fine particulates was associated with some NCD risk factors in children and adolescents. Early life prevention of NCDs can lead to large reductions in disease risk; adverse effects of ambient pollutants should be considered in this regard.

  11. Prospective risk factors for adolescent PTSD: sources of differential exposure and differential vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Zona, Kate; Acker, Jenna; Turcios-Cotto, Viana

    2013-02-01

    There are two types of risk factors for developing PTSD: factors that increase the likelihood of experiencing a potentially traumatizing event and factors that increase the likelihood of developing symptoms following such events. Using prospective data over a two-year period from a large, diverse sample of urban adolescents (n = 1242, Mean age = 13.5), the current study differentiates these two sources of risk for developing PTSD in response to violence exposure. Five domains of potential risk and protective factors were examined: community context (e.g., neighborhood poverty), family risk (e.g., family conflict), behavioral maladjustment (e.g., internalizing symptoms), cognitive vulnerabilities (e.g., low IQ), and interpersonal problems (e.g., low social support). Time 1 interpersonal violence history, externalizing behaviors, and association with deviant peers were the best predictors of subsequent violence, but did not further increase the likelihood of PTSD in response to violence. Race/ethnicity, thought disorder symptoms, and social problems were distinctly predictive of the development of PTSD following violence exposure. Among youth exposed to violence, Time 1 risk factors did not predict specific event features associated with elevated PTSD rates (e.g., parent as perpetrator), nor did interactions between Time 1 factors and event features add significantly to the prediction of PTSD diagnosis. Findings highlight areas for refinement in adolescent PTSD symptom measures and conceptualization, and provide direction for more targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  12. Occupation and factors associated with exposure to the sun among beach workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudes Euler de Souza Lucena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Subjects were selected from five urban beaches to characterize the type of work conducted on urban beaches in the city of Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and determine potential associated factors among workers exposed to the sun. Data collection was based on a validated questionnaire. Results were obtained for 362 workers. Individuals were predominantly male (72.6% who worked under direct exposure to the sun (87.8%. Almost 95% had no more than 6 years of schooling and 87.91% earned an average monthly income of $318.75 dollars or more. Photoprotection was reported by 80.1%, among which sunscreen and caps/hats were predominant. Around 25% smoked and more than half did not consume alcohol. Male gender, no more than 6 years of schooling, daily exposure for up to 6 hours and use of photoprotection were the factors associated with the outdoor work category.

  13. Risk factors for mercury exposure of children in a rural mining town in northern Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Ohlander

    Full Text Available Traditional gold mining is associated with mercury exposure. Especially vulnerable to its neurotoxic effects is the developing nervous system of a child. We aimed to investigate risk factors of mercury exposure among children in a rural mining town in Chile.Using a validated questionnaire distributed to the parents of the children, a priori mercury risk factors, potential exposure pathways and demographics of the children were obtained. Mercury levels were measured through analyzing fingernail samples. Logistic regression modeling the effect of risk factors on mercury levels above the 75(th percentile were made, adjusted for potential confounders.The 288 children had a mean age of 9.6 years (SD = 1.9. The mean mercury level in the study population was 0.13 µg/g (SD 0.11, median 0.10, range 0.001-0.86 µg/g. The strongest risk factor for children's odds of high mercury levels (>75(th percentile, 0.165 µg/g was to play inside a house where a family member worked with mercury (OR adjusted 3.49 95% CI 1.23-9.89. Additionally, children whose parents worked in industrial gold mining had higher odds of high mercury levels than children whose parents worked in industrial copper mining or outside mining activities.Mercury exposure through small-scale gold mining might affect children in their home environments. These results may further help to convince the local population of banning mercury burning inside the households.

  14. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  15. Exposure Buildup Factors for Heavy Metal Oxide Glass: A Radiation Shield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manonara, S. R.; Hanagodimath, S. M.; Gerward, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Gamma ray exposure buildup factors for three Heavy Metal Oxide (HMO) glass systems, viz. PbO-Bi2O3-B2O3, PbO-B2O3, and Bi2O3-B2O3 glasses are presented. The computations were done by interpolation method using the Geometric Progression fitting formula and ANSI/ANS-6.4.3 library for the energy ran...... of graphs. Buildup factors of these HMO glasses cannot be found in any standard database, but they are useful for practical calculations in gamma ray shield designs, and they also, help to determine and control the thickness of the shielding material used.......Gamma ray exposure buildup factors for three Heavy Metal Oxide (HMO) glass systems, viz. PbO-Bi2O3-B2O3, PbO-B2O3, and Bi2O3-B2O3 glasses are presented. The computations were done by interpolation method using the Geometric Progression fitting formula and ANSI/ANS-6.4.3 library for the energy range...... from 0.015 to 15 MeV, up to penetration depths of 40 mfp (mean free path). The buildup factors have been studied as functions of incident photon energy and penetration depth. The variations in the buildup factor, for all the glass systems, in different energy regions; have been presented in the form...

  16. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Shujun; Chen, Gongbo; Syberg, Kevin M; Xian, Hong; Wang, Si-Quan; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Mo; Liu, Kang-Kang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Guo, Yuming; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-07-01

    Little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and MetS in China. A total of 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) in 2009 were evaluated. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the Joint Interim Societies. Exposure to air pollutants was assessed using data from monitoring stations and a spatial statistical model (including particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM 1 ), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), and ≤ 10 µm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 )). Two-level logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the associations between air pollutants and MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 30.37%. The adjusted odds ratio of MetS per 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 were 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00-1.24), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00-1.18), 1.13 (95% CI = 1.08-1.19), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.02-1.18), 1.33 (95% CI = 1.12-1.57), and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.18), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated that the above associations were stronger in participants with the demographic variables of males, < 50 years of age, and higher income, as well as with the behavioral characteristics of smoking, drinking, and consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks frequently. This study indicates that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of MetS, especially among males, the young to middle aged, those of low income, and those with unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the validity of job exposure matrix for psychosocial factors at work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Solovieva

    Full Text Available To study the performance of a developed job exposure matrix (JEM for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work in terms of accuracy, possible misclassification bias and predictive ability to detect known associations with depression and low back pain (LBP.We utilized two large population surveys (the Health 2000 Study and the Finnish Work and Health Surveys, one to construct the JEM and another to test matrix performance. In the first study, information on job demands, job control, monotonous work and social support at work was collected via face-to-face interviews. Job strain was operationalized based on job demands and job control using quadrant approach. In the second study, the sensitivity and specificity were estimated applying a Bayesian approach. The magnitude of misclassification error was examined by calculating the biased odds ratios as a function of the sensitivity and specificity of the JEM and fixed true prevalence and odds ratios. Finally, we adjusted for misclassification error the observed associations between JEM measures and selected health outcomes.The matrix showed a good accuracy for job control and job strain, while its performance for other exposures was relatively low. Without correction for exposure misclassification, the JEM was able to detect the association between job strain and depression in men and between monotonous work and LBP in both genders.Our results suggest that JEM more accurately identifies occupations with low control and high strain than those with high demands or low social support. Overall, the present JEM is a useful source of job-level psychosocial exposures in epidemiological studies lacking individual-level exposure information. Furthermore, we showed the applicability of a Bayesian approach in the evaluation of the performance of the JEM in a situation where, in practice, no gold standard of exposure assessment exists.

  18. Evaluation of the validity of job exposure matrix for psychosocial factors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Svetlana; Pensola, Tiina; Kausto, Johanna; Shiri, Rahman; Heliövaara, Markku; Burdorf, Alex; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2014-01-01

    To study the performance of a developed job exposure matrix (JEM) for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work in terms of accuracy, possible misclassification bias and predictive ability to detect known associations with depression and low back pain (LBP). We utilized two large population surveys (the Health 2000 Study and the Finnish Work and Health Surveys), one to construct the JEM and another to test matrix performance. In the first study, information on job demands, job control, monotonous work and social support at work was collected via face-to-face interviews. Job strain was operationalized based on job demands and job control using quadrant approach. In the second study, the sensitivity and specificity were estimated applying a Bayesian approach. The magnitude of misclassification error was examined by calculating the biased odds ratios as a function of the sensitivity and specificity of the JEM and fixed true prevalence and odds ratios. Finally, we adjusted for misclassification error the observed associations between JEM measures and selected health outcomes. The matrix showed a good accuracy for job control and job strain, while its performance for other exposures was relatively low. Without correction for exposure misclassification, the JEM was able to detect the association between job strain and depression in men and between monotonous work and LBP in both genders. Our results suggest that JEM more accurately identifies occupations with low control and high strain than those with high demands or low social support. Overall, the present JEM is a useful source of job-level psychosocial exposures in epidemiological studies lacking individual-level exposure information. Furthermore, we showed the applicability of a Bayesian approach in the evaluation of the performance of the JEM in a situation where, in practice, no gold standard of exposure assessment exists.

  19. Determination of photon conversion factors relating exposure and dose for several extremity phantom designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Eichner, F.N.; Reece, W.D.

    1986-09-01

    This report presents the results of measurements of dosimetric properties of simple extremity phantoms suitable for use in extremity dosimeter performance testing. Two sizes of phantoms were used in this study. One size represented the forearm or lower leg and the other size represented the finger or toe. For both phantom sizes, measurements were performed on solid plastic phantoms and on phantoms containing simulated bone material to determine the effect of backscattered radiations from the bone on the surface dose. Exposure-to-dose conversion factors (C/sub x/ factors) were determined for photon energies ranging from 16 to 1250 keV (average for 60 Co). The effect of the presence of a phantom was also measured for a 90 Sr/ 90 Y source. Significant differences in the measured C/sub x/ factors were found among the phantoms investigated. The factors for the finger-sized phantoms were uniformly less than for the arm-sized phantoms

  20. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: cord blood levels and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guxens, Mònica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, María; Amurrio, Ascensión; Rebagliato, Marisa; Marina, Loreto Santa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-05-01

    Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2μg/dL). A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06μg/dL and 19μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL. In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A study of the energy absorption and exposure buildup factors of some anti-inflammatory drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, Neslihan; Kavaz, Esra; Özdemir, Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Human radiation exposure is increasing due to radiation development in science and technology. The development of radioprotective agents is important for protecting patients from the side effects of radiotherapy and for protecting the public from unwanted irradiation. Radioprotective agents are used to reduce the damage caused by radiation in healthy tissues. There are several classes of radioprotective compounds that are under investigation. Analgesics and anti-inflammatory compounds are being considered for treating or preventing the effects of damage due to radiation exposure, or for increasing the chance of survival after exposure to a high dose of radiation. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective effects of some analgesic and anti-inflammatory compounds by evaluating buildup factors. The gamma ray energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) were calculated to select compounds in a 0.015–15 MeV energy region up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy and penetration depth elements were also investigated. Significant variations in both EABF and EBF values were observed for several compounds at the moderate energy region. At energies below 0.15 MeV, EABF and EBF values increased with decreasing equivalent atomic number (Z eq ) of the samples. In addition, EABF and EBF were the largest for ibuprofen, aspirin, paracetamol, naproxen and ketoprofen at 0.05 and 0.06 MeV, respectively, and the EABF value was 0.1 MeV for aceclofenac. From these results, we concluded that the buildup of photons is less for aceclofenac compared to other materials. - Highlights: • Buildup factors of anti-inflammatory drugs have been calculated by a G-P fitting method. • Z eff of diclofenac was observed higher than other compounds. • It was found that buildup of photons is less for aceclofenac and diclofenac. • It would be appealing to use aceclofenac and diclofenac as radioprotective

  2. Factors contribution to the reduction of occupational exposures at Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, K.; Urbancik, L.; Fuchsova, D.; Kulich, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the causes of achieving such low collective doses and the ways used for a further optimization process reducing occupational exposure at the Dukovany NPP from the beginning of operation up to now. The objective of this contribution is to explain the approaches leading to reduced occupational radiation exposure, measures which have been implemented and what is needed for the maintenance of excellent results in the future. It is possible to identify three main areas and eight main sources affecting collective dose values. There are one objective and two specific causes for low exposures: 1. Objective cause: - General arrangement; - Structural materials; - Fuel integrity. 2. Specific cause influenced by the state regulation: - Legislative support; - Operational safety culture; - Well-though tout system of radiological monitoring; - Effective radiological event feedback; - Effective education and training. 3. Specific cause uninfluenced by the state regulation: - Modified water chemistry of the primary circuit adopted by the licensee; - Licensee's system of radiation work debriefing. All the items specified above contribute to a unique concurrence of circumstances leading to the constantly low occupational exposures at the Czech nuclear power plants. The paper discusses all factors involved in these good results. (authors)

  3. Improvements in scaling of counter-current imbibition recovery curves using a shape factor including permeability anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Jassem; Sarafrazi, Shiva; Riazi, Masoud; Ghaedi, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous imbibition is the main oil production mechanism in the water invaded zone of a naturally fractured reservoir (NFR). Different scaling equations have been presented in the literature for upscaling of core scale imbibition recovery curves to field scale matrix blocks. Various scale dependent parameters such as gravity effects and boundary influences are required to be considered in the upscaling process. Fluid flow from matrix blocks to the fracture system is highly dependent on the permeability value in the horizontal and vertical directions. The purpose of this study is to include permeability anisotropy in the available scaling equations to improve the prediction of imbibition assisted oil production in NFRs. In this paper, a commercial reservoir simulator was used to obtain imbibition recovery curves for different scenarios. Then, the effect of permeability anisotropy on imbibition recovery curves was investigated, and the weakness of the existing scaling equations for anisotropic rocks was demonstrated. Consequently, an analytical shape factor was introduced that can better scale all the curves related to anisotropic matrix blocks.

  4. Determining Exposure Factors of Anti-Fogging, Dye, Disinfectant, Repellent, and Preservative Products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daeyeop; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Kim, Taksoo; Yoon, Hyojung; Jo, Areum; Lee, Byeongwoo; Lim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Pilje; Seo, Jungkwan

    2018-01-30

    Reliable exposure factors are essential to determine health risks posed by chemicals in consumer products. We analyzed five risk-concerned product categories (anti-fogging, dye, disinfectant, repellent, and preservative products) for 13 products (three car anti-fogging products, a lens anti-fogging product, two car dye products, two drain disinfectants, an air conditioner disinfectant, a chlorine-based disinfectant, a fabric repellent, an insect repellent for food, and a wood preservative) considered to be of high risk in order to determine exposure factors via web surveys and estimation of amount of product. Among the 3000 participants (1482 (49%) men) aged ≥19 years, drain disinfectants were used most frequently (38.2%); the rate of usage of the other products ranged between 1.1-24.0%. The usage rates for the consumer products differed by sex, age, income, and education. Some consumer products such as car and lens anti-fogging products, chlorine-based disinfectants, fabric repellents, and drain disinfectants were regularly used more than once a month, while car dye products, air conditioner disinfectants, insect repellents for food, and wood preservatives were not regularly used owing to the specific product purposes and seasonal needs. Our results could be used for managing or controlling chemical substances in consumer products and conducting accurate exposure assessments.

  5. Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Lindblad, Frank; Stickley, Andrew; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-01

    The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24% of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

  6. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, P.Yu.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Horemans, N.; Makarenko, E.S.; Saenen, E.; Duarte, G.T.; Nauts, R.; Bondarenko, V.S.; Jacobs, G.; Voorspoels, S.; Kudin, M.

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. - Highlights: • Chronic radiation exposure changes the genetic structure of plant populations. • Genomes of irradiated pines are hypermethylated. • The level of hypermethylation does not depend on annual dose. - These results indicate that even relatively low levels of chronic radiation exposure can influence on the genetic characteristics and the methylation status of natural pine populations and that it should be considered as an important ecological factor reflecting the anthropogenic impact on ecosystems.

  7. Interaction of Physical Exposures and Occupational Factors on Sickness Absence in Automotive Industry Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valirad, Fateme; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2015-04-23

    Increased sickness absence in recent years has been a trouble making issue in industrial society. Identify the causes of sickness absence and its influencing factors, is an important step to control and reduce its associated complications and costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate main factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. In 2012, a cross-sectional study on 758 employees of a car accessories producing company was applied and relevant information about the number of days and episodes of sickness absence, Disease resulting in absence from work, personal features, occupational factors and physical exposures were collected. To determine risk factors associated with sickness absence, Logistic regression analysis was used. The most common diseases leading to sickness absence in order of frequency were Respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and injuries at work. Musculoskeletal disorders increased the danger of long term absence by 4/33 times. Blue collar and shift works were the most important occupational factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. The main physical factors that affect incidence of sickness absence were frequent bending-twisting and heavy lifting. Identifying controllable factors of sickness absence and trying to prevent and modify them such as compliance of ergonomic principals to decrease physical can be effective in reducing sickness absence.

  8. A National Study on Nurses’ Exposure to Occupational Violence in Lebanon: Prevalence, Consequences and Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Mourad, Yara; Dimassi, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare institutions have commonly reported exposure of employees, particularly nurses, to high levels of occupational violence. Despite such evidence in the Middle East Region, there is a dearth of national studies that have systematically investigated this phenomenon. This study investigates the prevalence, characteristics, consequences and factors associated with nurses’ exposure to occupational violence in Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey a nationally representative sample of 915 nurses registered with the Order of Nurses in Lebanon. Stratified random sampling by governorate was utilized. Individually-mailed questionnaires collected information on exposure to violence, degree of burnout and demographic/professional background. The main outcome variables were exposure to verbal abuse (never, 1–3, 4–9 and 10+ times) and physical violence (never, ever) over the past 12-months. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate prevalence of violence. Multivariable, binomial and multinomial regression models were carried out to investigate the correlates of exposure to verbal abuse and physical violence, respectively. Results Response rate was 64.8%. Over the last year, prevalence of nurses’ exposure to verbal abuse was 62%, (CI: 58–65%) and physical violence was 10%, (CI: 8–13%). Among respondents, 31.7% of nurses indicated likelihood to quit their jobs and 22.3% were undetermined. Furthermore, 54.1% reported high levels of emotional exhaustion and 28.8% reported high levels of depersonalization. Compared to nurses with no exposure to verbal abuse, nurses reporting high exposure had high levels of emotional exhaustion (OR:6.4; CI:1.76–23.32), depersonalization (OR:6.8; CI: 3–15) and intention to quit job (OR:3.9; CI: 1.8–8.3). They further reported absence of anti-violence policies at their institutions (OR: 3; CI: 1.5–6.3). Nurses that were ever exposed to physical violence were more likely to be males

  9. Exposure to nerve growth factor worsens nephrotoxic effect induced by Cyclosporine A in HK-2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Vizza

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor is a neurotrophin that promotes cell growth, differentiation, survival and death through two different receptors: TrkA(NTR and p75(NTR. Nerve growth factor serum concentrations increase during many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, glomerulonephritis, chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease and, particularly, in renal transplant. Considering that nerve growth factor exerts beneficial effects in the treatment of major central and peripheral neurodegenerative diseases, skin and corneal ulcers, we asked whether nerve growth factor could also exert a role in Cyclosporine A-induced graft nephrotoxicity. Our hypothesis was raised from basic evidence indicating that Cyclosporine A-inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT pathway increases nerve growth factor expression levels. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of nerve growth factor and its receptors in the damage exerted by Cyclosporine A in tubular renal cells, HK-2. Our results showed that in HK-2 cells combined treatment with Cyclosporine A + nerve growth factor induced a significant reduction in cell vitality concomitant with a down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p21 levels respect to cells treated with Cyclosporine A alone. Moreover functional experiments showed that the co-treatment significantly up-regulated human p21promoter activity by involvement of the Sp1 transcription factor, whose nuclear content was negatively regulated by activated NFATc1. In addition we observed that the combined exposure to Cyclosporine A + nerve growth factor promoted an up-regulation of p75 (NTR and its target genes, p53 and BAD leading to the activation of intrinsic apoptosis. Finally, the chemical inhibition of p75(NTR down-regulated the intrinsic apoptotic signal. We describe two new mechanisms by which nerve growth factor promotes growth arrest and apoptosis in tubular renal cells exposed to Cyclosporine A.

  10. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  11. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients.HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events.In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs and vascular events. Such results are preliminary and require

  12. Skin barrier integrity and natural moisturising factor levels after cumulative dermal exposure to alkaline agents in atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Dapic, Irena; Hoek, Anne-Karin; Jakasa, Ivone; Fischer, Tobias W.; Zillikens, Detlef; Kezic, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Dermal exposure to alkaline agents may lead to skin barrier damage and irritant contact dermatitis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cumulative exposure to 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and 0.15% NaOH on the barrier function and natural moisturising factor (NMF)

  13. Early Childhood Risk Factors for Mealtime TV Exposure and Engagement in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domoff, Sarah E; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Miller, Alison L

    To identify whether child and mother characteristics in early childhood predict TV exposure and engagement during mealtime in middle childhood. A total of 220 low-income mother-child dyads participated. Children were 4.26 years old (SD = 0.51) at baseline and 5.94 years (SD = 0.68) at 2-year follow-up. Mothers completed baseline measures of child negative emotionality and parenting practices. Family mealtimes were video recorded and coded for background TV exposure and child TV engagement. Multinomial logistic regression tested whether child emotionality and parenting practices during early childhood predicted risk of child TV exposure or engagement during mealtime, relative to no TV use, 2 years later. Children with greater negative emotionality in early childhood were more likely to engage with TV during mealtime than to have no TV. Similarly, early parenting disciplinary practices characterized by over-reactivity and laxness increased the risk for child TV engagement versus no TV during mealtime approximately 2 years later. We identified 2 factors that associated with an increased risk for TV viewing during meals. Helping parents manage child negative emotionality using positive parenting strategies might reduce later child TV engagement and improve the quality of family mealtimes. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational Exposure to Mineral Turpentine and Heavy Fuels: A Possible Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Helou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between solvents and Alzheimer's disease (AD has been the subject of several studies. Yet, only few studies have examined the various solvents separately, and the controls have rarely been monitored long enough. For these reasons and others, we believe that further studies are required. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify solvents associated with the clinicoradiological diagnostic of AD or mixed-type dementia (MD. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed in 156 patients followed up at the Memory Diagnostic Center of Bertinot Juel Hospital (France. The inclusion criteria were known occupation(s, a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score ≥10 at the first visit, a neuropsychological evaluation performed and a diagnosis established in our Memory Diagnostic Center. The diagnostics were crossed with 9 solvents belonging to two classes of solvents. Exposure was evaluated using French national job-exposure matrices. Results: Certain petroleum-based solvents and fuels (i.e. mineral turpentine, diesel fuel, fuel oil and kerosene were associated with a diagnosis of AD or MD. This association was still significant after adjustment for age, sex and education (adjusted OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2-20. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to mineral turpentine and heavy fuels may be a risk factor for AD and MD.

  15. Work procedures and risk factors for high rdiation exposure among radiologic technologists in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Young; Choi, Yeong Chull [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Radiologic technologists currently consist of 31.5% among diagnostic radiation workers in South Korea. Among diagnostic radiation workers, radiologic technologists receive the highest annual and collective doses in South Korea. Comprehensive assessment of the work practices and associated radiation doses from diagnostic radiology procedures should be undertaken for effective prevention for radiologic technologists. Using the national survey, this study aimed (1) to explore the distribution of the work procedures performed by gender, (2) to evaluate occupational radiation exposure by work characteristics and safety compliance, (3) to identify the primary factors influencing high radiation exposure among radiologic technologists in South Korea. This study provided detailed information on work practices, number of procedures performed on weekly basis, and occupational radiation doses among radiologic technologists in South Korea. Average radiation dose for radiologic technologists is higher than other countries, and type of facility, work safety, and wearing lead apron explained quite a portion of increased risk in the association between radiology procedures and radiation exposure among radiologic technologists.

  16. Work procedures and risk factors for high rdiation exposure among radiologic technologists in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Young; Choi, Yeong Chull; Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil

    2016-01-01

    Radiologic technologists currently consist of 31.5% among diagnostic radiation workers in South Korea. Among diagnostic radiation workers, radiologic technologists receive the highest annual and collective doses in South Korea. Comprehensive assessment of the work practices and associated radiation doses from diagnostic radiology procedures should be undertaken for effective prevention for radiologic technologists. Using the national survey, this study aimed (1) to explore the distribution of the work procedures performed by gender, (2) to evaluate occupational radiation exposure by work characteristics and safety compliance, (3) to identify the primary factors influencing high radiation exposure among radiologic technologists in South Korea. This study provided detailed information on work practices, number of procedures performed on weekly basis, and occupational radiation doses among radiologic technologists in South Korea. Average radiation dose for radiologic technologists is higher than other countries, and type of facility, work safety, and wearing lead apron explained quite a portion of increased risk in the association between radiology procedures and radiation exposure among radiologic technologists.

  17. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: II. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vivo, clastogenic factors and transgenerational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence for non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo. Currently, human health risks associated with radiation exposures are based primarily on the assumption that the detrimental effects of radiation occur in irradiated cells. Over the years a number of non-targeted effects of radiation exposure in vivo have been described that challenge this concept. These include radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effects, clastogenic factors produced in plasma from irradiated individuals that can cause chromosomal damage when cultured with nonirradiated cells, and transgenerational effects of parental irradiation that can manifest in the progeny. These effects pose new challenges to evaluating the risk(s) associated with radiation exposure and understanding radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  18. Determination of correction and conversion factor of exposure rate generated Gamma spectrometer GR-320 to Victoreen data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardjo-AS; Mappa, Djody-Rachim; Nasrun-Syamsul; Syamsul-Hadi

    2000-01-01

    Exposure rate data of Muria Peninsula were generated from Victoreen-491 measurement and calculation of radioelement content in soil which were measured by Exploranium GR-320, using IAEA formula. However those data are not be comparable so the exposure rate calculated from Gamma Spectrometer data necessarily to be corrected. The correction factor was determinate by measuring the exposure rate of at the NMDC's back yard selected location using Victoreen-491 and Gamma Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 . Correction factor was created by comparing mean exposure rate data that calculated from 30 data measured by Gamma Spectrometer instrument and to those Victoreen's exposure rate. Conversion factor was gained from comparing of total count data of Gamma Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 to Victoreen's exposure rate data. The correction factor of Exploranium GR-320's exposure rate is 0.34 μR/hours, and the conversion factor of total count is 0.0092 μR/hours per c/m. Deviation Victoreen 491 = 4.7 % and Gamma Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 8.6 %

  19. Exposure of the German general population to platinum and rhodium - Urinary levels and determining factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munker, Sven; Kilo, Sonja; Röß, Christoph; Jeitner, Peter; Schierl, Rudolf; Göen, Thomas; Drexler, Hans

    2016-11-01

    In this study the exposure of the general population in Germany to platinum and rhodium and its determinants was investigated in 259 participants (subdivided in three groups) by urine analyses and assessment of the dental status. Complementary, an interview including questions characterising possible exposure to traffic exhaust was conducted. The median excretion was 2.42ng platinum/g creatinine and 7.27ng rhodium/g creatinine. The detailed analysis of the collected data showed significant higher platinum excretion values with increasing number of surfaces covered with restorations containing precious metals (R=0.389; prhodium excretion values (median=7.27ng/g; 95th percentile=13.5 ng/g). In summary, the study showed that exhaust emissions have an influence on platinum and rhodium excretion, but for platinum this influence is rather low compared to the influence of precious metals containing restorations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees, a 3-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hoekstra, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees’ mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in

  1. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees : A 3-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hoekstra, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Van Der Beek, A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees' mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in

  2. Exposure to suicidal behaviors: A common suicide risk factor or a personal negative life event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Bettiol, Silvana

    2017-02-01

    Numerous suicide risk factors have been proposed but not adequately validated for epidemiology, treatment and prevention efforts. Exposures to suicidal behaviors (ESB), from family and friend suicide attempts and completions, were tested for validity as a suicidal risk factor and also for measurement and construct adequacy. An anonymous online survey yielded 713 participants (aged 18-71), who reported ESB, completed the Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale (SABCS), and comprised a broad spectrum on those variables. Tests of dimensionality and internal consistency showed the four ESB variables (attempts/completions through family/friends) were independent and did not form a common factor or an identifiable ESB latent trait. ESB variables were, however, associated with demographic and psychiatric histories. A battery of tests revealed no meaningful associations between ESB and total suicidality or suicide risk factors (social support, depression, anxiety, stress, satisfaction with life and emotional stability). In addition, in contrast to previous reports, young adults ( n = 200; aged 18-20) showed no increased suicidality due to ESB. Results showed no validity for ESB as a common risk factor for suicidality or other psychopathology, or as a latent trait. ESB showed evidence as a personal negative life event with individual effects and interpretations.

  3. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  4. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Guxens, Monica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: → Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. → Cord blood Pb levels in Spanish newborn are low in

  5. Exposure buildup factors for a cobalt-60 point isotropic source for single and two layer slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarova, R.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure buildup factors for point isotropic cobalt-60 sources are calculated by the Monte Carlo method with statistical errors ranging from 1.5 to 7% for 1-5 mean free paths (mfp) thick water and iron single slabs and for 1 and 2 mfp iron layers followed by water layers 1-5 mfp thick. The computations take into account Compton scattering. The Monte Carlo data for single slab geometries are approximated by Geometric Progression formula. Kalos's formula using the calculated single slab buildup factors may be applied to reproduce the data for two-layered slabs. The presented results and discussion may help when choosing the manner in which the radiation field gamma irradiation units will be described. (author)

  6. Gamma-ray energy absorption and exposure buildup factor studies in some human tissues with endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurudirek, Murat, E-mail: mkurudirek@gmail.co [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Dogan, Bekir [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Ingec, Metin [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Ekinci, Neslihan; Ozdemir, Yueksel [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Human tissues with endometriosis have been analyzed in terms of energy absorption (EABF) and exposure (EBF) buildup factors using the five-parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting formula in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). Chemical compositions of the tissue samples were determined using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRFS). Possible conclusions were drawn due to significant variations in EABF and EBF for the selected tissues when photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition changed. Buildup factors so obtained may be of use when the method of choice for treatment of endometriosis is radiotherapy.

  7. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  8. Excitation and charge transfer in He+ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-01-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He + + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes

  9. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation as a risk factor for free-radicals mediated diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurovic, B.; Spasic-Jokic, V.; Selakovic, V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. It was experimentally showed, that the exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) result in over-production of oxygen derived free radicals with inverse dose-rate effect. The oxidative stress that follows, especially cell membrane damage, was considered by Petkau, as crucial step in the induction of radiation injuries. From clinical research and practice with other unexposed patients is known that this type of cell damage can lead to an impairment of cellular function and can cause many free-radicals mediated diseases, such as atherosclerosis, damage of heart muscles, inflammatory and immuno-reactive lesions, senile dementia, cancer, etc. The aim of this paper is to investigate if occupational exposure to low doses of IR change the redox status of exposed personnel, and if so, is it the additional risk factor for free-radicals mediated diseases. Subjects: 77 medical workers, devided in two groups: 44 occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (E), and 33 controls (C), matched in age, gender, habits-daitary, alcohol consumption, smoking and exposure time, were examined. Methods: Radiation dose accumulated over years was calculated on the basis of individual TL-dose records. Superoxide-anion and MDA production, as well as SOD (MnSOD, CuZnSOD) and GSH activity were determined in blood samples spectrophotometrically. Results: Significantly higher incidence of cataract, and higher, but not significant, incidence of cardiovascular diseases was noticed in exposed. Our results also confirmed significantly higher superoxide and MDA production (p=0.0049, 0.000028, respectively), as well as, increased activity of MnSOD and CuZnSOD (p0.0105, 0.001, respectively), and decreased level of GSH (p=0.0599) in exposed. Conclusions: Our results showed that low doses of IR could induce oxidative stress and for that reason could be considered as additional risk factor for free radical-mediated diseases. Further epidemiological studies are

  10. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 μM triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure

  11. The effects of air pollution and climatic factors on atmospheric corrosion of marble under field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Nishimura, Rokuro; Tsujino, Yoshio; Satoh, Yukihiro; Thi Phuong Thoa, Nguyen; Yokoi, Masayuki; Maeda, Yasuaki

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of marble was evaluated in terms of SO 2 concentration as air pollution and climatic factors such as rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and so on under the field exposure. Marble of calcite type (CaCO 3 ) was exposed to outdoor atmospheric environment with and without a rain shelter at four test sites in the southern part of Vietnam for 3-month, 1- and 2-year periods from July 2001 to September 2003. The thickness loss of marble was investigated gravimetrically. X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescent methods were applied to study corrosion products on marble. The corrosion product of marble was only gypsum (CaSO 4 . 2H 2 O) and was washed out by rain under the unsheltered exposure condition. It was found that the most substantial factors influencing the corrosion of marble were rainfall, SO 2 concentration in the air and relative humidity. Based on the results obtained, we estimated the dose-response functions for the atmospheric corrosion of marble in the southern part of Vietnam

  12. Human health exposure factor estimates based upon a creel/angler survey of the lower Passaic River (part 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rose; Craven, Valerie; Bingham, Matthew; Kinnell, Jason; Hastings, Elizabeth; Finley, Brent

    2007-03-15

    The results of an analysis of site-specific creel and angler information collected for the lower 6 miles of the Passaic River in Newark, NJ (Study Area), demonstrate that performing a site-specific creel/angler survey was essential to capture the unique characteristics of the anglers using the Study Area. The results presented were developed using a unique methodology for calculating site-specific, human exposure estimates from data collected in this unique urban/industrial setting. The site-specific human exposure factors calculated and presented include (1) size of angler population and fish-consuming population, (2) annual fish consumption rate, (3) duration of anglers' fishing careers, (4) cooking methods for the fish consumed, and (5) demographic information. Sensitivity and validation analyses were performed, and results were found to be useful for performing a site-specific, human health risk assessment. It was also concluded that site-specific exposure factor values are preferable to less representative "default values." The results of the analysis showed that the size of the angling population at the Study Area is estimated to range from 154 to 385 anglers, based on different methods of matching intercepts with anglers. Thirty-four anglers were estimated to have consumed fish; 37 people consumed fish from the river. The fish consumption rate for anglers using this area was best represented as 0.42 g/day for the central tendency and 1.8 g/day for the 95th percentile estimates. Anglers fishing at the river have relatively short fishing careers with a median of 0.9 yr, an average of 1.5 yr, and a 95th percentile of 4.8 yr. Consuming anglers tend to fry the fish they caught. The demographics of anglers who consume fish do not appear to differ substantially from those who do not, with no indication of a subsistence angling population.

