WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors including environmental

  1. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  2. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  3. Spruce forest bryophytes in central Norway and their relationship to environmental factors including modern forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisvoll, A.A. [Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prestoe, T. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Dept. of Botany, Trondheim (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    In this study of bryophyte diversity in 110 patches of spruce forests of bilberry, small fern, low herb, tall fern and tall herb type in Soer-Troendelag, central Norway, each patch (from 0.24 to 9.33 ha) was classified as one main vegetation type and one successional stage or cutting class. The bryophytes in each patch were censured in randomly established squares of 10 x 10 m, supplemented by complete sampling in the rest of the patch. A number of environmental variables was sampled, and the data sets treated with DCA and CCA. Altogether 210 bryophytes (71 liverworts and 139 mosses) were found in the squares, and 285 (96 liverworts and 189 mosses) in the forest patches. The average number of liverworts, mosses and bryophytes in forest patches increased gradually from the dry and poor to the moist and rich forest types. Several red listed and other interesting spruce forest species had their only or main occurrence in the rich and humid forest, and in old cutting classes. (au) 45 refs.

  4. Contribution of Environmental Risk Factors Including Lifestyle to Inequalities Noncommunicable (Chronic Diseases such as Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Grochowska Niedworok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health inequalities: differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Some health inequalities are attributable to biological variations or free choice and others are attributable to the external environment and conditions mainly outside the control of the individuals concerned. 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2012 an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a normal body weight can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Risk factors: 1. Age- the prevalence of diabetes rises steeply with age: *one in twenty people over the age of 65 have diabetes, *and this rises to one in five people over the age of 85 years. The diagnosis of diabetes may be delayed in older people, with symptoms of diabetes being wrongly attributed to ageing. 2. Ethnic: type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in people of South Asian descent and up to three times more common in those of African and African-Caribbean descent then in the white population. It is also more common in people of Chinese descent and other non-Caucasian groups. 3. Gender: the frequency of diabetes usually is higher in men than in women. This may be because gender compounds other aspects of inequality- women often bear the brunt of poverty, and socio-economic differences in the prevalence of diabetes are more marked for women, probably because of differences in smoking rates, food choices and the prevalence of obesity. 4. Overweight/Obesity: every 1 kg/m2 more causes increase risk: cardiovascular diseases 2%, coronary artery disease- 3% , myocardial infarction- 5% , heart failure- 5% , peripheral vascular disease- 5%. Health inqualities important in diabetes -- modifiable:  social

  5. Environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, E. L.; Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J.; Shumate, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    The selection of an Apollo spacecraft atmosphere was based on the establishment of an acceptable range of atmospheric composition and pressure, the establishment of acceptable carbon dioxide levels, thermal comfort criteria, and acceleration and impact limits. The prime design requirements in a spacecraft system are minimum weight, volume, power usage, reliability, ease of maintenance, environmental compatibility, integration with other systems, and crew compatibility. The selection considerations are reviewed.

  6. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  7. Environmental factors in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Martin Grabrucker

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an im...

  8. Environmental Factors in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas M. Grabrucker

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an im...

  9. Environmental factors in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed.

  10. Environmental factors in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Martin Grabrucker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed.

  11. Environmental factors and leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, L.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations on the association between environmental hazards and the development of various types of leukaemia are reviewed. Regarding acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-documented risk factor. According to several recent studies exposure to strong electromagnetic fields may be suspected to be of etiologic importance for ANLL. There is evidence that occupational handling of benzene is a risk factor and other organic solvents may also be leukaemogenic. Occupational exposure to petrol products has been proposed to be a risk factor although the hazardous substances have not yet been defined. Results of cytogenetic studies in ANLL suggest that exposure to certain environmental agents may be associated with relatively specific clonal chromosome aberrations. Exposure in utero to ionizing radiation has been proposed to be a risk factor for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) in children. Unlike ANLL there seems at present to be little evidence that ALL is related to exposure to some chemicals. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) may follow exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation whereas such exposure seems to be of insignificant importance for the development of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). According to some studies an abnormally high incidence of CLL may be found among farmers in the USA. These results have not been confirmed in Scandinavian studies. There seems to be little evidence that CML or CLL are related to occupational handling of some chemicals. 35 references.

  12. Overview of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1989-01-01

    The orbital environment is complex, dynamic, and comprised of both natural and system-induced components. Several environment factors are important for materials. Materials selection/suitability determination requires consideration of each and all factors, including synergisms among them. Understanding and evaluating these effects will require ground testing, modeling, and focused flight experimentation.

  13. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

  14. Environmental factors and semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Radwan, Michal

    2009-01-01

    , trihalomethanes (THMs), mobile phones) on semen quality, by reviewing most recent published literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to environmental factors and semen quality for the last ten years were identified by a search of the Pubmed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola...

  15. Knowledge, Internal, and Environmental Factors on Environmental Care Behaviour among Aboriginal Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Norshariani Abd

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the contribution of predictor factors (i.e. knowledge about the environment as well as internal and environmental factors) on environmental care behaviour among aboriginal students. The knowledge about the environment that was investigated in this research includes environmental knowledge and environmental action knowledge.…

  16. Environmental risk factors for autism

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...

  17. HIV: Social and Environmental Factors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  18. Environmental factors in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazou, Vasiliki; Schluep, Myriam; Du Pasquier, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is recognized as a disorder involving the immune system, the interplay of environmental factors and individual genetic susceptibility seems to influence MS onset and clinical expression, as well as therapeutic responsiveness. Multiple human epidemiological and animal model studies have evaluated the effect of different environmental factors, such as viral infections, vitamin intake, sun exposure, or still dietary and life habits on MS prevalence. Previous Epstein-Barr virus infection, especially if this infection occurs in late childhood, and lack of vitamin D (VitD) currently appear to be the most robust environmental factors for the risk of MS, at least from an epidemiological standpoint. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) activates VitD production but there are also some elements supporting the fact that insufficient UVR exposure during childhood may represent a VitD-independent risk factor of MS development, as well as negative effect on the clinical and radiological course of MS. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the gut-brain axis, a bidirectional neuro-hormonal communication system between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, components of the intestinal microbiota may be pro-inflammatory, promote the migration of immune cells into the CNS, and thus be a key parameter for the development of autoimmune disorders such as MS. Interestingly most environmental factors seem to play a role during childhood. Thus, if childhood is the most fragile period to develop MS later in life, preventive measures should be applied early in life. For example, adopting a diet enriched in VitD, playing outdoor and avoiding passive smoking would be extremely simple measures of primary prevention for public health strategies. However, these hypotheses need to be confirmed by prospective evaluations, which are obviously difficult to conduct. In addition, it remains to be determined whether and how Vit

  19. Evaluation of fatigue data including reactor water environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States); Nickell, R.E. [Applied Science and Technology, Poway, CA (United States); Van Der Sluys, W.A. [Alliance, OH (United States); Yukawa, S. [Boulder, CO (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Laboratory data have been gathered in the past decade indicating a significant reduction in component fatigue life when reactor water environmental effects are experimentally simulated. However, these laboratory data have not been supported by nuclear power plant component operating experience. The laboratory data under simulated operating conditions are being used to support arguments for revising the design-basis fatigue curves in the ASME Code Section III, Division 1, for Class 1 components. A thorough review of available laboratory fatigue data and their applicability to actual component operating conditions was performed. The evaluation divided the assembly, review and assessment of existing laboratory fatigue data and its applicability to plant operating conditions into four principal tasks: (1) review of available laboratory data relative to thresholds for environmental parameters, such as temperature, reactor water oxidation potential, strain rate, strain amplitude, reactor water flow rate, and component metal sulfur content; (2) determination of the relevance of the laboratory data to actual plant operating conditions; (3) review of laboratory S-N data curve-fitting models; and (4) assessment of existing ASME Code Section III Class 1 margins This paper summarizes the results of the data review. In addition, recommendations are made for additional laboratory testing intended to improve the applicability of laboratory test results under simulated reactor water environmental conditions. (authors)

  20. Modifiable environmental factors in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Dadalti Fragoso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential environmental modifiable factors involved in multiple sclerosis (MS include low adherence to treatment, smoking, obesity, low levels of liposoluble vitamins A and D, high consumption of salt, and a sedentary lifestyle. Chronic tobacco use, obesity, sedentarism and insufficient levels of these vitamins all contribute to maintenance of a proinflammatory state. It is unlikely that there will be noticeable improvement in the inflammatory condition of MS if stopping smoking, reducing weight, exercising, increasing vitamin levels are done in an isolated and erratic manner. Modification of each and every one of these environmental risk factors is likely to be an important approach in the management of MS. The present review presents the arguments for an association between these hazardous modifiable factors and the chronic inflammatory state observed in MS.

  1. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... policy, signed by the University's senior management, which must include commitments to regulatory...) Policies and procedures for managing environmental documents and records applicable to this Environmental... identified in the Environmental Management Plan must be informed of relevant policies, procedures or...

  2. The Genetic and Environmental Factors for Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Shaag, Ariela; Millodot, Michel; Shneor, Einat; Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is the most common cornea ectatic disorder. It is characterized by a cone-shaped thin cornea leading to myopia, irregular astigmatism, and vision impairment. It affects all ethnic groups and both genders. Both environmental and genetic factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This review is to summarize the current research development in KC epidemiology and genetic etiology. Environmental factors include but are not limited to eye rubbing, atopy, sun exposure, and geography. Genetic discoveries have been reviewed with evidence from family-based linkage analysis and fine mapping in linkage region, genome-wide association studies, and candidate genes analyses. A number of genes have been discovered at a relatively rapid pace. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying KC pathogenesis will significantly advance our understanding of KC and promote the development of potential therapies. PMID:26075261

  3. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Environmental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronamraju, Deepti; Odin, Joseph; Bach, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease of unclear etiology. It is a chronic, progressive condition that causes intrahepatic ductal destruction ultimately leading to symptoms of cholestasis, cirrhosis and liver failure. The disease predominantly affects middle aged Caucasian women. It has a predilection to certain regions and is found in higher incidences in North America and Northern Europe. It also has a genetic predisposition with a concordance rate of 60% among monozygotic twins. Combinations of genetic and environmental factors are proposed in the pathogenesis of this disease with a compelling body of evidence that suggests a role for both these factors. This review will elucidate data on the proposed environmental agents involved the disease's pathogenesis including xenobiotic and microbial exposure and present some of the supporting epidemiologic data. PMID:21297251

  4. Environmental and genetical factors in airway allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Idzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that approximately 23% of the European population is clinically diagnosed with allergies. In the past three decades, an increase in the incidence of respiratory allergies was noted. At the beginning of the 20th century allergic inflammations affected only around 1% of the world population. Medical symptoms of allergic airway inflammation are variable for different patients. Airways allergy are complex phenotypes, which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Potential environmental factors include air pollution, tobacco smoke, diet and hygienic habits. The base of phenotypes diversity is still unknown. Genetic studies of allergic disease are complex , the disease derives from the global effect of a series of genes considered individually. What is more, there are epigenetic effects and interactions among the possible causal genes and a range of environmental factors. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in genes encoding chemokines and their receptors, interleukins and their receptors, eosinophil peroxidase and leukotrienes have been found as a possible factor for a development of allergic airway inflammation. It is known that SNPs are specific for different cohort.

  5. Perinatal risk factors including malformation; Perinatale Risikofaktoren einschliesslich Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project `Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria` is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG). [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die haeufigsten in der Literatur beschriebenen Faktoren, die einen unguenstigen Einfluss auf den Schwangerschaftsverlauf ausueben koennen, gegeben. Ein Hauptgewicht liegt dabei auf der Beschreibung von solchen Faktoren, die mit der Induktion von Fehlbildungen in Zusammenhang gebracht werden koennen, so unter anderem auch der praenatalen Strahlenexposition. Diese Arbeit, die im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens `Strahlenbiologisches Umweltmonitoring Bayern` angefertigt wurde, bildet die Grundlage einer im Sinne einer umweltbezogenen Gesundheitsberichterstattung retro- bzw. prospektiv angelegten Auswertung der Saeuglingssterblichkeit, des Perinatalgeschehens und der Fehlbildungshaeufigkeit in Bayern, wobei neben der ionisierenden Strahlung als Risikofaktor auch andere im Rahmen einer oekologischen Studie erfassbare Risiken, wie beispielsweise Industrieansiedlungen, Muellverbrennungsanlagen und -deponien oder Urbanitaet beruecksichtigt werden sollen. (orig./MG).

  6. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  7. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  8. A surplus production model including environmental effects: Application to the Senegalese white shrimp stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaw, Modou; Gascuel, Didier; Jouffre, Didier; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2009-12-01

    In Senegal, two stocks of white shrimp ( Penaeusnotialis) are intensively exploited, one in the north and another in the south. We used surplus production models including environmental effects to analyse their changes in abundance over the past 10 years and to estimate their Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the related fishing effort ( EMSY). First, yearly abundance indices were estimated from commercial statistics using GLM techniques. Then, two environmental indices were alternatively tested in the model: the coastal upwelling intensity from wind speeds provided by the SeaWifs database and the primary production derived from satellite infrared images of chlorophyll a. Models were fitted, with or without the environmental effect, to the 1996-2005 time series. They express stock abundance and catches as functions of the fishing effort and the environmental index (when considered). For the northern stock, fishing effort and abundance fluctuate over the period without any clear trends. The model based on the upwelling index explains 64.9% of the year-to-year variability. It shows that the stock was slightly overexploited in 2002-2003 and is now close to full exploitation. Stock abundance strongly depends on environmental conditions; consequently, the MSY estimate varies from 300 to 900 tons according to the upwelling intensity. For the southern stock, fishing effort has strongly increased over the past 10 years, while abundance has been reduced 4-fold. The environment has a significant effect on abundance but only explains a small part of the year-to-year variability. The best fit is obtained using the primary production index ( R2 = 0.75), and the stock is now significantly overfished regardless of environmental conditions. MSY varies from 1200 to 1800 tons according to environmental conditions. Finally, in northern Senegal, the upwelling is highly variable from year to year and constitutes the major factor determining productivity. In the south, hydrodynamic

  9. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  10. Environmental factors in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tanja Stenbaek; Jess, Tine; Vind, Ida;

    2011-01-01

    The role of environmental factors in development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to assess a number of formerly suggested environmental factors in a case-control study of an unselected and recently diagnosed group of patients with IBD...

  11. Environmental factors in Tourette syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Dietrich, Andrea; Edwards, Mark J.; Elamin, Ishraga; Martino, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during the prenatal period, perinatal stages, and postnatal life may contribute to onset and course of Tourette syndrome (TS). Pregnancy-related noxious exposures may be more frequent in pregnancies of children who will develop TS, particularly maternal smoking and prenatal l

  12. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  13. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  14. 47 CFR 1.1311 - Environmental information to be included in the environmental assessment (EA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environmental and other considerations which led to the selection of the particular site and, if relevant, the... argumentative or conclusory) and concise with sufficient detail to explain the environmental consequences and to..., natural migration paths for birds and other wildlife, and sites of historic, architectural, or...

  15. Environmental Performance in Countries Worldwide: Determinant Factors and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gallego-Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental performance of countries and the variables that can influence it. At the same time, we performed a multivariate analysis using the HJ-biplot, an exploratory method that looks for hidden patterns in the data, obtained from the usual singular value decomposition (SVD of the data matrix, to contextualize the countries grouped by geographical areas and the variables relating to environmental indicators included in the environmental performance index. The sample used comprises 149 countries of different geographic areas. The findings obtained from the empirical analysis emphasize that socioeconomic factors, such as economic wealth and education, as well as institutional factors represented by the style of public administration, in particular control of corruption, are determinant factors of environmental performance in the countries analyzed. In contrast, no effect on environmental performance was found for factors relating to the internal characteristics of a country or political factors.

  16. Environmental factors and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2006-09-01

    Indoor allergens are potent triggers for acute and chronic pediatric asthma. Environmental control measures of these allergens should be considered first-line treatment measures. Allergen avoidance can produce changes in disease activity and symptoms that can be beneficial before any medical intervention is implemented. In addition to allergen avoidance, studies evaluating other exposures, such as endotoxin and diet, in the pathogenesis of asthma are in progress. Understanding the complex relationships between exposure and allergy/asthma development is vitally important to the development of potentially more effective primary and secondary prevention strategies.

  17. Environmental factors affecting autoimmune thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, M.; Paul, T.L.; Roti, E.; Braverman, L.E.

    1987-06-01

    A number of environmental factors affect the incidence and progression of autoimmune thyroid disease. Exposure to excess iodine, certain drugs, infectious agents and pollutants, and stress have all been implicated.

  18. Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieburtz, Karl; Wunderle, Kathryn B

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions.

  19. Environmental factors and cervical artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Valeria; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2005-01-01

    A history of a minor precipitating event is frequently elicited in patients with a spontaneous dissection of the carotid or vertebral artery. Other precipitating events associated with hyperextension or rotation of the neck include practicing yoga, painting a ceiling, coughing, vomiting, sneezing, the receipt of anesthesia, and the act of resuscitation. Chiropractic manipulation of the neck has been associated with carotid artery dissection and, particularly, vertebral artery dissection. Another risk factor for spontaneous dissections seems to be a recent history of a respiratory tract infection. The possibility of an infectious trigger is supported by the finding of a seasonal variation in the incidence of spontaneous dissections, with a peak incidence in fall. A potential link with common risk factors for vascular disease, such as tobacco use, hypertension, and the use of oral contraceptives, has not been systematically evaluated, but atherosclerosis appears to be distinctly uncommon in patients with a dissection of the carotid or vertebral arteries. In conclusion, although any hypotheses on the pathogenic mechanisms linking environmental factors and dissection remain speculative at present, we believe that these hypotheses may contribute to better define the spectrum of pathogenic conditions predisposing a cervical artery to dissection and provide arguments to better investigate the single or combined effect of such susceptibility factors in future studies.

  20. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  1. Environmental factors that shape biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, Masanori; Inaba, Tomohiro; Kiyokawa, Tatsunori; Obana, Nozomu; Yawata, Yutaka; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to the environment and alter gene expression. Recent studies have revealed the social aspects of bacterial life, such as biofilm formation. Biofilm formation is largely affected by the environment, and the mechanisms by which the gene expression of individual cells affects biofilm development have attracted interest. Environmental factors determine the cell's decision to form or leave a biofilm. In addition, the biofilm structure largely depends on the environment, implying that biofilms are shaped to adapt to local conditions. Second messengers such as cAMP and c-di-GMP are key factors that link environmental factors with gene regulation. Cell-to-cell communication is also an important factor in shaping the biofilm. In this short review, we will introduce the basics of biofilm formation and further discuss environmental factors that shape biofilm formation. Finally, the state-of-the-art tools that allow us investigate biofilms under various conditions are discussed.

  2. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  3. [Environmental factors and primary biliary cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L P; Zhao, H; Lyu, B; Cheng, J L

    2016-07-20

    The complex interplay between immune factors and genetic susceptibility plays an essential role in autoimmune diseases. This is especially true for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). PBC is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by the destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts and the presence of high-titer antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA). Among the currently known risk factors, genetic predisposition remains to be the dominant one. However, it is insufficient to explain the different geographic distributions of PBC and the incomplete concordance in identical twins. This suggests an association between specific environmental factors and the development of PBC. Nevertheless, a clear and rational association of environmental factors with primary biliary cirrhosis has not yet been fully elucidated. Our current understanding of the environmental triggers of PBC is limited to numerous suspected factors involved in its development, such as xenobiotics, electrophilic drugs, infection, and other physical, chemical, and even biological factors. Although the factors leading to the breakdown of immune tolerance in PBC are still largely unknown, related geoepidemiological studies may help us better understand the impact of the environment. In addition, a better understanding of the interplay between environmental factors and PBC is the critical step toward improving our management and control of PBC and autoimmunity in general.

  4. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  5. "Environmental hypertensionology" the effects of environmental factors on blood pressure in clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Weder, Alan B; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2011-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is affected by many environmental factors including ambient temperature, altitude, latitude, noise, and air pollutants. Given their pervasiveness, it is plausible that such factors may also have an impact on hypertension prevalence and control rates. Health care providers should be aware that the environment can play a significant role in altering BP. Although not among the established modifiable risk factors (eg, obesity) for hypertension, reducing exposures when pertinent should be considered to prevent or control hypertension. The authors provide a concise review of the evidence linking diverse environmental factors with BP and suggest an approach for incorporating this knowledge into clinical practice. The authors propose using the term environmental hypertensionology to refer to the study of the effects of environmental factors on BP in clinical and research settings. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Engineering Design Handbook: Environmental Series. Part Three. Induced Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-20

    3-18 3-12. Instruments for Sample Collection 9-19 3-13. Major Deserts of the World 3-20 3-14. Corrosion of Open- hearth Steel...lightning, but otherwise is overshadowed by artificial sources. Each of these induced environmental factors is also influenced greatly by natural...identification: 1. Open- hearth furnaces 2. Incineration 3. Cement plants 4. Fuel oil combustion 5. Coal combustion plus diffraction effects apply

  7. Environmental risk factors for dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killin, Lewis O J; Starr, John M; Shiue, Ivy J; Russ, Tom C

    2016-10-12

    Dementia risk reduction is a major and growing public health priority. While certain modifiable risk factors for dementia have been identified, there remains a substantial proportion of unexplained risk. There is evidence that environmental risk factors may explain some of this risk. Thus, we present the first comprehensive systematic review of environmental risk factors for dementia. We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases from their inception to January 2016, bibliographies of review articles, and articles related to publically available environmental data. Articles were included if they examined the association between an environmental risk factor and dementia. Studies with another outcome (for example, cognition), a physiological measure of the exposure, case studies, animal studies, and studies of nutrition were excluded. Data were extracted from individual studies which were, in turn, appraised for methodological quality. The strength and consistency of the overall evidence for each risk factor identified was assessed. We screened 4784 studies and included 60 in the review. Risk factors were considered in six categories: air quality, toxic heavy metals, other metals, other trace elements, occupational-related exposures, and miscellaneous environmental factors. Few studies took a life course approach. There is at least moderate evidence implicating the following risk factors: air pollution; aluminium; silicon; selenium; pesticides; vitamin D deficiency; and electric and magnetic fields. Studies varied widely in size and quality and therefore we must be circumspect in our conclusions. Nevertheless, this extensive review suggests that future research could focus on a short list of environmental risk factors for dementia. Furthermore, further robust, longitudinal studies with repeated measures of environmental exposures are required to confirm these associations.

  8. Environmental Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie A Molodecky; Gilaad G. Kaplan

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune res...

  9. Environmental contaminants as etiologic factors for diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Longnecker, M. P.; Daniels, J L

    2001-01-01

    For both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the rates have been increasing in the United States and elsewhere; rates vary widely by country, and genetic factors account for less than half of new cases. These observations suggest environmental factors cause both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Occupational exposures have been associated with increased risk of diabetes. In addition, recent data suggest that toxic substances in the environment, other than infectious agents or exposures that stimul...

  10. Environmental Factors Affecting Avian Reproduction and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Darcy Fay Kato

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate timing of reproduction is crucial to animals’ reproductive success and fitness. Animals living in unpredictable environments do not constrain their breeding to one season, but rather breed any time of the year in which good conditions occur. These animals, termed “opportunistic” breeders, cannot predict when good conditions will occur based on the seasons, and must instead respond quickly to proximate environmental factors to successfully breed and raise young. Animals may resp...

  11. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  12. Environmental contaminants as etiologic factors for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longnecker, M P; Daniels, J L

    2001-12-01

    For both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the rates have been increasing in the United States and elsewhere; rates vary widely by country, and genetic factors account for less than half of new cases. These observations suggest environmental factors cause both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Occupational exposures have been associated with increased risk of diabetes. In addition, recent data suggest that toxic substances in the environment, other than infectious agents or exposures that stimulate an immune response, are associated with the occurrence of these diseases. We reviewed the epidemiologic data that addressed whether environmental contaminants might cause type 1 or type 2 diabetes. For type 1 diabetes, higher intake of nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds, as well as higher serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls have been associated with increased risk. Overall, however, the data were limited or inconsistent. With respect to type 2 diabetes, data on arsenic and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin relative to risk were suggestive of a direct association but were inconclusive. The occupational data suggested that more data on exposure to N-nitroso compounds, arsenic, dioxins, talc, and straight oil machining fluids in relation to diabetes would be useful. Although environmental factors other than contaminants may account for the majority of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the etiologic role of several contaminants and occupational exposures deserves further study.

  13. Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Because of its high prevalence and the associated medical and psychosocial risks, research into the causes of childhood obesity has experienced a tremendous upswing. Formal genetic data based on twin, adoption, and family studies lead to the conclusion that at least 50% of the interindividual variance of the body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is due to genetic factors. As a result of the recent advent of genome-wide association studies, the first polygenes involved in body weight regulation have been detected. Each of the predisposing alleles explain a few hundred grams of body weight. More polygenes will be detected in the near future, thus for the first time allowing in-depth analyses of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. They also will enable developmental studies to assess the effect of such alleles throughout childhood and adulthood. The recent increase in obesity prevalence rates illustrates the extreme relevance of environmental factors for body weight. Similar to polygenes, the effect sizes of most such environmental factors are likely to be small, thus rendering their detection difficult. In addition, the validation of the true causality of such factors is not a straightforward task. Important factors are socioeconomic status and television consumption. The authors conclude by briefly assessing implications for treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

  14. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Kubota

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.

  15. Factors Influencing Environmental Scanning in the Organizational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Correia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and analyses the factors internal to the organization, which affect the activity of environmental scanning, understood here as the information seeking activity of managers, directed at the company's external environment. These factors include individual factors, such as information consciousness and exposure to information, and organizational factors such as information climate and "outwardness". The main relationships among them are also analysed. These factors were identified in the course of research aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding of the environmental scanning process (Correia & Wilson, 1996. The methodology used - a case-study approach coupled with the grounded theory method of qualitative analysis - was of major importance in obtaining information that is grounded largely on the personal experience of managers.

  16. Environmental factors and elements of Ljig municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljanović Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some of the basic natural and social-geographic factors are analyzed, with the aim to identify their influence on the environmental status. Qualitative assessment are attempted about the various elements of the environment, and attention directed to the problems of noise, and problems of communal waste disposal. A synthetic presentation of the environmental status in the municipality of Ljig is given. The territory of Ljig has been spatially differentiated, namely, it has been categorized according to the degree of pollution. High concentration of the population, and activities, in the town Ljig itself has produced a degradation worse than in the other settlements. On the other hand, the settlements in which is situated the locationally non-flexible industry (quarrying and processing of stone are facing problems of other sort. In the villages, however, which are slowly becoming depopulated, the quality of the environment is satisfactory. In accordance with such facts, revealed about the environmental status, basic aims have been defined as to how to protect the environment in the future. For the realization of environmental aims, various measures and activities are being proposed, with the purpose to improve the situation in the threatened zones, and to safeguard the quality of the environment on the entire municipal territory of Ljig.

  17. Including Indigenous Knowledges and Pedagogies in Science-Based Environmental Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Dawn; Swayze, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In exploring ways to respectfully include Indigenous Knowledges and pedagogies within environmental education programs, the challenge is to ensure strategies used will meaningfully support learning while reflecting local cultural traditions, languages, beliefs, and perspectives. In this paper, key components for science-based environmental…

  18. The Search for Causative Environmental Factors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, Gerhard; Zeitz, Jonas; Biedermann, Luc

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a 'prototype disease' for chronic auto-inflammatory disorders with a polygenic background and important multifaceted environmental trigger components. The environmental factors contribute both to pathogenesis and disease flares. Thus, IBD is a disease par excellence to study the interactions between host genetics, environmental factors (such as infections or smoking) and 'in-vironmental' factors - for example, our intestinal microbiota. Longitudinal intercurrent events, including the impact of long-term medication on disease progression or stabilization, can exemplarily be studied in this disease group. Whilst alterations in the human genome coding relevant variant protein products have most likely not emerged significantly over the last 50 years, the incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has dramatically increased in Western countries and more recently in the Asia Pacific area. An interesting concept indicates that 'Western lifestyle factors' trigger chronic intestinal inflammation or disease flares in a genetically susceptible host. To understand the disease pathogenesis as well as triggers for flares or determinants of disease courses, we must further investigate potential en(in)vironmental factors. As environmental conditions, in contrast to genetic risk factors, can be influenced, knowledge on those risk factors becomes crucial to modulate disease incidence, disease course or clinical presentation. It is obvious that prevention of environmentally triggered disease flares would be a goal most relevant for IBD patients. An increased prevalence of IBD in urban environment has been documented in Switzerland by the Swiss IBD cohort study. Several studies have attempted to identify such factors; however, only a few have been validated. The best investigated environmental factor identified in IBD cohort analyses is smoking. Other environmental factors that have been associated with clinical presentation or

  19. Plant Phenotypic Plasticity in Response to Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Gratani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to heterogeneity in the environment where new stress factors (i.e., climate change, land use change, and invasiveness are introduced, and where inter- and intraspecies differences may reflect resource limitation and/or environmental stress factors. Phenotypic plasticity is considered one of the major means by which plants can cope with environmental factor variability. Nevertheless, the extent to which phenotypic plasticity may facilitate survival under environmental condition changes still remains largely unknown because results are sometimes controversial. Thus, it is important to identify plant functional traits in which plasticity may play a determinant role in plant response to global change as well as on the ecological consequences at an ecosystem level for the competition between wild and invasive species, considering that species with a greater adaptive plasticity may be more likely to survive in novel environmental conditions. In the near future, it will be important to increase long-term studies on natural populations in order to understand plant response to environmental factor fluctuations including climate change. There is the necessity to analyze variations at phenotypic and genetic levels for the same species and, in particular, for endemic and rare species because these could have drastic effects at an ecosystem level.

  20. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  1. Asthma and Environmental Factors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzadeh M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most prevalent atopic diseases in childhood. It is characterized by inflammation of conductive airways and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Environmental factors introduced to child in early years of life may have a protective or harmful role in developing atopic diseases. To evaluate the influence of some environmental factors such as cat or dog ownership, smoking of mother or father and environmental pollution on prevalence of wheezing in children. Subjects and methods: This was a cross sectional retrospective study. A questionnaire was designed based on International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC. Parents of the subjects were asked to fill in the questionnaires. Children’s wheezing association with keeping cats and dogs, smoking mother and father and frequency of truck passing in place of residence was investigated. 545 children were recruited in our study. Prevalence of wheezing was 9%. Keeping cats in first year of life and last year was associated with less wheezing. But the latter association was not statistically significant. Keeping dogs was so scarce in area of our study, so we could not perform a rightful analysis. Frequency of truck passing was significantly higher in those with wheezing. Keeping cats in first year of life was a significant protective factor, whereas residence in an area with frequent truck passing increased wheezing in children. Results of our study can emphasize the need to keep children away from polluted areas. Further studies are needed to investigate whether keeping a pet in household can benefit children regarding all possible concerns and benefits.

  2. Genetic and environmental factors of atopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Otsu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopy is a common immune disorder characterized by raised IgE levels, which lead to clinical disorders (i.e. primarily bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjuctivitis. Interleukin (IL-4 and IL-13, derived from T-helper cell type 2 (Th2 subsets, are central in mediating IgE production and development of immediate hypersensitivity. Atopy is also characterized by Th1/Th2 skewing that derives from genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of atopy has increased in recent decades, especially in developed countries among children and young adults. In the present review, we first discuss the relationship between the Th1/Th2 imbalance and the recent rise of allergy. Second, we present evidence that human genetic variation is also a key factor responsible for atopy.

  3. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  4. Factores medioambientales, vivienda y salud Environmental factors, housing and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Iglesias García

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los factores medioambientales más importantes que influyen en la salud de las personas es la vivienda, en la que pasamos dos tercios del día.En primer lugar, se realiza una revisión bibliográfica de los condicionantes de la vivienda que influyen sobre la salud. En segundo lugar, se analiza una serie de encuestas realizadas a residentes en bloques de viviendas, de varias ciudades europeas. Por último, se establecen los determinantes de la vivienda que influyen más en la salud y calidad de vida de sus residentes y que deben tenerse en cuenta en la renovación o modernización de las viviendas.A continuación se determinan los “factores ambientales de la vivienda que influyen potencialmente sobre la salud” y que deben ser reflejados en cualquier estudio sobre vivienda y salud. Por último se enumeran una serie de conclusiones y recomendaciones.One of the most important environmental factors affecting people is housing, since we live three quarters of our lives inside them.Firstly, a bibliographical revision about conditioning factors affecting health is made. Secondly, a series of questionnaires are analysed. They are addressed to apartment houses dwellers, in different European cities. Lastly, dwelling determinants which influence the most in health and quality of life, to be taken into account in the renovation or modernization of dwellings, are established.To end up, “environmental factors of dwellings potentially influencing health” and which must be taken into consideration in any study on housing and health, are determined. Finally, a series of conclusions and recommendations are made.

  5. Maternal environmental risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyvas, Aristotelis V; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Pantazi, Mantha; Lianos, Georgios D; Stranjalis, George; Alexiou, George A

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is one of the most frequent CNS congenital malformations, representing an entity with serious pathological consequences. Although several studies have previously assessed child-related risk factors associated with CH development, there is a gap of knowledge on maternal environmental risk factors related to CH. The authors have systematically assessed extrinsic factors in the maternal environment that potentially confer an increased risk of CH development. METHODS The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were systematically searched for works published between 1966 and December 2015 to identify all relevant articles published in English. Only studies that investigated environmental risk factors concerning the mother-either during gestation or pregestationally-were included. RESULTS In total, 13 studies (5 cohorts, 3 case series, 3 case-control studies, 1 meta-analysis, and 1 case report) meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Maternal medication or alcohol use during gestation; lifestyle modifiable maternal pathologies such as obesity, diabetes, or hypertension; lack of prenatal care; and a low socioeconomic status were identified as significant maternal environmental risk factors for CH development. Maternal infections and trauma to the mother during pregnancy have also been highlighted as potential mother-related risk factors for CH. CONCLUSIONS Congenital hydrocephalus is an important cause of serious infant health disability that can lead to health inequalities among adults. The present study identified several maternal environmental risk factors for CH, thus yielding important scientific information relevant to prevention of some CH cases. However, further research is warranted to confirm the impact of the identified factors and examine their underlying behavioral and/or biological basis, leading to the generation of suitable prevention strategies.

  6. Bio-environmental factors associated with myopia: An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, V; Tello, A; Camacho, P A; Parra, M M; Merayo-Lloves, J

    2017-07-01

    Experimental studies in animals, as well as observational and intervention studies in humans, seem to support the premise that the development of juvenile myopia is promoted by a combination of the effect of genetic and environmental factors, with a complex interaction between them. The very rapid increase in myopia rates in some parts of the world, such as Southeast Asia, supports a significant environmental effect. Several lines of evidence suggest that humans might respond to various external factors, such as increased activity in near vision, increased educational pressure, decreased exposure to sunlight outdoors, dietary changes (including increased intake of carbohydrates), as well as low light levels indoors. All these factors could be associated with a higher prevalence of myopia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental risk factors of burns in children – review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Kawalec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of burns is relatively a common issue in many developing and developed countries. Most burns occur at home, so the home environment plays an important role in these injuries. Considerable attention has been recently paid to environmental factors such as socioeconomic including family, living conditions and their influence on frequency of burns. This manuscript reviews papers published in the last few years to show if environmental factors influence the risk of burns in children. The researchers point to the relationship between age, education of parents, number of siblings, home environment and the frequency of burns in children. Identification of risk factors plays an important role in planning preventable measures.

  8. Environmental factors regulating soil organic matter chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Teresia; Montelius, Malin; Reyier, Henrik; Rietz, Karolina; Karlsson, Susanne; Lindberg, Cecilia; Andersson, Malin; Danielsson, Åsa; Bastviken, David

    2016-04-01

    Natural chlorination of organic matter is common in soils. Despite the widespread abundance of soil chlorinated soil organic matter (SOM), frequently exceeding soil chloride abundance in surface soils, and a common ability of microorganisms to produce chlorinated SOM, we lack fundamental knowledge about dominating processes and organisms responsible for the chlorination. To take one step towards resolving the terrestrial chlorine (Cl) puzzle, this study aims to analyse how environmental factors influence chlorination of SOM. Four factors were chosen for this study: soil moisture (W), nitrogen (N), chloride (Cl) and organic matter quality (C). These factors are all known to be important for soil processes. Laboratory incubations with 36Cl as a Cl tracer were performed in a two soil incubation experiments. It was found that addition of chloride and nitrogen seem to hamper the chlorination. For the C treatment, on the other hand, the results show that chlorination is enhanced by increased availability of labile organic matter (glucose and maltose). Even higher chlorination was observed when nitrogen and water were added in combination with labile organic matter. The effect that more labile organic matter strongly stimulated the chlorination rates was confirmed by the second separate experiment. These results indicate that chlorination was not primarily a way to cut refractory organic matter into digestible molecules, representing one previous hypothesis, but is related with microbial metabolism in other ways that will be further discussed in our presentation.

  9. Domestic Environmental Risk Factors Associated with Falling in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This is a cross-sectional study aiming at analyzing the relation between falling and domestic environmental –risk factors in community-dwelling elderly.Methods: The study consisted of 243 randomly chosen community-dwelling elderly over 65 years of age living around a health care center in Central Selcuklu, Konya. Data were collected with a questionnaire form including socio-demographic and other characteristics, with the Rivermead Mobility Index for evaluating mobility condition and an Evaluation Form of Domestic Environmental Risk Factors of Falling (EFDERF, which is developed by the researcher to assess domestic environmental risk factors of falling.Results: Based on (EFDERF high number of problems lived in bathroom/restroom, kitchen, bedroom, sitting room/saloon and in all other areas was a risk factor in terms of domestic falling characteristics while the number of problems lived in hall and stairs was not a significant risk factor.Conclusion: EFDERF may be used by the nurses and health professionals to evaluate risk of falling and collecting data after visits in primary-care of elderly.

  10. Environmental Factors that Interfere in the Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the application of experiments with sixth graders of elementary school, aiming motivation, skills development focused on observation, interpersonal relationships in teams, related to the various forms of language skills, as well to identify and resume misconceptions about the external (environmental factors required for seed germination, in order that the contents developed this year refer to the study of the earth, soil, water and air, among others, and that many students do not understand all the concepts and the importance of these factors for the existence of living beings. The experiments were organized in two stages, first to observe the influence of soil and another moment to observe the interference of water, air and light. The temperature impractical activities were conducted, however, during the observation period (three weeks experiments remained in a controlled environment in the science laboratory. For the experiments we used materials easily found in commerce, some recycled; students were organized into six teams, which improved the data collection, the maintenance of the experiments, the calculations of the percentages, and the producing of report. Many of these contents had not yet been studied in other disciplines, but were developed in the discipline of science, respecting prior knowledge and cognitive abilities. The use of experiments was effective for the construction of new knowledge and to develop skills necessary to start the search.

  11. [Environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Claire; Cottereau, Edouard; de Pauw, Antoine; Elan, Camille; Dagousset, Isabelle; Fourchotte, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lae, Marick; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    In France, endometrial cancer is at the first rank of gynecological cancers for cancer incidence, before ovarian and cervical cancers. In fact, the number of incident cases has been estimated to 7275 for the year 2012; the number of death due to endometrial cancer to 2025. This cancer is hormone-dependent and endogenous (reproductive factors) or exogenous (oral combined contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy) causes of exposition to estrogens are the major environmental risk factors for both types of endometrial cancers: type I or well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas; and type II including all other histological types: papillary serous adenocarcinomas, clear cell adenocarcinomas and carcinosarcomas, also known as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor, MMMT. Obesity, diabetes mellitus and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer with tamoxifen are also associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Genetic factors may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer either as "minor genetic factors" (susceptibility factors), which remain largely unknown and are responsible for the increased observed risk in relatives of women affected with endometrial cancer; or as major genetic factors responsible for hereditary forms and namely for Lynch syndrome whose genetic transmission is of autosomic dominant type. The appropriate recognition of Lynch syndrome is of critical importance because affected patients and their relatives should benefit from specific care. The aims of this review is to describe major environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial cancer with specific attention to most recent advances in this field and to describe recommendations for care of at-risk women.

  12. Economic/Environmental power dispatch for power systems including wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen BEN JAOUED

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the Economic/Environmental power Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind energies. The power flow model for a stall regulated fixed speed wind generator (SR-FSWG system is discussed to assess the steady-state condition of power systems with wind farms. Modified Newton-Raphson algorithm including SR-FSWG is used to solve the load flow equations in which the state variables of the wind generators are combined with the nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the entire network. The EED problem is a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, two competing fuel cost and pollutant emission objectives should be minimized simultaneously while satisfying certain system constraints. In this paper, the resolution is done by the algorithm multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus test system and using MATLAB software package.

  13. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Eldin Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners.

  14. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD.

  15. Environmental factors and diseases of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longnecker, D.S.

    1977-10-01

    The five major diseases of the pancreas, diabetes, cystic fibrosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, and carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas, are discussed in terms of environmental influences. Homeostasis and disease in humans and the five pancreas diseases are described. Many cases of chronic and acute pancreatitis are numbered among those human pancreatic diseases attributed to the effect of chemical agents, including alcohol and drugs. The cause is not known in many cases of human pancreatitis, including interstitial, acute, and chronic clinical forms. Epidemiological studies indicate that the increasing incidence of carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas in the U.S. may reflect chemical carcinogenesis. On the basis of experimental observations, it is known that pancreatic islet cells can be damaged directly by toxic chemicals, and that islet cell tumors can be chemically induced. Adequate background data exist to conclude that several pancreatic diseases of obscure etiology may be due in part to hitherto unidentified toxic effects of chemical agents encountered in personal or general environments. 72 references, 5 tables.

  16. Environmental factors influence for pho-voltaic solar energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour Adeh, E.; Higgins, C. W.

    2016-12-01

    Solar energy is the fastest growing renewable energy, thus it is critical that we understand design solar production efficiencies and how they are modified by local environmental factors. A small change in efficiency can have dramatic economic consequences. While the current optimized designs for efficiency of the solar arrays largely ignore environmental factors and focus on the PV panel temperature. In this research, the influence of these microclimatological variables on solar energy productivity was investigated with an in-field study at the Rabbit Hills solar arrays near Oregon State University. The acquired data included temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation, and energy output. A nondimensionalized approach was used to synthesize the data. The preliminary results confirm that the efficiency of the solar array is directly affected by the environmental temperature (expected). However, the efficiency is more impacted by the wind speed which suggests that there is an optimal panel elevation, economically. Other factors such as relative humidity play smaller roles on the solar panel efficiency.

