WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors including elevated

  1. 77 FR 62265 - Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Through Kone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Through Kone, Inc., Riverton... workers of Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., including workers whose wages were reported through Kone, Inc., Riverton, Illinois (hereafter referred to as Long Elevator & Machine Company or the subject...

  2. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  3. Haploinsufficient Bmp4 ocular phenotypes include anterior segment dysgenesis with elevated intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusinowitz Steven

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a blinding disease usually associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP. In some families, abnormal anterior segment development contributes to glaucoma. The genes causing anterior segment dysgenesis and glaucoma in most of these families are not identified and the affected developmental processes are poorly understood. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs participate in various developmental processes. We tested the importance of Bmp4 gene dosage for ocular development and developmental glaucoma. Results Bmp4+/- mice have anterior segment abnormalities including malformed, absent or blocked trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal drainage structures. Mice with severe drainage structure abnormalities, over 80% or more of their angle's extent, have elevated IOP. The penetrance and severity of abnormalities is strongly influenced by genetic background, being most severe on the C57BL/6J background and absent on some other backgrounds. On the C57BL/6J background there is also persistence of the hyaloid vasculature, diminished numbers of inner retinal cells, and absence of the optic nerve. Conclusions We demonstrate that heterozygous deficiency of BMP4 results in anterior segment dysgenesis and elevated IOP. The abnormalities are similar to those in human patients with developmental glaucoma. Thus, BMP4 is a strong candidate to contribute to Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly and other developmental conditions associated with human glaucoma. BMP4 also participates in posterior segment development and wild-type levels are usually critical for optic nerve development on the C57BL/6J background. Bmp4+/- mice are useful for studying various components of ocular development, and may allow identification of strain specific modifiers affecting a variety of ocular phenotypes.

  4. 76 FR 72961 - Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)-Change in Notification and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ..., etc.) and provide both a physical address and an internet address where the specific flood elevations... both a physical address and an internet address where the specific flood hazards (as shown in a Flood... published in the Federal Register on or after December 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: The docket for this notice...

  5. Elevation of sulfatides in ovarian cancer: An integrated transcriptomic and lipidomic analysis including tissue-imaging mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald John F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfatides (ST are a category of sulfated galactosylceramides (GalCer that are elevated in many types of cancer including, possibly, ovarian cancer. Previous evidence for elevation of ST in ovarian cancer was based on a colorimetric reagent that does not provide structural details and can also react with other lipids. Therefore, this study utilized mass spectrometry for a structure-specific and quantitative analysis of the types, amounts, and tissue localization of ST in ovarian cancer, and combined these findings with analysis of mRNAs for the relevant enzymes of ST metabolism to explore possible mechanisms. Results Analysis of 12 ovarian tissues graded as histologically normal or having epithelial ovarian tumors by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI-MS/MS established that most tumor-bearing tissues have higher amounts of ST. Because ovarian cancer tissues are comprised of many different cell types, histological tissue slices were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tissue-imaging MS (MALDI-TIMS. The regions where ST were detected by MALDI-TIMS overlapped with the ovarian epithelial carcinoma as identified by H & E staining and histological scoring. Furthermore, the structures for the most prevalent species observed via MALDI-TIMS (d18:1/C16:0-, d18:1/C24:1- and d18:1/C24:0-ST were confirmed by MALDI-TIMS/MS, whereas, a neighboring ion(m/z 885.6 that was not tumor specific was identified as a phosphatidylinositol. Microarray analysis of mRNAs collected using laser capture microdissection revealed that expression of GalCer synthase and Gal3ST1 (3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate:GalCer sulfotransferase were approximately 11- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively, in the ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells versus normal ovarian stromal tissue, and they were 5- and 2.3-fold higher in comparison with normal surface ovarian epithelial cells, which is a likely

  6. 77 FR 33490 - Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Were Reported Through Kone, Inc., Riverton, IL; Notice of Affirmative...., including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages were reported through KONE Inc., Riverton...

  7. U.S. Coastal Lidar Elevation Data - Including the Great Lakes and Territories, 1996 - present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Services Center manages and distributes lidar data for the coastal United States, including territorial possessions via the Digital Coast Data...

  8. Based on Multi-Factors Grey Prediction Control for Elevator Velocity Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the double-factors grey prediction and the fuzzy controller for the elevator car speed control. We introduce double-factors grey control to predict car vibration for elevator speed during the operation. Simulation results show that based on multi-factors gray prediction fuzzy PI control for elevator velocity modulation system closer than simple gray fuzzy PI control elevator speed control system to the actual operation. The control effect of double factors grey fuzzy PI contro...

  9. Evaulation of Incidence and Risk Factors for Intraocular Pressure Elevation After Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didar Uçar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA used for the macular edema on intraocular pressure (IOP and to determine the risk factors for IOP elevation. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 93 eyes of 85 patients who had 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone injection. Of the 85 patients, 56 (65.8% had diabetic macular edema, 22 (25.8% had branch retinal, and 7 (8.2% had central retinal vein occlusion. IOP changes after injection as well as the relation between IOP elevation and age, sex, lens status, etiology of macular edema, baseline IOP were evaluated. Results: Fourty-six male and 39 female patients with mean age 61.58±9.5 years were evaluated. IOP was recorded to be >24 mmHg in 30 eyes (32.2% at follow-up visit after an average of 7.5 weeks. Normalization of IOP with medication was achieved in all IOP elevated eyes. Fifteen of 29 eyes (51.7% with vein occlusion and 15 of 64 eyes (23.3% with diabetic macula edema had IOP elevation (p=0.01. Twenty-six of 73 phakic (35.6% and 4 of 20 pseudophakic eyes (20% had IOP >24 mmHg (p=0.16. There was no association between IOP elevation and sex (p=0.33. Baseline IOP was 16.47±2.8 mmHg in eyes which had elevated IOP and 14.78±2.4 mmHg in the remaining. There was significant relation between IOP elevation and baseline IOP level (p=0.01. Conclusion: Elevated IOP is common side effect after IVTA, but normalization is usually achieved by topical medication. Patients with baseline IOP ≥15 mmHg and vein occlusion have higher risk for IOP elevation. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 86-91

  10. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  11. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  12. Elevated factor VIII level and stroke in patients without traditional risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasek-Bal A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anetta Lasek-Bal, Przemyslaw Puz, Zofia KazibutowskaStroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Silesia, Professor Leszek Giec Upper Silesian Medical Centre, Katowice, PolandIntroduction: Hemostasis is affected by interactions between physiological processes, including those connected with the coagulation system, whose essence is converting fibrinogen into fibrin. The role of factor VIII (FVIII consists in activating factor X, which directly participates in the generation of thrombin, which is able to produce stable fibrin, which in turn forms blood clots. There are divergent opinions regarding the significance of high levels of FVIII in stroke pathogenesis.Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate FVIII activity in individuals with cryptogenic stroke in order to determine a potential relationship between it and cerebral ischemia.Material and methods: Nine patients suffering with stroke were used in this study: six women and three men aged 49–63 years. In all of the patients, the presence of known and potential risk factors for stroke had been excluded during previous diagnostic procedures. These patients accounted for 1.2% of the 719 people who suffered a stroke and were hospitalized in 2011 at the Stroke Unit. FVIII activity was examined in each of the nine qualified subjects within 1–2 months of the occurrence of stroke (the first test and repeated (the second test in five patients with abnormal results obtained from the first examination.Results: Increased activity of FVIII was found in 5 out of 9 patients. In patients with abnormal results, elevated FVIII was found in follow-up examinations in the 8th–10th month following stroke. Hemodynamic abnormalities in carotid or cerebral artery (presence of thrombus were found in 3 of the 5 patients with increased FVIII levels. In the first 24 hours following stroke the neurological state of patients with abnormal FVIII was worse than individuals with normal FVIII activity. The

  13. The Coupling of Treeline Elevation and Temperature is Mediated by Non-Thermal Factors on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationships between treeline elevation and climate at regional and local scales. It is compelling to fill this research gap with data from the Tibetan Plateau where some of the highest alpine treelines in the world are found. This research question partially results from the lack of in situ temperature data at treeline sites. Herein, treeline variables (e.g., elevation, topography, tree species and temperature data were collected from published investigations performed during this decade on the Tibetan Plateau. Temperature conditions near treeline sites were estimated using global databases and these estimates were corrected by using in situ air temperature measurements. Correlation analyses and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the effects of different variables on treeline elevation including thermal (growing-season air temperatures and non-thermal (latitude, longitude, elevation, tree species, precipitation, radiation factors. The commonality analysis model was applied to explore how several variables (July mean temperature, elevation of mountain peak, latitude were related to treeline elevation. July mean temperature was the most significant predictor of treeline elevation, explaining 55% of the variance in treeline elevation across the Tibetan Plateau, whereas latitude, tree species, and mountain elevation (mass-elevation effect explained 30% of the variance in treeline elevation. After considering the multicollinearity among predictors, July mean temperature (largely due to the influence of minimum temperature still showed the strongest association with treeline elevation. We conclude that the coupling of treeline elevation and July temperature at a regional scale is modulated by non-thermal factors probably acting at local scales. Our results contribute towards explaining the decoupling between climate warming and treeline dynamics.

  14. Perinatal risk factors including malformation; Perinatale Risikofaktoren einschliesslich Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project `Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria` is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG). [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die haeufigsten in der Literatur beschriebenen Faktoren, die einen unguenstigen Einfluss auf den Schwangerschaftsverlauf ausueben koennen, gegeben. Ein Hauptgewicht liegt dabei auf der Beschreibung von solchen Faktoren, die mit der Induktion von Fehlbildungen in Zusammenhang gebracht werden koennen, so unter anderem auch der praenatalen Strahlenexposition. Diese Arbeit, die im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens `Strahlenbiologisches Umweltmonitoring Bayern` angefertigt wurde, bildet die Grundlage einer im Sinne einer umweltbezogenen Gesundheitsberichterstattung retro- bzw. prospektiv angelegten Auswertung der Saeuglingssterblichkeit, des Perinatalgeschehens und der Fehlbildungshaeufigkeit in Bayern, wobei neben der ionisierenden Strahlung als Risikofaktor auch andere im Rahmen einer oekologischen Studie erfassbare Risiken, wie beispielsweise Industrieansiedlungen, Muellverbrennungsanlagen und -deponien oder Urbanitaet beruecksichtigt werden sollen. (orig./MG).

  15. Risk Factors Associated with Elevated Blood Glucose Among Adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the risk factors and lifestyles characteristics associated .... cover for the dropouts, 640 respondents. Data collection .... education while only 9.8% had college level of education. Males had a ...

  16. Polyostotic osteolysis and hypophosphatemic rickets with elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeshi; Muroya, Koji; Asakura, Yumi; Yachie, Akihiro; Nishimura, Gen; Aida, Noriko; Machida, Jiro; Tanaka, Yukichi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

    2015-10-01

    We report on a boy who presented with hypophosphatemic rickets with elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and polyostotic osteolytic lesions at age 2 years. Tumor-induced hypophosphatemic rickets was suspected; however, bone biopsy for osteolytic changes revealed no tumorous change, except for irregularly dilated vessels associated with osteoclasts and fibrous proliferation. Venous sampling failed to point to FGF23-producing foci. After alfacalcidol and phosphate supplementation, the rachitic skeletal changes improved, but FGF23 increased and new osteolytic lesions developed. Serum levels of neopterin and a few cytokines, including plasma transforming growth factor-β and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type II, were elevated. At age 4 years, high doses of phosphate resulted in increased serum phosphate levels, decreased neopterin and cytokines, decreased FGF23, and stabilization of osteolysis. We excluded germline mutations in PHEX, FGF23, DMP1, and ENPP1 (genes for hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets) and somatic mutations in the GNAS and HRAS/KRAS (the disease-causing genes for McCune-Albright syndrome and linear nevus sebaceous syndrome, respectively). We could not perform octreotide scintigraphy or fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, and thus could not completely exclude occult FGF23-producing tumors. However, considering the course of the disease, it is intriguing to assume that dysregulation of osteoclast-macrophage lineage may have induced increased neopterin levels, increased cytokine levels, osteolytic process, and possibly FGF23 overproduction.

  17. fibroblast growth factor, MTDH/Astrocyte elevated gene-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-05

    Dec 5, 2012 ... Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), also known as. FGF2 is a ..... lung metastases, but does not affect the tumor growth rate and decreases in .... Knox JD, Wolf C, McDaniel K, Clark V, Loriot M, Bowden GT, et al. Matrilysin.

  18. A case of renal infarction associated with elevated factor VIII level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, O Asif; Al-Absi, A; Showkat, A

    2011-09-01

    Elevated factor VIII level has recently been shown to be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. We report here a case of renal infarction in association with elevated factor VIII level. The patient presented with a three-day history of flank pain. Laboratory studies on presentation showed an elevated serum creatinine concentration and microscopic hematuria. He was found to have bilateral pulmonary emboli and left common femoral vein thrombosis; imaging studies showed evidence of renal arterial thrombosis with infarction. Hypercoagulability assessment showed an elevated factor VIII level. He was treated with heparin and warfarin with significant improvement in his renal function. Consideration should be given to measurement of factor VIII level as a part of the workup of unexplained thrombo-embolic events.

  19. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  20. Dominant factors controlling glacial and interglacial variations in the treeline elevation in tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibin; Guiot, Joël; Brewer, Simon; Guo, Zhengtang; Peng, Changhui

    2007-06-05

    The knowledge of tropical palaeoclimates is crucial for understanding global climate change, because it is a test bench for general circulation models that are ultimately used to predict future global warming. A longstanding issue concerning the last glacial maximum in the tropics is the discrepancy between the decrease in sea-surface temperatures reconstructed from marine proxies and the high-elevation decrease in land temperatures estimated from indicators of treeline elevation. In this study, an improved inverse vegetation modeling approach is used to quantitatively reconstruct palaeoclimate and to estimate the effects of different factors (temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric CO(2) concentration) on changes in treeline elevation based on a set of pollen data covering an altitudinal range from 100 to 3,140 m above sea level in Africa. We show that lowering of the African treeline during the last glacial maximum was primarily triggered by regional drying, especially at upper elevations, and was amplified by decreases in atmospheric CO(2) concentration and perhaps temperature. This contrasts with scenarios for the Holocene and future climates, in which the increase in treeline elevation will be dominated by temperature. Our results suggest that previous temperature changes inferred from tropical treeline shifts may have been overestimated for low-CO(2) glacial periods, because the limiting factors that control changes in treeline elevation differ between glacial and interglacial periods.

  1. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for elevated aminotransferase in men independently of body mass index, dietary habits, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ki Deok; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon

    2015-04-01

    Aminotransferase activity is a surrogate marker of liver injury showing strong correlations with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, elevated aminotransferase activity is not uncommon in non-obese and non-alcoholic patients in clinical practice. To examine the relationship between sarcopenia and aminotransferase activity in a large population-based cohort. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examinations were used. A total of 13,431 subjects were included. A whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed on each patient to measure total and regional muscle mass. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass indices were also obtained. The prevalence of sarcopenia was significantly higher in the group with elevated aminotransferase levels than in the normal liver enzyme group (males: 26.5% vs. 16.9%; females: 38.3% vs. 22.1%, pfasting glucose and cholesterol levels. The frequency of elevated aminotransferase increased in male patients with sarcopenia after adjusting for potential confounding factors including age, body mass index, fasting glucose level, dietary, and exercise habits. However, the correlation was no longer observed in women after adjusting for body mass index. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for elevated aminotransferase in men, independently of body mass index, dietary habits, and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Photosynthetic response of Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated carbon dioxide and its influential factor analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The photosynthetic response of 12-year old Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 and its influential factors were tested and analyzed in the forest region of Changbai Mountain in 1999. Trees grown at the natural condition were controlled at three levels of CO2 concentration (350 μL.L-1·, 500 μL.L -1 and 700 μL.L-1) by CO2 rich settlement designed by us. Net photosynthetic rates (NPR), temperature, relative humidity, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) were measured at 6:00, 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, 16:00 and 18:00 hours a day. Experimental results showed that the NPR of Pinus sylvestriformis increased by 32.6% and 123.0% at 500 μL.L-1 and 700 μL.L-1 CO2 concentration respectively, compared to ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (350 μL.L-1). The relations between NPR and influential factors, including temperature, relative humidity, intercellular CO2 concentration and photosynthetic active radiation, were analyzed respectively by regression analysis at different CO2 concentrations.

  3. Time of elevation of head of bed for patients receiving mechanical ventilation and its related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Hereu, L; Arreciado Marañón, A

    2017-06-08

    The semirecumbent position is a widespread recommendation for the prevention of pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation. To identify the time of elevation of head of bed for patients under mechanical ventilation and the factors related to such elevation in an intensive care unit. An observational, descriptive cross-sectional study. Conducted in an intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital from April to June 2015. The studied population were mechanically ventilated patients. Daily hours in which patients remained with the head of the bed elevated (≥30°), socio-demographic data and clinical variables were recorded. 261 head elevation measurements were collected. The average daily hours that patients remained at ≥30° was 16h28' (SD ±5h38'), equivalent to 68.6% (SD ±23.5%) of the day. Factors related to elevations ≥30° for longer were: enteral nutrition, levels of deep sedation, cardiac and neurocritical diagnostics. Factors that hindered the position were: sedation levels for agitation and abdominal pathologies. Sex, age and ventilation mode did not show a significant relationship with bed head elevation. Although raising the head of the bed is an easy to perform, economical and measurable preventive measure, its compliance is low due to specific factors specific related o the patient's clinical condition. Using innovations such as continuous measurement of the head position helps to evaluate clinical practice and allows to carry out improvement actions whose impact is beneficial to the patient. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated plasma phospholipase A2 and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Denizot

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical study reports that blood levels of the pro-inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF did not change in colorectal cancer patients. In contrast, plasma levels of two enzymatic activities, one implicated in PAF production (i.e. phospholipase A2 and one in PAF degradation (i.e. PAF acetylhydrolase activity were significantly elevated.

  5. Factors influencing ambulance use in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hong-bing; HU Da-yi; SONG Li; CHEN Hui; ZHANG Jian; LI Shi-ying; LI Qing-xiang; CHENG Shu-juan; WANG Jian; ZHAO Han-jun

    2009-01-01

    Background Emergency medical service plays a key role in the early recognition and treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but studies indicate that the patients experiencing STEMI symptoms often fail to call an ambulance as recommended. This study aimed to examine the current ambulance transport frequency and ascertain predictors and reasons for not choosing ambulance transportation by the patients with STEMI in Beijing.Methods A prospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 1,2006 through until June 30, 2007 in two tertiary hospitals in Beijing and included consecutive patients with STEMI admitted within 24 hours of onset of symptoms. Data were collected by structured interviews and medical records review.Results Of the 572 patients, only 172 (30.1%) used an ambulance, and the remaining 400 (69.9%) presented by self-transport. Multivariate analysis showed that age <65 years (OR: 1.220; 95% CI: 1.001-2.043), lower education level (OR: 1.582; 95% CI: 1.003-2.512), presence of pre-infarction angina (OR: 1.595; 95% CI: 1.086-2.347), and attribution of symptoms to non-cardiac origin (OR: 1.519; 95% CI: 1.011-2.284) were independent predictors for not using an ambulance. However, history of coronary artery disease (CAD), dyspnea, perceiving symptoms to be serious, and knowing the meaning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation appeared to be independent predictors of ambulance use. The main reasons for not using an ambulance were convenience and quickness of self-transport and the decreased severity of symptoms.Conclusions A large proportion of patients in Beijing do not call for an ambulance after onset of STEMI symptoms. Several factors including demographics, previous CAD, symptoms and cognitive factors of patients are associated with the ambulance use. The public should be educated that an ambulance is not merely a transportation modality and that it also provides rapid diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Risk Factors of Reperfusion Failure following Primary Angioplasty for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HamidReza Sanati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although  percutaneous  coronary  intervention  (PCI  improves  outcomes  compared  to  thrombolysis,  a substantial number of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI patients do not achieve optimal myocardial reperfusion. This study was designed to evaluate factors related to suboptimal myocardial reperfusion after primary PCI in patients with STEMI.Methods: Totally, 155 patients (124 men; mean age = 56.6 ± 11.03 years, range = 31- 85 years with STEMI undergoing primary PCI were retrospectively studied. Additionally, the relationships between the occurrence of reperfusion failure and variables such as age, sex, cardiac risk factors, family history, Body Mass Index, time of symptom onset, ejection fraction, previous PCI, coronary artery bypass graft surgery or previous myocardial infarction, and angiographic data were analyzed. Results: Procedural success was 97.1% and complete ST resolution occurred in 43.2%. Age; cardiac risk factors; family history; body mass index; previous MI, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, or PCI; and use of thrombectomy device and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor were not the determining factors (p value > 0.05. According to our multivariate analysis, time of symptom onset (OR [95% CI]: 045 [0.2 to 0.98]; p value = 0.044 and ejection fraction (OR [95% CI]:0.37 [0.26 to .091]; p value = 0.050 had reverse and male gender had direct significant associations with failed reperfusion (OR [95%CI]:0.34 [0.11 to 1.08]; p value = 0.068. More degrees of ST resolution occurred when the right coronary artery was the culpritvessel (p value = 0.001. The presence of more than three cardiac risk factors was associated with failed reperfusion (p value= 0.050.Conclusion: Considering the initial risk profile of patients with acute STEMI, including time of symptom onset and ejection fraction, as well as the accumulation of cardiac risk factors in a given patient, we could predict failed myocardial reperfusion to design a

  7. The slow growing embryo and premature progesterone elevation: compounding factors for embryo-endometrial asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Mae Wu; Yamasaki, Meghan; Patounakis, George; Richter, Kevin S; Devine, Kate; DeCherney, Alan H; Hill, Micah J

    2017-02-01

    Is there an association of progesterone (P4) on the day of trigger with live birth in autologous ART transfer cycles on day 5 versus day 6? P4 had a greater negative effect on live birth in day 6 fresh transfers compared to day 5 fresh transfers. Premature P4 elevation is associated with lower live birth rates in fresh autologous ART cycles, likely due to worsened endometrial-embryo asynchrony. Few studies have evaluated whether the effect of an elevated P4 on the day of trigger is different on live birth rates with a day 5 compared to a day 6 embryo transfer. This was a retrospective cohort study with autologous IVF cycles with fresh embryo transfers on day 5 and day 6 from 2011 to 2014. A total of 4120 day 5 and 230 day 6 fresh autologous embryo transfers were included. The primary outcome was live birth, defined as a live born baby at 24 weeks gestation or later. Patients from a large private ART practice were included. Analysis was performed with generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Day 6 transfers were less likely to have good quality embryos (73% versus 83%, P birth was less likely in fresh day 6 versus day 5 embryo transfers (34% versus 46%, P = 0.01) even when controlling for embryo confounders. In adjusted GEE models, the effect of P4 as a continuous variable on live birth was more pronounced on day 6 (P 1.5 ng/ml on day of trigger was more pronounced on day 6 than day 5 (P birth rates were 8% lower than day 5 when P4 was in the normal range (P = 0.04), but became 17% lower when P4 was > 1.5 ng/ml (P birth demonstrated a greater AUC in day 6 transfers (AUC 0.59, 95% CI 0.51-0.66) than day 5 (AUC 0.54, 95% CI 0.52-0.55). Interaction testing of P4 × day of embryo transfer was highly significant (P progesterone assay is not currently optimized to discriminate between patients with a P4 of 1.5 versus 1.8 ng/ml. This study suggests further endometrial-embryo asynchrony when a slow growing embryo is

  8. Bioaccumulation syndrome: identifying factors that make some stream food webs prone to elevated mercury bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Darren M; Nislow, Keith H; Folt, Carol L

    2010-05-01

    Mercury is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic ecosystems, posing a significant health risk to humans and wildlife that eat fish. Mercury accumulates in aquatic food webs as methylmercury (MeHg), a particularly toxic and persistent organic mercury compound. While mercury in the environment originates largely from anthropogenic activities, MeHg accumulation in freshwater aquatic food webs is not a simple function of local or regional mercury pollution inputs. Studies show that even sites with similar mercury inputs can produce fish with mercury concentrations ranging over an order of magnitude. While much of the foundational work to identify the drivers of variation in mercury accumulation has focused on freshwater lakes, mercury contamination in stream ecosystems is emerging as an important research area. Here, we review recent research on mercury accumulation in stream-dwelling organisms. Taking a hierarchical approach, we identify a suite of characteristics of individual consumers, food webs, streams, watersheds, and regions that are consistently associated with elevated MeHg concentrations in stream fish. We delineate a conceptual, mechanistic basis for explaining the ecological processes that underlie this vulnerability to MeHg. Key factors, including suppressed individual growth of consumers, low rates of primary and secondary production, hydrologic connection to methylation sites (e.g., wetlands), heavily forested catchments, and acidification are frequently associated with increased MeHg concentrations in fish across both streams and lakes. Hence, we propose that these interacting factors define a syndrome of characteristics that drive high MeHg production and bioaccumulation rates across these freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Finally, based on an understanding of the ecological drivers of MeHg accumulation, we identify situations when anthropogenic effects and management practices could significantly exacerbate or ameliorate MeHg accumulation in stream fish.