  13. Brain-derived neurotropic factor polymorphisms, traumatic stress, mild traumatic brain injury, and combat exposure contribute to postdeployment traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Williams, Kathy; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-01-01

    In addition to experiencing traumatic events while deployed in a combat environment, there are other factors that contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military service members. This study explored the contribution of genetics, childhood environment, prior trauma, psychological, cognitive, and deployment factors to the development of traumatic stress following deployment. Both pre- and postdeployment data on 231 of 458 soldiers were analyzed. Postdeployment assessments occurred within 30 days from returning stateside and included a battery of psychological health, medical history, and demographic questionnaires; neurocognitive tests; and blood serum for the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) genes. Soldiers who screened positive for traumatic stress at postdeployment had significantly higher scores in depression (d = 1.91), anxiety (d = 1.61), poor sleep quality (d = 0.92), postconcussion symptoms (d = 2.21), alcohol use (d = 0.63), traumatic life events (d = 0.42), and combat exposure (d = 0.91). BDNF Val66 Met genotype was significantly associated with risk for sustaining a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and screening positive for traumatic stress. Predeployment traumatic stress, greater combat exposure and sustaining an mTBI while deployed, and the BDNF Met/Met genotype accounted for 22% of the variance of postdeployment PTSD scores (R (2)  = 0.22, P PTSD scores. These findings suggest predeployment traumatic stress, genetic, and environmental factors have unique contributions to the development of combat-related traumatic stress in military service members.

  14. Reduction of risk factors for nuclear power plants due to personnel psychological data, including attitude, morale and motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities of reduction of risk factors for personnel activity and performance due to attitudes, motivation and moral are presented. Methodology and experience in psychology, sociopsychology, psychophisiology and sociology mistake sources are discussed. Authorization to job, stages of estimating occupational fitness and modules system of personnel psychological and sociopsychological training probabilistic are explained. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. [Effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure on the parameter of erythrocyte and serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and erythropoietin levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-yan; Zhang, Ji-xin; Lü, Xiao-tao; Li, Bao-yu

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure and normoxic convalescence on the parameter of erythrocyte and serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and erythropoietin (EPO) levels. Rat models of intermittent hypoxic exposure were established, combined with the clinical research on volunteers experiencing the intermittent plateau work. Blood samples for red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) were collected, serum HIF-1alpha and EPO levels were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RBC counts, Hb concentration and HCT were significantly higher than the normoxic group (P hypoxic exposure can enhance serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and erythropointin levels and the generation of red blood cells, which leads to an increase in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. The results have changed with the hypoxic exposure period prolonged. Normoxic convalescence after intermittent hypoxic exposure can make the related indexes reduced, and contribute to the organism recovery.

  16. [Current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Yu, J N; He, C H; Mu, H X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C Y; Yu, S F; Li, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Methods: From August 2015 to March 2016, the investigation method of collecting the data of past occupational health examinations and measuring noise in working environment was used to enroll 8 672 male workers. Results: Of all workers, 11.6% were diagnosed with hearing loss. There were significant differences in the distribution of hearing impairment among workers exposed to noise at different ages, device types and types of work (χ(2)=17.80, 77.80 and 30.53, all P hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Conclusion: The level of noise exposure and working years with noise exposure are main influencing factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry.

  17. Influencing factors on bread-derived exposure to ochratoxin A: type, origin and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, S C; Bento, J; Pena, A; Lino, C M; Delerue-Matos, C; Oliveira, M B P P; Alves, M R; Pereira, J A

    2010-01-01

    The nearly ubiquitous consumption of cereals all over the world renders them an important position in international nutrition, but concurrently allocates exposure to possible contained contaminants. Mycotoxins are natural food contaminants, difficult to predict, evade, and reduce, so it is important to establish the real contribution of each contaminated food product, with the aim to evaluate mycotoxin exposure. This was the key objective of this survey and analysis for ochratoxin A content on 274 samples of commercialized bread in the Portuguese market, during the winter 2007. Different bread products were analyzed through an HPLC-FD method, including traditional types, novel segments, and different grain based bread products. A wide-ranging low level contamination was observed in all regions and types of bread products analyzed, especially in the Porto and Coimbra regions, and in the maize and whole-grain or fiber-enriched bread. Nevertheless, the exposure through contaminated wheat bread continues to be the most significant, given its high consumption and dominance in relation to the other types of bread. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends in Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Levels at Home among Viet Nam School Children Aged 13-15 and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Van, Duong Khanh; Khue, Luong Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS exposure among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS exposure at home among school children aged 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of exposure, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS exposure at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8).

  19. Cognitive factors contributing to spelling performance in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Ninety-six school-age children made up 2 groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 49) and control children (CON, n = 47). Children completed select subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition and the NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically related cognitive variables were evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance, whereas for reading, group membership and all cognitive variables contributed significantly. For both reading and spelling, group × working memory interactions revealed that working memory contributed independently only for alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Novice drivers' exposure to known risk factors during the first 18 months of licensure: the effect of vehicle ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Sheila G; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Lee, Suzanne E; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Howard, E Henry; Dingus, Thomas A

    2011-04-01

    Though there is ample research indicating that nighttime, teen passengers, and speeding increase the risk of crash involvement, there is little research about teen drivers' exposure to these known risk factors. Three research questions were assessed in this article: (1) Does exposure to known risk factors change over time? (2) Do teenage drivers experience higher rates of exposure to known risk factors than adult drivers? (3) Do teenage drivers who own a vehicle experience higher rates of exposure to risk factors than those who share a family vehicle? Forty-one newly licensed teenage drivers and at least one parent (adult) were recruited at licensure. Driving data were recorded for 18 months. Average vehicle miles traveled (VMT) or average nighttime VMT for teens did not increase over time. Teenagers consistently drove 24 percent of VMT at night, compared with 18 percent for adults. Teenagers drove 62 percent of VMT with no passengers, 29 percent of VMT with one passenger, and less than 10 percent of VMT with multiple passengers. Driving with no passengers increased with driving experience for these teens. Teenage drivers who owned their vehicles, relative to those who shared a vehicle, sped 4 times more frequently overall and more frequently at night and with multiple teen passengers. These findings are among the first objective data documenting the nature of teenage driving exposure to known risk factors. The findings provide evidence that vehicle access is related to risk and suggest the potential safety benefit of parental management of novice teenage driving exposure.

  1. Probabilistic modelling of human exposure to intense sweeteners in Italian teenagers: validation and sensitivity analysis of a probabilistic model including indicators of market share and brand loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Soggiu, M E; Leclercq, C

    2003-10-01

    For the assessment of exposure to food-borne chemicals, the most commonly used methods in the European Union follow a deterministic approach based on conservative assumptions. Over the past few years, to get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in the probabilistic approach. Within the EU-funded 'Monte Carlo' project, a stochastic model of exposure to chemical substances from the diet and a computer software program were developed. The aim of this paper was to validate the model with respect to the intake of saccharin from table-top sweeteners and cyclamate from soft drinks by Italian teenagers with the use of the software and to evaluate the impact of the inclusion/exclusion of indicators on market share and brand loyalty through a sensitivity analysis. Data on food consumption and the concentration of sweeteners were collected. A food frequency questionnaire aimed at identifying females who were high consumers of sugar-free soft drinks and/or of table top sweeteners was filled in by 3982 teenagers living in the District of Rome. Moreover, 362 subjects participated in a detailed food survey by recording, at brand level, all foods and beverages ingested over 12 days. Producers were asked to provide the intense sweeteners' concentration of sugar-free products. Results showed that consumer behaviour with respect to brands has an impact on exposure assessments. Only probabilistic models that took into account indicators of market share and brand loyalty met the validation criteria.

  2. Health-related quality of life and hand eczema--a comparison of two instruments, including factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Lena-Marie; Nyfjäll, Mats; Lindberg, Magnus; Meding, Birgitta

    2004-06-01

    Hand eczema is a disease of long duration, affecting the individual and society. The purpose of this study of 100 patients (51 females and 49 males) at an occupational dermatology clinic was to investigate whether the generic questionnaire Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the dermatology-specific Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are appropriate for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with hand eczema, and whether gender differences in HRQL could be detected. HRQL was affected by hand eczema, measured with both SF-36 and DLQI. The SF-36 showed more impaired HRQL for females than for males, in the mental health dimension, whereas no gender-related differences were detected with the DLQI. To compare the instruments we used factor analysis, with a polychoric correlation matrix as input, thus taking the ordinal aspect of the data into account. There was a high correlation between the instruments for physical health, but lower for mental health. In this context our interpretation of the factor analysis is that the SF-36 measures mental health better than the DLQI. The SF-36 therefore appears suitable for use in future studies for measuring HRQL, and gender differences in HRQL, in persons with reported hand eczema.

  3. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include... generic name to identify the waste category (e.g., batteries), the definition of universal waste in § 260..., and specific management standards proposed or referenced by the petitioner (e.g., waste management...

  4. Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco promoting and restraining factors among adolescents in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, D; Koivusilta, L; Raisamo, S; Rimpelä, A

    2012-08-01

    With a long history of tobacco cultivation, adolescents in Ghana are at relatively high risk of the emerging tobacco epidemic in developing countries. This study explored exposure to tobacco promoting/restraining factors and their associations with smoking and tawa (traditional smokeless tobacco) use among 13-18-year-old Ghanaians. School-based representative data were collected in 2008 (n = 1165). Prevalence rates of tobacco use, smoking and tawa use were 9.1% (11.5% boys and 6.4% girls), 6.6% (8.0% boys and 4.7% girls) and 5.7% (7.3% boys and 3.9% girls), respectively. Four percent of the respondents attended schools without a smoking ban, 66% had been taught about the harmful effects of smoking in the current school year, and 53% had been exposed to tobacco advertising. Fifty-three percent of adolescents who had tried to purchase tobacco products were not refused because of their age. Multivariate analyses found that attendance at a school where smoking was allowed, not having been taught about the harmful effects of smoking, exposure to tobacco advertising and parental smoking were positively associated with tobacco use, and knowledge that smoking is harmful to health and difficult to quit were negatively associated with tobacco use. Both smoking and tawa use were relatively low among Ghanaian adolescents. Exposure to tobacco advertising was high. There is no tobacco legislation in Ghana, but societal norms or cultural values seem to restrict smoking in schools and access to tobacco products. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood Exposure to Phthalates: Associations with Thyroid Function, Insulin-like Growth Factor I, and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Malene; Frederiksen, Hanne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Hilsted, Linda; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Phthalates are widely used chemicals, and human exposure is extensive. Recent studies have indicated that phthalates may have thyroid-disrupting properties. Objective We aimed to assess concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine samples from Danish children and to investigate the associations with thyroid function, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and growth. Methods In 845 children 4–9 years of age, we determined urinary concentrations of 12 phthalate metabolites and serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormones, and IGF-I. Results Phthalate metabolites were detected in all urine samples, of which monobutyl phthalate was present in highest concentration. Phthalate metabolites were negatively associated with serum levels of free and total triiodothyronine, although statistically significant primarily in girls. Metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diisononyl phthalate were negatively associated with IGF-I in boys. Most phthalate metabolites were negatively associated with height, weight, body surface, and height gain in both sexes. Conclusions Our study showed negative associations between urinary phthalate concentrations and thyroid hormones, IGF-I, and growth in children. Although our study was not designed to reveal the mechanism of action, the overall coherent negative associations between urine phthalate and thyroid and growth parameters may suggest causative negative roles of phthalate exposures for child health. PMID:20621847

  6. Factors associated with a clinician's offer of screening HIV-positive patients for sexually transmitted infections, including syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R; Fernando, I; MacDougall, M

    2011-06-01

    This retrospective study assessed whether Quality Improvement Scotland national standards for the sexual health care offered to HIV-positive individuals are being met by the Edinburgh genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic; specifically whether HIV-positive patients are offered: (a) sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening annually and (b) syphilis testing six-monthly. The study also reviewed what factors were associated with a clinician's offer of STI screening and syphilis testing. Of the 509 patients seen within the study period, case notes documented that 64% were offered STI screens, and 69% were offered syphilis testing, results consistent with audits of services elsewhere. Sexual orientation (P offer of STI screening, while gender (P offer of syphilis testing. Our results suggest that one explanation for clinicians failing to offer STI screens and syphilis serology testing is their (implicit) risk assessment that STI testing is not required in individual patients.

  7. A review on early gut maturation and colonization in pigs, including biological and dietary factors affecting gut homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everaert, Nadia; Van Cruchten, Steven; Weström, Björn

    2017-01-01

    During the prenatal, neonatal and post-weaning periods, the mammalian gastrointestinal tract undergoes various morphological and physiological changes alongside with an expansion of the immune system and microbial ecosystem. This review focuses on the time period before weaning and summarizes...... in digestive function coincides with development in both the adaptive and innate immune system. This secures a balanced immune response to the ingested milk-derived macromolecules, and colonizing bacteria. Husbandry and dietary interventions in early life appear to affect the development of multiple components...... and immunological maturation, as influenced by early microbial colonization and ingestion of dietary factors, is of utmost importance to identify management and feeding strategies to optimize intestinal health. We discuss some possible implications related to intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm delivery...

  8. Social factors associated with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure during pregnancy: the INMA-Valencia project in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Ramón, Rosa; Gonzalez, Ma Carmen; Murcia, Mario; Esplugues, Ana; Rebagliato, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the effects of exposure to air pollution on health; however, certain subsets of the population tend to be more exposed to such pollutants depending on their social or demographic characteristics. In addition, exposure to toxicants during pregnancy may play a deleterious role in fetal development as fetuses are especially vulnerable to external insults. The present study was carried out within the framework of the INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente or Childhood and the Environment) multicenter cohort study with the objective of identifying the social, demographic, and life-style factors associated with nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure in the subjects in the cohort. The study comprised 785 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA cohort in Valencia, Spain. Outdoor levels of NO(2) were measured at 93 sampling sites spread over the study area during four different sampling periods lasting 7 days each. Multiple regression models were used for mapping outdoor NO(2) throughout the area. Individual exposure was assigned as: 1) the estimated outdoor NO(2) levels at home, and 2) the average of estimated outdoor NO(2) levels at home and work, weighted according to the time spent in each environment. The subjects' socio-demographic and life-style information was obtained through a questionnaire. In the multiple linear analyses, the outdoor NO(2) levels assigned to each home were taken to be the dependent variable. Other variables included in the model were: age, country of origin, smoking during pregnancy, parity, season of the year, and social class. These same variables remained in the model when the dependent variable was changed to the NO(2) levels adjusted for the subjects' time-activity patterns. We found that younger women, those coming from Latin American countries, and those belonging to the lower social strata were exposed to higher NO(2) levels, both as measured outside their homes as well as when time-activity patterns were taken

  9. Exposure to public natural space as a protective factor for emotional well-being among young people in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Quynh; Craig, Wendy; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-04-29

    Positive emotional well-being is fundamentally important to general health status, and is linked to many favorable health outcomes. There is societal interest in understanding determinants of emotional well-being in adolescence, and the natural environment represents one potential determinant. Psychological and experimental research have each shown links between exposure to nature and both stress reduction and attention restoration. Some population studies have suggested positive effects of green space on various indicators of health. However, there are limited large-scale epidemiological studies assessing this relationship, specifically for populations of young people and in the Canadian context. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to public natural space and positive emotional well-being among young adolescent Canadians. This cross-sectional study was based upon the Canadian 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey with linked geographic information system (GIS) data. Following exclusions, the sample included 17 249 (grades 6 to 10, mostly ages 11 to 16) students from 317 schools. Features of the natural environment were extracted using GIS within a 5 km radius circular buffer surrounding each school. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the presence of public natural space (features include green and blue spaces such as parks, wooded areas, and water bodies) and students' reports of positive emotional well-being, while controlling for salient covariates and the clustered nature of the data. Over half of Canadian youth reported positive emotional well-being (58.5% among boys and 51.6% among girls). Relationships between measures of natural space and positive emotional well-being were weak and lacked consistency overall, but modest protective effects were observed in small cities. Positive emotional well-being was more strongly associated with other factors including

  10. Assessment of exposure to sexually explicit materials and factors associated with exposure among preparatory school youths in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institution based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habesha, Tony; Aderaw, Zewdie; Lakew, Serawit

    2015-09-14

    chewers who labelled "rarely", "sometimes" and "often" had shown higher exposure (95 % CI: AOR 3.02(CI = 1.65, 5.52), (95 % CI: AOR 3.40(CI = 1.93, 6.00) and (95 % CI: AOR 2.67(CI = 1.46, 4.86) than those who never chew khat, respectively. Regarding SEM access, school youths with label 'easy access were exposed in odds of six folds than youths of no access (95 % CI: AOR 5.64(C.I = 3.56, 8.9). High number of students was exposed to sexually explicit materials. Sex, school type, substance use and access to SEM were observed independent predictors of exposure to SEM. The current generation of young people is the healthiest, most educated, and most urbanized in history. However, there still remain some serious concerns. Most people become sexually active during adolescence. Premarital sexual activity is common and is on the rise worldwide. Rates are highest in sub Saharan Africa, where more than half of girls aged 15-19 are sexually experienced. Millions of adolescents are bearing children, in sub-Saharan Africa. More than half of women give birth before age 20. The need for improved health and social services aimed at adolescents, including reproductive health services, is being increasingly recognized throughout the world. Approximately 85 % of world adolescents live in developing countries. Each year, up to 100 million becomes infected with a curable sexually transmitted disease (STI). About 40 % of all new global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occur among 15-24 year olds; with recent estimates of 7000 infected each day. These health risks are influenced by many interrelated factors, such as expectations concerning early marriage and sexual relationships, access to education and employment, gender inequities, sexual violence, and the influence of mass media and popular culture. Furthermore, many adolescents lack strong stable relationships with parents or other adults whom they can talk to about their reproductive health concerns. Despite

  11. Radiation exposure and risk estimates for inhaled airborne radioactive pollutants including hot particles. Annual report 1 July 1976--30 June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.

    1978-03-01

    Contents: Mixed-oxide fuel fabrication; Generation of aerosols of mixed uranium-plutonium oxides from dry powders for animal inhalation exposures; Analytical radiochemical determination of U, Pu and Am in biological samples; Physical chemical characterization of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide nuclear fuel as samples during animal inhalation exposure; Pilot studies of deposition and retention of industrial mixed-oxide aerosols in the laboratory rat; Extended radiation dose pattern studies of aerosols of mixed uranium-plutonium oxides treated at 750C inhaled by Fishcer-344 rats, beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys; Extended radiation dose pattern studies of aerosols of plutonium dioxide, treated at 850C and inhaled by Fischer-344 rats, beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys

  12. Summary Report of a Peer Involvement Workshop on the Development of An Exposure Factors Handbook for the Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released the final workshop report, Summary Report of a Peer Involvement Workshop on the Development of an Exposure Factors Handbook for the Aging. This report provides an overview of a meeting held February 14-15, 2007 which was organized to discuss factors affec...

  13. The influence of environmental exposure to complex mixtures including PAHs and lead on genotoxic effects in children living in Upper Silesia, Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielzynska, Danuta; Siwinska, Ewa; Kapka, Lucyna

    2006-01-01

    of exposure were as follows: PbB 7.69 microg/dl, DNA adducts 9.59 adducts per 10(8) nt, 1-OHP 0.54 micromol/mol creatinine, and urinary mutagenicity presented as the number of revertants per mmol of creatinine: 485 for TA 98 and 1318 for YG1024. Mean value of MN was 4.44 per 1000 binucleated cells and SCE...

  14. Cannabis exposure as an interactive cardiovascular risk factor and accelerant of organismal ageing: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Albert Stuart; Norman, Amanda; Hulse, Gary Kenneth

    2016-11-07

    Many reports exist of the cardiovascular toxicity of smoked cannabis but none of arterial stiffness measures or vascular age (VA). In view of its diverse toxicology, the possibility that cannabis-exposed patients may be ageing more quickly requires investigation. Cross-sectional and longitudinal, observational. Prospective. Single primary care addiction clinic in Brisbane, Australia. 11 cannabis-only smokers, 504 tobacco-only smokers, 114 tobacco and cannabis smokers and 534 non-smokers. known cardiovascular disease or therapy or acute exposure to alcohol, amphetamine, heroin or methadone. Radial arterial pulse wave tonometry (AtCor, SphygmoCor, Sydney) performed opportunistically and sequentially on patients between 2006 and 2011. Algorithmically calculated VA. other central haemodynamic variables. Differences between group chronological ages (CA, 30.47±0.48 to 40.36±2.44, mean±SEM) were controlled with linear regression. Between-group sex differences were controlled by single-sex analysis. Mean cannabis exposure among patients was 37.67±7.16 g-years. In regression models controlling for CA, Body Mass Index (BMI), time and inhalant group, the effect of cannabis use on VA was significant in males (p=0.0156) and females (p=0.0084). The effect size in males was 11.84%. A dose-response relationship was demonstrated with lifetime exposure (pcannabis was robust to adjustment and was unrelated to its acute effects. Significant power interactions between cannabis exposure and the square and cube of CA were demonstrated (from pCannabis is an interactive cardiovascular risk factor (additional to tobacco and opioids), shows a prominent dose-response effect and is robust to adjustment. Cannabis use is associated with an acceleration of the cardiovascular age, which is a powerful surrogate for the organismal-biological age. This likely underlies and bi-directionally interacts with its diverse toxicological profile and is of considerable public health and regulatory

  15. Reserve, thin form-factor, hypochlorite-based cells for powering portable systems: Manufacture (including MEMS processes), performance and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas-Valencia, Andres M.; Langebrake, Larry [Center for Ocean Technology, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Biver, Carl J. [Center for Ocean Technology, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave. Tampa, FL (United States)

    2007-03-30

    This work focuses on fabrication routes and performance evaluation of thin form-factors, reserve cells, as a powering alternative for expendable and/or remotely operated systems. The catalytic decomposition of sodium hypochlorite solutions is revisited herein with two cost-effective anodes: zinc and aluminum. Aluminum, even though the most expensive of the utilized anodes, constituted cells with double the energy content (up to 55 Wh kg{sup -1}) than those fabricated with zinc. Even though the hypochlorite concentration in the solution limits the cells' operational life, attractive performances (1.0 V with a current of 10 mA) for the manufactured cells are obtained. It is shown that micro fabrication processes, allowing for close electrodes interspacing, provided high faradic and columbic efficiencies of up to 70 and 100%, respectively. Obtained specific energies (50-120 Wh kg{sup -1}) are in the same order of magnitude than batteries currently used for powering deployable systems. Experimental results show that a simple model that linearly relates over potentials and the electrical load, adequately describe all the cell designs. A mathematical model based on a kinetic-mechanistic scheme that relates the current output as a function of time agrees fairly well with results obtained activating cells with various concentrations of NaOCl solutions. (author)

  16. Geographic and sociodemographic factors in the etiology of juvenile neoplasms: implications for leukaemia clusters of several factors including density, background radiation, infections and immunisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneale, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of data from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC) by the recently invented method of Fears and Brown, as modified (for correct variances of relative risk estimates) by Breslow and Zhao. The analysis has shown that, for OSCC cases, negative associations with population density, stillbirths and infant deaths were sufficiently strong for these alone to account for all but one of the leukaemia clusters so far reported in Britain as 'black hole' effects (the single exception being the Sellafield cluster). Finally, strong positive associations with regional levels of background radiation were found which have reinforced an earlier impression that these inevitable exposures are important causes of childhood cancer. (orig./MG)

  17. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pincreased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  18. Functional Impact of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Exposure on Tau Phosphorylation and Axon Transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H Le

    Full Text Available Stress exposure or increased levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF induce hippocampal tau phosphorylation (tau-P in rodent models, a process that is dependent on the type-1 CRF receptor (CRFR1. Although these preclinical studies on stress-induced tau-P provide mechanistic insight for epidemiological work that identifies stress as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD, the actual impact of stress-induced tau-P on neuronal function remains unclear. To determine the functional consequences of stress-induced tau-P, we developed a novel mouse neuronal cell culture system to explore the impact of acute (0.5hr and chronic (2hr CRF treatment on tau-P and integral cell processes such as axon transport. Consistent with in vivo reports, we found that chronic CRF treatment increased tau-P levels and caused globular accumulations of phosphorylated tau in dendritic and axonal processes. Furthermore, while both acute and chronic CRF treatment led to significant reduction in CREB activation and axon transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, this was not the case with mitochondrial transport. Acute CRF treatment caused increased mitochondrial velocity and distance traveled in neurons, while chronic CRF treatment modestly decreased mitochondrial velocity and greatly increased distance traveled. These results suggest that transport of cellular energetics may take priority over growth factors during stress. Tau-P was required for these changes, as co-treatment of CRF with a GSK kinase inhibitor prevented CRF-induced tau-P and all axon transport changes. Collectively, our results provide mechanistic insight into the consequences of stress peptide-induced tau-P and provide an explanation for how chronic stress via CRF may lead to neuronal vulnerability in AD.

  19. Nausea and vomiting after exposure to non-ionic contrast media: incidence and risk factors focusing on preparatory fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Yoon, Soon Ho; Choi, Young Hun; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Whal; Goo, Jin Mo

    2018-04-25

    To prospectively evaluate the incidence of nausea and vomiting after exposure to non-ionic iodinated contrast media (ICM), and to identify potential risk factors, with a focus on fasting duration for solid food and fluids, separately. From January to March 2017, 1175 patients (605 males, 570 females; median age, 60 years; range, 20-91 years) undergoing ICM-enhanced CT were included in this study. Patients received instructions for a 6 h preparatory fast from solid food. Nausea and vomiting after ICM exposure were assessed on a 3-point scale (mild, moderate, severe). Patients' characteristics and the fasting duration were evaluated to identify risk factors using logistic regression analysis. Of the 1175 patients, 34 (2.9%; 95% CI, 2.0-4.0%) experienced mild nausea. No patients experienced vomiting (95% CI, 0.0000-0.0005%). 1173 (99.8%) carried out a 6 h fast, and the median fasting durations were 14 h for solid food (IQR, 12.5-15.5 h) and 11 h for fluid (IQR, 0-13.5 h), respectively. Fasting durations for solid food and fluids were not associated with nausea on uni-variate regression analyses (p = 0.282-1.000 andP=0.146-1.000, respectively). Multi-variate regression analysis revealed that a history of drug hypersensitivity (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 1.85-17.52; p = .039) was independent risk factors for nausea, whereas iobitridol was less nauseous (OR = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.90; p = .032). Mild nausea occurred in 2.9% of patients and none vomited in our study population with a 6 h preparatory fast from solid food. Many patients underwent excessive fasting for fluids as well as solid food and their fasting durations were not associated with nausea. Advances in knowledge: We firstly evaluated fasting durations for solid food and fluids, and their impacts on vomiting or nausea after ICM exposure with an instruction of 6 h preparatory fast for solid food: many patients underwent excessive fasting for fluids and the fasting duration was unrelated to

  20. Effects of chronic aluminum exposure on learning and memory and brain-derived nerve growth factor in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘宝龙

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of chronic aluminum exposure on the learning and memory abilities and brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) in SpragueDawley (SD) rats.Methods Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups:control group and high-,middle-,and low-dose exposure groups.The rats in high-,middle-,and low-dose expo-

  1. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    OpenAIRE

    Vienneau Danielle; Infanger Denis; Feychting Maria; Schüz Joachim; Schmidt Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti Giorgio; Klæboe Lars; Kuehni Claudia E; Tynes Tore; Von der Weid Nicolas; Lannering Birgitta; Röösli Martin

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight length maternal age) birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction preterm delivery birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking working dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7 19 year olds. The multinational case control study in Denmark Sweden Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (particip...

  2. The prevalence of exposure to domestic violence and the factors associated with co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure: a sample from primary care patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Since many health problems are associated with abuse and neglect at all ages, domestic violence victims may be considered as a group of primary care patients in need of special attention. Methods The aim of this multi-centre study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in primary care patients, and to identify those factors which influence the co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure and their consequences (physical, sexual and reproductive and psychological) as obtained from medical records. A study was carried out in 28 family practices in Slovenia in 2009. Twenty-eight family physicians approached every fifth family practice attendee, regardless of gender, to be interviewed about their exposure to domestic violence and asked to specify the perpetrator and the frequency. Out of 840 patients asked, 829 individuals, 61.0% women (n = 506) and 39.0% men (n = 323) were assessed (98.7% response rate). They represented a randomised sample of general practice attendees, aged 18 years and above, who had visited their physician for health problems and who were given a physical examination. Visits for administrative purposes were excluded. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with exposure to both psychological and physical violence. Results Of 829 patients, 15.3% reported some type of domestic violence experienced during the previous five years; 5.9% reported physical and 9.4% psychological violence; of these 19.2% of men and 80.8% of women had been exposed to psychological violence, while 22.4% of men and 77.6% of women had been exposed to physical violence. The domestic violence victims were mostly women (p violence was more prevalent than exposure to physical violence. Of the women, 20.0% were exposed to either type of violence, compared to 8.0% of male participants, who reported they were rarely exposed to physical violence, while women reported often or constant

  3. Some confounding factors in the study of mortality and occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    With the recent interest in the study of occupational exposures, the impact of certain selective biases in the groups studied is a matter of some concern. In this paper, data from the Hanford nuclear facility population (southeastern Washington State, 1947-1976), which includes many radiation workers, are used to illustrate a method for examining the effect on mortality of such potentially confounding variables as calendar year, length of time since entering the industry, employment status, length of employment, job category, and initial employment year. The analysis, which is based on the Mantel-Haenszel procedure as adapted for a prospective study, differs from most previous studies of occupational variables which have relied primarily on comparing standardized mortality ratios (utilizing an external control) for various subgroups of the population. Results of this analysis confirm other studies in that reduced death rates are observed for early years of follow-up and for those with higher socioeconomic status (as indicated by job category). In addition, workers employed less than two years and especially terminated workers are found to have elevated death rates as compared with the remainder of the study population. It is important that such correlations be taken into account in planning and interpreting analyses of the effects of occupational exposure

  4. Risk factors associated with airway allergic diseases from exposure to laboratory animal allergens among veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowiak, Anna; Wiszniewska, Marta; Krawczyk, Patrycja; Szulc, Bogdan; Wittczak, Tomasz; Walusiak, Jolanta; Pałczynski, Cezary

    2007-05-01

    Investigate the risk factors for the development of occupational airway allergy (OAA) from exposure to laboratory animal allergens (LAA) among Polish veterinarians. Two hundred veterinarians responded to the questionnaire and were subjected to skin prick test (SPT) to common allergens and LAA (rat, mouse, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit). Evaluation of total serum IgE level and specific IgE against occupational allergens was performed. In addition, bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured before and after specific challenge testing (SCT) only in the subjects with work-related symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA). The prevalence of asthmatic and ocular symptoms was statistically more prevalent in the group of veterinarians sensitised to LAA versus non-sensitised subjects. The most frequent occupational allergens of skin and serum reactivity were LAA (44.5 and 31.5%, respectively). In 41 (20.5%) and in 22 (11%) subjects out of 200 veterinarians, serum specific IgE to natural rubber latex (NRL) allergens and disinfectants was also found. Serum sensitisation to cat allergens and daily contact with laboratory animals (LA) increased the risk for developing isolated occupational rhinitis. Furthermore, working time of more than 10 years and daily contact with LA were also significant risk factors for the development of OAA. Measuring PEFR and BHR before and after SCT is a useful method to confirm the presence of OA. Allergy to LAA is an important health problem among veterinary medicine practitioners in Poland.

  5. [Changes of the Expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factors in Rats Trachea Induced by Acrolein Exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bing; Yang, Rui-an; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Yan-yan; Dan, Qi-qin; Zhang, Yun-hui

    2015-07-01

    To investigate expressional changes of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the trachea of rats with acrolein inhalation. Twenty two SD rats were divided into 2 groups: the rats in experimental group were subjected to acrolein inhalation for the induce of trachea inflammatory injury, while the rats with saline (NS) inhalation were as control. All the rats were sacrificed in 1,3,6 weeks after acrolein (n = 11 at each time point) or saline inhalation (n = 11 at each time point), the samples of trachea epithelium were harvested. The immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization was performed to detect the location of BDNF protein and mRNA in trachea. The expression of BDNF mRNA in the trachea tissues were determined by RT-PCR. There are positive cells in epithelium of trachea for BDNF protein and mRNA, with cytoplasm staining. The expression of BDNF mRNA in the trachea was increased at 1 week after acrolein inhalation (P 0.05). The inflammatory injury in trachea induced by acrolein exposure could be associated with the increased expression of BDNF. BDNF may be one of the crucial inflammatory factors in the process of inflammatory reaction in trachea with acrolein stimulation.