  17. Effective Factors in Environmental Health Status of Grocery Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.

  18. 42 CFR 137.329 - What environmental considerations must be included in the construction project agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.329 What environmental considerations....311. (c) Identification of the environmental review procedures adopted by the Self-Governance Tribe... environmental determination in accordance with the Self-Governance Tribe's adopted procedures....

  19. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the

  20. Environmental performance of gasified willow from different lands including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Pilegaard, Kim;

    2016-01-01

    derived from latest world deforestation statistics, while a commercial feed mix of equivalent nutritive value was assumed to substitute the displaced grass as fodder. Intensification effects were included in both iLUC factors as additional N-fertilizer consumption. Finally, DR impacts were considered...... was developed for the estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from indirect land-use changes (iLUC) induced by willow cropping on arable land. For this, area expansion results from a general equilibrium economic model were combined with global LUC trends to differentiate between land transformation (as...... additional agricultural expansion, in areas with historical deforestation) and occupation (as delayed relaxation, DR, in areas with historical land abandonment) impacts. A biophysical approach was followed to determine the iLUCfeed emissions factor from marginal grassland. Land transformation impacts were...

  1. VARIOUS PHARMACEUTICALS INCLUDING DRUGS AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kirrolia and Vikas Nehra*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the potential and, in particular, some relevant hazards associated with the use of veterinary drugs, various pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals that have produced serious environmental risks and affected the life of people along with other animals by posing great health risks. Risk analysis regarding these problems has also been discussed with the measures to handle the problem at global level. The most contentious residues which occur in meat, milk and eggs along with the environment are antibacterial drugs, hormonal growth promoters, heavy metals and industrial chemicals that are producing potential toxic health effects that include systemic toxicity, mutations, cancer, birth defects and reproductive disorders. Systemic toxicity involves changes in the structure and function of organs and organ systems: weight change, structural alterations and changes in organ system or whole animal function. Functional effects may include changes in the lungs, liver, kidneys, cardiovascular function, brain, nervous system activity, behavior and in production of resistance to disease. Furthermore, continued monitoring and periodic reassessment of risks posed by these contaminants is needed to detect or anticipate new problems so that appropriate action can be taken in the interests of public safety.

  2. Environmental Pollutants as Risk Factors for Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eChin-Chan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD and Parkinson (PD have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment, from diet to the new nanomaterials as putative risk factors has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau, causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of AD. The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn, which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies, a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzymes such as neprilysin or insulin degrading enzyme. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms by maternal nutrient supplementation and exposure to heavy metals and pesticides have been proposed to lead phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses data from epidemiological and experimental studies about the role of environmental factors in the development of idiopathic AD and PD, and their mechanisms of action.

  3. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  4. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Stony Brook University found no association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from residential power use and breast cancer risk. 5 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Cancer-causing ... to naturally occurring and synthetic cancer, and designing ...

  5. Hapiness and Environmental Awareness – Factors of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Frajman Jakšić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth was long perceived as the key goal of economic development. But as the capitalist economies got richer and as negative consequences of the growth spurt became more obvious, the development paradigm began to change course towards sustainability, which encompasses economic, environmental and social dimensions. The purpose of the article is to link the value system in the society and the possibility of the society to embrace the sustainable development model. We first provide the theoretical framework, followed by an empirical analysis of Croatia. The stress is on the environmental component of sustainability. The article builds from the popular stream of economic theory, i.e. economic analysis of happiness, which claims that happiness results not solely from economic factors, but also personal and broader social elements. These can also include environmental variables. In economic analysis of happiness, the consumer is not a standard utility maximizing consumer, who directly links utility and consumption of goods. His happiness is largely determined also by environmental elements. The existence of such consumers is consequently a prerequisite for the establishment of the sustainable economy. Empirical results show that: (1 consumers in general are at the moment not well educated about ecological problems, but (2 those that are give a lot of attention to environmental aspects. It is also important to note that future sustainability depends primarily on the attitude of current young cohorts (15 to 24 years, which, unfortunately, are least environmentally conscious. The role of the government and public institutions in preparing broader educational campaigns can therefore be significant.

  6. In search of a temporal niche: environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Roelof A; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; van der Vinne, Vincent; De la Iglesia, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Time as an ecological niche variable or "temporal niche" can be defined in the context of the most prominent environmental cycles, including the tidal cycle, the lunar day and month, the solar day, and the earth year. For the current review, we focus on the 24-h domain generated through the earth's rotation around its axis (solar day). The daily environmental cycles of light and temperature are a dominant ecological factor generating a variety of adaptations among animals. In this review, we describe these adaptations with a special focus on the visual system and on the adaptive plasticity of activity patterns. Our goals are: (1) Underscore the importance of the 24-h time axis as critical variable in the ecological niche. (2) Highlight cases of temporal niche switches at the evolutionary timescale (phylogenetic level). (3) Review temporal niche switching within an individual's lifespan. (4) Evaluate possible underlying mechanisms for temporal niche switching. (5) Describe a new hypothesis of circadian thermoenergetics which may explain several cases of temporal niche switching in mammals. With this, we hope to inspire experiments under natural conditions or more complex laboratory environments, aimed to reveal environmental factors and mechanisms underlying specific temporal programs.

  7. Factors Influencing Environmental Scanning in the Organizational Context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zita Correia; T.D. Wilson

    2001-01-01

    ..., directed at the company's external environment. These factors include individual factors, such as information consciousness and exposure to information, and organizational factors such as information climate and "outwardness...

  8. Factors influencing environmentally responsible behavior in the Finnish service sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, M.

    2008-07-01

    Companies and society are increasingly interested in the environmental impacts caused by their various actions. The environmental impacts of industrial activities have been considerably reduced as a result of increased economic and normative steering. However, the majority of organizations nowadays operate in the service sector where normative steering is rare. This study concentrates on finding factors that encourage environmentally responsible behavior in service sector companies. Research on this area has until now been lacking. The methodological choices are quantitative survey research and a qualitative case study. The survey examined the effect that employees' environmental knowledge, attitudes, social pressure, and the company's environmental management system have on environmentally responsible behavior. 756 office workers' in four different companies answered the survey. The case study investigated the efficiency of electricity saving measures in a service company. The research results consist of three main findings. Firstly, the research shows that knowledge of causes of environmental problems does not lead to environmentally responsible behavior without appropriate environmental training being organized by the employer. Secondly, the results indicate that environmental training in companies improves employees' knowledge of both how to behave in an environmentally responsible manner and also of the environmental and economic effects of environmental behavior. Thirdly, the research results suggest that environmental training should be repeated regularly. This study presents new empirical knowledge of employees' environmental behavior and the factors affecting it in service sector companies. Companies aiming to improve their environmental efficiency can use these results in decision-making. Further research is needed to evaluate the content and curriculum of environmental training. The duration of the impact of environmental

  9. Discerning environmental factors affecting current tree growth in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, Emil; Russ, Radek; Šantrůčková, Hana; Altman, Jan; Kopáček, Jiří; Hůnová, Iva; Štěpánek, Petr; Oulehle, Filip; Tumajer, Jan; Ståhl, Göran

    2016-12-15

    We examined the effect of individual environmental factors on the current spruce tree growth assessed from a repeated country-level statistical landscape (incl. forest) survey in the Czech Republic. An extensive set of variables related to tree size, competition, site characteristics including soil texture, chemistry, N deposition and climate was tested within a random-effect model to explain growth in the conditions of dominantly managed forest ecosystems. The current spruce basal area increment was assessed from two consecutive landscape surveys conducted in 2008/2009 and six years later in 2014/2015. Tree size, age and competition within forest stands were found to be the dominant explanatory variables, whereas the expression of site characteristics, environmental and climatic drives was weaker. The significant site variables affecting growth included soil C/N ratio and soil exchangeable acidity (pH KCl; positive response) reflecting soil chemistry, long-term N-deposition (averaged since 1975) in combination with soil texture (clay content) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a drought index expressing moisture conditions. Sensitivity of growth to N-deposition was positive, although weak. SPI was positively related to and significant in explaining tree growth when expressed for the growth season. Except SPI, no significant relation of growth was determined to altitude-related variables (temperature, growth season length). We identified the current spruce growth optimum at elevations about 800ma.s.l. or higher in the conditions of the country. This suggests that at lower elevations, limitation by a more pronounced water deficit dominates, whereas direct temperature limitation may concern the less frequent higher elevations. The mixed linear model of spruce tree growth explained 55 and 65% of the variability with fixed and random effects included, respectively, and provided new insights on the current spruce tree growth and factors affecting it within the

  10. The Role of Environmental Factors in Digestive Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Lambert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of digestive cancer in each country is analyzed in cancer registries for Incidence and Mortality. Survival is estimated from registries with a correct follow-up. Estimated values of Incidence and Mortality, expressed as an age standardized rate (ASR for 100 000 persons, for all the population of a country are also found in the WHO-IARC database Globocan, recently edited for the year 2008. At each site of digestive tumors, the variations between countries, in cancer incidence, mortality and survival, depend on the resources and the global health status of the country. Indeed environmental causal factors linked to lifestyle may have an increasing or decreasing impact on the risk of cancer. Such factors are classified on 3 categories: 1- nutrition plays a determinant role in colorectal cancer with a higher risk in countries with more resources and more calories in the diet. 2- Toxic agents like alcohol and tobacco increase the risk at all sites of digestive cancer; their role is preponderant in esophageal cancer. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant in tropical, less developed countries, increases the risk of liver cancer. 3 – Infectious agents play a major role with the Bacteria H.pylori for stomach cancer over the world, and the Hepatitis virus B and C for liver cancer in less developed countries of Africa and Asia. The control of carcinogenic causal environmental factors is included in the primary prevention of digestive cancer.

  11. Update on environmental risk factors for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Tanya E; Anixt, Julia S; Loe, Irene M; Chirdkiatgumchai, Vilawan; Kuan, Lisa; Gilman, Richard C

    2011-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobehavioral disorder affecting 5% to 10% of children. Although considered to be a highly familial disorder, ADHD heritability estimates of 60% to 80% highlight the considerable role that environmental factors may still play in disorder susceptibility. Proposed ADHD environmental risk factors include prenatal substance exposures, heavy metal and chemical exposures, nutritional factors, and lifestyle/psychosocial factors. This paper reviews the literature published in 2010 investigating the association between environmental risk factors and ADHD or related symptomatology. Sources of risk factor exposure and the proposed mechanism by which each exposure is linked to ADHD-related neurobehavioral changes are also reported. Methodologic limitations of the current literature are discussed, and guidelines for future study are proposed. An improved understanding of the role that environmental factors play in ADHD etiology is critical to future ADHD prevention efforts.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Štrbac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.

  13. [Effect of environmental and individual factors in renal lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, L; Ciochină, Al D; Corciovă, C

    2011-01-01

    The large number of cases with renal lithiasis occurring in the population of the south-east region of Iasi county has determined us to make a study in this region for the identification of environmental and individual factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. This study is performed to assert the corelation between the clinical and paraclinical patients data with those obtained through water and soil chemical analisys for identification of determinant environmental and individual factors involved in etiopathogenesis of this disease. This study indicates that the environment factors (water, soil) correlated with personal factors, especially the diet and standard of living are the favouring factors of renal lithiasis.

  14. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  15. Calculations of environmental benefits from using geothermal energy must include the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, R. S.; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    and energy production patterns are simulated using data from countries with similar environmental conditions but do not use geothermal or hydropower to the same extent as Iceland. Because of the rapid shift towards renewable energy and exclusion of external energy provision, the country is considered......When considering the environmental benefits from converting to renewable energy sources, the rebound effect is often omitted. In this study, the aim is to investigate greenhouse gas emission reduction inclusive of the rebound effect. We use Iceland as a case study where alternative consumption...

  16. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Factors Influencing Performance and Progress of Primary School Pupils in ... found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school ... on school progress and performance, however; home language did play a role.

  17. Environmental assessment of biofuel chains based on ecosystem modelling, including land-use change effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielle, B.; Gagnaire, N.; Massad, R.; Prieur, V.; Python, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The potential greenhouse gas (GHG) savings resulting from the displacement of fossil energy sources by bioenergy mostly hinges on the uncertainty on the magnitude of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from arable soils occuring during feedstock production. These emissions are broadly related to fertilizer nitrogen input rates, but largely controlled by soil and climate factors which makes their estimation highly uncertain. Here, we set out to improve estimates of N2O emissions from bioenergy feedstocks by using ecosystem models and measurements and modeling of atmospheric N2O in the greater Paris (France) area. Ground fluxes were measured in two locations to assess the effect of soil type and management, crop type (including lignocellulosics such as triticale, switchgrass and miscanthus), and climate on N2O emission rates and dynamics. High-resolution maps of N2O emissions were generated over the Ile-de-France region (around Paris) with two ecosystem models using geographical databases on soils, weather data, land-use and crop management. The models were tested against ground flux measurements and the emission maps were fed into the atmospheric chemistry-transport model CHIMERE. The maps were tested by comparing the CHIMERE simulations with time series of N2O concentrations measured at various heights above the ground in two locations in 2007. The emissions of N2O, as integrated over the region, were used in a life-cycle assessment of representative biofuel pathways: bioethanol from wheat and sugar-beet (1st generation), and miscanthus (2nd generation chain); bio-diesel from oilseed rape. Effects related to direct and indirect land-use changes (in particular on soil carbon stocks) were also included in the assessment based on various land-use scenarios and literature references. The potential deployment of miscanthus was simulated by assuming it would be grown on the current sugar-beet growing area in Ile-de-France, or by converting land currently under permanent fallow

  18. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  19. Quantifying Environmental Limiting Factors on Tree Cover Using Geospatial Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenberg, Jonathan; Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria Joao; Dobrowski, Solomon; Vanderbilt, Vern; Ustin, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) Ho

  20. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  1. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic immunologically mediated diseases. The key mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases is a dysregulated immune response to commensal flora in a genetically susceptible host. Thus intestinal microbial dysbiosis, host genetics, and the external environment all play an important role in the development of incident disease and in determining subsequent disease behavior and outcomes. There are several well-defined or putative environmental risk factors including cigarette smoking, appendectomy, diet, stress and depression, vitamin D as well as hormonal influence. The effect of some of the risk factors appears to differ between CD and UC suggesting that despite shared genetic and immunologic mechanisms, distinct pathways of pathogenesis exist. There is a growing body of literature identifying risk factors for incident disease. There is less rigorous literature defining triggers of relapse, and few controlled clinical trials examining if modification of such risk factors results in an improvement in patient outcomes. This is an area of considerable patient, physician, and scientific interest, and there is an important unmet need for rigorous studies of the external environment in disease pathogenesis and subsequent course.

  2. Environmental and lifestyle risk factors of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Derakhshan, Mohammad H

    2013-06-01

    Effective prevention and early diagnostic strategies are the most important public health interventions in gastric cancer, which remains a common malignancy worldwide. Preventive strategies require identification and understanding of environmental risk factors that lead to carcinogenesis. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the primary carcinogen as this ancient bacterium has a complex ability to interact with its human host. Smoking and salt are strong independent risk factors for gastric cancer whereas alcohol is only a risk when it is heavily consumed. Red meat and high fat increase the risk of gastric cancer however fresh fruits, vegetables (allium family) and certain micronutrients (selenium, vitamin C) reduce the risk, with evidence lacking for fish, coffee and tea. Foods that inhibit H. pylori viability, colonization and infection may reduce cancer risk. Obesity is increasingly recognized as a contributory factor in gastric cardia carcinogenesis. Therefore, modest daily physical activities can be protective against cancer. Foundry workers are at risk for developing gastric cancer with dust iron being an important cause. Other risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), possibly JC virus and radiation but the effects of these are likely to remain small.

  3. Environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Elisa; Corrado, Alda; Gemignani, Federica; Landi, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive diseases. Only 10 % of all PC cases are thought to be due to genetic factors. Here, we analyzed the most recently published case-control association studies, meta-analyses, and cohort studies with the aim to summarize the main environmental factors that could have a role in PC. Among the most dangerous agents involved in the initiation phase, there are the inhalation of cigarette smoke, and the exposure to mutagenic nitrosamines, organ-chlorinated compounds, heavy metals, and ionizing radiations. Moreover, pancreatitis, high doses of alcohol drinking, the body microbial infections, obesity, diabetes, gallstones and/or cholecystectomy, and the accumulation of asbestos fibers seem to play a crucial role in the progression of the disease. However, some of these agents act both as initiators and promoters in pancreatic acinar cells. Protective agents include dietary flavonoids, marine omega-3, vitamin D, fruit, vegetables, and the habit of regular physical activity. The identification of the factors involved in PC initiation and progression could be of help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches by targeting the molecular signaling pathways responsive to these stimuli. Moreover, the identification of these factors could facilitate the development of strategies for an early diagnosis or measures of risk reduction for high-risk people.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ljuba Štrbac; Snežana Trivunović; Mirjana Baban

    2015-01-01

    Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. ...

  5. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  6. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  7. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSchmitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders.

  8. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. (Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  9. Environmental factors and children's malnutrition in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    MR. Silva, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Ethiopia has one of the highest child malnutrition rates in the world. A considerable effort to monitor child malnutrition rates over the last two decades shows that, despite some improvements, approximately half of the children under five are still malnourished. Much of the burden of deaths resulting from malnutrition, estimated to be over half of childhood deaths in developing countries, can be attributed to just mild and moderate malnutrition. Several biological and social economic factors...

  10. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square

  11. Role of environmental factors in the timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, S.Y.; Selevan, S.G.; Pescovitz, O.H.

    2008-01-01

    Puberty-timing measures have historically been used as indicators of adequate nutrition and growth. More recently, these measures have been examined in relation to exposure to estrogenic or antiandrogenic agents, as well as other environmental factors. The scientific community has debated whether...... puberty timing is occurring earlier today than in the mid-1900s in the United States and, if so, whether environmental factors play a role; however, no one has asked a multidisciplinary panel to resolve this question. Thus, a multidisciplinary expert panel jointly sponsored by the US Environmental...... Role of Environmental Factors on the Timing and Progression of Puberty" workshop. The majority of the panelists concluded that the girls' data are sufficient to suggest a secular trend toward earlier breast development onset and menarche from 1940 to 1994 but that the boys' data are insufficient...

  12. Developmental variations in environmental influences including endocrine disruptors on pubertal timing and neuroendocrine control: Revision of human observations and mechanistic insight from rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Gérard, Arlette; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Puberty presents remarkable individual differences in timing reaching over 5 years in humans. We put emphasis on the two edges of the age distribution of pubertal signs in humans and point to an extended distribution towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final pubertal stages. Such distortion of distribution is a recent phenomenon. This suggests changing environmental influences including the possible role of nutrition, stress and endocrine disruptors. Our ability to assess neuroendocrine effects and mechanisms is very limited in humans. Using the rodent as a model, we examine the impact of environmental factors on the individual variations in pubertal timing and the possible underlying mechanisms. The capacity of environmental factors to shape functioning of the neuroendocrine system is thought to be maximal during fetal and early postnatal life and possibly less important when approaching the time of onset of puberty.

  13. Influence of environmental factors on the onset and course of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Chacko, Ashok

    2016-01-21

    Numerous environmental factors have been linked with inflammatory bowel disease. These include smoking, diet, hygiene, drugs, geographical and psychosocial factors. These factors may either increase the risk of or protect against developing this condition and can also affect the course of illness in a positive or negative manner. A number of studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on inflammatory bowel diseases as a whole as well as on ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease separately. As there are differences in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, the effect of environmental factors on their onset and course is not always similar. Some factors have shown a consistent association, while reports on others have been conflicting. In this article we discuss the current evidence on the roles of these factors on inflammatory bowel disease, both as causative/protective agents and as modifiers of disease course.

  14. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...

  15. Environmental Factors in China's Financial Accounting Development since 1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Zhang (Guohua)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe difference in environmental factors is one of the main reasons for the accounting difference among countries. It is also one of the critical factors to be first considered when studying and understanding one country’s accounting activities, and also when trying to harmonize and

  16. Environmental Factors in China's Financial Accounting Development since 1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Zhang (Guohua)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe difference in environmental factors is one of the main reasons for the accounting difference among countries. It is also one of the critical factors to be first considered when studying and understanding one country’s accounting activities, and also when trying to harmonize and inter

  17. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchison D

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Mitchison,1 Phillipa J Hay2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia Background: The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs in adults. Method: A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion: More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. Keywords: demographic, environment, abuse, prevalence, socioeconomic status, heritability

  18. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Greenberg

    Full Text Available Environmental limiting factors (ELFs are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1 Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2 How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3 To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET and PET minus precipitation (PET-P as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4 environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25% were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60% were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range.

  19. Environmental factors affecting inflammatory bowel disease: have we made progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against ulcerative colitis and, after the onset of the disease, might improve its course, decreasing the need for colectomy. In contrast, smoking increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease and aggravates its course. The history of IBD is dotted by cyclic reports on the isolation of specific infectious agents responsible for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The more recently published cold chain hypothesis is providing an even broader platform by linking dietary factors and microbial agents. An additional, recent theory has suggested a breakdown in the balance between putative species of 'protective' versus 'harmful' intestinal bacteria - this concept has been termed dysbiosis resulting in decreased bacterial diversity. Other factors such as oral contraceptive use, appendectomy, dietary factors (e.g. refined sugar, fat, and fast food), perinatal events, and childhood infections have also been associated with both diseases, but their role is more controversial. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that economic development, leading to improved hygiene and other changes in lifestyle ('westernized lifestyle') may play a role in the increase in IBD. This review article focuses on the role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis and progression of IBDs.

  20. Statistically Non-significant Papers in Environmental Health Studies included more Outcome Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pentti Nieminen; Khaled Abass; Kirsi Vhkanga; Arja Rautio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The number of analyzed outcome variables is important in the statistical analysis and interpretation of research findings. This study investigated published papers in the field of environmental health studies. We aimed to examine whether differences in the number of reported outcome variables exist between papers with non-significant findings compared to those with significant findings. Articles on the maternal exposure to mercury and child development were used as examples. Methods Articles published between 1995 and 2013 focusing on the relationships between maternal exposure to mercury and child development were collected from Medline and Scopus. Results Of 87 extracted papers, 73 used statistical significance testing and 38 (43.7%) of these reported ‘non-significant’ (P>0.05) findings. The median number of child development outcome variables in papers reporting ‘significant’ (n=35) and ‘non-significant’ (n=38) results was 4 versus 7, respectively (Mann-Whitney test P-value=0.014). An elevated number of outcome variables was especially found in papers reporting non-significant associations between maternal mercury and outcomes when mercury was the only analyzed exposure variable. Conclusion Authors often report analyzed health outcome variables based on their P-values rather than on stated primary research questions. Such a practice probably skews the research evidence.

  1. Relationship between genetic and environmental factors and hypercholesterolemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Jorge A; Siccardi, Leonardo J

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric hypercholesterolemia has increased over the past decades. Knowing the environmental and genetic factors that have an impact on it would allow establishing more adequate screening guidelines. To determine if there is an association between genetic and environmental factors and hypercholesterolemia in children. To assess the predictive qualities of outcome measures associated with hypercholesterolemia. Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study. students from all schools located in Jovita. Age: > 6 and nutritional status. A survey was administered to children to identify their level of physical activity and their eating habits. The association was assessed by estimating the OR value (p students were included. Their mean cholesterol level was 168 mg/dL, and 13.4% had hypercholesterolemia. A sedentary lifestyle was observed in 22.8%, and obesity, in 10.5%. A positive FMH, a high/ middle SEL, and obesity were associated with hypercholesterolemia (OR: 2.10, 2.10 and 2.05, respectively). No association was found between physical activity and fat/cholesterol intake and hypercholesterolemia. A positive FMH and a high/middle SEL were sensitive enough (75% and 88%) to predict hypercholesterolemia. The presence of hypercholesterolemia inboth parents in relation to hypercholesterolemia in their child showed an OR of 9.59, a sensitivity of 73%, a specificity of 71%, a positive predictive value of 57%, and a negative predictive value of 83%. A positive FMH, a high/ middle SEL, and obesity were associated with hypercholesterolemia in children. The presence of hypercholesterolemia in both parents was associated with hypercholesterolemia in their child and showed itself to be a great potential predictor and screening criterion. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  2. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  3. Factors influencing environmental attitude: The relationship between environmental attitude defensibility and cognitive reasoning level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, James R.; Horton, Phillip B.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between factors believed to contribute to the formation of environmental attitudes by college nonscience majors. Key relationships addressed were the effects of a university environmental studies course on (a) environmental attitudes, (b) the amount of factual information that is brought to bear on an environmental attitude decision (defensibility), and (c) the linkages between the affective and the cognitive domains of freshman and sophomore students. When compared to the control group, the students who attended an environmental studies class did not significantly change their attitudes, but they did exhibit increases in their total [F(3, 132) = 5.91, p students in the environmental studies course who had higher cognitive reasoning scores were more prone to increase defensibility [F(6, 129) = 3.78, p attitude decision-making process.

  4. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  5. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi S. Gadad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology.

  6. Oral Health Inequalities: Relationships between Environmental and Individual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, E; Robinson, P G; Marya, C M; Baker, S R

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has emphasized the relationships between environmental and individual factors that may influence population oral health and lead to health inequalities. However, little is known about the effect of interactions between environmental and individual factors on inequalities in clinical (e.g., decayed teeth) and subjective oral health outcomes (e.g., oral health-related quality of life [OHQoL]). This cohort study aimed to explore the direct and mediated longitudinal interrelationships between key environmental and individual factors on clinical and subjective oral health outcomes in adults. Self-reported measures of OHQoL and individual (sense of coherence [SOC], social support, stress, oral health beliefs, dental behaviors, and subjective socioeconomic status [SES]) and environmental factors (SES and social network) were collected at baseline and 3-mo follow-up, together with a baseline clinical examination of 495 adult employees of an automobile parts manufacturer in India. Lagged structural equation modeling was guided by the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model linking clinical, individual, and environmental variables to quality of life. The study provides tentative evidence that SES may influence levels of resources such as social support and SOC, which mediate stress and in turn may influence subjective oral health outcomes. Accordingly, the present findings and the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model on which they are predicted provide support for the psychosocial pathway being key in the SES-oral health relationship. The pathways through which environmental factors interact with individual factors to impact subjective oral health outcomes identified here may bring opportunities for more targeted oral health promotion strategies.

  7. Life style factors and acquired susceptibility to environmental disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, W W

    2001-10-01

    Multifactorial risk factors are responsible for many diseases. They can be broadly categorized as environmental, genetic and life style factors. Much attention has been focused on the first two categories, e.g. the identification of environmental toxicants/carcinogens and the elucidation of genetic susceptibility to disease. Life style risk factors such as aging, poor nutrition, infection and exposure to toxicants can also increase susceptibility to illnesses. These life style factors can therefore be considered to cause acquired susceptibility for increased risk for environmental disease. Among Egyptians, infection with the parasite, Schistosoma, is the primary risk factor for bladder cancer and the risk is enhanced by exposure to mutagenic chemicals. We have shown that inheritance of susceptible metabolizing genes that can increase body burden of mutagenic chemicals enhances the risk. We have also hypothesized that chronic exposure to mutagenic chemicals causes cellular abnormalities that can reduce the capacity of cells to repair DNA damage and thus increase the risk for environmental disease. We have used a challenge assay to show that cells from cigarette smokers and from populations exposed to uranium, butadiene and pesticides have abnormal DNA repair responses compared to matched controls. On the other hand, the response is normal in workers exposed to very low concentrations of butadiene and benzene, and in mothers who had children with birth defects. This suggests that exposure to high enough concentrations of certain mutagens can cause acquired susceptibility in human populations. The acquired susceptibility is expected to interact with environmental factors and with genetic susceptibility to increase risk for environmental disease.

  8. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability....

  9. Rule-based models of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in childhood allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bornelöv

    Full Text Available Both genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of allergic diseases. However, a detailed understanding of how such factors act together is lacking. To elucidate the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in allergic diseases, we used a novel bioinformatics approach that combines feature selection and machine learning. In two materials, PARSIFAL (a European cross-sectional study of 3113 children and BAMSE (a Swedish birth-cohort including 2033 children, genetic variants as well as environmental and lifestyle factors were evaluated for their contribution to allergic phenotypes. Monte Carlo feature selection and rule based models were used to identify and rank rules describing how combinations of genetic and environmental factors affect the risk of allergic diseases. Novel interactions between genes were suggested and replicated, such as between ORMDL3 and RORA, where certain genotype combinations gave odds ratios for current asthma of 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.6 and 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.0 in the BAMSE and PARSIFAL children, respectively. Several combinations of environmental factors appeared to be important for the development of allergic disease in children. For example, use of baby formula and antibiotics early in life was associated with an odds ratio of 7.4 (95% CI 4.5-12.0 of developing asthma. Furthermore, genetic variants together with environmental factors seemed to play a role for allergic diseases, such as the use of antibiotics early in life and COL29A1 variants for asthma, and farm living and NPSR1 variants for allergic eczema. Overall, combinations of environmental and life style factors appeared more frequently in the models than combinations solely involving genes. In conclusion, a new bioinformatics approach is described for analyzing complex data, including extensive genetic and environmental information. Interactions identified with this approach could provide useful hints for further in-depth studies

  10. What environmental factors irritate people with acquired brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Julie

    2004-08-19

    This study aims to determine the environmental factors nurses identify as being irritating to people with acquired brain injury. This was a qualitative study. An experienced interviewer used the Critical Decision Method to interview 28 nurses working in 10 inpatient brain injury rehabilitation units in Australia on a one to one basis for 1-1.5 h on two consecutive days. Transcripts of interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Nurses identified five groups of irritants that acted as triggers for aggression: The nurses in this study identified many environmental factors that irritate people with acquired brain injury. Some irritants appeared unavoidable but others could be addressed by staff expertise.

  11. Intersection of participation and environmental factors: a complex interactive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreau, Luc; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to review contemporary and historical rehabilitation-focused literature on conceptualizations of the environment, broadly defined, and environmental measures. Data sources included historical nonempirical American-based literature from 1935 to the present and descriptive and empirical rehabilitation articles worldwide, retrieved from computerized databases predominantly from past 10 years depicting a participation-environment association. Literature selection required relevance to 3 combined topics: physical disability rehabilitation, participation/community integration, and impact of environmental barriers and facilitators. The ultimate focus was on spinal cord injury for recent literature and measures reviewed. Data extraction was based on author-assessed relevance to both participation and environmental considerations. Nonempirical literature from last three quarters of a century suggests an environmental impact on participation, focusing on "person-environment fit." Recent empirical evidence supports environmental contributions to participation, but the magnitude of the contribution is low. Despite the obvious theoretic impact of the environment, scientific demonstration of environmental contribution to participation restriction or facilitation has yet to be achieved. Participation-environment interaction could be illustrated better by (1) taking into account critical elements in environmental measures (eg, comprehensiveness of approach to environment, scales describing spectrum of environmental influence, subjective vs objective perspectives), (2) addressing the concept of participation in a dimension-specific approach, and (3) avoiding environmental features in construction of participation measures.

  12. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS IN THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lapshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides guidelines for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α  (TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis  (axSpA, including ankylosing spondylitis. It gives data on the efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with non-radiographic axSpA. By using international and Russian guidelines, the authors lay down indications for this therapy and criteria for evaluation of its efficiency and safety.

  13. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs.

  14. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karolina; Niklas, Arkadiusz A; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of previously diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors.

  15. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karolina; Niklas, Arkadiusz A; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of early diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors.

  16. Effect of environmental factors on intelligence quotient of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Makharia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A child's intelligence quotient (IQ is determined by both genetic and environmental factors that start from the prenatal period itself. There is a lack of data on the factors which influence IQ in Indian children; therefore, we conducted a multicenter questionnaire-based study to determine the environmental factors which influence IQ in Indian children. Participants and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, we recruited 1065 schoolchildren between the age of 12 and 16 years from 2 government and 13 private schools in 5 towns, 6 cities, and 2 villages across India. All the children were administered a questionnaire consisting of various environmental factors such as parents' education, occupation, income, and the physical activity of the students. IQ scores were assessed using Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices. An approximate IQ score was calculated using the score on the Ravens test. IQ scores were divided into three groups: below normal IQ (0–79, normal IQ (80–119, and high IQ (above 120. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: In this study, it was observed that the environmental factors such as place of residence, physical activity, family income, parental education, and occupation of the father had an impact on the IQ of the children. Children living in cities (P = 0.001, children having physical activity more than 5 h/weeks (P = 0.001, children with parents having a postgraduate or graduate level of education (P = 0.001, children whose father having a professional job (P = 0.001, and those with a higher family income (P = 0.001 were more likely to have high IQ. Conclusions: In the present study, we found that various environmental factors such as place of residence, physical exercise, family income, parents' occupation and education influence the IQ of a child to a great extent. Hence, a child must be provided with an optimal environment to be able to develop to his/her full genetic

  17. Effects of Abiotic Environmental Factors on Soybean Cyst Nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yu-xi; ZHENG Ya-nan; CHEN Li-jie; ZHOU Xiao-min; WANG Yuan-yuan; SUN Jing-shuang

    2009-01-01

    As a pest, in order to complete its life history and reproduces effectively, soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinche 1952) must adapt to various environments and conditions for long periods of evolution. The nematode is widely dispersed year after year. Controlling this pest requires understanding characters and adaptability of SCN.Effects of abiotic factors, such as temperature, soil humidity, agrotype, pH value, ions, plant exudates, agricultural chemical and cultivation systems on SCN, are reviewed in this paper. The results show that SCN is able to endure various environmental stresses, especially low temperature. Because of its special life history, cyst stage help SCN over winter,resistance of SCN to environmental stress is strong. A few studies have reported the mechanism of SCN environmental adaptability. We emphasized the importance of studying environmental adaptability of SCN, which would benefit the control of SCN by ecological means.

  18. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  19. [Endemic goiter in Latium: environmental and genetic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, A

    1998-01-01

    Most studies on the pathogenesis of endemic goiter focus above all on iodine deficiency. In some endemic goiter areas (i.e. Nigeria) there is no evidence of iodine deficiency; therefore, we suggest the taking into account of various factors, both environmental and non-environmental. We report the results of two studies carried out in three different areas in Latium: one of them (Cerveteri, RM) could be classified as high prevalence of goiter area, while the two others (Roccasecca dei Volsci, LT and Castel San Pietro Romano, RM) are true endemic goiter areas. The role of environmental factors, radioactivity and electromagnetism, foodstuff, the hydrogeological and chemical composition of natural water and the importance of genetics are here discussed, assuming that the endemic goiter could have a multifactorial pathogenesis.

  20. Association between environmental risk factors and campylobacter infections in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, K; Andersson, Y; Røttingen, J A; Svensson, A; Lindbäck, J; Kistemann, T; Giesecke, J

    2004-04-01

    Campylobacter sp. is the most common cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in Sweden and the incidence has been increasing. Case-control studies to identify risk factors have been conducted in several countries, but much remains unexplained. The geographical distribution of campylobacter infections varies substantially, and many environmental factors may influence the observed pattern. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) offer an opportunity to use routinely available surveillance data to explore associations between potential environmental risk factors showing a geographical pattern and disease incidence, complementing traditional approaches for investigating risk factors for disease. We investigated associations between campylobacter incidence and environmental factors related to water and livestock in Sweden. Poisson regression was used to estimate the strength of the associations. Positive associations were found between campylobacter incidence and average water-pipe length per person, ruminant density, and a negative association with the percentage of the population receiving water from a public water supply. This indicates that drinking water and contamination from livestock may be important factors in explaining sporadic human campylobacteriosis in Sweden, and that contamination occurring in the water distribution system might be more important than previously considered.

  1. Genetic, Maternal, and Environmental Risk Factors for Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthold, Julia Spencer; Reinhardt, Susanne; Thorup, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism is an isolated anomaly in the majority of cases, with evidence to date suggesting that it is a complex disorder resulting from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Population, family, and limited genome-wide association data suggest modera...

  2. Determining Factors of Environmental Education in Spanish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrán, Manuel; Andrades, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the main factors that might determine the extent to which Spanish organizational management educators use environmental stand-alone subjects to equip students with alternative views of business. To give a more qualitative study, this paper also provides a more detailed curriculum analysis from a double point of…

  3. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  4. Determining Factors of Environmental Education in Spanish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrán, Manuel; Andrades, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the main factors that might determine the extent to which Spanish organizational management educators use environmental stand-alone subjects to equip students with alternative views of business. To give a more qualitative study, this paper also provides a more detailed curriculum analysis from a double point of…

  5. Responses of Lens esculenta Moench to controlled environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saint-Clair, P.M.

    1972-01-01

    Many experiments were undertaken to study the responses of the lentil cultivars 'Large blonde' and 'Anicia' to controlled environmental factors. They covered different aspects of the physiology and the ecology of the crop.The orientation experiments (2) involved germination and depth of sowing. The

  6. Cell functional enviromics: Unravelling the function of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Paula M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While functional genomics, focused on gene functions and gene-gene interactions, has become a very active field of research in molecular biology, equivalent methodologies embracing the environment and gene-environment interactions are relatively less developed. Understanding the function of environmental factors is, however, of paramount importance given the complex, interactive nature of environmental and genetic factors across multiple time scales. Results Here, we propose a systems biology framework, where the function of environmental factors is set at its core. We set forth a "reverse" functional analysis approach, whereby cellular functions are reconstructed from the analysis of dynamic envirome data. Our results show these data sets can be mapped to less than 20 core cellular functions in a typical mammalian cell culture, while explaining over 90% of flux data variance. A functional enviromics map can be created, which provides a template for manipulating the environmental factors to induce a desired phenotypic trait. Conclusion Our results support the feasibility of cellular function reconstruction guided by the analysis and manipulation of dynamic envirome data.

  7. Environmental Factors in Suicide in Long Term-Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Nancy J.

    1992-01-01

    Explored environmental factors related to suicide in 463 long-term care facilities. Staff turnover, size, auspices, and per diem cost related to suicidal behavior and deaths from suicide. More suicides occurred in larger facilities and facilities with higher staff turnover. Religious or "other" facilities experienced more suicidal deaths than…

  8. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia : the importance of genetic and environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. van Dooren (Marieke)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFor the studies described in this thesis we used a study protocol 'Environmental and Genetic factors in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Esophageal Atresia', approved by the Institutional Review Board, in collaboration with the parent support groups, 'Stichting Hernia Diafragrnatica'

  9. Z' factor including siRNA design quality parameter in RNAi screening experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sławomir; Kozak, Karol

    2012-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) high-content screening (HCS) enables massive parallel gene silencing and is increasingly being used to reveal novel connections between genes and disease-relevant phenotypes. The application of genome-scale RNAi relies on the development of high quality HCS assays. The Z' factor statistic provides a way to evaluate whether or not screening run conditions (reagents, protocols, instrumentation, kinetics, and other conditions not directly related to the test compounds) are optimized. Z' factor, introduced by Zhang et al., ( 1) is a dimensionless value that represents both the variability and the dynamic range between two sets of sample control data. This paper describe a new extension of the Z' factor, which integrates bioinformatics RNAi non-target compounds for screening quality assessment. Currently presented Z' factor is based on positive and negative control, which may not be sufficient for RNAi experiments including oligonucleotides (oligo) with lack of knock-down. This paper proposes an algorithm which extends existing algorithm by using additional controls generetaed from on-target analysis.

  10. ESI GIS Data and PDF Maps: Environmental Sensitivity Index including GIS Data and Maps (for the U.S. Shorelines, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  11. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  12. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production,poultry farming,rural life and township enterprises,the difference,features,and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province,China.Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding,flowed by crop planting,rural life,and township enterprises.Hence future pollution prevention and control should set about from livestock and poultry breeding.Meanwhile,attention should be paid to the prevention and control of rural environmental pollution caused by rural life and township enterprise production.

  13. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  14. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour.

  15. Factors influencing private and public environmental protection behaviors: results from a survey of residents in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wang; Reisner, Ann

    2011-03-01

    Currently one of the largest and most rapidly developing countries, China also has some of the world's most severe environmental problems. China will most likely need to use all of the potential major strategies currently available to solve the country's huge environmental challenges, including promoting individual conservation behavior through educational campaigns and encouraging public environmental advocacy. This paper summarized the findings of a survey of 347 residents of Shaanxi province on environmental attitudes and behaviors. The survey found generally high levels of environmental knowledge and high recognition of the seriousness of environmental issues, moderate levels of individual actions supporting environmental resource conservation and low levels of public environmental behaviors, particularly for organized public advocacy. Further analysis indicated that the perceived importance of environmental protection is the most important factor influencing individual environmental resource conservation, but not public advocacy behaviors. Implications for environmental campaigns are discussed.

  16. Environmental factors influencing the development of black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) on bananas in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of environmental factors on the development of black leaf streak (BLS) were studied in Puerto Rico under field conditions. Environmental factors evaluated included temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and solar radiation. Their effect on BLS was determined by recording the youngest...

  17. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...... a population-based cohort of 2,486,646million persons born in Denmark between 1 January 1955 and 31 December 1993 using Danish registers. We found that PAR associated with urban birth was 11.73%; PAR associated with one, respectively 2, parent(s) with schizophrenia was 2.67% and 0.12%. PAR associated...

  18. Impact of Climate and Environmental Factors on West Nile Virus Circulation in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Ahmadnejad; Vahid Otarod; Amanollah Fathnia; Ali Ahmadabadi; Fallah, Mohammad H.; Alireza Zavareh; Nargess Miandehi; Benoit Durand; Philippe Sabatier

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geographic distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) is heterogeneous in Iran by a high circulation in the southern-western areas. The objective of our study was to determine environmental and climatic factors associ­ated with the risk of WNV equine seropositivity in Iran.Methods: Serological data were obtained from a serosurvey conducted in equine population in 260 districts in Iran. The climate and environmental parameters included in the models were distance to the nearest wetland ...

  19. Investigations to environmental factors on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althoff, H.; Wehr, K.; Michels, S.; Prajsnar, D.; Einbrodt, H.J.