  9. Radiation-induced bystander effects enhanced by elevated sodium chloride through sensitizing cells to bystander factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lingyan; Han Wei; Chen Shaopeng; Zhao Ye; Jiang Erkang; Bao Lingzhi; Pei Bei; Yang Gen; Zhao Guoping; Wang Jun; Xu An [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)], E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn

    2008-09-26

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. However, very little data is available on the genotoxic effects of RIBE combined with other factor(s). We reported previously that with a low dose of {alpha}-particle irradiation, the fraction of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells in non-irradiated bystander cells was significantly increased under elevated NaCl culture conditions. In this study, we further investigated the functional role of NaCl in the enhancement of RIBE using a specially designed co-culture system and micronucleus (MN) test. It was shown that the MN frequency was not increased significantly by elevated NaCl (9.0 g/L) alone or by medium exposure. However, with 1.0 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation, the induced MN frequency increased significantly in both irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Additional studies showed that elevated NaCl made the non-irradiated bystander cells more vulnerable to bystander factors. Furthermore, it was found that the induced MN frequency in cells both in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions was weakened when the hypertonic medium was changed to normotonic medium for 2 h before irradiation. Such observations were quite similar to the co-effect of NaCl and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), indicating that elevated NaCl might sensitize non-irradiated cells to bystander factors-induced oxidative stress.

  10. Antimalarials as a risk factor for elevated muscle enzymes in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselios, K; Gladman, D D; Su, Jiandong; Urowitz, M B

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between antimalarials (AM) and elevated muscle enzymes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 325 lupus patients with abnormal creatine phosphokinase (CPK) for at least two consecutive clinic visits were enrolled; 54 patients on statins/fibrates (n = 43) and/or active myositis (n = 14) were excluded. The control group consisted of 1453 lupus patients with no CPK elevation during follow-up. Descriptive statistics and Cox regression analyses were performed, p < 0.05 was considered significant. Cases and controls did not differ regarding age at SLE diagnosis, gender ratio, or disease duration. AM use was more frequent in cases, which had more prolonged AM use. Total frequency of elevated CPK in AM users was 216/1322 (16.3%). Chloroquine was associated with a 3.3-fold, and hydroxychloroquine with a 3.1-fold, increased risk for CPK elevation. Black race was associated with higher CPK (HR = 2.941), whereas female gender was protective (HR = 0.697). 203 patients were followed for 7.3 ± 5.6 years; 49.8% had persistent and 14.8% intermittent CPK elevation, while in 35.4% CPK was normalized. Clinical proximal muscle weakness developed in 5/203 patients. Chronic AM use is a potential risk factor for muscle enzyme elevation in SLE patients. CPK abnormalities persist in almost two thirds of the patients, but this remains mainly a biochemical finding, evolving to clinical myopathy in about 2.5%. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Elevated Urinary Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Diabetic Nephropathy Is Caused by Local Production and Tubular Dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Karin G. F.; Leeuwis, JanWillem; Koeners, Maarten P.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Oeveren, Willem; Aten, Jan; Tarnow, Lise; Rossing, Peter; Wetzels, Jack F. M.; Joles, Jaap A.; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel; Nguyen, Tri Q.

    2015-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; CCN2) plays a role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Urinary CTGF (uCTGF) is elevated in DN patients and has been proposed as a biomarker for disease progression, but it is unknown which pathophysiological factors contribute to elevated uCTGF. We

  12. Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovind, P; Tarnow, L; Oestergaard, P B

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growth factors have been suggested to play a role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent cytokine family that induces angiogenesis and markedly increases endothelial permeability. The aim of the present study...... with normoalbuminuria, P pressure and male gender. Hemoglobin A1c and plasma VEGF did not act as predictors. No significant differences between...... patients with and without proliferative retinopathy were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that VEGF is elevated early in the course of diabetic nephropathy in men with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Baseline albuminuria, arterial blood pressure and male gender was predictors of diabetic nephropathy...

  13. Elevated nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid of children with hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Frederike; Koehne, Petra; Schäper, Christoph; Butenandt, Otfrid; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Ring-Mrozik, Elfride; Obladen, Michael; Bührer, Christoph

    2001-01-01

    Background Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) resulting from impaired drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) causes hydrocephalus with damage to the central nervous system. Clinical symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in infants may be difficult to diagnose, leading to delayed treatment by shunt placement. Until now, no biochemical marker of elevated ICP has been available for clinical diagnosis and monitoring. In experimental animal models, nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) have been shown to be produced by glial cells as an adaptive response to hypoxia. We investigated whether concentrations of NGF and NT-3 are increased in the CSF of children with hydrocephalus. Methods NGF was determined in CSF samples collected from 42 hydrocephalic children on 65 occasions (taps or shunt placement surgery). CSF samples obtained by lumbar puncture from 22 children with suspected, but unconfirmed bacterial infection served as controls. Analysis was performed using ELISA techniques. Results NGF concentrations in hydrocephalic children were over 50-fold increased compared to controls (median 225 vs 4 pg/mL, p 1 pg/mL) in 14/31 hydrocephalus samples at 2–51 pg/mL but in none of 11 control samples (p = 0.007). Conclusion NGF and NT-3 concentrations are increased in children with hydrocephalus. This may represent an adaptive response of the brain to elevated ICP. PMID:11580868

  14. Elevated nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid of children with hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felderhoff-Mueser Ursula

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP resulting from impaired drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF causes hydrocephalus with damage to the central nervous system. Clinical symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP in infants may be difficult to diagnose, leading to delayed treatment by shunt placement. Until now, no biochemical marker of elevated ICP has been available for clinical diagnosis and monitoring. In experimental animal models, nerve growth factor (NGF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 have been shown to be produced by glial cells as an adaptive response to hypoxia. We investigated whether concentrations of NGF and NT-3 are increased in the CSF of children with hydrocephalus. Methods NGF was determined in CSF samples collected from 42 hydrocephalic children on 65 occasions (taps or shunt placement surgery. CSF samples obtained by lumbar puncture from 22 children with suspected, but unconfirmed bacterial infection served as controls. Analysis was performed using ELISA techniques. Results NGF concentrations in hydrocephalic children were over 50-fold increased compared to controls (median 225 vs 4 pg/mL, p 1 pg/mL in 14/31 hydrocephalus samples at 2–51 pg/mL but in none of 11 control samples (p = 0.007. Conclusion NGF and NT-3 concentrations are increased in children with hydrocephalus. This may represent an adaptive response of the brain to elevated ICP.

  15. Apolipoprotein E expression is elevated by interleukin 1 and other interleukin 1-induced factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously outlined functional interactions, including feedback cycles, between several of the gene products implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. A number of Alzheimer-related stressors induce neuronal expression of apolipoprotein E (ApoE, β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP, and fragments of the latter such as amyloid β-peptide (Aβ and secreted APP (sAPP. These stressors include interleukin-1 (IL-1-mediated neuroinflammation and glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Such circumstances are especially powerful when they transpire in the context of an APOE ε4 allele. Methods Semi-quantitative immunofluorescence imaging was used to analyze rat brains implanted with IL-1β slow-release pellets, sham pellets, or no pellets. Primary neuronal or NT2 cell cultures were treated with IL-1β, glutamate, Aβ, or sAPP; relative levels of ApoE mRNA and protein were measured by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, and western immunoblot analysis. Cultures were also treated with inhibitors of multi-lineage kinases--in particular MAPK-p38 (SB203580, ERK (U0126, or JNK (SP600125--prior to exposure of cultures to IL-1β, Aβ, sAPP, or glutamate. Results Immunofluorescence of tissue sections from pellet-implanted rats showed that IL-1β induces expression of βAPP, IL-1α, and ApoE; the latter was confirmed by western blot analysis. These protein changes were mirrored by increases in their mRNAs, as well as in those encoding IL-1β, IL-1β-converting enzyme (ICE, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF. IL-1β also increased ApoE expression in neuronal cultures. It stimulated release of sAPP and glutamate in these cultures too, and both of these agents--as well as Aβ--stimulated ApoE expression themselves, suggesting that they may contribute to the effect of IL-1β on ApoE levels. Inhibitors of MAPK-p38, ERK, and JNK inhibited ApoE induction by all these agents except glutamate, which was sensitive only to inhibitors of ERK and JNK. Conclusion

  16. Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical results for arsenic in water samples from 5,023 wells obtained during 1969–2007 across Pennsylvania were compiled and related to other associated groundwater-quality and environmental factors and used to predict the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations, defined as greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L), in groundwater. Arsenic concentrations of 4.0 µg/L or greater (elevated concentrations) were detected in 18 percent of samples across Pennsylvania; 8 percent of samples had concentrations that equaled or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10.0 µg/L. The highest arsenic concentration was 490.0 µg/L.

  17. Depressed adrenomedullin in the embryonic transforming growth factor-beta1 null mouse becomes elevated postnatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodegas, Elena; Martínez, Alfredo; Ozbun, Laurent L; Garayoa, Mercedes; Letterio, John J; Montuenga, Luis M; Jakowlew, Sonia B

    2004-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and adrenomedullin are multifunctional regulatory proteins which are expressed in developing embryonic and adult tissues. Because of their colocalization, TGF-beta1 and adrenomedullin may be able to coordinately act to influence development and differentiation. In order to learn more about the biology of adrenomedullin in the absence of the effects of TGF-beta1 in vivo, we examined adrenomedullin in the TGF-beta1 null mouse. A generally lower amount of adrenomedullin was detected by immunohistochemical staining analysis in multiple tissues from embryonic TGF-beta1 null mice compared to wildtype animals, including the heart, lung, brain, liver, and kidney, among others. In contrast, immunohistochemical staining for adrenomedullin was more intense in tissues of the postnatal TGF-beta1 null mouse compared to the wildtype mouse. These observations were confirmed by quantitative real time RT-PCR for adrenomedullin in both embryos and postnatal animals, as well as in cultured mouse embryo fibroblasts from TGF-beta1 null and wildtype mice. In addition, when cultured mouse embryo fibroblasts were treated with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody against TGF-beta1, the levels of adrenomedullin expression were statistically reduced compared to untreated cells. Our data show that expression of adrenomedullin is reduced in tissues of the developing embryonic TGF-beta1 null mouse compared to the wildtype mouse, but increases during postnatal development in TGF-beta1 null mice. The elevated expression of adrenomedullin which occurs postnatally in the TGF-beta1 null mouse may be a cause or a consequence of the multifocal wasting syndrome which is characteristic of postnatal TGF-beta1 null mice.

  18. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  19. Outcome of Triple Antiplatelet Therapy Including Cilostazol in Elderly Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction who Underwent Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results from the INTERSTELLAR Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ho-Jun; Park, Sang-Don; Park, Hyun Woo; Suh, Jon; Oh, Pyung Chun; Moon, Jeonggeun; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kang, Woong Chol; Kwon, Sung Woo; Kim, Tae-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Compared with dual antiplatelet therapy including aspirin and clopidogrel, triple antiplatelet therapy including cilostazol has a mortality benefit in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, whether the mortality benefit persists in elderly patients is not clear. From 2007 to 2014, 1278 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into four groups by age (antiplatelet strategy (triple or dual antiplatelet therapy). We compared the mortality rates between the triple and dual antiplatelet therapy groups. There were 1052 (male, 85%; mean age, 56.3 ± 10.4 years) patients in the young group and 241 (male, 52.7%; mean age, 80.3 ± 4.5 years) patients in the elderly group. In the young and elderly groups, 220 (20.9%) and 28 (12.3%) patients were treated with triple antiplatelet therapy. During a 1-year follow-up period, 80 patients died (4.2% in the young group vs. 15.5% in the elderly group). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that triple antiplatelet therapy was associated with a lower mortality rate in the young group (log-rank, p = 0.005). Although there were more angiographic high-risk patients in the elderly group, similar mortality rates were reported (log-rank, p = 0.803) without increased bleeding rates (1 vs. 3.6% in the elderly group, p = 0.217). Triple antiplatelet therapy might be a better antiplatelet regimen than dual antiplatelet therapy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Although this benefit was strong in patients aged <75 years, no definite increase in major bleeding was seen for elderly patients (aged ≥75 years).

  20. A new prognostic model for cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy including pretreatment thrombocytosis and standard pathological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Renninger, Markus; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

    2012-12-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (cohort series) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Preoperative thrombocytosis has been identified as a predictor of poor outcome in various cancer types. However, the prognostic role of platelet count in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy is unknown. The present study demonstrates that preoperative thrombocytosis is an independent risk factor for decreased cancer-specific survival after radical treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We developed a new prognostic scoring model for cancer-specific outcomes after radical cystectomy including platelet count and established pathological risk factors. Consideration of platelet count in the final model increased its predictive accuracy significantly. Thrombocytosis may be a useful parameter to include within established international bladder cancer nomograms. •  To investigate the oncological significance of preoperative thrombocytosis in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, as it has been reported as a marker for aggressive tumour biology in a variety of solid tumours. •  The series comprised 258 patients undergoing radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2010 in whom different clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed. •  Elevated platelet count was defined as >450 × 10(9) /L. •  Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariable analysis a new weighted scoring model was developed to predict cancer-specific outcomes. •  The median follow-up was 30 months (6-116). •  Of the 258 patients, 26 (10.1%) had elevated and 232 (89.9%) had normal platelet count. The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with normal and elevated platelet count was 61.5% and 32.7%, respectively (P thrombocytosis (2.68, 1.26-5.14; P= 0.011). •  The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with a score 0 (low risk), 1-2 (intermediate risk) and 3

  1. Elevated Krüppel-like factor 4 transcription factor in canine mammary carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Kun-Tu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Krüppel-like factors (KLFs are critical regulators of biological and physiological systems and have been extensively studied for their roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival in the context of cancer. Among the KLFs, KLF4 is highly expressed in human breast cancers and plays an oncogenic role. The present study examined the expression of KLF4 and assessed its significance in canine mammary carcinoma. Results Immunohistochemistry was employed to investigate the expression of KLF4 in 142 cases of canine mammary tumor. 75 of the 142 (52.8% cases were histologically confirmed as mammary carcinoma. Quantification of immunohistochemistry was carried out using Quick score which multiply the staining intensity by the percentage of positive cells. High KLF4 expression was identified in 44 of the 75 (59% dogs with mammary carcinoma and none in the benign cases. High KLF4 expression occurred only in the tumor cells and not the adjacent normal cells in mammary carcinoma (P Conclusions KLF4 is highly and frequently expressed in canine mammary carcinoma and correlates with a more aggressive phenotype.

  2. Continuous intrathecal fluid infusions elevate nerve growth factor levels and prevent functional deficits after spinal cord ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, M; Tuszynski, M H; Conner, J; Zivin, J A

    2000-11-17

    Continuous intracerebroventricular or intrathecal infusions of neurotrophic factors have been reported to prevent neuronal degeneration, stimulate axonal sprouting and ameliorate behavioral deficits in various models of CNS injury and aging. In the present study, the ability of intrathecal infusions of recombinant human nerve growth factor (NGF) to reduce functional deficits following spinal cord ischemia was investigated. Adult rabbits underwent intrathecal cannulation and continuous infusions of either 300 microg/ml recombinant human NGF or artificial CSF (vehicle) at a rate of 143 microl/day for 7 days prior to induction of spinal cord ischemia. Continuous infusions were maintained after induction of ischemia. Four days later, both NGF-treated and vehicle-infused subjects showed a significant amelioration of functional motor deficits compared to lesioned, non-infused subjects (PNGF-infused subjects (mean+/-S.E.M.). Significantly elevated NGF protein levels were attained within the spinal cords of both NGF-treated subjects and artificial CSF-infused subjects, although levels were substantially higher in NGF-treated subjects (9.8+/-3.8 ng/g in NGF-infused vs. 2.0+/-0.4 ng/g in vehicle-infused and only 0.4+/-0.2 ng/g in lesioned, non-infused animals). These findings indicate that the process of intrathecal cannulation and fluid infusion elicits alterations in the spinal cord environment that are neuroprotective, including spontaneous elevations in NGF levels.

  3. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  4. Qualitatively distinct factors contribute to elevated rates of paranoia in autism and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Amy E; Sasson, Noah J; Beaton, Derek; Abdi, Hervé; Kohler, Christian G; Penn, David L

    2012-08-01

    A converging body of clinical and empirical reports indicates that autism features elevated rates of paranoia comparable to those of individuals with paranoid schizophrenia. However, the distinct developmental courses and symptom manifestations of these two disorders suggest that the nature of paranoid ideation may differ between them in important and meaningful ways. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared patterns of responses on the Paranoia Scale between actively paranoid individuals with schizophrenia (SCZP), individuals with schizophrenia who were not actively paranoid (SCZNP), adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and healthy controls. Despite an overall similar level of heightened paranoia in the ASD and SCZP groups, discriminant correspondence analysis (DiCA) revealed that these groups were characterized by unique underlying factors. Paranoia in the SCZP group was defined by a factor based upon victimization, suspicion, and threat of harm. Whereas paranoia in the ASD group was partially characterized by this factor, it was distinguished from SCZP by an additional pattern of responses reflective of increased social cynicism. These findings indicate that paranoia in ASD is supported by qualitative factors distinct from schizophrenia and highlight mechanistic differences in the formation of paranoid ideation that may inform the development of disorder-specific treatments.

  5. Mechanism of Elevated Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Peritoneal Fluids from Patients with Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义; 吕立群

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in peritoneal fluids from patients with endometriosis, macrophages were recovered from peritoneal fluids obtained at the time of diagnostic laparoscopy from infertile women with endometriosis (EMT group, n = 20) and without endometriosis (control group, n = 20). Macrophages were cultured in vitro. The VEGF levels of peritoneal fluid and the supernatant of macrophages culture were determined by enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). Meanwhile, the eutopic (n = 20) and ectopic endometrium (n=20) from endometriosis patients, and normal edometrium (n=20) from non-endometriosis patients were obtained for the analysis of VEGF expression by labeled Streptavidin Biotin (LSAB). It was found that VEGF levels in peritoneal fluid and macrophages culture supernatant were significantly higher in EMT group than in control group (P<0.01). In normal endometrium, VEGF showed a cyclic changes and similar in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis. There was no difference in the intensity of VEGF in endometrium between two groups within each menstrual phase. It is suggested that altered VEGF production by peritoneal macrophages and ectopic endometrium secretion may contribute to the elevated VEGF levels in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis.

  6. Factors associated with elevated ALT in an international HIV/HBV co-infected cohort on long-term HAART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Audsley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV infection increases the risk for ALT elevations in HIV-HBV co-infected patients during the first year of HAART; however, there is limited data on the prevalence of ALT elevations with prolonged HAART in this patient group. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify factors associated with ALT elevations in an HIV-HBV co-infected cohort receiving prolonged HAART, data from 143 co-infected patients on HAART enrolled in an international HIV-HBV co-infected cohort where ALT measurements were obtained every 6 months was analysed. A person-visit analysis was used to determine frequency of ALT elevation (≥ 2.5×ULN at each visit. Factors associated with ALT elevation were determined using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for correlated data. The median time on HAART at the end of follow-up was 5.6 years (range 0.4-13.3 years. During follow-up, median ALT was 36 U/L with 10.6% of person-visits classified as having ALT elevation. Most ALT elevations were grade 2 (86.5%, with only 13.5% of all ALT elevations grade 3 or higher. Univariate associations with ALT elevation (p1 year of HAART was uncommon, and severe ALT elevations were rare. HIV-HBV co-infected patients on long-term HAART who are either HBeAg positive or have a CD4 count of <200 cells/ml are at increased risk for ALT elevations.

  7. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS IN THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lapshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides guidelines for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α  (TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis  (axSpA, including ankylosing spondylitis. It gives data on the efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with non-radiographic axSpA. By using international and Russian guidelines, the authors lay down indications for this therapy and criteria for evaluation of its efficiency and safety.

  8. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and mortality in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, Helle; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hjelmborg, Jacob v B

    2003-01-01

    the subsequent 5 years. RESULTS: Only 9 subjects were alive after 5 years. Elevated levels of TNF-alpha were associated with mortality in both men and women (hazard ratio = 1.34 per SD of 2.81 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 1.60, P = 0.001). Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 did not affect survival; levels of C...... as confounders. CONCLUSION: TNF-alpha was an independent prognostic marker for mortality in persons aged 100 years, suggesting that it has specific biological effects and is a marker of frailty in the very elderly.......BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied by low-grade inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha initiates the cytokine cascade, and high levels are associated with dementia and atherosclerosis in persons aged 100 years. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha was also a prognostic marker for all...

  9. Factors Associated with Delay in Thrombolytic Therapy in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Yazdani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment delay in the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction conversely correlates with prognosis and survival of the patients. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with delay in the thrombolytic therapy of these patients in Tehran. Methods: Between 2007 and 2010, the interval between the self-reported time of the onset of symptoms and initiation of the thrombolytic agent in 513 patients with a diagnosis of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction was recorded. Medical history and socio-demographic characteristics of the patients treated within two hours after the onset of symptoms and patients treated after two hours from the onset of symptoms were compared, and the odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.2 (SD = 11.1 years, and 76% of the patients were male. The median time between the onset of symptoms and treatment was 158 (SD = 30.4 minutes. Mean for decision time was 61 (SD = 19, which was responsible for 83% of the entire treatment delay. The mean transportation time was 34 (SD = 12 minutes, and the median door-to-needle time was 44 minutes. Odds ratio for history of diabetes mellitus was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.26-2.87, for hypertension was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.08-2.23, and for prior coronary heart disease was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.17-1.84. Conclusion: The most important factor associated with delay in treatment was decision time. Improving emergency medical services dispatch time, obtaining pre-hospital electrocardiograms for early diagnosis, and pre-hospital initiation of thrombolytic therapy may reduce the delay time.

  10. Z' factor including siRNA design quality parameter in RNAi screening experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sławomir; Kozak, Karol

    2012-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) high-content screening (HCS) enables massive parallel gene silencing and is increasingly being used to reveal novel connections between genes and disease-relevant phenotypes. The application of genome-scale RNAi relies on the development of high quality HCS assays. The Z' factor statistic provides a way to evaluate whether or not screening run conditions (reagents, protocols, instrumentation, kinetics, and other conditions not directly related to the test compounds) are optimized. Z' factor, introduced by Zhang et al., ( 1) is a dimensionless value that represents both the variability and the dynamic range between two sets of sample control data. This paper describe a new extension of the Z' factor, which integrates bioinformatics RNAi non-target compounds for screening quality assessment. Currently presented Z' factor is based on positive and negative control, which may not be sufficient for RNAi experiments including oligonucleotides (oligo) with lack of knock-down. This paper proposes an algorithm which extends existing algorithm by using additional controls generetaed from on-target analysis.

  11. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  12. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  13. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Included in the USGS National Elevation Dataset at seamless.usgs.gov, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, U.S. Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is...

  14. Elevated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor facilitates visual imprinting in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiko; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Suzuki, Shingo; Nakamori, Tomoharu; Sugiyama, Hayato; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2012-12-01

    With the aim of elucidating the neural mechanisms of early learning, we studied the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in visual imprinting in birds. The telencephalic neural circuit connecting the visual Wulst and intermediate medial mesopallium is critical for imprinting, and the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo), situated at the center of this circuit, has a key role in regulating the activity of the circuit. We found that the number of BDNF mRNA-positive cells in the HDCo was elevated during the critical period, particularly at its onset, on the day of hatching (P0). After imprinting training on P1, BDNF mRNA-positive cells in the HDCo increased in number, and tyrosine phosphorylation of TrkB was observed. BDNF infusion into the HDCo at P1 induced imprinting, even with a weak training protocol that does not normally induce imprinting. In contrast, K252a, an antagonist of Trk, inhibited imprinting. Injection of BDNF at P7, after the critical period, did not elicit imprinting. These results suggest that BDNF promotes the induction of imprinting through TrkB exclusively during the critical period. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Elevated Platelet Activating Factor Level in Ischemia-Related Arrhythmia and Its Electrophysiological Effect on Myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong Kang; ZHAO Shui Ping; YU Pu Lin; SHI Jing; GU Cheng Dong; SUN Hong Tao; ZHANG Guo Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The mechanism through which platelet activating factor (PAF) induces cardiac electrical activity and arrhythmia is not well understood and previous studies have suggested a potential involvement of ion channels in its action. The present study was aimed to clarify the role of PAF in fatal arrhythmias following acute myocardia infarction (AMI) and the underlying mechanism. Methods (1) Blood PAF levels were measured among 72 AMI patients at the time of diagnosis with AMI and 48 h later, and their electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded continuously. (2) Ischemia simulation and surface electrocardiogram were conducted in 20 pigs and their PAF levels were measured. (3) PAF perfusion and standard microelectrode recording were performed on guinea pig papillary muscles. Results In both humans and pigs, elevated PAF levels were detected in AMI and simulated ischemia, respectively, and even higher PAF levels were found when fatal arrhythmias occurred. In guinea pig myocardium, PAF induced a shortening of action potential duration at 90% level of repolarization (APD90)under non-ischemic conditions and a more pronounced shortening under early simulated ischemic conditions. Conclusion AMI and ischemia are associated with increased PAF levels in humans and pigs, which are further raised when fatal arrhythmia follows. The effects of PAF on the myocardium may be mediated by multiple ion channels.