  6. Why industry propaganda and political interference cannot disguise the inevitable role played by human exposure to aluminum in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the aluminum age, it is clearly unpalatable for aluminum, the globe's most successful metal, to be implicated in human disease. It is unpalatable because for approximately 100 years human beings have reaped the rewards of the most abundant metal of the Earth's crust without seriously considering the potential consequences for human health. The aluminum industry is a pillar of the developed and developing world and irrespective of the tyranny of human exposure to aluminum it cannot be challenged without significant consequences for businesses, economies, and governments. However, no matter how deep the dependency or unthinkable the withdrawal, science continues to document, if not too slowly, a burgeoning body burden of aluminum in human beings. Herein, I will make the case that it is inevitable both today and in the future that an individual's exposure to aluminum is impacting upon their health and is already contributing to, if not causing, chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This is the logical, if uncomfortable, consequence of living in the aluminum age.

  7. Is exposure to Agent Orange a risk factor for hepatocellular cancer?-A single-center retrospective study in the U.S. veteran population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Padmini; Hazratjee, Nyla; Opris, Dan; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Markert, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 15% to 35% of those with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) related cirrhosis will develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC). With this burden increasing across the globe, identification of risk factors for HCC has become imperative. Exposure to Agent Orange has been implicated as a possible risk factor for liver cancer in a study from the Republic of Korea. However, there has been no study in U.S. veterans with CHC and cirrhosis that has evaluated exposure to Agent Orange as a risk factor for HCC. We conducted a retrospective study of U.S. military veterans diagnosed with CHC and cirrhosis over a period of 14 years to evaluate potential risk factors for HCC including exposure to Agent Orange. We retrospectively reviewed 390 patients with confirmed CHC-related cirrhosis between 2000 and 2013 and identified patients with HCC. We compared demographic, laboratory, and other clinical characteristics of patients with and without HCC. The mean age of the cohort was 51 years (SD =7.5), with the majority being male (98.5%). Seventy-nine of 390 (20.2%) patients developed HCC, diagnosed on average 8 (SD =4.8) years after diagnosis of CHC. Nearly half (49.4%) were Childs A, 40.5% were Childs B, and 10.1% were Childs C. HCC patients were more likely to be African American than non-HCC patients (40.5% vs. 25.4%, P=0.009) and to be addicted to alcohol (86.1% vs. 74.3%, P=0.027). A trend toward significance was seen in the HCC group for exposure to Agent Orange (16.5% vs. 10.0%, P=0.10) and smoking addiction (88.6% vs. 80.7%, P=0.10). Consequently, race, alcohol addiction, Agent Orange exposure, and smoking addiction were included in the multivariable logistic regression (MLR) analysis. Alcohol addiction [odds ratio (OR) =2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-4.43] and African American race (OR =2.07; 95% CI, 1.22-3.51) were found to be the only two definitive independent risk factors for HCC in our sample. African American race and alcohol addiction were independent risk

  8. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, M.; Sharma, R.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens (Greece). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1999-11-01

    Aluminum, a known neurotoxic substance and a ground-water pollutant, is a possible contributing factor in various nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It has been hypothesized that cytokines are involved in aluminum neurotoxicity. We investigated the alterations in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}), interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), cytokines related to neuronal damage, in cerebrum and peripheral immune cells of mice after exposure to aluminum through drinking water. Groups of male BALB/c mice were administered aluminum ammonium sulfate in drinking water ad libitum at 0, 5, 25, and 125 ppm aluminum for 1 month. An additional group received 250 ppm ammonium as ammonium sulfate. After treatment, the cerebrum, splenic macrophages and lymphocytes were collected. The expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA in cerebrum was significantly increased among aluminum-treated groups compared with the control, in a dose-dependent manner. Other cytokines did not show any aluminum-related effects. In peripheral cells, there were no significant differences of cytokine mRNA expressions among treatment groups. Increased expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA by aluminum in cerebrum may reflect activation of microglia, a major source of TNF{alpha} in this brain region. Because the aluminum-induced alteration in cytokine message occurred at aluminum concentrations similar to those noted in contaminated water, these results may be relevant in considering the risk of aluminum neurotoxicity in drinking water. (orig.)

  9. Novice Drivers' Exposure to Known Risk Factors During the First 18 Months of Licensure: The Effect of Vehicle Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Sheila G.; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Lee, Suzanne E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Howard, E. Henry; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Though there is ample research indicating that nighttime, teen passengers, and speeding increase the risk of crash involvement, there is little research about teen drivers' exposure to these known risk factors. Three research questions were assessed in this article: (1) Does exposure to known risk factors change over time? (2) Do teenage drivers experience higher rates of exposure to known risk factors than adult drivers? (3) Do teenage drivers who own a vehicle experience higher rates of exposure to risk factors than those who share a family vehicle? Methods Forty-one newly licensed teenage drivers and at least one parent (adult) were recruited at licensure. Driving data were recorded for 18 months. Results Average vehicle miles traveled (VMT) or average nighttime VMT for teens did not increase over time. Teenagers consistently drove 24 percent of VMT at night, compared with 18 percent for adults. Teenagers drove 62 percent of VMT with no passengers, 29 percent of VMT with one passenger, and less than 10 percent of VMT with multiple passengers. Driving with no passengers increased with driving experience for these teens. Teenage drivers who owned their vehicles, relative to those who shared a vehicle, sped 4 times more frequently overall and more frequently at night and with multiple teen passengers. Conclusion These findings are among the first objective data documenting the nature of teenage driving exposure to known risk factors. The findings provide evidence that vehicle access is related to risk and suggest the potential safety benefit of parental management of novice teenage driving exposure. PMID:21469023

  10. Particle size: a missing factor in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhi-Guo; Yu, Gang; Chen, Yong-Shan; Cao, Qi-Ming; Fiedler, Heidelore; Deng, Shu-Bo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2012-11-15

    For researches on toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust, selection of dust fraction is a critical influencing factor to the accuracy of human exposure risk assessment results. However, analysis of the selection of dust fraction in recent studies revealed that there is no consensus. This study classified and presented researches on distribution of toxic chemicals according to dust particle size and on relationship between dust particle size and human exposure possibility. According to the literature, beyond the fact that there were no consistent conclusions on particle size distribution of adherent fraction, dust with particle size less than 100 μm should be paid more attention and that larger than 250 μm is neither adherent nor proper for human exposure risk assessment. Calculation results based on literature data show that with different selections of dust fractions, analytical results of toxic chemicals would vary up to 10-fold, which means that selecting dust fractions arbitrarily will lead to large errors in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled dust. Taking into account the influence of dust particle size on risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals, a new methodology for risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust is proposed and human exposure parameter systems to settled indoor dust are advised to be established at national and regional scales all over the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi; Nikkilä, Outi

    2010-01-01

    . The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg...... concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys....... For further statistical analyses, we used the serum BDNF concentration as a continuous outcome variable in supervised regression models. Serum BDNF concentration increased with gestational age, increased by maternal smoking, decreased slightly with MeHg exposure, and maternal smoking enhanced the decrease...

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for viral exposure in rural dogs around protected areas of the Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; de Oliveira Paschoal, Ana Maria; Soriano-Araújo, Amanda; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia; Passamani, Marcelo

    2016-01-28

    Despite the crucial role of domestic dogs as reservoirs for zoonosis and some of the most threatening diseases for wild carnivores such as distemper and parvovirosis, little is known about the epidemiological features and the risk factors involved in pathogen exposure of dogs that live in human/wildlife interfaces and actually contacts wildlife. Through a cross-sectional serological approach and questionnaire survey, we assessed the prevalence along with individual and environment-associated risk factors for four important viral diseases of rural dogs living in households around six Atlantic Forest fragments in southeast Brazil. Widespread exposure to canine parvovirus (97%), canine distemper virus (15%) and canine adenovirus (27%) was detected, but none for canine coronavirus. Dogs from small private reserves were more exposed to parvovirus and canine distemper virus than those from larger state parks. Exposure was associated with dog sex and age, lack of health care and the number of people in the households. Remarkably, factors linked to free-ranging behaviour of dogs were associated with the exposure for all pathogens detected. According to identified associations, reducing viral pathogen exposure in dogs will require inhibiting dog's movements and access to nearby forests and villages and improving veterinary assistance. Promoting dog vaccination and population control through sterilization around protected areas is also necessary. The study provides support for preventive management actions aimed to protect the health of rural dogs, and consequently of Atlantic Forest's wild carnivores.

  13. Prenatal exposure to lead in France: Cord-blood levels and associated factors: Results from the perinatal component of the French Longitudinal Study since Childhood (Elfe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Dereumeaux, Clémentine; Goria, Sarah; Berat, Bénédicte; Brunel, Serge; Pecheux, Marie; de Crouy-Chanel, Perrine; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Rambaud, Loïc; Wagner, Vérène; le Tertre, Alain; Fillol, Clémence; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Guldner, Laurence

    2018-04-01

    As a result of the ban on lead in gasoline on 2nd January 2000, the French population's exposure to lead has decreased in recent years. However, because of the acknowledged harmful cognitive effects of lead even at low levels, lead exposure remains a major public health issue. In France, few biomonitoring data are available for exposure to lead in pregnant women and newborn. The purpose of the perinatal component of the French human biomonitoring (HBM) program was to describe levels of various biomarkers of exposure to several environmental pollutants, including lead, among mother-baby pairs. In this paper, we aimed to describe the distribution of cord blood lead levels (CBLL) in French mother-baby pairs, and to estimate the contribution of the main lead exposure risk factors to these levels. A total of 1968 mother-baby pairs selected from the participants of the perinatal component of the French HBM program were included in the study on lead. Lead levels were analyzed in cord blood collected at child delivery by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The data collected included biological sample, socio-demographic characteristics, environmental and occupational exposure, and information on dietary factors. CBLL were quantified for 99.5% of the sample. The CBLL geometric mean was 8.30 μg/l (95% CI [7.94-8.68]) with a 95th percentile of 24.3 μg/l (95% CI [20.7-27.1]). Factors significantly associated with CBLL were tap water consumption, alcohol consumption, shellfish consumption, vegetable consumption, bread consumption, smoking, and the mother being born in countries where lead is often used. This study provides the first reference value for CBLL in a random sample of mother-baby pairs not particularly exposed to high levels of lead (24.3 μg/l). A substantial decrease in CBLL over time was observed, which confirms the decrease of exposure to lead among the general population. CBLL observed in this French study were in the range of those

  14. Early Infant Exposure to Excess Multivitamin: A Risk Factor for Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Sheng Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects boys more than girls, is often associated with altered levels of monoamines (serotonin and catecholamines, especially elevated serotonin levels. The monoamines act as both neurotransmitters and signaling molecules in the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The evidence related to monoamine metabolism may be summarized as follows: (i monoamine neurotransmitters are enzymatically degraded/inactivated by three mechanisms: oxidative deamination, methylation, and sulfation. The latter two are limited by the supply of methyl groups and sulfate, respectively. (ii A decrease in methylation- and sulfation-mediated monoamine inactivation can be compensated by an increase in the oxidative deamination catalyzed by monoamine oxidase, an X-linked enzyme exhibiting higher activity in females than in males. (iii Vitamins can, on one hand, facilitate the synthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters and, on the other hand, inhibit their inactivation by competing for methylation and sulfation. Therefore, we postulate that excess multivitamin feeding in early infancy, which has become very popular over the past few decades, may be a potential risk factor for disturbed monoamine metabolism. In this paper, we will focus on the relationship between excess multivitamin exposure and the inactivation/degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters and its possible role in the development of autism.

  15. Early infant exposure to excess multivitamin: a risk factor for autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Li, Da; Ma, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects boys more than girls, is often associated with altered levels of monoamines (serotonin and catecholamines), especially elevated serotonin levels. The monoamines act as both neurotransmitters and signaling molecules in the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The evidence related to monoamine metabolism may be summarized as follows: (i) monoamine neurotransmitters are enzymatically degraded/inactivated by three mechanisms: oxidative deamination, methylation, and sulfation. The latter two are limited by the supply of methyl groups and sulfate, respectively. (ii) A decrease in methylation- and sulfation-mediated monoamine inactivation can be compensated by an increase in the oxidative deamination catalyzed by monoamine oxidase, an X-linked enzyme exhibiting higher activity in females than in males. (iii) Vitamins can, on one hand, facilitate the synthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters and, on the other hand, inhibit their inactivation by competing for methylation and sulfation. Therefore, we postulate that excess multivitamin feeding in early infancy, which has become very popular over the past few decades, may be a potential risk factor for disturbed monoamine metabolism. In this paper, we will focus on the relationship between excess multivitamin exposure and the inactivation/degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters and its possible role in the development of autism.

  16. Dose-to-risk conversion factors for low-level tritium exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade, a large number of radiobiological studies have become available for tritium-many of them focusing on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta rays. These and previous studies indicate that tritium in body water produces the same spectrum of radiogenic effects, e.g., cancer, genetic effects, developmental abnormalities, and reproductive effects, observed following whole-body exposure to penetrating radiations such as gamma rays and x rays. The only significant difference in biological response between tritium beta-rays and the other common low linear-energy transfer (LET) radiations, such as gamma rays and x rays, appears to be the greater biological effectiveness of tritium beta rays. For example, tritium in the oxide form (HTO) is about 2 to 3 times more effective at low doses or low dose rates than gamma rays from 137 Cs or 60 CO (Straume, 1991). When tritium is bound to organic molecules, RBE values may be somewhat larger than those for HTO. It is now clear from the wealth of tritium data available that RBEs for tritium beta rays are higher than the quality factor of unity generally used in radiation protection

  17. Exposure to secondhand smoke and associated factors among non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands in Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lian; Tong, Elisa K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-wei

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure harms pregnant women and the fetus. China has the world's largest number of smokers and a high male smoking prevalence rate. To compare exposure to SHS among rural and urban Chinese non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands, and analyze factors associated with the level of SHS exposure and hair nicotine concentration. Sichuan province, China. In all 1,181 non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands recruited from eight district/county Women and Children's hospitals. The women completed a questionnaire in April and May 2008. Based on systematic sampling, 186 pregnant women were selected for sampling the nicotine concentration in their hair. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine correlates with self-reported SHS exposure (total and at home); linear regression was conducted for the sub-sample of hair nicotine concentrations. Secondhand smoking exposure rates, hair nicotine levels. About 75.1% of the non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands reported regular SHS exposure. The major source of exposure was through their husband. In the multivariate analysis, the risk of greater SHS exposure (total and at home) and hair nicotine concentration was increased for women who were rural, had a husband with greater cigarette consumption, less knowledge about SHS, less negative attitudes about SHS, and no smoke-free home rules. The high prevalence rate of SHS exposure suggests that it is important for non-smoking pregnant women, especially rural women, to establish smoke-free home rules and increase knowledge and negative attitudes towards SHS.

  18. Surgery and Anesthesia Exposure Is Not a Risk Factor for Cognitive Impairment After Major Noncardiac Surgery and Critical Illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, Christopher G; Patel, Mayur B; Jackson, James C; Girard, Timothy D; Geevarghese, Sunil K; Norman, Brett C; Thompson, Jennifer L; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Brummel, Nathan E; May, Addison K; Elstad, Mark R; Wasserstein, Mitzi L; Goodman, Richard B; Moons, Karel G; Dittus, Robert S; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P; MIND-ICU, BRAIN-ICU investigators

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether surgery and anesthesia exposure is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment after major noncardiac surgery associated with critical illness. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative cognitive impairment is a prevalent individual

  19. Cultural and Demographic Factors Influencing Noise Exposure Estimates from Use of Portable Listening Devices in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fligor, Brian J.; Levey, Sandra; Levey, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined listening levels and duration of portable listening devices (PLDs) used by people with diversity of ethnicity, education, music genre, and PLD manufacturer. The goal was to estimate participants' PLD noise exposure and identify factors influencing user behavior. Method: This study measured listening levels of 160…

  20. Prenatal nicotinic exposure suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis via steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, You-e [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Lian [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Pharmacology, Medical School of Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434000 (China); Wang, Jian-fei; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiao-hai; Qin, Hai-quan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of nicotine on fetal adrenal steroidogenesis and to explore the potential role of epigenetic modification of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity in this process. Nicotine was intragastrically administered to pregnant rats and NCI-H295A cells were treated with nicotine or trichostatin A (TSA). The pathomorphology of fetal adrenals, steroid hormone levels, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA were analyzed. Histone modification and DNA methylation of the SF-1 promoter region were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. The interaction between SF1 and its target genes was observed. Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased fetal body weight, increased the IUGR rate and caused detrimental changes in fetal adrenal. In addition, the levels of corticosterone, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes were decreased while HDAC2 expression was enhanced. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels while there was no effect on the methylation frequency on the SF-1 promoter region. Furthermore, in nicotine-treated NCI-H295A cells, lower levels of steroidogenic synthesis, lower expression of SF-1 and its target genes were observed while the expression of HDACs was enhanced. The interaction between SF1 and StAR decreased with nicotine treatment. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels, and addition of TSA reversed the inhibition of nicotine-mediated SF-1 and its partial target genes. Thus, nicotine-mediated reduction of SF-1 expression resulted in an inhibitory effect on the expression of its target genes and steroid production via histone deacetylation. - Highlights: • Prenatal nicotine-exposed suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis. • Nicotine-supressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis is related to SF-1 deacetylation. • Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased

  1. Prenatal nicotinic exposure suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis via steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) deacetylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, You-e; Liu, Lian; Wang, Jian-fei; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiao-hai; Qin, Hai-quan; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of nicotine on fetal adrenal steroidogenesis and to explore the potential role of epigenetic modification of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity in this process. Nicotine was intragastrically administered to pregnant rats and NCI-H295A cells were treated with nicotine or trichostatin A (TSA). The pathomorphology of fetal adrenals, steroid hormone levels, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA were analyzed. Histone modification and DNA methylation of the SF-1 promoter region were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. The interaction between SF1 and its target genes was observed. Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased fetal body weight, increased the IUGR rate and caused detrimental changes in fetal adrenal. In addition, the levels of corticosterone, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes were decreased while HDAC2 expression was enhanced. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels while there was no effect on the methylation frequency on the SF-1 promoter region. Furthermore, in nicotine-treated NCI-H295A cells, lower levels of steroidogenic synthesis, lower expression of SF-1 and its target genes were observed while the expression of HDACs was enhanced. The interaction between SF1 and StAR decreased with nicotine treatment. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels, and addition of TSA reversed the inhibition of nicotine-mediated SF-1 and its partial target genes. Thus, nicotine-mediated reduction of SF-1 expression resulted in an inhibitory effect on the expression of its target genes and steroid production via histone deacetylation. - Highlights: • Prenatal nicotine-exposed suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis. • Nicotine-supressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis is related to SF-1 deacetylation. • Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased

  2. Exposure to Pre- and Perinatal Risk Factors Partially Explains Mean Differences in Self-Regulation between Races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Boutwell, Brian B; Miller, J Mitchell; DeShay, Rashaan A; Beaver, Kevin M; White, Norman

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether differential exposure to pre- and perinatal risk factors explained differences in levels of self-regulation between children of different races (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Other). Multiple regression models based on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (n ≈ 9,850) were used to analyze the impact of pre- and perinatal risk factors on the development of self-regulation at age 2 years. Racial differences in levels of self-regulation were observed. Racial differences were also observed for 9 of the 12 pre-/perinatal risk factors. Multiple regression analyses revealed that a portion of the racial differences in self-regulation was explained by differential exposure to several of the pre-/perinatal risk factors. Specifically, maternal age at childbirth, gestational timing, and the family's socioeconomic status were significantly related to the child's level of self-regulation. These factors accounted for a statistically significant portion of the racial differences observed in self-regulation. The findings indicate racial differences in self-regulation may be, at least partially, explained by racial differences in exposure to pre- and perinatal risk factors.

  3. Exposure to Pre- and Perinatal Risk Factors Partially Explains Mean Differences in Self-Regulation between Races.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J C Barnes

    Full Text Available To examine whether differential exposure to pre- and perinatal risk factors explained differences in levels of self-regulation between children of different races (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Other.Multiple regression models based on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (n ≈ 9,850 were used to analyze the impact of pre- and perinatal risk factors on the development of self-regulation at age 2 years.Racial differences in levels of self-regulation were observed. Racial differences were also observed for 9 of the 12 pre-/perinatal risk factors. Multiple regression analyses revealed that a portion of the racial differences in self-regulation was explained by differential exposure to several of the pre-/perinatal risk factors. Specifically, maternal age at childbirth, gestational timing, and the family's socioeconomic status were significantly related to the child's level of self-regulation. These factors accounted for a statistically significant portion of the racial differences observed in self-regulation.The findings indicate racial differences in self-regulation may be, at least partially, explained by racial differences in exposure to pre- and perinatal risk factors.

  4. Development of an extended shift exposure limit adjustment factor for coal mine dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiernan, G; Van Zanten, D [SIMTARS (Australia)

    1999-12-31

    Four models for adjusting exposure standards for use during altered work shifts are reviewed. These are the absorbed dose adjustment model; the Brief and Scala model; the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) model; and the pharmacokinetic models of Hockey and Reist and of Stan Roach. The most appropriate model is selected for control of coal mine dusts exposure. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Increased mitochondrial mass in cells with functionally compromised mitochondria after exposure to both direct gamma radiation and bystander factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Sharon M E

    2007-07-01

    The bystander effect describes radiation-like damage in unirradiated cells either in the vicinity of irradiated cells or exposed to medium from irradiated cells. This study aimed to further characterize the poorly understood mitochondrial response to both direct irradiation and bystander factor(s) in human keratinocytes (HPV-G) and Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO-K1). Oxygen consumption rates were determined during periods of state 4, state 3 and uncoupled respiration. Mitochondrial mass was determined using MitoTracker FM. CHO-K1 cells showed significantly reduced oxygen consumption rates 4 h after exposure to 5 Gy direct radiation and irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and an apparent recovery 12-24 h later. The apparent recovery was likely due to the substantial increase in mitochondrial mass observed in these cells as soon as 4 h after exposure. HPV-G cells, on the other hand, showed a sustained increase in oxygen consumption rates after ICCM exposure and a transient increase 4 h after exposure to 5 Gy direct radiation. A significant increase in mitochondrial mass per HPV-G cell was observed after exposure to both direct radiation and ICCM. These findings are indicative of a stress response to mitochondrial dysfunction that increases the number of mitochondria per cell.

  6. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection.

  7. Degradation of photovoltaic backsheet materials under multi-factor accelerated UV light exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinke, Addison G.; Gok, Abdulkerim; Ifeanyi, Silas I.; French, Roger H.; Bruckman, Laura S.

    2017-08-01

    Long term outdoor durability of photovoltaic (PV) module backsheets is critical to a module's power output over its lifetime. The use of uoropolymer-based backsheets or the addition of stabilizers to polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) and polyamide (PA) type backsheets can help extend their lifetime. This study presents the performance of 21 backsheets made of 8 different material combinations under ASTM G154 Cycle 4 accelerated light exposures. The backsheets were subjected to 4000 hours of high irradiance UVA light at a peak intensity of 1.55 W=m2 at 340 nm at 70°C with and without a condensing humidity cycle at 50°C. Backsheets were evaluated, with repeated measurements, using various evaluation techniques to identify and assess potential signs of degradation. These evaluations included the yellowness index (YI), CIE color space coordinates, and gloss at 20, 60, and 85°. The temporal evolution of the relative color change ΔE was statistically analyzed to develop a stress-response model which used the UVA light dose to predict color change. It was found that the PVF/PET/E backsheet performed the best while PET/PET/E and THV/PET/EVA backsheets performed the worst. Additionally, substantial variation in color change response, attributable to key manufacturing differences, was observed within a given material type.

  8. Mediators of exposure therapy for youth obsessive-compulsive disorder: specificity and temporal sequence of client and treatment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Brian C; Colognori, Daniela B; Yang, Guang; Xie, Min-ge; Lindsey Bergman, R; Piacentini, John

    2015-05-01

    Behavioral engagement and cognitive coping have been hypothesized to mediate effectiveness of exposure-based therapies. Identifying which specific child factors mediate successful therapy and which therapist factors facilitate change can help make our evidence-based treatments more efficient and robust. The current study examines the specificity and temporal sequence of relations among hypothesized client and therapist mediators in exposure therapy for pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Youth coping (cognitive, behavioral), youth safety behaviors (avoidance, escape, compulsive behaviors), therapist interventions (cognitive, exposure extensiveness), and youth anxiety were rated via observational ratings of therapy sessions of OCD youth (N=43; ages=8 - 17; 62.8% male) who had received Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP). Regression analysis using Generalized Estimation Equations and cross-lagged panel analysis (CLPA) were conducted to model anxiety change within and across sessions, to determine formal mediators of anxiety change, and to establish sequence of effects. Anxiety ratings decreased linearly across exposures within sessions. Youth coping and therapist interventions significantly mediated anxiety change across exposures, and youth-interfering behavior mediated anxiety change at the trend level. In CLPA, youth-interfering behaviors predicted, and were predicted by, changes in anxiety. Youth coping was predicted by prior anxiety change. The study provides a preliminary examination of specificity and temporal sequence among child and therapist behaviors in predicting youth anxiety. Results suggest that therapists should educate clients in the natural rebound effects of anxiety between sessions and should be aware of the negatively reinforcing properties of avoidance during exposure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Measurement of exposure buildup factors: The influence of scattered photons on gamma-ray attenuation coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kulwinder Singh

    2018-01-01

    Scattered photon's influence on measured values of attenuation coefficients (μm, cm2g-1) for six low-Z (effective atomic number) building materials, at three photon energies has been estimated. Narrow-beam transmission geometry has been used for the measurements. Samples of commonly used engineering materials (Cements, Clay, Lime-Stone, Plaster of Paris) have been selected for the present study. Standard radioactive sources Cs137 and Co60 have been used for obtaining γ-ray energies 661.66, 1173.24 and 1332.50 keV. The optical thickness (OT) of 0.5 mfp (mean free path) has been found the optimum optical thickness (OOT) for μm-measurement in the selected energy range (661.66-1332.50 keV). The aim of this investigation is to provide neglected information regarding subsistence of scattered photons in narrow beam geometry measurements for low-Z materials. The measurements have been performed for a wide range of sample-thickness (2-26 cm) such that their OT varies between 0.2-3.5 mfp in selected energy range. A computer program (GRIC2-toolkit) has been used for various theoretical computations required in this investigation. It has been concluded that in selected energy-range, good accuracy in μm-measurement of low-Z materials can be achieved by keeping their sample's OT below 0.5 mfp. The exposure buildup factors have been measured with the help of mathematical-model developed in this investigation.

  10. Reduced lung cancer mortality in dairy farmers: is endotoxin exposure the key factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, G; Marzia, V; Marcer, G

    1996-11-01

    From two areas in the Province of Padova, we selected 2,283 male farmers who worked either in cattle raising or in crop/orchard cultivation. There were 422 cohort deaths from 1970 to 1992. Using the regional population as a reference, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the Poisson distribution. Cancer mortality was significantly reduced among the 1,561 dairy farmers (SMR = 0.65; CI = 0.53-0.81); there was a significant decrease in lung cancer (SMR = 0.49; CI = 0.31-0.74), whereas a significant increase from brain tumors was found (SMR = 2.83; CI = 1.04-6.17). Neither overall cancer mortality nor the lung cancer SMR deviated significantly from unity for the 722 crop/orchard farmers. Among dairy farmers, moreover, lung cancer SMRs showed a significant downward trend across the quartiles of increasing length of work, 0.96 in the first quartile, and 0.48, 0.40, and 0.25 in the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively. Moreover, lung cancer risk decreased with increasing farm land area, with SMRs in the quartiles of 0.89, 0.37, 0.41 and 0.19. This decrease cannot be attributed to either a selection (healthy worker effect) or a confounding (lower percentage of smokers) bias. Nor was it due to an artifact introduced by differences in age distribution among the quartiles. Dairy farmers are known to be exposed to higher airborne endotoxin concentrations; reasonably, this cumulative exposure increases further with years of work and area of farm. Endotoxins may have protected the dairy farmers against lung cancer through the tumor necrosis factor produced by alveolar macrophages.

  11. Unequal Exposure or Unequal Vulnerability? Contributions of Neighborhood Conditions and Cardiovascular Risk Factors to Socioeconomic Inequality in Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mustafa; Diez Roux, Ana V; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Hastert, Theresa A; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Bertoni, Alain G; Baylin, Ana

    2017-11-23

    Risk factors can drive socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) through differential exposure and differential vulnerability. We show how econometric decomposition directly enables simultaneous, policy-oriented assessment of these two mechanisms. We specifically estimated contributions via these mechanisms of neighborhood environment and proximal risk factors to socioeconomic inequality in CVD incidence. We followed 5,608 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012) until the first CVD event (median follow-up 12.2 years). We used a summary measure of baseline socioeconomic position (SEP). Covariates included baseline demographics, neighborhood, psychosocial, behavioral, and biomedical risk factors. Using Poisson models, we decomposed the difference (inequality) in incidence rates between low- and high-SEP groups into contributions of 1) differences in covariate means (differential exposure), and 2) differences in CVD risk associated with covariates (differential vulnerability). Notwithstanding large uncertainty in neighborhood estimates, our analysis suggests that differential exposure to poorer neighborhood socioeconomic conditions, adverse social environment, diabetes, and hypertension accounts for most of inequality. Psychosocial and behavioral contributions were negligible. Further, neighborhood SEP, female gender, and White race were more strongly associated with CVD among low-SEP (vs. high-SEP) participants. These differentials in vulnerability also accounted for nontrivial portions of the inequality, and could have important implications for intervention. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Differences between day and nonday workers in exposure to physical and psychosocial work factors in the Danish eldercare sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2009-01-01

    after control for age, job title, and workplace. CONCLUSIONS: Exposures in the work environment of Danish eldercare workers varied between shifts. In a research perspective these findings stress the importance of adequate adjustment for work factors when the health effects of shift work are studied....... Moreover, the results underscore the need for an increased awareness of work factors of special importance among nonday workers when interventions against shiftwork-related occupational disorders are designed.......OBJECTIVE: The possible interaction between individual and occupational risk factors, the need for meaningful intervention, and the demand for valid shift work research make the accumulation of adverse exposures at certain times of the day of special relevance with respect to occupational health...

  13. EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA AS A DOMINANT FACTOR INFLUENCING PUBLIC STIGMA TOWARD MENTAL ILLNESS BASED ON SUNRISE MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Sintha Pratiwi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The person suffering mental disorders is not only burdened by his condition but also by the stigma. The impact of stigma extremely influences society that it is considered to be the obstacle in mental disorders therapy. Stigma as the society adverse view toward severe mental disorders is related with the cultural aspect. The interaction appeared from each component of nursing model namely sunrise model, which a model developed by Madeleine Leininger is connected with the wide society views about severe mental disorders condition in society. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors related to public stigma and to find out the dominant factors related to public stigma about severe mental illness through sunrise model approach in Sukonolo Village, Malang Regency. Methods: This study using observational analytical design with cross sectional approach. There were 150 respondents contributed in this study. The respondents were obtained using purposive sampling technique. Results: The results showed a significant relationship between mass media exposure, spiritual well-being, interpersonal contact, attitude, and knowledge with public stigma about mental illness. The result from multiple logistic regression shows the low exposure of mass media has the highest OR value at 26.744. Conclusion: There were significant correlation between mass media exposure, spiritual well-being, interpersonal contact, attitude, and knowledge with public stigma toward mental illness. Mass media exposure as a dominant factor influencing public stigma toward mental illness.

  14. Second-hand smoke exposure in 4-year-old children in Spain: Sources, associated factors and urinary cotinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Guxens, Mònica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; López, María José; Lertxundi, Aitana; Castilla, Ane Miren; Espada, Mercedes; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2016-02-01

    Second-hand smoke exposure (SHS) in children remains as a major pollution problem, with important consequences for children's health. This study aimed to identify the sources of exposure to SHS among 4-year-old children, comparing self-reports to a urinary biomarker of exposure, and characterize the most important variables related to SHS exposure in this population. 4-year-old children's exposure to SHS was assessed by a parental-reported questionnaire and by urinary cotinine (UC) measurements in 1757 participants from 4 different areas of the Spanish INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente - Environment and Childhood) Project. The questionnaire about SHS included information about smoking habits at home by household members, and about exposure to SHS in other places including other homes, bars, restaurants or transportation. The association between quantified UC levels (>4ng/ml) and sociodemographic variables and the different sources of SHS exposure was examined using logistic regression. Based on parental reports, 21.6% of the children were exposed to SHS at home and 47.1% elsewhere; making a total 55.9% of the children exposed to SHS. In addition, 28.2% of the children whose parents reported being not regularly exposed to SHS had quantified UC values. Children from younger mothers (<34 vs. ≥39.4 y) had a higher odds of exposure to SHS [OR (95% CI): 2.28 (1.70-3.05) per year], as well as from families with a lower educational level [OR secondary: 2.12 (1.69-2.65); primary or less: 2.91 (2.19-3.88)]. The odds of quantifiable UC in children dropped after the smoking ban in public places [OR=0.59 (0.42-0.83)]. Regarding the sources of SHS exposure we observed that quantifiable UC odds was increased in children whose parents smoked at home in their presence [OR mother occasionally: 13.39 (7.03-25.50); mother often: 18.48 (8.40-40.66); father occasionally: 10.98 (6.52-18.49); father often: 11.50 (5.96-22.20)] or in children attending other confined places, mainly other

  15. [Exposure to point-of-sale tobacco displays in Argentina: evidence from the 2013 National Risk Factor Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Paola; Ondarsuhu, Dolores; Galante, Mariana; O'Donnell, Victoria; Konfino, Jonatan

    2017-01-01

    To describe the population that reports to have visited tobacco points of sale (POS) in Argentina and their perception of tobacco advertising. We used data from the 2013 National Risk Factor Survey. We included 31 167 respondents (96% of the total) who attended a store that sells cigarettes in the previous 30 days. Overall, 54.1% (67.3% of current smokers, 55.1% of former smokers and 49% of non smokers) referred having seen tobacco advertising at the POS. Males (OR=1.2) and current smokers (OR=1.9 vs. non smokers) were more likely to report having seen tobacco advertising at the POS. Those who were exposed to second hand smoke in bars and restaurants (OR=1.2) were also more likely to have seen advertising. We found that younger people (age 18 - 24) were more likely to be exposed (OR=2.8 vs older than 65). Among smokers, those who referred to have seen the advertising were more likely to have tried to quit smoking during the previous year. It is important to regulate advertising at the POS to limit exposure, particularly among young people.