    1987-05-01

    The discussions on noxious environmental factors concerning SIDS was a motive for systematically postmortal chemical-toxicological investigations on 54 SIDS-cases and 2 controlcases of the same age. Tissue levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury and pentachlorphenol as well as other organic noxes were measured in several organs. Furthermore COHb-concentrations were determined. Inspite of the wide scattering values the measured extreme levels as well as the arithmetic mean- and the median averages of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, PCP and COHb ranged in concentration sizes which - according to present knowledge - can't be supposed of toxic effects. It was observed that infants from an urban environment didn't show a higher degree of the examined noxes than infants from rural regions. Also there were neither differences between SIDS-cases and controls, nor correlations between often morphologically detected infections of the respiratory system, including laryngitis - and superior concentrations of these noxes in the organs of SIDS-cases.

  20. Intestinal microbiota is a plastic factor responding to environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Biagi, Elena; Maccaferri, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2012-08-01

    Traditionally regarded as stable through the entire lifespan, the intestinal microbiota has now emerged as an extremely plastic entity, capable of being reconfigured in response to different environmental factors. In a mutualistic context, these microbiome fluctuations allow the host to rapidly adjust its metabolic and immunologic performances in response to environmental changes. Several circumstances can disturb this homeostatic equilibrium, inducing the intestinal microbiota to shift from a mutualistic configuration to a disease-associated profile. A mechanistic comprehension of the dynamics involved in this process is needed to deal more rationally with the role of the human intestinal microbiota in health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Discuss on effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shihuan; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi

    2010-01-01

    Nature of Chinese materia medica is the nucleus in the theory of Chinese material medica, according to the recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which is the character of the drug related on curative effect. Nature and efficacy of a drug is through the medical material, then, physical environment, including the temperature, humidity, atmospheric water, wind, topography, soil, micro-organism, and so on, influence the growth and development of the medical meterial. In this paper, we researched the explanation on nature of Chinese materia medica in the medical books of past dynasties, combined with the modem research, analyzed the relationship between generative reception and physical environmental factors, and discussed the effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica. We indicated that the formation of Chinese materia medical nature is that the drug receptive the change of physical environmental factors, and resulted by the synthetic action of the factors, such as climate, soil, biology, topography, etc.

  2. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  3. Wegener’s granulomatosis and environmental factors in Western Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Samuel Zeft

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to determine whether exposure to silica or other environmental factors is associated with developing Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG, in a geographically isolated region of Western Montana. We sought to identify and interview all cases of WG diagnosed during 1993-2006 among residents of a ten-county region of Western Montana, as well as a group of demographically similar controls (n=39 without autoimmune disease. In the interview, we ascertained occupational silica and other exposures (metals, solvents, pesticides, tobacco. We enumerated 32 cases of WG, of whom 27 were included in the case-control study. Overall, a history of silica exposure was not associated with WG (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.13-3.27, although there was a suggestion of increase in risk among persons with relatively recent (OR=2.67, 95% CI: 0.54-17.2, heavy (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 0.09-112.9, and prolonged (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 0.16-20.0 exposures. A history of having worked in the mining industry was associated with WG (six cases including three with no silica exposure, zero controls, lower 95% CI: 1.53. Risk was not associated with occupational or aerial pesticide exposure, but with residential rodenticide use (OR=12.15, 95% CI: 1.54-552. Occupational exposure to metals or solvents was not associated with WG, nor was a history of cigarette smoking. Results of earlier studies of WG support the hypothesis that silica exposure adversely influences the risk of developing WG. Our small study of WG failed to identify an association with silica overall, but the results are compat­ible with an increased risk in persons with relatively heavy, prolonged, and/or recent exposure.

  4. Psychosocial and environmental risk factors associated with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo, Paula Andrea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, there are few studies on the association of psychosocial and environmental factors with the most prevalent mental disorders; such studies are important due to the context of violence, social insecurity, and job and economic instability in the country. The objective of this study was to identify the psychosocial and environmental risk factors for mental disorders, in users of psychological services in Colombia. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a Questionnaire to evaluate the Axis-IV of the DSM-IV-TR were applied to 490 participants. The analysis comprised descriptive statistics and risk factors. As risk factors for depression, there were identified housing problems, access to health care services, problems related to the primary group, economics, problems of the social environment, and labor. For generalized anxiety, there were identified economic and education issues. For panic disorders, the risk factors were related to social environment, and for social phobia, the risk factors were problems in education, work and social environment

  5. In search of a temporal niche: Environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Roelof A.; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; van der Vinne, Vincent; De la Iglesia, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Time as an ecological niche variable or "temporal niche" can be defined in the context of the most prominent environmental cycles, including the tidal cycle, the lunar day and month, the solar day, and the earth year. For the current review, we focus on the 24-h domain generated through the earth's

  6. In search of a temporal niche: Environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Roelof A.; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; van der Vinne, Vincent; De la Iglesia, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Time as an ecological niche variable or "temporal niche" can be defined in the context of the most prominent environmental cycles, including the tidal cycle, the lunar day and month, the solar day, and the earth year. For the current review, we focus on the 24-h domain generated through the earth's

  7. Prognostic factors of infantile spasms: role of treatment options including a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Yu, Hee Jun; Lee, Munhyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide additional evidences on prognostic factors for infantile spasms and the possible role of a ketogenic diet. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with infantile spasms who had been followed up for more than 6months between January 2000 and July 2012 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). We analyzed the association between possible prognostic factors and seizure/developmental outcomes. Sixty-nine patients were included in this study and their mean follow-up duration was 52.5 (9-147) months. In the patients who had been followed up for more than 2years, 53.6% (n=30/57) remained seizure-free at the last visit. Sixty patients (86.9%) showed developmental delay at last follow-up. Forty-two patients (60.9%) became spasm-free with one or two antiepileptic drugs, one patient with epilepsy surgery for a tumor, and seven patients with a ketogenic diet after the failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. The etiology and age of seizure onset were the significant prognostic factors. In this study, about 60% of the patients became spasm-free with vigabatrin and topiramate. Ketogenic diet increased the rate by 10% in the remaining antiepileptic drug resistant patients. However, 86.9% of the patients showed developmental delay, mostly a severe degree. Early diagnosis and prompt application of treatment options such as antiepileptic drugs, a ketogenic diet or epilepsy surgery can improve outcomes in patients with infantile spasms. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  9. Influence of environmental factors on corrosion damage of aircraft structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the important structural integrity concerns of aging aircraft, and it is estimated that a significant portion of airframe maintenance budgets is directed towards corrosion-related problems for both military and commercial aircraft. In order to better understand how environmental factors influence the corrosion damage initiation and propagation on aircraft structure and to predict pre-corrosion test pieces of fatigue life and structural integrity of an effective approach, this paper uses ...

  10. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Magan, Naresh; Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the ...

  11. Concentration and flux of bioaerosol and environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and flux transportation of bioaerosol are analyzed using the data observed in Nanjing in July 1998. Some results are obtained: (i) the concentration and flux transportation of bioaerosol vary periodically with the cycle of the solar radiation and atmospheric turbulent intensity, (ii) The bioaerosol concentration is affected by both the bioaerosol flux transportation and the environmental factors. The bacterial concentration is obviously affected by the solar radiation while the fungi concentration is significantly affected by temperature.

  12. Evaluation and classification of seawater corrosiveness by environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiangrong; HUANG Guiqiao

    2005-01-01

    According to the data of main environmental factors and the depth of localized corrosion of carbon steel and low alloy steels in China seas, combined with the result of grey interrelation analysis, double-factor method was proposed to evaluate and classify seawater corrosiveness. According to the temperature of seawater and the biologically adhesive area on steels, the corrosiveness of seawater from low to high level is classified into five levels (C 1-C5), which was identified by the data of corrosion depth of carbon steel immersed in water for one year.

  13. Perinatal complications, environmental factors and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Maravić Vanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by qualitative impairment of social interactions, impairment of verbal and nonverbal communication, as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. ASD represent a group of complex psychiatric disorders, with both genetic and environmental factors implicated in their etiology. Recent neuroanatomical and epidemiological studies point out to prenatal and early postnatal genesis of ASD. Aim: In this review, we present recent studies that explored the effect of environmental, prenatal and perinatal risk factors on development of ASD. Also, we point out those factors that have been proven to have the strongest association with ASD, and emphasize a very complex interaction of individual factors that might eventually lead to manifestation of this group of disorders. Conclusion: A precise defining of risk factors might provide more insight not only into etiology of ASD, but might also give us a possibility for early recognition and possible prevention of autism spectrum disorders, especially in susceptible individuals. It is also a first step in defining the basis of the gene-environment interaction mechanism, which might enable the development of an individualized therapeutic approach for this group of disorders.

  14. Individual, social-environmental, and physical-environmental factors that underlie sense of coherence in Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Emily; Bouwman, Laura; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan; Aarts, Noelle; Koelen, Maria

    2016-06-30

    Antonovsky's salutogenesis is a theoretical perspective on health development that explores physical, mental, and social factors that contribute to a 'healthy life orientation' and also a theoretical approach to behavior change. Previous studies applying salutogenesis show that a high sense of coherence (SOC), a composite measure from salutogenesis indicating one's capacity to cope with stress, is associated with a healthy life orientation and lifestyle behaviors, including healthy eating patterns. However, limited evidence exists on the factors that underlie SOC, which could be used to strengthen this capacity as a means to enable healthier eating. Dutch adults (N = 781) participated in a cross-sectional study examining the relationship between SOC and a set of individual, social-environmental, and physical-environmental factors. The main findings indicate that high SOC was associated with a diverse set of factors including lower doctor-oriented health locus of control; higher satisfaction with weight; higher perceived levels of neighborhood collective efficacy; higher situational self-efficacy for healthy eating; lower social discouragement for healthy eating; and higher neighborhood affordability, accessibility and availability of healthy foods. These findings can inform the design of nutrition interventions that target these factors that strengthen SOC and provide the building blocks for a healthier life orientation.

  15. Genetic and environmental influences on cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunsheng; Tian, Xiaocao; Sun, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To explore the genetic and environmental influences on cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and cognitive function in the world's largest and rapidly aging Chinese population. METHODS: Cognitive function and CVRF, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pu...

  16. Power Curve Estimation With Multivariate Environmental Factors for Inland and Offshore Wind Farms

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2015-04-22

    In the wind industry, a power curve refers to the functional relationship between the power output generated by a wind turbine and the wind speed at the time of power generation. Power curves are used in practice for a number of important tasks including predicting wind power production and assessing a turbine’s energy production efficiency. Nevertheless, actual wind power data indicate that the power output is affected by more than just wind speed. Several other environmental factors, such as wind direction, air density, humidity, turbulence intensity, and wind shears, have potential impact. Yet, in industry practice, as well as in the literature, current power curve models primarily consider wind speed and, sometimes, wind speed and direction. We propose an additive multivariate kernel method that can include the aforementioned environmental factors as a new power curve model. Our model provides, conditional on a given environmental condition, both the point estimation and density estimation of power output. It is able to capture the nonlinear relationships between environmental factors and the wind power output, as well as the high-order interaction effects among some of the environmental factors. Using operational data associated with four turbines in an inland wind farm and two turbines in an offshore wind farm, we demonstrate the improvement achieved by our kernel method.

  17. Progress of studies on the responses of the key physiological processes including photosynthese in Ulva prolifera O. F. Müller to environmental factors%浒苔光合作用等关键生理过程对环境因子响应途径的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广策; 唐学玺; 何培民; 孙松; 高山; 郇丽; 王辉

    2016-01-01

    近年来,以浒苔(Ulva prolifera O. F. Müller)为原因种的绿潮在我国黄海海域持续爆发,已成为主要的生态灾害,国家对此高度重视,国际科学期刊上也发表了一系列研究论文,内容包括绿潮成因种浒苔的溯源和浒苔生理过程、繁殖途径及其对非生物胁迫因子的响应等,这些研究对认识绿潮的爆发机制有重要意义。为全面了解浒苔的研究状况,本文综述了近年来关于浒苔繁殖方式和途径、光合作用及其对非生物胁迫因子的响应的研究进展,同时对关键生物学过程进行了科学描述。%Recently, green tides mainly caused by Ulva prolifera O. F. Müller occurred frequently in the Yellow Sea of China and have become one of primary ecological disasters. Increasing attention has been paid to the event by the government of China. As a result, a large number of papers including tracking the algal origin of the green tides, physiological process and reproduction methods in U. prolifera and the responses of this alage to aboitic stresses have been published in the international journals. Those studies play an important role in un-derstanding the formation mechanism of green tides. In this paper, we reviewed the different methods of repro-duction in U. prolifera, photosynthesis, its responses to aboitic stresses and description of the key biological process.

  18. A questionnaire-based study on the role of environmental factors in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is an immunological disorder caused by hypersensitivity against Aspergillus fumigatus. The pathogenesis of ABPA remains unknown. Few studies have investigated the role of environmental factors in pathogenesis of ABPA. Herein, we investigate the role of environmental factors in ABPA. Materials and Methods: In this prospective case-control study, consecutive patients with asthma (Aspergillus sensitized and unsensitized and ABPA were investigated using a standardized questionnaire to enquire into their demographic characteristics, clinical details, exposure to organic matter and living conditions (home environment, presence of moisture in the walls, and others. Asthma severity and control was assessed using the 2002 The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA recommendations and asthma control test, respectively. Results: During the study period, 202 subjects of asthma (103 and 99 Aspergillus unsensitized and sensitized asthma, respectively and 101 ABPA with a mean (SD age of 35.3 (14.7 years were included. The baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups except for a higher prevalence of severe persistent asthma in the ABPA group (79% vs. 44%, P = 0.0001. No significant differences in environmental factors were noted in the ABPA population compared to asthmatic patients except for a higher rural residence in ABPA (47% vs. 66%, P = 0.007. Conclusions: The study found no significant environmental differences in ABPA compared to asthmatic patients. It is likely that environmental factors are not the primary pathogenetic factors in causation of ABPA.

  19. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  20. Influence of External Environmental Factors on the Success of Public Housing Projects in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    External environmental factors, which include political environment, economic environment and social environment, affect the success of public housing projects in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to establish the effect of these factors on public housing project success using structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques.  The study was conducted in Nigeria by means of interviews, a pilot study and a main survey. Five hundred and fifty (550) questionnaires were administered...

  1. STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The essence of the state educational policy is to optimize the development process of the reproduction of the educational cycle taking into account the influence of environmental factors. These factors include: the cyclical nature of economic development (global economic crisis), the globalization of educational activities (in particular, in the form of the Bologna process), the accelerated development of the world's scientific and technological progress (massive use of telecommunications inf...

  2. Trigger factors mainly from the environmental type are reported by adolescents with migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Dalla Bernardina Fraga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Migraine can be triggered by many factors such as stress, sleep, fasting and environmental causes. There are few studies that evaluated migraine trigger factors in the adolescent population. Methods: A total of 100 participants from 10 to 19 years were subjected to a detailed headache questionnaire, with demographic and clinical data, and a headache diary including trigger factors during a two-month period was asked. Results: Fifty of the participants exhibited chronic migraine and the other 50 participants demonstrated episodic migraine. The most common group of trigger factors reported was the environmental one, mainly sun/clarity, followed by hot weather and the smell of perfume. Conclusions: Ninety-one percent of children and adolescents with migraine reported a trigger factor precipitating the migraine attack.

  3. Automatic identification of corrosive factors categories according to the environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Time of wetness, and pollutants are three key factors for the selection of metal materials in engineering applications and the determination of atmospheric corrosivity categories. In the past, when one or more corrosive factors data is missing, corrosive factors categories were often subjectively determined according to expert experience. In order to overcome such difficulty, this paper presents a method to automatically determine corrosive factors categories using detected environmental factors data instead of expert scoring. In this method, Bayesian network was used to build the mathematical model. And the inference was obtained by clique tree algorithm. The validity of the model and algorithm was verified by the simulation results.

  4. Environmental risk factors contributing to childhood overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawalec

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and teenagers is a major challenge for public health. Obesity is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, affected by many interacting genetic and non-genetic factors. The aim of this article was to focus on the environmental risk factors for childhood obesity. Among different factors contributing to an increase in BMI, we highlighted the role of exposure to cigarette smoke, DDT, bisphenol A, pesticides, and noise. The correlation between exposure to environmental toxins during prenatal period and obesity development in later life was underlined. According to obesogenic environment hypothesis, some features of distal and proximal neighbourhood also have a pivotal impact on children's behaviour and may contribute to increasing the risk for overweight. The area of residence (urban or rural may affect access to sports facilities or other opportunities for physical activity. Therefore, for designing adequate prophylaxis, it is essential to take into account modifiable risk factors present in residential neighbourhood. Prevention of childhood obesity should integrate activities for both micro- and macro-environment surrounding the child.

  5. Seasonality of birth weight in Chile: environmental and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torche, Florencia; Corvalan, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    Research suggests a relationship between birth weight and season of birth, but findings vary across countries and underlying factors are not well understood. We examine the seasonality of birth weight and explore alternative hypotheses for its etiology-exposure to environmental factors and varying socioeconomic composition of mothers-in Chile. Birth weight of approximately 5 million Chilean singleton live births 37 of 41 weeks of gestation between 1987 and 2007 were analyzed for seasonality by using regression models with month dummies and parametric sinusoidal specifications. Multivariate models with socioeconomic covariates and interactions across geographic regions examine potential factors accounting for seasonal variation. Marked 12-month and 6-month periodic cycles were found. The amplitude and phase of the seasonal variation change across geographic regions. In the low-latitude northern region, there is a spring peak and a fall nadir, while in middle-latitude colder regions, a bimodal periodicity emerges with peaks in spring and fall, a pronounced winter nadir, and smaller nadir in the summer. Socioeconomic composition of mothers is found to vary with annual periodicity, but it does not account for the seasonality in birth weight. Environmental factors rather than the socioeconomic composition of mothers likely account for seasonal variation in birth weight. The change in periodicity of birth weight across latitudes is consistent with a beneficial exposure to sunlight both early and late in the pregnancy, and a detrimental late exposure to cold temperatures only in areas with low winter temperatures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  8. Potential for use of environmental factors in urban planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Ricardo; van der Ploeg, Martine; van Delden, Hedwig; Fleskens, Luuk

    2016-04-01

    Projections for population growth estimate, on top of the current 7.4 billion world population, an increase of 2 billion people for the next 40 years. It is also projected that 66 per cent of the world population in 2050 will live in urban areas. To accommodate the urban population growth cities are changing continuously land cover to urban areas. Such changes are a threat for natural resources and food production systems stability and capability to provide food and other functions. However, little has been done concerning a rational soil management for food production in urban and peri-urban areas. This study focuses on the assessment of soil lost due to urban expansion and discusses the potential loss regarding the quality of the soil for food production and environmental functions. It is relevant to increase the knowledge on the role of soils in peri-urban areas and in the interaction of physical, environmental and social factors. The methodology consists of assessing the soil quality in and around urban and peri-urban areas. It focuses particularly on the physical properties and the environmental factors, for two periods of time and account the potential losses due to urban expansion. This project is on-going, therefore current advances will be presented and will look for a discussion on the contribution of soil quality for decision-making and land management in urban and peri-urban areas.

  9. Environmental Factor{trademark} system: RCRA hazardous waste handler information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Environmental Factor{trademark} RCRA Hazardous Waste Handler Information on CD-ROM unleashes the invaluable information found in two key EPA data sources on hazardous waste handlers and offers cradle-to-grave waste tracking. It`s easy to search and display: (1) Permit status, design capacity and compliance history for facilities found in the EPA Resource Conservation and Recovery Information System (RCRIS) program tracking database; (2) Detailed information on hazardous wastes generation, management and minimization by companies who are large quantity generators, and (3) Data on the waste management practices of treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities from the EPA Biennial Reporting System which is collected every other year. Environmental Factor`s powerful database retrieval system lets you: (1) Search for RCRA facilities by permit type, SIC code, waste codes, corrective action or violation information, TSD status, generator and transporter status and more; (2) View compliance information -- dates of evaluation, violation, enforcement and corrective action; (3) Lookup facilities by waste processing categories of marketing, transporting, processing and energy recovery; (4) Use owner/operator information and names, titles and telephone numbers of project managers for prospecting; and (5) Browse detailed data on TSD facility and large quantity generators` activities such as onsite waste treatment, disposal, or recycling, offsite waste received, and waste generation and management. The product contains databases, search and retrieval software on two CD-ROMs, an installation diskette and User`s Guide. Environmental Factor has online context-sensitive help from any screen and a printed User`s Guide describing installation and step-by-step procedures for searching, retrieving and exporting. Hotline support is also available for no additional charge.

  10. Assessing the roles of environmental factors in coastal fish production in the northern Baltic Sea: a Bayesian network application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, Laura; Kuikka, Sakari; Kauppila, Pirkko; Söderkultalahti, Pirkko; Bäck, Saara

    2012-07-01

    Environmental conditions play a crucial role in the distribution and abundance of fish species in any area. Much research has been attributed to the requirements and tolerance limits of commercially exploited fish species. It is rare, however, that studies have been able to address the relative importance of potentially restrictive environmental factors; extensive enough to allow for estimation of the effect of several environmental factors through the fishes' life span. The coastline of Finland in the northern Baltic Sea offers a unique natural experimental setting that can be used to assess the relative importance of various environmental factors for the species occupying it. The area includes major variations in several crucial environmental factors: salinity, temperature regime, represented by winter ice duration, coastline characteristics, and eutrophic status. Furthermore, Finland has collected extensive and spatially representative data of water quality and environmental factors, as well as a long and extraordinarily spatially detailed data set of commercial catches of several fish species. In this article, we make an attempt to correlate the environmental data to the commercial catches of fish species, assuming that the commercial catches reflect, to some reasonable degree, the productivity of that species in that area (compared to other areas and combinations of environmental factors, not to other species). We use a Bayesian network approach to examine the sensitivity of the species to the environmental factors.

  11. Ecology of cultivable yeasts in pristine forests in northern Patagonia (Argentina) influenced by different environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    Environmental factors influencing the occurrence and community structure of soil yeasts in forests are not well studied. There are few studies dedicated to Southern Hemisphere soil yeasts populations and even fewer focused on temperate forests influenced by volcanic activity. The present work aimed to study the ecology of soil yeast communities from pristine forests influenced by different environmental factors (precipitation, physicochemical properties of soil, tree species, soil region, and season). The survey was performed in 4 northern Patagonian forests: 2 dominated by Nothofagus pumilio and 2 by Nothofagus antarctica. Yeast communities were described with ecological indices and species accumulation curves, and their association with environmental characteristics was assessed using multivariate analysis. Each forest site showed a particular arrangement of species as a result of environmental characteristics, such as dominant plant species, nutrient availability, and climatic characteristics. Cryptococcus podzolicus was most frequently isolated in nutrient-rich soils, Trichosporon porosum dominated cold mountain forests with low nutrient and water availability in soil, and capsulated yeasts such as Cryptococcus phenolicus dominated forest sites with low precipitation. The present work suggests that environmental factors affecting yeast communities may not be the current soil characteristics but the result of complex interactions of factors including natural disturbances like volcanic activity.

  12. Effects of Ambient Environmental Factors on the Stereotypic Behaviors of Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Duan, Hejun; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypies are commonly observed in zoo animals, and it is necessary to better understand whether ambient environmental factors contribute to stereotypy and how to affect animal welfare in zoo settings. This study investigated the relationships between stereotypic behaviors and environmental factors including ambient temperatures, humidity, light intensity, sound intensity and number of visitors. Seven giant pandas were observed in three indoor enclosures and three outdoor enclosures. Environmental factors were measured for both indoor and outdoor enclosures and the effect they had on stereotypical behaviors was investigated. Our research found that light intensity significantly correlated with all stereotypies behaviors. Higher environmental temperature reduced the duration of pacing but increased the frequency of pacing, the duration and frequency of door-directed, meanwhile the duration of head-toss. However, we found no noticeable effect of humidity on stereotypic behaviors except for the frequency of head-toss. We also found that sound intensity was not correlated with stereotypies. Finally, the growth of visitors was negatively associated with the duration of door-directed. These results demonstrated that various environmental factors can have significant effects on stereotypic behaviors causing the expression of various stereotypies. Thus, stereotypies in zoo animals may not simply represent suboptimal welfare, but rather might be adopted as a means of coping with an aversive environment. PMID:28107477

  13. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Susana B.

    2011-01-01

    the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.

  14. Fatores ambientais e endometriose Environmental factors and endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bellelis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A endometriose representa uma afecção ginecológica comum, atingindo de 5%-15% das mulheres no período reprodutivo e até 3%-5% na fase pós-menopausa. Essa doença é definida pelo implante de estroma e/ou epitélio glandular endometrial em localização extrauterina, podendo comprometer diversos locais. Humanos e animais são expostos diariamente a poluentes químicos que têm a capacidade de influenciar negativamente processos fisiológicos e, potencialmente, causar doenças, dentre elas a endometriose. Com esta revisão tivemos por objetivo relacionar a influência dos fatores ambientais e dietéticos na gênese da endometriose. O mecanismo pelo qual a dioxina e seus símiles (TCDD/PCBs atuam na alteração da fisiologia endometrial permanence incerta e é especulativa devido à dificuldade em se avaliar a exposição na vida intraútero, infância e vida adulta e suas reais consequências, além das limitações de sua reprodução in vitro. Devemos entender melhor o mecanismo de ação desses poluentes amibentais não só na saúde reprodutiva, mas na saúde em geral do indivíduo, para se promover estratégias de prevenção que devem incluir não só a educação populacional, mas o estabelecimento de limites de exposição, técnicas menos poluentes e melhor aproveitamento dos nossos recursos naturais.Endometriosis represents a common gynecological condition affecting 5%-15% of childbearing age women and up to 3% 5% of post-menopausal women. This disease is defined by the presence of stromal and/or endometrial glandular epithelium implants in extra-uterine locations possibly compromising several sites. Humans and animals are daily exposed to chemical pollutants that could adversely influence physiological processes and potentially cause diseases, including endometriosis. In this review, the authors aimed at settling the influence of environmental and dietary factors on endometriosis pathogenesis. The mechanism by which dioxin and its

  15. Macro- and micro-environmental factors in clinical HCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoska, Petr; Carr, Brian I.

    2014-01-01

    We previously developed a network phenotyping strategy (NPS), a graph theory-based transformation of clinical practice data, for recognition of two primary subgroups of hepatocellular cancer (HCC), called S and L, which differed significantly in their tumor masses. In the current study, we have independently validated this result on 641 HCC patients from another continent. We identified the same HCC subgroups with mean tumor masses 9 cm×n (S) and 22 cm×n (L), penvironment factors, identifying four subtypes for S- and five subtypes for L-phenotypes, respectively. In L phenotype, all reference patterns were PVT (portal vein thrombosis) positive, all platelet/AFP levels were high, and all were chronic alcohol consumers. L had phenotype landmarks with worst survival. S phenotype interaction patterns were PVT negative, with low platelet/AFP levels. We demonstrated that tumor-clinical environment interaction patterns explained how a given parameter level can have a different significance within a different overall context. Thus, baseline bilirubin is low in S1 and S4, but high in S2 and S3, yet all are S subtype patterns, with better prognosis than in L. Gender and age, representing macro-environmental factors, and bilirubin, INR and AST levels representing micro-environmental factors, had a major impact on subtype characterization. Clinically important HCC phenotypes are therefore represented by complete parameter relationship patterns and cannot be replaced by individual parameter levels. PMID:24787292

  16. Macro- and micro-environmental factors in clinical hepatocellular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoska, Petr; Carr, Brian I

    2014-04-01

    We previously developed a network phenotyping strategy (NPS), a graph theory-based transformation of clinical practice data, for recognition of two primary subgroups of hepatocellular cancer (HCC), called S and L, which differed significantly in their tumor masses. In the current study, we have independently validated this result on 641 HCC patients from another continent. We identified the same HCC subgroups with mean tumor masses 9 cm x n (S) and 22 cm x n (L), Penvironment factors, identifying four subtypes for S and five subtypes for L phenotypes, respectively. In L phenotype, all reference patterns were portal vein thrombosis (PVT)-positive, all platelet/alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels were high, and all were chronic alcohol consumers. L had phenotype landmarks with worst survival. S phenotype interaction patterns were PVT-negative, with low platelet/AFP levels. We demonstrated that tumor-clinical environment interaction patterns explained how a given parameter level can have a different significance within a different overall context. Thus, baseline bilirubin is low in S1 and S4, but high in S2 and S3, yet all are S subtype patterns, with better prognosis than in L. Gender and age, representing macro-environmental factors, and bilirubin, prothrombin time, and AST levels representing micro-environmental factors, had a major impact on subtype characterization. Clinically important HCC phenotypes are therefore represented by complete parameter relationship patterns and cannot be replaced by individual parameter levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic and environmental factors in breakfast eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Viken, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Rose, Richard J

    2004-09-01

    Despite many studies on the prevalence of breakfast eating, we know little about factors that determine breakfast eating patterns. Our aim was to find out to which extent breakfast eating frequency is influenced by genetic and environmental factors using twin and twin-family models in a population sample of 16-year-old twins (n = 5250) and their parents (n = 4663). In common effects sex-limitation models, additive genetic effects explained 41% (95% CI: 21-63%) of the variance in breakfast eating in girls and 66% (95% CI: 47-79%) in boys, and common environmental effects 45% (95% CI: 23-62%) in girls and 14% (95% CI: 5-29%) in boys. Of twin-family models, phenotypic assortment models fitted the data best. Heritability estimates increased somewhat (72%, 95% CI: 46-98% in girls and 63%, 95% CI: 38-89%) in boys. Common family environment remained substantial in both sexes. Cultural transmission was nonsignificant. The relative influence of genetic and family factors on adolescent breakfast eating frequency differs by sex and is generation-specific.

  18. Overview of the Taxonomy of Environmental Types and the Factor Structure of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Daniel W.; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2002-01-01

    The Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) was created to be a commensurate measure for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and to improve the efficacy of the person-environmental interaction paradigm to student affairs. A confirmatory factor analysis of SETA profiles supported the four dimensions in environmental type theory. The utility of this…

  19. Overview of the Taxonomy of Environmental Types and the Factor Structure of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Daniel W.; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2002-01-01

    The Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) was created to be a commensurate measure for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and to improve the efficacy of the person-environmental interaction paradigm to student affairs. A confirmatory factor analysis of SETA profiles supported the four dimensions in environmental type theory. The utility of this…

  20. Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors of Adult Primary Brain Cancers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gomes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and highvoltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary.

  1. Environmental factors related to multiple sclerosis in Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaithra Malli

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is less prevalent among Indians when compared to white populations. Genetic susceptibility remaining the same it is possible that environmental associations may have a role in determining disease prevalence.To determine whether childhood infections, vaccination status, past infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori, diet, socioeconomic and educational status were associated with MS.139 patients and 278 matched control subjects were selected. A validated environmental exposure questionnaire was administered. Estimation of serum H.pylori IgG antibody was done by ELISA. Patients and controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1*15:01.In our cohort a significant association was seen with measles (p < 0.007, vegetarian diet (p < 0.001, higher educational status (p < 0.0001 and urban living (p < 0.0001. An inverse relationship was seen with H.Pylori infection and MS (p < 0.001. Measles infection (OR 6.479, CI 1.21-34.668, p < 0.029 and high educational status (OR 3.088, CI 1.212-7.872, p < 0.018 were significant risk factors associated with MS. H.pylori infection was inversely related to MS (OR 0. 319, CI 0.144- 0.706, p < 0.005.Environmental influences may be important in determining MS prevalence.

  2. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Otto Schwake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water.

  3. Clinical, Molecular, and Environmental Risk Factors for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Maggioncalda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest unique occurrence patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL worldwide. In most Western countries there is a clear bimodal age distribution with an early peak in young adults followed by a second peak in older adults, particularly among males. In the Middle East and Asia, HL is more common in early childhood. There also are marked racial differences in the presentations of HL and HL subtypes, and particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been identified as etiological factors suggesting that gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are involved. Personal health choices such as exercise and smoking may modify an individual's chances of developing HL. Numerous studies highlight the impact that exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and other environmental factors have on HL risk. Understanding the relative importance of each of these findings and their links to HL development and survival will help clinical researchers expand curative therapies and create preventative strategies for HL.

  4. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  5. ASTHMA, ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS, AND HYPERTENSION AMONG ARAB AMERICANS IN THE METRO DETROIT AREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of environmental risk factors in asthma etiology has been well-documented, and certain environmental risk factors have also been associated with hypertension. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between hypertension and asthma. This study...

  6. [Relationships between understory vegetation coverage and environmental factors in Pinus massoniana plantations from aerial seeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ouyang, Xun-zhi

    2015-04-01

    The relationships between understory vegetation coverage and environmental factors in Pinus massoniana plantations from aerial seeding were studied by using principal component analysis, redundancy analysis and variation partitioning. The selected environmental factors in total explained 74.2% variation of the understory vegetation coverage. At low altitude, stand characteristics were the key factor to influence the understory vegetation coverage. Stand characteristics, soil property and topographic factor were respectively explained 55.0% (including 29.1% for separateness and 25.9% for interaction with other factors), 38. 9% (including 12.1% for separateness and 26.8% for interaction with other factors) and 9.0% (including 5.6% for separateness and 3.4% for interaction with other factors) of the total variation. Average diameter at breast height and canopy density affected mostly and positively correlated with the coverage of bryophyta, graminoid and shurb groups at significant level. Noncapillary porosity and soil water content showed a highly significant positive correlation to dicranopteris coverage, whereas average diameter at breast height, canopy density, soil nutrients and enzyme activity significantly negatively correlated with it. The coverage of graminoid, bryophyta and shurb groups showed the positive correlations, which indicated the three groups could promote each other, while the dicranopteris coverage had significant negative correlation with the three groups mentioned above.

  7. EPA Grants to Help New York City Communities Address Local Environmental Challenges, Includes Air Sampling Around JFK Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $84,000 to three New York City organizations working to address environmental contamination in their communities. The grants were awarded under the EPA's Environmental Justice Small Gran

  8. Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease: environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campdelacreu, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to update and summarise available evidence on environmental risk factors that have been associated with risk of Parkinson disease (PD) or Alzheimer disease (AD) and discuss their potential mechanisms. Evidence consistently suggests that a higher risk of PD is associated with pesticides and that a higher risk of AD is associated with pesticides, hypertension and high cholesterol levels in middle age, hyperhomocysteinaemia, smoking, traumatic brain injury and depression. There is weak evidence suggesting that higher risk of PD is associated with high milk consumption in men, high iron intake, chronic anaemia and traumatic brain injury. Weak evidence also suggests that a higher risk of AD is associated with high aluminium intake through drinking water, excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields from electrical grids, DM and hyperinsulinaemia, obesity in middle age, excessive alcohol consumption and chronic anaemia. Evidence consistently suggests that a lower risk of PD is associated with hyperuricaemia, tobacco and coffee use, while a lower risk of AD is associated with moderate alcohol consumption, physical exercise, perimenopausal hormone replacement therapy and good cognitive reserve. Weak evidence suggests that lower risk of PD is associated with increased vitamin E intake, alcohol, tea, NSAIDs, and vigorous physical exercise, and that lower risk of AD is associated with the Mediterranean diet, coffee and habitual NSAID consumption. Several environmental factors contribute significantly to risk of PD and AD. Some may already be active in the early stages of life, and some may interact with other genetic factors. Population-based strategies to modify such factors could potentially result in fewer cases of PD or AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. [Relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-ping; Xu, Jing; Bi, Bao-gui

    2009-03-01

    To clarify the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors is of significance to the prediction and evaluation of landslide and debris flow hazards. Base on the latitudinal and longitudinal information of 18431 landslide and debris flow hazards in China, and the 1 km x 1 km grid data of elevation, elevation difference, slope, slope aspect, vegetation type, and vegetation coverage, this paper analyzed the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards in this country to above-mentioned environmental factors by the analysis method of frequency ratio. The results showed that the landslide and debris flow hazards in China more occurred in lower elevation areas of the first and second transitional zones. When the elevation difference within a 1 km x 1 km grid cell was about 300 m and the slope was around 30 degree, there was the greatest possibility of the occurrence of landslide and debris hazards. Mountain forest land and slope cropland were the two land types the hazards most easily occurred. The occurrence frequency of the hazards was the highest when the vegetation coverage was about 80%-90%.

  10. Environmental non-occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís, J; Berbel, O; Alonso-López, J; Garcia, J; Ortega, J A

    2013-10-01

    Bladder carcinoma (BC), due its high morbidity and relapsing course, generates significant economic and health care costs. Accordingly, review the environmental nonoccupational risk factors (RF), more or less evidence-based, in the etiology and pathogenesis of BC, because the involvement of urologists is essential for prevention. Review of the peer-reviewed literature (1987-2012) on nonoccupational environmental RF associated with BC retrieved from Medline, Embase and Science Citation Index. The search profiles have been "Risk factors/Epidemiology/Tobacco-smoking/Diet-nutrition-water-liquids/Radiation/Infectious/Farmacological drugs" and "Bladder cancer". Smoking was associated with 50% of BC in both sexes. Smokers have a 2-5 times higher risk than nonsmokers, directly proportional to the amount and duration of addiction. Drinking water contaminated with arsenic and chromium chlorination byproducts increases the risk of BC. High consumption of red meat and saturated fat may increase the risk, while high intake of fruits and vegetables decreases it. Patients treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and ionizing radiation have an increased risk of BC. Frequent and prolonged use of hair dyes and Schistosoma haematobium infestation increases the risk of BC. The reduction or the cessation of smoking decrease BC. The contaminant-free water consumption with the increase of vegetal foods favour BC prevention. Cancer survivors treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy should be monitored for early diagnosis of BC. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating cyanobacteria community dynamics and its relationship with environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-20

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 10(8) cells L(-1) and 1.92 × 10(8) cells L(-1) in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies.

  12. Estimating Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics and its Relationship with Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 108 cells L-1 and 1.92 × 108 cells L-1 in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies. PMID:24448632

  13. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang, Yize Sun, Yang Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8 m/s, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000 W/m2. Root mean square error (RMSE between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  14. Pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma and the role of environmental and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neragi-Miandoab Siyamek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a rare, aggressive tumor for which no effective therapy exists despite the discovery of many possible molecular and genetic targets. Many risk factors for MPM development have been recognized including environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, viral contamination, and radiation. However, the late stage of MPM diagnosis and the long latency that exists between some exposures and diagnosis have made it difficult to comprehensively evaluate the role of risk factors and their downstream molecular effects. In this review, we discuss the current molecular and genetic contributors in MPM pathogenesis and the risk factors associated with these carcinogenic processes.

  15. Factorization of Radiative Leptonic Decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ Mesons Including the Soft Photon Region

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ji-Chong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the radiative leptonic decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ mesons using factorization approach. Factorization is proved to be valid explicitly at 1-loop level at any order of $O(\\Lambda _{\\rm QCD}\\left/m_Q\\right.)$. We consider the contribution in the soft photon region that $E_{\\gamma} \\sim \\left. \\Lambda^2 _{\\rm QCD} /\\right. m_Q$. The numerical results shows that, the soft photon region is very important for both the $B$ and $D$ mesons. The branching ratios of $B\\to \\gamma e\

  16. Phosphine in paddy fields and the effects of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaojun; Wei, Aishu; Li, Yadong; Mi, Lina; Yang, Zhiquan; Song, Xiaofei

    2013-11-01

    Ambient levels of phosphine (PH3) in the air, phosphine emission fluxes from paddy fields and rice plants, and the distribution of matrix-bound phosphine (MBP) in paddy soils were investigated throughout the growing stages of rice. The relationships between MBP and environmental factors were analyzed to identify the principal factors determining the distribution of MBP. The phosphine ambient levels ranged from 2.368±0.6060 ng m(-3) to 24.83±6.529 ng m(-3) and averaged 14.25±4.547 ng m(-3). The highest phosphine emission flux was 22.54±3.897 ng (m(2)h)(-1), the lowest flux was 7.64±4.83 ng (m(2)h)(-1), and the average flux was 14.17±4.977 ng (m(2)h)(-1). Rice plants transport a significant portion of the phosphine emitted from the paddy fields. The highest contribution rate of rice plants to the phosphine emission fluxes reached 73.73% and the average contribution was 43.00%. The average MBP content of 111.6 ng kg(-1)fluctuated significantly in different stages of rice growth and initially increased then decreased with increasing depth. The peak MBP content in each growth stage occurred approximately 10 cm under the surface of paddy soils. Pearson correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that soil temperature (Ts), acid phosphatase (ACP) and total phosphorus (TP) were the principal environmental factors, with correlative rankings of Ts>ACP>TP.

  17. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of th

  18. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  19. Unscrambling cyanobacteria community dynamics related to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia eBertos-Fortis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a two-year monthly time-series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An epidemic population structure (dominance of a single cluster was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this cluster simultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs e.g. Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formed a consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria and

  20. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for fears and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loken, E K; Hettema, J M; Aggen, S H; Kendler, K S

    2014-08-01

    Although prior genetic studies of interview-assessed fears and phobias have shown that genetic factors predispose individuals to fears and phobias, they have been restricted to the DSM-III to DSM-IV aggregated subtypes of phobias rather than to individual fearful and phobic stimuli. We examined the lifetime history of fears and/or phobias in response to 21 individual phobic stimuli in 4067 personally interviewed twins from same-sex pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Disorders (VATSPSUD). We performed multivariate statistical analyses using Mx and Mplus. The best-fitting model for the 21 phobic stimuli included four genetic factors (agora-social-acrophobia, animal phobia, blood-injection-illness phobia and claustrophobia) and three environmental factors (agora-social-hospital phobia, animal phobia, and situational phobia). This study provides the first view of the architecture of genetic and environmental risk factors for phobic disorders and their subtypes. The genetic factors of the phobias support the DSM-IV and DSM-5 constructs of animal and blood-injection-injury phobias but do not support the separation of agoraphobia from social phobia. The results also do not show a coherent genetic factor for the DSM-IV and DSM-5 situational phobia. Finally, the patterns of co-morbidity across individual fears and phobias produced by genetic and environmental influences differ appreciably.