  16. Anemia as a factor that elevates plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in apparently healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mika; Tsujino, Takeshi; Naito, Yoshiro; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Ezumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

    2008-09-01

    Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is widely used as a biomarker of heart failure (HF); however, its concentration is often found to be high even in apparently healthy subjects and little is known about which factors contribute to physiological change in plasma BNP concentration in subjects without HF. We examined the effects of gender, age, and anemia on plasma BNP concentration in apparently healthy subjects. The study population consisted of 1036 healthy subjects who underwent an annual health examination at their company in 2005. There were 874 women, ranging in age from 30 to 63 years (mean, 41 years). Plasma BNP concentration was abnormal (> 18.4 pg/mL) in 292 subjects. The incidence was significantly higher in women than in men (31% versus 14%, P < 0.01). Mean plasma BNP concentration was higher in women than in men. The difference in plasma BNP concentration was associated with the difference in blood hemoglobin and age. Logarithmically transformed BNP concentration correlated inversely with blood hemoglobin (r = -0.30, P < 0.01 for all; r = -0.21, P < 0.01 for women; r = -0.20, P < 0.01 for men). By multiple regression analysis, logarithmically transformed BNP concentration correlated with hemoglobin, age, and gender. In conclusion, anemia is likely a critical determinant that elevates plasma BNP concentration in apparently healthy subjects.

  17. Prognostic factors of infantile spasms: role of treatment options including a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Yu, Hee Jun; Lee, Munhyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide additional evidences on prognostic factors for infantile spasms and the possible role of a ketogenic diet. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with infantile spasms who had been followed up for more than 6months between January 2000 and July 2012 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). We analyzed the association between possible prognostic factors and seizure/developmental outcomes. Sixty-nine patients were included in this study and their mean follow-up duration was 52.5 (9-147) months. In the patients who had been followed up for more than 2years, 53.6% (n=30/57) remained seizure-free at the last visit. Sixty patients (86.9%) showed developmental delay at last follow-up. Forty-two patients (60.9%) became spasm-free with one or two antiepileptic drugs, one patient with epilepsy surgery for a tumor, and seven patients with a ketogenic diet after the failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. The etiology and age of seizure onset were the significant prognostic factors. In this study, about 60% of the patients became spasm-free with vigabatrin and topiramate. Ketogenic diet increased the rate by 10% in the remaining antiepileptic drug resistant patients. However, 86.9% of the patients showed developmental delay, mostly a severe degree. Early diagnosis and prompt application of treatment options such as antiepileptic drugs, a ketogenic diet or epilepsy surgery can improve outcomes in patients with infantile spasms. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  19. Population-based Risk Factors for Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase in a South Texas Mexican–American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hui-Qi; Li, Quan; Grove, Megan L.; Lu, Yang; Pan, Jen-Jung; Rentfro, Anne R.; Bickel, Perry E.; Fallon, Michael B.; Hanis, Craig L.; Boerwinkle, Eric; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT >40 IU/mL) is a marker of liver injury but provides little insight into etiology. We aimed to identify and stratify risk factors associated with elevated ALT in a randomly selected population with a high prevalence of elevated ALT (39%), obesity (49%) and diabetes (30%). Methods Two machine learning methods, the support vector machine (SVM) and Bayesian logistic regression (BLR), were used to capture risk factors in a community cohort of 1532 adults from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC). A total of 28 predictor variables were used in the prediction models. The recently identified genetic marker rs738409 on the PNPLA3 gene was genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX assay. Results The four major risk factors for elevated ALT were fasting plasma insulin level and insulin resistance, increased BMI and total body weight, plasma triglycerides and non-HDL cholesterol, and diastolic hypertension. In spite of the highly significant association of rs738409 in females, the role of rs738409 in the prediction model is minimal, compared to other epidemiological risk factors. Age and drug and alcohol consumption were not independent determinants of elevated ALT in this analysis. Conclusions The risk factors most strongly associated with elevated ALT in this population are components of the metabolic syndrome and point to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This population-based model identifies the likely cause of liver disease without the requirement of individual pathological diagnosis of liver diseases. Use of such a model can greatly contribute to a population-based approach to prevention of liver disease. PMID:22959976

  20. Elevated lactic acid is a negative prognostic factor in metastatic lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachostergios, Panagiotis J; Oikonomou, Katerina G; Gibilaro, Eugene; Apergis, George

    2015-01-01

    Hyperlactatemia with or without type B lactic acidosis is a rare complication of cancer, previously observed most often in hematological malignancies. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of lactic acid (LA) in patients with metastatic lung cancer. Patients diagnosed with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and extensive stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), were included in this single center retrospective study. Arterial and venous LA level, anion gap (AG), serum LDH and presence of urine ketones were recorded for each patient and their associations with demographic and clinical data and overall survival (OS) were examined. Eighty-five patients (43 males, median age 74, range 45-96 years) were studied. The maximal levels of arterial or venous LA were significantly associated with presence of ≥ 2 metastatic sites (p= 0.001), ICU admission or transfer (p= 0.016), intubation (p= 0.029), elevated serum anion gap (pcancer and extensive stage small cell lung cancer. Hyperlactatemia is an independent predictor of poor survival in metastatic lung cancer patients.

  1. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  2. Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2013-10-13

    A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general.

  3. Lifestyle and clinical factors associated with elevated C-reactive protein among newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Mor, Anil; Rungby, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the prevalence of and modifiable factors associated with elevated C-reactive Protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, in men and women with newly diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) in a population-based setting. METHODS: CRP was measured in 1,037 patients (57%...

  4. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Elevated procoagulant endothelial and tissue factor expressing microparticles in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Patil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 15% of reproducing couples suffer from pregnancy loss(PL and recurs in 2-3%. One of the most frequently hypothesized causes of unexplained PL refers to a defective maternal haemostatic response leading to uteroplacental thrombosis. Hereditary thrombophilia and antiphospholipid antibodies have been extensively described as risk factors for PL in women with unknown aetiology. Recently, a new marker has emerged: the cell-derived procoagulant circulating microparticles(MPs which have been reported to have a major role in many thrombosis complicated diseases. This study aims to analyze the significance of procoagulant MPs in women suffering from unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss(RPL, and characterize their cellular origin. METHOD AND FINDINGS: 115 women with RPL were analyzed for common thrombophilia markers and different cell derived MPs-total annexinV, platelet(CD41a, endothelial(CD146,CD62e, leukocyte(CD45, erythrocyte(CD235a and tissue factor(CD142(TF expressing MPs and were compared with 20 healthy non-pregnant women. Methodology for MP analysis was standardized by participating in the "Vascular Biology Scientific and Standardization Committee workshop". RESULTS: Total annexinV, TF and endothelial MPs were found significantly increased(p<0.05, 95% confidence interval in women with RPL. The procoagulant activity of MPs measured by STA-PPL clotting time assay was found in correspondence with annexinV MP levels, wherein the clot time was shortened in samples with increased MP levels. Differences in platelet, leukocyte and erythrocyte derived MPs were not significant. Thirty seven of 115 women were found to carry any of the acquired or hereditary thrombophilia markers. No significant differences were seen in the MP profile of women with and without thrombophilia marker. CONCLUSION: The presence of elevated endothelial, TF and phosphatidylserine expressing MPs at a distance (at least 3 months from the PL suggests a continued chronic

  6. Cadmium levels in a North Carolina cohort: Identifying risk factors for elevated levels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sharon E; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine cadmium (Cd) levels and relationships to demographics in an observational, prospective pregnancy cohort study in Durham County, North Carolina. Multivariable models were used to compare blood Cd levels across demographic characteristics. The relative risk of having a blood Cd level that exceeds the US national median (0.32 μg/l) was estimated. Overall, >60% of the women had an elevated (>0.32 μg/l) blood Cd level. Controlling for confounding variables, smoking was associated with 21% (95% CI: 15-28%) increased risk for an elevated blood Cd level. High Cd levels were also observed in non-smokers and motivated smoking status-stratified models. Race, age, education, relationship status, insurance status and cotinine level were not associated with risk of elevated Cd levels among smokers; however, older age and higher cotinine levels were associated with elevated Cd levels among non-smokers. Taken together, more than half of pregnant women in this cohort had elevated blood Cd levels. Additionally, among non-smokers, 53% of the women had elevated levels of Cd, highlighting other potential sources of exposure. This study expands on the limited data describing Cd levels in pregnant populations and highlights the importance of understanding Cd exposures among non-smokers. Given the latent health risks of both smoking and Cd exposure, this study further highlights the need to biomonitor for exposure to toxic metals during pregnancy among all women of child-bearing age.

  7. Elevated placenta growth factor predicts pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease under inhaled corticosteroids therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hao-Chien

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased incidence of pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD under inhaled corticosteroid (ICS therapy was noticed in previous studies. We performed a prospective study to elucidate the risk factors for the development of pneumonia in this group of patients. Methods A prospective, non-randomized study with patients diagnosed as having COPD from 2007 to 2008 identified in the Far Eastern Memorial Hospital were recruited. We recorded data for all patients, including clinical features and signs, demographic data, lung function status, and medications. Bio-markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP and placenta growth factor (PlGF were checked at first diagnosis. Every acute exacerbation was also recorded, especially pneumonia events, which were confirmed by chest radiography. Multivariate analysis was performed with stepwise logistic regression for pneumonia risk factors. Results 274 patients were diagnosed as having COPD during the study period and 29 patients suffered from pneumonia with a prevalence of 10.6%. The rate was significantly higher in patients with ICS therapy (20/125, 16% compared with those without ICS (9/149, 6% (p = 0.02. We stratified ICS therapy into medium dose (500-999 ug/day fluticasone equivalent, 71 patients and high dose (1000 ug/day and higher fluticasone equivalent, 54 patients group. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of pneumonia between these two group (medium dose: 13/71, 18.3% vs. high dose: 7/54, 12.9%, p = 0.47. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for developing pneumonia and included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 less than 40% of predicted (odds ratio (OR 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1-6.9, ICS prescription ((OR 2.4, 95% (CI: 1.3-8.7, the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-9.4 and PlGF level over 40 pg/L (OR 4.1, 95% CI: 1.5-9.9. Conclusion ICS therapy in patients with COPD

  8. A critical source area phosphorus index with topographic transport factors using high resolution LiDAR digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Murphy, Paul; Fenton, Owen; Shine, Oliver; Mellander, Per-Erik; Dunlop, Paul; Jordan, Phil

    2015-04-01

    A new phosphorus index (PI) tool is presented which aims to improve the identification of critical source areas (CSAs) of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land to surface waters. In a novel approach, the PI incorporates topographic indices rather than watercourse proximity as proxies for runoff risk, to account for the dominant control of topography on runoff-generating areas and P transport pathways. Runoff propensity and hydrological connectivity are modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and Network Index (NI) respectively, utilising high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to capture the influence of micro-topographic features on runoff pathways. Additionally, the PI attempts to improve risk estimates of particulate P losses by incorporating an erosion factor that accounts for fine-scale topographic variability within fields. Erosion risk is modelled using the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition (USPED) model, which integrates DEM-derived upslope contributing area and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) factors. The PI was developed using field, sub-field and sub-catchment scale datasets of P source, mobilisation and transport factors, for four intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland representing different agri-environmental conditions. Datasets included soil test P concentrations, degree of P saturation, soil attributes, land use, artificial subsurface drainage locations, and 2 m resolution LiDAR DEMs resampled from 0.25 m resolution data. All factor datasets were integrated within a Geographical Information System (GIS) and rasterised to 2 m resolution. For each factor, values were categorised and assigned relative risk scores which ranked P loss potential. Total risk scores were calculated for each grid cell using a component formulation, which summed the products of weighted factor risk scores for runoff and erosion pathways. Results showed that the new PI was able to predict

  9. Do elevated serum IgM levels have to be included in probable diagnosis criteria of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarsiz, E; Karaca, N E; Gunaydin, N C; Gulez, N; Ozturk, C; Aksu, G; Genel, F; Kutukculer, N

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a rare multisystem, neurodegenerative genetic disorder that is characterised by progressive neurological abnormalities, oculocutaneous telangiectasias and immunodeficiency. Delay in diagnosis or misdiagnosis is probable due to its wide clinical heterogeneity in infancy. Recurrent sinopulmonary infections are often the only presenting symptom and usually patients have decreased immunoglobulins. A total 10% of patients who present with decreased serum immunoglobulin G and A and with normal or elevated immunoglobulin M levels are often misdiagnosed as hyperimmunoglobulin M syndrome. Definitive diagnosis is made if a patient with progressive cerebellar ataxia has a disease causing mutation on the ATM gene. Ataxia-telangiectasia guideline of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies defines the probable diagnosis criteria. We evaluated twenty ataxia-telangiectasia patients (mean age 13.8±4.1 years) retrospectively who were followed-up for a mean of 38.6±27.0 months. Twelve patients had a family history of consanguinity. A total of 80% patients suffered from various infections. Neoplasms occurred in three of them. Patients showed immunological abnormalities as low IgG (45%), low IgA (65%) and elevated IgM (60%) levels. CD3+CD4+ T lymphocyte frequency was low in 45% patients. The mean AFP concentration at the diagnosis was 191.9±140.1 ng/mL and the raised IgM values did not show any statistically significant relationship with high AFP concentrations. Frequency of the elevated IgM concentrations in (60%) patients raises the concerns about thinking this finding has to be accepted as a probable diagnosis criterium.

  10. Anemia and elevated systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunst, J.; Becker, A.; Lautenschlaeger, C.; Markau, S.; Becker, H.; Fischer, K.; Haensgen, G. [Martin-Luther Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Background: Tissue hypoxia is a major stimulus for the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anemia might theoretically impact on angiogenesis via impairment of tissue oxygenation. We have investigated this hypothesis in patients with solid cancers and benign diseases. Patients and methods: 49 patients with untreated locoregionally confined solid cancers of the head and neck, cervix, rectum and lung and 59 additional patients with non-malignant diseases (36 normemic patients without serious diseases and 23 patients with renal anemia) were enrolled and the impact of anemia on plasma VEGF levels were determined. VEGF was measured with a commercially available sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results: Plasma levels of VEGF were 16.2{+-}12.7 pg/ml in 36 normemic patients without malignant disease, 49,2{+-}34.5 pg/ml in 49 patients with cancers (p<0.001), and 89.9{+-}67.8 pg/ml in 23 patients with renal anemia (p=0.001). VEGF levels in cancer patients were significantly correlated with hemoglobin (hb) levels and platelet counts (each p=0.001), but not with type of tumor, stage, histology or age. Patients with cancers had higher plasma levels of VEGF than patients with non-malignant diseases in case of hb{>=}12 g/dl (33.1{+-}17.5 vs. 16.6{+-}13.0 pg/ml, p<0.001) and in case of hb between 11.0 and 11.9 g/dl (56.1{+-}26.4 vs 18.5{+-}14.5 pg/ml, p=0.038). In case of a hb<11 g/dl, plasma VEGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with and without cancers (67.0{+-}47.5 vs 88.9{+-}68.8 pg/ml, n.s.). In a multivariate model, a significant association between low hb levels and increased plasma levels of VEGF was confirmed. In 16 patients with renal anemia, changes in hb under erythropoietin treatment were inversely correlated with changes in plasma VEGF levels with decreasing VEGF after increase in hb (p=0.01). Conclusions: Anemic patients have elevated levels of VEGF. The data suggest that anemia might impact on the progression of

  11. Elevated resting heart rate is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in healthy men and women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-04-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is known to be associated with reduced survival but inconsistencies remain, including lack of significance in most studies of healthy women, lack of independence from systolic blood pressure (SBP) in some, and the suggestion that RHR is merely functioning as a marker of physical inactivity or other comorbidities. We aimed to clarify these inconsistencies.

  12. Alzheimer's disease: Elevated pigment epithelium-derived factor in the cerebrospinal fluid is mostly of systemic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Veronika; Zille, Marietta; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Jarius, Sven; Jahn, Holger; Paul, Friedemann; Ruprecht, Klemens; Pina, Ana Luisa

    2017-04-15

    Pigment-epithelium derived factor (PEDF) is a neurotrophic factor with neuroprotective, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-angiogenic effects. Elevated levels of PEDF have previously been proposed as a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for Alzheimer's disease. However, the origin of PEDF in CSF, i.e. whether it is derived from the brain or from the systemic circulation, and the specificity of this finding hitherto remained unclear. Here, we analyzed levels of PEDF in paired CSF and serum samples by ELISA in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=12), frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n=6), vascular dementia (n=4), bacterial meningitis (n=8), multiple sclerosis (n=32), pseudotumor cerebri (n=36), and diverse non-inflammatory neurological diseases (n=19). We established CSF/serum quotient diagrams to determine the fraction of intrathecally synthesized PEDF in CSF. We found that PEDF is significantly increased in CSF of patients with AD, FTD, and bacterial meningitis. Remarkably, PEDF concentrations were also significantly elevated in serum of patients with AD. CSF/serum quotient diagrams demonstrated that elevated PEDF concentrations in CSF of patients with AD are mostly due to elevated PEDF concentrations in serum. These findings underscore the importance of relating concentrations of proteins in CSF to their respective concentrations in serum to avoid erroneous interpretations of increased protein concentrations in lumbar CSF.

  13. Elevated Blood Pressure and Its Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents of a North Indian City - A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Senthamizh; Masood, Jamal; Srivastava, Anand Kumar; Mishra, Prabhaker

    2017-01-01

    Amidst the uncertainty in childhood blood pressure (BP) thresholds, besides the ambiguity in levels and duration of BP elevation causing organ damage, hypertension is present in substantial number of asymptomatic children and adolescents with only a few studies disclosing the setup. With projection of deaths due to noncommunicable diseases in 2030 rising to 52 million, it is necessary to know about the knowledge of present adolescents about BP and its modifiable risk factors. (1) To assess the prevalence of elevated BP among adolescents and to ascertain the associated risk factors. (2) To assess adolescent's knowledge about BP and its modifiable factors. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on school going adolescents of Lucknow, from September 2014 to August 2015. BP, height, and weight were measured following standard protocols, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention charts for finding respective cut-off values and oral questionnaire for assessing lifestyle risk factors were used. Chi-square, unpaired t-test, and logistic regression were used. Of the 1041 participants, elevated BP (BP percentile ≥90) was prevalent in 24.2%. On regression, factors such as obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.6-9.4), low fruit diet (aOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.1-5.4), and frequent junk food consumption (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.8) raised the odds of elevated BP while it was lowered by being physically active (aOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.46-0.97). Of 86.3% of children (n = 898) who were fathomed of BP, only less than third (33% and 21.9%) acquainted of BP raising and lowering practices, respectively. Prevalence of high BP is colossal with only a few children knowing its amendable nature. Strenuous efforts targeting detrimental behaviors and imparting the sense of healthy lifestyle enhancing practices are vital to control this epidemic.

  14. Factors influencing economic profitability of dampling-based integrated management of wheat in country elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated pest management provides the potential for better insect management in stored wheat, as well as increased worker safety and reduced environmental concerns. Many country elevators, however, continue to use chemical-based approaches. To determine if this choice is economically justified, to...

  15. Elevated body mass index as a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of gallstone disease. Whether this reflects a causal association is unknown. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we studied 77,679 individuals from the general population. Of these, 4,106 developed symptomatic gallstone...

  16. Elevated body mass index as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jocelyn S Garland Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is defined by the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative as the presence of reduced kidney function or kidney damage for a period of 3 months or greater. Obesity is considered a risk factor for CKD development, but its precise role in contributing to CKD and end stage kidney disease is not fully elucidated. In this narrative review, the objectives are to describe the pathogenesis of CKD in obesity, including the impact of altered adipokine secretion in obesity and CKD, and to provide an overview of the clinical studies assessing the risk of obesity and CKD development. Keywords: obesity, chronic renal disease, adipokine

  17. Factorization of Radiative Leptonic Decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ Mesons Including the Soft Photon Region

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ji-Chong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the radiative leptonic decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ mesons using factorization approach. Factorization is proved to be valid explicitly at 1-loop level at any order of $O(\\Lambda _{\\rm QCD}\\left/m_Q\\right.)$. We consider the contribution in the soft photon region that $E_{\\gamma} \\sim \\left. \\Lambda^2 _{\\rm QCD} /\\right. m_Q$. The numerical results shows that, the soft photon region is very important for both the $B$ and $D$ mesons. The branching ratios of $B\\to \\gamma e\

  18. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  19. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of th

  20. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  1. Clinical characteristics of Pneumocystis pneumonia in non-HIV patients and prognostic factors including microbiological genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Yutaka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of patients with non-HIV Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We investigated the clinical characteristics of non-HIV PCP and its association with microbiological genotypes. Methods Between January 2005 and March 2010, all patients in 2 university hospitals who had been diagnosed with PCP by PCR were enrolled in this study. Retrospective chart review of patients, microbiological genotypes, and association with 30-day mortality were examined. Results Of the 82 adult patients investigated, 50 patients (61% had inflammatory diseases, 17 (21% had solid malignancies, 12 (15% had hematological malignancies, and 6 (7% had received transplantations. All patients received immunosuppressive agents or antitumor chemotherapeutic drugs. Plasma (1→3 β-D-glucan levels were elevated in 80% of patients, and were significantly reduced after treatment in both survivors and non-survivors. However, β-D-glucan increased in 18% of survivors and was normal in only 33% after treatment. Concomitant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was detected in 5 patients. Fifty-six respiratory samples were stored for genotyping. A dihydropteroate synthase mutation associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was found in only 1 of the 53 patients. The most prevalent genotype of mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA was genotype 1, followed by genotype 4. The most prevalent genotype of internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear rRNA operon was Eb, followed by Eg and Bi. Thirty-day mortality was 24%, in which logistic regression analysis revealed association with serum albumin and mechanical ventilation, but no association with genotypes. Conclusions In non-HIV PCP, poorer general and respiratory conditions at diagnosis were independent predictors of mortality. β-D-glucan may not be useful for monitoring the response to treatment, and genotypes were not associated with mortality.

  2. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  3. The N(H2/I(CO Conversion Factor: A Treatment that Includes Radiative Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento que explica mejor el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO y que incluye la transferencia radiativa. A primera vista, incluir la transferencia radiativa parece superfluo para una línea óptimamente gruesa como CO J = 1 0. No obstante, dado que el medio interestelar es inhomogéneo, los fragmentos de gas (es decir, grumos todavía pueden ser óptimamente delgadas hacia sus bordes y en las alas de los pérfiles de la línea. El tratamiento estadístico de Martin et al. (1984 de la transferencia radiativa a través una nube molecular con grumos se usa para derivar una expresión para el factor de conversión que su- pera los defectos de las explicaciones más tradicionales basadas en Dickman et al. (1986. Por un lado, el tratamiento presentado aquí posiblemente representa un avance importante al entender el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO pero, por otro lado, tiene sus propios defectos, que son discutidos aquí brevemente.

  4. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  5. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  6. Elevated BLyS levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Associated factors and responses to belimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D A; Thompson, A; Tang, Y; Hammer, A E; Molta, C T; Gordon, D

    2016-04-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) levels ≥ 2 ng/mL are at increased risk of flare. A regression analysis was undertaken to identify routine clinical measures that correlate with BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL. Efficacy and safety of belimumab 10 mg/kg were examined in patients with BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL and Lupus National Assessment-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SELENA-SLEDAI) and risk of severe flare over 52 weeks. Adverse events (AEs) were analyzed for each treatment arm and BLyS subgroup. Baseline predictors of BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL included positive anti-Smith (≥ 15 U/mL), low complement (C) 3 (< 900 mg/L), anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) 80-200 and ≥ 200 IU/mL, immunosuppressant usage, proteinuria, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and low total lymphocyte count for all patients. Belimumab 10 mg/kg led to significantly greater SRI responses over 52 weeks versus placebo in both BLyS subgroups, though treatment differences were numerically greater at Week 52 in the BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL group (24.1%, p < 0.0001) compared with BLyS < 2 ng/mL (8.2%, p = 0.0158). Results were similar for ≥ 4-point reduction in SELENA-SLEDAI. Risk of severe flare over 52 weeks was significantly reduced with belimumab 10 mg/kg versus placebo in the BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL group (p = 0.0002). AEs were similar across treatment arms and BLyS subgroups. Positive anti-Smith, low C3, anti-dsDNA ≥ 80 IU/mL, immunosuppressant usage, proteinuria, elevated CRP, and low total lymphocyte count were predictors of BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL. Monitoring these factors could identify patients with BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL who are at risk of flare. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  8. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  9. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  10. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    explosion, and the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, such an approach may have helped to maintain the integrity of the designed provisions against major deviations resulting in these disasters. In order to make this paradigm operational, safety management and in particular risk assessment tools need to be refined....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...... Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...