  16. Exposure to point-of-sale tobacco displays in Argentina: evidence from the 2013 National Risk Factor Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Morello

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the population that reports to have visited tobacco points of sale (POS in Argentina and their perception of tobacco advertising. Materials and methods. We used data from the 2013 National Risk Factor Survey. Results. We included 31 167 respondents (96% of the total who attended a store that sells cigarettes in the previous 30 days. Overall, 54.1% (67.3% of current smokers, 55.1% of former smokers and 49% of non smokers referred having seen tobacco advertising at the POS. Males (OR=1.2 and current smokers (OR=1.9 vs. non smokers were more likely to report having seen tobacco advertising at the POS. Those who were exposed to second hand smoke in bars and restaurants (OR=1.2 were also more likely to have seen advertising. We found that younger people (age 18 – 24 were more likely to be exposed (OR=2.8 vs older than 65. Among smokers, those who referred to have seen the advertising were more likely to have tried to quit smoking during the previous year. Conclusions. It is important to regulate advertising at the POS to limit exposure, particularly among young people.

  17. Review Article Exposure to biomass smoke as a risk factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass smoke exposure and upper GI cancers. © 2017 The College of .... with age- and sex-matched controls, revealed a significant association with biomass ..... Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2016 Mar ...

  18. TV as a factor of children’s exposure to domestic violence in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article elucidates the problem of children’s exposure to domestic violence and the influence of television to its formation in modern Russia. The fundamental theoretical approaches analysed, which explain the essence and content of TV as mass media, basic mechanisms of TV influence, priming effect and agenda-settings, and the types of children’s exposure to domestic violence. There are the survey results in the article, characterized the level and the types of children’s exposure to the domestic violence, which are widespread in modern russian family. The role of TV and its content in modern parents’ life and the character of its influence on formation different types of children’s exposure to domestic violence are determined.

  19. A four factor model for estimating human radiation exposure to radon daughters in the home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, R.S.; Letourneau, E.G.; Waight, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    This model is intended to represent the exposure received by individuals who spend any part of their day in a private home. Variables are defined to represent (1) different human groups, (2) basement and other levels in a house, (3) the four seasons of the year, and (4) activities within the home. The model is extremely flexible and appears to be applicable to other exposure circumstances. The number and definition of each of the variables can be changed easily. (author)

  20. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  1. Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders in human and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Hass, Ulla; Lesné, Laurianne

    2011-01-01

    ; BACKGROUND: More than half of pregnant women in the Western world report intake of mild analgesics, and some of these drugs have been associated with anti-androgenic effects in animal experiments. Intrauterine exposure to anti-androgens is suspected to contribute to the recent increase in male ...... results suggest that intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders.......; BACKGROUND: More than half of pregnant women in the Western world report intake of mild analgesics, and some of these drugs have been associated with anti-androgenic effects in animal experiments. Intrauterine exposure to anti-androgens is suspected to contribute to the recent increase in male...... reproductive problems, and many of the anti-androgenic compounds are like the mild analgesics potent inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis. Therefore, it appears imperative to further investigate the potential endocrine disrupting properties of mild analgesics. ; METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort study...

  2. Transplacental exposure to environmental carcinogens: Association with childhood cancer risks and the role of modulating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucic, A; Guszak, V; Mantovani, A

    2017-09-01

    Biological responses to carcinogens from environmental exposure during adulthood are modulated over years or decades. Conversely, during transplacental exposure, the effects on the human foetus change within weeks, intertwining with developmental mechanisms: even short periods of transplacental exposure may be imprinted in the organism for a lifetime. The pathways leading to childhood and juvenile cancers, such as leukaemias, neuroblastoma/brain tumours, hepatoblastoma, and Willm's tumour involve prenatally-induced genomic, epigenomic and/or non-genomic effects caused by xenobiotics. Pregnant women most often live in complex environmental settings that cause transplacental exposure of the foetus to xenobiotic mixtures. Mother-child biomonitoring should integrate the analysis of chemicals/radiation present in the living and workplace environment with relevant risk modulators related to life style. The interdisciplinary approach for transplacental cancer risk assessment in high-pressure areas should be based on an integrated model for mother-child exposure estimation via profiling the exposure level by water quality analysis, usage of emission grids, and land use maps. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Exposure to Violence Predicting Cortisol Response During Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Understanding Moderating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Justin E.; Miller, Alison L.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the association between violence and biological stress regulation has been largely cross-sectional, and has also focused on childhood. Using longitudinal data from a low-income, high-risk, predominantly African-American sample (n = 266; 57 % female), we tested hypotheses about the influence of cumulative exposure to violence during adolescence and early adulthood on cortisol responses in early adulthood. We found that cumulative exposure to violence predicted an attenuated cortisol response. Further, we tested whether sex, mothers’ support, or fathers’ support moderated the effect of exposure to violence on cortisol responses. We found that the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was modified by sex; specifically, males exposed to violence exhibited a more attenuated response pattern. In addition, the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was moderated by the presence of fathers’ support during adolescence. The findings contribute to a better understanding of how cumulative exposure to violence influences biological outcomes, emphasizing the need to understand sex and parental support as moderators of risk. PMID:24458765

  4. Ecological and spatial factors drive intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Bustnes, Jan O; Covaci, Adrian; Johnsen, Trond V; Halley, Duncan J; Moum, Truls; Ims, Rolf A; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Erikstad, Kjell E; Herzke, Dorte; Sonne, Christian; Ballesteros, Manuel; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2013-07-01

    Top predators in northern ecosystems may suffer from exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as this exposure may synergistically interact with already elevated natural stress in these ecosystems. In the present study, we aimed at identifying biological (sex, body condition), ecological (dietary carbon source, trophic level) and spatial factors (local habitat, regional nest location) that may influence intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (CB 153), polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE 47), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). During three breeding seasons (2008-2010), we sampled body feathers from fully-grown nestlings of three ecologically distinct predatory bird species in subarctic Norway: Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The present study analysed, for the first time, body feathers for both POPs and carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) stable isotopes, thus integrating the dietary carbon source, trophic level and POP exposure for the larger part of the nestling stage. Intraspecific variation in exposure was driven by a combination of ecological and spatial factors, often different for individual compounds. In addition, combinations for individual compounds differed among species. Trophic level and local habitat were the predominant predictors for CB 153, p,p'-DDE and BDE 47, indicating their biomagnification and decreasing levels according to coast>fjord>inland. Variation in exposure may also have been driven by inter-annual variation arisen from primary sources (e.g. p,p'-DDE) and/or possible revolatilisation from secondary sources (e.g. HCB). Interspecific differences in POP exposure were best explained by a combination of trophic level (biomagnification), dietary carbon source (food chain discrimination) and regional nest location (historical POP

  5. Molecular epidemiology of acute leukemia in children: causal model, interaction of three factors-susceptibility, environmental exposure and vulnerability period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    Acute leukemias have a huge morphological, cytogenetic and molecular heterogeneity and genetic polymorphisms associated with susceptibility. Every leukemia presents causal factors associated with the development of the disease. Particularly, when three factors are present, they result in the development of acute leukemia. These phenomena are susceptibility, environmental exposure and a period that, for this model, has been called the period of vulnerability. This framework shows how the concepts of molecular epidemiology have established a reference from which it is more feasible to identify the environmental factors associated with the development of leukemia in children. Subsequently, the arguments show that only susceptible children are likely to develop leukemia once exposed to an environmental factor. For additional exposure, if the child is not susceptible to leukemia, the disease does not develop. In addition, this exposure should occur during a time window when hematopoietic cells and their environment are more vulnerable to such interaction, causing the development of leukemia. This model seeks to predict the time when the leukemia develops and attempts to give a context in which the causality of childhood leukemia should be studied. This information can influence and reduce the risk of a child developing leukemia. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution in Utero as a Risk Factor for Child Stunting in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nihit; Canning, David

    2017-12-23

    Pregnant mothers in Bangladesh are exposed to very high and worsening levels of ambient air pollution. Maternal exposure to fine particulate matter has been associated with low birth weight at much lower levels of exposure, leading us to suspect the potentially large effects of air pollution on stunting in children in Bangladesh. We estimate the relationship between exposure to air pollution in utero and child stunting by pooling outcome data from four waves of the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2004 and 2014, and calculating children's exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in utero using high resolution satellite data. We find significant increases in the relative risk of child stunting, wasting, and underweight with higher levels of in utero exposure to air pollution, after controlling for other factors that have been found to contribute to child anthropometric failure. We estimate the relative risk of stunting in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of exposure as 1.074 (95% confidence interval: 1.014-1.138), 1.150 (95% confidence interval: 1.069-1.237, and 1.132 (95% confidence interval: 1.031-1.243), respectively. Over half of all children in Bangladesh in our sample were exposed to an annual ambient fine particulate matter level in excess of 46 µg/m³; these children had a relative risk of stunting over 1.13 times that of children in the lowest quartile of exposure. Reducing air pollution in Bangladesh could significantly contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal of reducing child stunting.

  7. Electron dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure of the skin from uniformly deposited activity on the body surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors have been calculated for external exposure of the skin from electrons emitted by sources that are deposited uniformly on the body surface. The dose-rate factors are obtained from electron scaled point kernels developed by Berger. The dose-rate factors are calculated at depths of 4, 8, and 40 mg cm-2 below the body surface as recommended by Whitton, and at a depth of 7 mg cm-2 as recommended in ICRP Publication 26 (ICRP77). The dependence of the dose-rate factors at selected depths on the energy of the emitted electrons is displayed. The dose-rate factors for selected radionuclides of potential importance in radiological assessments are tabulated

  8. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  9. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  10. Performance of population specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) : European collaborative analyses on occupational risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with job exposure matrices (ECOJEM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Moual, N; Bakke, P; Orlowski, E; Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Kennedy, SM; Rijcken, B; Kauffmann, F

    Objectives-To compare the performance of population specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) sand self reported occupational exposure with data on exposure and lung function from three European general populations. Methods-Self reported occupational exposure (yes or no) and present occupation were

  11. An exploration of factors related to dissemination of and exposure to internet-delivered behavior change interventions aimed at adults: a Delphi study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; de Vries, Nanne K; Brug, Johannes

    2008-04-16

    The Internet is an attractive medium for delivering individualized, computer-tailored behavior change interventions to large numbers of people. However, the actual numbers of people reached seem to fall behind the high expectations. Insight into factors that determine use of and exposure to these Internet interventions is important to be able to increase the reach and improve exposure. The aim was to identify potentially important factors that determine whether adults visit an Internet-delivered behavior change intervention, extend their visit, and revisit the intervention. A systematic, three-round Delphi study was conducted among national and international experts from Internet intervention research and practice, e-marketing/e-commerce, Web design, and technical website development. In the first round, 30 experts completed a structured, open-ended online questionnaire assessing factors that were, in their opinion, important for a first visit, an extended visit, a revisit and for effective promotion strategies. Based on the responses in this first questionnaire, a closed-ended online questionnaire was developed for use in the second round. A total of 233 experts were invited to complete this questionnaire. Median and interquartile deviation (IQD) scores were computed to calculate agreement and consensus on the importance of the factors. The factors for which no consensus was obtained (IQD > 1) were included in the third-round questionnaire. Factors with a median score of six or higher and with an IQD word-of-mouth by family and friends, a publicity campaign with simultaneous use of various mass media, and recommendation by health professionals, were indicated as effective ways to encourage adults to visit an Internet intervention. This systematic study identified important factors related to the dissemination of and exposure to Internet interventions aimed at adults. In order to improve optimal use of and exposure to Internet interventions, potential users may

  12. Radiation exposure of German aircraft crews under the impact of solar cycle 23 and airline business factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Stegemann, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of German aircraft crews to cosmic radiation varies both with solar activity and operational factors of airline business. Data come from the German central dose registry and cover monthly exposures of up to 37,000 German aircraft crewmembers that were under official monitoring. During the years 2004 to 2009 of solar cycle 23 (i.e., in the decreasing phase of solar activity), the annual doses of German aircraft crews increased by an average of 20%. Decreasing solar activity allows more galactic radiation to reach the atmosphere, increasing high-altitude doses. The rise results mainly from the less effective protection from the solar wind but also from airline business factors. Both cockpit and cabin personnel differ in age-dependent professional and social status. This status determines substantially the annual effective dose: younger cabin personnel and the elder pilots generally receive higher annual doses than their counterparts. They also receive larger increases in their annual dose when the solar activity decreases. The doses under this combined influence of solar activity and airline business factors result in a maximum of exposure for German aircrews for this solar cycle. With the increasing solar activity of the current solar cycle 24, the doses are expected to decrease again.

  13. Calculation of Buildup Factor for Gamma-ray Exposure in Two Layered Shields Made of Water and Lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saadi, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The buildup factor for gamma ray exposure is most useful in calculations for biological protective shields.The buildup factors for gamma ray exposure were calculated in tow layered shields consist of water-lead and lead-water up to optical Thickness 20 mean free path (mfp) at gamma ray energies 1, 2 and 6MeV by using kalos's formula.The program has been designed to work at any atomic number of the attenuating medium, photon energy, slab thickness and and the arrangement of materials.The results obtained in this search leading to the buildup factor for gamma ray exposure at energies (1and2MeV) in lead-water were higher than the reverse case,while at energy 6 MeV the effect was opposite.The calculated data were parameterized by an empirical formula as a function of optical thickness of tow materials.The results obtained were in reasonable agreement with a previous work

  14. [Night workers' exposure to harshness factors in France: Lessons learned from the 2010 SUMER Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havet, N; Huguet, M; Tonietta, J

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that French laws state that night work should be exceptional, the number of night workers has sharply increased in the past 20 years. At the same time, empirical and epidemiological studies indicate that night work has negative effects on workers' health. This is why the 2010 French pension act considered night work to be a drudgery. The aim of this study is to investigate whether night workers are more subject to other factors defined as contributing to the drudgery of work than are day workers. This article focuses on exposure to physical constraints (manual manipulation of heavy loads, awkward posture, exposure to mechanical vibrations) and aggressive physical environment (carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic chemicals [CMR], extreme temperature and noise). Our study used the 2010 Medical Monitoring Survey of Occupational Risks [Surveillance médicale des expositions aux risques professionnels, (SUMER)] that was conducted among a sample of around 50,000 employees representative of 21.7 million French employees. We used logistic regressions to explore the potential influence of night work on the probabilities of exposure to at least one CMR, noise, thermal nuisance and physical constraints. Even though descriptive statistics suggest that night workers are more exposed to drudgery of work than day workers, our multivariate logistic models indicate that the exposure is not always positively correlated with the number of nights worked. Moreover, the exposure differs according to gender and socio-occupational category. Our findings suggest that night workers are more exposed to several factors defined as contributing to the drudgery of work than are day workers. Thus, they seem to face multiple disadvantages in the labor market. Preventive measures in favor of night workers should be targeted at job content as much as work organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Inguinal hernia repair among men in relation to occupational mechanical exposures and lifestyle factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Marie Vestergaard; Frost, Poul; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    showed lower HRs for both repair types. Leisure-time physical activity and smoking status were not related to any of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Assuming a causal relationship, the results suggest that around 30% of all first-time lateral inguinal hernia repairs in the highest exposure category would...

  16. HISTORY OF SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE IS A RISK FACTOR FOR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schick, T.; Ersoy, L.; Lechanteur, Y.T.; Saksens, N.T.; Hoyng, C.B.; Hollander, A.I. den; Kirchhof, B.; Fauser, S.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate effects of current and past sunlight exposure and iris color on early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Of 3,701 individuals from the EUGENDA database, 752 (20.3%) showed early AMD, 1,179 (31.9%) late AMD, and 1,770 (47.8%) were controls. Information

  17. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential s...

  18. Usage patterns of personal care products: Important factors for exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesterbos, J.W.H.; Dudzina, T.; Delmaar, C.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Russel, F.G.M.; Goetz, N. von; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2013-01-01

    Complete information regarding the use of personal care products (PCPs) by consumers is limited, but such information is crucial for realistic consumer exposure assessment. To fill this gap, a database was created with person-oriented information regarding usage patterns and circumstances of use for

  19. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  20. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I: prevalence, risk factors and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Edith

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ruling parties in Bangladesh have systematically used violence against political opponents and criminals. It is essential to 1 determine the magnitude and burden of organised crime and political violence (OPV and human rights violations in the affected community, and to 2 identify the risk factors and key indicators for developing effective health intervention and prevention measures. Methods The population-based study consisted of two parts: a household survey and OPV screening at mobile clinics (presented in Part II. A cross-sectional, multistage cluster household survey was conducted in the Meherpur district in February-March 2008; 22 clusters with a sample size of 1,101 households (population of 4,870 were selected. Results Around 83% of households reported being exposed to at least two categories of OPV or human rights violations: 29% reported that the family members had been arrested or detained; 31% reported torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Crude mortality rate was 17.9/1,000 and under 5 mortality rate was 75/1,000. The annual injury rate was 36%, lifetime experience of violence-related injury was 50%, and pain experience within 2 weeks was reported by 57%. Over 80% of the population over 35 years old complained of pain. High prevalence of injury, lifetime experience of OPV-related injury and pain complaints are related to the level of exposure to OPV and human rights violations. A financial burden was imposed on families with an injured person. A geographical variation was revealed regarding reports of torture and lifetime experience of violence-related injury. A combination of individual, relational, community and societal factors, including variables such as political party affiliation, conflict with other families, household income and residential area, affected the risk of victimisation in the household. The odds ratio for reporting extrajudicial execution of a family

  1. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I): prevalence, risk factors and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shr-Jie; Modvig, Jens; Montgomery, Edith

    2009-11-21

    The ruling parties in Bangladesh have systematically used violence against political opponents and criminals. It is essential to 1) determine the magnitude and burden of organised crime and political violence (OPV) and human rights violations in the affected community, and to 2) identify the risk factors and key indicators for developing effective health intervention and prevention measures. The population-based study consisted of two parts: a household survey and OPV screening at mobile clinics (presented in Part II). A cross-sectional, multistage cluster household survey was conducted in the Meherpur district in February-March 2008; 22 clusters with a sample size of 1,101 households (population of 4,870) were selected. Around 83% of households reported being exposed to at least two categories of OPV or human rights violations: 29% reported that the family members had been arrested or detained; 31% reported torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Crude mortality rate was 17.9/1,000 and under 5 mortality rate was 75/1,000. The annual injury rate was 36%, lifetime experience of violence-related injury was 50%, and pain experience within 2 weeks was reported by 57%. Over 80% of the population over 35 years old complained of pain. High prevalence of injury, lifetime experience of OPV-related injury and pain complaints are related to the level of exposure to OPV and human rights violations. A financial burden was imposed on families with an injured person. A geographical variation was revealed regarding reports of torture and lifetime experience of violence-related injury. A combination of individual, relational, community and societal factors, including variables such as political party affiliation, conflict with other families, household income and residential area, affected the risk of victimisation in the household. The odds ratio for reporting extrajudicial execution of a family member was 9.22 for Awami League supporters, 9.15 for

  2. Exposure to maltreatment and urban violence in children working on the streets in São Paulo, Brazil: factors associated with street work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. Mello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantitatively study the exposure to childhood maltreatment and urban violence in children from families with at least one child working on the streets and to investigate the relationship between these factors and street work. Methods: Families who participated in a nongovernmental organization (NGO program to eliminate child labor were included. Data concerning sociodemographic characteristics, punishment methods used in the family environment against the children, five types of abuse and neglect perpetrated by the caregivers, urban violence exposure and family functioning were collected. Results: The sample included 126 children who were working on the streets and 65 siblings who were not working on the streets. Caregivers reported high levels of severe physical punishment. The children reported high levels of abuse and neglect, and high levels of urban violence exposure. The families showed a predominance of dysfunctional and unsatisfactory relationships. A multiple logistic regression model showed that age older than 12 years and severe physical punishment at home were associated with street work. Conclusion: Interventions to decrease the risk of child street work should be family-focused and should aim to reduce violence in the family environment.

  3. Prevalence of Exposure to Risk Factors for Violence among Young Adults Seen in an Inner-City Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Hankin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To assess the prevalence of risk factors for violent injury among young adults treated at an urban emergency department (ED.Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected as part of a longitudinal study. Enrollment took place in an urban ED in a Level 1 trauma center, June through December 2010. All patients aged 18–24 years were eligible. Patients were excluded if they were incarcerated, critically ill, or unable to read English. Study participants completed a 10-minute multiple-choice questionnaire using previously validated scales: a aggression, b perceived likelihood of violence, c recent violent behavior, d peer behavior, and e community exposure to violence.Results: 403 eligible patients were approached, of whom 365 (90.1% consented to participate. Average age was 21.1 (95% confidence interval: 20.9, 21.3 years, and participants were 57.2% female, 85.7% African American, and 82.2% were educated at the high school level or beyond. Among study participants, rates of high-risk exposure to individual risk factors ranged from 7.4% (recent violent behavior to 24.5% (exposure to community violence, with 32.3% of patients showing high exposure to at least one risk factor. When comparing participants by ethnicity, no significant differences were found between White, African-American, and Hispanic participants. Males and females differed significantly only on 1 of the scales – community violence, (20.4% of males vs. 30.3% of females, p¼0.03. Selfreported hostile/aggressive feelings were independently associated with initial presentation for injury associated complaint after controlling for age, sex, and race (odds ratio 3.48 (1.49-8.13.Conclusion: Over 30% of young adults presenting to an urban ED reported high exposure to risk factors for violent injury. The high prevalence of these risk factors among ED patients highlights the potential benefit of a survey instrument to identify youth who might benefit from

  4. Study on association between genetic polymorphisms of haem oxygenase-1, tumour necrosis factor, cadmium exposure and malaria pathogenicity and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruangweerayut Ronnatrai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the most important public health problems in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Haem oxygenase (HO enzyme and the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF have been proposed as one of the factors that may play significant role in pathogenicity/severity of malaria infection. HO is the enzyme of the microsomal haem degradation pathway that yields biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and iron. In this study, the association between malaria disease pathogenicity/severity and (GTn repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the inducible HO-1 including the effect of cadmium exposure (potent inducer of HO-1 transcription as well as polymorphism of TNF were investigated. Methods Blood samples were collected from 329 cases non-severe malaria with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria (UM and 80 cases with Plasmodium vivax malaria (VM, and 77 cases with severe or cerebral malaria (SM for analysis of genetic polymorphisms of HO-1 and TNF and cadmium levels. These patients consisted of 123 (25.3% Thai, 243 (50.0% Burmese and 120 (24.7% Karen who were present at Mae Sot General Hospital, Mae Sot, Tak Province, Thailand. Results The number of (GTn repeats of the HO-1 gene in all patients varied between 16 and 39 and categorized to short (S, medium (M and long (L GTn repeats. The genotype of (GTn repeat of HO-1 was found to be significantly different among the three ethnic groups of patients. Significantly higher frequency of S/L genotype was found in Burmese compared with Thai patients, while significantly lower frequencies of S/S and M/L but higher frequency of M/M genotype was observed in Burmese compared with Karen patients. No significant association between HO-1 and TNF polymorphisms including the inducing effect of cadmium and malaria pathogenicity/severity was observed. Conclusions Difference in the expression of HO-1 genotype in different ethnic groups may contribute to different severity of malaria

  5. Prospective Risk Factors for Adolescent PTSD: Sources of Differential Exposure and Differential Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Zona, Kate; Acker, Jenna; Turcios-Cotto, Viana

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of risk factors for developing PTSD: factors that increase the likelihood of experiencing a potentially traumatizing event and factors that increase the likelihood of developing symptoms following such events. Using prospective data over a two-year period from a large, diverse sample of urban adolescents (n = 1242, Mean age =…

  6. Risk Factors for Pressure Ulcers Including Suspected Deep Tissue Injury in Nursing Home Facility Residents: Analysis of National Minimum Data Set 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyochol; Cowan, Linda; Garvan, Cynthia; Lyon, Debra; Stechmiller, Joyce

    2016-04-01

    To provide information on risk factors associated with pressure ulcers (PrUs), including suspected deep tissue injury (sDTI), in nursing home residents in the United States. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Examine the literature related to risk factors for the development of PrUs.2. Compare risk factors associated with the prevalence of PrUs and sDTI from the revised Minimum Data Set 3.0 2012 using a modified Defloor's conceptual model of PrUs as a theoretical framework. This study aims to characterize and compare risk factors associated with pressure ulcers (PrUs), including suspected deep tissue injury (sDTI), in nursing home (NH) residents in the United States. Secondary analysis of the 2012 Minimum Data Set (MDS 3.0). Medicare- or Medicaid-certified NHs in the United States. Nursing home residents (n = 2,936,146) 18 years or older with complete PrU data, who received comprehensive assessments from January to December 2012. Pressure ulcer by stage was the outcome variable. Explanatory variables (age, gender, race and ethnicity, body mass index, skin integrity, system failure, disease, infection, mobility, and cognition) from the MDS 3.0 were aligned with the 4 elements of Defloor's conceptual model: compressive forces, shearing forces, tissue tolerance for pressure, and tissue tolerance for oxygen. Of 2,936,146 NH residents who had complete data for PrU, 89.9% had no PrU; 8.4% had a Stage 2, 3, or 4 or unstagable PrU; and 1.7% had an sDTI. The MDS variables corresponding to the 4 elements of Defloor's model were significantly predictive of both PrU and sDTI. Black residents had the highest risk of any-stage PrU, and Hispanic residents had the highest risk of sDTI. Skin integrity, system failure, infection, and disease risk factors had larger effect sizes for sDTI than for other PrU stages

  7. Psychosocial stress factors, including the relationship with the coach, and their influence on acute and overuse injury risk in elite female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensgaard, Anne Marte; Ivarsson, Andreas; Nilstad, Agnethe; Solstad, Bård Erlend; Steffen, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between specific types of stressors (eg, teammates, coach) and acute versus overuse injuries is not well understood. To examine the roles of different types of stressors as well as the effect of motivational climate on the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries. Players in the Norwegian elite female football league (n=193 players from 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests prior to the 2009 competitive football season. As part of the screening, we included the Life Event Survey for Collegiate Athletes and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Norwegian short version). Acute and overuse time-loss injuries and exposure to training and matches were recorded prospectively in the football season using weekly text messaging. Data were analysed with Bayesian logistic regression analyses. Using Bayesian logistic regression analyses, we showed that perceived negative life event stress from teammates was associated with an increased risk of acute injuries (OR=1.23, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.48)). There was a credible positive association between perceived negative life event stress from the coach and the risk of overuse injuries (OR=1.21, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.45)). Players who report teammates as a source of stress have a greater risk of sustaining an acute injury, while players reporting the coach as a source of stress are at greater risk of sustaining an overuse injury. Motivational climate did not relate to increased injury occurrence.

  8. Exposure and risk factors to coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group and typhus group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among volunteer blood donors in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce H Noden

    Full Text Available The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown.The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS. Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8% had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1∶16, and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1∶100 for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P0.012, especially cattle (P>0.006, were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013 and typhus (P<0.011 group rickettsiae. Three (2.9% samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia.These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

  9. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  10. Is lead exposure in early life an environmental risk factor for Schizophrenia? Neurobiological connections and testable hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilarte, Tomás R; Opler, Mark; Pletnikov, Mikhail

    2012-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. There is general agreement in the scientific community that schizophrenia is a disorder of neurodevelopmental origin in which both genes and environmental factors come together to produce a schizophrenia phenotype later in life. The challenging questions have been which genes and what environmental factors? Although there is evidence that different chromosome loci and several genes impart susceptibility for schizophrenia; and epidemiological studies point to broad aspects of the environment, only recently there has been an interest in studying gene × environment interactions. Recent evidence of a potential association between prenatal lead (Pb(2+)) exposure and schizophrenia precipitated the search for plausible neurobiological connections. The most promising connection is that in schizophrenia and in developmental Pb(2+) exposure there is strong evidence for hypoactivity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors as an underlying neurobiological mechanism in both conditions. A hypofunction of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) complex during critical periods of development may alter neurobiological processes that are essential for brain growth and wiring, synaptic plasticity and cognitive and behavioral outcomes associated with schizophrenia. We also describe on-going proof of concept gene-environment interaction studies of early life Pb(2+) exposure in mice expressing the human mutant form of the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC-1) gene, a gene that is strongly associated with schizophrenia and allied mental disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is Lead Exposure in Early Life An Environmental Risk Factor for Schizophrenia? Neurobiological Connections and Testable Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilarte, Tomás R.; Opler, Mark; Pletnikov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. There is general agreement in the scientific community that schizophrenia is a disorder of neurodevelopmental origin in which both genes and environmental factors come together to produce a schizophrenia phenotype later in life. The challenging questions have been which genes and what environmental factors? Although there is evidence that different chromosome loci and several genes impart susceptibility for schizophrenia; and epidemiological studies point to broad aspects of the environment, only recently there has been an interest in studying gene × environment interactions. Recent evidence of a potential association between prenatal lead (Pb2+) exposure and schizophrenia precipitated the search for plausible neurobiological connections. The most promising connection is that in schizophrenia and in developmental Pb2+ exposure there is strong evidence for hypoactivity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors as an underlying neurobiological mechanism in both conditions. A hypofunction of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) complex during critical periods of development may alter neurobiological processes that are essential for brain growth and wiring, synaptic plasticity and cognitive and behavioral outcomes associated with schizophrenia. We also describe on-going proof of concept gene-environment interaction studies of early life Pb2+ exposure in mice expressing the human mutant form of the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC-1) gene, a gene that is strongly associated with schizophrenia and allied mental disorders. PMID:22178136

  12. Differences between day and nonday workers in exposure to physical and psychosocial work factors in the Danish eldercare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Garde, Anne Helene; Diderichsen, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The possible interaction between individual and occupational risk factors, the need for meaningful intervention, and the demand for valid shift work research make the accumulation of adverse exposures at certain times of the day of special relevance with respect to occupational health. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine whether there was a clustering of detrimental work factors among female eldercare workers in fixed evening or fixed night shifts when they are compared with workers in fixed day shifts. This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among 4590 female health care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The participants worked in nursing homes, in home care, or in both. They answered questions on job demands, job control, and social support, together with questions on physical and psychological violence, physical workload, and passive smoking. We found that-compared with day workers-fixed nonday workers were more exposed to low job control, low support from leaders, physical and psychological violence, and high physical demands. Nonday workers were, however, less exposed to high demands. These differences remained after control for age, job title, and workplace. Exposures in the work environment of Danish eldercare workers varied between shifts. In a research perspective these findings stress the importance of adequate adjustment for work factors when the health effects of shift work are studied. Moreover, the results underscore the need for an increased awareness of work factors of special importance among nonday workers when interventions against shiftwork-related occupational disorders are designed.

  13. Health effects of an increased protein intake on kidney function and colorectal cancer risk factors, including the role of animal and plant protein sources – the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith

    intake, including the role of animal and plant protein in pre-diabetic, overweight or obese individuals on health outcomes: markers of kidney function and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer as well as insulin sensitivity and kidney function in healthy individuals. The thesis is based on PREVIEW......, especially plant protein, on insulin sensitivity and kidney function. In paper II, the aim of the study was to assess the effect after one year of a higher protein intake on kidney function, measured by in creatinine clearance. This was investigated in pre-diabetic older adults based on a sub-group of 310...... pre-diabetic individuals included in the PREVIEW RCT. We found that a higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in urea to creatinine ratio and serum urea after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular...

  14. Factors Associated with Exposure to Violent or Degrading Pornography among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Patrizia; Beltramini, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze pornography exposure in a sample of 702 Italian adolescents (46% males; mean age = 18.2, SD = 0.8). Among male students, 11% were not exposed, 44.5% were exposed to nonviolent material, and 44.5% were exposed to violent/degrading material. Among female students, 60.8% were not exposed, 20.4% were exposed to…

  15. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees, a 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Bo M; Boot, Cécile R L; Hoekstra, Trynke; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2018-01-01

    Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees' mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in mental health in older employees at 3-year follow-up. The current study used data from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM), in workers aged 45-65 years (n = 5249). Two-year (2010-2012) exposure was assessed for psychological demands, autonomy, support, mental load, and distributive justice. Linear regression analyses were performed to compare improved exposure to unfavourable psychosocial work factors with stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure and mental health at follow-up (2013), corrected for confounders. Analyses were stratified for age groups (45-54 and 55-65 years) and gender. In certain subgroups, stable unfavourable exposure to psychological demands, autonomy, support, and distributive justice was associated with a significantly lower mental health score than improved exposure. Stable favourable exposure to support was associated with a higher mental health score than improved support, whereas stable favourable exposure to autonomy was associated with a lower mental health score compared to improved exposure. There is a longitudinal association between changes in exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health. Improvement in unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors was associated with improved mental health. This is important information for organisations that consider deploying measures to improve the psychosocial work environment of older workers.