  1. Physical and environmental factors contributing to music related injuries among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Natalie C; Jacobs, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study asserts that a combination of environmental and physical factors influence the child pianist's risk for developing a music related injury. 26 participants (10 piano students, 10 parents, and 6 piano teachers) were included in this study. Piano students were ages 5 to 11 and currently enrolled in piano lessons. Three questionnaires addressed the factors affecting the participant groups (children, parents, and piano teachers). Participants completed one questionnaire about the factors contributing to the development of music related injuries in child pianists. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. None of the student participants had pain, discomfort, or a history of music related injuries. The majority of parents and teachers reported that the lighting was the most important environmental factor affecting students' playing in the piano lesson. 70% of parents reported that the presence of family members most greatly affected students' practicing at home. 100% of the teachers and parents reported that the most important physical factors contributing to students' injury-free playing were playing with proper technique and learning effective practice strategies. All parents and students who were taking piano lessons in their homes reported the most satisfaction with their piano lesson environment. The results of this study do not support a relationship between environmental or physical factors and the presence of pain, discomfort, or music related injuries in students.

  2. Environmental Factors Associated with Altered Gut Microbiota in Children with Eczema: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carmen W H; Wong, Rosa S; Law, Patrick T W; Wong, Cho Lee; Tsui, Stephen K W; Tang, Winnie P Y; Sit, Janet W H

    2016-07-16

    Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children's daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants) for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema.

  3. Understanding the contribution of environmental factors in the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    The overuse and abuse of antibiotics have contributed to the global epidemic of antibiotic resistance. Current evidence suggests that widespread dependency on antibiotics and complex interactions between human health, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine, have contributed to the propagation and spread of resistant organisms. The lack of information on pathogens of major public health importance, limited surveillance, and paucity of standards for a harmonised and coordinated approach, further complicates the issue. Despite the widespread nature of antimicrobial resistance, limited focus has been placed on the role of environmental factors in propagating resistance. There are limited studies that examine the role of the environment, specifically water, sanitation and hygiene factors that contribute to the development of resistant pathogens. Understanding these elements is necessary to identify any modifiable interactions to reduce or interrupt the spread of resistance from the environment into clinical settings. This paper discusses some environmental issues that contribute to antimicrobial resistance, including soil related factors, animal husbandry and waste management, potable and wastewater, and food safety, with examples drawn mainly from the Asian region. The discussion concludes that some of the common issues are often overlooked and whilst there are numerous opportunities for environmental factors to contribute to the growing burden of antimicrobial resistance, a renewed focus on innovative and traditional environmental approaches is needed to tackle the problem.

  4. Environmental Factors Associated with Altered Gut Microbiota in Children with Eczema: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen W. H. Chan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children’s daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema.

  5. DEGRADATION WORKS OF MONUMENTAL ART CAST BRONZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia NICA-BADEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensive pollution, combined with the lack of conservation of monuments exposed to these environments make the main cause of deterioration of cultural objects to atmospheric corrosion metal. This paper proposes a study of the main factors leading to degradation Bronze alloy, cast bronze monuments exposed to open atmosphere: corrosive environmental factors, stability and products of corrosion of bronze. In general, all corrosion products present on a metal surface are indicated as 'skate', can be composed of single-layer or multilayer products. The paper also includes a case study on the influence of environmental factors on degradation Matthias monument statue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Visual inspection of the monument informs us that have white spots, gray, reddish not consistent with the base color green patina, surfaces showing depigmentation, the rain washed areas, crystallization, deposition of air-borne particles.

  6. Environmental Risk Factors and Type 1 Diabetes: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butalia, Sonia; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Khokhar, Bushra; Rabi, Doreen M

    2016-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that results from the destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. The excess morbidity and mortality resulting from its complications, coupled with its increasing incidence, emphasize the importance of better understanding the causes of this condition. Over the past several decades, a substantive amount of work has been done and, although many advances have occurred in identifying disease-susceptibility genes, there has been a lag in understanding the environmental triggers. Several putative environmental risk factors have been proposed, including infections, dietary factors, air pollution, vaccines, location of residence, family environment and stress. However, most of these factors have been inconclusive, thus supporting the need for further study into the causes of type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  8. The N(H2/I(CO Conversion Factor: A Treatment that Includes Radiative Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento que explica mejor el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO y que incluye la transferencia radiativa. A primera vista, incluir la transferencia radiativa parece superfluo para una línea óptimamente gruesa como CO J = 1 0. No obstante, dado que el medio interestelar es inhomogéneo, los fragmentos de gas (es decir, grumos todavía pueden ser óptimamente delgadas hacia sus bordes y en las alas de los pérfiles de la línea. El tratamiento estadístico de Martin et al. (1984 de la transferencia radiativa a través una nube molecular con grumos se usa para derivar una expresión para el factor de conversión que su- pera los defectos de las explicaciones más tradicionales basadas en Dickman et al. (1986. Por un lado, el tratamiento presentado aquí posiblemente representa un avance importante al entender el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO pero, por otro lado, tiene sus propios defectos, que son discutidos aquí brevemente.

  9. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIC FACTOR IN THE ENERGY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎRNU Doru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to conceive an environmental strategy intended to integrate harmoniously Gorj energy industry with principles of sustainable development. The sustainable development complies trinomial: ecological-economic-social. In our view, sustainable development, requires clean water and unpolluted air, land consolidated rejuvenated forests, biodiversity and protected nature reserves, churches and monasteries secular admired by visitors, welcoming places entered in the natural and cultural harmony. It is also necessary to reduce the pressure generated by socio-economic factors on the environment and the principles of sustainable development. The quality of life in urban and rural areas show extreme differences compared to European standards. For efficiency, we addressed the modeling method by designing a model valid for all thermoelectric power plants based on fossil fuels, allowing simultaneously, so adding value and environmental protection. The general objective that we propose for the environment, natural resources and patrimony, is related to the prevention of climate change by limiting the emission of toxic gases and their adverse effects on the environment The achievement of strategic objectives and implementation of proposals submitted, we consider that would have a double impact, on the one side, to protect the environment and the quality of life and, on the other side a positive influence on economic and social level.

  11. Consideration for solar system exploration - A system to Mars. [biomedical, environmental, and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical issues related to a manned mission to Mars are reviewed. Consideration is given to cardiovascular deconditioning, hematological and immunological changes, bone and muscle changes, nutritional issues, and the development of physiological countermeasures. Environmental issues are discussed, including radiation hazards, toxic chemical exposure, and the cabin environment. Also, human factors, performance and behavior, medical screening of the crew, disease prediction, and health maintenance are examined.

  12. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  13. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  14. Thermal Comfort Assessment and Optimization of Environmental Factors by Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this study was to determine the dominance effects of environmental factors such as Illuminance (lux, relative humidity (% and WBGT (°C on the operators’ productivity at Malaysian automotive industry. Approach: One automotive parts assembly factory had been chosen as a subject for the study. The subjects were workers at the assembly section of the factory. The environment examined was the Illuminance (lux, relative humidity (% and WBGT (°C of the surrounding workstation area. Two sets of representative data including the Illuminance, relative humidity (% and WBGT (°C level and production rate were collected during the study. All the data was measured using Babuc apparatus which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of environmental were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then Taguchi Method was being utilized to find the sequence of dominance factors that contributed to the productivity of operator at the specified production workstation. From there, optimum level for the three factors will be determine for optimum productivity. Further multiple linear regressions were employed to obtain the equation model in order to represent the relationship of these environmental factors towards productivity. Results: The thermal comfort assessments of this station which was the scale PMV was 2 and PPD is 79% ware likely to be satisfied by the worker. Conclusion: The study revealed that the dominant factor contribute to the productivity at the body assembly production line is WBGT and Illuminance whereas the empirical finding was closely related to the perception study by survey questionnaire distribution.

  15. TRANSFORMATION FACTORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND ACTION IN IIDA CITY RESIDENTS - ATTEITION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Nobuo; Higuchi, Kazukiyo; Tokai, Akihiro

    Iida City in Nagano Prefecture is a town with an advanced environmental strategy including citizenry participation in the town's environment plan, a network of EMS (Environmental Management system) businesses, and a citizens' solar power system. In this study, a questionnaire of Iida residents was carried out to determine their environmental consciousness, and the effect on their actions. It also examined the influence of current environmental measures on the residents, and the relation between the level of social capital and residents' environmental considerations. The results indicate that the environmental consideration level of the senior citizen group is higher than that of the entire Japan in Iida City, and environmental measures has improved the residents' environmental consciousness. And it is thought the environmental consideration level of the senior citizen group is related to the level of social capital.

  16. Genetic, metabolic and environmental factors involved in the development of liver cirrhosis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Roman, Sonia; Fierro, Nora A; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-11-07

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) is a chronic illness caused by inflammatory responses and progressive fibrosis. Globally, the most common causes of chronic liver disease include persistent alcohol abuse, followed by viral hepatitis infections and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, regardless of the etiological factors, the susceptibility and degree of liver damage may be influenced by genetic polymorphisms that are associated with distinct ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Consequently, metabolic genes are influenced by variable environmental lifestyle factors, such as diet, physical inactivity, and emotional stress, which are associated with regional differences among populations. This Topic Highlight will focus on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence the metabolism of alcohol and nutrients in the setting of distinct etiologies of liver disease. The interaction between genes and environment in the current-day admixed population, Mestizo and Native Mexican, will be described. Additionally, genes involved in immune regulation, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix deposition may modulate the degree of severity. In conclusion, LC is a complex disease. The onset, progression, and clinical outcome of LC among the Mexican population are influenced by specific genetic and environmental factors. Among these are an admixed genome with a heterogenic distribution of European, Amerindian and African ancestry; a high score of alcohol consumption; viral infections; a hepatopathogenic diet; and a high prevalence of obesity. The variance in risk factors among populations suggests that intervention strategies directed towards the prevention and management of LC should be tailored according to such population-based features.

  17. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to include environmental knowledge in decision making in the case of an aluminium reduction plant in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2011-01-01

    environmental knowledge in a decision-making process. It is concluded that the SEA secured inclusion of environmental knowledge in three out of four key decision arenas, which determined the direction and outcome of the process. The results from the SEA did not oppose the recommendations based on the economic...... assessments. As there was no conflict between economic and environmental recommendations, and hence no visible proof of SEA’s influence on the outcome of the decision, it is discussed whether environmental knowledge, in this decision making process, equals influence. The investigation was carried out...

  18. Virulence factors in environmental and clinical Vibrio cholerae from endemic areas in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racheal W. Kimani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1971, Kenya has had repeated cholera outbreaks. However, the cause of seasonal epidemics of cholera is not fully understood and neither are the factors that drive epidemics, both in Kenya and globally.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the environmental reservoirs of V. cholerae during an interepidemic period in Kenya and to characterise their virulence factors.Methods: One hundred (50 clinical, 50 environmental samples were tested for V. cholerae isolates using both simplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.Results: Both sediments and algae from fishing and landing bays yielded isolates of V. cholerae. Clinical strains were characterised along with the environmental strains for comparison. All clinical strains harboured ctxA, tcpA (El Tor, ompU, zot, ace, toxR, hylA (El Tor and tcpI genes. Prevalence for virulence genes in environmental strains was hylA (El Tor (10%, toxR (24%, zot (22%, ctxA (12%,tcpI (8%, hylA (26% and tcpA (12%.Conclusion: The study sites, including landing bays and beaches, contained environmental V. cholerae, suggesting that these may be reservoirs for frequent epidemics. Improved hygiene and fish-handling techniques will be important in reducing the persistence of reservoirs.

  19. [Dynamic change of Yulania sap flow before dormancy in response to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhong-Long; Jia, Zhong-Kui; Ma, Lu-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Duan, Jie

    2012-09-01

    From September 26 to November 5, 2011, the sap flow of Yulania wufengensis trees including cold-resistance type (HK) and non cold-resistance type (HF), Y. 'Sunspire' (HY), and Yulania x soulangeana (EQ) which were introduced into Beijing four years before was monitored by Flow-32 stem heat balance sensor, and, in combining with the environmental factors monitored synchronically, the changes of the sap flow before dormancy and the environmental factors were analyzed, with the responses of the sap flow to the environmental factors investigated at the scales of 0.5 h and 1 day. The sap flow of the Yulanias trees before dormancy displayed an obvious trend of declining day by day. The environmental factors affecting the sap flow could be divided into two categories, i. e., meteorological index (MI) and soil index (SI). The sap flow of the Yulanias trees had a synchronous variation rhythm with MI, and declined in parallel to SI. The combined effect of MI and SI on the diurnal changes of the sap flow was 69% - 73%. At both 0.5 h and 1 day scales, the sap flow showed significantly correlations with total radiation (Rs), air vapor pressure deficit (D), air relative humidity (RH), air temperature (Ta), and wind speed (w). The sap flow showed no significant correlations with soil temperature (Ts) and soil water content (SWC) at 0. 5 h scale, but had significant correlations with Ts, SWC, and day length (Z) at 1 day scale (the correlation efficient was about 0.8). Only Rs, Z, and D were included into the model at 1 day scale, but almost all environmental factors (except SWC and Ts) were included in the model at 0.5 h scale. Except for HF type, the regression coefficients of the model for the Yulanias trees at 1 day scale (0.92-0.96) were larger than those at 0.5 h scale (0.77-0.87), and the correlations between the dynamic changes of sap flow and the environmental factor were consistent, which was in accord with the fact that the HF could not overwinter in Beijing but the

  20. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    explosion, and the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, such an approach may have helped to maintain the integrity of the designed provisions against major deviations resulting in these disasters. In order to make this paradigm operational, safety management and in particular risk assessment tools need to be refined....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...... Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...

  1. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Koufaris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals.

  2. ESI PDF Maps: Environmental Sensitivity Index PDF Maps (for the U.S. Shorelines, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Central California (Including Monterey Bay Sanctuary), maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps have been developed for the coastal areas of Central California from Point Conception to Point Reyes National Seashore....

  4. Model of Environmental Development of the Urbanized Areas: Accounting of Ecological and other Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanina, E. N.; Pandakov, K. G.; Agapov, D. A.; Sorokina, Yu V.; Vasiliev, E. H.

    2017-05-01

    Modern cities and towns are often characterized by poor administration, which could be the reason of environmental degradation, the poverty growth, decline in economic growth and social isolation. In these circumstances it is really important to conduct fresh researches forming new ways of sustainable development of administrative districts. This development of the urban areas depends on many interdependent factors: ecological, economic, social. In this article we show some theoretical aspects of forming a model of environmental progress of the urbanized areas. We submit some model containing four levels including natural resources capacities of the territory, its social features, economic growth and human impact. The author describes the interrelations of elements of the model. In this article the program of environmental development of a city is offered and it could be used in any urban area.

  5. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to include environmental knowledge in decision making in the case of an aluminium reduction plant in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2011-01-01

    assessments. As there was no conflict between economic and environmental recommendations, and hence no visible proof of SEA’s influence on the outcome of the decision, it is discussed whether environmental knowledge, in this decision making process, equals influence. The investigation was carried out...... environmental knowledge in a decision-making process. It is concluded that the SEA secured inclusion of environmental knowledge in three out of four key decision arenas, which determined the direction and outcome of the process. The results from the SEA did not oppose the recommendations based on the economic......The purpose and means of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) can vary depending on the case investigated and interests of actors involved. Based on the objective for the SEA of a proposed aluminium reduction plant (ARP) in Greenland, this paper evaluates the SEA’s effectiveness in securing...

  6. Studying the Relative Strengths of Environmental Factors that Influence Echinoderm Body Size Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, A.; Randhawa, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size is often a useful metric in observing how a clade responds to environmental changes. Previous research has uncovered how environmental factors such as carbon dioxide and oxygen levels influence body size evolution. However, we wanted to look into how these natural factors interact and which factors seem to have a stronger relative influence on echinoderm body size. We analyzed carbon dioxide levels, a proxy for paleotemperature, oxygen levels, and sea level. Our research process involved measuring and calculating the volume of Phanerozoic echinoderm fossils recorded in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, plotting their mean volumes over various natural factors, and using statistical tools such as correlation tests and the PaleoTS statistical analysis software to compare the relative strengths of these factors. Furthermore, we divided our data into the following three subsets to uncover more specific relationships: 1) A set that included all data of the phylum Echinodermata 2) A set that focused on the two classes with the most recorded data, Echinoidea and Crinoidea 3) A set that focused on the crinoid specimens that originated in the Paleozoic and in the post-Paleozoic. In the first subset, echinoderms had the strongest correlation with carbon dioxide, a proxy for temperature, and possessed a weaker correlation with oxygen. In the second subset, we discovered that the echinoid data also possessed a strong correlation with carbon dioxide and a weaker correlation with oxygen. For crinoids, we found that the class as a whole showed no strong correlation with any measured environmental factors. However, when we divided the crinoids based on age, we found that both Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids individually correlated strongly with sea level. However, some uncertainty with this correlation arose as the comparison of the environmental correlate models suggested that an unbiased random walk was the best fit for the data. This stands as a sharp

  7. Technical proposal for including health in the procedures for assessing the environmental impact of policies, plans, programmes, projects and activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena García Nieto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Health was an element of general licensing procedures until Spain joined the EU in 1986, when the health report became diluted. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of this topic’s current regulatory framework and to try to briefly describe health priorities and the channels for feasibly integrating the health variable in the environmental assessment of plans, programmes and projects from the public and private sectors. The current existence of the Environmental Assessment Act and the Public Health Act may help to achieve this.When preparing a strategic environmental study and an environmental impact study, the health impact assessment should be considered an essential step in these environmental procedures and have the same legal treatment as the “compulsory and determinant reports” of said procedures.Thus, it is concluded that the regulatory development of the aspects relating to the assessment of the health impact of the plans, programmes and projects envisaged in the Environmental Assessment Act is essential, the health impact assessment being the tool for doing so.

  8. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.

    2008-01-01

    , and (3) basic research to identify the primary signal(s) for the onset of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent/central puberty and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-independent/peripheral puberty. Prospective studies of couples who are planning pregnancies or pregnant women are needed to capture......, body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research...... initiatives include (1) etiologic research that focus on environmentally relevant levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to normal puberty as well as its variants, (2) exposure assessment of relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical windows of human development...

  9. Assessing temporal associations between environmental factors and malaria morbidity at varying transmission settings in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kigozi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental factors play a major role in transmission of malaria given their relationship to both the development and survival of the mosquito and parasite. The associations between environmental factors and malaria can be used to inform the development of early warning systems for increases in malaria burden. The objective of this study was to assess temporal relationships between rainfall, temperature and vegetation with malaria morbidity across three different transmission settings in Uganda. Methods Temporal relationships between environmental factors (weekly total rainfall, mean day time temperature and enhanced vegetation index series and malaria morbidity (weekly malaria case count data and test positivity rate series over the period January 2010–May 2013 in three sites located in varying malaria transmission settings in Uganda was explored using cross-correlation with pre-whitening. Sites included Kamwezi (low transmission, Kasambya (moderate transmission and Nagongera (high transmission. Results Nagongera received the most rain (30.6 mm and experienced, on average, the highest daytime temperatures (29.8 °C per week. In the study period, weekly TPR and number of malaria cases were highest at Kasambya and lowest at Kamwezi. The largest cross-correlation coefficients between environmental factors and malaria morbidity for each site was 0.27 for Kamwezi (rainfall and cases, 0.21 for Kasambya (vegetation and TPR, and −0.27 for Nagongera (daytime temperature and TPR. Temporal associations between environmental factors (rainfall, temperature and vegetation with malaria morbidity (number of malaria cases and TPR varied by transmission setting. Longer time lags were observed at Kamwezi and Kasambya compared to Nagongera in the relationship between rainfall and number of malaria cases. Comparable time lags were observed at Kasambya and Nagongera in the relationship between temperature and malaria morbidity. Temporal

  10. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  11. Estrogen receptor positive breast cancers and their association with environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannel Sylvio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies to assess risk factors for breast cancer often do not differentiate between different types of breast cancers. We applied a general linear model to determine whether data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program on annual county level age-adjusted incidence rates of breast cancer with and without estrogen receptors (ER+ and ER- were associated with environmental pollutants. Results Our final model explained approximately 38% of the variation in the rate of ER+ breast cancer. In contrast, we were only able to explain 14% of the variation in the rate of ER- breast cancer with the same set of environmental variables. Only ER+ breast cancers were positively associated with the EPA's estimated risk of cancer based on toxic air emissions and the proportion of agricultural land in a county. Meteorological variables, including short wave radiation, temperature, precipitation, and water vapor pressure, were also significantly associated with the rate of ER+ breast cancer, after controlling for age, race, premature mortality from heart disease, and unemployment rate. Conclusions Our findings were consistent with what we expected, given the fact that many of the commonly used pesticides and air pollutants included in the EPA cancer risk score are classified as endocrine disruptors and ER+ breast cancers respond more strongly to estrogen than ER- breast cancers. The findings of this study suggest that ER+ and ER- breast cancers have different risk factors, which should be taken into consideration in future studies that seek to understand environmental risk factors for breast cancer.

  12. The relation between morphology, accretion modes and environmental factors in local radio AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Gendre, Melanie A; Wall, J V; Ker, L M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the nature of the relation between morphology and accretion mode in radio galaxies, including environmental parameters. The CoNFIG extended catalogue (improved by new Ks-band identifications and estimated redshifts from UKIDSS, and spectral index measurements from new GMRT observations) is used to select a sub-sample of 206 radio galaxies with z<0.3 over a wide range of radio luminosity, which are morphology-classified using the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) classification of extended radio sources. For each galaxy, spectroscopic data are retrieved to determine the high/low excitation status of the source, related to its accretion mode. Environmental factors, such as the host galaxy luminosity and a richness factor are also computed, generally using SDSS data.

  13. Asthma in Urban Children: Epidemiology, Environmental Risk Factors, and the Public Health Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Ki Lee; Matsui, Elizabeth; Sharma, Hemant

    2016-04-01

    Asthma is the most commonly reported chronic condition of childhood in developed countries, with 6.5 million children affected in the USA. A disparate burden of childhood asthma is seen among socioeconomically disadvantaged youth, often concentrated in urban areas with high poverty rates. Host factors that predispose a child to asthma include atopy, male gender, parental history of asthma, and also race, ethnicity, and genetic and epigenetic susceptibilities. Environmental factors, such as improved hygiene, ambient air pollution, and early life exposures to microbes and aeroallergens, also influence the development of asthma. With greater than 90% of time spent indoors, home exposures (such as cockroach, rodent, and indoor air pollution) are highly relevant for urban asthma. Morbidity reduction may require focused public health initiatives for environmental intervention in high priority risk groups and the addition of immune modulatory agents in children with poorly controlled disease.

  14. Combining environmental factors and agriculturalists' observations of environmental changes in the traditional terrace system of the Amalfi coast (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savo, Valentina; Caneva, Giulia; McClatchey, Will; Reedy, David; Salvati, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Terraces are traditional engineered ecosystems that affect the hydro-geological equilibrium, slope stability, and local communities. The aims of this paper are (i) identifying environmental factors that affect terrace stability in the Amalfi Coast, (ii) defining agriculturalists' observations on environmental changes within that system and (iii) exploring potentiality of these observations to better define conservation strategies. All available data on physical and ecological factors recognized to affect the terrace system were collected and analyzed. Interviews were conducted with agriculturalists to obtain long-term observations on environmental factors that interact with this system. Landslides are more frequent where rainfall is high and during winter. Fires have an uneven annual distribution, with higher frequency during summers. Agriculturalists detailed complex interactions among environmental factors, economic elements, and terraces. These observations represent a valuable resource for defining causes and effects of abandonment and for better addressing conservation strategies.

  15. 78. Environmental air pollution: A new emerging factor for coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Meo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Environmental pollution exert detrimental effects on the heart. The researchers and physicians must consider the environmental pollution as an emerging factor in the development of coronary artery disease.

  16. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871) and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812). A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found...... between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused...

  17. Associations between environmental factors and hospital admissions for sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Frédéric B; Tewari, Sanjay; Brousse, Valentine; Analitis, Antonis; Font, Anna; Menzel, Stephan; Chakravorty, Subarna; Thein, Swee Lay; Inusa, Baba; Telfer, Paul; de Montalembert, Mariane; Fuller, Gary W; Katsouyanni, Klea; Rees, David C

    2017-04-01

    Sickle cell disease is an increasing global health burden. This inherited disease is characterized by a remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity, which can only partly be explained by genetic factors. Environmental factors are likely to play an important role but studies of their impact on disease severity are limited and their results are often inconsistent. This study investigated associations between a range of environmental factors and hospital admissions of young patients with sickle cell disease in London and in Paris between 2008 and 2012. Specific analyses were conducted for subgroups of patients with different genotypes and for the main reasons for admissions. Generalized additive models and distributed lag non-linear models were used to assess the magnitude of the associations and to calculate relative risks. Some environmental factors significantly influence the numbers of hospital admissions of children with sickle cell disease, although the associations identified are complicated. Our study suggests that meteorological factors are more likely to be associated with hospital admissions for sickle cell disease than air pollutants. It confirms previous reports of risks associated with wind speed (risk ratio: 1.06/standard deviation; 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.12) and also with rainfall (1.06/standard deviation; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.12). Maximum atmospheric pressure was found to be a protective factor (0.93/standard deviation; 95% confidence interval: 0.88-0.99). Weak or no associations were found with temperature. Divergent associations were identified for different genotypes or reasons for admissions, which could partly explain the lack of consistency in earlier studies. Advice to patients with sickle cell disease usually includes avoiding a range of environmental conditions that are believed to trigger acute complications, including extreme temperatures and high altitudes. Scientific evidence to support such advice is limited and sometimes

  18. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF variation in two populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Sorice

    Full Text Available Placental Growth Factor (PGF is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871 and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812. A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused on genetic risk factors. The association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in the PGF gene and the plasma levels of the protein was investigated. Two polymorphisms (rs11850328 and rs2268614 were associated with the PGF plasma levels in the Cilento sample and these associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability.

  19. Environmental Risk Factors in Han and Uyghur Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhao

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3-6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia.Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9% and Uyghur (7.0% children (P < 0.05, and the boy-to-girl diagnosis ratio was almost 2:1. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ethnic differences in dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother's occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01-0.68 and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67-12.11.The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics.

  20. Environmental Risk Factors in Han and Uyghur Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3–6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia. Results Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9%) and Uyghur (7.0%) children (P boy-to-girl diagnosis ratio was almost 2:1. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ethnic differences in dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother’s occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01–0.68) and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67–12.11). Conclusions The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics. PMID:27416106

  1. Practical ranges of loudness levels of various types of environmental noise, including traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.; Janssen, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noi

  2. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art – part one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Arkadiusz A.; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of previously diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors. PMID:27504022

  3. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art – part two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Arkadiusz A.; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of early diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren’s syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors. PMID:27826170

  4. Correlations for perceived family environmental factors with substance use among adolescents in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, S N; Matla, M P

    2003-04-01

    Perceived family environmental factors were used to predict self-reported use of substances (drugs or alcohol) among adolescents in South Africa. 435 high school students (ages 15 to 19 years, M=17.2 yr., SD=1.34) answered a questionnaire which included questions on demographic variables, the Family Environmental Scale, and questions on substances used (drugs or alcohol). Logistic regression analysis indicated that scores on family conflict and low family moral-religious emphasis were significantly associated with drug use (57.9% of the variance was accounted for) and use of alcohol (62.3% of the variance was accounted for). Programmes for the reduction of substance use among adolescents should include activities designed to reduce family conflict and strengthen family moral-religious emphasis.

  5. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire to assess physical environmental factors pertaining to physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinn Aileen P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population. Methods Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC overall and separately by gender and race. Results Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8, with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains. Conclusion This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men.

  6. Influence of Environmental Factors on Vibrio spp. in Coastal Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Crystal N

    2015-06-01

    Various studies have examined the relationships between vibrios and the environmental conditions surrounding them. However, very few reviews have compiled these studies into cohesive points. This may be due to the fact that these studies examine different environmental parameters, use different sampling, detection, and enumeration methodologies, and occur in diverse geographic locations. The current article is one approach to compile these studies into a cohesive work that assesses the importance of environmental determinants on the abundance of vibrios in coastal ecosystems.

  7. The relationship between organisational factors and the effectiveness of environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Amy; Baird, Kevin; Schoch, Herbert

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the relationship between specific organisational factors (top management support, training, employee participation, teamwork and the link of performance to rewards) with the effectiveness of environmental management. The effectiveness of environmental management is measured in respect of the effectiveness of environmental management processes and environmental performance. Data were collected by mail survey questionnaire from a random sample of 899 senior financial officers in Australian manufacturing organisations. The findings highlight the significance of the effectiveness of environmental management processes as an antecedent of environmental performance and a mediator of the relationship between organisational factors and environmental performance. The findings provide managers with an insight into the specific organisational factors that they need to focus on to enhance the effectiveness of environmental management.

  8. [Social and environmental factors and mental health in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, S I; Kalyn, Ia B

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives data on trends in the prevalence of mental disease and disorders incidence in old age groups for 10 years (1984-1994) and analyzes whether macro- and microsocial factors can affect mental health in the elderly. Clinical and epidemiological surveys of 1109 examinees aged 60 years and older residing in a limited Moscow area have yielded morbidity rates for mental disease and disorders (including those by sex and age) in the population. Diagnoses was rated according to the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). Varying mental disorders and nosological entities (without taking into account abnormalities) were found in 36.6% of examinees, including 6.1% with psychotic states, i.e. proper psychoses and clinical mental deficiency. Comparison of the results of two studies. One study was carried out in the 1980s and the present one performed 10 years later, that is, within the period of socioeconomic changes in the country, is indicative of a considerable growth of the morbidity rates in nonpsychotic forms of psychopathology of cerebrovascular genesis and psychogenic affective disorders among the Moscow elderly population. A correlation between the incidence of psychic pathology at an elderly age and different socioenvironmental factors has been studied. There are significant differences in accumulation of stress-induced life events in elderly patients with different psychopathology types. The obtained results confirm the author's assumption that the growth of psychic disorder morbidity rates, specifically, in non-psychotic forms of mental diseases of cerebrovascular genesis and psychogenic affective disorders in the past decade may be caused by increased stress-induced load on elderly people both in connection with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions of the reform epoch and a frustration of their outlook stereotypes. In the authors' opinion, their hypothesis on the correlation between the increase in the incidence of some psychogeriatric

  9. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant’s Growth Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles. PMID:28066483

  10. Effective environmental factors on geographical distribution of traffic accidents on pedestrians, downtown Tehran city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Kavousi, Amir; Eshghabadi, Farshid; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Zeini, Salahdien

    2017-01-01

    In most countries, occurrence of traffic causalities is high in pedestrians. The aim of this study is to geographically analyze the traffic casualties in pedestrians in downtown Tehran city. The study population consisted of traffic injury accidents in pedestrians occurred during 2015 in Tehran city. Data were extracted from offices of traffic police and municipality. For analysis of environmental factors and site of accidents, ordinary least square regression models and geographically weighted regression were used. Fitness and performance of models were checked using the Akaike information criteria, Bayesian information criteria, deviance, and adjusted R(2). Totally, 514 accidents were included in this study. Of them, site of accidents was arterial streets in 370 (71.9%) cases, collector streets in 133 cases (25.2%), and highways in 11 cases (2.1%). Geographical units of traffic accidents in pedestrians had statistically significant relationship with a number of bus stations, number of crossroads, and recreational areas. Distribution of injury traffic accidents in pedestrians is different in downtown Tehran city. Neighborhoods close to markets are considered as most dangerous neighborhoods for injury traffic accidents. Different environmental factors are involved in determining the distribution of these accidents. The health of pedestrians in Tehran city can be improved by proper traffic management, control of environmental factors, and educational programs.

  11. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant's Growth Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles.

  12. Environmental Factor{trademark} system: Superfund site information from five EPA databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Environmental Factor puts today`s technology to work to provide a better, more cost-efficient and time-saving way to access EPA information on hazardous waste sites. Environmental consultants, insurers, and reinsurers, corporate risk assessors and companies actively involved in the generation, transport, storage or cleanup of hazardous waste materials can use its user-friendly information retrieval system to gain rapid access to vital information in immediately-usable form. Search, retrieve, and export information in real time. No more waiting for the mail or overnight delivery services to deliver hard copies of voluminous listings and individual site reports. More than 200,000 pages of EPA hazardous waste site information are contained in 5 related databases: (1) Site data from the National Priority List (NPL) and CERCLIS databases, Potentially Responsible Parties (PRP) and Records of Decision (RODs) summaries; (2) Complete PRP information; (3) EPA Records of Decision (Full Text); (4) entire Civil Enforcement Docket; and (5) Glossary of EPA terms, abbreviations and acronyms. Environmental Factor`s powerful database management engine gives even the most inexperienced computer user extensive search capabilities, including wildcard, phonetic and direct cross reference searches across multiple databases.

  13. The relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors to phenotypic variation in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Brandt, Benny; Berkun, Yackov; Lidar, Merav; Livneh, Avi

    2012-01-10

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations in the FMF gene MEFV (MEditerranean FeVer). It has a large phenotypic diversity even in patients with similar genotypes. Despite evidence that environmental factors (EFs) and genetic factors, including MEFV mutations (such as M694V, E148Q) and background modifier genes (MGs), affect the clinical manifestations of FMF, the relative contribution of each remains unknown. To investigate the relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the phenotype of FMF, we compared the intra-pair clinical concordance of 10 mono and 7 dizygotic twins with FMF. The part played by EFs was determined by the phenotypic discordance of the monozygous twins, and the MGs effect was determined by deducing the environmental effect, computed for MZ twins, from the phenotypic discordance of the dizygous twins. The mean±SD of intra-pair concordance was higher in the MZ than in DZ twin group (88.1±13.2 vs. 70.7±14.1 respectively, P valueFMF is estimated as 11.9%±6.6% and the MGs effect as 17.4%±15.5% in average. In FMF the phenotype is affected by MEFV mutations, MGs and EFs in an estimated ratio of about 6:1.5:1 respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Is exposure to cyanobacteria an environmental risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Walter G.; Borenstein, Amy R.; Nelson, Lorene M.; Codd, Geoffrey A.; Rosen, Barry H.; Stommel, Elijah W.; Cox, Paul Alan

    2013-01-01

    There is a broad scientific consensus that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by gene-environment interactions. Mutations in genes underlying familial ALS (fALS) have been discovered in only 5–10% of the total population of ALS patients. Relatively little attention has been paid to environmental and lifestyle factors that may trigger the cascade of motor neuron death leading to the syndrome of ALS, although exposure to chemicals including lead and pesticides, and to agricultural environments, smoking, certain sports, and trauma have all been identified with an increased risk of ALS. There is a need for research to quantify the relative roles of each of the identified risk factors for ALS. Recent evidence has strengthened the theory that chronic environmental exposure to the neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced by cyanobacteria may be an environmental risk factor for ALS. Here we describe methods that may be used to assess exposure to cyanobacteria, and hence potentially to BMAA, namely an epidemiologic questionnaire and direct and indirect methods for estimating the cyanobacterial load in ecosystems. Rigorous epidemiologic studies could determine the risks associated with exposure to cyanobacteria, and if combined with genetic analysis of ALS cases and controls could reveal etiologically important gene-environment interactions in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  15. A tale of trade-offs: the impact of macroeconomic factors on environmental concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Stephen J; Emerson, Tisha L N

    2014-12-01

    We test whether macroeconomic conditions affect individuals' willingness to pay for environmental quality improvements. Improvements in environmental quality, like everything, come at a cost. Individuals facing difficult economic times may be less willing to make trade-offs required for improvements in environmental quality. Using somewhat different methodologies and shorter time frames, prior investigations have generally found a direct relationship between willingness to pay for environmental improvements and macroeconomic conditions. We use a nearly 40-year span (27 periods) of the General Social Survey (1974-2012) to estimate attitudes toward environmental spending while controlling for U.S. macroeconomic conditions and respondent-specific factors such as age, gender, marital status, number of children, residential location, educational attainment, personal financial condition, political party affiliation and ideology. Macroeconomic conditions include one-year lagged controls for the unemployment rate, the rate of economic growth (percentage change in real GDP), and an indicator for whether the U.S. economy was experiencing a recession. We find that, in general, when economic conditions are unfavorable (i.e., during a recession, or with higher unemployment, or lower GDP growth), respondents are more likely to believe the U.S. is spending too much on "improving and protecting the environment". Interacting lagged macroeconomic controls with respondent's income, we find that these views are at least partially offset by the respondent's own economic condition (i.e., their own real income). Our findings are consistent with the notion that environmental quality is a normal, or procyclical good, i.e., that environmental spending should rise when the economy is expanding and fall during economic contractions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study using bike-along interviews

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    .... The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while...

  17. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included…

  18. Intestinal microbial ecology and environmental factors affecting necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Murgas Torrazza

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is the most devastating intestinal disease affecting preterm infants. In addition to being associated with short term mortality and morbidity, survivors are left with significant long term sequelae. The cost of caring for these infants is high. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that use of antibiotics and type of feeding may cause an intestinal dysbiosis important in the pathogenesis of NEC, but the contribution of specific infectious agents is poorly understood. Fecal samples from preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks gestation were analyzed using 16S rRNA based methods at 2, 1, and 0 weeks, prior to diagnosis of NEC in 18 NEC cases and 35 controls. Environmental factors such as antibiotic usage, feeding type (human milk versus formula and location of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU were also evaluated. Microbiota composition differed between the three neonatal units where we observed differences in antibiotic usage. In NEC cases we observed a higher proportion of Proteobacteria (61% two weeks and of Actinobacteria (3% 1 week before diagnosis of NEC compared to controls (19% and 0.4%, respectively and lower numbers of Bifidobacteria counts and Bacteroidetes proportions in the weeks before NEC diagnosis. In the first fecal samples obtained during week one of life we detected a novel signature sequence, distinct from but matching closest to Klebsiella pneumoniae, that was strongly associated with NEC development later in life. Infants who develop NEC exhibit a different pattern of microbial colonization compared to controls. Antibiotic usage correlated with these differences and combined with type of feeding likely plays a critical role in the development of NEC.

  19. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Fuels from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…

  20. Factors Of Environmental Safety And Environmentally Efficient Technologies Transportation Facilities Gas Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Bogdan U.

    2017-01-01

    The stable development of the European countries depends on a reliable and efficient operation of the gas transportation system (GTS). With high reliability of GTS it is necessary to ensure its industrial and environmental safety. In this article the major factors influencing on an industrial and ecological safety of GTS are analyzed, sources of GTS safety decreasing is revealed, measures for providing safety are proposed. The article shows that use of gas-turbine engines of gas-compressor units (GCU) results in the following phenomena: emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere; pollution by toxic waste; harmful noise and vibration; thermal impact on environment; decrease in energy efficiency. It is shown that for the radical problem resolution of an industrial and ecological safety of gas-transmission system it is reasonable to use gas-compressor units driven by electric motors. Their advantages are shown. Perspective technologies of these units and experience of their use in Europe and the USA are given in this article.

  1. Effects of indoor environmental factors on respiratory health of children in a subtropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C Y; Chiu, J F; Cheng, M F; Lin, M C

    1997-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether indoor environmental factors affected respiratory symptoms in 4164 primary school children in Kaohsiung rural areas of Taiwan. Information on respiratory health symptoms and characteristics of the housing was obtained using a written questionnaire, completed by the parents of children. Multiple logistic regression analysis examined the relationship between respiratory health symptoms (cough, wheezing, bronchitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis) and housing factors. Home dampness was significantly associated with all respiratory health symptoms. Incense burning and mosquito repellant burning showed effects on the reporting of coughing symptoms. No apparent associations were found with the other indoor factors included in this study or respiratory health symptoms. We conclude that dampness in the home has a pronounced effects on respiratory health symptoms and is a new public health issue in subtropical areas.

  2. The Effects of Environmental Factors on the Growth and Competition of Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; WANG; Jiazhang; CHEN; Shunlong; MENG

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of environmental factors on the algae growth and competition,the author summarized overseas and domestic related researches in recent years.Most of the researches are about the influence of single factor on growth of algae.However,there is insufficient investment on the interaction of different factors and the competition between algae growth.This paper briefly introduced the classification of algae and the role they played in ecological system and focused on the influence which included temperature,illumination,nitrogen,phosphorus and pH on the growth and competition of algal.In the end,the author proposed key questions which were still needed to be studied in order to know more about the relationship between environment effects and growth and competition of algae.Therefore,people could better improve the community structure of algae and water ecological environment,and improve water primary productivity.

  3. Environmental contamination as a risk factor for intra-household Staphylococcus aureus transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Knox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The household is a recognized community reservoir for Staphylococcus aureus. This study investigated potential risk factors for intra-household S. aureus transmission, including the contribution of environmental contamination. METHODS: We investigated intra-household S. aureus transmission using a sample of multiple member households from a community-based case-control study examining risk factors for CA-MRSA infection conducted in Northern Manhattan. During a home visit, index subjects completed a questionnaire. All consenting household members were swabbed, as were standardized environmental household items. Swabs were cultured for S. aureus. Positive isolates underwent further molecular characterization. Intra-household transmission was defined as having identical strains among two or more household members. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for transmission. RESULTS: We enrolled 291 households: 146 index cases, 145 index controls and 687 of their household contacts. The majority of indexes were Hispanic (85%, low income (74%, and female (67%, with a mean age of 31 (range 1-79. The average size of case and control households was 4 people. S. aureus colonized individuals in 62% of households and contaminated the environment in 54% of households. USA300 was the predominant clinical infection, colonizing and environmental strain. Eighty-one households had evidence of intra-household transmission: 55 (38% case and 26 (18% control households (P<.01. Environmental contamination with a colonizing or clinical infection strain (aOR: 5.4 [2.9-10.3] P<.01 and the presence of a child under 5 (aOR: 2.3 [1.2-4.5] P = .02 were independently associated with transmission. In separate multivariable models, environmental contamination was associated with transmission among case (aOR 3.3, p<.01 and control households (aOR 27.2, p<.01. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental contamination with a colonizing or clinical

  4. Impact of Climate and Environmental Factors on West Nile Virus Circulation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ahmadnejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic distribution of West Nile virus (WNV is heterogeneous in Iran by a high circulation in the southern-western areas. The objective of our study was to determine environmental and climatic factors associ­ated with the risk of WNV equine seropositivity in Iran.Methods: Serological data were obtained from a serosurvey conducted in equine population in 260 districts in Iran. The climate and environmental parameters included in the models were distance to the nearest wetland area, type of stable, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, annual mean temperature, humidity and precipitation.Results: The important risk factors included annual mean temperature, distance to wetlands, local and seasonal NDVI differences. The effect of local NDVI differences in spring was particularly notable. This was a normalized difference of average NDVI between two areas: a 5 km radius area centered on the stable and the 5–10 km sur­rounding area.Conclusion: The model indicated that local NDVI’s contrast during spring is a major risk factor of the transmission of West-Nile virus in Iran. This so-called oasis effect consistent with the seasonal production of vegetation in spring, and is associated to the attractiveness of the local NDVI environment for WNV vectors and hosts.  