  11. Contribution of Environmental Risk Factors Including Lifestyle to Inequalities Noncommunicable (Chronic Diseases such as Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Grochowska Niedworok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health inequalities: differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Some health inequalities are attributable to biological variations or free choice and others are attributable to the external environment and conditions mainly outside the control of the individuals concerned. 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2012 an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a normal body weight can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Risk factors: 1. Age- the prevalence of diabetes rises steeply with age: *one in twenty people over the age of 65 have diabetes, *and this rises to one in five people over the age of 85 years. The diagnosis of diabetes may be delayed in older people, with symptoms of diabetes being wrongly attributed to ageing. 2. Ethnic: type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in people of South Asian descent and up to three times more common in those of African and African-Caribbean descent then in the white population. It is also more common in people of Chinese descent and other non-Caucasian groups. 3. Gender: the frequency of diabetes usually is higher in men than in women. This may be because gender compounds other aspects of inequality- women often bear the brunt of poverty, and socio-economic differences in the prevalence of diabetes are more marked for women, probably because of differences in smoking rates, food choices and the prevalence of obesity. 4. Overweight/Obesity: every 1 kg/m2 more causes increase risk: cardiovascular diseases 2%, coronary artery disease- 3% , myocardial infarction- 5% , heart failure- 5% , peripheral vascular disease- 5%. Health inqualities important in diabetes -- modifiable:  social

  12. Elevated blood pressure and its associated risk factors among adolescents of a North Indian City - A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthamizh Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Amidst the uncertainty in childhood blood pressure (BP thresholds, besides the ambiguity in levels and duration of BP elevation causing organ damage, hypertension is present in substantial number of asymptomatic children and adolescents with only a few studies disclosing the setup. With projection of deaths due to noncommunicable diseases in 2030 rising to 52 million, it is necessary to know about the knowledge of present adolescents about BP and its modifiable risk factors. Aims: (1 To assess the prevalence of elevated BP among adolescents and to ascertain the associated risk factors. (2 To assess adolescent's knowledge about BP and its modifiable factors. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on school going adolescents of Lucknow, from September 2014 to August 2015. Subjects and Methods: BP, height, and weight were measured following standard protocols, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention charts for finding respective cut-off values and oral questionnaire for assessing lifestyle risk factors were used. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square, unpaired t-test, and logistic regression were used. Results: Of the 1041 participants, elevated BP (BP percentile ≥90 was prevalent in 24.2%. On regression, factors such as obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.6–9.4, low fruit diet (aOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.1–5.4, and frequent junk food consumption (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3–2.8 raised the odds of elevated BP while it was lowered by being physically active (aOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.46–0.97. Of 86.3% of children (n = 898 who were fathomed of BP, only less than third (33% and 21.9% acquainted of BP raising and lowering practices, respectively. Conclusions: Prevalence of high BP is colossal with only a few children knowing its amendable nature. Strenuous efforts targeting detrimental behaviors and imparting the sense of healthy lifestyle enhancing practices are vital to

  13. Factor XIa and Thrombin Generation Are Elevated in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Predict Recurrent Cardiovascular Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinske Loeffen

    Full Text Available In acute coronary syndrome (ACS cardiac cell damage is preceded by thrombosis. Therefore, plasma coagulation markers may have additional diagnostic relevance in ACS. By using novel coagulation assays this study aims to gain more insight into the relationship between the coagulation system and ACS.We measured plasma thrombin generation, factor XIa and D-dimer levels in plasma from ACS (n = 104 and non-ACS patients (n = 42. Follow-up measurements (n = 73 were performed at 1 and 6 months. Associations between coagulation markers and recurrent cardiovascular events were calculated by logistic regression analysis.Thrombin generation was significantly enhanced in ACS compared to non-ACS patients: peak height 148±53 vs. 122±42 nM. There was a significantly diminished ETP reduction (32 vs. 41% and increased intrinsic coagulation activation (25 vs. 7% in ACS compared to non-ACS patients. Furthermore, compared to non-ACS patients factor XIa and D-dimer levels were significantly elevated in ACS patients: 1.9±1.1 vs. 1.4±0.7 pM and 495(310-885 vs. 380(235-540 μg/L. Within the ACS spectrum, ST-elevated myocardial infarction patients had the highest prothrombotic profile. During the acute event, thrombin generation was significantly increased compared to 1 and 6 months afterwards: peak height 145±52 vs. 100±44 vs. 98±33 nM. Both peak height and factor XIa levels on admission predicted recurrent cardiovascular events (OR: 4.9 [95%CI 1.2-20.9] and 4.5 [1.1-18.9].ACS patients had an enhanced prothrombotic profile, demonstrated by an increased thrombin generation potential, factor XIa and D-dimer levels. This study is the first to demonstrate the positive association between factor XIa, thrombin generation and recurrent cardiovascular events.

  14. Factor XIa and Thrombin Generation Are Elevated in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Predict Recurrent Cardiovascular Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, Rinske; van Oerle, René; Leers, Mathie P. G.; Kragten, Johannes A.; Crijns, Harry; Spronk, Henri M. H.; ten Cate, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Objective In acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cardiac cell damage is preceded by thrombosis. Therefore, plasma coagulation markers may have additional diagnostic relevance in ACS. By using novel coagulation assays this study aims to gain more insight into the relationship between the coagulation system and ACS. Methods We measured plasma thrombin generation, factor XIa and D-dimer levels in plasma from ACS (n = 104) and non-ACS patients (n = 42). Follow-up measurements (n = 73) were performed at 1 and 6 months. Associations between coagulation markers and recurrent cardiovascular events were calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results Thrombin generation was significantly enhanced in ACS compared to non-ACS patients: peak height 148±53 vs. 122±42 nM. There was a significantly diminished ETP reduction (32 vs. 41%) and increased intrinsic coagulation activation (25 vs. 7%) in ACS compared to non-ACS patients. Furthermore, compared to non-ACS patients factor XIa and D-dimer levels were significantly elevated in ACS patients: 1.9±1.1 vs. 1.4±0.7 pM and 495(310–885) vs. 380(235–540) μg/L. Within the ACS spectrum, ST-elevated myocardial infarction patients had the highest prothrombotic profile. During the acute event, thrombin generation was significantly increased compared to 1 and 6 months afterwards: peak height 145±52 vs. 100±44 vs. 98±33 nM. Both peak height and factor XIa levels on admission predicted recurrent cardiovascular events (OR: 4.9 [95%CI 1.2–20.9] and 4.5 [1.1–18.9]). Conclusion ACS patients had an enhanced prothrombotic profile, demonstrated by an increased thrombin generation potential, factor XIa and D-dimer levels. This study is the first to demonstrate the positive association between factor XIa, thrombin generation and recurrent cardiovascular events. PMID:27419389

  15. Elevated circulating stromal-derived factor-1 levels in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landburg, P P; Nur, E; Maria, N; Brandjes, D P M; Biemond, B J; Schnog, J B; Duits, A J

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are of importance in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). Recently, the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been shown to be a key mediator of angiogenesis and inflammation. In this study we determined serum SDF-1 levels in consecutive adult

  16. Elevated serum levels of free insulin-like growth factor I in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Thierry van Dessel; P.D.K. Lee (Philip); G. Faessen; B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); L.C. Giudice

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulation in women. Previous studies suggest that the pathogenesis of PCOS may involve interrelated abnormalities of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and ovarian steroidogenesis systems. We i

  17. Elevated growth differentiation factor 15 expression in patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamary, H.; Shalev, H.; Perez-Avraham, G.; Zoldan, M.; Levi, I.; Swinkels, D.W.; Tanno, T.; Miller, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA) is a rare group of red blood cell disorders characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis and increased iron absorption. To determine whether growth differentation factor 15 (GDF15) hyper-expression is associated with the ineffective erythropoiesis and iron-lo

  18. Elevated circulating stromal-derived factor-1 levels in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landburg, P P; Nur, E; Maria, N; Brandjes, D P M; Biemond, B J; Schnog, J B; Duits, A J

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are of importance in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). Recently, the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been shown to be a key mediator of angiogenesis and inflammation. In this study we determined serum SDF-1 levels in consecutive adult sick

  19. ELEVATED LIPID PEROXIDATION AND DNA OXIDATION IN NERVE FROM DIABETIC RATS: EFFECTS OF ALDOSE REDUCTASE INHIBITION, INSULIN AND NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Joice M.; Jolivalt, Corinne G.; Ramos, Khara M.; Gregory, Joshua A.; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Mizisin, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor, insulin or select neurotrophic factors on the generation of oxidative damage in peripheral nerve. Rats were either treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce insulin-deficient diabetes or fed with a diet containing 40% D-galactose to promote hexose metabolism by aldose reductase. Initial time-course studies showed that lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation were significantly elevated in sciatic nerve after 1 week or 2 weeks of STZ-induced diabetes, respectively, and that both remained elevated after 12 weeks of diabetes. The increase in nerve lipid peroxidation was completely prevented or reversed by treatment with the aldose reductase inhibitor, ICI 222155, or by insulin, but not by the neurotrophic factors, prosaptide TX14(A) or neurotrophin-3. The increase in nerve DNA oxidation was significantly prevented by insulin treatment. In contrast, up to 16 weeks of galactose feeding did not alter nerve lipid peroxidation or protein oxidation, despite evidence of ongoing nerve conduction deficits. These observations demonstrate that nerve oxidative damage develops early after the onset of insulin-deficient diabetes and that it is not induced by increased hexose metabolism by aldose reductase per se, but rather is a downstream consequence of flux through this enzyme. Furthermore, the beneficial effect of prosaptide TX14(A) and neurotrophin-3 on nerve function and structure in diabetic rats are not due to amelioration of increased lipid peroxidation. PMID:18555826

  20. Elevated serum level of YKL-40 is an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Johansen, Julia Sidenius; Gehl, Julie;

    2006-01-01

    that serum YKL-40 (hazard ratio       [HR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.8; P = 0.004) and serum       lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (HR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9; P = 0.004) were       independent prognostic factors for survival. A combination variable of       elevated serum YKL-40 and LDH...... quadrupled the risk of early death (HR =       4.4; 95% CI, 2.5-7.7; P LDH had a stronger prognostic impact       than the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV       classification. Furthermore, serum...... was an independent prognostic factor for poor       survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. When combining serum YKL-40       and LDH, patients could be separated into three prognostic groups based on       the number of elevated biomarkers. The findings should be validated in an       independent study...

  1. Micronutrients attenuate progression of prostate cancer by elevating the endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, Platelet Factor-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleshner Neil E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longstanding evidence implicates an inadequate diet as a key factor in the onset and progression of prostate cancer. The purpose herein was to discover, validate and characterize functional biomarkers of dietary supplementation capable of suppressing the course of prostate cancer in vivo. Methods The Lady transgenic mouse model that spontaneously develops prostate cancer received a diet supplemented with a micronutrient cocktail of vitamin E, selenium and lycopene ad libitum. A proteomic analysis was conducted to screen for serum biomarkers of this dietary supplementation. Candidate peptides were validated and identified by sequencing and analyzed for their presence within the prostates of all mice by immunohistochemistry. Results Dietary supplementation with the combined micronutrients significantly induced the expression of the megakaryocyte-specific inhibitor of angiogenesis, platelet factor-4 (P = 0.0025. This observation was made predominantly in mice lacking tumors and any manifestations associated with progressive disease beyond 37 weeks of life, at which time no survivors remained in the control group (P Conclusion We present unprecedented data whereby these combined micronutrients effectively promotes tumor dormancy in early prostate cancer, following initiation mutations that may drive the angiogenesis-dependent response of the tumor, by inducing platelet factor-4 expression and concentrating it at the tumor endothelium through enhanced platelet binding.

  2. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included…

  3. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and mortality in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, Helle; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hjelmborg, Jacob v B;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied by low-grade inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha initiates the cytokine cascade, and high levels are associated with dementia and atherosclerosis in persons aged 100 years. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha was also a prognostic marker for all-cause morta...... as confounders. CONCLUSION: TNF-alpha was an independent prognostic marker for mortality in persons aged 100 years, suggesting that it has specific biological effects and is a marker of frailty in the very elderly.......BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied by low-grade inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha initiates the cytokine cascade, and high levels are associated with dementia and atherosclerosis in persons aged 100 years. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha was also a prognostic marker for all......-cause mortality in these persons. METHODS: We enrolled 126 subjects at or around the time of their 100th birthday. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline, and we determined the associations between the markers of inflammation and mortality during...

  4. Recurrent myocardial infarctions in a young football player secondary to thrombophilia, associated with elevated factor VIII activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Thomas P; Yu, Shipeng; Rehman, Shahnaz; Grubb, Blair P; Kosinski, Daniel; Verghese, Cherian; Eltahawy, Ehab A; Shafiq, Qaiser

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) due to coronary atherosclerosis in young adults is uncommon; rare causes such as cocaine abuse, arterial dissection, and thromboembolism should be considered. A 21-year-old football player, and otherwise healthy African American man, developed chest pain during exercise while bench-pressing 400 lbs. Acute MI was diagnosed based on physical examination, electrocardiography findings, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary arteriography showed a thrombus occluding the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD). Aggressive antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and eptifibatide was pursued, in addition to standard post-MI care. This led to the successful resolution of symptoms and dissolution of the thrombus, demonstrated by repeat coronary arteriography. Five months later, he presented with similar symptoms during exercise after lifting heavy weights, and was found to have another acute MI. Coronary arteriography again showed a thrombus occluding the LAD. No evidence of coronary artery dissection or vasospasm was found. Only mild atherosclerotic plaque burden was observed on both occasions by intravascular ultrasound. A bare metal stent was placed at the site as it was thought this site had acted as a nidus for small plaque rupture and thrombus formation. Elevated serum factor VIII activity at 205% (reference range 60%-140%) was found, a rare cause of hypercoagulability. Further workup revealed a patent foramen ovale during a Valsalva maneuver by transesophageal echocardiography. Both events occurred during weight lifting, which can transiently increase right heart pressure in a similar way to the Valsalva maneuver. In light of all the findings, we concluded that an exercise-related increase in factor VIII activity led to coronary arterial thrombosis in the presence of a small ruptured plaque. Alternatively, venous clots may have traversed the patent foramen ovale and occluded the LAD. In addition to continuing aggressive risk

  5. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and drugs elevating extracellular adenosine synergize to enhance haematopoietic reconstitution in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospisil, M.; Hofer, M.; Netikova, J.; Hola, J.; Vacek, A. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Inst. of Biophysics, Brno (Czech Republic); Znojil, V.; Vacha, J. [Masaryk Univ., Medical Faculty, Brno (Czech Republic)

    1998-03-01

    The activation of adenosine receptors has recently been demonstrated to stimulate haematopoiesis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of drugs elevating extracellular adenosine to influence curative effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mice exposed to a sublethal dose of 4 Gy of {sup 60}Co radiation. Elevation of extracellular adenosine in mice was induced by the combined administration of dipyridamole, a drug inhibiting the cellular uptake of adenosine, and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), an adenosine prodrug. The effects of dipyridamole plus AMP, and G-CSF, administered either alone or in combination, were evaluated. The drugs were injected to mice in a 4-d treatment regimen starting on d 3 after irradiation and the haematopoietic response was evaluated on d 7, 10, 14, 18 and 24 after irradiation. While the effects of G-CSF on the late maturation stages of blood cells, appearing shortly after the completion of the treatment, were not influenced by dipyridamole plus AMP, positive effects of the combination therapy occurred in the post-irradiation recovery phase which is dependent on the repopulation of haematopoietic stem cells. This was indicated by the significant elevation of counts of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC) and granulocytic cells in the bone marrow (d 14), of GM-CFC (d 14), granulocytic and erythroid cells (d 14 and 18) in the spleen, and of neutrophils (d 18), monocytes (d 14 and 18) and platelets (d 18) in the peripheral blood. These effects suggest that the repopulation potential of the combination therapy lies in a common multi-lineage cell population. The results of this study implicate the promising possibility to enhance the curative effects of G-CSF under conditions of myelosuppressive state induced by radiation exposure. (au) 43 refs.

  6. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3...... were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder...

  7. Treatment of Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Process Analysis of Patient and Program Factors in a Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepple, Benjamin I; Thistlethwaite, William A; Schumann, Christopher L; Akosah, Kwame O; Schutt, Robert C; Keeley, Ellen C

    2016-09-01

    As part of a quality improvement project, we performed a process analysis to evaluate how patients presenting with type 1 non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are diagnosed and managed early after the diagnosis has been made. We performed a retrospective chart review and collected detailed information regarding the timing of the first 12-lead electrocardiogram, troponin order entry and first positive troponin result, administration of anticoagulation and antiplatelet medications, and referral for coronary angiography to identify areas of treatment variability and delay. A total of 242 patients with type 1 non-STEMI were included. The majority of patients received aspirin early after presentation to the emergency department; however, there was significant variability in the time from presentation to administration of other medications, including anticoagulation and P2Y12 therapy, even after an elevated troponin level was documented in the chart. Lack of a standardized non-STEMI admission order set, inconsistency regarding whether the emergency department physician or the cardiology admitting team order these medications after the diagnosis is made, and per current protocol, the initial call regarding the patient made to the cardiology fellow, not the admitting house staff, were identified as possible contributors to the delay. Patients who presented during "nighttime" hours had higher rates of atypical symptoms (P = 0.036) and longer delays to coronary angiography (46.5 versus 24 hours, P process analysis revealed considerable variation in non-STEMI treatment in our teaching hospital and identified specific areas for quality improvement measures.

  8. Elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling Is Critical for the Pathogenesis of the Dwarfism in Evc2/Limbin Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghao; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Takehito; Takeda, Haruko; Scott, Greg; Rajderkar, Sudha; Ray, Manas K; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Allen, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Veronique; Hung, Irene H; Ornitz, David M; Kunieda, Tetsuo; Mishina, Yuji

    2016-12-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a skeletal dysplasia, characterized by short limbs, postaxial polydactyly, and dental abnormalities. EvC syndrome is also categorized as a ciliopathy because of ciliary localization of proteins encoded by the two causative genes, EVC and EVC2 (aka LIMBIN). While recent studies demonstrated important roles for EVC/EVC2 in Hedgehog signaling, there is still little known about the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the skeletal dysplasia features of EvC patients, and in particular why limb development is affected, but not other aspects of organogenesis that also require Hedgehog signaling. In this report, we comprehensively analyze limb skeletogenesis in Evc2 mutant mice and in cell and tissue cultures derived from these mice. Both in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling in Evc2 mutant growth plates, in addition to compromised but not abrogated Hedgehog-PTHrP feedback loop. Elevation of FGF signaling, mainly due to increased Fgf18 expression upon inactivation of Evc2 in the perichondrium, critically contributes to the pathogenesis of limb dwarfism. The limb dwarfism phenotype is partially rescued by inactivation of one allele of Fgf18 in the Evc2 mutant mice. Taken together, our data uncover a novel pathogenic mechanism to understand limb dwarfism in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.

  9. Modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors are associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Svensson, Elisabeth; Rungby, Jørgen;

    2014-01-01

    />21 drinks per week for women/men) (aPR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03-2.50), and in those with no regular physical activity (aPR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.04-1.93). Obesity and metabolic syndrome per se showed no association with elevated ALT when adjusted for other markers, whereas we found positive associations of ALT...... aminotransferase (ALT) levels as a marker of NAFLD in new T2DM patients. METHODS: Alanine aminotransferase levels were measured in 1026 incident T2DM patients enrolled in the nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) cohort. We examined prevalence of elevated ALT (>38 IU/L for women...... and >50 IU/L for men) and calculated prevalence ratios associated with clinical and lifestyle factors using Poisson regression. We examined the association with other biomarkers by linear regression. RESULTS: The median value of ALT was 24 IU/L (interquartile range: 18-32 IU/L) in women and 30 IU...

  10. Elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling Is Critical for the Pathogenesis of the Dwarfism in Evc2/Limbin Mutant Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ellis-van Creveld (EvC syndrome is a skeletal dysplasia, characterized by short limbs, postaxial polydactyly, and dental abnormalities. EvC syndrome is also categorized as a ciliopathy because of ciliary localization of proteins encoded by the two causative genes, EVC and EVC2 (aka LIMBIN. While recent studies demonstrated important roles for EVC/EVC2 in Hedgehog signaling, there is still little known about the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the skeletal dysplasia features of EvC patients, and in particular why limb development is affected, but not other aspects of organogenesis that also require Hedgehog signaling. In this report, we comprehensively analyze limb skeletogenesis in Evc2 mutant mice and in cell and tissue cultures derived from these mice. Both in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF signaling in Evc2 mutant growth plates, in addition to compromised but not abrogated Hedgehog-PTHrP feedback loop. Elevation of FGF signaling, mainly due to increased Fgf18 expression upon inactivation of Evc2 in the perichondrium, critically contributes to the pathogenesis of limb dwarfism. The limb dwarfism phenotype is partially rescued by inactivation of one allele of Fgf18 in the Evc2 mutant mice. Taken together, our data uncover a novel pathogenic mechanism to understand limb dwarfism in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.

  11. Inlay osteotome sinus floor elevation with concentrated growth factor application and simultaneous short implant placement in severely atrophic maxilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghui; Cai, Zhiyu; Zheng, Dingguo; Lin, Pei; Cai, Yahua; Hong, Shuxin; Lai, Yiwei; Wu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Sinus floor elevation with simultaneous implant placement in severely atrophic maxilla is challenging. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the short-term performance of modified osteotome sinus floor elevation (OSFE) with concentrated growth factor (CGF) application and concurrent placement of a short implant in cases with residual bone height (RBH) of 2–4 mm. Twenty-five short implants were installed in 16 patients with mean RBH of 3.23 mm using modified OSFE with CGFs from January 2012 to April 2014. Postoperatively, the implants were clinically evaluated, and vertical bone gain (VBG) was measured using cone beam computed tomography. The mean duration of follow-up was 19.88 months (12–32 months). All the implants were stable with an overall survival rate of 100%. The mean VBG immediately after surgery was 9.21 mm. Six months later, significant reduction of alveolar bone height (2.90 ± 0.22 mm) was found (P  0.05). Within the limits of this study, modified OSFE with CGF application and simultaneous short implant placement could yield predictable clinical results for severely atrophic maxilla with RBH of 2–4 mm. PMID:27250556

  12. Intrahypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor elevates gastric bicarbonate and inhibits stress ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunion, M W; Kauffman, G L; Taché, Y

    1990-01-01

    The effects of intrahyopthalamic microinfusions of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on gastric bicarbonate, acid, and pepsin content and on cold restraint-induced gastric lesion formation were tested in three experiments. Bilateral microinfusions of CRF into the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (0.86 nmol/rat) significantly increased both gastric bicarbonate concentration and total bicarbonate output. These effects were observed irrespective of whether rats were pretreated with the acid antisecretory drug omeprazole. In nonomeprazole-pretreated rats, CRF microinfusions also significantly reduced acid secretion and raised pH. The increase in bicarbonate content accounted for half of the observed decrease in acid output, suggesting that CRF microinfusions activated separable bicarbonate-stimulating and acid-inhibiting hypothalamic systems. In non-omeprazole-pretreated rats, CRF microinfusions significantly increased serum gastrin, whereas pepsin output was unchanged. Gastric mucosal damage produced by 4 h of cold restraint was significantly diminished by CRF microinfusion into the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data demonstrate that ventromedial hypothalamic microinfusions of CRF increase bicarbonate content, decrease gastric acid content, and confer protection against cold restraint-induced gastric mucosal damage. Hypothalamic CRF neuronal terminals and receptors may be involved in the central regulation of gastric bicarbonate secretion as well as acid secretion.

  13. Transforming growth factor-beta is elevated in unpasteurized cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Diego G; Piacentini, Giorgio L; Bodini, Alessandro; Pigozzi, Roberta; Boner, Attilio L

    2009-02-01

    Unpasteurized milk consumption was associated with less atopy prevalence. Not only microbial load but also fatty acids and cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) may play a role on the effect of unpasteurized milk. Levels of TGF-beta(1) in different cow's milk samples were evaluated: we consider raw unpasteurized milk before and after boiling, commercial pasteurized and micro-filtrated cow's milk and different commercially available cow's milk formulas. TGF-beta(1) concentration in raw unpasteurized cow's milk was 642.0 +/- 52.9 pg/ml before boiling and decreased significantly after boiling (302.7 +/- 50.59 pg/ml) (p < 0.05). TGF-beta(1) concentrations were also significantly lower in commercial pasteurized milk (246.2 +/- 43.15 pg/ml) and in commercial micro-filtrated milk (213.0 +/- 31.6 pg/ml) in comparison to unpasteurized unboiled milk (p = 0.002). The levels of TGF-beta(1) in all formula samples were below the threshold of detectability for the assays. As TGF-beta(1) in the milk may contribute to the development of the immature gastrointestinal tract by influencing IgA production and oral tolerance induction, we suggest to consider not only the microbial compounds but also the cytokine patterns to explain the protective effect of unpasteurized cow's milk on allergic disorders.

  14. Elevated plasma levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor correlated with inflammation and lung function in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoou Li,1–3 Tao Wang,1,2 Ting Yang,1,2 Yongchun Shen,1,2 Jing An,1,2 Lian Liu,1,2 Jiajia Dong,1,2 Lingli Guo,1,2 Diandian Li,1,2 Xue Zhang,1,2 Lei Chen,1,2 Dan Xu,1,2 Fuqiang Wen1,2 1Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Rationale: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is a 50 kD small secreting glycoprotein that participates in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have reported that PEDF plays an important role in inflammatory responses in several diseases. However, the role of PEDF in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains unclear.Objective: The aim of the present study is to explore the potential relationship between PEDF and COPD.Methods: We used differential proteomics – stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture – to investigate protein expression profile changes in cigarette smoke extract-treated pulmonary cells and found that the neurotrophic and antiangiogenic protein PEDF was abnormally expressed. Furthermore, Western blotting was used to detect the expression of PEDF in the lung tissue of rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighty subjects between the ages of 40–90 years, including 20 healthy nonsmokers, ten smoking volunteers, and 50 COPD patients, were recruited from September 2012 until August 2013 in Sichuan Province, People’s Republic of China. We measured the plasma PEDF concentration and classic proinflammatory cytokines by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, we performed a spirometry examination to

  15. Body mass index classification misses subjects with increased cardiometabolic risk factors related to elevated adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ambrosi, J; Silva, C; Galofré, J C; Escalada, J; Santos, S; Millán, D; Vila, N; Ibañez, P; Gil, M J; Valentí, V; Rotellar, F; Ramírez, B; Salvador, J; Frühbeck, G

    2012-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is widely used as a measure of overweight and obesity, but underestimates the prevalence of both conditions, defined as an excess of body fat. We assessed the degree of misclassification on the diagnosis of obesity using BMI as compared with direct body fat percentage (BF%) determination and compared the cardiovascular and metabolic risk of non-obese and obese BMI-classified subjects with similar BF%. We performed a cross-sectional study. A total of 6123 (924 lean, 1637 overweight and 3562 obese classified according to BMI) Caucasian subjects (69% females), aged 18-80 years. BMI, BF% determined by air displacement plethysmography and well-established blood markers of insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk were measured. We found that 29% of subjects classified as lean and 80% of individuals classified as overweight according to BMI had a BF% within the obesity range. Importantly, the levels of cardiometabolic risk factors, such as C-reactive protein, were higher in lean and overweight BMI-classified subjects with BF% within the obesity range (men 4.3 ± 9.2, women 4.9 ± 19.5 mg l(-1)) as well as in obese BMI-classified individuals (men 4.2 ± 5.5, women 5.1 ± 13.2 mg l(-1)) compared with lean volunteers with normal body fat amounts (men 0.9 ± 0.5, women 2.1 ± 2.6 mg l(-1); Pbody fat, the inclusion of body composition measurements together with morbidity evaluation in the routine medical practice both for the diagnosis and the decision-making for instauration of the most appropriate treatment of obesity is desirable.