  16. Evidence of Biomass Smoke Exposure as a Causative Factor for the Development of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Capistrano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive disease of the lungs characterised by chronic inflammation, obstruction of airways, and destruction of the parenchyma (emphysema. These changes gradually impair lung function and prevent normal breathing. In 2002, COPD was the fifth leading cause of death, and is estimated by the World Health Organisation (WHO to become the third by 2020. Cigarette smokers are thought to be the most at risk of developing COPD. However, recent studies have shown that people with life-long exposure to biomass smoke are also at high risk of developing COPD. Most common in developing countries, biomass fuels such as wood and coal are used for cooking and heating indoors on a daily basis. Women and children have the highest amounts of exposures and are therefore more likely to develop the disease. Despite epidemiological studies providing evidence of the causative relationship between biomass smoke and COPD, there are still limited mechanistic studies on how biomass smoke causes, and contributes to the progression of COPD. This review will focus upon why biomass fuels are used, and their relationship to COPD. It will also suggest methodological approaches to model biomass exposure in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  18. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  19. [A study on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor in emphysema of rat caused by smog exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-long; Ran, Pi-xin

    2003-11-01

    To explore the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in emphysema of rat caused by smog exposure. Thirty-six 12-week male rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a smog exposure group (S group), and a normal control group (N group). S group rats were randomly subdivided into 3 groups: S(1) group, S(2) group, S(3) group, which were exposed to smog for 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, respectively; N group rats were randomly subdivided into 3 groups: N(1) group, N(2) group, N(3) group, which were raised in normal oxygen condition for 0 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, respectively. The expressions of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein and kinase-insert domain containing receptor (KDR) protein were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and modified SABC immunohistochemistry assay separately. The pathological change in smog exposure rat lung was determined by HE staining. MLI and MAN were determined as an index of emphysema. Variance analysis, nonparametric analysis and correlate analysis were conducted in SPSS 10.0. (1) There were airway inflammation in S group rat lungs, and an early-emphysema-like change in S(3) group rat lungs: MAN in S(3) group was significantly decreased compared with N(3) group, MLI in S(3) group was significantly increased compared with N(3) group (P 0.05). (3) VEGF protein expression in alveolar epithelium and bronchial epithelium had a positive correlation with MAN (r = 0.43, r = 0.37, P Smog exposure decrease the expression of VEGF and KDR in rat lung. VEGF might involve in the pathology of emphysema caused by smog exposure.

  20. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and post-traumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children’s self-esteem, and academic achievement, moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence and subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Method We collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old; approximately half of each gender) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Results Greater cumulative exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence across the first two waves of the study predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms even when we controlled for the child’s initial level of PTS symptoms. This relation was significantly moderated by a youth’s self-esteem and by the positive parenting received by the youth. In particular, the longitudinal relation between exposure to violence and subsequent PTS symptoms was significant for low self-esteem youth and for youth receiving little positive parenting but was non-significant for children with high levels of these protective resources. Conclusions Our findings show that youth most vulnerable to PTS symptoms as a result of exposure to ethnic-political violence are those with lower levels of self-esteem and who experience low levels of positive parenting. Interventions for war-exposed youth should test whether boosting self-esteem and positive parenting might reduce subsequent levels of PTS symptoms. PMID:22594697

  1. MiR-153 targets the nuclear factor-1 family and protects against teratogenic effects of ethanol exposure in fetal neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Chi Tsai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is an established cause of birth defects, including neurodevelopmental defects. Most adult neurons are produced during the second trimester-equivalent period. The fetal neural stem cells (NSCs that generate these neurons are an important but poorly understood target for teratogenesis. A cohort of miRNAs, including miR-153, may serve as mediators of teratogenesis. We previously showed that ethanol decreased, while nicotine increased miR-153 expression in NSCs. To understand the role of miR-153 in the etiology of teratology, we first screened fetal cortical NSCs cultured ex vivo, by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, to identify cell-signaling mRNAs and gene networks as important miR-153 targets. Moreover, miR-153 over-expression prevented neuronal differentiation without altering neuroepithelial cell survival or proliferation. Analysis of 3′UTRs and in utero over-expression of pre-miR-153 in fetal mouse brain identified Nfia (nuclear factor-1A and its paralog, Nfib, as direct targets of miR-153. In utero ethanol exposure resulted in a predicted expansion of Nfia and Nfib expression in the fetal telencephalon. In turn, miR-153 over-expression prevented, and partly reversed, the effects of ethanol exposure on miR-153 target transcripts. Varenicline, a partial nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist that, like nicotine, induces miR-153 expression, also prevented and reversed the effects of ethanol exposure. These data collectively provide evidence for a role for miR-153 in preventing premature NSC differentiation. Moreover, they provide the first evidence in a preclinical model that direct or pharmacological manipulation of miRNAs have the potential to prevent or even reverse effects of a teratogen like ethanol on fetal development.

  2. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  3. Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation are calculated for 240 radionuclides of potential importance in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Exposure modes considered are immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and irradiation from a contaminated ground surface. For each exposure mode, dose-rate conversion factors for photons and electrons are calculated for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. Dose-rate conversion factors for photons only are calculated for 22 body organs. (author)

  4. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...

  5. Radio immune analysis of endocrine system state at exposure to different physical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyil's'ka, O.M.; Rozdtil's'kij, S.Yi.; Bratchuk, O.M.; Yakimova, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    Radio immune analysis allows to define more exactly the mechanisms of physical factors action and may be used for validation of new therapeutic techniques. The ultra-high frequency magneto therapy, sinusoid modulated current and direct current influence the state of the endocrine system differently but within the physiological norm. The most prominent action of the physical factor is observed at trans cerebral mode

  6. The role of treatment delivery factors in exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Florian; Grikscheit, Florian; Höfling, Volkmar; Kordt, Anne; Hamm, Alfons O; Gerlach, Alexander L; Alpers, Georg W; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Pauli, Paul; Rief, Winfried; Lang, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Treatment delivery factors (i.e., therapist adherence, therapist competence, and therapeutic alliance) are considered to be important for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). In the current study, four independent raters conducted process evaluations based on 168 two-hour videotapes of 84 patients with PD/AG treated with exposure-based CBT. Two raters evaluated patients' interpersonal behavior in Session 1. Two raters evaluated treatment delivery factors in Session 6, in which therapists provided the rationale for conducting exposure exercises. At the 6-month follow-up, therapists' adherence (r=0.54) and therapeutic alliance (r=0.31) were significant predictors of changes in agoraphobic avoidance behavior; therapist competence was not associated with treatment outcomes. Patients' interpersonal behavior in Session 1 was a significant predictor of the therapeutic alliance in Session 6 (r=0.17). The findings demonstrate that treatment delivery factors, particularly therapist adherence, are relevant to the long-term success of CBT for PD/AG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  8. Study of the validity of a job-exposure matrix for the job strain model factors: an update and a study of changes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Milner, Allison; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Chastang, Jean-François

    2018-03-08

    The objectives of the study were to construct a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for psychosocial work factors of the job strain model, to evaluate its validity, and to compare the results over time. The study was based on national representative data of the French working population with samples of 46,962 employees (2010 SUMER survey) and 24,486 employees (2003 SUMER survey). Psychosocial work factors included the job strain model factors (Job Content Questionnaire): psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, job strain and iso-strain. Job title was defined by three variables: occupation and economic activity coded using standard classifications, and company size. A JEM was constructed using a segmentation method (Classification and Regression Tree-CART) and cross-validation. The best quality JEM was found using occupation and company size for social support. For decision latitude and psychological demands, there was not much difference using occupation and company size with or without economic activity. The validity of the JEM estimates was higher for decision latitude, job strain and iso-strain, and lower for social support and psychological demands. Differential changes over time were observed for psychosocial work factors according to occupation, economic activity and company size. This study demonstrated that company size in addition to occupation may improve the validity of JEMs for psychosocial work factors. These matrices may be time-dependent and may need to be updated over time. More research is needed to assess the validity of JEMs given that these matrices may be able to provide exposure assessments to study a range of health outcomes.

  9. Factors influencing mobile source particulate matter emissions-to-exposure relationships in the Boston urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Susan L; Wilson, Andrew M; Hanna, Steven R; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-11-15

    Benefit-cost and regulatory impact analyses often use atmospheric dispersion models with coarse resolution to estimate the benefits of proposed mobile source emission control regulations. This approach may bias health estimates or miss important intra-urban variability for primary air pollutants. In this study, we estimate primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) intake fractions (iF; the fraction of a pollutant emitted from a source that is inhaled by the population) for each of 23 398 road segments in the Boston Metro Core area to evaluate the potential for intra-urban variability in the emissions-to-exposure relationship. We estimate iFs using the CAL3QHCR line source model combined with residential populations within 5000 m of each road segment. The annual average values for the road segments range from 0.8 to 53 per million, with a mean of 12 per million. On average, 46% of the total exposure is realized within 200 m of the road segment, though this varies from 0 to 93% largely due to variable population patterns. Our findings indicate the likelihood of substantial intra-urban variability in mobile source primary PM2.5 iF that accounting for population movement with time, localized meteorological conditions, and street-canyon configurations would likely increase.

  10. Exposure to pesticide as a risk factor for depression: A population-based longitudinal study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Tae Hui; Min, Seongho; Lee, Kyungsuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Choi, Jung Ran

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to pesticides is associated with mental disorders, including depression, especially among occupationally exposed populations, such as farmers. The results of experimental studies ascribed the negative effects of pesticides on mental health to their neurotoxic and endocrine-disrupting activities. This study aimed to investigate the association between the risk of depression and high- or low-level exposure to pesticides in a rural population. This longitudinal study was performed in 2005-2008 (baseline) and 2008-2012 (follow-up) to evaluate the risk of depression among 2151 Korean adults. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on depression upon self-reported exposure to pesticide based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between pesticide exposure and depression. We adjusted the data for age, cigarette smoking status, current alcohol use, monthly income, educational level, marriage status, and religion. Among the individuals who reported depression, the number of participants who used pesticides was significantly higher than that who did not (N=61 [7.2%] vs. N=54 [4.2%], P=0.003). A positive association was noted between >20-year period of pesticide use and depression (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-3.88). Individuals who reported depression showed greater odds of being exposed to higher pesticide concentrations (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.40-3.88) and experiencing pesticide poisoning (OR, 5.83; 95% CI, 1.80-18.86) than those who did not. Exposure to pesticides at a high concentration was found to be associated with depressive symptoms among Korean adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Review Article Exposure to biomass smoke as a risk factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Gastroenterology & Nutrition Group, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, Zambia ... smoke is an established risk factor for upper gastrointestinal cancers, and .... involving more than 500 colorectal cancer patients reported.

  12. Genotypes in relation to phenotypic appearance and exposure to environmental factors in Graves' hyperthyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Xander G.; Endert, Erik; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors are both involved in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease, but their interaction and effect on Graves' phenotypes have scarcely been investigated. Objective: To test the hypothesis that subjects with susceptibility genotypes develop more

  13. Is exposure to chronic stressors a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Shona; Ismail, Mubarak

    2014-01-01

    Background - Current policy around Type 2 diabetes (T2D) interventions to reduce rates largely invokes a bio-behavioural model. This approach is also reflected in the research literature where most research that attempts to predict the development of diabetes is restricted to conventional clinical risk factors. However, a few researchers are now suggesting that psychosocial factors (PSF), acting via the physiologic stress response (PSR) systems, increases the risk of developing diabetes. Card...

  14. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...... in SPF decreases between an organic and an inorganic sunscreen, assuming that the sunscreens are stable, and that the SPF decrease is time dependent if caused by absorption....

  15. Excessive early-life dietary exposure: a potential source of elevated brain iron and a risk factor for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dominic J; Cardoso, Bárbara Rita; Raven, Erika P; Double, Kay L; Finkelstein, David I; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Iron accumulates gradually in the ageing brain. In Parkinson's disease, iron deposition within the substantia nigra is further increased, contributing to a heightened pro-oxidant environment in dopaminergic neurons. We hypothesise that individuals in high-income countries, where cereals and infant formulae have historically been fortified with iron, experience increased early-life iron exposure that predisposes them to age-related iron accumulation in the brain. Combined with genetic factors that limit iron regulatory capacity and/or dopamine metabolism, this may increase the risk of Parkinson's diseases. We propose to (a) validate a retrospective biomarker of iron exposure in children; (b) translate this biomarker to adults; (c) integrate it with in vivo brain iron in Parkinson's disease; and (d) longitudinally examine the relationships between early-life iron exposure and metabolism, brain iron deposition and Parkinson's disease risk. This approach will provide empirical evidence to support therapeutically addressing brain iron deposition in Parkinson's diseases and produce a potential biomarker of Parkinson's disease risk in preclinical individuals.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of COPD among never-smokers in two areas of Sweden - Occupational exposure to gas, dust or fumes is an important risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstad, Stig; Backman, Helena; Bjerg, Anders; Ekerljung, Linda; Ye, Xiong; Hedman, Linnea; Lindberg, Anne; Torén, Kjell; Lötvall, Jan; Rönmark, Eva; Lundbäck, Bo

    2015-11-01

    Although active tobacco smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, COPD is not uncommon also among never-smokers. Different study locations along with different spirometric definitions of COPD have historically yielded different prevalence estimates of the disease. To study current prevalence and risk factors of COPD among never-smokers in two areas of Sweden. Data collected in 2008-2012 within the West Sweden Asthma Study and Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Studies was pooled. The study population consisted of 1839 subjects who participated in spirometry and interviews. COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator a) FEV(1)/(F)VC never-smokers. Among the never-smoking subjects, the prevalence of COPD according to definitions a-c was 7.7%, 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of GOLD grade ≥2 was 2.0%, 1.4% and 1.3%. No significant difference in prevalence between the two study areas was observed. In never-smokers, occupational exposure to gas, dust or fumes (GDF) was significantly associated with both COPD (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.03-3.33), and GOLD ≥2 (OR 4.51, 1.72-11.9) according to definition a), after adjusting for age, educational level and exposure to passive smoking at work. Depending on definition, prevalence of COPD among never-smokers was 3.0-7.7%, whereas GOLD ≥2 was present in 1.3-2.0%. Occupational exposure to GDF remained independently and significantly associated with COPD regardless of spirometric definition of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors for human papillomavirus exposure and co-factors for cervical cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Albero, Ginesa; Molano, Mónica; Carcamo, César; García, Patricia J; Pérez, Gonzalo

    2008-08-19

    The incidence of cervical cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is among the highest in the world. Because there are major demographic shifts happening in LAC countries (population growth, urbanization and ageing) cervical cancer incidence and mortality will likely continue to be a significant public health problem. Overall human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in the LAC general population has been found to be 2-fold higher than the average worldwide prevalence. The large HPV and cancer burden may be explained by the highly prevalent HPV variants of HPV types -16 and 18, which have an increased oncogenic potential. Given the major mode of transmission of genital HPV is sexual, certain, patterns of sexual behaviour (early age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners and sexual behaviour of the partner) are associated with an increased risk of HPV genital acquisition. Although HPV infection is necessary for carcinogenesis, certain co-factors (high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives, smoking and co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) help in the progression from infection to cancer. Many studies that have contributed to this evidence have been carried out in LAC and are reviewed and summarised in this article. Since HPV vaccines will likely take years to implement, and many more years to show impact on disease, cervical cancer screening programmes remain as the key intervention to control disease in LAC in the years to come.

  18. Exposure to simultaneous sedentary behavior domains and sociodemographic factors associated in public servants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cerveira Fronza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p469   Exposure to sedentary behavior may contribute to health problems. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of exposure to simultaneous sedentary behavior domains and verify associated sociodemographic characteristics among technical and administrative servers of a Brazilian university. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study carried out with 623 technical and administrative servers. Sedentary behavior was identified through a questionnaire in the following domains: commuting (active / passive, sitting time at work, daily time spent watching television and computer use (≥3 hours / day. Sociodemographic variables were age, sex and educational level. The prevalence of servers that had one, two, three and four simultaneous sedentary behavior was 28.4%, 43.2%, 22.5% and 4.3%, respectively. Women were more likely to have three sedentary behavior simultaneously (OR = 1.61, CI 95% = 1.02, 2.56. Servers with 9-11 years of schooling were less exposed to two (OR = 0.27, CI 95% = 0.17, 0.44, three (OR = 0.39, CI 95% = 0.23, 0.66 and four (OR = 0.22, CI 95% = 0.07; 0.69 sedentary behavior simultaneously and those over 12 years of schooling were less likely of having two (OR = 0.22, CI 95% = 0.10; 0.49 and three (OR = 0.15, CI 95% = 0.05, 0.46 sedentary behavior simultaneously. More than half of servers have two sedentary behavior during the week. Having sedentary behavior in more than one domain simultaneously was associated with sex and educational level.

  19. Relationship of secondhand smoke exposure with sociodemographic factors and smoke-free legislation in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T; Girvalaki, Charis; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Ward, Brian; Gratziou, Christina; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2016-04-01

    To explore whether exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the European Union (EU) showed any association with sociodemographic factors and/or the extent of national tobacco control policies. A secondary analysis was performed on data from 26 751 individuals ≥15 years old from 27 EU member states (EU MS), collected during the 2012 Special Eurobarometer survey (wave 77.1). Respondents were asked whether they had been exposed to SHS in eating or drinking establishments during the past 6 months, and/or in their workplace. Data on smoke-free policies were extracted from the European Tobacco Control Status Report and the European Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) in 2013. In total, 29.0% of non-smoking participants reported being exposed to SHS in indoor areas. Males (vs. females) as well as individuals with difficulties to pay bills (vs. those with no difficulties), had significantly greater odds of being exposed to SHS in bars, restaurants and workplaces. For every unit increase of a country's score on the Smoke-free Component of the TCS (indicating greater adherence to smoke-free legislations) the odds ratio of reporting exposure to SHS was 0.82 in bars, 0.85 in restaurants and 0.94 in workplaces. Differences in exposure to SHS clearly exist between and within EU MS, despite the fact that they all have signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, with the burden found to disproportionally affect younger people and individuals with financial difficulties. Moreover, enforcement of smoke-free legislation was inversely associated with SHS exposure, highlighting the importance of enforcing comprehensive smoking bans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. A study of energy and effective atomic number dependence of the exposure build-up factors in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, G.S.; Singh, P.S.; Mudahar, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented to determine the gamma-radiation build-up factors in various biological materials. The gamma energy range is 0.015-15.0 MeV, with penetration depths up to 40 mean free paths considered. The dependence of the exposure build-up factor on incident photon energy and the effective atomic number (Z eff ) has also been assessed. In a practical analysis of dose burden to gamma-irradiated biological materials, the sophistication of Monte Carlo computer techniques would be applied, with associated detailed modelling. However, a feature of the theoretical method presented is its ability to make the consequences of the physics of the scattering process in biological materials more transparent. In addition, it can be quickly employed to give a first-pass dose estimate prior to a more detailed computer study. (author)

  1. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees: A 3-year follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hoekstra, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Van Der Beek, A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees’ mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in mental health in older employees at 3-year follow-up. Methods The current study used data from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM), in workers aged 45–65 years (n = ...

  2. Growth pattern in Ethiopian infants - the impact of exposure to maternal HIV infection in relation to socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König Walles, John; Balcha, Taye Tolera; Winqvist, Niclas; Björkman, Per

    2017-01-01

    Infants exposed to maternal HIV infection who remain HIV-uninfected (HIV-exposed/uninfected; HIV-EU) may be at increased risk of growth retardation, which could be due both to directly HIV-related effects and to socio-economic factors overrepresented among HIV-positive women. To investigate growth development at 9-12 months of age in HIV-EU infants participating in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care compared to HIV unexposed (HIV-U) infants in relation to socio-economic conditions. Anthropometric and socio-economic data were collected retrospectively from PMTCT registers (for HIV-EU infants), with HIV-U controls recruited at measles vaccination at public health facilities in Ethiopia. Growth was compared with regard to HIV exposure and socio-economic variables in multivariate regression analysis. The following growth measurements were found for 302 HIV-EU and 358 HIV-U infants at 9-12 months of age, respectively: mean weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) 0.04 and -0.21, p growth and higher mean WAZ than HIV-U controls. Poor growth development was associated with socio-economic factors. This suggests health benefits from PMTCT participation for infant growth. Similar interventions could be considered for Ethiopian infants, irrespective of HIV exposure, with a particular focus on children with poor socio-economic status.

  3. Early-life exposure to fibroblast growth factor-2 facilitates context-dependent long-term memory in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bronwyn M; Richardson, Rick

    2010-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a potent neurotrophic factor that is involved in brain development and the formation of long-term memory. It has recently been shown that acute FGF2, administered at the time of learning, enhances long-term memory for contextual fear conditioning as well as extinction of conditioned fear in developing rats. As other research has shown that administering FGF2 on the first day of life leads to long-term morphological changes in the hippocampus, in the present study we investigated whether early life exposure to FGF2 affects contextual fear conditioning, and renewal following extinction, later in life. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single injection of FGF2 on Postnatal Day (PND) 1 did not lead to any detectable changes in contextual fear conditioning in PND 16 or PND 23 rats. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that 5 days of injections of FGF2 (from PND 1-5) facilitated contextual fear conditioning in PND 16 and PND 23 rats. Experiment 4 demonstrated that the observed facilitation of memory was not due to FGF2 increasing rats' sensitivity to foot shock. Experiment 5 showed that early life exposure to FGF2 did not affect learning about a discrete conditioned stimulus, but did allow PND 16 rats to use contextual information in more complex ways, leading to context-dependent extinction of conditioned fear. These results further implicate FGF2 as a critical signal involved in the development of learning and memory.

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengradomkij, Chanya; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Wongpanit, Kannika; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Mitchell, Thomas J; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Stich, Roger W

    2015-01-15

    Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors affecting occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among dental students: a cross-sectional study in a brazilian federal university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Fernandes Dantas Filho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental students are often exposed to bloodborne pathogens during dental training. Several factors are involved in increased risk of human deficiency, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HIV, HBV, and HCV infection. However, there are few studies that address the risks and forms of prevention among dental students in Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study of occupational exposure to blood or body fluids among dental students of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was performed. These students were referred to the Occupational Medicine Department of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre from January 2007 to April 2015. Analyzed data included type of exposure (needlestick injury, mucosal exposure, and exposure to non-intact skin; source patient status for HBV, HIV and HCV infection, accident during dental training, procedure performed, biological material involved, type of accident, and hepatitis B vaccination and serological protection status. The objective was to know the incidence rate and others characteristics of accidents in order to prevent them. Results: There were 312 accidents during the study period of 8 years and 4 months, an estimated incidence rate of Incidence rate was 87,42 exposures per 1000 students-year. Source patient was known in 297 of the cases (95.2%, of which 3 were HBsAg reagent, 12 were HIV reagent, and 17 were HCV reagent. The majority of accidents occurred during procedure, but nearly as high as 40% occurred after procedure, of which 63% occurred during instrument cleaning, disinfecting or sterilizing. Most involved sharp instruments were anesthetic syringe needle and curette. Only 48% of dental students knew their anti-HBs was > 10 mIU/mL. Conclusions: Dental students should be tested for hepatitis B immune status at the beginning of training, and vaccination should be available to all dental students before they start clinical practice. Work practice controls on sharp devices should

  6. The TAL effector PthA4 interacts with nuclear factors involved in RNA-dependent processes including a HMG protein that selectively binds poly(U RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antonio de Souza

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic bacteria utilize an array of effector proteins to cause disease. Among them, transcriptional activator-like (TAL effectors are unusual in the sense that they modulate transcription in the host. Although target genes and DNA specificity of TAL effectors have been elucidated, how TAL proteins control host transcription is poorly understood. Previously, we showed that the Xanthomonas citri TAL effectors, PthAs 2 and 3, preferentially targeted a citrus protein complex associated with transcription control and DNA repair. To extend our knowledge on the mode of action of PthAs, we have identified new protein targets of the PthA4 variant, required to elicit canker on citrus. Here we show that all the PthA4-interacting proteins are DNA and/or RNA-binding factors implicated in chromatin remodeling and repair, gene regulation and mRNA stabilization/modification. The majority of these proteins, including a structural maintenance of chromosomes protein (CsSMC, a translin-associated factor X (CsTRAX, a VirE2-interacting protein (CsVIP2, a high mobility group (CsHMG and two poly(A-binding proteins (CsPABP1 and 2, interacted with each other, suggesting that they assemble into a multiprotein complex. CsHMG was shown to bind DNA and to interact with the invariable leucine-rich repeat region of PthAs. Surprisingly, both CsHMG and PthA4 interacted with PABP1 and 2 and showed selective binding to poly(U RNA, a property that is novel among HMGs and TAL effectors. Given that homologs of CsHMG, CsPABP1, CsPABP2, CsSMC and CsTRAX in other organisms assemble into protein complexes to regulate mRNA stability and translation, we suggest a novel role of TAL effectors in mRNA processing and translational control.

  7. Plasma fibrinogen and factor VII concentrations in adults after prenatal exposure to famine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseboom, T. J.; van der Meulen, J. H.; Ravelli, A. C.; Osmond, C.; Barker, D. J.; Bleker, O. P.

    2000-01-01

    To assess the effect of maternal malnutrition during different stages of gestation on plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and factor VII, we investigated 725 people, aged 50 years, born around the time of the Dutch famine 1944-5. After adjustment for sex, plasma fibrinogen concentrations differed by

  8. Effects of exposure to factor concentrates containing donations from identified AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, J.; Holman, R.C.; Dixon, G.; Lawrence, D.N.; Bozeman, L.H.; Chorba, T.L.; Tregillus, L.; Evatt, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors recipients of eight lots of factors VII and IX voluntarily withdrawn from distribution because one donor was known to have subsequently developed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with a nonexposed cohort matched by age, sex, and factor use. The factor VIII recipient cohorts did not differ in prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), T-cell subset numbers, T-helper to T-suppressor ratios, or immunogloubulin levels. Exposed individuals had higher levels of immune complexes by C1q binding and staphylococcal binding assays and lower responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. However, only the staphylococcal binding assay values were outside the normal range for our laboratory. Factor IX recipient cohorts did not differ in HIV antibody prevalence or any immune tests. Although exposed and nonexposed individuals did not differ from each other in a clinically meaningful fashion at initial testing, both the exposed and nonexposed cohorts had high rats of HIV seroprevalence. Market withdrawals were clearly insufficient means of limiting the spread of HIV in hemophilic patients; however, the currently available methods of donor screening and viral inactivation of blood products will prevent continued exposed within this population

  9. Gestational Alcohol Exposure and Other Factors Associated with Continued Teenage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A longitudinal cohort of adolescents who initiated drinking before age 15 were studied to determine which factors distinguished between early initiators who continued to drink (persisters) from those who stopped drinking (desisters). There were 308 early initiators in the total sample (n = 917); 247 were persisters, and 61 were desisters.…

  10. Biomarkers of exposure to carcinogenic PAHs and their relationship with environmental factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taioli, E.; Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Kalina, I.; Popov, T. A.; Garte, S.; Farmer, P. B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 620, - (2007), s. 16-21 ISSN 0027-5107 Grant - others:EU(GB) 2000-00091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : DNA adducts * air pollution * carcinogenic PAHs Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  11. The Factor Structure of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale in Veterans Experienced Chemical Weapon Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Nia, Hamid; Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed; Boyle, Christopher; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Tahmasbi, Bahram; Rassool, G Hussein; Taebei, Mozhgan; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the factor structure of the spiritual well-being among a sample of the Iranian veterans. In this methodological research, 211 male veterans of Iran-Iraq warfare completed the Paloutzian and Ellison spiritual well-being scale. Maximum likelihood (ML) with oblique rotation was used to assess domain structure of the spiritual well-being. The construct validity of the scale was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha, Theta (θ), and McDonald Omega (Ω) coefficients, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and construct reliability (CR). Results of ML and CFA suggested three factors which were labeled "relationship with God," "belief in fate and destiny," and "life optimism." The ICC, coefficients of the internal consistency, and CR were >.7 for the factors of the scale. Convergent validity and discriminant validity did not fulfill the requirements. The Persian version of spiritual well-being scale demonstrated suitable validity and reliability among the veterans of Iran-Iraq warfare.

  12. A technical study of TLD beta calibration factor for exposures to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; McMahan, K.L.; Souleyrette, M.L.; Bogard, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The beta calibration factor for converting light output (on reading a thermoluminescent dosimeter) to shallow dose equivalent has been reexamined through theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. The results support the previously determined value for contact with a depleted uranium slab but indicate that for many actual workplace situations, the contact value may be overly conservative

  13. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT WITH THE INHIBITORS OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR OF THE CHRONIC UVEITIS REFRACTORY TO THE BASIC THERAPY (INCLUDING AN ASSOCIATED WITH JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rudakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy of chronic uveitis refractory to the basic treatment, in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a very complex problem in pediatrics. Substantial progress in this area resulted after the implementation in practice of inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, as the most effective in such clinical situation drugs adalimumab and infliximab are considered (although infliximab was not officially approved in JIA. Objective. To estimate the cost effectiveness of TNF inhibitors — adalimumab, and infliximab in chronic uveitis, refractory to the basic therapy (including associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. A modeling on the basis of a comparative prospective cohort clinical study was carried out. The analysis was performed by the method «cost–effectiveness» from a position of health and social accounting perspective. Results. It was shown that the frequency and time of remission did not differ when treatment with infliximab (5 mg/kg at 0–2–6 weeks and further once in 6–8 weeks and adalimumab (24 mg/m2 once in 2 weeks. Adalimumab provides a long-term maintenance of remission (no recurrence in 60% of patients within 40 months of observation, whereas 1 year after the treatment with infliximab the frequency of exacerbations was returned to that observed before therapy. The proportion of patients without relapse in the treatment with infliximab for 40 months was 18.8%. Similar results were obtained in a subset of patients with chronic uveitis associated with JIA (with follow-up of 20 months of in a group of infliximab number patients without relapse was 11.1%, with adalimumab therapy — 63.6%. In the general population of patients with refractory chronic uveitis the factor «cost–effectiveness» calculated for a patient with the maintenance of remission for 3 years with adalimumab therapy was in 2,1–2,8 times less than in the treatment with infliximab. In chronic uveitis associated with JIA, the coefficient of

  14. Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Prado-Lu Jinky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC and mean corpuscular volume (MCV, with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102 randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work practices and illness. Majority were males (52% and most belonged to the 20–35 age group (45%. Majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%, easy fatigability (46.1% and cough (40.2%. Analysis showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were positively associated with age (p = 0.02, and selling pesticide containers (p = 0.008. number of years of using pesticides (p = 0.022, use of contaminated cloth (p = 0.033, incorrect mixing of pesticides (p = 0.041, sex (p = 0.002 and illness due to pesticides (p = 0.005 were correlated with abnormal MCV. Significant associations were also found for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, white blood cell (WBC and platelet count. Predictors of RBC cholinesterase were years of pesticide use (p = 0.037 and abnormalities on health (p = 0.029. The findings of the study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs for the cutflower farmers.

  15. Chemical exposure reduction: Factors impacting on South African herbicide sprayers' personal protective equipment compliance and high risk work practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Rivas, Federico; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The high exposure risks of workers to herbicides in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health concern because of the potential resulting negative impacts on workers' health. This study investigated workers' personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance as a risk mitigation measure; particularly workers who apply herbicides for Working for Water (WfW) - a South African invasive alien vegetation control programme. The study aim was to understand workers' low PPE compliance by analysing their risk perceptions of herbicide use, working conditions and socio-cultural context. Research methods included ethnographic observations, informal interviews, visual media, questionnaires and a focus group. Study results indicated that low PPE compliance persists despite workers' awareness of herbicide exposure risks and as a result of the influence from workers' socio-cultural context (i.e. gender dynamics and social status), herbicide risk perceptions and working conditions (i.e. environmental and logistical). Interestingly, teams comprised of mostly women had the highest compliance rate. These findings highlighted that given the complexity of PPE compliance, especially in countries with several economic and social constraints, exposure reduction interventions should not rely solely on PPE use promotion. Instead, other control strategies requiring less worker input for effectiveness should be implemented, such as elimination and substitution of highly hazardous pesticides, and altering application methods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Silvia; Miozzi, Edoardo; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; De Luca, Annamaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Polito, Irene; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that pesticides are widely used compounds. In fact, their use in agriculture, forestry, fishery and the food industry has granted a huge improvement in terms of productive efficiency. However, a great number of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that these toxic compounds can interact and exert negative effects not only with their targets (pests, herbs and fungi), but also with the rest of the environment, including humans. This is particularly relevant in the case of workers involved in the production, transportation, preparation and application of these toxicants. Accordingly, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated the correlation between occupational exposure to pesticides and the development of a wide spectrum of pathologies, ranging from eczema to neurological diseases and cancer. Pesticide exposure is often quite difficult to establish, as many currently used modules do not take into account all of the many variables that can occur in a diverse environment, such as the agricultural sector, and the assessment of the real risk for every single worker is problematic. Indeed, the use of personal protection equipment is necessary while handling these toxic compounds, but education of workers can be even more important: personal contamination with pesticides may occur even in apparently harmless situations. This review summarises the most recent findings describing the association between pesticide occupational exposure and the development of chronic diseases. PMID:27748877

  17. On the use of quality factors and fluence to dose rate conversion in human radiation exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhaus, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that various combinations of numbers and factors arrive at estimates of dose and dose effectiveness from values of fluence; but as yet it has not been possible to use biological data with the same degree of precision to estimate the physical data. It would seem that the most reasonable way to use the human data that exist is to apply them as far as possible to the human animal as a whole.

  18. Synchronization of S phase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells by transient exposure to M-factor pheromone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    A well-characterized S phase, a unicellular lifestyle, and a plethora of mutations in key components of DNA metabolism make fission yeast a particularly attractive system in which to study DNA replication. However, synchronization of passage through a normal S phase has proved challenging. This p....... This protocol describes how combining nitrogen starvation with M-factor mating pheromone treatment presents a highly effective method for synchronizing passage through an ostensibly normal S phase....