  5. Southern Carpathian rock glaciers: Inventory, distribution and environmental controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaca, Alexandru; Ardelean, Florina; Urdea, Petru; Magori, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Rock glaciers are valuable diagnostic landforms indicating permafrost creeping during their genesis and activity. Based on the analysis of high quality air-orthophoto and field work, a first polygon-based inventory of rock glaciers from the Southern Carpathians has been elaborated. In total, 306 rock glaciers were included in the inventory comprising 79 debris and 227 talus rock glaciers. Most of these landforms were classified as relict (258), while only 48, covering 2.81 km2, were considered intact. The size of rock glaciers, considered as a proxy for past environmental conditions, and the relationships with the predictor variables (lithology, aspect, contributing area, geographic coordinates, elevation and slope range) were analysed using bivariate statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and various post hoc tests. The statistical analysis revealed that the rock glaciers occurring in the highest mountain ranges in areas composed of granites and granodiorites are considerably larger than the others, because their duration of activity is greater. Strong dependences between rock glacier size and other topographic attributes (contributing area, aspect and slope range) were also confirmed. The rock glacier distribution in the Southern Carpathians is clearly controlled by topography, lithology and debris availability. The abundance of rock glaciers increases with altitude, but their size decreases slightly. In mountain units where granites and granodiorites predominate (Retezat and Parâng Mountains), the density of rock glaciers and the mean specific area covered by these spectacular landforms are considerably higher than in other areas. The higher continentality effects of the Southern Carpathians enabled the formation of rock glaciers at substantially lower elevations than in the Alps. The mean altitude of intact rock glaciers front, which could be used as a morphological indicator of discontinuous permafrost, is located at 2088 m.

  6. Asthma, environmental risk factors, and hypertension among Arab Americans in metro Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Markey; Nriagu, Jerome; Hammad, Adnan; Savoie, Kathryn; Jamil, Hikmet

    2010-10-01

    Asthma and obesity-related health problems disproportionately impact low-income ethnic minority communities residing in urban areas. Environmental risk factors, particularly those related to housing and indoor air, may impact the development or exacerbation of asthma. There is increasing evidence to suggest a link between obesity-related health problems and asthma. Previous studies have also reported that immigrant status may influence myriad risk factors and health outcomes among immigrant populations. The Arab American Environmental Health Project (AAEHP) was the first study to explore environmental health problems among Arab Americans. This paper examined whether hypertensive status modified the relationship between environmental risk factors and asthma among Arab Americans in metro Detroit. An environmental risk index (ERI) was used to quantify household environmental risk factors associated with asthma. Physician diagnosed hypertension was self-reported, and asthma status was determined using responses to a validated symptoms checklist and self-reported diagnosis by a physician. Hypertension significantly modified the relationship between ERI and asthma in this study population. The positive association between household environmental risk factors and asthma was stronger among participants diagnosed with hypertension. Effect modification of the relationship between environmental risk factors and asthma could have serious implications among high-risk communities. However, further research is needed to elucidate the relationships between hypertension, environmental risk factors, and asthma.

  7. Risk factors for malnutrition in Brazilian children: the role of social and environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, C G; Vaughan, J P; Kirkwood, B R; Martines, J C; Barcelos, L B

    1986-01-01

    The article reports the effects of several socioeconomic and environmental indicators on the nutritional status (stunting, underweight, and wasting) of a sample of 802 children aged 12-35.9 months in urban and rural areas of southern Brazil. Of the social variables studied, family income and father's education level were the two risk factors that showed the strongest associations with nutritional status. The mother's education level, employment status of the head of the family, number of siblings, and family's ethnic background also showed some degree of association, but these were less significant when family income was included in the analysis. Environmental variables, particularly the type of housing, degree of crowding, and type of sewage disposal, were also strongly associated with malnutrition. The effects of having access to piped or treated water were only apparent on stunting and wasting.

  8. Environmental factors and unhealthy lifestyle influence oxidative stress in humans--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Jeyadevi, R; Arul Ananth, D

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen is the most essential molecule for life; since it is a strong oxidizing agent, it can aggravate the damage within the cell by a series of oxidative events including the generation of free radicals. Antioxidative agents are the only defense mechanism to neutralize these free radicals. Free radicals are not only generated internally in our body system but also trough external sources like environmental pollution, toxic metals, cigarette smoke, pesticides, etc., which add damage to our body system. Inhaling these toxic chemicals in the environment has become unavoidable in modern civilization. Antioxidants of plant origin with free radical scavenging properties could have great importance as therapeutic agents in several diseases caused by environmental pollution. This review summarizes the generation of reactive oxygen species and damage to cells by exposure to external factors, unhealthy lifestyle, and role of herbal plants in scavenging these reactive oxygen species.

  9. The importance of environmental factors and matrices in the adsorption, desorption, and toxicity of butyltins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Liping; Xu, Cuihong; Li, Ji

    2017-01-01

    detrimental effects on humans and aquatic organisms. This work provides a critical review of recent studies on the adsorption, desorption, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of BTs that can notably influence the distribution of BTs in the environment. Influence of environmental factors (e.g., pH and salinity......Butyltins (BTs) are considered as a group of the most important organometallic compounds in industry and agriculture. Due to their widespread use, large amounts of BTs including tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) have entered into the environment, and subsequently causing...

  10. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... The external environment has a large influence on livestock ... chemical composition of the plants, which depends on the species, metabolic type of plant, ..... Heat stress occurs when environmental variables such as ambient ...

  11. Environmental risk assessment of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the aquatic environment: a case study including a cocktail scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrishave, Bjarne; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Ingerslev, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    We present an environmental risk assessment of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; citalopram, sertraline, and fluoxetine) in the aquatic environment based on two case scenarios. Abiotic and biotic degradation experiments and sorption estimates were used to predict environmental concentrations of three SSRIs from the wastewater of two psychiatric hospitals, the primary sector, and wastewater entering and leaving wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Assuming a sewage treatment retention time of 8 h, abiotic degradation was low, for all three SSRIs inhibitors, ranging between 0 and 2% for hydrolysis and 0 and 6% for photolysis. The biodegradation was also slow, ranging from 0 to 3% within an 8-h period. In untreated sewage, citalopram (CIT) and sertraline (SER) concentrations may be high enough to exert effects on the aquatic biota (CIT: 0.19-10.3 µg/L; SER: 0.14-17.1 µg/L). Removal of the pharmaceuticals is due primarily to sorption in the WWTP. Sertraline was estimated to have the highest concentrations in the sewage effluents, 4.4 and 19.9 ng/L for the two cases, respectively. In treated wastewater, individual SSRI concentrations are probably too low to exert effects on biota. By using concentration addition, a cocktail exposure scenario was estimated. The predicted concentration in the biota calculated from the cocktail effect was 0.05 and 0.16 nmol/g for the two cases, respectively, and SER was found to give the highest contribution to this cocktail effect. The results indicate that the concentrations in the wastewater effluents are one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations likely to cause an effect in the aquatic biota.

  12. Influence of Environmental Factors on Feammox Activity in Soil Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) under iron reducing conditions, referred to as Feammox, has been described in recent years by several investigators. The environmental characteristics in which the Feammox process occurs need to be understood in order to determine its contribution to the nitrogen cycle. In this study, a total of 66 locations were selected covering 4 different types of soils/sediments: wetland soils (W), river sediments (R), forest soils (F), and paddy soils (P) from several locations in central New Jersey, at Tims Branch at Savannah River in South Carolina, both in the Unities States, and at several locations in the Guangdong province in China. Though soil chemical analyses, serial culturing experiments, analysis of microbial communities, and using a canonical correspondence analysis, the occurrence of the Feammox reaction and the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, which plays a key role in the Feammox process(1), were found in 17 samples. Analyses showed that the soil pH, as well as its Fe(III) and NH4+ content were the most important factors controlling the distribution of these Feammox microorganisms. Based on the results, soils in the subtropical forests and soils that are near agricultural areas could be Feammox hotspot. Under the conditions that favor the presence and activity of Feammox microorganisms and their oxidation of NH4+, denitrification bacteria were also active. However, the presence of nitrous oxide (N2O) reducers was limited under these conditions, implying that at locations where the Feammox process is active, conditions are favoring a higher ratio of N2O: N2 as the nitrogen (N) end products. Incubations of soils where the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected, were conducted for 120 days under two different DO levels (DO ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria) decreased, while in the incubations with DO = 0.8~1.0 mg/L the opposite trend was observed. References Huang S., and Jaffé P.R., 2015

  13. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  14. Effect of environmental factors on allelopathic inhibition of Microcystis aeruginosa by berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulin; Dai, Wei; Bi, Xiangdong; Zhang, Dajuan; Xing, Kezhi

    2013-01-01

    To understand how environmental conditions affect the allelopathic inhibition of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa by berberine, the independent effects of some environmental factors, including temperature, light, and aeration, on the growth and extracellular microcystin (MC) content of M. aeruginosa (FACHB 905) treated with 0.000 and 0.001% (w/v) berberine were investigated. The results showed that higher temperature and light density, and aeration in daytime were beneficial for the growth of M. aeruginosa under the measured environmental conditions. The allelopathic effects of berberine on M. aeruginosa were closely associated with the environmental conditions. Berberine had the best inhibitory effects when temperature, light and aeration were more optimal for growth. In darkness, no changes in the density of M. aeruginosa were observed with the prolongation of culture time and berberine could hardly exhibit algicidal effects. Disturbance in the photosynthesis process might be one of the main reasons responsible for algicidal function. Berberine could increase extracellular MC contents significantly via killing and lyzing algal cells. Other treatments coupled with berberine needed to be carried out to degrade or remove MC released from berberine-killed algal cells.

  15. Environmental Factors Associated with the Growth of Chinese Literary Genius: A Test of Rogerian Assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, You-Yuk

    1987-01-01

    This study explored relationships between environmental factors (era, standard of living, freedom, and value) and the growth of Chinese literary genius. Using a new measure, the Chinese Creator Rating Scale, the study found that historical top scorers had above average values on the four environmental factors, supporting the humanistic theory of…

  16. Developmental Effects of Exposures to Environmental Factors: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polanska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure—cord blood lead level, for mercury—maternal hair mercury level, for ETS—cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH—1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects and 24 months (198 subjects children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development (β = −2.6; P=0.02 and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive (β = −0.2; P=0.05 and motor functions (β = −0.5; P=0.01 were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance (β = −6.2; P=0.06. The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  17. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  18. Analysis on the Influencing Factors and Comprehensive Management of Environmental Problems in Dongping Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]We aimed to study the influencing factors and comprehensive management of environmental problems in Dongping Lake.[Method]Based on field investigation and historical data,environmental problems of Dongping Lake and their influencing factors were analyzed,and seven measures about comprehensive management of environmental issues and ecological protection of Dongping Lake were put forward.[Result]During recent years,the content of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in Dongping Lake showed a decreas...

  19. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Economou, S.; Estes, M., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Hemmings, S. N.; Kent, S.; Loop, M.; Puckett, M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Wade, G.; McClure, L.

    2012-12-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by using NASA remotely sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the environmental data sets and associated public health analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on a 10-km grid using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST); and (3) a 12-km grid of daily incoming solar radiation and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county-level, state-level, or regional-level as per users' need and downloaded in tabular, graphical

  20. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes,Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; McClure, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by using NASA remotely sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the environmental data sets and associated public health analyses to local, state and federal end ]user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on a 10-km grid using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST); and (3) a 12-km grid of daily incoming solar radiation and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county-level, state-level, or regional-level as per users f need and downloaded in tabular, graphical

  1. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility.

  3. The Role of Reading Disability Risk and Environmental Protective Factors in Students' Reading Fluency in Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niemi, Pekka; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading disability (RD) risk and environmental protective factors in reading fluency in grade 4. The sample consisted of 538 Finnish-speaking students. Kindergarten measures included the students' risk for RD based on poor achievement in phonological awareness and letter knowledge as well as information on the three…

  4. Interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: A reanalysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca (Walter); S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen (H.); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractTo study the interaction among genetic and environmental risk factors, a reanalysis of case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted based on the original data of all studies carried out to January 1, 1990. Seven studies were included in the present analysis, comprising

  5. Interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: a re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractTo study the interaction among genetic and environmental risk factors, a reanalysis of case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted based on the original data of all studies carried out to January 1, 1990. Seven studies were included in the present analysis, comprising

  6. Environmental and state-level regulatory factors affect the incidence of autism and intellectual disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Rzhetsky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many factors affect the risks for neurodevelopmental maladies such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD and intellectual disability (ID. To compare environmental, phenotypic, socioeconomic and state-policy factors in a unified geospatial framework, we analyzed the spatial incidence patterns of ASD and ID using an insurance claims dataset covering nearly one third of the US population. Following epidemiologic evidence, we used the rate of congenital malformations of the reproductive system as a surrogate for environmental exposure of parents to unmeasured developmental risk factors, including toxins. Adjusted for gender, ethnic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical factors, the ASD incidence rates were strongly linked to population-normalized rates of congenital malformations of the reproductive system in males (an increase in ASD incidence by 283% for every percent increase in incidence of malformations, 95% CI: [91%, 576%], p<6×10(-5. Such congenital malformations were barely significant for ID (94% increase, 95% CI: [1%, 250%], p = 0.0384. Other congenital malformations in males (excluding those affecting the reproductive system appeared to significantly affect both phenotypes: 31.8% ASD rate increase (CI: [12%, 52%], p<6×10(-5, and 43% ID rate increase (CI: [23%, 67%], p<6×10(-5. Furthermore, the state-mandated rigor of diagnosis of ASD by a pediatrician or clinician for consideration in the special education system was predictive of a considerable decrease in ASD and ID incidence rates (98.6%, CI: [28%, 99.99%], p = 0.02475 and 99% CI: [68%, 99.99%], p = 0.00637 respectively. Thus, the observed spatial variability of both ID and ASD rates is associated with environmental and state-level regulatory factors; the magnitude of influence of compound environmental predictors was approximately three times greater than that of state-level incentives. The estimated county-level random effects exhibited marked spatial clustering, strongly

  7. Analysis on the Environmental Factors of Sustainable Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Haoyang

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.China's environmental problems 1) Serious water pollution.Water is most indispensable to people's life.Contaminated water will seriously affect people's normal life and cause environmental degradation, putting people in the danger of catching various diseases.Therefore, everyone should save water and make full use of it.However, in China, water pollution is getting worse.China has abundant water resources but there are still some regions frequently suffering from draught and lack of water.Especially in recent years, following the rapid economic growth, the increasingly serious problem of water pollution is presenting hazards for people's life, which needs the attention of the central government.

  8. Environmental assessment of bioenergy technologies application in Russia, including their impact on the balance of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Russia adopted a policy towards increasing of the share of renewable energy in total amount of used energy, albeit with some delay comparing to the EU countries and the USA. It was expected that the use of biofuels over time will reduce significantly the dependency of Russian economy on fossil fuels, increase its competitiveness, and increase Russian contribution to the prevention of global climate changes. Russia has significant bio-energy potential and resources which are characterized by great diversity due to the large extent of the territory, which require systematic studies and environmental assessment of used bio-energy technologies. Results of research carried at the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, modeling and prediction of ecosystems RSAU-MTAA demonstrated significant differences in the assessment of the environmental, economic and social effects of biofuel production and use, depending on the species of bio-energy crops, regional soil-ecological and agro-climatic characteristics, applied farming systems and production processes. The total area of temporarily unused and fallow land, which could be allocated to the active agricultural use in Russia, according to various estimates, ranges from 20 to 33 million hectares, which removes the problem, typical of most European countries, of adverse agro-ecological changes in land use connected with the expansion of bio-energy crops cultivation. However, the expansion of biofuel production through the use of fallow land and conversion of natural lands has as a consequence the problem of greenhouse gas emissions due to land use changes, which, according to FAO, could be even higher than CO2 emission from fossil fuels for some of bio-energy raw materials and production systems. Assessment of the total impacts of biofuels on greenhouse gas emissions in the Russian conditions should be based on regionally adapted calculations of flows throughout the entire life cycle of production, taking

  9. Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications - including criteria for Sb and As; Miljoeriktlinjer foer askanvaendning i anlaeggningsbyggande - inklusive haltkriterier foer Sb och As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Jones, Celia; Pettersson, Michael; Elert, Mark (Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    exposure scenarios including exposure pathways and points of compliance. Risk evaluation becomes an issue of comparing the estimated (-modeled) increased concentrations at specified target points with general human and environmental toxicological criteria. Guidelines have been calculated for two different types of constructions, with or without an impermeable (asphalt-) pavement that prevents rain water from infiltrating into the road. Also the possible exposure of intruding ground water has been taken into account. A set of ashes, for which data on total content and leachability was available in the ALLASKA and MALTE database, have been classified according to three categories of applications/situations. The results show that due to lack of data it could not be assessed whether naphthalene, bens(a)pyren and selen in ashes imply an insignificant risk or not. Cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, molybdenum, nickel and zinc generally shows a large margin to the calculated guidelines for total content and leachability for most ashes. Thus, ashes in constructions constitute an acceptable risk with respect to these elements. Antimony and lead in ashes fall above the guideline values for leaching in some cases. The total content of arsenic in many ashes exceeds the guideline values when used in an unpaved construction even when taking the oral bioavailabity of arsenic in ashes in consideration. To a lesser extent this also holds for total content of lead. Accordingly, it can not be excluded that the reuse of some ashes in some applications may imply a certain risk. Spreading as dust, deposition on vegetables and the subsequent intake has reveled itself as an important exposure pathway. Little data, theory and models are available on dust generation and transport, the calculations made here are rough and conservative. Also, guidelines for the ash construction left in place in the post use phase are difficult to determine. The health risk associated with intake of vegetables and

  10. Environmental risk factors contributing to traffic accidents in children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Moradi, Ali; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental risk factors related to road accidents in children of Tehran. This case-control study was performed in 2013. The cases were injured pedestrians aged 5-15 who were admitted to major hospitals supervised by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample size for the cases was 273 and for the control group was 546. For the completeness of the clusters, 7 extra persons in case (total = 280) and 14 persons (total = 560) in control group were included. The interference of confounding variables assessed through forward conditional logistic regression. Result shows occurrence of traffic accidents was significantly associate with the width of the alleys or (traffic congestion (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.6-6.4), traffic speed (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2) and existence of pedestrian bridges(OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.6-6.8). In the light of the important role of environmental factors in the occurrence of child traffic accidents, alleviating structural risk factors in addition to education and enforcement need more systematic efforts and planning by policymakers and urban planners to attain pedestrian safety goals.

  11. The environment and physical activity: The influence of psychosocial, perceived and built environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullen Chris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study sought to integrate perceived and built environmental and individual factors into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to better understand adolescents' physical activity. Methods Participants (n = 110 aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.6 ± 1.55 were recruited from two large metropolitan high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, were included in the analysis. Participants completed measures of the revised TPB and the perceived environment. Individual factors such as ethnicity and level of deprivation were also collected. Geographical Information Systems (GIS software was used to measure the physical environment (walkability, access to physical activity facilities. Physical activity was assessed using the ActiGraph accelerometer and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A. Data from the various sources were combined to develop an integrated model integrated for statistical analysis using structural equation modeling. Results The TPB model variables (intention and perceived behavioral control explained 43% of the variance of PAQ-A. Unique and individual contributions were made by intention and PBC and home ownership of home equipment. The model explained 13% of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (Actigraph. Unique and individual contribution was made by intention. Conclusion Social cognitive variables were better predictors of both subjective and objective physical activity compared to perceived environmental and built environment factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Effects of environmental and organizational factors on the health of shiftworkers of a printing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, F M; Morata, T C; Latorre, M do R; Krieg, E F; Fiorini, A C; Colacioppo, S; Gozzoli, L; Padrão, M A; Zavariz, C; Lieber, R; Wallingford, K M; Cesar, C L

    2001-10-01

    This study explored the effects of environmental and organizational stressors on the health of shiftworkers in a printing company (n = 124). A questionnaire was used to gather data on work history, organizational factors, psychosocial characteristics, medical history, present health, occupational and non-occupational exposures, and lifestyle factors. The perception of environmental and organizational conditions was associated (P Anxiety scores were associated with allergic rhinitis (OR, 1.14) and skin allergy (OR, 1.09). Shiftwork was a significantly risk factor for conjunctivitis (OR, 3.68), depression (OR, 0.23), cardiac arrhythmia (OR, 7.13), and gastritis (OR, 4.38). Other associations included tenure and chronic back pain (OR, 4.89), toluene exposure and skin allergy (OR, 3.76), worksite and conjunctivitis (OR, 7.0), and worksite and dermatitis (OR, 1.24 to 4.95). The number of hours of exercise per week was associated with varicose veins (OR, 4.33), and alcohol intake was associated with cardiac arrhythmia (OR, 6.74).

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENT DISABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractA number of environmental agents have been shown to demonstrate neurotoxic effects either in human or laboratory animal studies. Critical windows of vulnerability to the effects of these agents occur both pre- and postnatally. The nervous system is relatively un...

  14. Breast cancer and personal environmental risk factors in Marin County - Pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Farren, G.; Baltzell, K.; Chew, T.; Clarkson, C.; Fleshman, R.; Leary, C.; Mizroch, M.; Orenstein, F.; Russell, M.L.; Souders-Mason, V.; Wrensch, M.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the Personal Environmental Risk Factor Study (PERFS) pilot project was to develop methodologies and a questionnaire for a future population-based case-control study to investigate the role of selected environmental exposures in breast cancer development. Identification of etiologically relevant exposures during a period of potential vulnerability proximate to disease onset offers the possibility of clinical disease prevention even when disease initiation may have already occurred many years earlier. Certain personal environmental agents or combinations of agents may influence disease promotion. Therefore, this pilot study focused on exposures that occurred during the ten-year period prior to diagnosis for cases and the last ten years for controls, rather than more historic exposures. For this pilot study, they used a community-based research approach. In the collaborative efforts, community members participated with academic researchers in all phases of the research, including research question identification, study design, development of research tools, development of the human subjects protocol, and report writing. Community member inclusion was based upon the concept that community participation could improve the relevance of scientific studies and ultimate success of the research by encouraging an ongoing dialogue between community members and academic representatives. Early activities of this project focused on the collection of input from the community regarding the possible role of environmental factors in the incidence of breast cancer in Marin County. The intent was to inform the scientists of community concerns, enhance the research team's understanding of the community being studied, and provide interested community members with a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional research methods through active participation in the research process.

  15. Environmental Management Accounting (EMA: Reflection of Environmental Factors in the Accounting Processes through the Identification of the Environmental Costs Attached to Products, Processes and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available EMA can be defined as the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials and energy flow information, environmental cost information, and other cost information for both conventional and environmental decision-making within an organization. Thus EMA incorporates and integrates two of the three building blocks of sustainable development – environment and economics – as they relate to an organization’s internal decision-making. EMA is a relatively new tool in environmental management. Decades ago environmental costs were very low, so it seemed wise to include them in the overhead account for simplicity and convenience. Recently there has been a steep rise in all environmental costs, including energy and water prices as well as liabilities.

  16. Environmental Management Accounting (EMA: Reflection of Environmental Factors in the Accounting Processes through the Identification of the Environmental Costs Attached to Products, Processes and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantin Roman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available EMA can be defined as the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials and energy flow information, environmental cost information, and other cost information for both conventional and environmental decision-making within an organization. Thus EMA incorporates and integrates two of the three building blocks of sustainable development – environment and economics – as they relate to an organization’s internal decision-making. EMA is a relatively new tool in environmental management. Decades ago environmental costs were very low, so it seemed wise to include them in the overhead account for simplicity and convenience. Recently there has been a steep rise in all environmental costs, including energy and water prices as well as liabilities.

  17. Environmental factors influencing asexual reproductive processes in echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenov, Pv

    1996-01-01

    This review provides a brief update of the occurrence and adaptive significance of asexual reproduction in echinoderms. It then focuses on the state of knowledge of biotic and abiotic factors that influence asexual processes in this group, particularly factors that may play a role in regulating the expression and relative proportion of asexual versus sexual phenotypes within populations of species, as well as factors modulating and triggering asexual processes. The information presented in th...

  18. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  19. Environmental factors, life events, and trauma in the course of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinger, Fanny; Schulze, Thomas G

    2017-01-01

    The etiology and clinical course of bipolar disorder are considered to be determined by genetic and environmental factors. Although the kindling hypothesis emphasizes the impact of environmental factors on initial onset, their connection to the outcome and clinical course have been poorly established. Hence, there have been numerous research efforts to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the clinical course of illness. Our aim is to outline recent research on the impact of environmental determinants on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. We carried out a computer-aided search to find publications on an association between environmental factors, life events, and the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Publications in the reference lists of suitable papers have also been taken into consideration. We performed a narrative overview on all eligible publications. The available body of data supports an association between environmental factors and the clinical course of bipolar disorder. These factors comprise prenatal, early-life, and entire lifespan aspects. Given varying sample sizes and several methodological limitations, the reported quality and extent of the association between environmental factors and the clinical course of bipolar disorder should be interpreted with utmost caution. Systematic longitudinal long-term follow-up trials are needed to obtain a clearer and more robust picture.

  20. Environmental Information—Explanatory Factors for Information Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Andersson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As sustainable waste management has become an important environmental concern, growing emphasis is being given to policy tools aimed at increasing recycling behavior by households. Information is a common policy tool, but may not always reach the individuals whose behavior is being targeted, i.e., those reluctant to recycle. This study examined individual differences in attention to recycling information and demand for such information. A nationwide survey in Sweden showed that having personal norms for recycling is important when it comes to obeying and seeking environmentally relevant information. In contrast to earlier research, this study found that lack of information alone is not a significant antecedent to the intention to seek information. Personal norms were found to moderate the effect of perceived lack of information on the intention to seek information.

  1. Genetic and environmental factors affecting the coumarin anticoagulant level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Visser (Loes)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis introductory chapter has illustrated that various factors, such as genetic factors, drugs, diet and intercurrent diseases may affect anticoagulation levels. Most of the clinical and pharmacological data related to coumarin anticoagulants have so far been obtained from studying warfa

  2. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, S.K. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure. Water Engineering and Ecotechnology, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r{sup 2} = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs.

  3. Relationship between demographic and environmental factors and knowledge of secondary school students on natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of quantitative research is to examine the connection between demographic (gender, age and environmental factors (family, school and media and knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. Bearing in mind the orientation of the research design on determination of character and strength of relationships of demographic and environmental factors with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters, research has explicative goal. The authors use the method of interviewing high school students to identify demographic and environmental factors associated with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. The study included 3,063 students of secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. Results suggest the existence of links between gender, success achieved in school and education of parents and the knowledge of students about natural disasters. The results also indicate that the education of students at school and within family does not affect the knowledge, but affects their perception on natural disasters. Bearing in mind the geographical space of Serbia, the study is based only on the Belgrade region, so the findings can be generalized only to the population of students in this area. Research findings indicate potential ways to influence students to raise level of knowledge about natural disasters to a higher level. Given the evident lack of education about natural disasters in Serbia, the study results can be used for policies of educational programs, which would contribute to improving the safety of youth culture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179045: Development of institutional capacities, standards and procedures for countering organized crime and terrorism in terms of international integration, br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in the society i br. 47008: Improving quality and

  4. The Sap Flow Dynamics and Response of Hedysarum scoparium to Environmental Factors in Semiarid Northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Deng

    Full Text Available Hedysarum scoparium is an important, fast-growing and drought-resistant shrub that has been extensively used for grassland restoration and preventing desertification in semiarid regions of northwestern China. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the diurnal and seasonal variations in stem sap flow (Js and its relation to environmental factors. The stem heat balance method was applied to plants that were approximately 17 years old (with diameters of 25, 16, 13, and 9 mm at ground level and heights of 3.1, 1.8, 1.7 and 1.4 m and growing under natural conditions. The vertical soil temperature profile (ST, soil surface heat flux (SoilG, volumetric soil moisture content (SWC and meteorological variables such as solar radiation (Rn, air temperature (Ta, vapour pressure deficit (VPD, wind speed (Ws relative humidity (RH and precipitation (P were simultaneously measured at a meteorological station on site. Results indicated that Js varied regularly during the diurnal and seasonal term. The nocturnal Js was substantial, with a seasonal variation similar to the patterns of daytime Js. The magnitude of Js changed considerably between sunny and rainy days. Redundancy (RDA and Kendall's tau analysis suggested that daily Js in large plants was more sensitive to environmental factors, and the variation in daily Js during the growing season could be described by a multiple linear regression against environmental variables including Ta, VPD, Ws, RH, ST, and SoilG. While the nocturnal Js in smaller plants was more sensitive to meteorological factors. Ta, VPD, and Ws were significantly correlated with nighttime Js. The hourly nighttime sap flow rate of H. scoparium corresponded closely to Ta and VPD following a non-linear pattern. The results of this study can be used to estimate the transpiration of H. scoparium.

  5. Individual and environmental factors determining sedentary lifestyle of the polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elżbieta; Piątkowska, Monika

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the sedentary lifestyle of the Polish population and its link with prolonged sitting in light of individual and environmental factors. The sample consisted of 1505 Polish people between 18 and 64 years old. The Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) survey was conducted with the Polish version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-LF) and the survey of the determinants of a sport activity among the Polish population. The relationships between the time spent sitting and the individual and environmental factors among Polish citizens were investigated through log-linear analysis. The total time Polish people spent sitting was 2812.4±1593.9 min/week. During the weekend, men (Chi(2)=45.0; P=0.04) spent significantly more time sitting than women (251.1±170.1min/week, 230.9±155.0 min/week, respectively). Despite the relatively high proportion of people declaring participation in the Sport for All initiative (67.8%), only 9.6% of Polish people undertake a physical activity on a daily basis. The odds ratios above the median (>2545 min/week) are higher (OR=1.33; 95% CI=1.03-1.72) for those who are not physically active (54.5% vs. 45.5%). There was no relationship between prolonged sitting time and the environmental factors. It is necessary to increase consistent efforts to create an environment that would successfully promote anactive lifestyle among Polish citizens in their place of residence and prevent sedentary behaviours within this population. The recommendations for physical activity should include the guidelines intervening in the time people spend sitting.

  6. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchison D; Hay PJ

    2014-01-01

    Deborah Mitchison,1 Phillipa J Hay2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia Background: The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs) in adults. Method: A keyword sear...

  7. STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

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    S. V. KOPLIK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the state educational policy is to optimize the development process of the reproduction of the educational cycle taking into account the influence of environmental factors. These factors include: the cyclical nature of economic development (global economic crisis, the globalization of educational activities (in particular, in the form of the Bologna process, the accelerated development of the world's scientific and technological progress (massive use of telecommunications information and educational systems, changes in climatic conditions management (due to the limited human biological ability to effectively adapt to their changes, international military and political situation (global confrontation, the isolationist policy of the Western countries. A rational consideration of strategic factors of the environment of the national educational system is the basis of the synchronization strategies for the development of all market participants of educational services, including nongovernmental educational organization with a longterm state policy in the sphere of education. The perspective is becoming oligopolistic educational policy based on a multipolar international system of education, including higher education. This requires the return of the Russian Federation, the higher education sector to national technology training of specialists, the return of leadership among countries with similar economic development model, leadership in developed markets of educational services.

  8. An Item Bank to Measure Systems, Services, and Policies: Environmental Factors Affecting People With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Hammel, Joy; Jerousek, Sara; Goldsmith, Arielle; Miskovic, Ana; Baum, Carolyn; Wong, Alex W; Dashner, Jessica; Heinemann, Allen W

    2016-12-01

    To develop a measure of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators (see Chapter 5 of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) for people with neurologic disabilities and to evaluate the effect of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators on health-related quality of life. Qualitative approaches to develop and refine items. Confirmatory factor analysis including 1-factor confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor analysis to evaluate unidimensionality of items. Rasch analysis to identify misfitting items. Correlational and analysis of variance methods to evaluate construct validity. Community-dwelling individuals participated in telephone interviews or traveled to the academic medical centers where this research took place. Participants (N=571) had a diagnosis of spinal cord injury, stroke, or traumatic brain injury. They were 18 years or older and English speaking. Not applicable. An item bank to evaluate environmental access and support levels of services, systems, and policies for people with disabilities. We identified a general factor defined as "access and support levels of the services, systems, and policies at the level of community living" and 3 local factors defined as "health services," "community living," and "community resources." The systems, services, and policies measure correlated moderately with participation measures: Community Participation Indicators (CPI) - Involvement, CPI - Control over Participation, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Ability to Participate, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Satisfaction with Role Participation, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Ability to Participate, PROMIS Satisfaction with Role Participation, and PROMIS Isolation. The measure of systems, services, and policies facilitators contains items pertaining to health services, community living, and community resources. Investigators and clinicians can measure

  9. Risk Factors for Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior: Mental and Substance Abuse Disorders, Family Environmental Factors, and Life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews psychopathologic risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior, namely, affective, disruptive, substance abuse, psychotic, and personality disorders. Discusses interaction of psychopathology with age and gender. Reviews role of family environmental risk factors and stress events in suicide and suicidal behavior, both alone and…

  10. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  11. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

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    Daniel Sarpong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental awareness has received a great deal of public attention. However, little emphasis has been put on the influence of environmental factors (weather, personal attitudes, policies, physical structures, transportation, etc. on the quality of life of persons infected with HIV/AIDS. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of selected environmental factors on the quality of life of persons affected by HIV/AIDS. To achieve this goal, the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF subscales including Policies, Physical Structure, Work/School, Attitudes/Support, and Service/ Assistance were evaluated in patients selected from a STD/HIV clinic in Jackson, MS. They were chosen based on previously diagnosed HIV/AIDS status and age (16-95. Written consents, demographics sheets and self-administered questionnaires were obtained. Data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS software. Interviews started in July 2007 and ended in August, 2007. One hundred and thirteen patients responded. Participants were 72.6% (82 male, 26.5% (30 female and 0.9% (1 transgender. The median age of participants was 38.8 (18-63. Over 50% (65 had some college or higher education, and 35.4% reported annual incomes less than $10,000. Multivariate analysis showed marginal significance between disease diagnosis and gender (p < 0.10, and statistical significance between disease diagnosis and income (p = 0.03. Also, age (p = 0.01 and education (p = 0.03 were significant predictors in one of the subscales. The CHIEF subscales that showed the greatest significance among AIDS respondents were Attitudes and Support, and Government Policies with mean sensitivity scores of 1.39 and 1.42, respectively. The element with the least effect on AIDS patients was the Work/School subscale, with a mean score of 0.74. In general AIDS patients were disproportionately affected in all but one of the five subscales observed. Conversely those with HIV were more

  12. Modeling Indicator Systems for Evaluating Environmental Sustainable Development Based on Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; CHEN Xiaoling; HE Ying; HE Xiaorong; CAI Xiaobin; XU Keyan

    2006-01-01

    Indicator systems of environmental sustainable development in the Poyang Lake Basin are established from 51 elementary indexes by factor analysis, which is composed of four steps such as the factor model, the parameter estimation, the factor rotation and the factor score. Under the condition that the cumulative proportion is greater than 85%, 5 explicit factors of environmental sustainable development as well as its factor score by region are carried out. The result indicates some impact factors to the basin environmental in descending sort order are volume of water, volume of waste gas discharge, volume of solid wastes, the degree to comprehensive utilization of waste gas, waste water and solid wastes, the emission volume of waste gas, waste water and solid wastes. It is helpful and important to provide decision support for constituting sustainable development strategies and evaluate the sustainable development status of each city.

  13. Associations between multiple indoor environmental factors and clinically confirmed allergic disease in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies, mainly questionnaires have reported associations between some indoor environmental factors and allergic diseases. Our aim was to investigate the possible association between objectively assessed indoor environmental factors and clinically confirmed asthma......, rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. Method: A crosssectional case-cohort study (n = 500) based on 2835 children, aged 3–5 years, responding to a questionnaire, consisted of 300 subjects randomly selected and 200 cases with at least two parentally reported doctor diagnosed allergic diseases (asthma, allergic.......05) in sensitized children with asthma. Concentrations of nicotine and house dust mite allergens were higher (P environmental factors...

  14. Effect of environmental factors on film badge dosimetry readings of dental office personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, W.K.; Kaugars, G.E.; Broga, D.W. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Inadvertent exposure of film badges to environmental factors may produce fogging of the film and yield higher radiation exposure readings. Common environmental factors in everyday living were studied to assess their effect on film badge readings. Only heat appeared to have any significant effect, because moisture, chemicals, pressure, cold temperature, and non-work-related electromagnetic radiation did not substantially alter film badge readings. Therefore not all unexplained high readings on personnel film badge reports may be due to heat or other common environmental factors evaluated in this study.

  15. Local social environmental factors are associated with household food insecurity in a longitudinal study of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Megan Ann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity is a significant public health problem in North America and elsewhere. The prevalence of food insecurity varies by country of residence; within countries, it is strongly associated with household socioeconomic status, but the local environment may also play an important role. In this study, we analyzed secondary data from a population-based survey conducted in Québec, Canada, to determine if five local environmental factors: material and social deprivation, social cohesion, disorder, and living location were associated with changes in household food insecurity over a period of 6 years, while adjusting for household socioeconomic status (SES and other factors. Methods Data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, following same-aged children from 4–10 y of age, were analyzed using generalized estimating equations, to determine the longitudinal association between these environmental factors and food insecurity over a period of 6 years. Results Of the 2120 children originally included in the cohort, 1746 (82% were included in the present analysis. The prevalence of food insecurity was 9.2% when children were 4 y of age (95% CI: 7.8 – 10.6% but no significant changes were observed over time. On average over the 6 year period, three environmental factors were positively related to food insecurity: high social deprivation (OR 1.62, 95%CI: 1.16 – 2.26, low social cohesion (OR 1.45 95%CI: 1.10 – 1.92, and high disorder (OR 1.76, 95%CI: 1.37 – 2.27, while living location and material deprivation were not related to food insecurity. These associations were independent of household SES and other social variables. Conclusion These results highlight the potential role of the local social environment in preventing and ameliorating food insecurity at the household level. Stakeholders providing food security interventions at the community level should consider interactions with local social

  16. Global environmental ratings as an instrument of environmental policies: what factors determine the rank of Russia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Nina; Arshinova, Marina; Milanova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Systems of global environmental rankings have emerged as a result of the escalating need for revealing the trends of ecological development for the world and for certain countries and regions. Both the environmental indicators and indexes and the ratings made on their basis are important for the assessment and forecast of the ecological situation in order to tackle the global and regional problems of sustainable development and help to translate the research findings into policy developments. Data sources for the global environmental ratings are most often the statistical information accumulated in databases of the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, FAO, WHO, etc.) These data are highly reliable and well-comparable that makes the ratings very objective. There are also good examples of using data of sociological polls, information from social networks, etc. The global environmental ratings are produced by the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Program), non-governmental associations (WWF, Climate Action Network Europe (CAN-E), Germanwatch Nord-Süd-Initiative, Friends of the Earth, World Development Movement), research structures (scientific centers of the Yale and Colombian universities, the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory, the New Economic Foundation), and also individual experts, news agencies, etc. Thematic (sectoral) ratings cover various spheres from availability of resources and anthropogenic impact on environment components to nature protection policies and perception of environmental problems. The environmental indicators cover all parameters important for understanding the current ecological situation and the trajectories of its development (the DPSIR model, i.e. drivers, pressures, state, impact and response). Complex (integral) ratings are based on environmental indexes which are combined measurement tools using a complex of aggregated indicators based on a wide range of

  17. Alcohol consumption among Chilean adolescents: Examining individual, peer, parenting and environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined whether adolescents from Santiago, Chile who had never drunk alcohol differed from those who had drunk alcohol but who had never experienced an alcohol-related problem, as well as from those who had drunk and who had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem on a number of variables from four domains - individual, peers, parenting, and environmental. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community based sample. Participants 909 adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Measurements Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression to compare adolescents who had never drunk alcohol (non-drinkers) with i) those that had drunk but who had experienced no alcohol-related problems (non-problematic drinkers) and ii) those who had drunk alcohol and had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem (problematic drinkers). The analyses included individual, peer, parenting, and environmental factors while controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Findings Compared to non-drinkers, both non-problematic and problematic drinkers were older, reported having more friends who drank alcohol, greater exposure to alcohol ads, lower levels of parental monitoring, and more risk-taking behaviors. In addition, problematic drinkers placed less importance on religious faith to make daily life decisions and had higher perceptions of neighborhood crime than non-drinkers. Conclusions Prevention programs aimed at decreasing problematic drinking could benefit from drawing upon adolescents’ spiritual sources of strength, reinforcing parental tools to monitor their adolescents, and improving environmental and neighborhood conditions. PMID:24465290

  18. Analysis of Factors That Affects the Capital Structure within Companies Included In the Index of LQ45 During 2011 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominica Rufina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors of ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size affecting Capital Structure. The population in this study is the companies included in the Index LQ45 Indonesia Stock Exchange from the period 2011 to 2013, the data of a total of 270 listed companies in LQ45 during that period, only 90 corporate data that successively included in the index LQ45. The data used in this study uses secondary data from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website www.idx.co.id. In the process of data analysis and testing the assumptions of classical hypothesis testing using multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS v20.00. The results showed that partially variable ROA, Asset Structure, and Firm Size has a significant influence on the Capital Structure, Growth Sales whereas variable has no influence on the Capital Structure. Simultaneously ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size effect on Capital Structure.

  19. Environmental exogenous factors and facial dermatitis: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Contact factors play an important role in facial dermatitis. Aggravation by sunlight exposure, ingestion of spicy food, or alcohol are more reported in facial dermatitis compared with nonfacial dermatitis.