  16. [Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines level at early age as the risk factor of neurological and mental pathology development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, O E; Klimenko, V M

    2011-10-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 (IL-1, IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the key mediators of neuroimmune interactions, are the common pathogenic part of various kinds of the perinatal pathology leading to severe neurological and mental diseases. In the review, features of expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors in the brain at early age under normal and pathological conditions, their influence on processes of maturing of the CNS cells are described, the data of experimental and clinical researches of disturbances of the mental functions arising in adults owing to elevation of the IL-1, IL-6 levels and TNFalpha in early ontogenesis are cited. The role of the cytokines in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, a syndrome of attention deficiency, autism and a Parkinsonism is discussed.

  17. Incidence and Risk Factors of Ventricular Fibrillation Before Primary Angioplasty in Patients With First ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Reza; Engstrøm, Thomas; Glinge, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for ventricular fibrillation (VF) before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in a prospective nationwide setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this case......-control study, patients presenting within the first 12 hours of first STEMI who survived to undergo angiography and subsequent PPCI were enrolled. Over 2 years, 219 cases presenting with VF before PPCI and 441 controls without preceding VF were enrolled. Of the 219 case patients, 182 (83%) had STEMI with out......-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to VF, and 37 (17%) had cardiac arrest upon arrival to the emergency room. Medical history was collected by standardized interviews and by linkage to national electronic health records. The incidence of VF before PPCI among STEMI patients was 11.6%. Multivariable logistic regression...

  18. Incidence and Risk Factors of Ventricular Fibrillation Before Primary Angioplasty in Patients With First ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Reza; Engstrøm, Thomas; Glinge, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for ventricular fibrillation (VF) before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in a prospective nationwide setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this case......-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to VF, and 37 (17%) had cardiac arrest upon arrival to the emergency room. Medical history was collected by standardized interviews and by linkage to national electronic health records. The incidence of VF before PPCI among STEMI patients was 11.6%. Multivariable logistic regression...... associated with VF occurring out-of-hospital or on arrival at the emergency room before PPCI in STEMI patients, thus providing potential avenues for investigation regarding improved identification and prevention of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias....

  19. The risk factors for elevated blood pressure and how to address cardiovascular risk factors: a review in paediatric populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Kd; Kemper, Hcg

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the epidemiology of hypertension and management strategies of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in paediatric populations in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world in the 21st century. A computerized literature search was carried out using Medline, Evidence-Based Child Health (A Cochrane Review Journal), the Cochrane Library and Cochrane Child Health Field. A manual search in the African Journal for physical, health education, recreation and dance, the South African Journal for Research in Sports, Physical Education and Recreation and a few individuals in the area were requested to send some of their recent unpublished and published reports in the field. High prevalence rates and high odds ratios for high blood pressure (BP) were recorded in children aged 5-17 years. There is a need for health ministries to improve the public health sector so as to close the gap between the rich and the poor. Although personal and parental responsibility remain crucial, it also falls on the government to help control powerful environmental factors that are leading our children to premature ill-health and mortality. Equally, health professionals are increasingly recognized that they have a significant role to play in delivering medical treatment of hypertension in children.

  20. Elevated transforming growth factor β and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate fibrotic traits of Dupuytren's disease fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Carola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dupuytren's disease is a fibroproliferative disorder of the palmar fascia. The treatment used to date has mostly been surgery, but there is a high recurrence rate. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β has been implicated as a key stimulator of myofibroblast activity and fascial contraction in Dupuytren's disease. Results We studied Dupuytren's fibroblasts in tissues ex vivo and in cells cultured in vitro and found increased TGF-β expression compared to control fibroblasts. This correlated not only with elevated expression and activation of downstream Smad effectors but also with overactive extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2/mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase signalling. Treatment with the TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor SB-431542 and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6 led to inhibition of elevated Smad and ERK1/2/MAP kinase signalling as well as to inhibition of the increased contractility of Dupuytren's fibroblasts. BMP6 attenuated TGF-β expression in Dupuytren's fibroblasts, but not in control fibroblasts. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF expression was strongly promoted by TGF-β in Dupuytren's fibroblasts and was curbed by SB-431542 or BMP6 treatment. High basal expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 MAP kinase and fibroproliferative markers was attenuated in Dupuytren's fibroblasts by a selective PDGF receptor kinase inhibitor. Cotreatment of Dupuytren's fibroblasts with SB-431542 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 inhibitor PD98059 was sufficient to abrogate proliferation and contraction of Dupuytren's fibroblasts. Conclusions Both TGF-β and ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathways cooperated in mediating the enhanced proliferation and high spontaneous contraction of Dupuytren's fibroblasts. Our data indicate that both signalling pathways are prime targets for the development of nonsurgical intervention strategies to treat Dupuytren's disease.

  1. Factors associated with low adherence to head-of-bed elevation during mechanical ventilation in Chinese intensive care units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-tao; SONG Hai-jing; WANG Yu; KANG Yan; JIANG Li; LIN Si-han; DU Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevating the head of bed (HOB) 30°-45° has been widely supported as a means of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) prevention.However,it was poorly adhered in clinical practice.This observational study aimed to investigate the factors impeding this simple practice at the bedside.Methods This prospective study was conducted in 33 Chinese academic hospital intensive care units (ICUs).HOB angle was measured four times daily at 5-7 hour intervals.The predefined HOB elevation goal was an angle >30°.Results The overall rate of achieving the HOB goal was 27.8% of the 8647 measurements in 314 patients during 2842 ventilation days.The HOB goal of >3 times/d was consistently achieved only in 15.9% of the cases.Almost 60% of patients had at least one 24 hours period during which the HOB goal was never documented.This low rate of protocol compliance was not associated with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ score or dependence on vasopressors.In a survey,"nurse workload" was identified as the most important factor for non-compliance with the HOB goal.In addition,the rates of compliance were significantly different (P <0.001) between physicians self-reporting that they either did or did not know the Institutes of Healthcare Improvement (IHI) ventilator bundle.Conclusions Low adherence to a HOB angle of >30° was found in this nationwide survey.Nursing workload and lack of knowledge on VAP prevention were important barriers to changing this practice.

  2. Genetically elevated non-fasting triglycerides and calculated remnant cholesterol as causal risk factors for myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Anders Berg; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; West, Anders Sode; Grande, Peer; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Elevated non-fasting triglycerides mark elevated levels of remnant cholesterol. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we tested whether genetically increased remnant cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemia due to genetic variation in the apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) associates with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). We resequenced the core promoter and coding regions of APOA5 in individuals with the lowest 1% (n = 95) and highest 2% (n = 190) triglyceride levels in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, n = 10 391). Genetic variants which differed in frequency between the two extreme triglyceride groups (c.-1131T > C, S19W, and c.*31C > T; P-value: 0.06 to triglyceride levels, were genotyped in the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS), the CCHS, and the Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study (CIHDS), comprising a total of 5705 MI cases and 54 408 controls. Genotype combinations of these common variants associated with increases in non-fasting triglycerides and calculated remnant cholesterol of, respectively, up to 68% (1.10 mmol/L) and 56% (0.40 mmol/L) (P triglycerides was 1.57 (1.32-2.68) compared with a causal genetic odds ratio of 1.94 (1.40-1.85) (P for comparison = 0.28). For calculated remnant cholesterol, the corresponding values were 1.67(1.38-2.02) observational and 2.23(1.48-3.35) causal (P for comparison = 0.21). These data are consistent with a causal association between elevated levels of remnant cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemia and an increased risk of MI. Limitations include that remnants were not measured directly, and that APOA5 genetic variants may influence other lipoprotein parameters.

  3. Albuminuria is an independent risk factor of T4 elevation in chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Pan, Binbin; Li, Wenwen; Zou, Yonghua; Hua, Xi; Huang, Wenjuan; Wan, Xin; Cao, Changchun

    2017-01-01

    This study was to explore the association between thyroid dysfunction and albuminuria. 581 cases with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were included in this study. The clinical characteristics consisted of sex, age, serum creatinine, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), thyroid function were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by CKD-EPI four-level race equation. Prevalence of different thyroid diseases was calculated by chi-square test. Levels of thyroid hormone were compared among different albuminuria groups by Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman’s correlation was used to assess the association between albuminuria and thyroid hormone. Our study showed that total T4 and free T4 were significantly different among ACR 300 mg/g (P hs-CRP, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, medication use for diabetes mellitus, eGFR, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, hypertension, and medication use for hypercholesterinemia. In conclusion, T4 was positively correlated with albuminuria, and it was completely not consistent with our anticipation. Further study is needed to elucidate the causation association between albuminuria and T4. PMID:28117377

  4. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  5. Recurrent myocardial infarctions in a young football player secondary to thrombophilia, associated with elevated factor VIII activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacek TP

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas P Vacek, Shipeng Yu, Shahnaz Rehman, Blair P Grubb, Daniel Kosinski, Cherian Verghese, Ehab A Eltahawy, Shafiq Qaiser Department of Medicine, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Myocardial infarction (MI due to coronary atherosclerosis in young adults is uncommon; rare causes such as cocaine abuse, arterial dissection, and thromboembolism should be considered. A 21-year-old football player, and otherwise healthy African American man, developed chest pain during exercise while bench-pressing 400 lbs. Acute MI was diagnosed based on physical examination, electrocardiography findings, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary arteriography showed a thrombus occluding the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD. Aggressive antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and eptifibatide was pursued, in addition to standard post-MI care. This led to the successful resolution of symptoms and dissolution of the thrombus, demonstrated by repeat coronary arteriography. Five months later, he presented with similar symptoms during exercise after lifting heavy weights, and was found to have another acute MI. Coronary arteriography again showed a thrombus occluding the LAD. No evidence of coronary artery dissection or vasospasm was found. Only mild atherosclerotic plaque burden was observed on both occasions by intravascular ultrasound. A bare metal stent was placed at the site as it was thought this site had acted as a nidus for small plaque rupture and thrombus formation. Elevated serum factor VIII activity at 205% (reference range 60%–140% was found, a rare cause of hypercoagulability. Further workup revealed a patent foramen ovale during a Valsalva maneuver by transesophageal echocardiography. Both events occurred during weight lifting, which can transiently increase right heart pressure in a similar way to the Valsalva maneuver. In light of all the findings, we concluded that an exercise-related increase in factor

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  7. Cytokines Elevated in HIV Elite Controllers Reduce HIV Replication In Vitro and Modulate HIV Restriction Factor Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Evan S; Keating, Sheila M; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Gibb, Stuart L; Heitman, John W; Inglis, Heather C; Martin, Jeffrey N; Zhang, Jinbing; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Deng, Xutao; Wu, Shiquan; Anastos, Kathryn; Crystal, Howard; Villacres, Maria C; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Landay, Alan L; Gange, Stephen J; Deeks, Steven G; Golub, Elizabeth T; Pillai, Satish K; Norris, Philip J

    2017-03-15

    A subset of HIV-infected individuals termed elite controllers (ECs) maintain CD4(+) T cell counts and control viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Systemic cytokine responses may differentiate ECs from subjects with uncontrolled viral replication or from those who require ART to suppress viral replication. We measured 87 cytokines in four groups of women: 73 ECs, 42 with pharmacologically suppressed viremia (ART), 42 with uncontrolled viral replication (noncontrollers [NCs]), and 48 HIV-uninfected (NEG) subjects. Four cytokines were elevated in ECs but not NCs or ART subjects: CCL14, CCL21, CCL27, and XCL1. In addition, median stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) levels were 43% higher in ECs than in NCs. The combination of the five cytokines suppressed R5 and X4 virus replication in resting CD4(+) T cells, and individually SDF-1β, CCL14, and CCL27 suppressed R5 virus replication, while SDF-1β, CCL21, and CCL14 suppressed X4 virus replication. Functional studies revealed that the combination of the five cytokines upregulated CD69 and CCR5 and downregulated CXCR4 and CCR7 on CD4(+) T cells. The CD69 and CXCR4 effects were driven by SDF-1, while CCL21 downregulated CCR7. The combination of the EC-associated cytokines induced expression of the anti-HIV host restriction factors IFITM1 and IFITM2 and suppressed expression of RNase L and SAMHD1. These results identify a set of cytokines that are elevated in ECs and define their effects on cellular activation, HIV coreceptor expression, and innate restriction factor expression. This cytokine pattern may be a signature characteristic of HIV-1 elite control, potentially important for HIV therapeutic and curative strategies.IMPORTANCE Approximately 1% of people infected with HIV control virus replication without taking antiviral medications. These subjects, termed elite controllers (ECs), are known to have stronger immune responses targeting HIV than the typical HIV-infected subject, but the

  8. Elevated serum level of YKL-40 is an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Johansen, Julia Sidenius; Gehl, Julie

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 is a growth factor for connective tissue cells and       stimulates migration of endothelial cells. Cancer cells, macrophages, and       neutrophils secrete YKL-40. Its function in cancer is unknown. High serum       YKL-40 levels have been associated with a poor prognosis...... that serum YKL-40 (hazard ratio       [HR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.8; P = 0.004) and serum       lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (HR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9; P = 0.004) were       independent prognostic factors for survival. A combination variable of       elevated serum YKL-40 and LDH...... quadrupled the risk of early death (HR =       4.4; 95% CI, 2.5-7.7; P Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV       classification. Furthermore, serum...

  9. Prebiotic feeding elevates central brain derived neurotrophic factor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits and D-serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignac, Helene M; Corona, Giulia; Mills, Henrietta; Chen, Li; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Tzortzis, George; Burnet, Philip W J

    2013-12-01

    The influence of the gut microbiota on brain chemistry has been convincingly demonstrated in rodents. In the absence of gut bacteria, the central expression of brain derived neurotropic factor, (BDNF), and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits are reduced, whereas, oral probiotics increase brain BDNF, and impart significant anxiolytic effects. We tested whether prebiotic compounds, which increase intrinsic enteric microbiota, also affected brain BDNF and NMDARs. In addition, we examined whether plasma from prebiotic treated rats released BDNF from human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, to provide an initial indication of mechanism of action. Rats were gavaged with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) or water for five weeks, prior to measurements of brain BDNF, NMDAR subunits and amino acids associated with glutamate neurotransmission (glutamate, glutamine, and serine and alanine enantiomers). Prebiotics increased hippocampal BDNF and NR1 subunit expression relative to controls. The intake of GOS also increased hippocampal NR2A subunits, and frontal cortex NR1 and d-serine. Prebiotics did not alter glutamate, glutamine, l-serine, l-alanine or d-alanine concentrations in the brain, though GOSfeeding raised plasma d-alanine. Elevated levels of plasma peptide YY (PYY) after GOS intake was observed. Plasma from GOS rats increased the release of BDNF from SH-SY5Y cells, but not in the presence of PYY antisera. The addition of synthetic PYY to SH-SY5Y cell cultures, also elevated BDNF secretion. We conclude that prebiotic-mediated proliferation of gut microbiota in rats, like probiotics, increases brain BDNF expression, possibly through the involvement of gut hormones. The effect of GOS on components of central NMDAR signalling was greater than FOS, and may reflect the proliferative potency of GOS on microbiota. Our data therefore, provide a sound basis to further investigate the utility of prebiotics in the maintenance of brain health and

  10. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motykova, Eva; Zlatohlavek, Lukáš; Prusikova, Martina; Lanska, Vera; Ceska, Richard; Vasickova, Ludmila; Vrablik, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased inflammation which represents a link to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent marker of inflammation and atherosclerosis risk. To assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic markers of atherosclerosis including Lp-PLA2 we examined a group of Czech non-diabetic obese/overweight children exposed to a lifestyle intervention. Fourty unrelated overweight/obese non-diabetic Czech children (13.7 ± 2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 29.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2) underwent 4 weeks of lifestyle modification (reduction of energy intake to age matched optimum and supervised physical activity). Anthropometrical and biochemical variables were determined at baseline and after the intervention. Lp-PLA2 mass concentration was assessed using the ELISA kit. Wilcocson's rank test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A significant decrease of BMI and waist circumference was associated with significant changes of plasma lipoprotein and glycaemia levels. Mass concentration of Lp-PLA2 at the baseline was 402 ± 94 μg/ml, after the intervention 368 ± 105 μg/ml (p=0.008). Change in Lp-PLA2 was associated with triglyceride level decrease (p=0.009). Intensive lifestyle modification leading to body weight decrease results in significant changes of plasma lipoprotein levels and, also, a drop of Lp-PLA2 levels in paediatric obese patients. However, even after the intervention Lp-PLA2 concentrations in this patient group remain elevated suggesting possible increased atherosclerosis risk in later life. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  11. Analysis of Factors That Affects the Capital Structure within Companies Included In the Index of LQ45 During 2011 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominica Rufina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors of ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size affecting Capital Structure. The population in this study is the companies included in the Index LQ45 Indonesia Stock Exchange from the period 2011 to 2013, the data of a total of 270 listed companies in LQ45 during that period, only 90 corporate data that successively included in the index LQ45. The data used in this study uses secondary data from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website www.idx.co.id. In the process of data analysis and testing the assumptions of classical hypothesis testing using multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS v20.00. The results showed that partially variable ROA, Asset Structure, and Firm Size has a significant influence on the Capital Structure, Growth Sales whereas variable has no influence on the Capital Structure. Simultaneously ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size effect on Capital Structure.

  12. Risk factors associated with hepatitis B or C markers or elevated alanine aminotransferase level among blood donors on a tropical island: the Guadeloupe experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fest, T; Viel, J F; Agis, F; Coffe, C; Dupond, J L; Hervé, P

    1992-10-01

    Donated blood is currently screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels to prevent posttransfusion hepatitis. A prospective study of 2368 blood donors was carried out in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) with a view to determining the risk factors associated with serologic abnormalities. Blood donors included in the study had to complete a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed on the data thus obtained: 571 donations (24%) were positive for at least one of the four analyzed markers. The results were that 3.2 percent were positive for HBsAg, 22 percent for anti-HBc, and 0.8 percent for anti-HCV, and 1.4 percent had ALT > or = 45 IU per L. A good correlation was found between anti-HCV and elevated ALT. Transfusion history and two socioeconomic categories (working class, military personnel) were found to be risk factors. Other risk factors were lifelong residence in Guadeloupe (with risk increasing with the number of years), birthplace and current residence in the southern part of the island, and the existence of gastrointestinal discomfort unrelated to viral hepatitis (odds ratio = 2.98). The results of this study illustrate the difficulty of implementing a preventive policy against posttransfusion hepatitis in a tropical area. The unique epidemiologic situation of Guadeloupe as regards hepatitis B virus has led to more restrictive criteria for the acceptance of blood donors.

  13. Lifestyle and clinical factors associated with elevated C-reactive protein among newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a cross-sectional study from the nationwide DD2 cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Mor, Anil; Rungby, Jørgen; Berencsi, Klara; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Stidsen, Jacob V; Friborg, Søren; Brandslund, Ivan; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2014-08-28

    We aimed to examine the prevalence of and modifiable factors associated with elevated C-reactive Protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, in men and women with newly diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) in a population-based setting. CRP was measured in 1,037 patients (57% male) with newly diagnosed Type 2 DM included in the prospective nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project. We assessed the prevalence of elevated CRP and calculated relative risks (RR) examining the association of CRP with lifestyle and clinical factors by Poisson regression, stratified by gender. We used linear regression to examine the association of CRP with other biomarkers. The median CRP value was 2.1 mg/L (interquartile range, 1.0 - 4.8 mg/L). In total, 405 out of the 1,037 Type 2 DM patients (40%) had elevated CRP levels (>3.0 mg/L). More women (46%) than men (34%) had elevated CRP. Among women, a lower risk of elevated CRP was observed in patients receiving statins (adjusted RR (aRR) 0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-0.9)), whereas a higher risk was seen in patients with central obesity (aRR 2.3 (95% CI 1.0-5.3)). For men, CRP was primarily elevated among patients with no regular physical activity (aRR 1.5 (95% CI 1.1-1.9)), previous cardiovascular disease (aRR1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) and other comorbidity. For both genders, elevated CRP was 1.4-fold increased in those with weight gain >30 kg since age 20 years. Sensitivity analyses showed consistent results with the full analysis. The linear regression analysis conveyed an association between high CRP and increased fasting blood glucose. Among newly diagnosed Type 2 DM patients, 40% had elevated CRP levels. Important modifiable risk factors for elevated CRP may vary by gender, and include low physical activity for men and central obesity and absence of statin use for women.

  14. Serum milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 elevation may subdivide systemic lupus erythematosus into two pathophysiologically distinct subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Yamaguchi, H; Ohmura, K; Yokoyama, T; Yoshifuji, H; Yukawa, N; Kawabata, D; Fujii, T; Morita, S; Nagata, S; Mimori, T

    2014-04-01

    Impaired clearance of apoptotic cells is a potential trigger of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) plays an important role in the clearance of dying cells. Previously, we reported serum MFG-E8 was elevated in some SLE patients. Here we further investigated the prevalence of MFG-E8 in active SLE and other autoimmune diseases and also tried to clarify the characteristics of MFG-E8-positive and -negative SLE. Serum MFG-E8 was measured in 40 active non-treated SLE patients, 104 disease controls and 104 healthy controls by ELISA. Clinical characteristics and serum cytokine profiles were compared between MFG-E8-positive and MFG-E8-negative SLE patients. Prevalence of MFG-E8 was significantly higher in SLE patients (40%) than in various controls (p clinical features, the one with stronger immunological response and the other with stronger inflammatory response, and those two groups may be two distinct subtypes of SLE driven by different mechanisms. Further, MFG-E8 could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity in certain SLE patients.

  15. Elevated platelet-derived growth factor-BB concentrations in premature neonates who develop chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adcock Kim G

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung disease (CLD in the preterm newborn is associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB, a potent chemotactic growth factor, may mediate the fibrotic component of CLD. The objectives of this study were to determine if tracheal aspirate (TA concentrations of PDGF-BB increase the first 2 weeks of life in premature neonates undergoing mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, its relationship to the development of CLD, pulmonary hemorrhage (PH and its relationship to airway colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu. Methods Infants with a birth weight less than 1500 grams who required mechanical ventilation for RDS were enrolled into this study with parental consent. Tracheal aspirates were collected daily during clinically indicated suctioning. Uu cultures were performed on TA collected in the first week of life. TA supernatants were assayed for PDGF-BB and secretory component of IgA concentrations using ELISA techniques. Results Fifty premature neonates were enrolled into the study. Twenty-eight infants were oxygen dependent at 28 days of life and 16 infants were oxygen dependent at 36 weeks postconceptual age. PDGF-BB concentrations peaked between 4 and 6 days of life. Maximum PDGF-BB concentrations were significantly higher in infants who developed CLD or died from respiratory failure. PH was associated with increased risk of CLD and was associated with higher PDGF-BB concentrations. There was no correlation between maximum PDGF-BB concentrations and Uu isolation from the airway. Conclusions PDGF-BB concentrations increase in TAs of infants who undergo mechanical ventilation for RDS during the first 2 weeks of life and maximal concentrations are greater in those infants who subsequently develop CLD. Elevation in lung PDGF-BB may play a role in the development of CLD.

  16. Genetically elevated non-fasting triglycerides and calculated remnant cholesterol as causal risk factors for myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Berg; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; West, Anders Sode

    2012-01-01

    AimsElevated non-fasting triglycerides mark elevated levels of remnant cholesterol. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we tested whether genetically increased remnant cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemia due to genetic variation in the apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) associates with an incr...

  17. Dark-leaved willow (Salix myrsinifolia) is resistant to three-factor (elevated CO2, temperature and UV-B-radiation) climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paajanen, Ria; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Nybakken, Line; Petrelius, Mari; Tegelberg, Riitta; Pusenius, Jyrki; Rousi, Matti; Kellomäki, Seppo

    2011-04-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ), temperature (T) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation may affect plant growth and secondary chemistry in different directions, but the effect of the combination of the three factors has seldom been tested. Here, we grew four dark-leaved willow (Salix myrsinifolia) clones under combinations of ambient or elevated CO2, T and UV-B radiation in top-closed chambers for 7 wk. Elevated UV-B had no effects on growth or phenolic compounds, and there were no significant interactions between UV-B, CO2 and T. CO2 alone increased most growth parameters, but the magnitude of the effect varied among the clones. Total phenolics increased at elevated CO2 , whereas they decreased at elevated T. The responses varied between the clones. The results imply that dark-leaved willow are fairly resistant to the applied three-factor climate change, probably because of high constitutive defense. However, the interactions between clone and climate change factors implies that some clones are more susceptible than the species as a whole.