  19. Factors affecting vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaersols and airborne dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vinni Mona; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Winding, Anne

    2012-01-01

    . Investigated environments included greenhouses producing cucumbers and tomatoes, open fields producing cabbage, broccoli, and celery, and packing facilities. Measurements were performed at different times during the growth season and during execution of different work tasks. Bioaerosols were collected...

  20. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti, Giorgio; Klæboe, Lars; Kuehni, Claudia E; Tynes, Tore; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Lannering, Birgitta; Röösli, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effective doses and standardised risk factors from paediatric diagnostic medical radiation exposures: Information for radiation risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibbo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    In the paediatric medical radiation setting, there is no consistency on the radiation risk information conveyed to the consumer (patient/carer). Each communicator may convey different information about the level of risk for the same radiation procedure, leaving the consumer confused and frustrated. There is a need to standardise risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. In this study, paediatric radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examination data have been analysed to provide (i) effective doses and radiation induced cancer risk factors from common radiological and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in standardised formats, (II) awareness of the difficulties that may be encountered in communicating risks to the layperson, and (iii) an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation so that the risk communicator can convey with confidence the risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. Paediatric patient dose data from general radiographic, computed tomography, fluoroscopic and nuclear medicine databases have been analysed in age groups 0 to <5 years, 5 to <10 years, 10 to <15 years and 15 to <18 years to determine standardised risk factors. Mean, minimum and maximum effective doses and the corresponding mean lifetime risks for general radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examinations for different age groups have been calculated. For all examinations, the mean lifetime cancer induction risk is provided in three formats: statistical, fraction and category. Standardised risk factors for different radiological and nuclear medicine examinations and an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation and the difficulties encountered in communicating the risks should facilitate risk communication to the patient/carer.

  2. Dominant factors affecting temperature rise in simulations of human thermoregulation during RF exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2011-01-01

    Numerical models of the human thermoregulatory system can be used together with realistic voxel models of the human anatomy to simulate the body temperature increases caused by the power absorption from radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the Pennes bioheat equation with a thermoregulatory model is used for calculating local peak temperatures as well as the body-core-temperature elevation in a realistic human body model for grounded plane-wave exposures at frequencies 39, 800 and 2400 MHz. The electromagnetic power loss is solved by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the discretized bioheat equation is solved by the geometric multigrid method. Human thermoregulatory models contain numerous thermophysiological and computational parameters—some of which may be subject to considerable uncertainty—that affect the simulated core and local temperature elevations. The goal of this paper is to find how greatly the computed temperature is influenced by changes in various modelling parameters, such as the skin blood flow rate, models for vasodilation and sweating, and clothing and air movement. The results show that the peak temperature rises are most strongly affected by the modelling of tissue blood flow and its temperature dependence, and mostly unaffected by the central control mechanism for vasodilation and sweating. Almost the opposite is true for the body-core-temperature rise, which is however typically greatly lower than the peak temperature rise. It also seems that ignoring the thermoregulation and the blood temperature increase is a good approximation when the local 10 g averaged specific absorption rate is smaller than 10 W kg −1 .

  3. Including adverse drug events in economic evaluations of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α drugs for adult rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review of economic decision analytic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Eleanor M; Payne, Katherine; Harrison, Mark; Symmons, Deborah P M

    2014-02-01

    Anti-tumour necrosis factor-α drugs (anti-TNFs) have revolutionised the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). More effective than standard non-biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (nbDMARDs), anti-TNFs are also substantially more expensive. Consequently, a number of model-based economic evaluations have been conducted to establish the relative cost-effectiveness of anti-TNFs. However, anti-TNFs are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events (ADEs) such as serious infections relative to nbDMARDs. Such ADEs will likely impact on both the costs and consequences of anti-TNFs, for example, through hospitalisations and forced withdrawal from treatment. The aim of this review was to identify and critically appraise if, and how, ADEs have been incorporated into model-based cost-effectiveness analyses of anti-TNFs for adult patients with RA. A systematic literature review was performed. Electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid EMBASE; Web of Science; NHS Economic Evaluations Database) were searched for literature published between January 1990 and October 2013 using electronic search strategies. The reference lists of retrieved studies were also hand searched. In addition, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence technology appraisals were searched to identify economic models used to inform UK healthcare decision making. Only full economic evaluations that had used an economic model to evaluate biological DMARDs (bDMARDs) (including anti-TNFs) for adult patients with RA and had incorporated the direct costs and/or consequences of ADEs were critically appraised. To be included, studies also had to be available as a full text in English. Data extracted included general study characteristics and information concerning the methods used to incorporate ADEs and any associated assumptions made. The extracted data were synthesised using a tabular and narrative format. A total of 43 model-based economic evaluations of bDMARDs for adult RA

  4. Survivors of the war in the Northern Kosovo: violence exposure, risk factors and public health effects of an ethnic conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Labinot

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess the long-lasting effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being (with a focus on injury and persistent pain at family and community level. We have also investigated possible risk factors for victimisation during the conflict and factors contributing to healing. Methods We conducted a district-level cross-sectional cluster survey of 1,115 households with a population of 6,845. Interviews were carried out in Mitrovicë district in Northern Kosovo from September to October 2008, using standardised questionnaire to collect lifetime violence exposure, lifestyle factors and health information on individual and household. Results Ethnic Albanians made up 95% of the sample population. Crude mortality and under-five mortality rate was not high in 2008. Over 90% of families had been exposed to at least two categories of violence and human rights violations, and 493 individuals from 341 families reported torture experiences. During the two weeks before the survey, 20% of individuals had suffered physical or mental pain. There were differences in pain complaints according to gender and age, and whether people had been injured within 12 months, had lifetime exposure to violence-related injury, or had been tortured. Patterns of social and political participation in a family could affect the proportion of family members complaining of pain. The proportion of family members with pain complaints was related to a decline in the household income (coef = 9.31, 95% CI = 6.16-12.46, P Conclusions Mitrovicë district is currently characterised by a low level of violence, but the effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being have not gone. The level of lifetime exposure to violence, the proportion of family members reporting pain and lifetime violence-related injury, and family's financial burden were found to be inter-correlated. The sample confined to one ethnic group in one district

  5. Fluoroscopy time - an overestimated factor for patient radiation exposure in invasive cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuon, E.; Robinson, D.M.; Empen, K.; Dahm, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to analyze the effects of an optimized fluoroscopy time on patient radiation exposure in the course of coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PTCA), in comparison to those with consistent collimation to the region of interest (ROI). Furthermore, to analyze efforts concerning reduction of radiographic frames as well as concerning adequate instead of best possible image quality. Material and methods: for 3,115 elective CAs and 1,713 PTCA performed by one interventionist since 1997, we documented the radiographic dose-area products (DAP R ) and fluoroscopic dose-area products (DAP F ), the number of radiographic frames and the fluoroscopy times during selected 2-month intervals. Under conditions of constant image intensifier entrance dose, levels of DAP R /frame and DAP F /s represent valid parameters for consistent collimation. Results: in 1997, the mean baseline values of DAP for elective CA and PTCA amounted to 37.1 and 31.6 Gy x cm 2 , respectively. A reduction of mean fluoroscopy times from 264 to 126 seconds for CA and from 630 to 449 seconds for PCI, both resulted in an overall DAP-reduction of merely 20%. Optimization of mean radiographic frames from 543 to 98 for CA and from 245 to 142 for PTCA enabled reductions of 53 and 13%, respectively. By restriction to adequate instead of best-possible image quality for coronary angiography in clinical routine, we achieved an optimized radiographic DAP/frame of 30.3 to 13.3 mGy x cm 2 , which enabled a 45% reduction of overall DAP. Most efficient however was a consistent collimation to the ROI, which resulted in a remarkable radiation reduction by 46% for CA and by 65% for PTCA. Conclusions: radiation-reducing educational efforts in the clinical routine of invasive cardiology should - against widely held opinion - focus less exclusively toward a reduction of fluoroscopy time but more efficiently toward consistent collimation to the region of interest, reduction of radiographic

  6. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation exposure control by estimation of multiplication factors for online remote radiation monitoring systems at vitrification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokar, U.V.; Kulkarni, V.V.; Khot, A.R.; Mathew, P.; Kamlesh; Purohit, R.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Vitrification Plant is commissioned for vitrification of high level liquid waste (HLW) generated in nuclear fuel cycle operations by using Joule Heated Ceramic Melter first time in India. Exposure control is a major concern in operating plant. Therefore in addition to installed monitors, we have developed online remote radiation monitoring system to minimize number of entries in amber areas and to reduce the exposure to the surveyor and operator. This also helped in volume reduction of secondary waste. The reliability and accuracy of the online monitoring system is confirmed with actual measurements and by theoretical shielding calculations. The multiplication factors were estimated for remote on line monitoring of Melter Off Gas (MOG) filter, Hood filter, three exhaust filter banks, and over-pack monitoring. This paper summarizes - how the online remote monitoring system helped in saving of 128.52 person-mSv collective dose (14.28% of budgeted dose). The system also helped in the reduction of 2.6 m 3 of Cat-I waste. Our online remote monitoring system has helped the plant management to plan in advance for replacement of these filters, which resulted in considerable saving in collective dose and secondary waste

  8. Radiation exposure control by estimation of multiplication factors for online remote radiation monitoring systems at Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokar, Umesh V.; Kukarni, V.V.; Khot, A.R.; Mathew, P.; Kamlesh; Purohit, R.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Vitrification Plant is commissioned for vitrification of high-level liquid waste generated in Nuclear Fuel Cycle operations by using Joule Heated Ceramic Melter first time in India. Exposure control is a major concern in operating plant. Therefore, in addition to installed monitors, we have developed online remote radiation monitoring system to minimize number of entries in amber areas and to reduce the exposure to the surveyor and operator. This also helped in volume reduction of secondary waste. The reliability and accuracy of the online monitoring system is confirmed with actual measurements and by theoretical shielding calculations. The multiplication factors were estimated for remote online monitoring of Melter off Gas (MOG) filter, Hood filter, three exhaust filter banks, and overpack monitoring. This paper summarizes how the online remote monitoring system had helped in saving of 128.52 Person-mSv collective dose (14.28% of budgeted dose) and also there was 2.6 m 3 reduction in generation of Cat-I waste. (author)

  9. Multiple factors, including non-motor impairments, influence decision making with regard to exercise participation in Parkinson's disease: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine; Clemson, Lindy; Canning, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    To explore how the meaning of exercise and other factors interact and influence the exercise behaviour of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled in a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program to prevent falls, regardless of whether they completed the prescribed exercise or not. This qualitative study utilised in-depth semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory methodology. Four main themes were constructed from the data: adapting to change and loss, the influence of others, making sense of the exercise experience and hope for a more active future. Participation in the PD-specific physiotherapy program involving group exercise provided an opportunity for participants to reframe their identity of their "active" self. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified and explored: non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, the belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. A model was developed incorporating the themes and influences to explain decision-making for exercise participation in this group. Complex and interacting issues, including non-motor impairments, need to be considered in order to enhance the development and ongoing implementation of effective exercise programmes for people with PD. Exercise participation can assist individuals to reframe their identity as they are faced with losses associated with Parkinson's disease and ageing. Non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue may influence exercise participation in people with Parkinson's disease. Particular attention needs to be paid to the provision of feedback in exercise programs for people with Parkinson's disease as it important for their decision-making about continuing exercise.

  10. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  11. Changes in Serum Ferritin and Other Factors Associated with Iron Metabolism During Chronic Hyperbaric Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    tech- jects prior to their participation included standard radio- ques , using- radioisotopes ("SFe and S"Tcm-- diphospho- graphic surveys for evidence of... es were apparent by the third dive day for iron and the iv than ABN. It is of interest that no VGE were heard ajt seventh dive day for ferrtin. No...source of the increased amounts of ferritin levels in acute bepatocellular damage from serum ferritin and iron found during these dives ap.- paracetamol

  12. A comprehensive study of the energy absorption and exposure buildup factors of different bricks for gamma-rays shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Sayyed

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been performed on different bricks for the purpose of gamma-ray shielding. The values of the mass attenuation coefficient (µ/ρ, energy absorption buildup factor (EABF and exposure buildup factor (EBF were determined and utilized to assess the shielding effectiveness of the bricks under investigation. The mass attenuation coefficients of the selected bricks were calculated theoretically using WinXcom program and compared with MCNPX code. Good agreement between WinXcom and MCNPX results was observed. Furthermore, the EABF and EBF have been discussed as functions of the incident photon energy and penetration depth. It has been found that the EABF and EBF values are very large in the intermediate energy region. The steel slag showed good shielding properties, consequently, this brick is eco-friendly and feasible compared with other types of bricks used for construction. The results in this work should be useful in the construction of effectual shielding against hazardous gamma-rays. Keywords: Brick, Mass attenuation coefficient, Buildup factor, G-P fitting, Radiation shielding

  13. Acute non-stochastic effect of very low dose whole-body exposure, a thymidine equivalent serum factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; Muehlensiepen, H.; Porschen, W.; Booz, J.

    1982-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation of mice causes the dose-dependent appearance of a humoral factor in blood serum which inhibits incorporation of 125-IUdR into tissue culture cells. This factor appears even at doses below 0.01 Gy gamma irradiation and thus is probably not related to cell death. Data are presented relating this humoral factor to thymidine. Since at low doses the target size for this effect was calculated to be the entire cell, a cellular effect is postulated linking the site of few primary absorption events, anywhere in the cell, with the cellular membrane, thus causing changes in membrane charge, structure and/or fluidity. This may lead to blocking thymidine acceptance by the cell, and thus would cause a pile-up of thymidine in the reutilization pathway in peripheral blood and would give rise to the observed effect. The effect appears as a temporary disturbance of the physiological equilibrium and should not be related at present to any cellular damage. The acute low-dose effect described has implications for the measurement of low-dose exposure by biological dosimeters and on basic research on membrane function. (author)

  14. Results of adolescent health risk assesment on exposure to habitat water peroral factor in conditions of a large industrial city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, E. R.; Stepanova, N. V.; Ismagilova, G. A.; Ziyatdinova, A. I.; Semanov, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    Results of the non-carcinogenic risk assessment on ingestion of chemical substances with drinking water showed that the risk value corresponded to the allowable level of the non-carcinogenic risk (HQ systems were identified: blood, CNS, kidneys, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, skeletal system and teeth. The total hazard indices in the 1st and the 4th zones deserve particular attention. The following elements: oil products (29.7% - 54.0%), nitrates (in NO3), chloroform and fluorides make a major contribution to the value of risk. In all other zones, irrespective of the value of exposure factors, total hazard quotients indicate alarming and unacceptable risk levels at HIMe = from 4 to 8.67; and at HI 95th Perc = from 8.7 to 16.8.

  15. Effect of environmental factors (wave exposure and depth) and anthropogenic pressure in the C sink capacity of Posidonia oceanica meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Iné s; Marbà , Nú ria; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Masqué , Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    Seagrass are among the most important natural carbon sinks on Earth with Posidonia oceanica (Mediterranean Sea) considered as the most relevant species. Yet, the number of direct measurements of organic carbon burial rates in P. oceanica is still scarce and the effect of local environmental factors remains largely unexplored. In addition, P. oceanica meadows are declining due to the increase in anthropogenic pressure in coastal areas during the last century. The aim of this study is to assess the recent carbon sink capacity of P. oceanica and particularly the effect of human pressure and two environmental factors, water depth and exposure to wave energy (based on a fetch index), on the carbon burial rate since 1900. We conducted an extensive survey of sediment cores in meadows distributed across a gradient of depth, fetch, and human pressure around The Balearic Islands. Sediment and carbon accumulation rates were obtained from 210Pb concentrations profiles. Top-30 centimeters carbon stocks (6.1 ± 1.4 kg C m−2) and burial rates (26 ± 6 g C m−2 yr1) varied up to fivefold across meadows. No significant effect of water depth in carbon burial rates was observed. Although fetch was significantly correlated with sediment mean grain size, confirming the effect of wave exposure in the patterns of sedimentation, fetch alone could not explain the differences in carbon burial rates among the meadows examined. Human pressure affected carbon burial rates, leading to increased rates since the onset of the rise in anthropogenic pressure, particularly so in sheltered meadows supporting high human pressure.

  16. Effect of environmental factors (wave exposure and depth) and anthropogenic pressure in the C sink capacity of Posidonia oceanica meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Inés

    2017-03-20

    Seagrass are among the most important natural carbon sinks on Earth with Posidonia oceanica (Mediterranean Sea) considered as the most relevant species. Yet, the number of direct measurements of organic carbon burial rates in P. oceanica is still scarce and the effect of local environmental factors remains largely unexplored. In addition, P. oceanica meadows are declining due to the increase in anthropogenic pressure in coastal areas during the last century. The aim of this study is to assess the recent carbon sink capacity of P. oceanica and particularly the effect of human pressure and two environmental factors, water depth and exposure to wave energy (based on a fetch index), on the carbon burial rate since 1900. We conducted an extensive survey of sediment cores in meadows distributed across a gradient of depth, fetch, and human pressure around The Balearic Islands. Sediment and carbon accumulation rates were obtained from 210Pb concentrations profiles. Top-30 centimeters carbon stocks (6.1 ± 1.4 kg C m−2) and burial rates (26 ± 6 g C m−2 yr1) varied up to fivefold across meadows. No significant effect of water depth in carbon burial rates was observed. Although fetch was significantly correlated with sediment mean grain size, confirming the effect of wave exposure in the patterns of sedimentation, fetch alone could not explain the differences in carbon burial rates among the meadows examined. Human pressure affected carbon burial rates, leading to increased rates since the onset of the rise in anthropogenic pressure, particularly so in sheltered meadows supporting high human pressure.

  17. Monte Carlo calculation of dose rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon emitters in soil

    CERN Document Server

    Clouvas, A; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Silva, J

    2000-01-01

    The dose rate conversion factors D/sub CF/ (absorbed dose rate in air per unit activity per unit of soil mass, nGy h/sup -1/ per Bq kg/sup -1/) are calculated 1 m above ground for photon emitters of natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the soil. Three Monte Carlo codes are used: 1) The MCNP code of Los Alamos; 2) The GEANT code of CERN; and 3) a Monte Carlo code developed in the Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The accuracy of the Monte Carlo results is tested by the comparison of the unscattered flux obtained by the three Monte Carlo codes with an independent straightforward calculation. All codes and particularly the MCNP calculate accurately the absorbed dose rate in air due to the unscattered radiation. For the total radiation (unscattered plus scattered) the D/sub CF/ values calculated from the three codes are in very good agreement between them. The comparison between these results and the results deduced previously by other authors indicates a good ag...

  18. Summary of Building Protection Factor Studies for External Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Radiation dose assessments are used to help inform decisions to minimize health risks in the event of an atmospheric release of radioactivity including, for example, from a Radiological Dispersal Device, an Improvised Nuclear Device detonation, or a Nuclear Power Plant accident. During these incidents, radiation dose assessments for both indoor and outdoor populations are needed to make informed decisions. These dose assessments inform emergency plans and decisions including, for example, identifying areas in which people should be sheltered and determining when controlled population evacuations should be made. US dose assessment methodologies allow consideration of the protection, and therefore dose reduction, that buildings provide their occupants. However, these methodologies require an understanding of the protection provided by various building types that is currently lacking. To help address this need, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was tasked with (a) identifying prior building protection studies, (b) extracting results relevant to US building construction, and (c) summarizing building protection by building type. This report focuses primarily on the protection against radiation from outdoor fallout particles (external gamma radiation).

  19. Summary of Building Protection Factor Studies for External Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, Michael B.; Kane, Jave; Nasstrom, John; Homann, Steve; Pobanz, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Radiation dose assessments are used to help inform decisions to minimize health risks in the event of an atmospheric release of radioactivity including, for example, from a Radiological Dispersal Device, an Improvised Nuclear Device detonation, or a Nuclear Power Plant accident. During these incidents, radiation dose assessments for both indoor and outdoor populations are needed to make informed decisions. These dose assessments inform emergency plans and decisions including, for example, identifying areas in which people should be sheltered and determining when controlled population evacuations should be made. US dose assessment methodologies allow consideration of the protection, and therefore dose reduction, that buildings provide their occupants. However, these methodologies require an understanding of the protection provided by various building types that is currently lacking. To help address this need, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was tasked with (a) identifying prior building protection studies, (b) extracting results relevant to US building construction, and (c) summarizing building protection by building type. This report focuses primarily on the protection against radiation from outdoor fallout particles (external gamma radiation).

  20. Fathering by partner-abusive men: attitudes on children's exposure to interparental conflict and risk factors for child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Emily J; Henning, Kris; Holdford, Robert

    2009-08-01

    A substantial body of research concludes that children in homes marked by intimate partner violence (IPV) and conflict are at increased risk for maladjustment. Although studies often attribute these difficulties to the aggressive acts witnessed, other research and theoretical work suggests that disrupted parenting and co-occurring child maltreatment play an equally critical role in the onset of the children's psychological and behavioral problems. Despite the clear importance of parenting in the context of IPV, relatively little scholarship has been devoted to the topic, particularly when it comes to examining fathers. The current study sought to better understand the paternal relationships of men arrested for spouse/partner abuse, to examine their beliefs about children's exposure to interparental conflict and to identify the specific factors that may place their children at risk for maltreatment. The data consisted of questionnaires administered to 3,824 men attending a court-ordered evaluation after they were convicted of assaulting an intimate partner. Analyses revealed that most of the men had some type of fathering role with underage children (n = 2,508; 65.6%) and in most cases these relationships continued following their arrest. Although the majority of the men acknowledged that their children had been exposed to interparental conflicts, few perceived that their children had been affected by the arguing. Also of concern was the fact that risk factors for child maltreatment were highly prevalent in this population. Implications of these findings and suggestions for those working with domestic offenders are discussed.

  1. Risks for upper respiratory infections in infants during their first months in day care included environmental and child-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjaer, Anni; Ritz, Christian; Hojsak, Iva; Michaelsen, Kim; Mølgaard, Christian

    2018-03-14

    We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged eight months to 14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility. Parents registered upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), diarrhoea and day care absences on web-based questionnaires. Over a mean of 5.6 months in day care, 36% and 20% of the infants had at least one URTI or LRTI, and 60% had diarrhoeal episodes. The risk of at least one URTI was increased by previous respiratory infections, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.65, but was inversely associated with having a pet (OR: 0.43), being cared for by registered child minders compared to day care centres (OR: 0.36), birthweight (OR 0.40) and age at day care enrolment (OR: 0.64). No significant risk factors for LRTIs and diarrhoea were found. Infection risks were associated with environmental factors and factors related to the child. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Higher B-cell activating factor levels at birth are positively associated with maternal dairy farm exposure and negatively related to allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Anna-Carin; Hesselmar, Bill; Nordström, Inger; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A high proportion of circulating immature/naive CD5(+) B cells during early infancy is a risk factor for allergy development. B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is an important cytokine for B-cell maturation. We sought to investigate whether BAFF levels are related to environmental exposures during pregnancy and early childhood and whether BAFF levels are associated with postnatal B-cell maturation and allergic disease. In the FARMFLORA study, including both farming and nonfarming families, we measured BAFF levels in plasma from mothers and their children at birth and at 1, 4, 18, and 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples were also analyzed for B-cell numbers and proportions of CD5(+) and CD27(+) B cells. Allergic disease was clinically evaluated at 18 and 36 months of age. Circulating BAFF levels were maximal at birth, and farmers' children had higher BAFF levels than nonfarmers' children. Higher BAFF levels at birth were positively associated with proportions of CD27(+) memory B cells among farmers' children and inversely related to proportions of CD5(+) immature/naive B cells among nonfarmers' children. Children with allergic disease at 18 months of age had lower cord blood BAFF levels than nonallergic children. At birth, girls had higher BAFF levels and lower proportions of CD5(+) B cells than boys. Farm exposure during pregnancy appears to induce BAFF production in the newborn child, and high neonatal BAFF levels were associated with more accelerated postnatal B-cell maturation, which lend further strength to the role of B cells in the hygiene hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in and Factors Affecting Second-hand Smoke Exposure in Nonsmoking Korean Americans in California: A Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsu Kim, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: We showed that SHS exposure increased among Korean American nonsmokers in California, and the most important variables explaining the change in SHS exposure involved smoking among others with whom the subject is associated. These findings could be used as objective evidence for developing public health policies to reduce SHS exposure.

  4. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  5. Factors predisposing to coma and delirium: fentanyl and midazolam exposure; CYP3A5, ABCB1, and ABCG2 genetic polymorphisms; and inflammatory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrobik, Yoanna; Leger, Caroline; Cossette, Mariève; Michaud, Veronique; Turgeon, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Delirium and sedative-induced coma are described as incremental manifestations of cerebral dysfunction. Both may be associated with sedative or opiate doses and pharmacokinetic or pharmacogenetic variables, such as drug plasma levels (exposure), drug metabolism, and/or their transport across the blood-brain barrier. To compare biological and drug treatment characteristics in patients with coma and/or delirium while in the ICU. In 99 patients receiving IV fentanyl, midazolam, or both, we evaluated drug doses, covariates likely to influence drug effects (age, body mass index, and renal and hepatic dysfunction); delirium risk factors; concomitant administration of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein substrates/inhibitors; ABCB1, ABCG2, and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms; and fentanyl and midazolam plasma levels. Delirium and coma were evaluated daily. In patients with only coma (n=15), only delirium (n=7), and neither ever (n=14), we measured plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17,macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Time to first coma was associated with fentanyl and midazolam doses (p=0.03 and p=0.01, respectively). The number of days in coma was associated with the number of days of coadministration of CYP3A inhibitors (r=0.30; p=0.006). Plasma levels of fentanyl were higher in patients with clinical coma (3.7±4.7 vs. 2.0±1.8 ng/mL, p=0.0001) as were midazolam plasma levels (1050±2232 vs. 168±249 ng/mL, p=0.0001). Delirium occurrence was unrelated to midazolam administration, cumulative doses, or serum levels. Days with delirium were associated with days of coadministration of P-glycoprotein inhibitor (r=0.35; p=0.0004). Delirious patients had higher levels of the inflammatory mediator IL-6 than comatose patients (129.3 vs. 35.0 pg/mL, p=0.05). Coma is associated with fentanyl and midazolam exposure; delirium is unrelated to midazolam and may be linked to inflammatory status

  6. Identifying risk factors for exposure to culturable allergenic moulds in energy efficient homes by using highly specific monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Richard A. [European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro TR1 3HD (United Kingdom); Cocq, Kate Le [Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Nikolaou, Vasilis [University of Exeter Medical School, The Veysey Building, Salmon Pool Lane, Exeter EX2 4SG (United Kingdom); Osborne, Nicholas J. [European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro TR1 3HD (United Kingdom); Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Research Group, Discipline of Pharmacology, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Thornton, Christopher R., E-mail: c.r.thornton@exeter.ac.uk [Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in identifying culturable allergenic fungi present in visible mould growth in energy efficient homes, and to identify risk factors for exposure to these known allergenic fungi. Swabs were taken from fungal contaminated surfaces and culturable yeasts and moulds isolated by using mycological culture. Soluble antigens from cultures were tested by ELISA using mAbs specific to the culturable allergenic fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp., Ulocladium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma spp. Diagnostic accuracies of the ELISA tests were determined by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2-encoding regions of recovered fungi following ELISA. There was 100% concordance between the two methods, with ELISAs providing genus-level identity and ITS sequencing providing species-level identities (210 out of 210 tested). Species of Aspergillus/Penicillium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium/Alternaria/Epicoccum, Fusarium and Trichoderma were detected in 82% of the samples. The presence of condensation was associated with an increased risk of surfaces being contaminated by Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., whereas moisture within the building fabric (water ingress/rising damp) was only associated with increased risk of Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. Property type and energy efficiency levels were found to moderate the risk of indoor surfaces becoming contaminated with Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium which in turn was modified by the presence of condensation, water ingress and rising damp, consistent with previous literature. - Highlights: • Monoclonal antibodies were used to track culturable allergenic moulds in homes. • Allergenic moulds were recovered from 82% of swabs from contaminated surfaces. • The mAbs were highly specific with 100% agreement to PCR of recovered fungi. • Improvements to energy

  7. Identifying risk factors for exposure to culturable allergenic moulds in energy efficient homes by using highly specific monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Richard A.; Cocq, Kate Le; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J.; Thornton, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in identifying culturable allergenic fungi present in visible mould growth in energy efficient homes, and to identify risk factors for exposure to these known allergenic fungi. Swabs were taken from fungal contaminated surfaces and culturable yeasts and moulds isolated by using mycological culture. Soluble antigens from cultures were tested by ELISA using mAbs specific to the culturable allergenic fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp., Ulocladium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma spp. Diagnostic accuracies of the ELISA tests were determined by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2-encoding regions of recovered fungi following ELISA. There was 100% concordance between the two methods, with ELISAs providing genus-level identity and ITS sequencing providing species-level identities (210 out of 210 tested). Species of Aspergillus/Penicillium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium/Alternaria/Epicoccum, Fusarium and Trichoderma were detected in 82% of the samples. The presence of condensation was associated with an increased risk of surfaces being contaminated by Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., whereas moisture within the building fabric (water ingress/rising damp) was only associated with increased risk of Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. Property type and energy efficiency levels were found to moderate the risk of indoor surfaces becoming contaminated with Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium which in turn was modified by the presence of condensation, water ingress and rising damp, consistent with previous literature. - Highlights: • Monoclonal antibodies were used to track culturable allergenic moulds in homes. • Allergenic moulds were recovered from 82% of swabs from contaminated surfaces. • The mAbs were highly specific with 100% agreement to PCR of recovered fungi. • Improvements to energy

  8. Exposure to an atomic bomb explosion is a risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Y; Takeishi, K; Guntani, A; Tsujita, E; Yoshinaga, K; Matsuyama, A; Hamatake, M; Maeda, T; Tsutsui, S; Matsuda, H; Ishida, T

    2015-01-01

    Esophagectomy, one of the most invasive of all gastrointestinal operations, is associated with a high frequency of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure to the atomic bomb explosion at Hiroshima in 1945 might be a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients. We thus reviewed the outcomes of esophagectomy in 31 atomic bomb survivors with esophageal cancer and 96 controls (also with cancer but without atomic bomb exposure). We compared the incidences of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. Of the clinicopathological features studied, mean patient age was significantly higher in atomic bomb survivors than in controls. Of the postoperative complications noted, atomic bomb survivors experienced a longer mean period of endotracheal intubation and higher incidences of severe pulmonary complications, severe anastomotic leakage, and surgical site infection. The factors associated with in-hospital mortality were exposure to the atomic bomb explosion, pulmonary comorbidities, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Multivariate analysis revealed that exposure to the atomic bomb explosion was an independent significant preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Exposure to the atomic bomb explosion is thus a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  9. HIV infection and domestic smoke exposure, but not human papillomavirus, are risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Zambia: a case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayamba, Violet; Bateman, Allen C; Asombang, Akwi W; Shibemba, Aaron; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Banda, Themba; Soko, Rose; Kelly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that esophageal cancer occurs in younger adults in sub-Saharan Africa than in Europe or North America. The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high in this region. We postulated that HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections might contribute to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) risk. This was a case–control study based at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Cases were patients with confirmed OSCC and controls had completely normal upper endoscopic evaluations. A total of 222 patients were included to analyze the influence of HIV infection; of these, 100 patients were used to analyze the influence of HPV infection, alcohol, smoking, and exposure to wood smoke. The presence of HIV infection was determined using antibody kits, and HPV infection was detected by polymerase chain reaction. HIV infection on its own conferred increased risk of developing OSCC (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–5.1; P = 0.03). The OR was stronger when only people under 60 years were included (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.5–13.2; P = 0.003). Cooking with charcoal or firewood, and cigarette smoking, both increased the odds of developing OSCC ([OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.4–9.3; P = 0.004] and [OR 9.1; 95% CI 3.0–30.4; P < 0.001], respectively). There was no significant difference in HPV detection or alcohol intake between cases and controls. We conclude that HIV infection and exposure to domestic and cigarette smoke are risk factors for OSCC, and HPV immunization unlikely to reduce OSCC incidence in Zambia

  10. Study of factors controlling exposure dose and image quality of C-arm in operation room according to detector size of it (Mainly L-Spine AP study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Jo, Hwang Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Woon Kwan; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Time of operation has been reduced and accuracy of operation has been improved since C-arm, which offer real-time image of patient, was introduced in operation room. However, because of the contamination of patient, C-arm could not be used more appropriately. Therefore, this study is to know factors of controlling exposure dose, image quality and the exposed dose of health professional in operation room. Height of Wilson frame (bed for operation) was fixed at 130 cm. Then, Model 76-2 Phantom, which was set by assembling manual of Fluke Company, was set on the bed. Head/Spine Fluoroscopy AEC mode was set for exposure condition. According to detector size of C-arm, the absorbed dose per min was measured in the 7 steps OFD (cm) from 10 cm to 40 cm (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 cm). In each step of OFD, the absorbed dose per min of same diameter of collimation was measured. Moreover, using Nero MAX Model 8000, exposure dose per min was measured according to 3 step of distance from detector (20 cm, 60 cm, 100 cm). Finally, resolution was measured by CDRH Disc Phantom and magnification of each OFD was measured by aluminum stick bar. According to detector size of C-arm, difference of absorbed dose shows that the dose of 20 cm OFD is 1.750 times higher than the dose of 40 cm OFD. It means that the C-arm, which has smaller size of detector, shows the bigger difference of absorbed dose per min (p<0.05). In the difference of absorbed dose in the same step of OFD (from 20 cm to 40 cm), the absorbed dose of 9 inch detect or C-arm was 1.370 times higher than 12 inch' s (p<0.05). When OFD was set to 20 cm OFD, the absorbed dose of non-collimation case was approximately 0.816 times lower than the absorbed dose of collimation cases (p<0.05). When the distance was 20 cm from detector, exposed does includes first-ray and scatter-ray. When the distance was 60 cm and 100 cm from detector, exposed does includes just scatter-ray. So, there was the 2.200 times difference of absorbed

  11. Risks for upper respiratory infections in infants during their first months in day care included environmental and child-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    AIM: We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged 8-14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics...... affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility. Parents registered upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), diarrhoea and day...... care absences on web-based questionnaires. RESULTS: Over a mean of 5.6 months in day care, 36% and 20% of the infants had at least one URTI or LRTI and 60% had diarrhoeal episodes. The risk of at least one URTI was increased by previous respiratory infections, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2...