  20. Environmental Factors and Distribution of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Adie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of many parasitic diseases are influenced by environmental factors. Schistosomiasis prevalence is governed by the suitability of environmental factors for snail vector survival. The availability of resources on environmental indices in the World Wide Web facilitated this study which determined the effect of environmental factors on schistosomiasis distribution in Cross River State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered in 778 primary schools to determine the schistosomiasis status of the pupils. Mean values of environmental factors (Vegetation, temperature, altitude, land use, soil type and rainfall corresponding to the coordinates of study schools were extracted from archived, satellite sources and public domain digital databases for a period April 2009 to March 2010. The values for each of the environmental factors were displayed spatially on the Cross River State Map using Microsoft, paint brush software. The effect of the environmental variables was measured by superimposing the schistosomiasis infection map on the map of each of the factors. The number of positive schools was thereafter calculated corresponding to variations in environmental factors across the entire study area. The results showed a negative correlation between infection, vegetation and altitude. Prevalence was highest in areas with less photosynthetic activity (less vegetation. Prevalence was zero in altitudes >500 m above sea level. Land use and temperature showed a positive correlation with infection. Infection increased with corresponding increases in temperature. Infection was more in areas where intensive agricultural practices were ongoing. Infection was more in areas with deep lateritic soil type. The present study will facilitate a rapid mapping of schistosomiasis using environmental factors as guide in Nigeria.

  1. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…

  2. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  3. [Systematization and hygienic standardization of environmental factors on the basis of common graphic models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, A A

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of graphic models of the human response to environmental factors, two main types of complex quantitative influence as well as interrelation between determined effects at the level of an individual, and stochastic effects on population were revealed. Two main kinds of factors have been suggested to be distinguished. They are essential factors and accidental factors. The essential factors are common for environment. The accidental factors are foreign for environment. The above two kinds are different in approaches of hygienic standardization Accidental factors need a dot-like approach, whereas a two-level range approach is suitable for the essential factors.

  4. Schools and neighborhoods: organizational and environmental factors associated with crime in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbos, Mary Ann P; Casteel, Carri

    2008-10-01

    While crime and violence in schools are derived primarily from factors external to schools, violent behavior may also be aggravated by factors in the school environment, including the physical environment, its educational and social climate, and its organizational capacity and composition. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of the school's organizational and educational environment on crime rates in secondary schools and to examine how neighborhood factors influence these relationships. School and neighborhood crime rates for 95 middle (MS) and high (HS) schools were calculated using data from the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) Police Department and Los Angeles Police Department, respectively. School-level organizational and educational variables, including the academic performance index (API), were obtained from the California Department of Education. A measure of neighborhood dilapidation was created using variables collected on a neighborhood environmental survey. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between organizational and educational school variables and school crime rates. Community crime and dilapidation were added to the model to examine the influence of the school-community context relationships. HS had higher crime rates than MS. As the percentage of certified teachers and student to staff ratios increased, school crime decreased (p school crime rates (p school crime, although dilapidation was positively and significantly associated with school crime even after controlling for community crime (p school- and neighborhood-level factors were associated with increasing crime rates in secondary schools. School violence prevention efforts should include school and community partnerships to address these potentially modifiable factors.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHT IN LOHI SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Babar, Z. Ahmad, A. Nadeem and M. Yaqoob

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on 3984 lambing records of 1285 Lohi ewes kept at the Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara for he period 1960-90 were analyzed by using Harvey’s Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Program. The purpose was to estimate the magnitude of various environmental sources of variation influencing weaning weight in this breed of sheep. The least squares mean for 120-day adjusted weaning weight was 23.09  0.13 kg. The trait was significantly (P<0.01 influenced by the year and season of birth, type of birth and the sex of the lamb born.

  6. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF TAX ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Tsakas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the performance of tax organizations in Greece, based on data obtained from a sample of 35 tax offices. Performance evaluation was conducted using DEA with bootstrap methods. In addition, Tobit regression analysis was employed to examine the environmental variables that impact on the efficiency performance of these tax offices. From the analysis, weaknesses, and management issues are derived from the tax offices inefficiency. The general conclusion is that a robust governance structure within the tax office operational framework is needed in order to improve organisational efficiency.

  7. The interplay between environmental factors and DNA methylation in psychotic disorders : Environmental orchestration of the epigenome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, LC

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Environmental exposures during early- life increase the risk of developing a psychotic disorder, but it remains unclear how early life events can have such persistent later life consequences. DNA methylation is the addition of a methyl group to a DNA base and is part of a group of epig

  8. Multiple sclerosis and environmental factors: the role of vitamin D, parasites, and Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, J; Gaitán, M I

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms underlying multiple sclerosis development have yet to be clearly identified, but considerable evidence indicates that autoimmunity plays an important role in the etiology of the disease. It is generally accepted that autoimmune diseases like MS arise from complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Although environmental factors unequivocally influencing MS development have yet to be established, accumulating evidence singles out several candidates, including sunlight-UV exposure or vitamin D deficiency, viral infections, hygiene, and cigarette smoking. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with different autoimmune diseases. Several investigations indicate 125 (OH)2 vitamin D plays a critical role in shaping T-cell response and inducing T cells with immunosuppressive properties. Likewise, helminth infections represent another potential environmental factor exerting immunomodulatory properties. Both epidemiological and experimental data provide evidence to support autoimmune down-regulation secondary to parasite infections in patients with MS, through regulatory T- and B-cell action, with effects extending beyond simple response to an infectious agent. Finally, different epidemiological studies have demonstrated that Epstein-Barr virus infection confers added risk of developing MS. Proposed mechanisms responsible for this association include activation and expansion of self-reactive T and B cells, lower threshold for self-tolerance breakdown, and enhanced autoreactive B-cell survival, all to be discussed in this review. Understanding environmental factors influencing propensity to MS will lead to new and more effective approaches to prevent and treat the disease.

  9. Effect of environmental factor on some litter traits of sows in the tropics Mexican

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ek M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effect of environmental factors on litter traits at birth and weaning, and their repeatabilities in four farms in the sub-humid tropics of Mexico. Materials and methods. Data from 46.249 to 50.316 litters for litter size at birth (LSB, number of piglets born alive (NBA, litter weight at birth (LWB, number of piglets weaned (NPW and litter weight at weaning (LWW were used. The statistical model for LSB, NBA and LWB included the effects of farm, farrowing year, farrowing season, parity number, simple interactions, random effects of sow and the error term. NPW and LWW were analyzed using the previous model plus the linear and quadratic effects of lactation length (LL. Results. The means for LSB, NBA, LWB, NPW and LWW were 11.7 piglets, 11.0 piglets, 16.1 kg, 10.3 piglets and 61.3 kg, respectively. All effects in the model affected the litter traits. Farrowing year x season interaction was significant for NPW, LWB and LWW. The dry season had the highest LSB, NBA y NPW. First parity sows had higher LSB and NBA means than for second parity sows. Parity increase until parity 4 to decrease thereafter. LL had a quadratic effect on NPW and LWW. Repeatability estimates for LSB, NBA, and LWB were 0.12, 0.12 and 0.14, respectively. Conclusions. All traits studied were influenced by the environmental factors studied. Repeatabilities for LSB, NBA and LWB were low.

  10. Genetic programs of the developing tuberal hypothalamus and potential mechanisms of their disruption by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesan, Dinushan; Kurrasch, Deborah M

    2016-12-15

    The hypothalamus is a critical regulator of body homeostasis, influencing the autonomic nervous system and releasing trophic hormones to modulate the endocrine system. The developmental mechanisms that govern formation of the mature hypothalamus are becoming increasingly understood as research in this area grows, leading us to gain appreciation for how these developmental programs are susceptible to disruption by maternal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals or other environmental factors in utero. These vulnerabilities, combined with the prominent roles of the various hypothalamic nuclei in regulating appetite, reproductive behaviour, mood, and other physiologies, create a window whereby early developmental disruption can have potent long-term effects. Here we broadly outline our current understanding of hypothalamic development, with a particular focus on the tuberal hypothalamus, including what is know about nuclear coalescing and maturation. We finish by discussing how exposure to environmental or maternally-derived factors can perhaps disrupt these hypothalamic developmental programs, and potentially lead to neuroendocrine disease states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adrenomedullin A Novel Peptide Requires Coordination Of Genetic Physiologic And Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Padma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A healthy pregnancy requires strict coordination of genetic physiologic and environmental factors. The relatively common incidence of infertility and pregnancy complications has resulted in increased interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie normal versus abnormal pregnancy. The peptide hormone adrenomedullin has recently been the focus of some exciting breakthroughs in the pregnancy field. Adrenomedullin ADM is a 52-amino acid peptide with structural homology to calcitonin gene-related peptide CGRP initially isolated from human pheochromocytoma. ADM is synthesized by many mammalian tissues including the adrenal medulla endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells myocardium and central nervous system. ADM binds to plasma membrane receptors composed of calcitonin receptor-like receptor CRLR a member of serpentine receptor superfamily and receptor activity modifying protein RAMP type 2 or 3. ADM has also some affinity for CGRP receptor composed of CRLR and RAMP1. Supported by mechanistic studies in genetic animal models there continues to be a growing body of evidence demonstrating the importance of adrenomedullin protein levels in a variety of human pregnancy complications. With measurement of foetal resorption sites we can examine the importance of adrenomedullin a peptide hormone in pregnancy which alters due to genetic physiologic and environmental factors. A growing body of evidence illustrates AM as a pivotal component in normal physiology and disease with marked beneficial effects in the host defense mechanism.

  12. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  13. Associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Mahony, T J; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S

    2016-03-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Animal characteristics were recorded at induction, when animals were individually identified and enrolled into study cohorts (comprising animals in a feedlot pen). Environmental risk factors included the year and season of induction, source region and feedlot region and summary variables describing weather during the first week of follow-up. In total, 35,131 animals inducted into 170 cohorts within 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building and multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Breed, induction weight and season of induction were significantly and strongly associated with risk of BRD. Compared to Angus cattle, Herefords were at markedly increased risk (OR: 2.0, 95% credible interval: 1.5-2.6) and tropically adapted breeds and their crosses were at markedly reduced risk (OR: 0.5, 95% credible interval: 0.3-0.7) of developing BRD. Risk of BRD declined with increased induction weight, with cattle in the heaviest weight category (≥480kg) at moderately reduced risk compared to cattle weighing risk compared to animals inducted during spring. Knowledge of these risk factors may be useful in predicting BRD risk for incoming groups of cattle in Australian feedlots. This would then provide the opportunity for feedlot managers to tailor management strategies for specific subsets of animals according to predicted BRD risk.

  14. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  15. Individual and environmental factors associated with the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Belgian farmers and veterinarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keukeleire, Mathilde; Robert, Annie; Kabamba, Benoît; Dion, Elise; Luyasu, Victor; Vanwambeke, Sophie O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lyme disease (LD) is a common tick-borne disease in Europe. Diverse factors at various scales determine the spatial distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi infection risk and a better understanding of those factors in a spatially explicit framework is needed for disease management and prevention. While the ecology of ticks and the landscape favoring their abundance have been extensively studied, the environmental conditions favoring an intense contact with susceptible humans, including groups at risk, are sparse. The aim of this study is to assess which individual and environmental factors can favor B. burgdorferi infection in a Belgian group professionally at risk. Methods Serological results of 127 veterinarians and farmers enrolled in this study were analyzed, taking into account their municipality of residence. Using binary logistic regression and considering interaction terms, the joint effects of landscape composition and configuration, and forest and wildlife management were examined. Results Seven of the 127 workers were seropositive for LD, leading to a seroprevalence of 5.51%. Seropositivity was higher in older persons. The proportion of forest and semi-natural habitats and wetland had a positive impact on LD seroprevalence while arable land–grassland ecotones had a negative one. Our results confirmed the need to consider complex interactions between landscape variables in order to model risk. Conclusions Our data show that LD has to be considered as a risk for farmers and veterinarians. Rather than focusing either on ecological aspects of tick and pathogen distribution or on purely epidemiological aspects such as individual risk factors, our model highlights the role of human–environment interactions in LD risk assessment. PMID:27852421

  16. Role of Environmental Factors on Resuming Valued Activities Poststroke: A Systematic Review of Qualitative and Quantitative Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellema, Sandra; van der Sande, Rob; van Hees, Suzanne; Zajec, Jana; Steultjens, Esther M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W

    2016-06-01

    To investigate how reengagement in valued activities poststroke is influenced by environmental factors. PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched to June 2015 using multiple search terms for stroke, activities, disability, and home and community environments, with the following constraints: English, humans, and adults. Studies were included that contained data on how reengagement in valued activities of community-dwelling stroke survivors was influenced by the environment. Two reviewers independently selected the studies. The search yielded 3726 records; 39 studies were eventually included. Findings were extracted from qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-design studies. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality using the Oxford Critical Appraisal Skills Programme lists and independently extracted results. Thematic analysis was conducted on qualitative data, revealing 9 themes related to the iterative nature of the process of reengagement and the associated environmental factors. During the process of reengagement, environmental factors interact with personal and disease-related factors in a gradual process of shaping or abandoning valued activities. The sociocultural context in this case determines what activities are valued and can be resumed by stroke survivors. Social support; activity opportunities and obligations; familiar and accessible environments; resources and reminders; and a step-by-step return facilitate stroke survivors to explore, adapt, resume, and maintain their activities. Social support is helpful at all stages of the process and particularly is important in case stroke survivors are fearful to explore their activity possibilities. The quantitative data identified largely endorsed these findings. No quantitative data were found in respect to the iterative nature of the process, familiar environments, or accessibility. Reengagement in valued activities is a gradual process. In each stage of the process, several environmental factors

  17. Modelling nutrient concentration to determine the environmental factors influencing grass quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial and the least squares (Analysis of Covariance-ANCOVA) regression methods to evaluate the important environmental factors in estimating quality grass for grazing (based on the nitrogen (N) content in grass...

  18. A Review of Environmental Factors Determining to Proactivity: The Case of the Footwear Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Lazaro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews literature in order to identify the determinant factors of companies’ environmental proactivity. According to Gonzalez-Benito and Gonzalez-Benito (2006, environmental proactivity demands three practices: planning and organization, operation, and communication. Environmental strategies go on to comment upon several variables that depict internal company features, external factors, and stakeholders pressures. This work discusses these issues using data collected in 2007 from shoe companies selected for in-depth personal interviews and site visits in two different Brazilian states. The empirical results demonstrate that proactive approaches seem clear in companies influenced by stakeholders’ pressure. This is the central determinant factor and it is argued that all the other variables affect either the intensity of this pressure or the company’s capacity to perceive it. All the factors identified herein should be taken into account, at least as control variables, in those studies aiming at explaining and contextualizing environmental strategies.

  19. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  20. Exploring the Influence of Environmental Factors on Bacterial Communities within the Rhizosphere of the Cu-tolerant plant, Elsholtzia splendens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Longfei; Song, Mengke; Yang, Li; Zhang, Dayi; Sun, Yingtao; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial communities of rhizospheric soils play an important role in the tolerance and uptake of metal-tolerant/hyperaccumulating plants to metals, e.g. the Cu-tolerant Elsholtzia splendens native to China. In this work, pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was firstly applied to investigate the rhizospheric bacterial community of E. splendens grown at Cu contaminated sites. The 47 phyla including 11 dominant phyla (>1%) in E. splendens rhizosphere were presented. The effects of Cu and other environmental factors (total organic carbon, total nitrogen and pH) on the rhizospheric bacterial community were studied comprehensively. The phyla abundances were affected by the environmental factors to different extent, and we found pH, instead of Cu concentration, influenced UniFrac distance significantly and was identified as the most important environmental factor affecting bacterial community. In addition, the influence of environmental factors on gene profiles was explored according to the predicted metagenomes obtained by PICRUSt (phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states). Our study illustrates a view about Cu-tolerant E. splendens rhizospheric bacterial communities (composition, diversity and gene profiles) and their influencing factors, giving a hand for the understanding on bacterial community is formed and affected in rhizosphere.

  1. Modulation of Food Reward by Endocrine and Environmental Factors: Update and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlewicz, Dianne P

    2015-01-01

    Palatable foods are frequently high in energy density. Chronic consumption of high-energy density foods can contribute to the development of cardiometabolic pathology including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the contributions of extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence the reward components of food intake. A narrative review was conducted to determine the behavioral and central nervous system (CNS) related processes involved in the reward components of high-energy density food intake. The rewarding aspects of food, particularly palatable and preferred foods, are regulated by CNS circuitry. Overlaying this regulation is modulation by intrinsic endocrine systems and metabolic hormones relating to energy homeostasis, developmental stage, or gender. It is now recognized that extrinsic or environmental factors, including ambient diet composition and the provocation of stress or anxiety, also contribute substantially to the expression of food reward behaviors such as motivation for, and seeking of, preferred foods. High-energy density food intake is influenced by both physiological and pathophysiological processes. Contextual, behavioral, and psychological factors and CNS-related processes represent potential targets for multiple types of therapeutic intervention.

  2. [The role of hereditary and environmental factors in autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba

    2012-07-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases are the most common organ-specific autoimmune disorders affecting 5% to 10% of the population in Western countries. The clinical presentation varies from hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease to hypothyroidism in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. While the exact etiology of thyroid autoimmunity is not known, the interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors appears to be of fundamental importance to initiate the process of thyroid autoimmunity. The identified autoimmune thyroid disease susceptibility genes include immune-modulating genes, such as the major histocompatibility complex, and thyroid-specific genes, including TSH receptor, thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase. The majority of the anti-TSH-receptor antibodies have a stimulating capacity and are responsible for hyperthyroidism. The anti-thyroglobulin- and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies belonging to the catalytic type of antibodies destroy the thyrocytes resulting in hypothyroidism. The appearance of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies precedes the induction of thyroiditis and the manifestation of hypothyroidism. The molecular analysis of thyroglobulin gene polymorphism is important in the mechanism of autoimmune thyroiditis. The autoantigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex molecules is a key point of the autoimmune mechanism. It has been shown that a HLA-DR variant containing arginine at position 74 of the DRβ1 chain confers a strong genetic susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid diseases, Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, while glutamine at position DRβ1-74 is protective. Human thyroglobulin 2098 peptide represents a strong and specific DRβ1-Arg74 binder, while a non-binding control peptide, thyroglobulin 2766 fails to induce this response. Moreover, thyroglobulin 2098 stimulated T-cells from individuals who were positive for thyroglobulin antibodies, demonstrating that thyroglobulin 2098 is an immunogenic peptide capable of being

  3. Environmental factors and risk of developing paediatric inflammatory bowel disease - A population based study 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Munkholm, Pia;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To identify environmental risk factors for developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To identify environmental risk factors for developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children...

  4. The Clinical, Environmental, and Behavioral Factors That Foster Early Childhood Caries: Evidence for Caries Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Caries risk assessment, an essential component of targeted health care delivery for young children, is of paramount importance in the current environment of increasing health care costs and resource constraints. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recent best available evidence behind the factors that influence caries risk assessment and the validity of strategies to assess the caries risk of young children. Moderate to weak evidence supports the following recommendations: (1) Children should have a caries risk assessment done in their first year (or as soon as their first tooth erupts) as part of their overall health assessment, and this should be reassessed periodically over time. (2) Multiple clinical, environmental, and behavioral factors should be considered when assessing caries risk in young children, including factors associated with the primary caregiver. (3) The use of structured forms, although most may not yet be validated, may aid in systematic assessment of multiple caries risk factors and in objective record-keeping. (4) Children from low socioeconomic status groups should be considered at increased risk when developing community preventive programs.

  5. The effect of environmental factors on job Performance using manual and mental tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Finding of the present research manifested that increase in noise and heat stress and also reduction in lighting lessen the speed of manual tests and time and accuracy of mathematical calculations. Therefore this result confirm the effects of various environmental factors on individuals’ job performance, in a way that by variation of different environmental factors, time of manual test and time and accuracy of mental tests would be changed.

  6. Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Childhood Eczema Development and Allergic Sensitization in the CCAAPS Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Jocelyn M. Biagini; Wang, Ning; LeMasters, Grace; Bernstein, David I; Epstein, Tolly; Lindsey, Mark; Ericksen, Mark; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Ryan, Patrick; Villareal, Manuel; Burkle, Jeff; Lockey, James; Reponen, Tiina; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana

    2009-01-01

    Eczema is very common and increasing in prevalence. Prospective studies investigating environmental and genetic risk factors for eczema in a birth cohort are lacking. We evaluated risk factors that may promote development of childhood eczema in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort (n = 762) of infants with at least one atopic parent. Objective environmental exposure data were available for each participant. At annual physical examinations, children un...

  7. Bryozoan assemblages and relation with environmental factors: An example from the latium coast (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimenz Gusso, C. [Rome, Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell`Uomo; Nicoletti, L.

    1995-12-31

    The distribution of Bryozoa Gymnolaemata in 3 transect with different characteristics of inclination and exposure in analysed. The structural and morpho-functional characteristics of the assemblages are discussed in relation to the environmental factor. The data and the observations, considered on the whole, accord with the hypothesis that morpho-functional characteristics in the Bryozoa considered are in good relation with the environmental factors.

  8. Research on Measurable Nonlinear Relationship Between Phytoplankton Biomass and Environmental Factors in Bohai Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongli; LI Shengpeng; FENG Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the data of phytoplankton and environmental factors in the Bohai Bay, the dependence between the concentration of phytoplankton and environmental factors is analysed by linear correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and Hoeffding test of independence .The result shows that wind-speed, air-pressure, surface temperature, field pH, salinity, DO, silicate and NO 3 have a great impact on the concentration of phytoplankton.

  9. Environmental factors affecting challenge success in vaccination studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, J. K.; Skov, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2013-01-01

    We have tested the efficacies of two different vaccines (a commercial versus an experimental vaccine – both being oil adjuvanted) for rainbow trout against furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida infections. However, when challenging fish with live bacteria in order to assess protection...... following vaccination, the administration of the pathogen is important for the outcome of the experiments. We have therefore also compared injection challenge with cohabitation challenge. In addition, when doing so we also investigated the influence of environmental conditions such as salinity...... and temperature on the protection recorded. Thus, challenge studies were conducted at two temperatures (12 and 19°C) and at two salinities (0 and 15 ppt). Mortalities following challenge were recorded and RPS calculated for each group. Side effects of the vaccines were evaluated by using the Speilberg scale...

  10. Environmental factors affecting challenge success in vaccination studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Dalsgaard, Inger

    We have tested the efficacies of two different vaccines (a commercial versus an experimental vaccine – both being oil adjuvanted) for rainbow trout against furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida infections. However, when challenging fish with live bacteria in order to assess protection...... following vaccination, the administration of the pathogen is important for the outcome of the experiments. We have therefore also compared injection challenge with cohabitation challenge. In addition, when doing so we also investigated the influence of environmental conditions such as salinity...... and temperature on the protection recorded. Thus, challenge studies were conducted at two temperatures (12 and 19°C) and at two salinities (0 and 15 ppt). Mortalities following challenge were recorded and RPS calculated for each group. Side effects of the vaccines were evaluated by using the Speilberg scale...

  11. Is Environmental Dematerialization An Active Factor Of The Sustainable Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Razvan BĂLĂȘESCU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As it is known, sustainable development reveals economic, social and ecologic aspects circumscribed to the sustainability of the stock of natural capital and to the energy matter entropic flows which affects the relation environment-economy-society in terms of externalities and of the socio-industrial metabolism. Thus, taking into account the principles of the technical-economic rationality and integrative socio-ecologic complexity, dematerialization is a concept, an instrument and a vector carrying socio-economic values based on the natural and social sciences. In this framework environmental dematerialization reveals the issue of socio- economic energetic centres - a result of relationship between nature and human rational sensible free will determinism.

  12. Environmental factors affecting challenge success in vaccination studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Dalsgaard, Inger

    We have tested the efficacies of two different vaccines (a commercial versus an experimental vaccine – both being oil adjuvanted) for rainbow trout against furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida infections. However, when challenging fish with live bacteria in order to assess protection...... following vaccination, the administration of the pathogen is important for the outcome of the experiments. We have therefore also compared injection challenge with cohabitation challenge. In addition, when doing so we also investigated the influence of environmental conditions such as salinity...... and temperature on the protection recorded. Thus, challenge studies were conducted at two temperatures (12 and 19°C) and at two salinities (0 and 15 ppt). Mortalities following challenge were recorded and RPS calculated for each group. Side effects of the vaccines were evaluated by using the Speilberg scale...

  13. Environmental factors and neoplasms; Fattori ambientali e neplasie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanella, L.; Cerulli, N.; Grossi, R. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Chimica e Dipt. Urologia

    2000-10-01

    The concentrations of Cd and Pb in human kidneys after removal from body were determined both for the healthy and for the neoplastic tissue and compared with those ones of patients dead not because of cancer and of newborns and of fetuses considered as samples not submitted to environmental pollution. In the same samples also determinations of Zn and Cu were performed. [Italian] E' sembrato interessante valutare le concentrazioni del Cd e del Pb nei remi asportati per tumore, sia nel tessuto neoplastico sia nel tessuto sano e raffrontarle con quelle di tessuto renale prelevato da soggetti deceduti per malattie non neoplastiche e con quelle di feti e neonati non sottoposti ad inquinamento ambientale. Negli stessi soggetti sono state determinate le concentrazioni di Zn e Cu.

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nargessadat Emami; Björn Marteinsson; Jukka Heinonen

    2016-01-01

    Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as d...

  15. Socioeconomic status, environmental and individual factors, and sports participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maria Kamphuis, Carlijn Barbara; Van Lenthe, Frank J.; Giskes, Katrina; Huisman, Martijn; Brug, Johannes; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the contribution of neighborhood, household, and individual factors to socioeconomic inequalities in sports participation in a multilevel design. Methods: Data were obtained by a large-scale postal survey among a stratified sample of the adult population (age 25-75 yr) of Eindhov

  16. Environmental factors influencing bird species diversity in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oindo, B.O.; By, de R.A.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable resource management requires understanding the factors that increase or decrease species richness. Regional species richness patterns may be predicted by analysing patterns of variation in the environment. A number of studies have shown that bird species richness at a regional scale is i

  17. Socioeconomic status, environmental and individual factors, and sports participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maria Kamphuis, Carlijn Barbara; Van Lenthe, Frank J.; Giskes, Katrina; Huisman, Martijn; Brug, Johannes; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    Purpose: To examine the contribution of neighborhood, household, and individual factors to socioeconomic inequalities in sports participation in a multilevel design. Methods: Data were obtained by a large-scale postal survey among a stratified sample of the adult population (age 25-75 yr) of

  18. Dissection of genetic and environmental factors involved in tomato organoleptic quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frusciante Luigi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the main tomato breeding objectives is to improve fruit organoleptic quality. However, this task is made somewhat challenging by the complex nature of sensory traits and the lack of efficient selection criteria. Sensory quality depends on numerous factors, including fruit colour, texture, aroma, and composition in primary and secondary metabolites. It is also influenced by genotypic differences, the nutritional regime of plants, stage of ripening at harvest and environmental conditions. In this study, agronomic, biochemical and sensory characterization was performed on six Italian heirlooms grown in different environmental conditions. Result We identified a number of links among traits contributing to fruit organoleptic quality and to the perception of sensory attributes. PCA analysis was used to highlight some biochemical, sensory and agronomic discriminating traits: this statistical test allowed us to identify which sensory attributes are more closely linked to environmental conditions and those, instead, linked to the genetic constitution of tomato. Sweetness, sourness, saltiness and tomato flavour are not only grouped in the same PCA factor, but also result in a clear discrimination of tomato ecotypes in the three different fields. The three different traditional varieties cluster on the basis of attributes like juiciness, granulosity, hardness and equatorial diameter, and are therefore more closely related to the genetic background of the cultivar. Conclusion This finding suggests that a different method should be undertaken to improve sensory traits related to taste perception and texture. Our results might be used to ascertain in what direction to steer breeding in order to improve the flavour characteristics of tomato ecotypes.

  19. Environmental factors influencing older adults’ walking for transportation: a study using walk-along interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cauwenberg Jelle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current knowledge on the relationship between the physical environment and walking for transportation among older adults (≥ 65 years is limited. Qualitative research can provide valuable information and inform further research. However, qualitative studies are scarce and fail to include neighborhood outings necessary to study participants’ experiences and perceptions while interacting with and interpreting the local social and physical environment. The current study sought to uncover the perceived environmental influences on Flemish older adults’ walking for transportation. To get detailed and context-sensitive environmental information, it used walk-along interviews. Methods Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 57 older adults residing in urban or semi-urban areas. Walk-along interviews to and from a destination (e.g. a shop located within a 15 minutes’ walk from the participants’ home were conducted. Content analysis was performed using NVivo 9 software (QSR International. An inductive approach was used to derive categories and subcategories from the data. Results Data were categorized in the following categories and subcategories: access to facilities (shops & services, public transit, connectivity, walking facilities (sidewalk quality, crossings, legibility, benches, traffic safety (busy traffic, behavior of other road users, familiarity, safety from crime (physical factors, other persons, social contacts, aesthetics (buildings, natural elements, noise & smell, openness, decay and weather. Conclusions The findings indicate that to promote walking for transportation a neighborhood should provide good access to shops and services, well-maintained walking facilities, aesthetically appealing places, streets with little traffic and places for social interaction. In addition, the neighborhood environment should evoke feelings of familiarity and safety from crime. Future quantitative studies should

  20. Influence of genetic and environmental factors on oral diseases and function in aged twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Y; Ikebe, K; Matsuda, K; Enoki, K; Ogata, S; Yamashita, M; Murakami, S; Hayakawa, K; Maeda, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantify the genetic and environmental contributions to oral disease and function in twins. Participants were middle-aged and old twins, 116 monozygotic and 16 dizygotic pairs whose mean age was 66·1 ± 10·3 (SD) years. Number of teeth, percentage of decayed, filled and missing teeth and periodontal status were recorded as indicators of oral disease. The widths of upper and lower dental arch served as indicators of morphological figures. Furthermore, stimulated salivary flow rate, occlusal force and masticatory performance were measured as indicators of oral function. Univariate genetic analysis with monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs was conducted to detect the fittest structural equation model of each outcome. Both number of teeth and periodontal status fitted the model composed of common environmental factor and unique environmental factor. Decayed, filled and missing teeth, morphological figures and measurements of oral function fitted the model composed of additive genetic factor and unique environmental factor. The model fitting of each measurement suggested that periodontal disease was mainly affected by environmental factors, while morphological figures and oral functions were influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.

  1. Impacts of meteorological and environmental factors on allergic rhinitis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Mou, Zhe; Peng, Li; Chen, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Meteorological and environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR). An understanding of the risk factors will facilitate the development of diagnostic and preventative tools for AR children and improve their quality of life. However, research on the impact of these factors on subjective symptoms in AR children remains scarce. This study explored the relationships between subjective symptoms in pollen and dust mite positive AR children, and meteorological and environmental factors. Using a linear mixed effect model, we analyzed the correlations between monthly data on the subjective symptoms of 351 AR children (from the Shanghai Children's Medical Center) and meteorological and environmental factors during 2013. The monthly meteorological and environmental data were provided by the Shanghai Meteorological Service and Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau. Temperature and humidity were negatively correlated with the subjective symptom score, with a 0.04 point increase observed for every 1 °C decrease in temperature ( P meteorological and environmental factors were correlated with subjective symptoms in AR children. Low temperatures, lower humidity, and high PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations aggravated subjective symptoms in AR children.

  2. Investigating Impacts of Environmental Factors on the Cycling Behavior of Bicycle-Sharing Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeran Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As it is widely accepted, cycling tends to produce health benefits and reduce air pollution. Policymakers encourage people to use bikes by improving cycling facilities as well as developing bicycle-sharing systems (BSS. It is increasingly interesting to investigate how environmental factors influence the cycling behavior of users of bicycle-sharing systems, as users of bicycle-sharing systems tend to be different from regular cyclists. Although earlier studies have examined effects of safety and convenience on the cycling behavior of regular riders, they rarely explored effects of safety and convenience on the cycling behavior of BSS riders. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate how road safety, convenience, and public safety affect the cycling behavior of BSS riders by controlling for other environmental factors. Specifically, in this study, we investigated the impacts of environmental characteristics, including population density, employment density, land use mix, accessibility to point-of-interests (schools, shops, parks and gyms, road infrastructure, public transit accessibility, road safety, convenience, and public safety on the usage of BSS. Additionally, for a more accurate measure of public transit accessibility, road safety, convenience, and public safety, we used spatiotemporally varying measurements instead of spatially varying measurements, which have been widely used in earlier studies. We conducted an empirical investigation in Chicago with cycling data from a BSS called Divvy. In this study, we particularly attempted to answer the following questions: (1 how traffic accidents and congestion influence the usage of BSS; (2 how violent crime influences the usage of BSS; and (3 how public transit accessibility influences the usage of BSS. Moreover, we tried to offer implications for policies aiming to increase the usage of BSS or for the site selection of new docking stations. Empirical results demonstrate that density of

  3. Pediatric fire deaths in Ontario: retrospective study of behavioural, social, and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingming Amy; Bridgman-Acker, Karen; Edwards, Jim; Lauwers, Albert Edward

    2011-05-01

    To identify the predictors of residential fire deaths in the Ontario pediatric population using systematically collected data from the Office of the Chief Coroner. Retrospective cohort study. Ontario. Children younger than 16 years of age who died in accidental residential fires in Ontario between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2006. The study retrospectively reviewed the coroner's case files for 60 subjects who qualified according to the selection criteria. Reviewed documents included the coroner's investigation statements, autopsy reports, toxicology reports, fire marshal's reports, police reports, and Children's Aid Society (CAS) reports. Information on a range of demographic, behavioural, social, and environmental factors was collected. Statistical tests, including relative risk, relative risk confidence intervals, and χ(2) tests were performed to determine the correlation between factors of interest and to establish their significance. Thirty-nine fire events resulting in 60 deaths occurred between 2001 and 2006. Fire play and electrical failures were the top 2 causes of residential fires. More fires occurred during the night (midnight to 9 AM) than during the day (9 AM to midnight). Nighttime fires were most commonly due to electrical failures or unattended candles, whereas daytime fires were primarily caused by unsupervised fire play and stove fires. Smoke alarms were present at 32 of 39 fire events (82%), but overall alarm functionality was only 54%. Children from families with a history of CAS involvement were approximately 32 times more likely to die in fires. Risk factors for pediatric fire death in Ontario include smoke alarm functionality, fire play, fire escape behaviour, and CAS involvement. Efforts to prevent residential fire deaths should target these populations and risk factors, and primary care physicians should consider education around these issues as a primary preventive strategy for families with young children.

  4. Cutaneous leishmaniasis prevalence and morbidity based on environmental factors in Ilam, Iran: Spatial analysis and land use regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Mehdi; Miri, Mohammad; Nikoonahad, Ali; Jalilian, Ali; Naserifar, Razi; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Kazembeigi, Farogh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the environmental factors on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) prevalence and morbidity in Ilam province, western Iran, as a known endemic area for this disease. Accurate locations of 3237 CL patients diagnosed from 2013 to 2015, their demographic information, and data of 17 potentially predictive environmental variables (PPEVs) were prepared to be used in Geographic Information System (GIS) and Land-Use Regression (LUR) analysis. The prevalence, risk, and predictive risk maps were provided using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) model in GIS software. Regression analysis was used to determine how environmental variables affect on CL prevalence. All maps and regression models were developed based on the annual and three-year average of the CL prevalence. The results showed that there was statistically significant relationship (P value≤0.05) between CL prevalence and 11 (64%) PPEVs which were elevation, population, rainfall, temperature, urban land use, poorland, dry farming, inceptisol and aridisol soils, and forest and irrigated lands. The highest probability of the CL prevalence was predicted in the west of the study area and frontier with Iraq. An inverse relationship was found between CL prevalence and environmental factors, including elevation, covering soil, rainfall, agricultural irrigation, and elevation while this relation was positive for temperature, urban land use, and population density. Environmental factors were found to be an important predictive variables for CL prevalence and should be considered in management strategies for CL control.

  5. Monozygotic twin differences in non-shared environmental factors associated with chronotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Nicola L; Eley, Thalia C; Parsons, Michael J; Willis, Thomas A; Gregory, Alice M

    2013-02-01

    Twin studies have highlighted that a large proportion of variability in chronotype is accounted for by individual-specific environmental factors (non-shared environmental influences). However, little research has aimed to identify specific non-shared environmental influences on chronotype. Although epidemiological studies have shed light on possible environmental influences on chronotype, a substantial amount of research has highlighted the importance of genetic influences on exposure toward specific environments, a process termed gene-environment correlation. It is possible that associations between the environment and chronotype are in part determined by genetics, rather than being purely environmental in origin. One way of exploring the contribution of purely non-shared environmental components on associations between chronotype and the environment is to use the monozygotic twin differences design. This design allows us to tease apart the influences of genetics and the environment to identify purely environmental components. One hundred eighty-nine monozygotic twin pairs (mean age 19.81 years, SD = 1.26, range = 18-22 years, 66.1% female) completed the Horne and Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire as a measure of chronotype and questionnaires assessing the following candidate non-shared environmental influences: dependent and independent negative life events, educational attainment, employment status, relationship status, deviant peers, affiliation with deviant peers, general health, smoking, drug use, and alcohol use. Linear regression analyses indicated the presence of gene-environment correlation for the majority of associations between chronotype and candidate environmental influences. When controlling for genetic and shared environmental effects, within monozygotic twin-pair differences in chronotype were associated with within monozygotic twin-pair differences in dependent negative life events (β = -0.27, p environmental in nature. The

  6. A new prognostic model for cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy including pretreatment thrombocytosis and standard pathological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Renninger, Markus; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

    2012-12-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (cohort series) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Preoperative thrombocytosis has been identified as a predictor of poor outcome in various cancer types. However, the prognostic role of platelet count in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy is unknown. The present study demonstrates that preoperative thrombocytosis is an independent risk factor for decreased cancer-specific survival after radical treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We developed a new prognostic scoring model for cancer-specific outcomes after radical cystectomy including platelet count and established pathological risk factors. Consideration of platelet count in the final model increased its predictive accuracy significantly. Thrombocytosis may be a useful parameter to include within established international bladder cancer nomograms. •  To investigate the oncological significance of preoperative thrombocytosis in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, as it has been reported as a marker for aggressive tumour biology in a variety of solid tumours. •  The series comprised 258 patients undergoing radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2010 in whom different clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed. •  Elevated platelet count was defined as >450 × 10(9) /L. •  Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariable analysis a new weighted scoring model was developed to predict cancer-specific outcomes. •  The median follow-up was 30 months (6-116). •  Of the 258 patients, 26 (10.1%) had elevated and 232 (89.9%) had normal platelet count. The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with normal and elevated platelet count was 61.5% and 32.7%, respectively (P thrombocytosis (2.68, 1.26-5.14; P= 0.011). •  The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with a score 0 (low risk), 1-2 (intermediate risk) and 3

  7. Factores ambientales relacionados con la gravedad del asma ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATED TO ASTHMA SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL OYARZÚN G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available factores determinantes de la gravedad del asma. Se revisan brevemente las fuentes y los efectos respiratorios y sobre la salud de los principales contaminantes intradomiciliarios. Existe evidencia abundante sobre las respuestas de los asmáticos a la exposición a aeroalergenos intradomiciliarios, tales como los alergenos de los ácaros domésticos. Para alergenos de mascotas, algunos estudios encuentran que una exposición temprana en la vida se asocia a sensibilización y enfermedad alérgica, en tanto que otros comunican un efecto protector. Los efectos de contaminantes intradomiciliarios de la combustión han sido menos caracterizados. Sin embargo, algunos estudios sugieren que ellos podrían estar asociados con exacerbaciones del asma. La exposición a humo de tabaco ha sido relacionada con exacerbación de asma infantil. Además la prevalencia de asma infantil y los ingresos hospitalarios por asma en adultos también se han relacionado con la exposición a humo de tabaco. La exposición de atópicos y asmáticos a contaminantes atmosféricos (O3 y NO2 aumentan la respuesta de las vías aéreas a los aeroalergenos. Por lo tanto, el control de los contaminantes atmosféricos podría disminuir cualquier interacción de contaminantes con alergenos en atópicos y asmáticosThis article review the role played by indoor and atmospheric air pollutants as factors determining asthma severity. Respiratory and health effects and sources of main indoor air pollutants are briefly reviewed. There is abundant evidence of asthmatic responses to indoor aeroallergens, such as exposure to house mite allergens. For pet allergens, some studies found that an early exposure in life was associated to sensitization and allergic disease, whereas others reported a protective effect. The effects of combustion indoor air pollutants have been less characterized. However, some studies suggest that they can be associated to exacerbations of asthma. Environmental tobacco

  8. Testosterone in tropical birds: effects of environmental and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Moore, Ignacio T; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Grafen, Alan; Wingfield, John C

    2004-09-01

    Previous investigations suggest that male tropical birds have lower plasma testosterone concentrations than northern latitude species. To test whether this generalization is valid, we analyzed all currently available plasma testosterone data of tropical birds. We focused on peak breeding testosterone levels using phylogenetic and conventional statistics. Explanatory variables considered were social mating system, type of territoriality, breeding season length, and altitude. On average, tropical birds had lower mean peak testosterone levels than northern temperate birds. However, in several tropical species, testosterone levels were well within the range of northern latitude birds. Without controlling for phylogeny, breeding season length, type of territoriality, and altitude explained a significant proportion of the variance in testosterone levels. The shorter the breeding season, the higher the testosterone levels. Tropical birds that defend a breeding season territory had higher testosterone levels than birds that were year-round territorial or colonial, and testosterone levels were positively correlated with altitude. When controlling for phylogeny, only breeding season length predicted testosterone levels. In conclusion, we propose to refine previous notions of low plasma testosterone levels in tropical birds: short breeding seasons and perhaps environmental conditions at high altitudes precipitate conditions under which high testosterone levels are beneficial in the tropics.