  18. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  19. Comparison of Triggering and Nontriggering Factors in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Extent of Coronary Arterial Narrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shoshan, Jeremy; Segman-Rosenstveig, Yafit; Arbel, Yaron; Chorin, Ehud; Barkagan, Michael; Rozenbaum, Zach; Granot, Yoav; Finkelstein, Ariel; Banai, Shmuel; Keren, Gad; Shacham, Yacov

    2016-04-15

    Various physical, emotional, and extrinsic triggers have been attributed to acute coronary syndrome. Whether a correlation can be drawn between identifiable ischemic triggers and the nature of coronary artery disease (CAD) still remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the correlation between triggered versus nontriggered ischemic symptoms and the extent of CAD in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We conducted a retrospective, single-center observational study including 1,345 consecutive patients with STEMI, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Acute physical and emotional triggers were identified in patients' historical data. Independent predictors of multivessel CAD were determined using a logistic regression model. A potential trigger was identified in 37% of patients. Physical exertion was found to be the most dominant trigger (65%) followed by psychological stress (16%) and acute illness (12%). Patients with nontriggered STEMI tended to be older and more likely to have co-morbidities. Patients with nontriggered STEMI showed a higher rate of multivessel CAD (73% vs 30%, p <0.001). In a multivariate regression model, nontriggered symptoms emerged as an independent predictor of multivessel CAD (odds ratio 8.33, 95% CI 5.74 to 12.5, p = 0.001). No specific trigger was found to predict independently the extent of CAD. In conclusion, symptoms onset without a recognizable trigger is associated with multivessel CAD in STEMI. Further studies will be required to elucidate the putative mechanisms underlying ischemic triggering.

  20. Using scaling factors for evaluating spatial and temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties within one elevation transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodem, Antonín; Kodešová, Radka; Jakšík, Ondřej; Fér, Miroslav; Klement, Aleš

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in Southern Moravia, in the Czech Republic. The original soil unit in the wider area is a Haplic Chernozem developed on loess. The intensive agricultural exploitation in combination with terrain morphology has resulted in a highly diversified soil spatial pattern. Nowadays the original soil unit is preserved only on top of relatively flat parts, and is gradually transformed by water erosion up to Regosols on the steepest slopes, while colluvial soils are formed in terrain depressions and at toe slopes due to sedimentation of previously eroded material. Soils within this area has been intensively investigated during the last several years (e.g. Jakšík et al., 2015; Vašát et al., 2014, 2015a,b). Soil sampling (disturbed and undisturbed 100-cm3 soil samples) was performed at 5 points of one elevation transect in November 2010 (after wheat sowing) and August 2011 (after wheat harvest). Disturbed soil samples were used to determine basic soil properties (grain size distribution and organic carbon content etc.). Undisturbed soil samples were used to determine the soil water retention curves and the hydraulic conductivity functions using the multiple outflow tests in Tempe cells and a numerical inversion with HYDRUS 1-D. Scaling factors (alpha-h for pressure head, alpha-theta for soil water contents and alpha-k for hydraulic conductivities) were used here to express soil hydraulic properties variability. Evaluated scaling factors reflected position within the elevation transect as well as time of soil sampling. In general large values of alpha-h, lower values of alpha-k and similar values of alpha-theta were obtained in 2010 in comparison to values obtained in 2011, which indicates development of soil structure during the vegetation season. Jakšík, O., Kodešová, R., Kubiš, A., Stehlíková, I., Drábek, O., Kapička, A. (2015): Soil aggregate stability within morphologically diverse areas. Catena, 127, 287-299. Vašát, R., Kode

  1. Gene Expression Analysis of Murine and Human Osteoarthritis Synovium Reveals Elevation of Transforming Growth Factor beta-Responsive Genes in Osteoarthritis-Related Fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remst, D. F. G.; Blom, A. B.; Vitters, E. L.; Bank, R. A.; van den Berg, W. B.; Davidson, E. N. Blaney; van der Kraan, P. M.

    Objective. Synovial fibrosis is a major contributor to joint stiffness in osteoarthritis (OA). Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), which is elevated in OA, plays a key role in the onset and persistence of synovial fibrosis. However, blocking of TGF beta in OA as a therapeutic intervention

  2. Factors Associated With and Outcomes After Ventricular Fibrillation Before and During Primary Angioplasty in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup;

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the risk factors and outcome of ventricular fibrillation (VF) before and duringprimary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in patients with ST-segment elevationmyocardial infarction. From 1999 to 2012, we consecutively enrolled 5,373 patients withST-segment elevation myoc...

  3. [Book review] Epiphytic Lichen Diversity and its Dependence on Chemical Site Factors in Differently Elevated Dieback-affected Spruce Stands of the Harz Mountains, by Volker Hesse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Review of: Epiphytic lichen diversity and its dependence on chemical site factors in differently elevated dieback-affected spruce stands of the Harz Mountains. (Dissertationes Botanicae, Band 354). Volker Hesse. 2002. 191 pages, 66 figures, 49 tables, 23x14cm, 390 g. ISBN 978-3-443-64266-2.

  4. THE PREVALENCE OF ELEVATED LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TRADITIONAL RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ACCORDING TO THE ESSE-RF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Evstifeeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP level with socio-demographic, behavioral and traditional risk factors in different regions of the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. Data of the multicenter epidemiological study of cardiovascular disease in different regions of the Russian Federation (ESSE-RF were used. Representative sample of the unorganized male and female population aged 25-64 from 6 regions of the Russian Federation was drown. 3407 men and 6354 women (n=9761 were included into the study. Standard questionnaire was applied in all subjects. Gender, age, level of education, place of residence and region of residence, traditional risk factors and diseases were analyzed. HsCRP level (level ≥3.0 mg/l was defined as elevated one was evaluated to detect of indolent inflammation.Results. HsCRP levels in women was significantly higher compared to males (p<0.005. The average prevalence of elevated hsCRP in the regions was 24.2%, for men - 21.4%, and for women - 25.7% (p<0.005. Significant age-related dynamics of hsCRP (p<0.0001 was found. The average level of hsCRP was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in a cohort of persons with higher education against these with lower level of education. Level of hsCRP as well as prevalence of elevated hsCRP level were higher in villagers than this in the urban population (p<0.05. Prevalence of elevated hsCRP in patients with traditional risk factors after adjustment for sex, age, and region of residence showed that the elevated hsCRP was mostly associated with metabolic factors and diseases that were characterized by systemic inflammation.Conclusion. Elevated level of hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/l was significantly associated with female gender, with an older, less educated, and smoking population of Russians. After the multivariate adjustment there remained significant associations (p<0.0001 of elevated hsCRP level with obesity, including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia

  5. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma.

  6. Distance of the alveolar antral artery from the alveolar crest. Related factors and surgical considerations in sinus floor elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Loira-Gago, María; Gonzalez-Mosquera, Antonio; Seoane-Romero, Juan M.; Garcia-Martin, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a variable proportion of maxillary sinuses alveolar antral artery is located close to the residual ridge, increasing the chances for haemorrhagic complications during sinus floor elevation procedures. Material and Methods Retrospective observational study of CBCT explorations performed for implant-treatment planning. The upper first molar area was selected for this study. The relative uncertainty (standard deviation of the measurement divided by its mean and expressed as a percentage from 0% to 100%) was chosen for determining the observational errors. For modeling the chances of AAA detection, the generalized additive models (GAM) approach was chosen. Results A total of 240 maxillary sinuses were studied (46.25% males) whose median median age was 58 years old (IQR: 52-66). Univariate models showed that the chances for an AAA-alvelar crest distance ≤15mm increase in wider sinuses with lower, subsinusally edentulous crests. When distance is considered as a continuous variable, the best mutivariate model showed an explained deviance of 67% and included AAA diameter, distance AAA-sinus floor, sinus width, and shape, height and width of the residual ridge. Thinner AAAs are found closer to the crest (within the ≤15mm safe distance). Conclusions Bearing in mind the inclusion criteria and the limitations of this investigation, it is concluded that there is a high proportion of maxillary sinuses where AAA describes a course close to the alveolar crest (≤15mm), which was classically considered a safe distance for SFE. This position is related to the presence of atrophic crests (depressed ridge form) and wide maxillary sinuses where the distance of the vessel to the floor of the sinus is small. This information may permit a better surgical planning of SFE procedures. Key words:Cone-beam computed tomography, blood vessels, sinus floor augmentation, intraoperative complications. PMID:27694790

  7. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 exerts its effects on placenta and regulates vitamin D metabolism in pregnancy of Hyp mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Yamazaki, Miwa; Kawai, Masanobu; Tsugawa, Naoko; Tachikawa, Kanako; Koinuma, Tomoko; Miyagawa, Kazuaki; Kimoto, Akihito; Nakayama, Masahiro; Namba, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Okano, Toshio; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2014-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) functions in an endocrine fashion and requires α-Klotho to exert its effects on the target organs. We have recently demonstrated that the human placenta also expresses α-Klotho, which led us to hypothesize that FGF23 may exert effects on the placenta. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the expression of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) as well as that of α-Klotho in the feto-maternal interface of both mouse and human normal-term placentas, which suggested that these areas might be receptive to FGF23. Therefore, we next investigated whether FGF23 has some roles in the placenta using Hyp mice with high levels of circulating FGF23. Hyp and wild-type (WT) females were mated with WT males, and the mothers and their male fetuses were analyzed. FGF23 levels in Hyp mothers were elevated. FGF23 levels were about 20-fold higher in Hyp fetuses than in Hyp mothers, whereas WT fetuses from Hyp mothers exhibited low levels of FGF23, as did fetuses from WT mothers. We analyzed the placental gene expression and found that the expression of Cyp24a1 encoding 25OHD-24-hydroxylase, a target gene for FGF23 in the kidney, was increased in the placentas of fetuses from Hyp mothers compared with fetuses from WT mothers. In an organ culture of WT placentas, treatment with plasma from Hyp mothers markedly increased the expression of Cyp24a1, which was abolished by the simultaneous addition of anti-FGF23 neutralizing antibody. The direct injection of recombinant FGF23 into WT placentas induced the expression of Cyp24a1. The increase in the placental expression of Cyp24a1 in fetuses from Hyp mothers resulted in decreased plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. These results suggest that increased levels of circulating FGF23 in pathological conditions such as Hyp mice exerts direct effects on the placenta and affects fetal vitamin D metabolism via the regulation of Cyp24a1 expression. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were

  9. Mammary tumors that become independent of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor express elevated levels of platelet-derived growth factor receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Craig I

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted therapies are becoming an essential part of breast cancer treatment and agents targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR are currently being investigated in clinical trials. One of the limitations of targeted therapies is the development of resistant variants and these variants typically present with unique gene expression patterns and characteristics compared to the original tumor. Results MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice, with inducible overexpression of the IGF-IR were used to model mammary tumors that develop resistance to IGF-IR targeting agents. IGF-IR independent mammary tumors, previously shown to possess characteristics associated with EMT, were found to express elevated levels of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ. Furthermore, these receptors were shown to be inversely expressed with the IGF-IR in this model. Using cell lines derived from IGF-IR-independent mammary tumors (from MTB-IGFIR mice, it was demonstrated that PDGFRα and to a lesser extent PDGFRβ was important for cell migration and invasion as RNAi knockdown of PDGFRα alone or PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in combination, significantly decreased tumor cell migration in Boyden chamber assays and suppressed cell migration in scratch wound assays. Somewhat surprisingly, concomitant knockdown of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ resulted in a modest increase in cell proliferation and a decrease in apoptosis. Conclusion During IGF-IR independence, PDGFRs are upregulated and function to enhance tumor cell motility. These results demonstrate a novel interaction between the IGF-IR and PDGFRs and highlight an important, therapeutically relevant pathway, for tumor cell migration and invasion.

  10. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  11. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  12. Elevation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 level in Pallister-Killian syndrome: implications for the postnatal growth retardation phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kosuke; Kellogg, Emily; Fujiki, Katsunori; Kaur, Maninder; Tilton, Richard K; Noon, Sarah; Wilkens, Alisha; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Krantz, Ian D

    2015-06-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a multi-system developmental disorder caused by tetrasomy 12p that exhibits tissue-limited mosaicism. Probands with PKS often demonstrate a unique growth profile consisting of macrosomia at birth with deceleration of growth postnatally. We have previously demonstrated that cultured skin fibroblasts from PKS probands have significantly elevated expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP2). To further evaluate the role of IGFBP2 in PKS, the amount of IGFBP2 secreted from cultured skin fibroblast cell lines and serum IGFBP2 levels were measured in probands with PKS. Approximately 60% of PKS fibroblast cell lines secreted higher levels of IGFBP2 compared to control fibroblasts, although the remaining 40% of PKS samples produced comparable level of IGFBP2 to that of control fibroblasts. Serum IGFBP2 levels were also measured in PKS probands and were elevated in 40% of PKS probands. PKS probands with elevated IGFBP2 manifested with severe postnatal growth retardation. IGFBPs are the family of related proteins that bind IGFs with high affinity and are typically thought to attenuate IGF action. We suggest that elevated IGFBP2 levels might play a role in the growth retardation phenotype of PKS.

  13. Deduction of bond length changes of symmetric molecules from experimental vibrational progressions, including a topological mass factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wei, Fan; Schwarz, W H E; Li, Jun

    2012-12-20

    The change ΔR(x) of bond length R(x) for atom X in a molecule upon electronic transition can be derived from the intensities I(i) of the vibrational stretching progression v = 0 → i of the electronic absorption or emission spectrum. In many cases, a simple model is sufficient for a reasonable estimate of ΔR(x). For symmetric molecules, however, conceptual problems in the literature of many decades are evident. The breathing modes of various types of symmetric molecules X(n) and AX(n) (A at the center) are here discussed. In the simplest case of a harmonic vibration of the same mode in the initial and final electronic states, we obtain ΔR(x) ≈ [2S/(ωm(x))](1/2)/w(1/2) (all quantities in atomic units). ω and S are respectively the observed vibrational quanta and the Huang-Rhys factor (corresponding, e.g., to the vibrational intensity ratio I(1)/I(0) ≈ S), m(x) is the mass of vibrating atom X, and w is a topological factor for molecule X(n) or AX(n). The factor 1/w(1/2) in the expression for ΔR(x) must not be neglected. The spectra and bond length changes of several symmetric molecules AX(n) and X(n) are discussed. The experimental bond length changes correctly derived with factor 1/w(1/2) are verified by reliable quantum chemical calculations.

  14. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  15. Elevated expression of placental growth factor is associated with airway-wall vascular remodelling and thickening in smokers with asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Lai, Tianwen; Yuan, Yalian; Chen, Min; Xia, Jun; Li, Wen; Pan, Guihai; Yuan, Binfan; Lv, Quanchao; Li, Yanyu; Li, Dongmin; Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The increased expression of placental growth factor (PlGF) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergy-related asthma suggests its role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In asthmatic smokers, airway remodelling is accompanied by an accelerated decline in lung function. However, whether PlGF contributes to the persistent airflow obstruction and vascular remodelling typically seen in asthmatic smokers is unknown. In this study we measured lung function, airway-wall thickening, and PlGF levels in serum and induced sputum in 74 asthmatic and 42 healthy smokers and never-smokers. Using human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMECs), we evaluated the in vitro effects of PlGF on each step of vascular remodelling, including proliferation, migration, stress-fibre expression, and tubule formation. Our data showed significantly higher serum and sputum PlGF levels in asthma patients, especially asthmatic smokers, than in healthy controls. Serum and sputum PlGF levels correlated negatively with post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and the FEV1/forced vital capacity, but positively with airway-wall thickening. Stimulation of HLMECs with rhPlGF promoted all of the steps of airway-microvascular remodelling. These findings provide insights into the influence of cigarette smoking on the structural changes in the airways of asthmatics and the important pathogenic role played by PlGF. PMID:28220848

  16. Postnatal visual deprivation in rats regulates several retinal genes and proteins, including differentiation-associated fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Meyer zu Hoerste, Melissa; Mertsch, Sonja; Stupp, Tobias; Thanos, Solon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the retinal cellular basis of amblyopia, which is a developmental disease characterized by impaired visual acuity. This study examined the retinal transcripts associated with experimentally induced unilateral amblyopia in rats. Surgical tarsorrhaphy of the eyelids on one side was performed in pups prior to eye opening at postnatal day 14, thereby preventing any visual experience. This condition was maintained for over 2 months, after which electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded, the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) arrangement and number were determined using neuroanatomical tracing, the retinal transcripts were studied using microarray analysis, regulated mRNAs were confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, and proteins were stained using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. An attenuated ERG was found in eyes that were deprived of visual experience. Retrograde neuroanatomical staining disclosed a larger number of RGCs within the retina on the visually deprived side compared to the non-deprived, control side, and a multilayered distribution of RGCs. At the retinomic level, several transcripts associated with retinal differentiation, such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), were either up- or downregulated. Most of the transcripts could be verified at the mRNA level. To unravel the role of a differentiation-associated protein, we tested FGF-2 in dissociated postnatal retinal cell cultures and found that FGF-2 is a potent factor triggering ganglion cell differentiation. The data suggest that visual experience shapes the postnatal retinal differentiation, whereas visual deprivation induces changes at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within the retina.

  17. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  18. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  19. 单纯性肥胖儿童血压升高相关危险因素COX回归分析%COX regression analysis on some risk factors related to elevation of blood pressure among simple obese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐尔迪; 尹春燕; 肖延风; 易小青; 常明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify high-risk factors related to elevation of blood pressure among overweight children, and to provide evidence for the early prevention. Methods Among 124 overweight children (69 male and 55 female) chosen in the department of pediatrics in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi' an Jiaotong University from May to October 2010, at the age of 7-18 years (14 years on average) , the patients with elevation of blood pressure were screened out by the diagnosis based on 2010 Standards from the Task force for Development of Blood Pressure Reference Standards for Chinese Children and Adolescents. Clinical data was analyzed including some factors related to obesity and elevation of blood pressure, e. g. genetic factors, early feeding, dietary behavior, learning and exercise and home environment. Results Totally 68 overweight patients had elevation of blood pressure, accounting for 54. 84% in all the children. And it was demonstrated through COX multivariate analysis that the risk factors related to the prognosis for the overweight children with elevation of blood pressure included mother's obesity level, meat foods preference, length of sleep at night, length of midday rest, frequency of having a drink and puffed foods. Conclusion There is a very high percentage of hypertension cases in the overweight children. It is revealed that bad eating habits, mother's obesity and excessive length of sleeping are all identified as the contributors to elevation of blood pressure. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the risk factors mentioned above in the treatment and follow-up for the overweight children. In this point, reducing exposure to these risk factors helps prevent occurrence of elevation of blood pressure.%目的 筛选肥胖儿童发生血压升高的高危因素,为早期预防肥胖儿童发生高血压提供依据.方法 选择西安交通大学医学院第二附属医院儿科门诊2010年5-10月就诊的肥胖儿童124例,

  20. Complex analysis of Askaryan radiation: A fully analytic treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jordan C.; Connolly, Amy L.

    2017-05-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from high-energy cascades in dense media with a collective charge. We present an analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the cascade, and quantum mechanical cascade elongation via the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect. These calculations, and the associated open-source code, allow the user to avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo cascade simulations. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan-based detectors benefit from computational speed, because scans of Askaryan parameter-space are required to match neutrino signals. The Askaryan field is derived from cascade equations verified with Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, instructive cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for correlations with event candidates.

  1. Complex Analysis of Askaryan Radiation: A Fully Analytic Treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Jordan C

    2016-01-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from the collective charge within high-energy cascades in dense media. We present the first fully analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the electromagnetic cascade and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect. Analytic calculations avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulations of the cascades. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan- based detectors benefit from computational speed, because neutrino event parameters affect the shape of the electromagnetic field, requiring scans of parameter space. The Askaryan field is derived and verified against Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, two special cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain, analytically. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for phase ...

  2. Differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor angiogenic factors in different endometrial compartments in women who have an elevated progesterone level before oocyte retrieval, during in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Jin, Xiaoying; Liu, Liu; Man, Chi Wai; Huang, Jin; Wang, Chi Chiu; Zhang, Songying; Li, Tin Chiu

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between endometrial expressions of angiogenic factors around the time of embryo implantation and P level before oocyte retrieval during IVF-ET treatment. Retrospective study. University Assisted Reproductive Unit. Forty patients were recruited, 20 women with an elevated P level, and 20 women with a normal P level, into cancelled embryo transfer (ET) cycles. Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained from women who had an elevated or normal P level 7 days after human chorionic gonadotropin administration. The protein expression levels of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and PLGF were examined using immunohistochemistry. A semiquantitative analysis was performed using histochemical-score analysis of staining intensity in the luminal epithelium, glandular epithelium, and stroma, separately. Luminal epithelial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, and PLGF did not significantly differ in women with elevated or normal P levels before oocyte retrieval. Glandular epithelial expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and PLGF was higher in women with elevated P levels, compared with those with normal P levels. A significantly higher stromal expression of VEGF-A and PLGF was found in women with elevated P levels. A high P level before oocyte retrieval was associated with expression of VEGF angiogenic factors in glandular epithelium and stromal compartment around the time of embryo implantation. Our findings suggest that the lower implantation rates observed in this group of women may relate to decreased endometrial receptivity arising from altered expression of angiogenic factors. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and associated factors of viral hepatitis and transferrin elevations in 5036 patients admitted to the emergency room of a Swiss university hospital: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Printzen Gert

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of liver disease in patients admitted to emergency rooms is largely unknown. The current study aimed to measure the prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C infection and pathological laboratory values of liver disease in such a population, and to study factors associated with these measurements. Methods Cross-sectional study in patients admitted to the emergency room of a university hospital. No formal exclusion criteria. Determination of anti-HBs, anti-HCV, transferrin saturation, alanine aminotransferase, and obtaining answers from a study-specific questionnaire. Results The study included 5'036 patients, representing a 14.9% sample of the target population during the study period. Prevalence of anti-HBc and anti-HCV was 6.7% (95%CI 6.0% to 7.4% and 2.7% (2.3% to 3.2%, respectively. Factors independently associated with positive anti-HBc were intravenous drug abuse (OR 18.3; 11.3 to 29.7, foreign country of birth (3.4; 2.6 to 4.4, non-white ethnicity (2.7; 1.9 to 3.8 and age ≥60 (2.0; 1.5 to 2.8. Positive anti-HCV was associated with intravenous drug abuse (78.9; 43.4 to 143.6, blood transfusion (1.7; 1.1 to 2.8 and abdominal pain (2.7; 1.5 to 4.8. 75% of all participants were not vaccinated against hepatitis B or did not know their vaccination status. Among anti-HCV positive patients only 49% knew about their infection and 51% reported regular alcohol consumption. Transferrin saturation was elevated in 3.3% and was associated with fatigue (prevalence ratio 1.9; 1.2 to 2.8. Conclusion Emergency rooms should be considered as targets for public health programs that encourage vaccination, patient education and screening of high-risk patients for liver disease with subsequent referral for treatment if indicated.

  4. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pyoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  5. Factors associated with failure to identify the culprit artery by the electrocardiogram in inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahvanainen, Minna; Nikus, Kjell C; Holmvang, Lene;

    2011-01-01

    Right and left circumflex coronary artery occlusions cause inferior myocardial infarction. To improve the targeting of diagnostic and therapeutic measures individually, factors interfering with identification of the culprit artery by the electrocardiogram (ECG) were explored.......Right and left circumflex coronary artery occlusions cause inferior myocardial infarction. To improve the targeting of diagnostic and therapeutic measures individually, factors interfering with identification of the culprit artery by the electrocardiogram (ECG) were explored....

  6. Trait-Based Community Assembly along an Elevational Gradient in Subalpine Forests: Quantifying the Roles of Environmental Factors in Inter- and Intraspecific Variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Huang Luo

    Full Text Available Understanding how communities respond to environmental variation is a central goal in ecology. Plant communities respond to environmental gradients via intraspecific and/or interspecific variation in plant functional traits. However, the relative contribution of these two responses to environmental factors remains poorly tested. We measured six functional traits (height, leaf thickness, specific leaf area (SLA, leaf carbon concentration (LCC, leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC and leaf phosphorus concentration (LPC for 55 tree species occurring at five elevations across a 1200 m elevational gradient of subalpine forests in Yulong Mountain, Southwest China. We examined the relative contribution of interspecific and intraspecific traits variability based on community weighted mean trait values and functional diversity, and tested how different components of trait variation respond to different environmental axes (climate and soil variables. Species turnover explained the largest amount of variation in leaf morphological traits (leaf thickness and SLA across the elevational gradient. However, intraspecific variability explained a large amount of variation (49.3%-76.3% in three other traits (height, LNC and LPC despite high levels of species turnover. The detection of limiting similarity in community assembly was improved when accounting for both intraspecific and interspecific variability. Different components of trait variation respond to different environmental axes, especially soil water content and climatic variables. Our results indicate that intraspecific variation is critical for understanding community assembly and evaluating community response to environmental change.

  7. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is a Well Established Mediating Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality—Should Patients with Elevated Levels Be Supplemented with Citrulline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F.