  12. Prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus as an independent risk factor for long-term neuropsychiatric morbidity of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum Sacks, Kira; Friger, Michael; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Abokaf, Hanaa; Spiegel, Efrat; Sergienko, Ruslan; Landau, Daniella; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-09-01

    diabetes mellitus was found to be an independent risk factor for long-term neuropsychiatric disease of the offspring (gestational diabetes mellitus A1 [adjusted odds ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-2.19] and gestational diabetes mellitus A2 [adjusted odds ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.27]). Within the limits of our database, our findings also point to a possible association between in utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and autistic spectrum disorder of the offspring (adjusted odds ratio, 4.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-12.69), which was found significant also after controlling for time-to-event, maternal age, gestational age at delivery, and offspring weight at birth. Exposure to maternal gestational diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for long-term neuropsychiatric morbidity in the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation exposure and familial aggregation of cancers as risk factors for colorectal cancer after radioiodine treatment for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubino, Carole; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Doyon, Francoise; Shamsaldin, Akhtar; Abbas, Tahaa Moncef; Caillou, Bernard; Colonna, Marc; Cecarreli, Claudia; Schvartz, Claire; Bardet, Stephane; Langlois, Christiane B.Sc.; Ricard, Marcel; Schlumberger, Martin; Vathaire, Florent de

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In thyroid cancer patients, radioiodine treatment has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of colon carcinoma. The aim of this study in thyroid cancer patients was to evaluate the role of familial factors in the risk of colorectal cancer and their potential interaction with radioiodine exposure. Methods and Materials: We performed a case-control study on 15 colorectal cancer patients and 76 matched control subjects, nested in a cohort of 3708 thyroid cancer patients treated between 1933 and 1998. For each patient, the radiation dose delivered to the colon by radioiodine was estimated by use of standard tables. In those who received external radiation therapy, the average radiation doses delivered to the colon and rectum were estimated by use of DOS E g software. A complete familial history was obtained by face-to-face interviews, and a familial index was defined to evaluate the degree of familial aggregation. Results: The risk of colorectal cancer increased with familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (p = 0.02). After adjustment for the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum, the risk of colorectal cancer was 2.8-fold higher (95% CI, 1.0-8.0) for patients with at least one relative affected by colorectal cancer than for patients without such a family history (p = 0.05). The radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum by 131 I and external radiation therapy was associated with an increase of risk near the significance threshold (p = 0.1). No significant interaction was found between radiation dose and having an affected relative (p = 0.9). Conclusions: The role of familial background in the risk of colorectal cancer following a differentiated thyroid carcinoma appears to increase with the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum. However, the study population was small and no interaction was found between these two factors

  14. The assessment of neonates’ exposure to traumatic factors in the cardiac ward within the first 24 hours of hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Cepuch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the first 24 hours of hospitalization, neonates with ductus-dependent CHD are exposed to a number of traumatic impulses arising from the need for necessary care and therapeutic procedures. Material and methods: The studied group consisted of neonates in a stable condition, suffering from ductusdependent CHD, monitored from the first to the fifth day of their life. The research involved the observation of 10 patients of the cardiac ward at the University Children’s Hospital. The research was carried out by means of the following methods: observation with available assessment tools, such as author’s questionnaire, CRIES scale, sound level meter and stopper. Results: The total number of all procedures performed on the group of 10 neonates amounted to 622 per day. The average number of invasive procedures per day performed on one patient was 6.6, while the procedures connected with touching averaged at 57.3. The average daily noise level amounted to 72.2 dB; the total daily time of exposure to artificial light averaged at 87 minutes, with the average duration of a single lighting episode lasting 14.6 minutes. The average pain level of a neonate connected with chosen invasive procedures fell between 5 and 7 points in the CRIES scale. Conclusions: The impact of traumatic factors disrupts the process of adaptation, may adversely influence further development of central nervous system, perception and sense organs and disturbs psychological development.

  15. Students' personal traits, violence exposure, family factors, school dynamics and the perpetration of violence in Taiwanese elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2011-02-01

    School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in Taiwan, this study examined a theoretical model proposing that negative personal traits, exposure to violence and parental monitoring knowledge have both direct influences as well as indirect influences mediated through school engagement, at-risk peers and poor student-teacher relationships on school violence committed by students against students and teachers. The results of a structural equation modeling analysis provided a good fit for the sample as a whole. The final model accounted for 32% of the variance for student violence against students and 21% for student violence against teachers. The overall findings support the theoretical model proposed in this study. Similar findings were obtained for both male and female students. The study indicated that to reduce school violence more effectively in the context of elementary schools, intervention may exclusively focus on improving students' within-school experiences and the quality of the students' relationships with teachers and school peers.

  16. Disparities in lifestyle habits and health related factors of Montreal immigrants: is immigration an important exposure variable in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshefedjian, Garbis A; Leaune, Viviane; Simoneau, Marie-Ève; Drouin, Mylène

    2014-10-01

    Study disparities in lifestyle habits and health characteristics of Canadian born population and immigrants with different duration of residence. Data are extracted from 2009 to 2010 public use micro-data files of Canadian Community Health Survey representing about 1.5 million people. Sixty-one percent of the study sample was born in Canada; 49 % males and 59 % below age 50. Amongst lifestyle habits, recent immigrants were less likely to be regular smokers, RR (95 % CI) 0.56 (0.36-0.88) and frequent consumers of alcohol 0.49 (0.27-0.89), but more likely to consume less fruits and vegetables 1.26 (1.04-1.53) than those born in Canada. Amongst health related factors, recent immigrants were less likely to be overweight 0.79 (0.62-0.99) and suffer from chronic diseases 0.59 (0.44-0.80), but more likely to have limited access to family medicine 1.24 (1.04-1.47) than Canada-born population. Immigration status is an important population characteristic which influenced distribution of health indicators. Prevention and promotion strategies should consider immigration status as an exposure variable in the development and implementation of public health programs.

  17. Traumatic Exposure History as a Risk Factor for Chronic Pain in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Works, Teresa; Jones, Sasia; Grady, James; Andemariam, Biree

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the impact of the integration of a licensed clinical social worker (LCSW) with expertise in behavioral health on identification of risk factors for chronic pain in a cohort of adults with sickle cell disease. Authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all visits to the adult sickle cell center during the first six months of LCSW integration. Demographics, clinical history, and LCSW notes were reviewed. Overall, 71 patients were introduced to the LCSW; 55 percent of them had chronic pain. Patients with chronic pain were older, used opioids daily, took hydroxyurea, reported higher daily pain scores, and underwent more acute care visits and hospitalizations for pain with longer stays. Fifty-eight (81 percent) patients requested concrete social work services such as transportation and housing. Thirty-two patients (55 percent) expressed a desire for mental health counseling while receiving concrete services. Twenty-two (69 percent) of these patients self-disclosed at least one traumatic experience. In fact, a statistically significant relationship between chronic pain and a history of trauma was identified (p = 0.001). Results suggest that sickle cell patients should receive clinical social work services to assess for traumatic exposures that may influence chronic pain.

  18. Long-term culture and differentiation of CNS precursors derived from anterior human neural rosettes following exposure to ventralizing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colleoni, Silvia; Galli, Cesare; Giannelli, Serena G.; Armentero, Marie-Therese; Blandini, Fabio; Broccoli, Vania; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that neural rosettes derived from human ES cells can give rise either to neural crest precursors, following expansion in presence of bFGF and EGF, or to dopaminergic precursors after exposure to ventralizing factors Shh and FGF8. Both regionalised precursors are capable of extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the corresponding terminally differentiated cell types. In particular, peripheral neurons, cartilage, bone, smooth muscle cells and also pigmented cells were obtained from neural crest precursors while tyrosine hydroxylase and Nurr1 positive dopaminergic neurons were derived from FGF8 and Shh primed rosette cells. Gene expression and immunocytochemistry analyses confirmed the expression of dorsal and neural crest genes such as Sox10, Slug, p75, FoxD3, Pax7 in neural precursors from bFGF-EGF exposed rosettes. By contrast, priming of rosettes with FGF8 and Shh induced the expression of dopaminergic markers Engrailed1, Pax2, Pitx3, floor plate marker FoxA2 and radial glia markers Blbp and Glast, the latter in agreement with the origin of dopaminergic precursors from floor plate radial glia. Moreover, in vivo transplant of proliferating Shh/FGF8 primed precursors in parkinsonian rats demonstrated engraftment and terminal dopaminergic differentiation. In conclusion, we demonstrated the derivation of long-term self-renewing precursors of selected regional identity as potential cell reservoirs for cell therapy applications, such as CNS degenerative diseases, or for the development of toxicological tests.

  19. Long-term culture and differentiation of CNS precursors derived from anterior human neural rosettes following exposure to ventralizing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleoni, Silvia, E-mail: silviacolleoni@avantea.it [Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Avantea, Via Porcellasco 7/f, 26100 Cremona (Italy); Galli, Cesare [Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Avantea, Via Porcellasco 7/f, 26100 Cremona (Italy); Dipartimento Clinico Veterinario, Universita di Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (Italy); Giannelli, Serena G. [Stem Cells and Neurogenesis Unit, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan (Italy); Armentero, Marie-Therese; Blandini, Fabio [Laboratory of Functional Neurochemistry, Interdepartmental Research Center for Parkinson' s Disease, Neurological Institute C. Mondino, Via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Broccoli, Vania, E-mail: broccoli.vania@hsr.it [Stem Cells and Neurogenesis Unit, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan (Italy); Lazzari, Giovanna, E-mail: giovannalazzari@avantea.it [Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Avantea, Via Porcellasco 7/f, 26100 Cremona (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    In this study we demonstrated that neural rosettes derived from human ES cells can give rise either to neural crest precursors, following expansion in presence of bFGF and EGF, or to dopaminergic precursors after exposure to ventralizing factors Shh and FGF8. Both regionalised precursors are capable of extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the corresponding terminally differentiated cell types. In particular, peripheral neurons, cartilage, bone, smooth muscle cells and also pigmented cells were obtained from neural crest precursors while tyrosine hydroxylase and Nurr1 positive dopaminergic neurons were derived from FGF8 and Shh primed rosette cells. Gene expression and immunocytochemistry analyses confirmed the expression of dorsal and neural crest genes such as Sox10, Slug, p75, FoxD3, Pax7 in neural precursors from bFGF-EGF exposed rosettes. By contrast, priming of rosettes with FGF8 and Shh induced the expression of dopaminergic markers Engrailed1, Pax2, Pitx3, floor plate marker FoxA2 and radial glia markers Blbp and Glast, the latter in agreement with the origin of dopaminergic precursors from floor plate radial glia. Moreover, in vivo transplant of proliferating Shh/FGF8 primed precursors in parkinsonian rats demonstrated engraftment and terminal dopaminergic differentiation. In conclusion, we demonstrated the derivation of long-term self-renewing precursors of selected regional identity as potential cell reservoirs for cell therapy applications, such as CNS degenerative diseases, or for the development of toxicological tests.

  20. Improvement of gamma-ray Sn transport calculations including coherent and incoherent scatterings and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence: Determination of gamma-ray buildup factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Diop, C.M.; Assad, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Ridoux, P.

    1996-01-01

    Improvements of gamma-ray transport calculations in S n codes aim at taking into account the bound-electron effect of Compton scattering (incoherent), coherent scattering (Rayleigh), and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence. A computation scheme was developed to take into account these phenomena by modifying the angular and energy transfer matrices, and no modification in the transport code has been made. The incoherent and coherent scatterings as well as the fluorescence sources can be strictly treated by the transfer matrix change. For bremsstrahlung sources, this is possible if one can neglect the charged particles path as they pass through the matter (electrons and positrons) and is applicable for the energy range of interest for us (below 10 MeV). These improvements have been reported on the kernel attenuation codes by the calculation of new buildup factors. The gamma-ray buildup factors have been carried out for 25 natural elements up to 30 mean free paths in the energy range between 15 keV and 10 MeV

  1. Risk factors for asthma and timing of exposure among first generation Arab immigrants: a pilot effort to elucidate the role of exposure to risk factors over multiple life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable controversy exists over the role of aero-allergens in asthma etiology. Some studies show increased risk with microbe and allergen exposure, while others show decreased risk. These discrepancies may be explained by timing of exposure. Previous research suggests that e...

  2. On the mechanism of induction of congenital nervous and imune deficienies in new borns resulting from exposure to radiation and other factors in utero theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filyushkin, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed is a mechanism through which exposure in utero to deleterious agents (including radiation) induces hereditary nervous (and immune) deficiencies in newborns. This mechanism was found theoretically in the framework of multidisciplinary analysis of neuroimmunoendocrine reactivity development peculiar to normal embryogenesis in comparison to that under in utero exposure. Found systemic mechanism accounts induced neural (and or) immune reactivity dificiencies on the response of embryonic homeostasis to effects of radiation or any other deleterious agent on growth potencies of embryo cells

  3. Changes in lymphocytes size under chronic exposure of the organism to factors of radiation and chemical origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Results of the analysis of changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes size under chronic exposure to external gamma radiation and pesticide chlorofoz in combination and separately are presented. It has been found out that under exposure of animals to radiation or the pesticide it is small and big lymphocytes respectively which most significantly suffer quantitatively. Under the joint radiational-chemical exposure of the organism the number of both types of cells is reduced simultaneously

  4. Iodine ingestion dose factors for the thyroid exposure of infants. Technical instructions 7. Jod-Ingestionsdosisfaktor fuer die Strahlenexposition der Schilddruese von Kleinkindern. Weisungsbeschluss 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    For calculations of the thyroid exposure of infants via the pasture-cow-milk pathway, the dose factor = 8.8 x 10/sup 5/ rem x m/sup 3/ / Ci x s should be used for elementary iodine during the vegetation period. For the components of other chemical-physical forms of /sup 131/I, the above value should be multiplied by the following factors: 1) For iodine aerosols, by the factor 0.1; 2) for organic iodine, by the factor 0.01. The mean vegetation period in the Federal Republic of Germany is 6 months.

  5. Response to Therapy and Outcomes in Oropharyngeal Cancer Are Associated With Biomarkers Including Human Papillomavirus, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Gender, and Smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Bhavna; Cordell, Kitrina G.; Lee, Julia S.; Prince, Mark E.; Tran, Huong H.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Urba, Susan G.; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Tsien, Christina I.; Taylor, Jeremy; D'Silva, Nisha J.; Yang, Kun; Kurnit, David M.; Bradford, Carol R.

    2007-01-01

    Induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation for responders or immediate surgery for non-responders is an effective treatment strategy head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the larynx and oropharynx. Biomarkers that predict outcome would be valuable in selecting patients for therapy. In this study, the presence and titer of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in pre-treatment biopsies, as well as smoking and gender were examined in oropharynx cancer patients enrolled in an organ sparing trial. HPV16 copy number was positively associated with response to therapy and with overall and disease specific survival, whereas EGFR expression, current or former smoking behavior, and female gender (in this cohort) were associated with poor response and poor survival in multivariate analysis. Smoking cessation and strategies to target EGFR may be useful adjuncts for therapy to improve outcome in the cases with the poorest biomarker profile

  6. Education in the family as a factor of pedagogical correction of legal consciousness in juvenile probation and parole, including registered in criminal-executive inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gud M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "legal consciousness of minors", the peculiarities of its formation in adolescence, and a pedagogical process of correction of legal consciousness adolescents in conditions of serving criminal sentences, when registration with the penal inspection. Analyzes one of the factors of correction of legal consciousness – raising in the family of convicted minors consisting on the account in the criminal-Executive inspection. The specifics of family upbringing and their impact on the efficiency of re-socialization of minors consisting on the account in criminally-executive inspection, as well as reducing recidivism. Examples of departmental statistics on the role of the family in preventing delinquency and crime among convicted adolescents. The basic directions of improvement of family education in the framework of the activities of employees of criminally-executive inspections.

  7. Participatory ergonomics to reduce exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors for low back pain and neck pain: Results of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Knol, D.L.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the effectiveness of the Stay@Work participatory ergonomics programme to reduce workers9 exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors. Methods: 37 departments (n=3047 workers) from four Dutch companies participated in this cluster randomised controlled

  8. Antibody Prevalence and Factors Associated with Exposure to Orientia tsutsugamushi in Different Aboriginal Subgroups in West Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sun Tee; Mohamed Zan, Hafizatul Anis; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ngui, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited data is available on the current status of scrub typhus infection in the aboriginal population in Malaysia. This study was aimed to provide recent data on the degree of exposure of 280 individuals from seven aboriginal subgroups to Orientia tsutsugamushi (causative agent of scrub typhus) in West Malaysia. The environment, socioeconomic and behavioural risk factors associated with the disease were also investigated. Methods/Findings The antibody prevalence to O. tsutsugamushi ranged from 0 to 36.4% in seven subgroups, with high prevalence rates noted in subgroups involved in agricultural activity and the lowest prevalence rates noted in subgroups whose main occupations were associated to fishing. Univariate analysis indicated populations with age above 18 years (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02–1.30, P = 0.015), working (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.01–3.92, P = 0.044), working at agriculture area (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.98–1.42, P = 0.031), receiving household income less than US$ 166.7 (RM500) per month (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.16–5.11, P = 0.016) and having close contact with animal pets (OR = 4.06, 95% CI = 1.20–13.76, P = 0.016) are significantly associated with exposure to O. tsutsugamushi. Multivariate analysis confirms that participants who are above 18 years old, receiving household income less than US$ 166.7 (RM500) per month and having close contact with animal pets are 3.6 times (95% CI = 1.81–7.03, Ppopulation in Malaysia. Awareness about the disease and education on the preventive measures are important in reducing the risk of acquiring scrub typhus in the population studied. PMID:23936576

  9. Variation in branchial expression among insulin-like growth-factor binding proteins (igfbps) during Atlantic salmon smoltification and seawater exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breves, Jason P; Fujimoto, Chelsea K; Phipps-Costin, Silas K; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg E; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D

    2017-01-18

    In preparation for migration from freshwater to marine habitats, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) undergo smoltification, a transformation that includes the acquisition of hyposmoregulatory capacity. The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) axis promotes the development of branchial ionoregulatory functions that underlie ion secretion. Igfs interact with a suite of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) that modulate hormone activity. In Atlantic salmon smolts, igfbp4,-5a,-5b1,-5b2,-6b1 and-6b2 transcripts are highly expressed in gill. We measured mRNA levels of branchial and hepatic igfbps during smoltification (March, April, and May), desmoltification (July) and following seawater (SW) exposure in March and May. We also characterized parallel changes in a broad suite of osmoregulatory (branchial Na + /K + -ATPase (Nka) activity, Na + /K + /2Cl - cotransporter 1 (nkcc1) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator 1 (cftr1) transcription) and endocrine (plasma Gh and Igf1) parameters. Indicative of smoltification, we observed increased branchial Nka activity, nkcc1 and cftr1 transcription in May. Branchial igfbp6b1 and -6b2 expression increased coincidentally with smoltification. Following a SW challenge in March, igfbp6b1 showed increased expression while igfbp6b2 exhibited diminished expression. igfbp5a,-5b1 and-5b2 mRNA levels did not change during smolting, but each had lower levels following a SW exposure in March. Salmonids express an especially large suite of igfbps. Our data suggest that dynamic expression of particular igfbps accompanies smoltification and SW challenges; thus, transcriptional control of igfbps may provide a mechanism for the local modulation of Igf activity in salmon gill.

  10. Variation in branchial expression among insulin-like growth-factor binding proteins (igfbps) during Atlantic salmon smoltification and seawater exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breves, Jason P.; Fujimoto, Chelsea K.; Phipps-Costin, Silas K.; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg E.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundIn preparation for migration from freshwater to marine habitats, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) undergo smoltification, a transformation that includes the acquisition of hyposmoregulatory capacity. The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) axis promotes the development of branchial ionoregulatory functions that underlie ion secretion. Igfs interact with a suite of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) that modulate hormone activity. In Atlantic salmon smolts, igfbp4,−5a,−5b1,−5b2,−6b1 and−6b2 transcripts are highly expressed in gill. We measured mRNA levels of branchial and hepatic igfbps during smoltification (March, April, and May), desmoltification (July) and following seawater (SW) exposure in March and May. We also characterized parallel changes in a broad suite of osmoregulatory (branchial Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka) activity, Na+ /K + /2Cl − cotransporter 1 (nkcc1) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator 1 (cftr1) transcription) and endocrine (plasma Gh and Igf1) parameters.ResultsIndicative of smoltification, we observed increased branchial Nka activity, nkcc1 and cftr1 transcription in May. Branchial igfbp6b1 and -6b2 expression increased coincidentally with smoltification. Following a SW challenge in March, igfbp6b1 showed increased expression while igfbp6b2 exhibited diminished expression. igfbp5a,−5b1 and−5b2 mRNA levels did not change during smolting, but each had lower levels following a SW exposure in March.ConclusionsSalmonids express an especially large suite of igfbps. Our data suggest that dynamic expression of particular igfbps accompanies smoltification and SW challenges; thus, transcriptional control of igfbps may provide a mechanism for the local modulation of Igf activity in salmon gill.

  11. Effect of exposure on health of atomic bomb servivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitomi, Yutaka; Ueno, Yasushi; Nozaki, Tomoko; Kawaguchi, Fujino; Ishida, Setsuyo

    1976-01-01

    The effects of exposure on vital functions of survivors 30 years after exposure were analyzed, including somatic, psychic, and social factors. Of the survivors living in Nagasaki City, a short-distance exposure group (within 1 km, above 925 rad) and a long-distance exposure group (30 km, 0.6 rad) were selected. The questionnaire included acute symptoms at the time of exposure and present subjective symptoms as indicating vital functions, and psychic factors and medical treatment of exposure as social factors. More of the short-distance exposure group complained of decreased vital functions than did those of the long-distance exposure group. Anxiety was mentioned as one of the causes of the present subjective symptoms. It was not thought that there was relationship between the acute symptoms and the present symptoms. A tendency toward decreased hemoglobin was observed in some of the subjects. (Serizawa, K.)

  12. Factors for incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapy including drug refill and clinic visits among older adults living with human immunodeficiency virus - cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Abbie; Ford, Nathan; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-03-01

    To assess adherence outcomes to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of recipients ≥50 years in Soweto, South Africa. This was a secondary data analysis for a cross-sectional study at two HIV clinics in Soweto. Data on ART adherence and covariates were gathered through structured interviews with HIV 878 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations. PLHIV ≥50 years (n = 103) were more likely to miss clinic visits during the last six months than PLHIV aged 25-49 (OR 2.15; 95%CI 1.10-4.18). PLHIV ≥50 years with no or primary-level education were less likely to have missed a clinic visit during the last six months than PLHIV with secondary- or tertiary-level education in the same age category (OR 0.3; 95%CI 0.1-1.1), as were PLHIV who did not disclose their status (OR 0.2; 95%CI 0-1.1). There was no evidence of increased risk for non-adherence to ART pills and drug refill visits among older PLHIV. Missing a clinic visit was more common among older PLHIV who were more financially vulnerable. Further studies are needed to verify these findings and identify new risk factors associated with ART adherence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria

    2016-01-01

    supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were...... complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain...... during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents....

  14. Evaluation of the Possible Sources and Controlling Factors of Toxic Metals/Metalloids in the Florida Everglades and Their Potential Risk of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbin; Duan, Zhiwei; Liu, Guangliang; Kalla, Peter; Scheidt, Daniel; Cai, Yong

    2015-08-18

    The Florida Everglades is an environmentally sensitive wetland ecosystem with a number of threatened and endangered fauna species susceptible to the deterioration of water quality. Several potential toxic metal sources exist in the Everglades, including farming, atmospheric deposition, and human activities in urban areas, causing concerns of potential metal exposure risks. However, little is known about the pollution status of toxic metals/metalloids of potential concern, except for Hg. In this study, eight toxic metals/metalloids (Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Hg) in Everglades soils were investigated in both dry and wet seasons. Pb, Cr, As, Cu, Cd, and Ni were identified to be above Florida SQGs (sediment quality guidelines) at a number of sampling sites, particularly Pb, which had a level of potential risk to organisms similar to that of Hg. In addition, a method was developed for quantitative source identification and controlling factor elucidation of toxic metals/metalloids by introducing an index, enrichment factor (EF), in the conventional multiple regression analysis. EFs represent the effects of anthropogenic sources on metals/metalloids in soils. Multiple regression analysis showed that Cr and Ni were mainly controlled by anthropogenic loading, whereas soil characteristics, in particular natural organic matter (NOM), played a more important role for Hg, As, Cd, and Zn. NOM may control the distribution of these toxic metals/metalloids by affecting their mobility in soils. For Cu and Pb, the effects of EFs and environmental factors are comparable, suggesting combined effects of loading and soil characteristics. This study is the first comprehensive research with a vast amount of sampling sites on the distribution and potential risks of toxic metals/metalloids in the Everglades. The finding suggests that in addition to Hg other metals/metalloids could also potentially be an environmental problem in this wetland ecosystem.

  15. Pesticide exposure as a risk factor for myelodysplastic syndromes: a meta-analysis based on 1,942 cases and 5,359 controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jin

    Full Text Available Pesticide exposure has been linked to increased risk of cancer at several sites, but its association with risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS is still unclear. A meta-analysis of studies published through April, 2014 was performed to investigate the association of pesticide exposure with the risk of MDS.Studies were identified by searching the Web of Science, Cochrane Library and PubMed databases. Summary odds ratios (ORs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using random- or fixed-effect models.This meta-analysis included 11 case-control studies, all of which demonstrated a correlation between pesticide exposure and a statistically significant increased risk of MDS (OR=1.95, 95% CI 1.23-3.09. In subgroup analyses, patients with pesticide exposure had increased risk of developing MDS if they were living in the Europe or Asia and had refractory anemia (RA or RA with ringed sideroblasts (RARS. Moreover, in the analysis by specific pesticides, increased risk was associated with exposure to insecticides (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.22-2.40 but not exposure to herbicides or fungicides.This meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides increases the risk of developing MDS. Further prospective cohort studies are warranted to verify the association and guide clinical practice in MDS prevention.

  16. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, including neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Serotonergic systems in the dorsal raphe nucleus are thought to play an important role in the regulation of anxiety states. To investigate responses of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus to a mild anxiety-related stimulus, we exposed rats to an open-field, under low-light or high-light conditions....... Treatment effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic and non-serotonergic cells in the midbrain raphe nuclei were determined 2 h following open-field exposure or home cage control (CO) conditions. Rats tested under both light conditions responded with increases in c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons...... within subdivisions of the midbrain raphe nuclei compared with CO rats. However, the total numbers of serotonergic neurons involved were small suggesting that exposure to the open-field may affect a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons. To determine if exposure to the open-field activates a subset...

  17. Second-hand smoke exposure and the factors associated with avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children: a school-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wei-Ting

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand Smoke (SHS exposure is a significant public health problem that may be responsible for serious health hazards for child. This study aimed to examine the exposure status of SHS and the factors associated with SHS avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to obtain a sample of the mothers of pre-school children (n = 1,020 in 30 registered kindergartens in eastern Taiwan. Overall, 919 (a response rate of 90% completed the questionnaires. Regression models were used to identify factors with respect to the avoidance behavior of SHS. Results The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 70% and 50% for the mothers and their children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, mothers who were current smokers (β = -0.260, p Conclusions The high prevalence rate of exposure to SHS for mothers and their children suggests that a well-designed future intervention program should be implemented in regard to pre-school children's mothers in order to prevent these mothers and their children from SHS exposure hazards, more particularly, to strengthen the knowledge base, to enhance self-efficacy and to foster a more positive attitude toward the avoidance of SHS in the mothers.

  18. The Relationship Between and Factors Influencing Staff Nurses' Perceptions of Nurse Manager Caring and Exposure to Workplace Bullying in Multiple Healthcare Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, Lynda

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between, and factors influencing, staff nurse perceptions of nurse manager caring (NMC) and the perceived exposure to workplace bullying (WPB) in multiple healthcare settings. Workplace bullying is commonplace, increasing, and detrimental to the health and availability of our nursing workforce. Positive relationships between a nurse manager (NM) and staff increase staff satisfaction and reduce turnover. Still unknown, however, is whether a caring relationship between manager and staff can reduce staff nurse perception of exposure to WPB. On the basis of Watson's theory that caring is reciprocal in nature, a descriptive correlational design was used to assess 156 staff nurses' self-report of NMC and their exposure to negative acts using the Caring Factor Survey-Caring of the Manager and the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised instruments. There is a significant inverse relationship between NMC and exposure to WPB in the nursing workplace. Gender, work environment, and a high workload influenced these findings. This study highlights the importance of caring leadership to reduce exposure to negative behaviors. The data lend support to the idea of educating NMs regarding the application of caring behaviors to support staff at the point of care.

  19. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim Chor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N = 25, PAD (N = 31, VTD (N = 35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2 years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

  20. Rheumatoid factor testing in Spanish primary care: A population-based cohort study including 4.8 million subjects and almost half a million measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsley, Klara; Miller, Anne; Luqmani, Raashid; Fina-Aviles, Francesc; Javaid, Muhammad Kassim; Edwards, Christopher J; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Medina, Manuel; Calero, Sebastian; Cooper, Cyrus; Arden, Nigel; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2018-02-26

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) testing is used in primary care in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however a positive RF may occur without RA. Incorrect use of RF testing may lead to increased costs and delayed diagnoses. The aim was to assess the performance of RF as a test for RA and to estimate the costs associated with its use in a primary care setting. A retrospective cohort study using the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care database (contains primary care records and laboratory results of >80% of the Catalonian population, Spain). Participants were patients ≥18 years with ≥1 RF test performed between 01/01/2006 and 31/12/2011, without a pre-existing diagnosis of RA. Outcome measures were an incident diagnosis of RA within 1 year of testing, and the cost of testing per case of RA. 495,434/4,796,498 (10.3%) patients were tested at least once. 107,362 (21.7%) of those tested were sero-positive of which 2768 (2.6%) were diagnosed with RA within 1 year as were 1141/388,072 (0.3%) sero-negative participants. The sensitivity of RF was 70.8% (95% CI 69.4-72.2), specificity 78.7% (78.6-78.8), and positive and negative predictive values 2.6% (2.5-2.7) and 99.7% (99.6-99.7) respectively. Approximately €3,963,472 was spent, with a cost of €1432 per true positive case. Although 10% of patients were tested for RF, most did not have RA. Limiting testing to patients with a higher pre-test probability would significantly reduce the cost of testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  1. Relation between natural and anthropogenic factors in the redistribution of radionuclides on the 30 km Chernobyl NPP territory, including the result of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, S.V.; Sukhoruchkin, A.K.; Arkhipov, N.P.; Arkhipov, A.N.; Loginova, L.S.; Meshalkin, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    Before the accident natural and anthropogenic ecosystems occupied about 90% of 30-km zone area, including 36% of forest ecosystem, ploughed lands -28%, meadows and bogs - 18%. About 10% of total areas were occupied by ameliorated lands, separate water reservoirs - 2.8% relatively large area. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident the lands structure was changed: Areas of forest territories became larger (up to 12-13%). Areas of territories occupied by different technical constructions, roads were increased too. Contamination of different objects of 30-km zone territory is very uneven, for instance variation of 137 Cs contamination of soil reaches the same thousand times (From 0.1-5 up to 10000 and more Ci/km 2 )

  2. Chronic exposure to adverse psychosocial work factors and high psychological distress among white-collar workers: A 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjaboue, Ruth; Brisson, Chantal; Talbot, Denis; Vézina, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Prospective studies which evaluated whether the effects of chronic exposure to psychosocial work factors on mental health persisted over time are scarce. For the first time, this study evaluated: 1) the effect of chronic exposure to effort-reward imbalance over 5years on the prevalence of high psychological distress among men and women, and 2) the persistence of this effect over time. Overall, 1747 white-collar workers from three public organizations participated in a prospective study. Psychological distress and effort-reward imbalance were measured using validated questionnaires at baseline, and at 3- and 5-year follow-ups. Prevalence ratios (PRs) of high psychological distress were estimated using log-binomial regression according to baseline and repeated exposure. Compared to unexposed workers, those with repeated exposure to effort-reward imbalance had a higher prevalence of high psychological distress. Workers exposed only at some time-points also had a higher prevalence. The deleterious effect of repeated exposure observed at the 3-year follow-up persisted at the 5-year follow-up among women (PR=2.48 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.97-3.11) and men (PR=1.91 95% CI 1.20-3.04). These effects were greater than those found using a single baseline measurement. The current study supported a deleterious effect of repeated exposure to effort-reward imbalance on psychological distress, and a lack of adaptation to these effects over time among men and women. Since psychological distress may later lead to severe mental problems, current results highlight the need to consider exposure to these adverse work factors in primary and secondary preventions aimed at reducing mental health problems at work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure rates (versus time after administration), in relation with clinical factors, for thyroid carcinoma patients treated with Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitriou, D.; Oros, L.; Manetou, A.; Perris, A.; Molfetas, M.; Kottou, S.