  9. Influence of phosphorus on Microcystis growth and the changes of other environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiang-can; CHU Zhao-sheng; YI Wen-li; HU Xiao-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The growth processes of Microcystis aeruginosa (FACHB-41) in simulated Taihu Lake water with different phosphorus concentrations were investigated using laboratory microcosms. The algal biomass increased with the increase of phosphorus concentration when it was lower than 0.445 mg/L, while the dissolved oxygen(DO) and pH increased, dissolved inorganic nitrogen(DIN) and light intensity underwater(I) decreased. Responding to the changes of the "environmental factors", the cellular carbohydrate and its ratio to cellular protein decreased generally as phosphorus increased. However, when phosphorus concentration was higher than 1.645 mg/L, the biomass, the "environmental factors", the cellular carbohydrate and its ratio to cellular protein did not change likewise.Since the environmental factors and the physiological and biochemical responses are important factors, the change of environmental factors and cell physiology and biochemistry induced by phosphorus may become the key factors that steer the growth and dominance of Microcystis under certain conditions. To sum up, phosphorus not only stimulate the growth of Microcystis directly by supplying nutrient element, but also has complex interactions with other "environmental factors" and play important roles in the growth processes of Microcystis .

  10. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context

  11. Occupational dermatitis in hairdressers - influence of individual and environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Tanja K; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Agner, Tove

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hairdressers are at risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis because of their intense contact with wet work in combination with chemicals. OBJECTIVES: To perform an analysis of a cohort study of hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis recognized in the period 2006......-2011, focusing on individual and environmental factors associated with the disease. METHODS: The study was a descriptive, register-based survey including all hairdressers with recognized occupational contact dermatitis in Denmark in the period January 2006 to September 2011. Data were obtained from the Danish...... National Board of Industrial Injuries. RESULTS: The study comprised 381 patients (373 women and 8 men). The median age was 25 years, 64.8% were apprentices, and 35.2% were fully trained hairdressers. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 36.0%, and was significantly higher among apprentices than among...

  12. [Environmental and occupational risk factors in keratosis of the larynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vincentiis, M; Gallo, A; Boccia, M M; Diletti, G; Simonelli, M; Della Rocca, C

    1993-01-01

    Laryngeal keratosis may frequently precede the appearance of carcinoma of the larynx which might well indicate that these diseases have a common denominator. A retrospective study of 120 subjects with laryngeal keratosis was examined. The intention of the Authors was to verify whether the principle risk factors involved in the appearance of laryngeal carcinoma were the same as those implicated in laryngeal keratosis formation. Sex age, work activity, cigarette smoke, alcohol consumption and vocal chord abuse were considered. Laryngeal keratosis takes keratosis with dysplasia as well as keratosis without. A link between these two types of keratosis and cancer was sought. In particular, the possibility that a persistent action of the mentioned risk factors could cause laryngeal dysplasia-free keratosis to change into dysplastic lesions and subsequently into cancer was investigated. A case-control study was performed in order to analyze the importance of work activity. Results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The Cramer V2 calculation demonstrated a clear correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked and the appearance of dysplasia (V2 = 0.117; P < 0.005). Results showed a clearly different behaviour between sexes. The number of males was much higher than females as was the age at which keratosis appeared greater in males. The fact that the average age in which keratosis appeared preceded the appearance of laryngeal cancer by ten years indicates that this interrum is sufficient for keratosis with dysplasia to be transformed into cancer (due to the continued action of the mentioned etiologic factors, mainly referred to cigarette smoke). In our data analysis, no correlation was demonstrated between keratosis without dysplasia and cancer.

  13. Vegetation: ecoclimatic and soil factors. Final environmental research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Vegetation studies were begun on the LOFRECO site during the spring of 1978 and continued through the summer of 1979. The principal components of the two year intensive study include collection and analysis of data in the areas of vegetation, ecoclimate, and soils. This report contains the results of the two-year study, presenting data collected from the three main study topics and interpretive analyses of intra-topical correlations. First year (1978) data, including one-time soil studies, have been previously presented in a series of reports. Data collected during the second year of study are presented in this appendix.

  14. Effects of climate change on environmental factors in respiratory allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L

    2008-08-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere and the human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens and air pollution. However, there is also considerable evidence that subjects affected by asthma are at an increased risk of developing obstructive airway exacerbations with exposure to gaseous and particulate components of air pollution. It is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate change and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in general and on the timing of asthma exacerbations. However, the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity suggests that air pollution and climate changes could be contributing. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution, rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions and westernized lifestyle are correlated to an increase in the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy, prevalent in people who live in urban areas compared with those who live in rural areas. Meteorological factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, etc.) along with their climatological regimes (warm or cold anomalies and dry or wet periods, etc.), can affect both biological and chemical components of this interaction. In addition, by inducing airway inflammation, air pollution overcomes the mucosal barrier priming allergen-induced responses. In conclusion, climate change might induce negative effects on respiratory allergic diseases. In particular, the increased length and severity of the pollen season, the higher occurrence of heavy precipitation events and the

  15. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: a case study for Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity is among the main problems faced by many societies. Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demands and supply. This study aims to analyze the changes in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint is estimated using Aquacrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010 at daily basis and a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minutes. Virtual water trade is quantified at yearly basis. Regression models are used to investigate changes in virtual water trade in relation to various environmental and socio-economic factors. The explaining variables are selected in order to help understanding the trend and the inter-annual variability of the net virtual water import; GDP, population and irrigated land are hypothesized to explain the trend, and precipitation and water scarcity to explain variability. The selected crops are divided into three baskets. The first basket includes the two most imported crops, which are mainly rain-fed (wheat and barley). The second basket contains the two most exported crops, which are both irrigated and rain-fed (olives and dates). In the last basket we find the two highest economic blue water productive crops, which are mainly irrigated (tomatoes and potatoes). The results show the impact of each factor on net virtual water import of the selected crops during the period 1981-2010. Keywords: Virtual water, trade patterns, Aquacrop, Tunisia, water scarcity, water footprint.

  16. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Naozuka, Juliana; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso

    2010-10-01

    To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 1418 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old) exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97); and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00). Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03) and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28) were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  17. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97; and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00. Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03 and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28 were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  18. Identifying Environmental Risk Factors of Cholera in a Coastal Area with Geospatial Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Duochun; Kan, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Satellites contribute significantly to environmental quality and public health. Environmental factors are important indicators for the prediction of disease outbreaks. This study reveals the environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, a coastal province of China, using both Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic information System (GIS). The analysis validated the correlation between the indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local cholera magnitude based on a ten-year monthly data from the year 1999 to 2008. Cholera magnitude has been strongly affected by the concurrent variables of SST and SSH, while OCC has a one-month time lag effect. A cholera prediction model has been established based on the sea environmental factors. The results of hot spot analysis showed the local cholera magnitude in counties significantly associated with the estuaries and rivers. PMID:25551518

  19. Comparison of environmental risk factors for esophageal atresia, anorectal malformations, and the combined phenotype in 263 German families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwink, N; Choinitzki, V; Baudisch, F; Hölscher, A; Boemers, T M; Turial, S; Kurz, R; Heydweiller, A; Keppler, K; Müller, A; Bagci, S; Pauly, M; Brokmeier, U; Leutner, A; Degenhardt, P; Schmiedeke, E; Märzheuser, S; Grasshoff-Derr, S; Holland-Cunz, S; Palta, M; Schäfer, M; Ure, B M; Lacher, M; Nöthen, M M; Schumacher, J; Jenetzky, E; Reutter, H

    2016-11-01

    Esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) and anorectal malformations (ARM) represent the severe ends of the fore- and hindgut malformation spectra. Previous research suggests that environmental factors are implicated in their etiology. These risk factors might indicate the influence of specific etiological mechanisms on distinct developmental processes (e.g. fore- vs. hindgut malformation). The present study compared environmental factors in patients with isolated EA/TEF, isolated ARM, and the combined phenotype during the periconceptional period and the first trimester of pregnancy in order to investigate the hypothesis that fore- and hindgut malformations involve differing environmental factors. Patients with isolated EA/TEF (n = 98), isolated ARM (n = 123), and the combined phenotype (n = 42) were included. Families were recruited within the context of two German multicenter studies of the genetic and environmental causes of EA/TEF (great consortium) and ARM (CURE-Net). Exposures of interest were ascertained using an epidemiological questionnaire. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to assess differences between the three phenotypes. Newborns with isolated EA/TEF and the combined phenotype had significantly lower birth weights than newborns with isolated ARM (P = 0.001 and P expectation, and warrants further analysis in large prospective epidemiological studies.

  20. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Physiological procedures and instrumentation developed for the measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during prolonged periods of weightlessness are described along with the physiological response of monkeys to weightlessness. Specific areas examined include: cardiovascular studies; thyroid function; blood oxygen transport; growth and reproduction; excreta analysis for metabolic balance studies; and electrophoretic separation of creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes in human blood.

  1. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  2. Factors affecting the environmental carrying capacity of a freshwater tropical lake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullakkezhil Reghunathan, Vishnuprasad; Joseph, Sabu; Warrier, C Unnikrishnan; Hameed, A Shahul; Albert Moses, Sheela

    2016-11-01

    Environmental carrying capacity is a measure of competence of a lake to accommodate pollution inputs without degrading water quality. In the research reported here, we identified the factors influencing the environmental carrying capacity of Vellayani Lake or VL (a typical tropical freshwater lake), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala State, India. R-mode factor analysis is used to identify the factors controlling the carrying capacity of the lake, whereas hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) helped to classify the lake. The carrying capacity of the lake is low with respect to alkalinity, due to ion deficiency, and is potentially reactive to sudden changes in pH. Eutrophic condition exists in the entire lake system. Acidic factor, mineralization factor, fertilizer factor (P & K), evaporation factor and organic pollution factor are the controllers of VL water quality during the pre-monsoon period. The same factors (but not evaporation factor) and an additional runoff factor control the water quality during monsoon. In the post-monsoon, the aforesaid factors (other than runoff, alkalinity) and soil erosion factor influence the water quality. Hence, managers of the lake system need to also focus on combating acidic factor during pre- and post-monsoons and runoff during monsoon. Smaller areal extent and shallow depth of VL, reduced outflow from it, less rainfall, presence of lateritic rock and soil and absence of limestone strata in the catchment are the chief elements affecting the acidic factor of Vellayani Lake.

  3. The influence of environmental exposure to complex mixtures including PAHs and lead on genotoxic effects in children living in Upper Silesia, Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielzynska, Danuta; Siwinska, Ewa; Kapka, Lucyna

    2006-01-01

    Environmental exposure is a complex mixture of hazardous compounds with different mechanisms of toxicity. In case of concomitant exposure to carcinogenic substances--such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)--and to heavy metals--such as lead (Pb)--the level of DNA damage may be enhanced...... and to investigate their relation with the environmental exposure to PAHs and Pb. The examined population included 74 children 5-14-year-old who lived in two cities located in the most polluted centre of the Silesia province. Individual exposure to lead was assessed for each child by measuring lead in blood (Pb......B), and to PAH by measuring 1-hydroxypyrene in urine (1-OHP), urinary mutagenicity and DNA adducts in circulating lymphocytes. Biomarkers of genetic effects were assessed by measuring micronuclei (MN) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in children's peripheral lymphocytes. The mean levels of biomarkers...

  4. Association between environmental factors and current asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province – Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Solis-Soto, Maria Teresa; Patino, Armando; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in childhood has considerably increased in developing countries including Bolivia, possibly due to changes in lifestyle, environmental and domestic factors. This study aimed to assess the association between environmental factors and asthma, rhinoconjuctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 2...

  5. Genetic and environmental risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宝剑; 梁旭辉; 汪宁; 林顺潮; 刘瑶; 谭霭仙; 彭智培

    2004-01-01

    Background Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is characterized by optic nerve damage and consists of a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders. This study was to investigate the associations of genetic and environmental factors with POAG in a hospital-based Chinese population.Methods Thirty-two adult onset POAG patients and 96 age-sex matched control subjects were studied by multivariable logistic regression analysis for the relationships between POAG and its risk factors including family history, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and polymorphisms of the myocilin and the optineurin genes.Results Univariate analysis showed that POAG was related to family history, cardiovascular disease, alcohol consumption and a myocilin sequence alteration (T353I) (P<0.04). Multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed that POAG was significantly associated with family history (OR=20.2), hypertension (OR=3.58), cigarette smoking (OR=10.8), alcohol consumption (OR=0.028) and T353I (OR=6.03, all P<0.05).Conclusions Family history, hypertension, cigarette smoking and T353I in the myocilin gene are risk factors for POAG. Alcohol consumption, however, has a protective effect.

  6. Honorary Authorship Practices in Environmental Science Teams: Structural and Cultural Factors and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kevin C; Settles, Isis H; Montgomery, Georgina M; Brassel, Sheila T; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Soranno, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    Overinclusive authorship practices such as honorary or guest authorship have been widely reported, and they appear to be exacerbated by the rise of large interdisciplinary collaborations that make authorship decisions particularly complex. Although many studies have reported on the frequency of honorary authorship and potential solutions to it, few have probed how the underlying dynamics of large interdisciplinary teams contribute to the problem. This article reports on a qualitative study of the authorship standards and practices of six National Science Foundation-funded interdisciplinary environmental science teams. Using interviews of the lead principal investigator and an early-career member on each team, our study explores the nature of honorary authorship practices as well as some of the motivating factors that may contribute to these practices. These factors include both structural elements (policies and procedures) and cultural elements (values and norms) that cross organizational boundaries. Therefore, we provide recommendations that address the intersection of these factors and that can be applied at multiple organizational levels.

  7. Environmental risk factors and hotspot analysis of dengue distribution in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    This study is an attempt to find out the factors responsible for sudden dengue outbreak in different cities of Pakistan during 2011. For this purpose, spatio-temporal distribution of dengue in Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore, and Karachi has been taken into account. According to the available data, the factors responsible for this spread includes climate covariates like rainfall, temperature, and wind speed; social covariates like population, and area of locality, and environmental risk factors like drainage pattern and geo-hydrological conditions. Reported dengue cases from localities and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 90 m digital elevation model (DEM) of study areas have been processed for hotspots, regression model and stream density in the localities of high dengue incidence. The relationship of daily dengue incidence with climate covariates during the months of July-October of the study year is analyzed. Results show that each dry spell of 2-4 days provides suitable conditions for the development and survival of dengue vectors during the wet months of July and August in the areas of high stream density and population. Very few cases have been reported in July while higher number of cases reported in the months of August, September, until late October. Hotspot analysis highlights the areas of high dengue incidence while regression analysis shows the relationship between the population and the areas of localities with the dengue incidence.

  8. Perinatal and early childhood environmental factors influencing allergic asthma immunopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffin, Jonathan M; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Early life exposure to allergens (house dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold), air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), ozone (O(3)), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) has been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental risk factors for the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Iran: A GIS-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezankhani, Roghieh; Hosseini, Arezoo; Sajjadi, Nooshin; Khoshabi, Mostafa; Ramezankhani, Azra

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the environmental factors associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Isfahan Province, using spatial analysis. Data of monthly CL incidence from 2010 to 2013, climate and environmental factors including: temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), altitude and population density across the Isfahan's cities was used to perform spatial analysis by ordinary least square (OLS) regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR). OLS revealed a significant correlation between CL incidence and five predictors including temperature, population density, wind speed, humidity and NDVI; which explained 28.6% of variation in CL incidence in the province. Considering AICc and adjusted R(2), GWR provided a better fit to the data compared with OLS. There was a positive correlation between temperature and population density with CL incidence in both local (city) and global (province) level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Research for the Greenhouse Water Evaporation Based on the Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To guide the greenhouse precision irrigation, influenced by the environmental factors, based on the definite plant, the greenhouse water evaporation characteristics are studied. The qualitative and the quantitative relationships between the environmental factors and the greenhouse water evaporation are probed into which will provide the theoretical basis for the water management of the facilities horticulture. Establishing the quantitative relations between the environmental factors and the water evaporation, between the environmental factors and the evaporation of soil water, between the environmental factors and the crop transpiration not only can reveal the environment factors to have the impact on the water evaporation changes, the soil water evaporation changes and physiological changes of the plant water, but also can use meteorological parameter to predict in the greenhouse crop transpiration for the water consumption. Then based on the predicted value timely the plant is supplied with the moderate water. Using genetic algorithm to optimize the models in different season in the different ranges value, the minimum of the evaporation of water is predicted, in order to achieve the purpose of right amount water needed for the plant, saving water, high yield and good quality.

  11. Environmental load factors and system strength evaluation of offshore jacket platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Nizamani, Zafarullah

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a study for the determination of environmental load factors for Jacket Platforms in Malaysia and a methodology to determine the life extension of aging platforms. The simplified methods described here could be used for determining not only structural reliability but also safety factors. Its content is particularly interesting to design and maintenance engineers who are working in offshore or onshore industry.

  12. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  13. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  14. To open or to close: species-specific stomatal responses to simultaneously applied opposing environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilo, Ebe; Jõesaar, Indrek; Brosché, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes

    2014-04-01

    Plant stomatal responses to single environmental factors are well studied; however, responses to a change in two (or more) factors - a common situation in nature - have been less frequently addressed. We studied the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of opposing environmental factors in six evolutionarily distant mono- and dicotyledonous herbs representing different life strategies (ruderals, competitors and stress-tolerators) to clarify whether the crosstalk between opening- and closure-inducing pathways leading to stomatal response is universal or species-specific. Custom-made gas exchange devices were used to study the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of two opposing factors: decreased/increased CO2 concentration and light availability or reduced air humidity. The studied species responded similarly to changes in single environmental factors, but showed species-specific and nonadditive responses to two simultaneously applied opposing factors. The stomata of the ruderals Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella salsuginea (previously Thellungiella halophila) always opened, whereas those of competitor-ruderals either closed in all two-factor combinations (Triticum aestivum), remained relatively unchanged (Nicotiana tabacum) or showed a response dominated by reduced air humidity (Hordeum vulgare). Our results, indicating that in changing environmental conditions species-specific stomatal responses are evident that cannot be predicted from studying one factor at a time, might be interesting for stomatal modellers, too.

  15. The Role of Environmental Factors in Beginning Teachers' Professional Learning Related to Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Little research has investigated factors that facilitate beginning teachers' participation in professional learning activities related to differentiated instruction (DI). This study examines environmental factors for DI learning activities in a sample of 272 beginning teachers from 72 primary schools. Multilevel analyses show that teacher…

  16. Frequent respiratory tract infections in children. The role of environmental and genetic factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskamp, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTI), presenting as common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute otitis media, bronchitis or pneumonia are a major health problem in children. In this thesis common environmental and host factors, as well as plausible genetic factors were evaluated in a large birth coho

  17. The Sustainable Office. An exploration of the potential for factor 20 environmental improvement of office accommodation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development is the goal of a balance between economy and the environment, whilst establishing a better spread prosperity across the world. In order to make this possible, the environmental load of our commodities needs to be reduced by a factor of 20. This factor 20 can also be translate

  18. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  19. The influence of demographic, environmental and physical factors on functional independence post stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Mamabolo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The magnitude of disability observed in strokesurvivors is believed to be dependent in part, on the severity of neurological deficits incurred. A s important but less well understood, is thecontribution of demographic, physical and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to establish what demographic, environmentaland physical factors influence functional independence post stroke. Method: Convenience sampling was used in the selection of subjects from four stroke outpatient public health facilities in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools used included descriptive statistics to measure percentages and cross tabulations to measure the level of associations between functional independence and some of the demographic factors. The Barthel Index was computed to establish the degree of functional independence. Finally the influence of factors on functional independence was investigated using bivariate logistic regressions.Results: The results showed that younger patients (18 - 34 yrs may have a higher likelihood of functional independence compared to older patients at the time of discharge from hospital (18 - 34 years: Odds Ratio = 1. Patients without helpers were more likely to be functionally independent than those with a helper (p = 0.03. Involvement in household activities (p = 0.01, participation in community activities (p = 0.02 and bowel and bladder continence (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04 improved the likelihood of functional independence.Conclusion and im plications: Factors that influence functional independence post stroke are: age, bowel and bladder continence, the presence of a caregiver, participation in household and community activities. It is also of value to encourage patients to participate in household and community activities post stroke as well as being less dependent on helpers in an effort to attain functional independence post

  20. Is climate change an unforeseen, irresistible and external factor - A force majeure in marine environmental law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Roxanne; Barnes, Richard; Elliott, Michael

    2016-12-15

    Several environmental laws include provisions on natural causes or force majeure, which except States from their commitments if it can be proven that the failure to meet the commitment is due to factors outside their control. The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) has a pivotal role in managing EU marine waters. This paper analyses natural causes and force majeure provisions of the MFSD and other marine legislation, and addresses their interaction with climate change and its consequences, especially the effect on the obligation of ensuring seas are in Good Environmental Status. Climate change is an exogenic unmanaged pressure in that it emanates from outside the area being managed but in which the management authority has to respond to the consequences of climate change, such as sea level rise and temperature elevation, rather than its causes. It is suggested that a defence by a Member State of force majeure may be accepted if an event was proven to be due to an externality of control, irresistible and unforeseeable. The analysis contends that countering such a legal defence would centre on the fact that climate change is a well-accepted phenomenon, is foreseen with an accepted level of confidence and probability and is due to human actions. However, as yet, this has not been legally tested.

  1. Physical and environmental factors affecting the persistence of explosives particles (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantonakis, Michael R.; Nguyen, Viet K.; Furstenberg, Robert; White, Caitlyn; Shuey, Melissa; Kendziora, Christopher A.; McGill, R. Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge of the persistence of trace explosives materials is critical to aid the security community in designing detection methods and equipment. The physical and environmental factors affecting the lifetimes of particles include temperature, airflow, interparticle distance, adlayers, humidity, particle field size and vapor pressure. We are working towards a complete particle persistence model that captures the relative importance of these effects to allow the user, with known environmental conditions, to predict particle lifetimes for explosives or other chemicals. In this work, particles of explosives are sieved onto smooth glass substrates using particle sizes and loadings relevant to those deposited by fingerprint deposition. The coupon is introduced into a custom flow cell and monitored under controlled airflow, humidity and temperature. Photomicroscopy images of the sample taken at fixed time intervals are analyzed to monitor particle sublimation and characterized as a size-independent radial sublimation velocity for each particle in the ensemble. In this paper we build on previous work by comparing the relationship between sublimation of different materials and their vapor pressures. We also describe the influence of a sebum adlayer on particle sublimation, allowing us to better model `real world' samples.

  2. Environmental contamination and hospital-acquired infection: factors that are easily overlooked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, C; Knibbs, L D; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

    2015-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the reasons for and factors contributing to healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Different solutions have been proposed over time to control the spread of HAI, with more focus on hand hygiene than on other aspects such as preventing the aerial dissemination of bacteria. Yet, it emerges that there is a need for a more pluralistic approach to infection control; one that reflects the complexity of the systems associated with HAI and involves multidisciplinary teams including hospital doctors, infection control nurses, microbiologists, architects, and engineers with expertise in building design and facilities management. This study reviews the knowledge base on the role that environmental contamination plays in the transmission of HAI, with the aim of raising awareness regarding infection control issues that are frequently overlooked. From the discussion presented in the study, it is clear that many unknowns persist regarding aerial dissemination of bacteria, and its control via cleaning and disinfection of the clinical environment. There is a paucity of good-quality epidemiological data, making it difficult for healthcare authorities to develop evidence-based policies. Consequently, there is a strong need for carefully designed studies to determine the impact of environmental contamination on the spread of HAI.

  3. Teacher Candidates' Perception Level of Environmental Pollutant and Their Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Fulya; Kalipci, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the environmental education deals with a wide range of environmental experiences, methods and processes. Teaching the subject of the environment should not be considered as an easy task. It should not only cover pure ecology education; but also include the citizenship responsibilities and the problems that are sourced…

  4. Factors Promoting Environmental Responsibility in European SMEs: The Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing social and political awareness of the importance of developing environmental responsibility at a corporate level. When focusing on issues of responsibility, large companies are frequently perceived to be more responsible for driving climate change and resource depletion. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute significantly to the use of resources such as material and energy and produce approximately 64% of the pollution in Europe. Drawing on evidence from “The Eurobarometer 381 Survey on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets”, we analyze the environmental responsibility of European SMEs, studying their compliance with environmental legislation and how several factors drive environmental orientation among SMEs. Our sample consists of 3647 SMEs operating in 38 countries. Only around a fifth of the firms go beyond environmental regulations, showing the highest levels of environmental responsibility. We conduct OLS regressions to analyze the factors that affect a positive environmental attitude among European SMEs (internal drivers being more significant than external ones and then, to observe the positive effect of environmental responsibility and firm’s experience in offering green services/products on performance, although a conjoint effect was not found. Implications for practitioners, academics, and policy-makers are outlined.

  5. Factors in the Development of a Global Substantive Environmental Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen James Turner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the fact that there is currently no international treaty that provides a globally accepted substantive human right for the protection of the environment (Anton and Shelton, 2011; Turner, 2009 there is a case for considering how such a right could or should be developed. This paper considers certain aspects of the potential development of such a right by focussing on key non-state actors that make decisions, which can affect the environment. Consideration is given to three different types of non-state actors: companies (corporations, the World Trade Organisation (WTO and multilateral development banks (MDBs. It specifically examines their ‘constitutional’ purposes and the overall legal constraints that their decision-makers are bound to comply with, and where applicable, the legal obligations that they impose upon their members.Therefore, this approach to the issue focuses on the legal foundations that determine how such actors make decisions and how that can affect the environment. This paper provides a broad perspective to illustrate the commonalities between the actors that are discussed in relation to their decision-making processes. Ultimately it provides an argument in support of the formal development of an international treaty that would create a global substantive environmental right. However it posits that such a treaty should inter alia be designed and framed in a manner, that would develop reformed legal obligations for the types of non-state actors discussed. Debido al hecho de que actualmente no existe ningún tratado internacional que proporcione un derecho humano globalmente aceptado para la protección del medio ambiente (Anton y Shelton 2011, Turner 2009 hay un argumento para considerar cómo podría o debería desarrollarse tal derecho. Este documento considera algunos aspectos del desarrollo potencial de tal derecho, centrándose en los principales actores no estatales que toman decisiones que pueden afectar el

  6. Study on biological and environmental factors for azoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spas Dzhoglov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The absence of sperm in the seminal fluid is known as azoospermia. This medical condition is in a direct association with male's infertility. A complete medical history, physical examination, tests of selected hormones and tests for male fertility (including sperm analysis are used for the diagnosis of azoospermia. The number of 1314 men, with fertility problems, at age between 20 and 67 years, were included in this investigation. The data obtained in the study showed that azoospermia occurred in 5.25% of the group studied. The Klinefelter syndrome was cytogenetically diagnosed in 2.9% of the male individuals. There was found that 44.3% of males with azoospermia have been smokers, 7.1% of them – addicted to drugs, 17.1% have taken different medicaments, 4.35% – have had radiation therapy, 4.35% have had a diagnosis "varicocele". The volume of the ejaculate was less than 2 ml in 37.68% of the men and more than 7 ml in 2.89% of them.

  7. Vegetation: ecoclimatic and soil factors. Final environmental research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Vegetation studies were begun on the LOFRECO site during the spring of 1978 and continued through the summer of 1979. The principal components of the two year intensive study include collection and analysis of data in the areas of vegetation, ecoclimate, and soils. This report contains the results of the two-year study, presenting data collected from the three main study topics and interpretive analyses of intra-topical correlations. First year (1978) data, including one-time soil studies, have been previously presented in a series of reports (Olgeirson and Martin 1978, Olgeirson 1979a, 1979b, 1979c). Data collected during the second year of study are presented in this report along with first year information (Appendices A through D and Map Pockets). The body of the report combines and correlates data from the permanent sampling sites for both of the years studied. Vegetation, soils, and ecoclimate data are considered separately in these discussions. Correlations and interrelationships between the three main topics are discussed in later sections. Conclusions of the studies are given as a summation of the separate and interrelated findings and as a basis for recommended monitoring programs. An attempt has been made to increase readability by restricting the large amount of data to inclusion into textual areas of the report only as summarized figures and tables. Supporting data have all been placed in the appendices.

  8. Learning approaches and studies of effect of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a presentation of 3P model of learning (Presage-Process-Product, which comprises learning approaches placed in a wider context of the set of variables related to personality, environment, process and outcomes of learning. Three approaches to learning - surface, deep and achievement-oriented - consist of motives and the corresponding learning strategies. There is a discussion of the findings and implications of a great deal of research using the instruments based on this model. We analyzed research findings about the effect of instruction on learning approaches acquired by pupils, and especially students. It is shown how based on learning approach employed by pupils it is possible to draw conclusions about the quality of instruction. Testing the instruments on various samples indicates that the model is applicable in different cultures. Cross-cultural research opened up the problem of relation between memorising and understanding. Further research is necessary, both empirical and theoretical, that is, development of conceptualization of these constructs, and especially their role in education. Perspectives for further research also open up in the direction of studying various factors connected with personality and their relations with learning approaches. The role of learning approaches of teachers in developing the learning approaches of pupils is yet to be examined.

  9. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma.

  10. Congenital and environmental factors associated with adipocyte dysregulation as defects of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Ping; Chung, Fu-Mei; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Lee, Yau-Jiunn

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome refers to insulin resistance and its associated cluster of related cardiovascular metabolic risk factors including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity. Although many hypotheses and facts have been proposed to explain the interaction between genetic and environmental causes of this syndrome, the primary etiology of the metabolic syndrome is adipose tissue dysregulation. Firstly, the thrifty genotype and phenotype hypothesis may explain the endemic increase in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in developing countries and elucidates the congenital susceptibility and environmental triggering of the metabolic syndrome. Secondly, over-nutrition leads to fatty acid (FA) accumulation in adipocytes and to an overflow to ectopic fat storage organs. This causes functional changes in adipocytes shifting the intra-cellular metabolic pathway toward insulin resistance. Thirdly, obese subjects exhibit increased fat cell size and over-secretion of biologic adipocytokines. Fourthly, failure to adequately develop adipose tissue mass, as seen in lipodystrophy cases, causes severe insulin resistance and diabetes. Lastly, similar to human type 2 diabetes, Psammonys obesus, a desert rat which feeds mainly on low-calorie vegetation, develops the metabolic syndrome when given a diet of calorie rich food. The above evidence indicates adipocyte dysregulation and secretion of FA as well as certain molecules from overloaded adipocytes/adipokines contribute to the pathogenesis of impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, a pro-inflammatory state and promote progression of atherosclerosis. The metabolic syndrome is a modern disease resulting adipocyte dysmetabolism resulting from the paradox of the slow human evolution combined with rapid environmental changes.

  11. Impact of environmental factors on biometric matching during human decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolme, David S [ORNL; Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL; Saul, Tiffany B [ORNL; Sauerwein, Kelly A [ORNL; Steadman, Dawnie W [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition systems are a valuable tool for identifying unknown deceased individuals. Immediately af- ter death fingerprint and face biometric samples are easy to collect using standard sensors and cameras and can be easily matched to anti-mortem biometric samples. Even though post-mortem fingerprints and faces have been used for decades, there are no studies that track these biomet- rics through the later stages of decomposition to determine the length of time the biometrics remain viable. This paper discusses a multimodal dataset of fingerprints, faces, and irises from 14 human cadavers that decomposed outdoors under natural conditions. Results include predictive models relating time and temperature, measured as Accumulated Degree Days (ADD), and season (winter, spring, summer) to the predicted probably of automatic verification using a commercial algorithm.

  12. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Susana

    2012-01-01

    The recognition of a risk of visual impairment and intracranial pressure increase as a result of spaceflight has directed our attention and research efforts to the eye. While the alterations observed in astronauts returning from long duration missions include reportable vision and neuroanatomical changes observed by non-invasive methods, other effects and subsequent tissue responses at the molecular and cellular level can only be studied by accessing the tissue itself. As a result of this need, several studies are currently taking place that use animal models for eye research within the HHC Element. The implementation of these studies represents a significant addition to the capabilities of the biomedical research laboratories within the SK3 branch at JSC.

  13. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water. Diversity in Ralstonia pickettii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adley Catherine C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i Species-specific-PCR, ii PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR iii the fliC gene genes, iv RAPD and BOX-PCR and v phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin.

  14. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Michael P

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine) from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i) Species-specific-PCR, ii) PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR) iii) the fliC gene genes, iv) RAPD and BOX-PCR and v) phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin.

  15. Environmental and nutritional factors affecting geosmin synthesis by Anabaena sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, I M; Schrader, K K; Blevins, W T

    2001-04-01

    A cyanobacterium isolated from a source-water reservoir during a spring odor and taste episode and identified as Anabaena sp. consistently produced geosmin during laboratory culture on modified BG-11 liquid medium. Maximal geosmin/biomass occurred at 20 degrees C and a light intensity of 17 microE/m2/s; geosmin/chla values directly correlated with increasing light intensity (r2 = 0.95, P geosmin synthesis; at 17 microE/m2/s, increasing temperature stimulates chla production (to 25 degrees C) while repressing geosmin synthesis (above 20 degrees C). Nutritional factors promoting biomass, chla, and geosmin synthesis by Anabaena sp. were also investigated. For cultures grown at 17 microE/m2/s and 20 degrees C for 20 days, both ammonium-N and nitrate-N generally enhanced the growth of Anabaena sp. Nitrate-N promoted more chla production (r2 = 0.99) than ammonium-N. Geosmin synthesis was directly correlated with ammonium-N concentrations (r2 = 0.89), with low nitrate-N (123.5 micrograms/l) favoring maximal geosmin production (2.8 micrograms/l). Increasing nitrate-N concentrations promoted a three-fold increase in chla content with geosmin synthesis decreased by two-fold. Geosmin/mg biomass was directly related to ammonium-N concentration; high nitrate-N levels suppressed geosmin production. No geosmin was detected at or below 118 micrograms phosphate-phosphorus/l. Geosmin, dry weight biomass, and chla production were correlated with increasing phosphorus (P) concentration (r2 = 0.76, 0.96 and 0.98, respectively). No geosmin was detected when copper was present in growth media at or above 6.92 micrograms Cu2+/l (CuSO4.5H2O). Dry weight biomass and chla production were negatively correlated with Cu2+ ion concentrations.

  16. Genomic Features of Environmental and Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates Lacking Recognized Virulence Factors Are Dissimilar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronholm, J; Petronella, N; Chew Leung, C; Pightling, A W; Banerjee, S K

    2015-12-04

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a bacterial pathogen that can cause illness after the consumption or handling of contaminated seafood. The primary virulence factors associated with V. parahaemolyticus illness are thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and Tdh-related hemolysin (TRH). However, clinical strains lacking tdh and trh have recently been isolated, and these clinical isolates are poorly understood. To help understand the emergence of clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates, a genomic approach was used to comprehensively compare 4 clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates with 16 environmental tdh- and trh-negative isolates and 34 clinical isolates positive for tdh or trh, or both, with the objective of identifying genomic features that are unique to clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates. The prevalence of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) common to clinical isolates was thoroughly examined in each of the clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates. The tdh PAI was not present in any clinical or environmental tdh- and trh-negative isolates. The trh PAI was not present in any environmental isolates; however, in clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolate 10-4238, the majority of the trh PAI including a partial trh1 gene was present, which resulted in reclassification of this isolate as a tdh-negative and trh-positive isolate. In the other clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates, neither the trh gene nor the trh PAI was present. We identified 862 genes in clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates but not in environmental tdh- and trh-negative isolates. Many of these genes are highly homologous to genes found in common enteric bacteria and included genes encoding a number of chemotaxis proteins and a novel putative type VI secretion system (T6SS) effector and immunity protein (T6SS1). The availability of genome sequences from clinical V. parahaemolyticus tdh- and trh-negative isolates and the comparative analysis may help provide an understanding of how this pathotype is able to

  17. Measuring Environmental Factors: Unique and Overlapping International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Coverage of 5 Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W; Miskovic, Ana; Semik, Patrick; Wong, Alex; Dashner, Jessica; Baum, Carolyn; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Tulsky, David S; Garcia, Sofia F; Jerousek, Sara; Lai, Jin-Shei; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Gray, David B

    2016-12-01

    To describe the unique and overlapping content of the newly developed Environmental Factors Item Banks (EFIB) and 7 legacy environmental factor instruments, and to evaluate the EFIB's construct validity by examining associations with legacy instruments. Cross-sectional, observational cohort. Community. A sample of community-dwelling adults with stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury (N=568). None. EFIB covering domains of the built and natural environment; systems, services, and policies; social environment; and access to information and technology; the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF) short form; the Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility (FABS/M) short form; the Home and Community Environment Instrument (HACE); the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE) short form; and 3 of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System's (PROMIS) Quality of Social Support measures. The EFIB and legacy instruments assess most of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) environmental factors chapters, including chapter 1 (products and technology; 75 items corresponding to 11 codes), chapter 2 (natural environment and human-made changes; 31 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 3 (support and relationships; 74 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 4 (attitudes; 83 items corresponding to 8 codes), and chapter 5 (services, systems, and policies; 72 items corresponding to 16 codes). Construct validity is provided by moderate correlations between EFIB measures and the CHIEF, MQE barriers, HACE technology mobility, FABS/M community built features, and PROMIS item banks and by small correlations with other legacy instruments. Only 5 of the 66 legacy instrument correlation coefficients are moderate, suggesting they measure unique aspects of the environment, whereas all intra-EFIB correlations were at least moderate. The EFIB measures provide a brief and focused assessment of ICF

  18. Development of realistic environmental release factors based on measured data: approach and lessons from the EU metal industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, Frederik A M; Van Assche, Frank; Hicks, Keegan; Mertens, Jelle; Voigt, Astrid; Verougstraete, Violaine

    2014-10-01

    The assessment of environmental exposure and risks associated with the production or use of a substance on an industrial site includes the estimation of the releases to the environment. In the absence of measured release data on the specific substance, a risk assessor would rely on default release factors to the environmental compartments as developed in international, national, or regional context. Because a wide variety of substances, processes, and uses has to be covered, default release factors are as a rule conservative, usually leading to significant overprediction of releases and hence to overpredicted environmental exposure concentrations and risks. In practice, unrealistic and worst-case predictions do not support a more efficient management of releases and risk. The objective of this article is to propose a more realistic approach to characterize the environmental releases from manufacture, processing, and downstream uses of the metals and their compounds. Although developed in the European Union (EU), this approach can also be used in other regions and in other chemical management systems addressing metals. A database consisting of more than 1300 recent (1993-2010), site-specific measured release factors to air and water of 18 different metals from various EU Member States was compiled and used to calculate average and reasonable worst-case release factors for multiple metal manufacture and industrial use processes. The parameters influencing releases to water were found to depend predominantly on life cycle step (manufacture and/or use), the sector and/or the solid-water partition coefficient (K(d)). The release factors can be used as advanced tier instrument in environmental safety assessments, increasing the realism of the estimates while still keeping a sufficient level of conservatism.

  19. Life on the boundary: Environmental factors as drivers of habitat distribution in the littoral zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalì, Maria Elena; Cebrian, Emma; Chappuis, Eglantine; Pinedo, Susana; Terradas, Marc; Mariani, Simone; Ballesteros, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The boundary between land and sea, i.e. the littoral zone, is home to a large number of habitats whose distribution is primarily driven by the distance to the sea level but also by other environmental factors such as littoral's geomorphological features, wave exposure, water temperature or orientation. Here we explore the relative importance of those major environmental factors that drive the presence of littoral rocky habitats along 1100 Km of Catalonia's shoreline (Spain, NW Mediterranean) by using Geographic Information Systems and Generalized Linear Models. The distribution of mediolittoral and upper infralittoral habitats responded to different environmental factors. Mediolittoral habitats showed regional differences drawn by sea-water temperature and substrate type. Wave exposure (hydrodynamism), slope and geological features were only relevant to those mediolittoral habitats with specific environmental needs. We did not find any regional pattern of distribution in upper infralittoral habitats, and selected factors only played a moderate role in habitat distribution at the local scale. This study shows for the first time that environmental factors determining habitat distribution differ within the mediolittoral and the upper infralittoral zones and provides the basis for further development of models oriented at predicting the distribution of littoral marine habitats.

  20. Shift-work disorder and sleep-related environmental factors in the manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Yukari; Nakamura, Arisa; Yamauchi, Takenori; Takeuchi, Shouhei; Kuroda, Yoshiki

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between shift-work disorder (SWD) and environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep among rapidly rotating shift workers in a manufacturing industry.A total of 556 male workers were recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding age, shift work experience, lifestyle, and family structure; the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS); the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI); and the Horne and Ostberg questionnaire, a questionnaire for environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep. We classified workers according to having SWD or not, and compared workers with SWD with those without this disorder in terms of all items covered in the aforementioned questionnaires. A total of 208 workers (62.8%) working rapidly rotating shifts were diagnosed with SWD. The ESS and PSQI scores and scores for environmental and somatic factors were significantly higher in workers with SWD than in those without this disorder. The ESS scores and scores for environmental and somatic factors were also associated with SWD in the logistic regression analyses. We suggest that susceptibility to SWD in the manufacturing industry may be associated with environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep.

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargessadat Emami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as described in the standard EN 15804. The total environmental effects of the school building in terms of global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, human toxicity, acidification, and eutrophication were calculated. The total global warming potential impact was equal to 255 kg of CO2 eq/sqm, which was low compared to previous studies and was due to the limited system boundary of the current study. The effect of long-distance overseas transport of materials was noticeable in terms of acidification (25% and eutrophication (31% while it was negligible in other impact groups. The results also concluded that producing the cement in Iceland caused less environmental impact in all five impact categories compared to the case in which the cement was imported from Germany. The major contribution of this work is that the environmental impacts of different plans for domestic production or import of construction materials to Iceland can be precisely assessed in order to identify effective measures to move towards a sustainable built environment in Iceland, and also to provide consistent insights for stakeholders.