    2016-01-01

    The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor and uncoupler of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that acts in multifarious ways to promote cardiovascular health. This phenomenon likely explains, at least in part, why elevated ADMA has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular mortality. Fortunately, the suppressive impact of ADMA on eNOS activity can be offset by increasing intracellular arginine levels with supplemental citrulline. Although the long-term impact of supplemental citrulline on cardiovascular health in patients with elevated ADMA has not yet been studied, shorter-term clinical studies of citrulline administration demonstrate effects suggestive of increased NO synthesis, such as reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased erection hardness, and increased ejection fractions in patients with heart failure. Supplemental citrulline could be a practical option for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality, as it is inexpensive, has a mild flavor, and is well tolerated in doses (3–6 g daily) that can influence eNOS activity. Large and long-term clinical trials, targeting patients at high risk for cardiovascular events in whom ADMA is elevated, are needed to evaluate citrulline’s potential for aiding cardiovascular health. PMID:27417628

  8. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is a Well Established Mediating Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality—Should Patients with Elevated Levels Be Supplemented with Citrulline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F. McCarty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a competitive inhibitor and uncoupler of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, an enzyme that acts in multifarious ways to promote cardiovascular health. This phenomenon likely explains, at least in part, why elevated ADMA has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular mortality. Fortunately, the suppressive impact of ADMA on eNOS activity can be offset by increasing intracellular arginine levels with supplemental citrulline. Although the long-term impact of supplemental citrulline on cardiovascular health in patients with elevated ADMA has not yet been studied, shorter-term clinical studies of citrulline administration demonstrate effects suggestive of increased NO synthesis, such as reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased erection hardness, and increased ejection fractions in patients with heart failure. Supplemental citrulline could be a practical option for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality, as it is inexpensive, has a mild flavor, and is well tolerated in doses (3–6 g daily that can influence eNOS activity. Large and long-term clinical trials, targeting patients at high risk for cardiovascular events in whom ADMA is elevated, are needed to evaluate citrulline’s potential for aiding cardiovascular health.

  9. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is a Well Established Mediating Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality-Should Patients with Elevated Levels Be Supplemented with Citrulline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2016-07-08

    The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor and uncoupler of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that acts in multifarious ways to promote cardiovascular health. This phenomenon likely explains, at least in part, why elevated ADMA has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular mortality. Fortunately, the suppressive impact of ADMA on eNOS activity can be offset by increasing intracellular arginine levels with supplemental citrulline. Although the long-term impact of supplemental citrulline on cardiovascular health in patients with elevated ADMA has not yet been studied, shorter-term clinical studies of citrulline administration demonstrate effects suggestive of increased NO synthesis, such as reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased erection hardness, and increased ejection fractions in patients with heart failure. Supplemental citrulline could be a practical option for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality, as it is inexpensive, has a mild flavor, and is well tolerated in doses (3-6 g daily) that can influence eNOS activity. Large and long-term clinical trials, targeting patients at high risk for cardiovascular events in whom ADMA is elevated, are needed to evaluate citrulline's potential for aiding cardiovascular health.

  10. Pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne syndrome (PAPA syndrome) associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and elevated serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Amr F; Kaplan, David L; Abdou, Nabih I

    2002-10-01

    Pyogenic aseptic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and cystic acne (PAPA) syndrome is an unusual triad that was recently mapped to a chromosome 15q mutation. We describe a patient from this kindred in whom hypogammaglobulinemia and elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha serum levels were detected. The patient responded well to intravenous gammaglobulin and intra-articular corticosteroid therapy. Immune abnormalities can be found in PAPA syndrome and could be the consequence of the chromosomal abnormalities affecting candidate genes on this chromosome with subsequent abnormalities in cytokine or chemokine secretion. Rheumatologists should be alert for this syndrome. Correction of the immune abnormalities may be effective in controlling the disease manifestations.

  11. Elevated Preoperative Serum Hs-CRP Level as a Prognostic Factor in Patients Who Underwent Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Bin; Ying, Jie; Kuang, Su-Juan; Jin, Hao-Sheng; Yin, Zi; Chang, Liang; Yang, Hui; Ou, Ying-Liang; Zheng, Jiang-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Li, Chuan-Sheng; Jian, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of preoperative highly sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) in serum on the prognostic outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following hepatic resection in Chinese samples.From January 2004 to December 2008, a total of 624 consecutive HCC patients who underwent hepatic resection were incorporated. Serum levels of Hs-CRP were tested at preoperation via a collection of venous blood samples. Survival analyses adopted the univariate and multivariate analyses.In our study, among the 624 screened HCC patients, 516 patients were eventually incorporated and completed follow-up. Positive correlations were found regarding preoperative serum Hs-CRP level and tumor size, Child-Pugh class, or tumor stage (all P Hs-CRP levels at preoperation (both P Hs-CRP-normal group, the overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival rates were evidently decreased in the Hs-CRP-elevated group. Further, preoperative serum Hs-CRP level might be having possible prediction effect regarding survival and recurrence of HCC patients after hepatic section in the multivariate analysis.Preoperative increased serum Hs-CRP level was an independent prognostic indicator in patients with HCC following hepatic resection in Chinese samples.

  12. Contraction-induced muscle fiber damage is increased in soleus muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats and is associated with elevated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in muscle fibers and activated satellite cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copray, S; Liem, R; Brouwer, N; Greenhaff, P; Habens, F; Fernyhough, P

    The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is elevated in the soleus muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. To determine whether this diabetes-induced elevation was associated with or enhanced by muscle activity we have induced high-intensity muscle contraction by electrically

  13. Contraction-induced muscle fiber damage is increased in soleus muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats and is associated with elevated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in muscle fibers and activated satellite cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copray, S; Liem, R; Brouwer, N; Greenhaff, P; Habens, F; Fernyhough, P

    2000-01-01

    The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is elevated in the soleus muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. To determine whether this diabetes-induced elevation was associated with or enhanced by muscle activity we have induced high-intensity muscle contraction by electrically stimu

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induces sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation through the up-regulation of surface transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channels in rodent microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Yoshito; Kato, Takahiro A; Seki, Yoshihiro; Ohgidani, Masahiro; Sagata, Noriaki; Horikawa, Hideki; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Hayakawa, Kohei; Inoue, Ryuji; Kanba, Shigenobu; Monji, Akira

    2014-06-27

    Microglia are immune cells that release factors, including proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), and neurotrophins, following activation after disturbance in the brain. Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) is important for microglial functions such as the release of cytokines and NO from activated microglia. There is increasing evidence suggesting that pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is related to the inflammatory responses mediated by microglia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin well known for its roles in the activation of microglia as well as in pathophysiology and/or treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we sought to examine the underlying mechanism of BDNF-induced sustained increase in [Ca(2+)]i in rodent microglial cells. We observed that canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channels contribute to the maintenance of BDNF-induced sustained intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. Immunocytochemical technique and flow cytometry also revealed that BDNF rapidly up-regulated the surface expression of TRPC3 channels in rodent microglial cells. In addition, pretreatment with BDNF suppressed the production of NO induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), which was prevented by co-adiministration of a selective TRPC3 inhibitor. These suggest that BDNF induces sustained intracellular Ca(2+) elevation through the up-regulation of surface TRPC3 channels and TRPC3 channels could be important for the BDNF-induced suppression of the NO production in activated microglia. We show that TRPC3 channels could also play important roles in microglial functions, which might be important for the regulation of inflammatory responses and may also be involved in the pathophysiology and/or the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  16. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  17. Decorin inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 cells by elevating the expression of transforming growth factor-β receptor II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Wang, Xuesong; Wang, Zhaohui; Ju, Wenbo; Wang, Dawei

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of decorin (DCN) on the proliferation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the involvement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway. A vector containing DCN was transfected into HepG2 cells with the use of Lipofectamine 2000. Cell proliferation was assessed with an MTT assay, and western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression of TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI), phosphorylated TGF-βRI, p15 and TGF-βRII. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing was performed to knock down the target gene. The results indicated that, compared with the control group, cell proliferation was significantly decreased in HepG2 cells transfected with DCN. In addition, DCN transfection significantly increased the phosphorylation level of TGF-βRI in HepG2 cells. The expression of the downstream factor p15 was also significantly elevated in the DCN-transfected HepG2 cells. Furthermore, DCN transfection significantly elevated the expression level of TGF-βRII in HepG2 cells. By contrast, the silencing of TGF-βRII significantly decreased the phosphorylation of TGF-βRI in DCN-transfected HepG2 cells. In addition, TGF-βRII silencing abolished the effects of DCN on the proliferation of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, DCN elevated the expression level of TGF-βRII, increased the phosphorylation level of TGF-βRI, enhanced the expression of p15, and finally inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the role of DCN in the pathogenesis of hepatic carcinoma and assist in the disease treatment.

  18. [Elevated Lipoprotein(a) Cncentration and Presence of Subfractions of Small Dense Low Density Lipoproteins as Independent Factors of Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasieva, O I; Utkina, E A; Artemieva, N V; Ezhov, M V; Adamova, I Yu; Pokrovsky, S N

    2016-06-01

    To study relation of lipoproteina - Lp(a) and subfractional composition of apoB containing lipoproteins to the presence of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Manerial and methods. Parameters of lipid spectrum, Lp(a), and subfractions of apoB containing lipoproteins were determined in blood serum of 187 patients with known data of instrumental examination. Lp(a) concentration was not linked to any of risk factors, levels total cholesterol (TC), low and high density lipoprotein CH, and subfractions of lipoproteins. In total group triglyceride (TGG) level correlated with content of small dense LDL (sdLDL) (r=0.445, 2 mg/dl in blood plasma (atherogenic profile B), as well as lowering of concentration of large LDL subfractions significantly increased probability of IHD presence in patients with elevated Lp(a) concentration Lp(a) concentration. Lp(a) is an independent factor of risk of coronary atherosclerosis more significant than shifts in subfractional composition of apoB containing lipoproteins. In patients with Lp(a) concentration less or equal 30 mg/dl subfractions of sdLDL were directly related to TG. Level of sdLDL and large lipoproteins of intermediate density are directly related to the presence of IHD. Large LDL correlates with concentration of HDL DL C and probably is cardioprotective. sdLDL content>2 mg/l or hypertriglyceridemia (TG>1.7 mmol/l) significantly increase chances of detection of confirmed IHD in patients with elevated Lp(a).

  19. Impact on total population health and societal cost-effectiveness of including tumour necrosis factor- antagonists in management of ankylosing spondylitis: a dynamic population modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tran-Duy (An); A. Boonen (Annelies); M.A.F.J. van de Laar (Martin); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background: Sequential treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that includes tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF agents) has been applied in most of the Western countries. Existing cost-effectiveness (CE) models almost exclusively presented the incremental

  20. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin-I is elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, independent of cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S Bradham

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We examined the hypothesis that cardiac-specific troponin-I (cTn-I, a biomarker of myocardial injury, is elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. BACKGROUND: RA patients have an increased incidence of heart failure (HF. Chronic myocardial injury in RA may be a mechanism for the development of HF. METHODS: We compared cTn-I concentrations measured by high-sensitivity immunoassay in 164 patients with RA and 90 controls, excluding prior or active heart failure. We examined the relationship between cTn-I concentrations and cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation, and coronary artery calcium score (CACS, a measure of coronary atherosclerosis. RESULTS: cTn-I concentrations were 49% higher in patients with RA (median 1.15 pg/mL [IQR 0.73-1.92] than controls (0.77 pg/mL [0.49-1.28](P<0.001. The difference remained statistically significant after adjustment for demographic characteristics (P = 0.002, further adjustment for cardiovascular (CV risk factors (P = 0.004, inflammatory markers (P = 0.008, and in a comprehensive model of CV risk factors and inflammatory markers (P = 0.03. In patients with RA, cTn-I concentrations were positively correlated with age (rho = 0.359, Framingham risk score (FRS (rho = 0.366, and systolic blood pressure (rho = 0.248 (all P values ≤ 0.001, but not with measures of inflammation or RA drug therapies. cTn-I was significantly correlated with CACS in RA in univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for age, race, sex and FRS (P = 0.79. Further model adjustments for renal function and coronary artery disease confirmed the significance of the findings. CONCLUSION: High-sensitivity cTn-I concentrations are elevated in patients with RA without heart failure, independent of cardiovascular risk profile and inflammatory markers. Elevated troponin concentrations in RA may indicate subclinical, indolent myocardial injury.

  1. Harpagoside attenuates MPTP/MPP⁺ induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and movement disorder via elevating glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyu; Xiong, Zhongkui; Zhang, Yongfang; Meng, Ya; Xu, Gang; Xia, Zhiming; Li, Jiamei; Zhang, Rui; Ke, Zunji; Xia, Zongqin; Hu, Yaer

    2012-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. New therapeutic approaches aiming at delaying or reversing the neurodegenerative process are under active investigations. In this work, we found that harpagoside, an iridoid purified from the Chinese medicinal herb Scrophularia ningpoensis, could not only prevent but also rescue the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in MPTP/MPP(+) intoxication with promising efficacy. Firstly, in cultured mesencephalic neurons, harpagoside significantly attenuated the loss of TH-positive neuron numbers and the shortening of axonal length. Secondly, in a chronic MPTP mouse model, harpagoside dose-dependently improved the loco-motor ability (rotarod test), increased the TH-positive neuron numbers in the substantia nigra pars compacta (unbiased stereological counting) and increased the striatal DAT density ((125) I-FP-CIT autoradiography). Thirdly, harpagoside markedly elevated the GDNF mRNA and GDNF protein levels in MPTP/MPP(+) lesioned models. However, the protecting effect of harpagoside on the dopaminergic degeneration disappeared when the intrinsic GDNF action was blocked by either the Ret inhibitor PP1 or the neutralizing anti-GDNF antibody. Taken together, we conclude that harpagoside attenuates the dopaminergic neurodegeneration and movement disorder mainly through elevating glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

  2. Prediction and prevention of thromboembolic events with enoxaparin in cancer patients with elevated tissue factor-bearing microparticles: a randomized-controlled phase II trial (the Microtec study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Jeffrey I; Liebman, Howard A; Bauer, Kenneth A; Caughey, Thomas; Campigotto, Federico; Rosovsky, Rachel; Mantha, Simon; Kessler, Craig M; Eneman, Jonathan; Raghavan, Vidya; Lenz, Heinz-Joseph; Bullock, Andrea; Buchbinder, Elizabeth; Neuberg, Donna; Furie, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Elevated levels of circulating tissue factor-bearing microparticles (TFMP) have been associated with an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients. We performed a randomized phase II study to evaluate the cumulative incidence of VTE in advanced cancer patients with lower levels of TFMP not receiving thromboprophylaxis and those with higher levels of circulating TFMP randomized to enoxaparin or observation. The cumulative incidence of VTE at 2 months in the higher TFMP group randomized to enoxaparin (N = 23) was 5·6% while the higher TFMP group observation arm (N = 11) was 27·3% (Gray test P = 0·06). The cumulative incidence of VTE in the low TFMP was 7·2% (N = 32). No major haemorrhages were observed in the enoxaparin arm. The median survival for patients with higher levels of TFMP followed by observation was 11·8 months compared with 17·8 months on enoxaparin (P = 0·58). In a prospective randomized trial, increased numbers of circulating TFMP detected by impedance flow cytometry identified cancer patients with a high incidence of VTE. Enoxaparin demonstrated a clear trend towards reducing the rate of VTE in patients with elevated levels of TFMP, with an overall rate of VTE similar in magnitude to the lower TFMP group. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Elevated Vascular Endothelia Growth Factor-A in the Serum and Peritoneal Fluid of Patients with Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo WANG; Nowiah Gorpudolo; Yanhui LI; Dilu FENG; Zehua WANG; Yuan ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    There has been emergence of evidence suggesting that specific variants of the vascular en-dothelia growth factor (VEGF) family, based on their ability to regulate angiogenesis, would be pivotal in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. This study was aimed at determining whether high levels of VEGF-A could be found in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) of patients with endometriosis. VEGF-A levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum and PF from 46 pa-tients with surgically confirmed endometriosis, and 40 controls with no clinical evidence of the disease or detectable endometriotic lesions at the time of surgical examination. The results showed the mean VEGF-A levels were significantly higher in the serum and PF of patients with endometriosis than in the controls. The VEGF-A levels in the serum and PF of patients with severe endometriosis (stages Ⅲ-Ⅳ) were significantly higher than in those with minimal endometriosis (P<0.001). It was concluded that endometriosis was associated with significant modulation in the levels of circulating VEGF-A.

  4. Elevations in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-5 levels precede posttreatment eosinophilia in onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, J B; Bartemes, K R; Kita, H; Ottesen, E A; Awadzi, K; Nutman, T B; Gleich, G J

    1996-05-01

    The eosinophil survival assay was used to quantitate cytokines in 17 serial serum samples from 10 patients treated for onchocerciasis with diethylcarbamazine. Eosinophils isolated from normal donors were cultured for 4 days in the presence of patients' sera, and cell viability was determined. Serum specimens from 9 of 10 patients enhanced eosinophil survival from 4.8% +/- 2.2% (mean +/- SE) before treatment to 50.0% +/- 6.4% after treatment. Survival enhancement activity peaked before posttreatment eosinophilia. Antibodies to interleukin (IL)-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-3 were used to block cytokine activity in 22 serum samples. Antibodies to IL-5 blocked survival in 5 samples, antibodies to GM-CSF blocked survival in 6 samples, and a combination of antibodies to IL-5 and GM-CSF blocked survival in 8 additional samples. Overall, posttreatment sera from patients treated for onchocerciasis enhanced eosinophil survival; both GM-CSF and IL-5 may promote the posttreatment eosinophilia in filarial infection.

  5. Exogenous nerve growth factor supplementation elevates myocardial immunoreactivity and attenuates cardiac remodeling in pressure-overload rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing He; and Yuming Li; Fan Ye; Xin Zhou; He Li; Xiaoqing Xun; Xiaoqing Ma; Xudong Liu; Zhihong Wang; Pengxiao Xu

    2012-01-01

    It is postulated that supplementation of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) might mediate improvement of the cardiac sympathetic nerve function in heart failure (HF).Local intramuscular injection of NGF near the cardiac sympathetic ganglia could influence the innervation pattern,norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene expression,and improve the cardiac remodeling in experimental HF animals.In this study,we injected NGF into the scalenus medius muscles of Sprague-Dawley rats with abdominal aortic constriction (AC).The nerve innervated pattern,left ventricular morphology,and function following injection in rats with AC were investigated respectively by immunohistochemistry and echocardiography.Levels of mRNA expression of NET,growth associated protein 43 (GAP 43),NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75NTR,and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured by realtime polymerase chain reaction.The results showed that myocardial NGF mRNA levels were comparable in rats with AC.Short-term supplementation of exogenous NGF raised the myocardial NGF immunoreactivity,but did not cause hyperinnervation and NET mRNA upregulation in the AC rats.Furthermore,myocardial TrkA mRNA was found to be remarkably decreased and p75NTR mRNA was increased.Myocardial TrkA downregulation may play a beneficial effect for avoiding the hyperinnervation,and it is reasonable to postulate that p75NTR can function as an NGF receptor in the absence of TrkA.Interestingly,local NGF administration into the neck muscles near the ganglia could attenuate cardiac remodeling and downregulate BNP mRNA.These results suggest that exogenous NGF can reach the target tissue along the axons anterogradely,and improve the cardiac remodeling.

  6. Thrombin induces Egr-1 expression in fibroblasts involving elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, phosphorylation of ERK and activation of ternary complex factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiel Gerald

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serine protease thrombin catalyzes fibrin clot formation by converting fibrinogen into fibrin. Additionally, thrombin stimulation leads to an activation of stimulus-responsive transcription factors in different cell types, indicating that the gene expression pattern is changed in thrombin-stimulated cells. The objective of this study was to analyze the signaling cascade leading to the expression of the zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 in thrombin-stimulated lung fibroblasts. Results Stimulation of 39M1-81 fibroblasts with thrombin induced a robust and transient biosynthesis of Egr-1. Reporter gene analysis revealed that the newly synthesized Egr-1 was biologically active. The signaling cascade connecting thrombin stimulation with Egr-1 gene expression required elevated levels of cytosolic Ca2+, the activation of diacylgycerol-dependent protein kinase C isoenzymes, and the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK. Stimulation of the cells with thrombin triggered the phosphorylation of the transcription factor Elk-1. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of Elk-1 completely prevented Egr-1 expression in stimulated 39M1-81 cells, indicating that Elk-1 or related ternary complex factors connect the intracellular signaling cascade elicited by activation of protease-activated receptors with transcription of the Egr-1 gene. Lentiviral-mediated expression of MAP kinase phosphatase-1, a dual-specific phosphatase that dephosphorylates and inactivates ERK in the nucleus, prevented Elk-1 phosphorylation and Egr-1 biosynthesis in thrombin stimulated 39M1-81 cells, confirming the importance of nuclear ERK and Elk-1 for the upregulation of Egr-1 expression in thrombin-stimulated lung fibroblasts. 39M1-81 cells additionally express M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. A comparison between the signaling cascades induced by thrombin or carbachol showed no differences, except that signal transduction via M

  7. Decreased body fat, elevated plasma transforming growth factor-β levels, and impaired BMP4-like signaling in biglycan-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Thompson, Joel C; Wilson, Patricia G; Nelson, Christina; Williams, Kevin Jon; Tannock, Lisa R

    2013-01-01

    Biglycan (BGN), a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, binds the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and inhibits its bioactivity in vitro. Nevertheless, it is controversial whether BGN plays an inhibitory role in vivo. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of BGN deficiency on TGFβ activity in vivo by studying 1-year-old Bgn null and wild-type (WT) mice on an Ldlr-null background. Phenotypic and metabolic characterization showed that the Bgn null mice had lower body weight, shorter body length, and shorter femur length (all p kidney histology. Overall, we propose that this unexpected phenotype arises from the effects of BGN deficiency in vivo to elevate TGFβ levels while decreasing bone morphogenetic protein 4-like signaling.

  8. Lactic Acid is Elevated in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Induces Myofibroblast Differentiation Via pH-Dependent Activation of Transforming Growth Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottman, R. M.; Kulkarni, Ajit A.; Smolnycki, Katie A.; Lyda, Elizabeth; Dahanayake, Thinesh; Salibi, Rami; Honnons, Sylvie; Jones, Carolyn; Isern, Nancy G.; Hu, Jian Z.; Nathan, Steven D.; Grant, Geraldine; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2012-10-15

    Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex disease for which the pathogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we identified lactic acid as a metabolite that is elevated in the lung tissue of patients with IPF. Objectives: This study examines the effect of lactic acid on myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis. Methods:We used metabolomic analysis to examine cellular metabolism in lung tissuefrom patients with IPFanddeterminedthe effects of lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH5) overexpression on myofibroblast differentiation and transforming growth factor (TGF)-b activation in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: Lactic acid concentrations from healthy and IPF lung tissue were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; a-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and LDH5 expression were assessed by Western blot of cell culture lysates. Lactic acid and LDH5 were significantly elevated in IPF lung tissue compared with controls. Physiologic concentrations of lactic acid induced myofibroblast differentiation via activation of TGF-b. TGF-b induced expression of LDH5 via hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF1a). Importantly, overexpression of both HIF1a and LDH5 in human lung fibroblasts induced myofibroblast differentiation and synergized with low dose TGF-b to induce differentiation. Furthermore, inhibition of both HIF1a and LDH5 inhibited TGF-b–induced myofibroblast differentiation. Conclusions: We have identified the metabolite lactic acid as an important mediator of myofibroblast differentiation via a pHdependent activation of TGF-b. We propose that the metabolic milieu of the lung, and potentially other tissues, is an important driving force behind myofibroblast differentiation and potentially the initiation and progression of fibrotic disorders.

  9. Impaired adipose tissue lipid storage, but not altered lipolysis, contributes to elevated levels of NEFA in type 2 diabetes. Degree of hyperglycemia and adiposity are important factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maria J; Skrtic, Stanko; Katsogiannos, Petros; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Sidibeh, Cherno O; Dahgam, Santosh; Månsson, Marianne; Risérus, Ulf; Kullberg, Joel; Eriksson, Jan W

    2016-12-01

    Elevated levels of circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) mediate many adverse metabolic effects. In this work we aim to determine the impact of type 2 diabetes (T2D), glycemic control and obesity on lipolysis regulation. 20 control and 20 metformin-treated T2D subjects were matched for sex (10M/10 F), age (58±11 vs 58±9 y) and BMI (30.8±4.6 vs 30.7±4.9kg/m(2)). In vivo lipolysis was assessed during a 3h-OGTT with plasma glycerol and NEFA levels. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies were obtained to measure mRNA and metabolite levels of factors related to lipolysis and lipid storage and to assess in vitro lipolysis in isolated subcutaneous adipocytes. Plasma NEFA AUC during the OGTT where higher 30% (P=0.005) in T2D than in control subjects, but plasma glycerol AUC and subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis in vitro were similar, suggesting that adipose tissue lipolysis is not altered. Expression in SAT of genes involved in lipid storage (FABP4, DGAT1, FASN) were reduced in T2D subjects compared with controls, but no differences were seen for genes involved in lipolysis. T2D subjects had elevated markers of beta-oxidation, α-hydroxybutyrate (1.4-fold, Plipolysis or lipid beta-oxidation. Impaired adipose NEFA re-esterification or de novo lipogenesis is likely to contribute to higher NEFA plasma levels in T2D. The data suggest that hyperglycemia and adiposity are important contributing factors for the regulation of plasma NEFA concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gas-phase and Ar-matrix SQM scaling factors for various DFT functionals with basis sets including polarization and diffuse functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábri, Csaba; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2011-05-12

    Scaling factors for Pulay's scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) scheme have been determined for four different widely used DFT functionals (PBE, B3LYP, B3PW91, and M06-2X) and for two basis sets (6-31++G** and aug-cc-pVTZ) by fitting computed results to 347 fundamental experimental vibrational frequencies of 33 molecules. Measurements in the gas phase and in solid argon matrices were used independently in the fitting procedure in order to provide a simple method of estimating matrix shifts. The accuracy of the new scaling factors is demonstrated on test molecules including hydrogen-bonded systems and molecules containing chlorine and sulfur atoms.