    2002-01-01

    While the therapeutic use of iodine-131 for thyroid carcinoma patients offers enormous benefit to them, it contributes also significantly to the radiation exposure of individuals and population. A critical quantity for decisions relating radiation protection system based on restrictions recommended by authorities is the residual I-131 activity in patient's body. When this value is larger than a threshold level, it may keep the patient hospitalised for a short period of usually 2 to 3 days with an additional period of 7 days at home, where he must sleep separately and avoid close contact with other people. Essential for radiation protection issues is the careful collection of radioactive urine, radioactive waste and avoidance of any contaminations by perspiration and saliva. Longer hospital stay would increase the total cost of the treatment and limit the availability of the isolation room. So the patient has then to return home, having always in mind that in spite of the fast washout of the I-131 from his body, even the second week still contributes significantly to the total radiation burden to relatives and friends. Radiation hazards concerning relatives and friends can be kept to a truly negligible level (a small fraction of the annual dose limit of only 1mSv), only if it is provided that: a) reasonable standards of personal hygiene and cleanliness are followed, b) urine or saliva contaminations are avoided and c) patient's close contact with relatives or friends is kept to a minimum. These measures should be followed for a time period of 2-8 days after hospital discharge, a period that depends on administered and retained I-131 activity. This work tries to estimate the correlation between several clinical factors and the residual activity of I-131 in patient's body and proposes a method for a more simple measurement of the total body activity during patient's stay in the treatment centre - hospital

  4. Identifying risk factors for exposure to culturable allergenic moulds in energy efficient homes by using highly specific monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard A; Cocq, Kate Le; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J; Thornton, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in identifying culturable allergenic fungi present in visible mould growth in energy efficient homes, and to identify risk factors for exposure to these known allergenic fungi. Swabs were taken from fungal contaminated surfaces and culturable yeasts and moulds isolated by using mycological culture. Soluble antigens from cultures were tested by ELISA using mAbs specific to the culturable allergenic fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp., Ulocladium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma spp. Diagnostic accuracies of the ELISA tests were determined by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2-encoding regions of recovered fungi following ELISA. There was 100% concordance between the two methods, with ELISAs providing genus-level identity and ITS sequencing providing species-level identities (210 out of 210 tested). Species of Aspergillus/Penicillium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium/Alternaria/Epicoccum, Fusarium and Trichoderma were detected in 82% of the samples. The presence of condensation was associated with an increased risk of surfaces being contaminated by Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., whereas moisture within the building fabric (water ingress/rising damp) was only associated with increased risk of Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. Property type and energy efficiency levels were found to moderate the risk of indoor surfaces becoming contaminated with Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium which in turn was modified by the presence of condensation, water ingress and rising damp, consistent with previous literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Residential exposure to pesticides as risk factor for childhood and young adult brain tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maele-Fabry, Geneviève; Gamet-Payrastre, Laurence; Lison, Dominique

    2017-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a positive association between exposure to non-agricultural pesticides and childhood brain tumors (CBT). (1) To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between residential/household/domestic exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. (2) To clarify variables that could impact the results. Publications in English were identified from a MEDLINE search through 28 February 2017 and from the reference list of identified publications. Risk estimates were extracted from 18 case-control studies published between 1979 and 2016 and study quality assessments were performed. Summary odds ratios (mOR) were calculated according to fixed and random-effect meta-analysis models. Separate analyses were conducted after stratification for study quality, critical exposure period, exposure location, specific exposures, pesticide category, application methods, type of pest treated, type of CBT, child's age at diagnosis and geographic location. Statistically significant associations were observed with CBT after combining all studies (mOR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.40) without evidence of inconsistency between study results or publication bias. Specifically, increased risks were observed for several groupings and more particularly for gliomas and exposure involving insecticides. Statistical significance was also reached for high quality studies, for all exposure periods, for indoor exposure and, more particularly, during the prenatal period for all stratifications involving insecticides (except for outdoor use), for pet treatments, for flea/tick treatment, for studies from USA/Canada and studies from Europe (borderline) as well as for data from studies including children of up to 10years at diagnosis and of up to 15years. Our findings support an association between residential exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. Although causality cannot be established, these results add to the evidence leading

  6. Relationship of social factors including trust, control over life decisions, problems with transport and safety, to psychological distress in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne W; Chittleborough, Catherine; Gill, Tiffany K; Winefield, Helen; Baum, Fran; Hiller, Janet E; Goldney, Robert; Tucker, Graeme; Hugo, Graeme

    2012-03-01

    Psychological distress encompasses anxiety and depression with the previous studies showing that psychological distress is unequally distributed across population groups. This paper explores the mechanisms and processes which may affect the distribution of psychological distress, including a range of individual and community level socioeconomic determinants. Representative cross-sectional data was collected for respondents aged 16+ from July 2008 to June 2009, as a part of the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS) using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI). Univariate and multivariate analyses (n = 5,763) were conducted to investigate the variables that were associated with psychological distress. The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 8.9%. In the multivariate model, females, those aged 16-49, respondents single with children, unable to work or unemployed, with a poorer family financial situation, earning $20,000 or less, feeling safe in their home some or none of the time, feeling as though they have less then total control over life decisions and sometimes experiencing problems with transport, were significantly more likely to experience psychological distress. This paper has demonstrated the relationship between low-income, financial pressure, less than optimal safety and control, and high-psychological distress. It is important that the groups highlighted as vulnerable be targeted in policy, planning, and health promotion and prevention campaigns.

  7. The comet assay as a rapid test in biomonitoring occupational exposure to DNA-damaging agents and effect of confounding factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Loft, S

    2000-01-01

    appeared to have less power than the positive studies. Also, there were poor dose-response relationships in many of the biomonitoring studies. Many factors have been reported to produce effects by the comet assay, e.g., age, air pollution exposure, diet, exercise, gender, infection, residential radon...... be used as criteria for the selection of populations and that data on exercise, diet, and recent infections be registered before blood sampling. Samples from exposed and unexposed populations should be collected at the same time to avoid seasonal variation. In general, the comet assay is considered...... exposure, smoking, and season. Until now, the use of the comet assay has been hampered by the uncertainty of the influence of confounding factors. We argue that none of the confounding factors are unequivocally positive in the majority of the studies. We recommend that age, gender, and smoking status...

  8. Exposure to biomass smoke as a risk factor for oesophageal and gastric cancer in low-income populations: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayamba, Violet; Heimburger, Douglas C; Morgan, Douglas R; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Kelly, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Upper gastrointestinal cancers contribute significantly to cancer-related morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, but they continue to receive limited attention. The high incidence in young adults remains unexplained, and the risk factors have not been fully described. A literature search was conducted using the electronic database PubMed. Beginning from January 1980 to February 2016, all articles evaluating biomass smoke exposure with oesophageal and gastric cancer were reviewed. Over 70% of the African population relies on biomass fuel, meaning most Africans are exposed to biomass smoke throughout their lives. Cigarette smoke is an established risk factor for upper gastrointestinal cancers, and some of its carcinogenic constituents are also present in biomass smoke. We found eight case-control studies reporting associations between exposure to biomass smoke and oesophageal cancer, and two linking biomass smoke to gastric cancer. All of these papers reported significant positive associations between exposure and cancer risk. Further research is needed in order to fully define the constituents of biomass smoke, which could each have varying specific and synergistic or independent contributions to the development of upper gastrointestinal cancers. Exposure to biomass smoke is an environmental factor influencing the development of upper gastrointestinal cancers, especially in low-resource settings.

  9. Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. • land use • water use • CO2 emissions • radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

  10. The Impact of Degree of Exposure to Violent Video Games, Family Background, and Other Factors on Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Whitney; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    Despite decades of study, no scholarly consensus has emerged regarding whether violent video games contribute to youth violence. Some skeptics contend that small correlations between violent game play and violence-related outcomes may be due to other factors, which include a wide range of possible effects from gender, mental health, and social influences. The current study examines this issue with a large and diverse (49 % white, 21 % black, 18 % Hispanic, and 12 % other or mixed race/ethnicity; 51 % female) sample of youth in eighth (n = 5133) and eleventh grade (n = 3886). Models examining video game play and violence-related outcomes without any controls tended to return small, but statistically significant relationships between violent games and violence-related outcomes. However, once other predictors were included in the models and once propensity scores were used to control for an underlying propensity for choosing or being allowed to play violent video games, these relationships vanished, became inverse, or were reduced to trivial effect sizes. These results offer further support to the conclusion that video game violence is not a meaningful predictor of youth violence and, instead, support the conclusion that family and social variables are more influential factors.

  11. Arsenic exposure and calpain-10 polymorphisms impair the function of pancreatic beta-cells in humans: a pilot study of risk factors for T2DM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz-Villaseñor

    Full Text Available The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing worldwide and diverse environmental and genetic risk factors are well recognized. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN-10, which encodes a protein involved in the secretion and action of insulin, and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs through drinking water have been independently associated with an increase in the risk for T2DM. In the present work we evaluated if CAPN-10 SNPs and iAs exposure jointly contribute to the outcome of T2DM. Insulin secretion (beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were evaluated indirectly through validated indexes (HOMA2 in subjects with and without T2DM who have been exposed to a gradient of iAs in their drinking water in northern Mexico. The results were analyzed taking into account the presence of the risk factor SNPs SNP-43 and -44 in CAPN-10. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. An inverse association was found between beta-cell function and iAs exposure, the association being more pronounced in subjects with T2DM. Subjects without T2DM who were carriers of the at-risk genotype SNP-43 or -44, also had significantly lower beta-cell function. The association of SNP-43 with beta-cell function was dependent on iAs exposure, age, gender and BMI, whereas the association with SNP-44 was independent of all of these factors. Chronic exposure to iAs seems to be a risk factor for T2DM in humans through the reduction of beta-cell function, with an enhanced effect seen in the presence of the at-risk genotype of SNP-43 in CAPN-10. Carriers of CAPN-10 SNP-44 have also shown reduced beta-cell function.

  12. Exposure to Mercury and Aluminum in Early Life: Developmental Vulnerability as a Modifying Factor in Neurologic and Immunologic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Dórea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, ethylmercury (EtHg and adjuvant-Al are the dominating interventional exposures encountered by fetuses, newborns, and infants due to immunization with Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs. Despite their long use as active agents of medicines and fungicides, the safety levels of these substances have never been determined, either for animals or for adult humans—much less for fetuses, newborns, infants, and children. I reviewed the literature for papers reporting on outcomes associated with (a multiple exposures and metabolism of EtHg and Al during early life; (b physiological and metabolic characteristics of newborns, neonates, and infants relevant to xenobiotic exposure and effects; (c neurobehavioral, immunological, and inflammatory reactions to Thimerosal and Al-adjuvants resulting from TCV exposure in infancy. Immunological and neurobehavioral effects of Thimerosal-EtHg and Al-adjuvants are not extraordinary; rather, these effects are easily detected in high and low income countries, with co-exposure to methylmercury (MeHg or other neurotoxicants. Rigorous and replicable studies (in different animal species have shown evidence of EtHg and Al toxicities. More research attention has been given to EtHg and findings have showed a solid link with neurotoxic effects in humans; however, the potential synergic effect of both toxic agents has not been properly studied. Therefore, early life exposure to both EtHg and Al deserves due consideration.

  13. A principal components analysis of the factors effecting personal exposure to air pollution in urban commuters in Dublin, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, Aonghus; Broderick, Brian M; Gill, Laurence W

    2009-10-01

    Principal component analysis was used to examine air pollution personal exposure data of four urban commuter transport modes for their interrelationships between pollutants and relationships with traffic and meteorological data. Air quality samples of PM2.5 and VOCs were recorded during peak traffic congestion for the car, bus, cyclist and pedestrian between January 2005 and June 2006 on a busy route in Dublin, Ireland. In total, 200 personal exposure samples were recorded each comprising 17 variables describing the personal exposure concentrations, meteorological conditions and traffic conditions. The data reduction technique, principal component analysis (PCA), was used to create weighted linear combinations of the data and these were subsequently examined for interrelationships between the many variables recorded. The results of the PCA found that personal exposure concentrations in non-motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by wind speed, whereas personal exposure concentrations in motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by traffic congestion. The findings of the investigation show that the most effective mechanisms of personal exposure reduction differ between motorised and non-motorised modes of commuter transport.

  14. Study of the validity of a job-exposure matrix for psychosocial work factors: results from the national French SUMER survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Chastang, Jean-François; Levy, David; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stéphanie; Theorell, Töres

    2008-10-01

    To construct and evaluate the validity of a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for psychosocial work factors defined by Karasek's model using national representative data of the French working population. National sample of 24,486 men and women who filled in the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) by Karasek measuring the scores of psychological demands, decision latitude, and social support (individual scores) in 2003 (response rate 96.5%). Median values of the three scores in the total sample of men and women were used to define high demands, low latitude, and low support (individual binary exposures). Job title was defined by both occupation and economic activity that were coded using detailed national classifications (PCS and NAF/NACE). Two JEM measures were calculated from the individual scores of demands, latitude and support for each job title: JEM scores (mean of the individual score) and JEM binary exposures (JEM score dichotomized at the median). The analysis of the variance of the individual scores of demands, latitude, and support explained by occupations and economic activities, of the correlation and agreement between individual measures and JEM measures, and of the sensitivity and specificity of JEM exposures, as well as the study of the associations with self-reported health showed a low validity of JEM measures for psychological demands and social support, and a relatively higher validity for decision latitude compared with individual measures. Job-exposure matrix measure for decision latitude might be used as a complementary exposure assessment. Further research is needed to evaluate the validity of JEM for psychosocial work factors.

  15. An analysis of factors that influence personal exposure to toluene and xylene in residents of Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linos Athena

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal exposure to pollutants is influenced by various outdoor and indoor sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of Athens citizens to toluene and xylene, excluding exposure from active smoking. Methods Passive air samplers were used to monitor volunteers, their homes and various urban sites for one year, resulting in 2400 measurements of toluene and xylene levels. Since both indoor and outdoor pollution contribute significantly to human exposure, volunteers were chosen from occupational groups who spend a lot of time in the streets (traffic policemen, bus drivers and postmen, and from groups who spend more time indoors (teachers and students. Data on individual and house characteristics were obtained using a questionnaire completed at the beginning of the study; a time-location-activity diary was also completed daily by the volunteers in each of the six monitoring campaigns. Results Average personal toluene exposure varied over the six monitoring campaigns from 53 to 80 μg/m3. Urban and indoor concentrations ranged from 47 – 84 μg/m3 and 30 – 51 μg/m3, respectively. Average personal xylene exposure varied between 56 and 85 μg/m3 while urban and indoor concentrations ranged from 53 – 88 μg/m3 and 27 – 48 μg/m3, respectively. Urban pollution, indoor residential concentrations and personal exposures exhibited the same pattern of variation during the measurement periods. This variation among monitoring campaigns might largely be explained by differences in climate parameters, namely wind speed, humidity and amount of sunlight. Conclusion In Athens, Greece, the time spent outdoors in the city center during work or leisure makes a major contribution to exposure to toluene and xylene among non-smoking citizens. Indoor pollution and means of transportation contribute significantly to individual exposure levels. Other indoor residential characteristics such as recent painting and mode of heating

  16. Factors associated with secondhand smoke exposure prevalence and secondhand smoke level of children living with parental smokers: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Sabina; Unger, Friederike; Groß, Stefan; Nauck, Matthias; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    Factors that might account for the probability of children being exposed to secondhand smoke compared to those who are unexposed and characteristics associated with the urinary cotinine level (UCL) of those who are exposed were investigated. All households in a German region with a child aged 3 years or younger (n = 3,570) were invited to participate in a study that tested the efficacy of an intervention for reducing secondhand smoke exposure. In 1,282 households, at least one parent reported daily smoking. Among these, 915 (71.3%) participated in the study. For data analyses, we used a two-part model. Characteristics of the households associated with SHSE of the youngest child were analyzed, as well as characteristics associated with UCL among those exposed. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined using a UCL ≥ 10 ng/ml. Secondhand smoke exposure was detected in 57.1% of the samples. Nursery attendance was associated with secondhand smoke exposure, in addition to the number of smokers living in the household, extent of home smoking ban and parental education. Among children exposed, nursery attendance, season of urine collection and age of the child were associated with UCL. Consideration of seasonal smoking behavior and a child's age at the time of intervention may increase attention to the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke exposure.

  17. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in feces and water and the associated exposure factors on dairy farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Dos Santos Toledo

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to verify the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in animal feces and drinking water on dairy farms and to identify a possible relation between the exposure factors and the presence of these parasites. Fecal samples from cattle and humans and water samples were collected on dairy farms in Paraná, Brazil. Analysis of (oocysts in the feces was performed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining and centrifugal flotation in zinc sulfate. Test-positive samples were subjected to nested PCR amplification of the 18SSU ribosomal RNA gene for identification of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and of the gp60 gene for subtyping of Cryptosporidium. Microbiological analysis of water was carried out by the multiple-tube method and by means of a chromogenic substrate, and parasitological analysis was performed on 31 samples by direct immunofluorescence and nested PCR of the genes mentioned above. Identification of the species of Cryptosporidium was performed by sequencing and PCR with analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was higher in calves than in adults. Among the samples of cattle feces, Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in 41 (64%, C. ryanae in eight (12.5%, C. bovis in four (6.3%, C. andersoni in five (7.8%, and a mixed infection in 20 samples (31.3%. These parasites were not identified in the samples of human feces. Thermotolerant coliform bacteria were identified in 25 samples of water (45.5%. Giardia duodenalis and C. parvum were identified in three water samples. The gp60 gene analysis of C. parvum isolates revealed the presence of two strains (IIaA20G1R1 and IIaA17G2R2 in the fecal samples and one (IIaA17G2R1 in the water samples. The presence of coliforms was associated with the water source, structure and degradation of springs, rain, and turbidity. The prevalence of protozoa was higher in calves up to six months of age. C. parvum and G

  18. PHYSICAL WORKLOAD AS A RISK FACTOR FOR SYMPTOMS IN THE NECK AND UPPER LIMBS: EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND ERGONOMIC INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Ketola

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate work related and individual factors as predictors of insident neck pain among video display unit (VDU workers, to assess the effects of an ergonomic intervention and education on musculoskeletal symptoms, and to study the repeatability and validity of an expert assessment method of VDU workstation ergonomics. A method to assess the risk factors for upper limb disorders was developed, and its validity and repeatability were studied. The annual incidence of neck pain was 34.4%. A poor physical work environment and placement of the keyboard were work-related factors increasing the risk of neck pain. Among the individual factors, female sex was a strong predictor. The randomized intervention study included questionnaire survey, a diary of discomfort, and ergonomic rating of the workstations. The subjects (n=124 were allocated into three groups. The intensive and the education groups had less musculoskeletal discomfort than the control group at the 2-month follow-up. After the intervention, the level of ergonomics was distinctly higher in the intensive ergonomic group than in the education or control group. Two experts in ergonomics analyzed and rated the ergonomics of workstations before and after intervention. The validity of the assessment method was rated against the technical measurements, assessment of tidiness and space, and work chair ergonomics. The intraclass correlation coefficient between ratings of the two experts was 0.74. Changes in the location of the input devises and the screen, as well as the values of tidiness and space and work chair ergonomics showed a significant association with the ratings of both experts. The method to assess the loads imposed on the upper limbs was validated against the expert observations from the video, continuous recordings of myoelectric activity of forearm muscles, and wrist posture, measured with goniometers. Inter-observer repeatability and validity were

  19. Participatory ergonomics to reduce exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors for low back pain and neck pain: results of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Maurice T; Proper, Karin I; Anema, Johannes R; Knol, Dirk L; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the Stay@Work participatory ergonomics programme to reduce workers' exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors. 37 departments (n=3047 workers) from four Dutch companies participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial; 19 (n=1472 workers) were randomised to an intervention group (participatory ergonomics) and 18 (n=1575 workers) to a control group (no participatory ergonomics). During a 6 h meeting guided by an ergonomist, working groups devised ergonomic measures to reduce psychosocial and physical workload and implemented them within 3months in their departments. Data on psychosocial and physical risk factors for low back pain and neck pain were collected at baseline and after 6 months. Psychosocial risk factors were measured using the Job Content Questionnaire and physical risk factors using the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Intervention effects were studied using multilevel analysis. Intervention group workers significantly increased on decision latitude (0.29 points; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.52) and decision authority (0.16 points; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.28) compared to control workers. However, exposure to awkward trunk working postures significantly increased in the intervention group (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.15 to 3.01) compared to the control group. No significant differences between the intervention and control group were found for the remaining risk factors. After 6months, loss to follow-up was 35% in the intervention group and 29% in the control group. Participatory ergonomics was not effective in reducing exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors for low back pain and neck pain among a large group of workers. ISRCTN27472278.

  20. Factors influencing the outdoor concentration of carbonaceous aerosols at urban schools in Brisbane, Australia: Implications for children's exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crilley, L.R.; Ayoko, G.A.; Mazaheri, M.; Morawska, L.

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive study aimed to determine the sources and driving factors of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations in ambient PM 2.5 in urban schools. Sampling was conducted outdoors at 25 schools in the Brisbane Metropolitan Area, Australia. Concentrations of primary and secondary OC were quantified using the EC tracer method, with secondary OC accounting for an average of 60%. Principal component analysis distinguished the contributing sources above the background and identified groups of schools with differing levels of primary and secondary carbonaceous aerosols. Overall, the results showed that vehicle emissions, local weather conditions and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were the key factors influencing concentrations of carbonaceous component of PM 2.5 at these schools. These results provide insights into children's exposure to vehicle emissions and SOA at such urban schools. - Highlights: • We aimed to find the contributing sources to children's exposure at school. • Measured outdoor organic carbon and elemental carbon at 25 urban schools. • Schools varied in exposure to primary and secondary sources. • Secondary organic carbon the largest component of carbonaceous aerosols. • Vehicle emission levels at schools are primarily dependent on local traffic counts. - Key factors influencing concentrations of carbonaceous component of PM 2.5 at urban schools were found to be vehicle emissions, secondary organic aerosols and local weather conditions.

  1. Job satisfaction among aircraft baggage handlers and their exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulduk, Sıdıka; Bulduk, Emre Özgür; Güler, Alpaslan

    2017-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) cause pain and economic loss. Risk of WMSDs is affected by job satisfaction as a psychosocial factor. The aim of this study was to investigate job satisfaction among aircraft baggage handlers and their exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorder risk factors. Two data collection tools addressing risk levels (Quick Exposure Check) and psychosocial factors (Job Satisfaction Survey) were answered by 399 male baggage handlers employed in Esenboga International Airport in Ankara, Turkey. Risk exposure scores for WMSDs among baggage handlers were 27±3.4 (high) for the back (static), 42±7.2 (very high) for the back (moving), 42±6.1 (very high) for the shoulder/arm, 44±1.9 (very high) for the wrist/hand, and 13±5.1(high) for the neck. The average job satisfaction levels of the majority was either low (4.2250±1.10184) or moderate (3.1019±0.93352). In addition, low and moderate job satisfaction was significantly associated with higher WMSD risk levels among baggage handlers. Increased WMSD risk levels among baggage handlers are associated with low and moderate job satisfaction, suggesting that it is mandatory to perform intervention methods in this occupation.

  2. Dose conversion factors for radiation doses at normal operation discharges. E. Exposure pathways and radioecological data; Dosomraekningsfaktorer foer normaldriftutslaepp. C. Exponeringsvaegar och radioekologiska data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sara; Aquilonius, Karin

    2001-10-01

    A study has been performed in order to develop and extend existing models for dose estimations at emissions of radioactive substances from nuclear facilities in Sweden. This report presents a review of all exposure pathways in the project, in order to secure that no important contributions have been omitted. The radioecological data that should be used in calculating conversion factors for air and water emissions are also reviewed. Nuclid-specific conversion factors have been calculated for radiation doses from inhalation and intake for children in different age groups.

  3. Correction the Bias of Odds Ratio resulting from the Misclassification of Exposures in the Study of Environmental Risk Factors of Lung Cancer using Bayesian Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Inability to measure exact exposure in epidemiological studies is a common problem in many studies, especially cross-sectional studies. Depending on the extent of misclassification, results may be affected. Existing methods for solving this problem require a lot of time and money and it is not practical for some of the exposures. Recently, new methods have been proposed in 1:1 matched case–control studies that have solved these problems to some extent. In the present study we have aimed to extend the existing Bayesian method to adjust for misclassification in matched case–control Studies with 1:2 matching. Methods: Here, the standard Dirichlet prior distribution for a multinomial model was extended to allow the data of exposure–disease (OR parameter to be imported into the model excluding other parameters. Information that exist in literature about association between exposure and disease were used as prior information about OR. In order to correct the misclassification Sensitivity Analysis was accomplished and the results were obtained under three Bayesian Methods. Results: The results of naïve Bayesian model were similar to the classic model. The second Bayesian model by employing prior information about the OR, was heavily affected by these information. The third proposed model provides maximum bias adjustment for the risk of heavy metals, smoking and drug abuse. This model showed that heavy metals are not an important risk factor although raw model (logistic regression Classic detected this exposure as an influencing factor on the incidence of lung cancer. Sensitivity analysis showed that third model is robust regarding to different levels of Sensitivity and Specificity. Conclusion: The present study showed that although in most of exposures the results of the second and third model were similar but the proposed model would be able to correct the misclassification to some extent.

  4. Is dietary nitrate/nitrite exposure a risk factor for development of thyroid abnormality? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Ghasemi, Asghar; Kabir, Ali; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2015-05-01

    The potential effects of inorganic nitrate/nitrite on global health are a much debated issue. In addition to possible methemoglobinemia and carcinogenic properties, anti-thyroid effects of nitrate/nitrite have been suggested. Considering the growing significance of nitrate/nitrite and since there is no comprehensive review in data available, clarifying the effect of nitrate/nitrite on thyroid disorder outcomes is essential. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review of experimental and clinical studies, and a meta-analysis of relevant cohort and cross-sectional studies investigating the association of nitrate/nitrite exposure and thyroid function. Most animal studies show that high exposure (~10-600 times of acceptable daily intake) to nitrate/nitrite induces anti-thyroid effects, including decreased serum level of thyroid hormones and histomorphological changes in thyroid gland; however no similar observations have been documented in humans. Based on our meta-analysis, no significant association was observed between nitrate exposure and the risk of thyroid cancer, hyper- and hypothyroidism; findings from three cohort studies however showed a significant association between higher exposure to nitrite and the risk of thyroid cancer (risk = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.09-2.02, P = 0.012). Additional research is needed to clarify the association between nitrate/nitrite exposures and both thyroid function and cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Associated with Exposure to Passive Smoking among 12-18 year-old Students in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas S Lappas

    2015-11-01

    Passive-smoking exposure is prevalent among the student population in Greece, despite the New Anti-Smoking Legislation that came into effect in July 2009. Our findings indicate that enforcement of the law and additional public health initiatives must be implemented.

  6. CHANGES IN NUCLEAR TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS IN RAT HIPPOCAMPUS AND CEREBELLUM FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO A COMMERCIAL PCB MIXTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) offer a unique model to understand the major issues related to complex environmental mixtures. These pollutants are ubiquitous and exist as mixtures of several congeners in the environment. Human exposures to PCBs are associated with a variety of ...

  7. Influence of in ovo mercury exposure, lake acidity, and other factors on common loon egg and chick quality in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a field study in Wisconsin to characterize in ovo mercury (Hg) exposure in common loons (Gavia immer). Total Hg mass fractions ranged from 0.17 to 1.23 ìg/g wet weight (ww) in eggs collected from nests on lakes representing a wide range of pH (5.0 - 8.1) and ...

  8. Clustering cities with similar fine particulate matter exposure characteristics based on infiltration and in-vehicle commuting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have observed between city heterogeneity in PM2.5-mortality risk estimates. These differences could potentially be due to the use of central-site monitors as a surrogate for exposure which do not account for an individual's activities or ambient pollutant ...

  9. Relationship between age at menarche and exposure to sexual content in audio-visual media and other factors in Islamic junior high school girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tity Wulandari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent decades, girls have experienced menarche at earlier ages, which may have negative effects on health. Exposure to audio-visual media and other factors may influence the age at menarche, although past studies have produced inconsistent results. Objective To assess for relationships between the age at menarche and audio-visual media exposure, socio-economic status, nutritional status, physical activity, and psychosocial dysfunction in adolescent girls. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2015 in students from two integrated Islamic junior high schools in Medan, North Sumatera. There were 216 students who met the inclusion criteria: aged 10-16 years and experienced menarche. They were asked to fill out questionnaires that had been previously validated, regarding their history of exposure to audio-visual media, physical activity, and psychosocial dysfunction. The data were analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests in order to assess for relationships between audio-visual media exposure and other potential factors with the age at menarche. Results Of 261 female students at the two schools, 216 had undergone menarche, with a mean age at menarche of 11.6 (SD 1.13 years. There was no significant relationship between age at menarche and audio-visual media exposure (P=0.68. Also, there were no significant relationships between factors such as socio-economic and psychosocial status with age at menarche (P=0.64 and P=0.28, respectively. However, there were significant relationships between earlier age at menarche and overweight/obese nutritional status (P=0.02 as well as low physical activity (P=0.01. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low physical activity had the strongest influence on early menarche (RP=2.40; 95%CI 0.92 to 6.24. Conclusion Age at menarche is not significantly associated with sexual content of audio-visual media exposure. However, there were significant

  10. Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome in relation to occupational exposures, lifestyle factors and diabetes mellitus: a nationwide nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) in relation to occupational exposures, lifestyle factors and diabetes mellitus. We conducted a case-control study nested in a register-based cohort study of the Danish working population. For each of 3000 first-time cases of surgery for SIS, two age-matched and sex-matched controls were drawn. Cases and controls received a questionnaire on job history and other factors. Job histories were combined with a psychosocial job exposure matrix (JEM) and the updated Shoulder JEM, which provided exposure intensities on measurement scales. Ten-year cumulative exposures to upper arm elevation >90°, repetitive shoulder movements, forceful shoulder exertions and hand-arm vibrations (HAVs) were estimated. We used conditional logistic regression. There were 5396 persons (60%) who answered the questionnaire. For occupational mechanical exposures, the adjusted OR (OR adj ) ranged from 1.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.5 for HAVs) to 2.5 (95% CI 1.9 to 3.5 for force) among men and 1.7 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.5 for HAVs) to 2.0 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.9 for force) among women. No statistically significant associations were found for occupational psychosocial factors. Body mass index (BMI) and pack-years of smoking showed OR adj up to 2.0. Diabetes mellitus showed OR adj of 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.2) for men and 2.2 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.4) for women. Our findings add to the evidence of an increased risk of surgery for SIS in relation to occupational cumulative mechanical exposures, even when an increased risk in relation to BMI, smoking and diabetes mellitus is taken into account. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Subepithelial connective tissue graft with and without the use of plasma rich in growth factors for treating root exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafzi, Ardeshir; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Behrozian, Ahmad; Kashefimehr, Atabak; Khashabi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficiency of the subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) with and without plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) in the treatment of gingival recessions. Methods Twenty bilateral buccal gingival Miller's Class I and II recessions were selected. Ten of the recessions were treated with SCTG and PRGF (test group). The rest ten of the recessions were treated with SCTG (control group). The clinical parameters including recession depth (RD), percentage of root coverage (RC), mucogingival junction (MGJ) position, clinical attachment level (CAL), and probing depth (PD) were measured at the baseline, and 1 and 3 months later. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results After 3 months, both groups showed a significant improvement in all of the mentioned criteria except PD. Although the amount of improvement was better in the SCTG+PRGF group than the SCTG only group, this difference was not statistically significant. The mean RC was 70.85±12.57 in the test group and 75.83±24.68 in the control group. Conclusions Both SCTG+PRGF and SCTG only result in favorable clinical outcomes, but the added benefit of PRGF is not evident. PMID:23346462

  12. Are safety data sheets for cleaning products used in Norway a factor contributing to the risk of workers exposure to chemicals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulqadir M. Suleiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cleaning products are considered less hazardous than those used in other sectors. Suppliers and distributors are less conscientious when it comes to informing users on health risks. The aim of the study was to elaborate on the usefulness and clarity of information in the safety data sheets (SDS for cleaning products, and considering if the use of these SDSs can be seen as a risk factor towards occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in the sector. Material and Methods: Safety data sheets were selected based on the risk level of the product assigned in an industrial sector scheme. 320 SDSs for cleaning products were reviewed. Constituent components found in the products over a given threshold were listed and available information thereof used to assess the perceived non-hazard consideration of the chemicals. Results: The contents of the SDSs was generic and mostly incomplete. Safety measures and health information lacked sufficient specificity despite varying compositions and concentrations of components. There is generally incompatibility between mentioned sections on the suggested non-hazardous nature of the products and health effects. Not all substances used in these products have harmonized classifications, which makes them open to various classification of the products and the suggested safety measures. This results in different companies classifying similar products differently. Risk management measures and suggested personal protective equipment (PPEs are given haphazardly. Physical properties relevant to risk assessment are not included. Conclusions: The safety data sheets are ambiguous, and they lack relevant and important information. Inadequate information and risk assessment concerning the products can lead to workers being exposed to hazardous chemicals. Underestimation of the hazard contribution of the components of the products and the insufficient, non-objective mention of appropriate control and protective

  13. The role of socioeconomic factors in Black-White health inequities across the life course: Point-in-time measures, long-term exposures, and differential health returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boen, Courtney

    2016-12-01

    Research links Black-White health disparities to racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES), but understanding of the role of SES in racial health gaps has been restricted by reliance on static measures of health and socioeconomic well-being that mask the dynamic quality of these processes and ignore the racialized nature of the SES-health connection. Utilizing twenty-three years of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1984-2007), this study uses multilevel growth curve models to examine how multiple dime