  2. The endocrine disruptors among the environmental risk factors for stillbirth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncati, Luca, E-mail: emailmedical@gmail.com [Provincial Health Care Services, Institute of Pathology, Santa Maria del Carmine Hospital, Rovereto, TN (Italy); Department of Diagnostic and Clinical Medicine and of Public Health, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, MO (Italy); Piscioli, Francesco; Pusiol, Teresa [Provincial Health Care Services, Institute of Pathology, Santa Maria del Carmine Hospital, Rovereto, TN (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been lately taken into consideration for their adverse effects, as possible stillbirth contributors; stillbirth can be in fact considered the most dramatic pregnancy complication. Congenital abnormalities account for few stillbirths and many related disorders are potentially modifiable or often coexist, such as maternal infections, non-communicable diseases, lifestyle factors and maternal age. Causal pathways for stillbirth frequently involve impaired placental function, either with fetal growth restriction or preterm labour. For this reason, many current efforts are focusing on the study of endocrine disruptor (ED) placental transfer, to better understand the in utero exposure dynamics. In this regard, our research group has investigated, by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the EDs presence in brain samples of 24 stillbirths, collected over a 3-year period (2012–2014), coming from the Northeast Italy, a notorious area devoted to apple cultivation. Surprisingly, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), well-known EDs, have been detected in 11 samples. Apart from the noteworthy evidence of pesticides' bio-persistence, this finding implies a redefinition of the placental barrier concept: not a real safety system, but a time-deferral mechanism of absorption. The term ‘placental barrier’ in fact refers to a 4-membrane structure, made up by two epithelial layers, which exactly lining the chorionic villi, and by two endothelial layers, belonging to the feeding vessels for the fetus. It is an effective barrier only for a low administration of water-soluble substances, which encounter obstacle to cross four instead of two membranes. High doses of water-soluble compounds can reach appreciable concentration in the fetal blood, and the lipid-soluble chemicals, such as EDs, are able to pass the placental barrier, through a simple mechanism of passive diffusion, even in minimal concentrations. After crossing the placental barrier

  3. Environmental factors limiting fertilisation and larval success in corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rachael M.; Baird, Andrew H.; Mizerek, Toni L.; Madin, Joshua S.

    2016-12-01

    Events in the early life history of reef-building corals, including fertilisation and larval survival, are susceptible to changes in the chemical and physical properties of sea water. Quantifying how changes in water quality affect these events is therefore important for understanding and predicting population establishment in novel and changing environments. A review of the literature identified that levels of salinity, temperature, pH, suspended sediment, nutrients and heavy metals affect coral early life-history stages to various degrees. In this study, we combined published experimental data to determine the relative importance of sea water properties for coral fertilisation success and larval survivorship. Of the water properties manipulated in experiments, fertilisation success was most sensitive to suspended sediment, copper, salinity, phosphate and ammonium. Larval survivorship was sensitive to copper, lead and salinity. A combined model was developed that estimated the joint probability of both fertilisation and larval survivorship in sea water with different chemical and physical properties. We demonstrated the combined model using water samples from Sydney and Lizard Island in Australia to estimate the likelihood of larvae surviving through both stages of development to settlement competency. Our combined model could be used to recommend targets for water quality in coastal waterways as well as to predict the potential for species to expand their geographical ranges in response to climate change.

  4. Influence of environmental factors on hospitals%医院环境因素影响调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶远立; 方天仁

    2010-01-01

    Objective Analysis of the influence of enviromental factors on consumer satisfaction and behavior intentions. Methods The random sampling method is called into play for empirical investigation of some hospitals and medical organization in Guangzhou, in order to determine the environmental factors for hospitals by means of factor analysis and regression analysis. Results It is found that environmental factors affecting hospitals include the following: (1) internal environmental factors; (2) social factors; (3) hospital facilities and beds design factors; (4) hospital location and transportation factors; (5) aesthetic factors. Conclusion Hospitals should sophistically design and manage environment variables in view of potential customers, differentiating themselves from the rest for greater shares in the target market.%目的 分析医院的有形环境因素对消费者满意度和行为意向的影响.方法 采用随机抽样方法,对广州市的部分医院和医疗机构进行了实证调查.通过因子分析和回归分析,确定评价医院的环境因素.结果 影响医院的环境因素主要包括:内部环境因素;社交因素;医院设施及病床设计因素;医院位置和交通方面的因素;美观因素.结论 医院应根据目标顾客的需求特点巧妙设计和管理环境变量,使自身形象更加鲜明,有助于占领目标市场.

  5. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L.; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10–16 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. Results The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents’ dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and

  6. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10-16 years.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support, and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake were assessed using structural equation modeling.The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits. For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness. Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support and individual factors (perceived benefits.Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents' dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. The findings indicate

  7. Spatial distribution of podoconiosis in relation to environmental factors in Ethiopia: a historical review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available An up-to-date and reliable map of podoconiosis is needed to design geographically targeted and cost-effective intervention in Ethiopia. Identifying the ecological correlates of the distribution of podoconiosis is the first step for distribution and risk maps. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution and ecological correlates of podoconiosis using historical and contemporary survey data.Data on the observed prevalence of podoconiosis were abstracted from published and unpublished literature into a standardized database, according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, 10 studies conducted between 1969 and 2012 were included, and data were available for 401,674 individuals older than 15 years of age from 229 locations. A range of high resolution environmental factors were investigated to determine their association with podoconiosis prevalence, using logistic regression.The prevalence of podoconiosis in Ethiopia was estimated at 3.4% (95% CI 3.3%-3.4% with marked regional variation. We identified significant associations between mean annual Land Surface Temperature (LST, mean annual precipitation, topography of the land and fine soil texture and high prevalence of podoconiosis. The derived maps indicate both widespread occurrence of podoconiosis and a marked variability in prevalence of podoconiosis, with prevalence typically highest at altitudes >1500 m above sea level (masl, with >1500 mm annual rainfall and mean annual LST of 19-21°C. No (or very little podoconiosis occurred at altitudes 24°C.Podoconiosis remains a public health problem in Ethiopia over considerable areas of the country, but exhibits marked geographical variation associated in part with key environmental factors. This is work in progress and the results presented here will be refined in future work.

  8. MicroRNA gene polymorphisms and environmental factors increase patient susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hung Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Micro RNAs (miRNAs are small RNA fragments that naturally exist in the human body. Through various physiological mechanisms, miRNAs can generate different functions for regulating RNA protein levels and balancing abnormalities. Abnormal miRNA expression has been reported to be highly related to several diseases and cancers. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in miRNAs have been reported to increase patient susceptibility and affect patient prognosis and survival. We adopted a case-control research design to verify the relationship between miRNAs and hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 525 subjects, including 377 controls and 188 hepatocellular carcinoma patients, were selected. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR were used to analyze miRNA146a (rs2910164, miRNA149 (rs2292832, miRNA196 (rs11614913, and miRNA499 (rs3746444 genetic polymorphisms between the control group and the case group. The results indicate that people who carry the rs3746444 CT or CC genotypes may have a significantly increased susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.88-4.30. In addition, when combined with environmental risk factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, interaction effects were observed between gene polymorphisms and environmental factors (odds ratio [OR] = 4.69, 95% CI = 2.52-8.70; AOR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.68-6.80. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a significant association exists between miRNA499 SNPs and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gene-environment interactions of miRNA499 polymorphisms, smoking, and alcohol consumption might alter hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility.

  9. Pedestrian road traffic injuries in urban Peruvian children and adolescents: case control analyses of personal and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Donroe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting. METHODS: This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites. FINDINGS: After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52, absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26, high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54, high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55, and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56. Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82 and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99. CONCLUSION: Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.

  10. Analysis of Environmental Stress Factors Using an Artificial Growth System and Plant Fitness Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meonghun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production.

  11. Analysis of environmental stress factors using an artificial growth system and plant fitness optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meonghun; Yoe, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production.

  12. Genetic and environmental factors in alexithymia: A population-based study of 8.785 Danish twin pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Martini; Zachariae, Robert; Skytthe, Axel

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of genetic and environmental factors for developing alexithymia is still unclear, and the aim of this study was to examine these factors in a large population-based sample of twins. METHODS: The Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20) was included in a mail survey of 46,418 ind...

  13. Human factors in environmental management: New directions from the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Savage, S.F.

    1992-10-01

    Environmental management is the general term given to modern attempts to seek technological solutions to certain constrained environmental problems. it involves developing and applying new technologies that respond to changes in environmental policy. It does not eliminate the need for environmental ethics'' in society. Nor does it substitute for the fundamental changes in political and social structures that are needed for dealing with large-scale environmental issues. The scope of these issues can be illustrated by looking at the Hanford Site. Since 1943, the 560-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state has been the production source of much of the nuclear weapons-grade radioactive materials for the United States. The legacy of 50 years of producing fissile materials has been an environmental cleanup problem of impressive proportions. In 1989, with the Cold War winding down, Secretary of Energy James Watkins established a new vision for Hanford as the flagship for waste management research.'' As plans and preparations for cleanup work proceed at the Hanford Site and around the world, the need for well-orchestrated environmental management methodologies has become increasingly apparent. In 1990, a Human Factors Engineering Group was established in the Technology Planning and Analysis Center at PNL to provide appropriate support for the Laboratory's research efforts. At an ever-increasing rate, these research efforts require integrating human performance into complex environmental technology systems. The endeavor of responding to the Laboratory's research needs has provided innovative opportunities for the application of the concept of Human Factors. Discussed are some of the major applications of Human Factors to environmental management.

  14. A comparison of temporal trends in United States autism prevalence to trends in suspected environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nevison, Cynthia D

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diagnosed autism has increased rapidly over the last several decades among U.S. children. Environmental factors are thought to be driving this increase and a list of the top ten suspected environmental toxins was published recently. Methods Temporal trends in autism for birth years 1970–2005 were derived from a combination of data from the California Department of Developmental Services (CDDS) and the United States Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA...

  15. Interdisciplinarity and participatory approaches to environmental health: reflections from a workshop on social, economic and behavioural factors in the genesis and health impact of environmental hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huby, Meg; Adams, Rupert

    2009-04-01

    This paper reviews a workshop discussion postulated on the notion that social, economic and behavioural factors are responsible for the creation of environmental hazards and benefits that, in turn, can affect human health, with concomitant effects on future social well-being. The workshop case study centred on environmental health investigations, public engagement and partnership work undertaken following the death of two neighbouring children in Cheshire. Discussion included questions of causality and generalisability. It revealed how the attribution of responsibility for environmental damage to health is fraught with difficulties. It may often militate against an informed and open debate among interested parties, with concomitant implications for reducing the danger from environmental hazards. To improve communication, vocabulary needs to be free from jargon and acronyms, and differences in conceptual approach between different disciplines need to be better understood. The definition of the 'community' is itself far from clear-cut, yet questions of how to involve this community in intervention processes are important ones. The workshop identified a clear need for better, more considered forms of communication with communities and the public if fears are to be allayed, but recognised the additional costs that this would incur.

  16. Single particle ICP-MS as a tool for determining the stability of silver nanoparticles in aquatic matrixes under various environmental conditions, including treatment by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgmann, Lena; Nguyen, Michael Thanh Khoa; Shen, Li; Yargeau, Viviane; Hintelmann, Holger; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in a large number of consumer products due to their antimicrobial and antifungal properties, and these materials may be discharged into municipal wastewater. Wastewater treatment, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), may modify the forms of silver in wastewater before they are discharged into surface waters. In addition, little is known about the changes in AgNPs that occur in natural waters under different environmental conditions. In this project, we utilized single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analytical techniques to evaluate changes in the number and size of AgNPs in laboratory experiments with milliQ water under different environmental conditions, as well as during ozonation. Changes in the number and size of AgNPs determined by spICP-MS were evidence of altered stability of the nanoparticles. Increased rates of dissolution occurred under extremes of pH. Lower temperature decreased the rate of dissolution of AgNP relative to the dissolution in treatments at room temperature. The addition of chloride resulted in the loss of AgNPs from suspension due to agglomeration and precipitation. Ozonation led to a rapid decline in the number and size of AgNPs, as indicated by both spICP-MS and DLS analysis. An increase in the concentration of dissolved silver in the ozone treatments was evidence that changes in particle size were a result of oxidative dissolution of AgNPs to silver ion. Graphical abstract Single particle ICP-MS is used to evaluate dissolution of silver nanoparticles under different environmental conditions, including water treatment by ozonation.

  17. Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications - including criteria for Sb and As; Miljoeriktlinjer foer askanvaendning i anlaeggningsbyggande - inklusive haltkriterier foer Sb och As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Jones, Celia; Pettersson, Michael; Elert, Mark (Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    exposure scenarios including exposure pathways and points of compliance. Risk evaluation becomes an issue of comparing the estimated (-modeled) increased concentrations at specified target points with general human and environmental toxicological criteria. Guidelines have been calculated for two different types of constructions, with or without an impermeable (asphalt-) pavement that prevents rain water from infiltrating into the road. Also the possible exposure of intruding ground water has been taken into account. A set of ashes, for which data on total content and leachability was available in the ALLASKA and MALTE database, have been classified according to three categories of applications/situations. The results show that due to lack of data it could not be assessed whether naphthalene, bens(a)pyren and selen in ashes imply an insignificant risk or not. Cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, molybdenum, nickel and zinc generally shows a large margin to the calculated guidelines for total content and leachability for most ashes. Thus, ashes in constructions constitute an acceptable risk with respect to these elements. Antimony and lead in ashes fall above the guideline values for leaching in some cases. The total content of arsenic in many ashes exceeds the guideline values when used in an unpaved construction even when taking the oral bioavailabity of arsenic in ashes in consideration. To a lesser extent this also holds for total content of lead. Accordingly, it can not be excluded that the reuse of some ashes in some applications may imply a certain risk. Spreading as dust, deposition on vegetables and the subsequent intake has reveled itself as an important exposure pathway. Little data, theory and models are available on dust generation and transport, the calculations made here are rough and conservative. Also, guidelines for the ash construction left in place in the post use phase are difficult to determine. The health risk associated with intake of vegetables and

  18. Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study using bike-along interviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Ghekiere

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10-12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. METHODS: Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 35 children and one of their parents residing in (semi- urban areas. Bike-along interviews were conducted to and from a randomly chosen destination (e.g. library within a 15 minutes' cycle trip in the participant's neighborhood. Participants wore a GoPro camera to objectively assess environmental elements, which were subsequently discussed with participants. Content analysis and arising themes were derived using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS: The discussed environmental factors were categorized under traffic, urban design, cycling facilities, road design, facilities at destination, aesthetics, topography, weather, social control, stranger danger and familiar environment. Across these categories many environmental factors were (indirectly linked to road safety. This was illustrated by detailed discussions of the children's visibility, familiarity with specific traffic situations, and degree of separation, width and legibility of cycle facilities. CONCLUSION: Road safety is of major concern in this 10-12 yr old study population. Bike-along interviews were able to identify new, detailed and context-specific physical environmental factors which could inform policy makers to promote children's cycling for transport. However, future studies should investigate whether hypothetical changes to such micro environmental features influence perceptions of safety and if this in turn could lead to changes in children's cycling for transport.

  19. Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study using bike-along interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10-12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 35 children and one of their parents residing in (semi-) urban areas. Bike-along interviews were conducted to and from a randomly chosen destination (e.g. library) within a 15 minutes' cycle trip in the participant's neighborhood. Participants wore a GoPro camera to objectively assess environmental elements, which were subsequently discussed with participants. Content analysis and arising themes were derived using a grounded theory approach. The discussed environmental factors were categorized under traffic, urban design, cycling facilities, road design, facilities at destination, aesthetics, topography, weather, social control, stranger danger and familiar environment. Across these categories many environmental factors were (in)directly linked to road safety. This was illustrated by detailed discussions of the children's visibility, familiarity with specific traffic situations, and degree of separation, width and legibility of cycle facilities. Road safety is of major concern in this 10-12 yr old study population. Bike-along interviews were able to identify new, detailed and context-specific physical environmental factors which could inform policy makers to promote children's cycling for transport. However, future studies should investigate whether hypothetical changes to such micro environmental features influence perceptions of safety and if this in turn could lead to changes in children's cycling for transport.

  20. Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Associated with Perceived Facial Age in Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Andrew E.; Murray, Peter G.; Gunn, David A.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Catt, Sharon D.; Wen, Yi B.; Zhou, Li P.; Wang, Hong Q.; Catt, Michael; Granger, Stewart P.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with ‘looking young for one’s age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25–70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age) identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001), fewer household members (p = 0.027), menopausal status (p = 0.020), frequency of visiting one's doctor (p = 0.013), working indoors (p<0.001), spending less time in the sun (p = 0.015), moderate levels of physical activity (p = 0.004), higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001) and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001); moisturiser (p = 0.016) or night cream (p = 0.016). Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations. PMID:21179450

  1. Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial age in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Mayes

    Full Text Available Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with 'looking young for one's age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25-70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001, fewer household members (p=0.027, menopausal status (p=0.020, frequency of visiting one's doctor (p=0.013, working indoors (p<0.001, spending less time in the sun (p=0.015, moderate levels of physical activity (p=0.004, higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001 and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001; moisturiser (p=0.016 or night cream (p=0.016. Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations.

  2. Adaptability and variability of the cell functions to the environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Tadatoshi [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1995-02-01

    Adaptive phenomenon of the cells to the environmental factors is one of the most important functions of cells. In the initial research program, yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as model species of eukaryote was selected to use for the experiments and copper sulfate was adopted as one of the ideal environmental factors, and then adaptation mechanisms of yeast cells in the environment surrounded by copper ions were analyzed metabolically and morphologically. Furthermore, in the relationships between environmental factors and the cells, the researches performed were as follows: (1) Induced mutation in the extranuclear-inheritable system: Mutagenic effect of ethidium bromide on mitochondria and plastids. (2) Induction of gene expression by light exposure in the early development of chloroplast in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. (3) Some features of RNA and protein syntheses in thermophilic alga Cyanidium caldarium. (4) Satellite DNA of Ochromonas danica. (5) Analyses of cell functions using various kinds of radiations. (6) Novel methionine requirement of radiation resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans. (author).

  3. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

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    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies; their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258 by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (α=0.77 and enterprises creation qualification (α=0.81 questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01. Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.

  4. Demographic factors and genetic variation influence population persistence under environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Yvonne; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2009-01-01

    Population persistence has been studied in a conservation context to predict the fate of small or declining populations. Persistence models have explored effects on extinction of random demographic and environmental fluctuations, but in the face of directional environmental change they should also integrate factors affecting whether a population can adapt. Here, we examine the population-size dependence of demographic and genetic factors and their likely contributions to extinction time under scenarios of environmental change. Parameter estimates were derived from experimental populations of the rainforest species, Drosophila birchii, held in the lab for 10 generations at census sizes of 20, 100 and 1000, and later exposed to five generations of heat-knockdown selection. Under a model of directional change in the thermal environment, rapid extinction of populations of size 20 was caused by a combination of low growth rate (r) and high stochasticity in r. Populations of 100 had significantly higher reproductive output, lower stochasticity in r and more additive genetic variance (V(A)) than populations of 20, but they were predicted to persist less well than the largest size class. Even populations of 1000 persisted only a few hundred generations under realistic estimates of environmental change because of low V(A) for heat-knockdown resistance. The experimental results document population-size dependence of demographic and adaptability factors. The simulations illustrate a threshold influence of demographic factors on population persistence, while genetic variance has a more elastic impact on persistence under environmental change.

  5. Influence of Macro Environmental Factors on Business in SMEs: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murlidhar Nebhwani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has long been discussed due to its capabilities to generate employment in country, tax generation and business growth. It cannot be ignored that businesses often face many troubles at different stages, including internal as well as external problems which may stop company\\'s performance without any doubt. However, entrepreneurs learn from mistakes and problems occurring in businesses therefore, they consider problems as opportunities. Furthermore, data in this paper is gathered from scholarly publications, online data, entrepreneurship and economics literature from international and domestic publications. Primary data has been obtained with the help of questionnaire and personal interactions with business owners, mangers of SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises situated in province of Sindh, Pakistan. Moreover, the data collected was only theoretical therefore, statistical tools have been applied to get the required outcome in numbers, facts and figures. In this paper, external factors called macro environmental factors have also been taken into account which help in creating positive prospect for businesses such as consumer, marketing, advertisement, competitiveness, suppliers and media.

  6. Vandalism in Tehran, Iran: Influence of some of the Urban Environmental Factors

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    Saeedeh Rezaee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Vandalism can be defined as malicious, mindless injury to or destruction of public or private property. It is one of the most visible forms of delinquent behaviour and is amongst the most expensive crimes to be committed against the properties. Vandalism is the behaviour attributed to the Vandals, by the Romans, in respect of culture: ruthless destruction or spoiling of anything beautiful or venerable. Such action includes criminal damage, defacement, graffiti and crass erection of an eyesore. The cost of remedying such damage involves not only monetary costs but also social costs. The effects of vandalism damages can be discomfort as well as actual danger to the public directly or indirectly. A huge budget is required to repair the damages. Vandalism tends to encourage further neglect among the residents, increasing their anxiety about crime and fear of victimisation. These are the known consequences of vandalism and have been felt throughout the societies. The financial cost of repairing vandalism damages as well as the human cost of inconvenience and consequential annoyance is enough to justify putting effort into finding effective ways of reducing the incidence and prevalence of vandalism in the urban setting. This investigation analyses as to how the environmental factors in urban design characteristic of Tehran metropolis influence the incidence of vandalism. Factors such as location, types of building, design quality of urban environment and site attributes are examined in correlation with degree of vandalism damages and frequency occurrence of vandalism in three selected areas of Tehran.

  7. Characterisation of physical environmental factors on an intertidal sandflat, Manukau Harbour, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R.G.; Hume, T.M.; Dolphin, T.J.; Green, M.O.; Walters, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Physical environmental factors, including sediment characteristics, inundation time, tidal currents and wind waves, likely to influence the structure of the benthic community at meso-scales (1-100 m) were characterised for a sandflat off Wiroa Island (Manukau Harbour, New Zealand). In a 500 x 250 m study site, sediment characteristics and bed topography were mostly homogenous apart from patches of low-relief ridges and runnels. Field measurements and hydrodynamic modelling portray a complex picture of sediment or particulate transport on the intertidal flat, involving interactions between the larger scale tidal processes and the smaller scale wave dynamics (1-4 s; 1-15 m). Peak tidal currents in isolation are incapable of eroding bottom sediments, but in combination with near-bed orbital currents generated by only very small wind waves, sediment transport can be initiated. Work done on the bed integrated over an entire tidal cycle by prevailing wind waves is greatest on the elevated and flatter slopes of the study site, where waves shoal over a wider surf zone and water depths remain shallow e enough for wave-orbital currents to disturb the bed. The study also provided physical descriptors quantifying static and hydrodynamic (tidal and wave) factors which were used in companion studies on ecological spatial modelling of bivalve distributions and micro-scale sediment reworking and transport.

  8. The incidence of West Nile disease in Russia in relation to climatic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, Alexander E; Tolpin, Vladimir A; Gridneva, Kristina A; Titkov, Anton V; Platonova, Olga V; Kolyasnikova, Nadezhda M; Busani, Luca; Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-01-23

    Since 1999, human cases of West Nile fever/neuroinvasive disease (WND) have been reported annually in Russia. The highest incidence has been recorded in three provinces of southern European Russia (Volgograd, Astrakhan and Rostov Provinces), yet in 2010-2012 the distribution of human cases expanded northwards considerably. From year to year, the number of WND cases varied widely, with major WND outbreaks in 1999, 2007, 2010, and 2012. The present study was aimed at identifying the most important climatic and environmental factors potentially affecting WND incidence in the three above-mentioned provinces and at building simple prognostic models, using those factors, by the decision trees method. The effects of 96 variables, including mean monthly temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, etc. were taken into account. The findings of this analysis show that an increase of human WND incidence, compared to the previous year, was mostly driven by higher temperatures in May and/or in June, as well as (to a lesser extent) by high August-September temperatures. Declining incidence was associated with cold winters (December and/or January, depending on the region and type of model). WND incidence also tended to decrease during year following major WND outbreaks. Combining this information, the future trend of WND may be, to some extent, predicted, in accordance with the climatic conditions observed before the summer peak of WND incidence.

  9. The Incidence of West Nile Disease in Russia in Relation to Climatic and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Platonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, human cases of West Nile fever/neuroinvasive disease (WND have been reported annually in Russia. The highest incidence has been recorded in three provinces of southern European Russia (Volgograd, Astrakhan and Rostov Provinces, yet in 2010–2012 the distribution of human cases expanded northwards considerably. From year to year, the number of WND cases varied widely, with major WND outbreaks in 1999, 2007, 2010, and 2012. The present study was aimed at identifying the most important climatic and environmental factors potentially affecting WND incidence in the three above-mentioned provinces and at building simple prognostic models, using those factors, by the decision trees method. The effects of 96 variables, including mean monthly temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, etc. were taken into account. The findings of this analysis show that an increase of human WND incidence, compared to the previous year, was mostly driven by higher temperatures in May and/or in June, as well as (to a lesser extent by high August-September temperatures. Declining incidence was associated with cold winters (December and/or January, depending on the region and type of model. WND incidence also tended to decrease during year following major WND outbreaks. Combining this information, the future trend of WND may be, to some extent, predicted, in accordance with the climatic conditions observed before the summer peak of WND incidence.

  10. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism:A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Lei; XI Qian Qian; WU Jun; HAN Yu; DAI Wei; SU Yuan Yuan; ZHANG Xin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. Methods A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. Results There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ2=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ2=45.248, P=0.000; χ2=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ2=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. Conclusion The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors.

  11. Influence of environmental factors on growth and pigment synthesis by purple thiobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. О. Pavlova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different environmental factors on growth and pigment biosynthesis by particular strains of purple thiobacteria was investigated. These strains belong to the genus Chromatium, Thiocystis, Thiocapsa and Lamprocystis and were isolated from Yavoriv sulphur mine. Calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron and sodium chloride should be included in the medium for optimal growth of these bacteria. Addition of these elements entails increasing the biomass production and synthesis of carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll a. Initial concentration of inoculum and electron donor has essential influence on growth of purple thiobacteria. Early in the development of culture, sulphide was oxidized, and then the growth impairment and destruction of cells under exposure of light were observed. For the optimization of bacteria growth the electron donor (sulphide must be added many times during the cultivation process in the concentration, which is not exceed an inhibition dose. The additional bringing of the electron donor in the medium promotes the raise of cells’ biomass. The acetate introduction in the medium has positive influence on the pigments’ biosynthesis. The essential factor of growth and pigments’ biosynthesis is the light intensity. Peak gain of the culture growth was observed under 400 lx. The amplification of light exposure is accompanied by the decrease of growth and content of pigments in cells. Oxygen inhibits the synthesis of pigments in all strains

  12. Association between adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that individual and environmental resilience protective factors may be associated with adolescent substance use; however, the associations between a broad range of such factors and use of various types of substances have not been examined. The study aimed to determine the association between a comprehensive range of adolescent individual and environmental resilience protective factors and measures of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 32 Australian secondary schools. Participants Grade 7–10 students (aged 11–17 years). Measures Data regarding 14 student individual and environmental resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drug use) were obtained via an online self-report survey. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between all student resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures. Results Inverse univariate associations were found for 94 of 98 relationships examined (n=10 092). Multivariate analyses found: consistent inverse associations between 2 of 14 protective factors and all substance use measures (‘goals and aspirations’, ‘prosocial peers’); inverse associations between 4 protective factors with multiple substance use measures (‘home support’ (5 of 7), ‘school support’ (3 of 7), ‘self-awareness’ (2 of 7), ‘community meaningful participation’ (2 of 7)); positive associations between 2 resilience protective factors with multiple measures of substance use (‘community support’ (3 of 7), ‘peer caring relationships’ (5 of 7)) and 6 protective factors not to be associated with any substance use measure. Conclusions Despite individual relationships between the majority of resilience protective factors and substance use types, the protective benefit of such factors for adolescent substance use was limited to only a small number of

  13. Fatores ambientais associados ao sobrepeso infantil Environmental factors associated with childhood overweight

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    Juliana Farias de Novaes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores ambientais intra-uterinos, perinatais e familiares associados ao sobrepeso infantil, ainda controversos na literatura. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 627 crianças, de 6 a 10 anos, matriculadas em escolas urbanas públicas e privadas do município de Viçosa (MG. O estado nutricional das crianças foi classificado pelo índice de massa corporal, segundo a preconização do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foram aferidas as medidas de peso, estatura, pregas cutâneas tricipital e subescapular, circunferências da cintura e do quadril e pressão arterial das crianças, sendo os fatores ambientais obtidos por meio de questionário, segundo informações maternas. Classificou-se o estado nutricional das mães segundo a recomendação do World Health Organization. RESULTADOS: Do total de crianças, 87,9% eram eutróficas e 12,1% apresentavam sobrepeso. De acordo com a análise de regressão logística múltipla, os fatores associados ao sobrepeso infantil foram apresentar mãe obesa (OR: 6,92; pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess intrauterine, perinatal and family factors associated with childhood overweight, which are still controversial in the literature. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a total of 627 children aged 6 to 10 years, who were enrolled in public and private schools in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State. The nutritional status of the children was classified according to their body mass index, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The following data were collected: weight, height, tricipital and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, circumferences of the waist and hip, and blood pressure. The environmental factors were determined by means of a questionnaire, answered by the mother. The nutritional status of the mothers was classified according to the World Health Organization criteria. RESULTS: Out of 627 children, 551 were

  14. Risk Model for Colorectal Cancer in Spanish Population Using Environmental and Genetic Factors: Results from the MCC-Spain study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Sanz, Gemma; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Alonso, M. Henar; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Bustamante, Mariona; Martin, Vicente; Llorca, Javier; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Tardón, Adonina; Jiménez-Moleón, Jose J.; Peiró, Rosana; Alguacil, Juan; Navarro, Carmen; Guinó, Elisabet; Binefa, Gemma; Navarro, Pablo Fernández; Espinosa, Anna; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Molina, Antonio José; Palazuelos, Camilo; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina; Moreno, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening of the average risk population is only indicated according to age. We aim to elaborate a model to stratify the risk of CRC by incorporating environmental data and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The MCC-Spain case-control study included 1336 CRC cases and 2744 controls. Subjects were interviewed on lifestyle factors, family and medical history. Twenty-one CRC susceptibility SNPs were genotyped. The environmental risk model, which included alcohol consumption, obesity, physical activity, red meat and vegetable consumption, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, contributed to CRC with an average per factor OR of 1.36 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.45). Family history of CRC contributed an OR of 2.25 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.72), and each additional SNP contributed an OR of 1.07 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.10). The risk of subjects with more than 25 risk alleles (5th quintile) was 82% higher (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.98) than subjects with less than 19 alleles (1st quintile). This risk model, with an AUROC curve of 0.63 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.66), could be useful to stratify individuals. Environmental factors had more weight than the genetic score, which should be considered to encourage patients to achieve a healthier lifestyle. PMID:28233817

  15. Analysing the causes of chronic cough: relation to diesel exhaust, ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and other environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution remains a leading cause of many respiratory diseases including chronic cough. Although episodes of incidental, dramatic air pollution are relatively rare, current levels of exposure of pollutants in industrialized and developing countries such as total articles, diesel exhaust particles and common cigarette smoke may be responsible for the development of chronic cough both in children and adults. The present study analyses the effects of common environmental factors as potential causes of chronic cough. Different PubMed-based researches were performed that related the term cough to various environmental factors. There is some evidence that chronic inhalation of diesel can lead to the development of cough. For long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2, children were found to exhibit increased incidences of chronic cough and decreased lung function parameters. Although a number of studies did not show that outdoor pollution directly causes the development of asthma, they have demonstrated that high levels pollutants and their interaction with sunlight produce ozone (O3 and that repeated exposure to it can lead to chronic cough. In summary, next to the well-known air pollutants which also include particulate matter and sulphur dioxide, a number of other indoor and outdoor pollutants have been demonstrated to cause chronic cough and therefore, environmental factors have to be taken into account as potential initiators of both adult and pediatric chronic cough.

  16. Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were

  17. An Analysis of Social Factors Influencing Students’ Environmental Attitudes and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Salehi

    2014-05-01

    The results of this research showed that 53 percent of the surveyed students used public media as the main source of environmental information. Urban student’ attitudes were more favorable to the environment. Environmental attitudes and behaviors of the sample students were not different in terms of gender. There was a weak relationship between environmental attitudes and behavior. Also, environmental attitudes and behaviors were different by the family ‘environmental performance, and informational resources related with environmental attitude and behavior. In conclusion, it can be said that based on the descriptive and inferential findings while students attitudes toward the environment seem to be positive, their environmental performance is not and should be changed, if we want to achieve to a sustainable development. Therefore, in any major decision and national policy aiming at sustainable development, we should consider the factors that reinforce environmental responsible behavior. By helping students to recognize the importance of environment, we can boost the spirit of protection of the environment and increase a sense of responsibility among them.

  18. Environmental risk factors and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS: a case-control study of ALS in Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yu

    Full Text Available An interim report of a case-control study was conducted to explore the role of environmental factors in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Sixty-six cases and 66 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. Detailed information regarding residence history, occupational history, smoking, physical activity, and other factors was obtained using questionnaires. The association of ALS with potential risk factors, including smoking, physical activity and chemical exposure, was investigated using conditional logistic regression models. As compared to controls, a greater number of our randomly selected ALS patients reported exposure to fertilizers to treat private yards and gardens and occupational exposure to pesticides in the last 30 years than our randomly selected control cases. Smoking, occupational exposures to metals, dust/fibers/fumes/gas and radiation, and physical activity were not associated with ALS when comparing the randomly selected ALS patients to the control subjects. To further explore and confirm results, exposures over several time frames, including 0-10 and 10-30 years earlier, were considered, and analyses were stratified by age and gender. Pesticide and fertilizer exposure were both significantly associated with ALS in the randomly selected ALS patients. While study results need to be interpreted cautiously given the small sample size and the lack of direct exposure measures, these results suggest that environmental and particularly residential exposure factors warrant close attention in studies examining risk factors of ALS.

  19. Are there common genetic and environmental factors behind the endophenotypes associated with the metabolic syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benyamin, B.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Schousboe, K.

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The cluster of obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension, called the metabolic syndrome, has been suggested as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether there are common genetic...... and environmental factors influencing this cluster in a general population of twin pairs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multivariate genetic analysis was performed on nine endophenotypes associated with the metabolic syndrome from 625 adult twin pairs of the GEMINAKAR study of the Danish Twin Registry. RESULTS: All......, the endophenotypes associated with the metabolic syndrome apparently do not share a substantial common genetic or familial environmental background....

  20. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  1. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Volume Change of Blended Cement Containing Steel Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the condition of 20 ℃, 5% sulfate liquor curing, standard tap water curing and 50% RH curing-three different curing environments, the volume change of steel slag blended cement influenced by environmental factors was studied. With steel slag addition 10%, 30%, 50%, from 90 days to 356 days, the relationship of shrinkage and three different curing environments is: dry curing environment>tap water curing environment>sulfate curing environment. But, the sample shrinkage in 28 days has much difference with the curing environment, which has no obvious orderliness. The different effects on blended cement containing steel slag in different environmental factors were analyzed using SEM.

  2. Survival of the hermit crab, Clibanarius vittatus, exposed to selenium and other environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Recent investigations of water quality criteria have frequently examined the effects of a pollutant; however, a more realistic investigation would consider effects of multiple environmental factors and their interactions with the pollutant. Awareness of selenium as a pollutant is increasing. The growing sulfur and petroleum industries are only two of the potential sources of the element on the Texas coast. This study examined the toxicity of selenium to hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc) under twelve different combinations of temperature and salinity. Additionally, the impact of the organisms' original environment was considered as an environmental factor.

  3. Updating Environmental Media Concentration Limits and Uncertainty factors in the ERICA Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.E.; Hosseini, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Alfonso, B.; Avila, R. [Facilia AB, S-167 51 Bromma (Sweden); Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA 1 4AP (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [Dept. Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Tiered approaches have become a standard means of structuring information in the process of conducting environmental risk assessments. For cases involving the assessment of impacts on wildlife from ionising radiation, the ERICA integrated approach and its supporting software (The ERICA Tool) provides such a structure, splitting the system into two generic screening tiers and a third site-specific tier. The first Tier is very simple, based around Environmental Media Concentration Limits, EMCLs, and requires minimal input from the assessor. The second Tier, although still a screening tier, calculates dose rates and requires more detailed input from the assessor allowing for scrutiny and editing of default parameters in the process. A key element of Tier 2 involves the application of Uncertainty Factors, UFs. Such factors reflect our knowledge concerning probability distribution functions and provide a way of incorporating conservatism into the assessment by considering high percentile values in underlying parameters. Following its launch in 2007, there have been significant developments regarding certain components of the ERICA integrated approach. Most notably, an extended international collation of concentration ratio data has precipitated the need to update parameter values in the Tools databases. In addition, more considered guidance has been developed with regards to filling knowledge gaps in the absence of transfer data. Furthermore, the efficacy of the methods used in assigning probability distribution functions has been questioned leading to an acknowledgement from the developers that the methods were not described in enough detail nor were the justifications for applying the selected approach provided in a convincing way. This has implications for the EMCL values which are derived probabilistically using parameters including concentration ratios. Furthermore, there are implications for UF derivation that relies upon a robust consideration of underlying

  4. Effects of water-damaged homes after flooding: health status of the residents and the environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Hasegawa, Kenichi; Osawa, Haruki

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the health status of residents and the environmental risk factors of housing after flooding. Questionnaires were distributed to 595 selected households (one adult resident per household) in six areas in Japan which were severely flooded between 2004 and 2010. A total of 379 responses were obtained. Indoor dampness and visible mold growth significantly increased in homes with greater flood damage. The incidence of respiratory, dermal, ocular, and nasal symptoms one week after flooding was significantly higher in flooded homes compared with non-flooded homes, the incidence of psychological disorders was significantly high for six months after flooding, and the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder was significantly high six months after flooding. Significant risk factors for respiratory and nasal symptoms included proximity to industrial and waste incineration plants. Our results suggest that rapid action should be taken after flooding to ensure adequate public health and environmental hygiene in the water-damaged homes.

  5. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  6. Influence of environmental factors in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelia Legaki; Maria Gazouli

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD), Crohn’s disease(CD) and ulcerative colitis(UC), are multifactorial diseases that are manifested after disruption of a genetic predisposed individual and its intestinal microflora through an environmental stimulus. Urbanization and industrialization are associated with IBD. Epidemiological data, clinical observations and family/immigrants studies indicate the significance of environmental influence in the development of IBD. Some environmental factors have a different effect on the subtypes of IBD. Smoking and appendectomy is negatively associated with UC, but they are aggravating factors for CD. A westernized high fat diet, full of refined carbohydrates is strongly associated with the development of IBD, contrary to a high in fruit, vegetables and polyunsaturated fatty acid-3 diet that is protective against these diseases. High intake of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and oral contraceptive pills as well as the inadequacy of vitamin D leads to an increased risk for IBD and a more malignant course of disease. Moreover, other factors such as air pollution, psychological factors, sleep disturbances and exercise influence the development and the course of IBD. Epigenetic mechanism like DNA methylation, histone modification and altered expression of miR NAS could explain the connection between genes and environmental factors in triggering the development of IBD.

  7. Efficiency effects of quality of service and environmental factors. Experience from Norwegian electricity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian [WIK Wissenschaftliches Institut fuer Infrastruktur und Kommunikationsdienste GmbH, Bad Honnef (Germany). Dept. of Energy Markets and Energy Regulation; Jamasb, Tooraj [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Economics; Wetzel, Heike [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2010-08-15

    Since the 1990s, efficiency and benchmarking analysis has increasingly been used in network utilities research and regulation. A recurrent concern is the effect of environmental factors that are beyond the influence of firms (observable heterogeneity) and factors that are not identifiable (unobserved heterogeneity) on measured cost and quality performance of firms. This paper analyses the effect of geographic and weather factors and unobserved heterogeneity on a set of 128 Norwegian electricity distribution utilities for the 2001-2004 period. We utilize data on almost 100 geographic and weather variables to identify real economic inefficiency while controlling for observable and unobserved heterogeneity. We use the factor analysis technique to reduce the number of environmental factors into few composite variables and to avoid the problem of multicollinearity. We then estimate the established stochastic frontier models of Battese and Coelli (1992; 1995) and the recent true fixed effects models of Greene (2004; 2005) without and with environmental variables. In the former models some composite environmental variables have a significant effect on the performance of utilities. These effects vanish in the true fixed effects models. However, the latter models capture the entire unobserved heterogeneity and therefore show significantly higher average efficiency scores. (orig.)

  8. Child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental factors affecting the quality of life of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu; Simeonsson, Rune J

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to investigate comprehensively the determinants of the quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY). A total of 167 children with CP (mean age 9.06 years, SD 2.61 years) and their caregivers (mean age 40.24 years, SD 5.43 years) participated in this study. The QOL of caregivers was measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF-Taiwan version (WHOQOL-BREF-TW). The potential determinants of QOL were collected, including child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental factors from all dimensions of the ICF-CY and analysed using multiple regression models. Four multiple regression models revealed that determinants of the QOL of caregivers of children with CP was multidimensional, encompassing child characteristics (age, type of CP, fine motor impairment, other diseases, behaviour and emotions, visual impairment, hearing impairment), caregiver characteristics (general mental health, parenting stress, marital status, family coping patterns, and socio-economic status), and environmental factors (child's medication, school setting, and current rehabilitation service, caregiver's spouse's age, family life impacts, and domestic helper). Knowledge of the determinants of QOL could serve as a guide in a holistic approach to evaluation and intervention and help plan interventions targeted at these determinants to improve the QOL of caregivers of children with CP. Implications for Rehabilitation Caregivers of children with CP had lower QOL, except the environment QOL. The QOL determinants of caregivers of children with CP are multidimensional, including child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental factors. In addition to child characteristics of severity of fine motor impairments and emotional and behavioural problems, caregiver characteristics of general mental

  9. Epidemiology of Down syndrome: new insight into the multidimensional interactions among genetic and environmental risk factors in the oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujoy; Hong, Chang-Sook; Feingold, Eleanor; Ghosh, Papiya; Ghosh, Priyanka; Bhaumik, Pranami; Dey, Subrata Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Down syndrome birth is attributable to multiple maternal risk factors that include both genetic and environmental challenges, but there is limited understanding of the complicated interactions among these factors. In the present study, a case-control analysis of approximately 400 infants with or without suspected Down syndrome reported between 2003 and 2009 and their parents in and around Kolkata, India, was conducted. Maternal exposure to 2 environmental risk factors (smokeless chewing tobacco and oral contraceptive pills) was recorded, and families were genotyped with microsatellite markers to establish the origin of nondisjunction errors as well as recombination pat