  11. Effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on inflammatory factors and left ventricular remodeling in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhou; Le Qu; Xiao-Li Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on inflammatory factors and left ventricular remodeling in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute myocardial. Methods:A total of 100 cases patients of NSTEMI were selected that they were admitted during January 2013 to December 2014 and randomly divided into observer group and control group, each of 50 cases. Patients were given a comprehensive treatment of myocardial infarction, the control group was given the treatment of rosuvastatin and the observer group was given the treatment of atorvastatin over the same period, compared the related indicators of serum inflammatory factors and left ventricular remodeling after treatment in two groups. Results:The observer group serum TNF- , IL-6, hs-CRP levels were significantly lower than the control group in the treatment of 1 month, 3 months. The observer group was treated for 1 month, 3 months LVEF was significantly higher than the control group, and LVEDD, LVESD, PWT was significantly lower than the control group. The observer group was treated for 1 month, 3 months AngⅡ, PⅢNP, NT-proBNP level was significantly lower than the control group.Conclusions:The rosuvastatin is better than the atorvastatin in improving the level of NSTEMI inflammatory factors, prevention of left ventricular remodeling.

  12. Factors Associated with the Use of Drug-Eluting Stents in Patients Presenting with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose F. Chavez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Drug-eluting stents (DES have proven clinical superiority to bare-metal stents (BMS for the treatment of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Decision to implant BMS or DES is dependent on the patient’s ability to take dual antiplatelet therapy. This study investigated factors associated with DES placement in STEMI patients. Methods. Retrospective analysis was performed on 193 patients who presented with STEMI and were treated with percutaneous coronary intervention at an urban, tertiary care hospital. Independent factors associated with choice of stent type were determined using stepwise multivariate logistic regression. Odds ratio (OR was used to evaluate factors significantly associated with DES and BMS. Results. 128 received at least one DES, while 65 received BMS. BMS use was more likely in the setting of illicit drug or alcohol abuse ([OR] 0.15, 95% CI 0.05–0.48, p≤0.01, cardiogenic shock (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10–0.73, p=0.01, and larger stent diameter (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.68, p≤0.01. Conclusions. In this analysis, BMS implantation was associated with illicit drug or alcohol abuse and presence of cardiogenic shock. This study did not confirm previous observations that non-White race, insurance, or income predicts BMS use.

  13. Elevated serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and stem cell growth factor β in patients with idiopathic and systemic sclerosis associated pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stefanantoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH can be idiopathic or secondary to autoimmune diseases, and it represents one of the most threatening complications of systemic sclerosis (SSc. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pleiotropic cytokine with proinflammatory functions that appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced PH. In SSc patients, high serum levels of MIF have been associated with the development of ulcers and PAH. Stem cell growth factor β (SCGF β is a human growth factor that, together with MIF, is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic spinal cord injury. The aim of our study was to measure serum levels of MIF in patients with idiopathic and SSc-associated PAH. We enrolled 13 patients with idiopathic PAH and 15 with SSc-associated PAH. We also selected 14 SSc patients without PAH and 12 normal healthy controls, matched for sex and age. PAH was confirmed by right hearth catheterism (mPAP>25 mmHg. MIF and SCGF β levels were measured by ELISA. We found significantly higher circulating levels of MIF and of SCGF β in patients with idiopathic PAH (P=0.03 and P=0.004 and with PAH secondary to SSc (P=0.018 and P=0.023 compared to SSc patients without PAH. Higher levels of MIF were found in those patients with an higher New York Heart Association (NYHA class (P=0.03. We can hypothesize that MIF and SCGF β are able to play a role in PAH, both idiopathic or secondary, and in the future they may be evaluated as useful biomarkers and prognostic factors for this serious vascular disease.

  14. Bucket elevator

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je návrh svislého korečkového elevátoru, který má sloužit k dopravě obilovin s dopravní výškou 19 m a dopravovaným množstvím 100 t/hod. Práce se skládá z popisu korečkového elevátoru a jeho hlavních částí, zmiňující se v úvodní rešerši. Tato práce je zaměřena na funkční a kapacitní výpočet, určení pohonu a napínacího zařízení. Další výpočet je kontrolní, skládající se z pevnostní kontroly hnacího hřídele, výpočtu pera, životnosti ložisek a výpočtu napínacího zaříze...

  15. Temporal dynamics of abiotic and biotic factors on leaf litter of three plant species in relation to decomposition rate along a subalpine elevation gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiao Zhu

    Full Text Available Relationships between abiotic (soil temperature and number of freeze-thaw cycles or biotic factors (chemical elements, microbial biomass, extracellular enzymes, and decomposer communities in litter and litter decomposition rates were investigated over two years in subalpine forests close to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Litterbags with senescent birch, fir, and spruce leaves were placed on the forest floor at 2,704 m, 3,023 m, 3,298 m, and 3,582 m elevation. Results showed that the decomposition rate positively correlated with soil mean temperature during the plant growing season, and with the number of soil freeze-thaw cycles during the winter. Concentrations of soluble nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K had positive effects but C:N and lignin:N ratios had negative effects on the decomposition rate (k, especially during the winter. Meanwhile, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, N (MBN, and P (MBP were positively correlated with k values during the first growing season. These biotic factors accounted for 60.0% and 56.4% of the variation in decomposition rate during the winter and the growing season in the first year, respectively. Specifically, litter chemistry (C, N, P, K, lignin, C:N and lignin:N ratio independently explained 29.6% and 13.3%, and the microbe-related factors (MBC, MBN, MBP, bacterial and fungal biomass, sucrase and ACP activity explained 22.9% and 34.9% during the first winter and the first growing season, respectively. We conclude that frequent freeze-thaw cycles and litter chemical properties determine the winter decomposition while microbe-related factors play more important roles in determining decomposition in the subsequent growing season.

  16. Elevation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6levels in aortic intima of Chinese Guizhou minipigs with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Lin; DING Feng-hua; SHEN Jie; CHEN Qiu-jin; LOU Sheng; FANG Dan-hong; SHEN Wei-feng; ZHANG Qi; PU Li-jin; XU Xue-wei; ZHANG Rui-yan; ZHANG Jian-sheng; HU Jian; YANG Zheng-kun; L(U) An-kang

    2007-01-01

    Background Large animal models with toxin-mediated pancreatic damage have been used extensively in researches with respect to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diabetic complications. The present study aimed to establish Chinese Guizhou minipig models with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and characterize the animal models by analyzing inflammatory cytokine levels in aortic wall, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6).Methods Twenty-two male Chinese Guizhou minipigs (age, 4 to 6 months; weight, 20 kg to 30 kg) were divided into STZ-induced diabetic group (n=12) and control group (n=10). STZ (125 mg/kg) was administrated to induce hyperglycemia and afterwards insulin was used to control fasting blood glucose levels below 10 mmol/L. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and one month after STZ administration and serum concentrations of alanine transaminase, asparagine transaminase, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, lipids and white blood cell count were measured before and six months later. Animals in both groups were euthanized after six months and pancreas was examined immunohistochemically for islet β cells. Aortic intima of diabetic minipigs and controls was analyzed for TNF-α level in tissue conditioned medium by Western blot. TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels in aortic intima were assayed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Significant elevation in serum glucose levels was observed one month and six months after STZ induction (P<0.001) and markedly increased OGTT values were noted, compared with baseline data. The normal pancreas had many irregular sized islets and small clusters of islet β cells, while in pancreas of diabetic minipigs islet β cells almost disappeared. No statistical difference was notified in serum concentrations of biochemical examinations before and six months after STZ induction. Western blot demonstrated

  17. [Structural analysis for psychosocial factors including health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) associated with lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Ogino, K; Ooshita, Y; Tsukahara, S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify psychosocial characteristics associated with preventive health behavior for lifestyle-related diseases. The author performed objective health examinations and gave questionnaires to 289 men (39.7 +/- 11.8 years, mean +/- SD) and 80 women (32.8 +/- 10.4 years) engaged in office work. Psychosocial factors included lifestyle and perceived stress, as well as the health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) as newly developed indicators for health behavior. The principal component analysis for men did not extract lifestyle from the psychosocial structures. Multiple regression analysis showed that internal HLC (IHLC), chance HLC (CHLC), professional HLC (PHLC) and stress significantly contributed to SOC. Principal component analysis using psychosocial factors in women showed two psychosocial structures, i.e. the second principal (high SOC, high lifestyle, and low stress) and the 4th principal components (high supernatural HLC, and high PHLC). Both components were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. SOC was recognized to be negatively associated with age, stress, and total cholesterol, and positively with IHLC, FHLC, lifestyle, and gamma-GTP using multiple regression analysis for women. These results indicated a distinguishable sex difference regarding the involvement of psychosocial factors including HLC and SOC in objective health. SOC seems likely to be involved not in objective health, but closely with stress, suggesting a direct influence on mental health. Lifestyle should be divided into more detailed categories such as smoking and salt intake. Structural analysis of women suggests that SOC is involved directly or indirectly through lifestyle in objective health, different from men. To further clarify causal relationships between psychosocial factors and risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases, a longitudinal study is necessary based on these results.

  18. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  19. Follow-up study of Gambian children with rickets-like bone deformities and elevated plasma FGF23: possible aetiological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Vickie; Jarjou, Landing M A; Goldberg, Gail R; Jones, Helen; Pettifor, John M; Prentice, Ann

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported on a case-series of children (n=46) with suspected calcium-deficiency rickets who presented in The Gambia with rickets-like bone deformities. Biochemical analyses discounted vitamin D-deficiency as an aetiological factor but indicated a perturbation of Ca-P metabolism involving low plasma phosphate and high circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) concentrations. A follow-up study was conducted 5 years after presentation to investigate possible associated factors and characterise recovery. 35 children were investigated at follow-up (RFU). Clinical assessment of bone deformities, overnight fasted 2 h urine and blood samples, 2-day weighed dietary records and 24 h urine collections were obtained. Age- and season-matched data from children from the local community (LC) were used to calculate standard deviation scores (SDS) for RFU children. None of the RFU children had radiological signs of active rickets. However, over half had residual leg deformities consistent with rickets. Dietary Ca intake (SDS-Ca=-0.52 (0.98) p=0.04), dietary Ca/P ratio (SDS-Ca/P=-0.80 (0.82) p=0.0008) and TmP:GFR (SDS-TmP:GFR=-0.48 (0.81) p=0.04) were significantly lower in RFU children compared with LC children and circulating FGF23 concentration was elevated in 19% of RFU children. Furthermore an inverse relationship was seen between haemoglobin and FGF23 (R(2)=25.8, p=0.004). This study has shown differences in biochemical and dietary profiles between Gambian children with a history of rickets-like bone deformities and children from the local community. This study provided evidence in support of the calcium deficiency hypothesis leading to urinary phosphate wasting and rickets and identified glomerular filtration rate and iron status as possible modulators of FGF23 metabolic pathways.

  20. Factors associated with non-participation and drop-out in a lifestyle intervention for workers with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Iris F; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-12-01

    Non-response and drop-out are problems that are commonly encountered in health promotion trials. Understanding the health-related characteristics of non-participants and drop-outs and the reasons for non-participation and drop-out may be beneficial for future intervention trials. Male construction workers with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were invited to participate in a lifestyle intervention study. In order to investigate the associations between participation and CVD risk factors, and drop-out and CVD risk factors, crude and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. The reasons for non-participation and drop-out were assessed qualitatively. 20% of the workers who were invited decided to participate; 8.6% of the participants dropped out before the first follow-up measurement. The main reasons for non-participation were 'no interest', 'current (para-)medical treatment', and 'feeling healthy', and for drop-out they were 'lack of motivation', 'current (para-)medical treatment', and 'disappointment'. Participants were 4.2 years older, had a higher blood pressure, higher total cholesterol, and lower HDL cholesterol than non-participants, and were more likely to report 'tiredness and/or stress' and 'chest pain and/or shortness of breath'. After adjusting for age, most risk factors were not significantly associated with participation. Drop-outs were 4.6 years younger than those who completed the study. The prevalence of smoking was higher among non-participants and drop-outs. Participants had a worse CVD risk profile than non-participants, mainly because of the difference in age. Non-participants and drop-outs were younger and more likely to be smokers. The main reasons for non-participation and drop-out were health-related. Investigators in the field of health promotion should be encouraged to share comparable information. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60545588.

  1. Association between Cerebral Amyloid Deposition and Clinical Factors Including Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression: Pilot Study Using Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Geum; Kong, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Eun-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Koo, Bon-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebral amyloid deposition and overall clinical factors including cognitive functions in geriatric depression by using 18F-florbetaben positron emission tomography. Thirteen subjects aged over 60 years who had a history of major depressive disorder and also had subjective memory complaint were included. Of all subjects, 3 subjects judged as amyloid positive, and the others judged as amyloid negative. Their memory, visuospatial functions and attention abilities were negatively correlated with amyloid deposition in specific brain regions, but their language and recognition abilities were not correlated with any region. The amyloid deposition of the whole brain region was significantly negatively correlated with immediate memory. PMID:27776391

  2. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Is there a need to include HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the Saudi premarital screening program on the basis of their prevalence and transmission risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, F M; O'Brien, S J

    2010-11-01

    In January 2008, the Saudi Arabian health authority included mandatory testing for HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the premarital screening program. Epidemiologically, there were few justifications for their inclusion as disease prevalences and distributions are poorly understood in the population. This study aims to provide information about HBV, HCV and HIV prevalences and risk factors for disease transmission and so produce evidence for informed decision-making on the inclusion of these infectious diseases in the screening program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74,662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540). The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses. The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.

  4. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  5. Elevated Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in obese, insulin resistant states is normalised by the synthetic retinoid Fenretinide in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrice, Nicola; Mcilroy, George D.; Tammireddy, Seshu R.; Reekie, Jennifer; Shearer, Kirsty D.; Doherty, Mary K.; Delibegović, Mirela; Whitfield, Phillip D.; Mody, Nimesh

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important beneficial regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis but its levels are also abnormally increased in insulin-resistant states in rodents and humans. The synthetic retinoid Fenretinide inhibits obesity and improves glucose homeostasis in mice and has pleotropic effects on cellular pathways. To identify Fenretinide target genes, we performed unbiased RNA-seq analysis in liver from mice fed high-fat diet ± Fenretinide. Strikingly, Fgf21 was the most downregulated hepatic gene. Fenretinide normalised elevated levels of FGF21 in both high-fat diet-induced obese mice and in genetically obese-diabetic Leprdbmice. Moreover, Fenretinide-mediated suppression of FGF21 was independent of body weight loss or improved hepatic insulin sensitivity and importantly does not induce unhealthy metabolic complications. In mice which have substantially decreased endogenous retinoic acid biosynthesis, Fgf21 expression was increased, whereas acute pharmacological retinoid treatment decreased FGF21 levels. The repression of FGF21 levels by Fenretinide occurs by reduced binding of RARα and Pol-II at the Fgf21 promoter. We therefore establish Fgf21 as a novel gene target of Fenretinide signalling via a retinoid-dependent mechanism. These results may be of nutritional and therapeutic importance for the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes. PMID:28256636

  6. Blood mercury can be a factor of elevated serum ferritin: analysis of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Choi, Young-Hwa; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Beomhee; Kim, Young-Sang

    2015-03-01

    Serum ferritin as well as blood mercury are reported to be associated with chronic inflammation. However, the relation between serum ferritin and blood mercury has not yet been established. We utilized the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012) 10,977 subjects (5433 males and 5544 females). To evaluate the association of serum ferritin and blood mercury cross-sectionally, complex sample analysis was conducted after adjustment for the relevant variables. Serum concentrations of ferritin and blood mercury were higher in males than in females (115.7 ± 1.7 vs. 40.9 ± 0.7 ng/mL and 5.0 ± 0.1 vs. 3.6 ± 0.1 μg/L, respectively). Serum ferritin and blood mercury concentrations had significant correlations in both genders after adjustment (r = 0.062, P serum ferritin according to the tertile of blood mercury (P = 0.007) in males. The adjusted odds ratio of having the highest tertile of serum ferritin in the top tertile of blood mercury in males was 1.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.05-2.21). Thus, the current study indicates that blood mercury concentration can be a factor for the elevated serum ferritin concentration.

  7. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  8. Von Willebrand Factor Antigen Predicts Response to Double Dose of Aspirin and Clopidogrel by PFA-100 in Patients Undergoing Primary Angioplasty for St Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Gianetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Von Willebrand factor (VWF is an emerging risk factor in acute coronary syndromes. Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA-100 with Collagen/Epinephrine (CEPI is sensitive to functional alterations of VWF and also identifies patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of double dose (DD of aspirin and clopidogrel on HPR detected by PFA-100 and its relation to VWF and to its regulatory metalloprotease ADAMTS-13. Between 2009 and 2011 we enrolled 116 consecutive patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary PCI with HPR at day 5 after PCI. Patients recruited were then randomized between a standard dose (SD, n=58 or DD of aspirin and clopidogrel (DD, n=58, maintained for 6 months follow-up. Blood samples for PFA-100, light transmittance aggregometry, and VWF/ADAMTS-13 analysis were collected after 5, 30, and 180 days (Times 0, 1, and 2. At Times 1 and 2 we observed a significantly higher CEPI closure times (CT in DD as compared to SD (P<0.001. Delta of CEPI-CT (T1-T0 was significantly related to VWF (P<0.001 and inversely related to ADAMTS-13 (0.01. Responders had a significantly higher level of VWF at T0. Finally, in a multivariate model analysis, VWF and ADAMTS-13 in resulted significant predictors of CEPI-CT response (P=0.02. HRP detected by PFA-100 in acute myocardial infarction is reversible by DD of aspirin and clopidogrel; the response is predicted by basal levels of VWF and ADAMTS-13. PFA-100 may be a useful tool to risk stratification in acute coronary syndromes given its sensitivity to VWF.

  9. Elevated extracellular calcium increases fibroblast growth factor-2 gene and protein expression levels via a cAMP/PKA dependent pathway in cementoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Sousuke; Nemoto, Eiji; Ebe, Yukari; Somerman, Martha J; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2010-09-01

    Cementoblasts, tooth root lining cells, are responsible for laying down cementum on the root surface, a process that is indispensable for establishing a functional periodontal ligament. Cementoblasts share phenotypical features with osteoblasts. Elevated levels of extracellular Ca(2+) have been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of extracellular Ca(2+) signaling in cementogenesis has not been examined. Using RT-PCR, we found that elevated levels of extracellular Ca(2+) increase fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 gene expression with a peak at 6h. Pretreatment with a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, or an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, MDL-12,330A, inhibited Ca(2+)-stimulated Fgf-2 expression. In contrast, pretreatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF-109203X or the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 did not affect the expression of Fgf-2 transcripts, suggesting that the increase in Fgf-2 expression was dependent on the PKA but not the PLC/PKC signaling pathway. Treatment with an activator of adenylate cyclase, forskolin, or a cell-permeable analog of cAMP, 8-Br-cAMP, enhanced Ca(2+)-stimulated Fgf-2 expression, but a single treatment with forskolin or 8-Br-cAMP did not, suggesting that cAMP generation is indispensable but not sufficient for Ca(2+)-stimulated FGF2 expression. Next, we examined the cation specificity of the putative receptor and showed that treatment with trivalent/divalent inorganic ions, Ca(2+), Gd(3+), Sr(2+), or Al(3+), caused a dose-dependent increase in Fgf-2 mRNA levels in a cAMP-dependent fashion, whereas Mg(2+) and the organic ions neomycin and spermine had no effect on Fgf-2 gene expression levels. These findings suggest that an extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing mechanism is present in cementoblasts and its activation leads to FGF-2 stimulation in a cAMP/PKA dependent fashion. Understanding the pathway regulating key genes involved in modulating the

  10. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  11. Prevalence study and risk factor analysis of selected bacterial, protozoal and viral, including vector-borne, pathogens in cats from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Sarvani, Elpida; Knowles, Toby G; Mengi, Sena; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-03-13

    Feline infectious agent studies are lacking in Cyprus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for various feline infectious agents, including feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP), in cats from Cyprus. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was performed on 174 feline samples [138 owned and 36 shelter-feral, including both healthy (43) and non-healthy (131), cats] from private veterinary clinics from all six districts of Cyprus. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (CMt). The population was tested for four FVBP including Bartonella henselae and Leishmania spp. using qPCR, while conventional PCR assays were used to detect Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Hepatozoon spp. Serological assays were performed to detect Leishmania infantum antibodies, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed to test associations and possible risk factors between variables and infectious agents. Ninety-six (55.2%) of the 174 cats were PCR-positive for at least one infectious agent. Forty-six cats (26.4%) were haemoplasma positive, including 13 (7.5%) for Mhf, 36 (20.7%) for CMhm and 12 (6.9%) for CMt. Sixty-six cats (37.9%) were positive for Hepatozoon spp., while 19 (10.9%) were positive for B. henselae, four (2.3%) for Leishmania spp. and one (0.6%) for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. Sequencing revealed the presence of Hepatozoon felis, L. infantum and Anaplasma platys. Of the 164 cats that underwent retroviral serology, 10 (6.1%) were FeLV-positive and 31 (18.9%) were FIV-positive, while L. infantum serology was positive in 7 (4.4%) of the 160 cats tested. Multivariable logistic regression revealed significant associations for various infectious agents including L. infantum with each of Hepatozoon spp. and CMt

  12. Study on the social maturity, self-perception, and associated factors, including motor coordination, of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumiko; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of social maturity and self-perception in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to elucidate associated factors, including motor coordination. The subjects were 15 children (14 boys and 1 girl, in elementary school grades 3 to 6). Their characteristics were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), the Japanese version of the Social Maturity Scale-R (S-M scale), and Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). The results of the study suggested that most of the subjects had some degree of motor problem and delay of social maturity. They also suggested an association between social maturity and static-dynamic balance, which was one of the indices of motor coordination.

  13. Risk factors for bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: A focus on antimicrobials including cefepime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Teena; Marchaim, Dror; Johnson, Paul C; Chalana, Indu K; Tamam, Zeinab; Mohammed, Mazin; Alkatib, Shatha; Tansek, Ryan; Chaudhry, Khawar; Zhao, Jing J; Pogue, Jason M; Kaye, Keith S

    2015-07-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens represent increasing challenges to physicians because of rising prevalence, high mortality, and challenging treatment. Identifying high risks and early appropriate therapy is critical to favorable outcomes. This is a 5-year retrospective case-case-control study performed at the Detroit Medical Center on adult patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae, each compared with uninfected controls. Data were collected from December 2004-August 2009. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Participants included 103 patients with BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens and 79 patients with BSI caused by pathogens that did not produce ESBLs. The mean age of patients in the ESBL group was 67 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 77% were black, and 38% (n = 39) died in hospital. The mean age of patients in the non-ESBL group was 58 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 92% were black, and 22% (n = 17) died in hospital. On multivariate analysis, predictors of BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens included central venous catheter (odds ratio [OR], 29.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-288.3), prior β-lactam-/β-lactamase-inhibitor therapy (OR, 28.1; 95% CI, 1.99-396.5), and prior cefepime therapy (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 2.7-192.4). The only risk factor for BSI caused by non-ESBL-producing pathogens was urinary catheter insertion (OR, 18.2; 95% CI, 3.3-100.3). Prior antimicrobial therapy, particularly with β-lactam, was the strongest unique risk factor for BSI caused by ESBL-producing E coli or K pneumoniae. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Tumor-induced osteomalacia with elevated fibroblast growth factor 23: a case of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor mixed with connective tissue variants and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Ke Hu; Fang Yuan; Cheng-Ying Jiang; Da-Wei Lv; Bei-Bei Mao; Qiang Zhang; Zeng-Qiang Yuan; Yan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO),or oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM),is a rare acquired paraneoplastic disease characterized by renal phosphate wasting and hypophosphatemia.Recent evidence shows that tumor-overexpressed fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is responsible for the hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia.The tumors associated with TIO are usually phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor mixed connective tissue variants (PMTMCT).Surgical removal of the responsible tumors is clinically essential for the treatment of TIO.However,identifying the responsible tumors is often difficult.Here,we report a case of a TIO patient with elevated serum FGF23 levels suffering from bone pain and hypophosphatemia for more than three years.A tumor was finally located in first metacarpal bone by octreotide scintigraphy and she was cured by surgery.After complete excision of the tumor,serum FGF23 levels rapidly decreased,dropping to 54.7% of the preoperative level one hour after surgery and eventually to a little below normal.The patient's serum phosphate level rapidly improved and returned to normal level in four days.Accordingly,her clinical symptoms were greatly improved within one month after surgery.There was no sign of tumor recurrence during an 18-month period of follow-up.According to pathology,the tumor was originally diagnosed as “glomangioma” based upon a biopsy sample,“proliferative giant cell tumor of tendon sheath” based upon sections of tumor,and finally diagnosed as PMTMCT by consultation one year after surgery.In conclusion,although an extremely rare disease,clinicians and pathologists should be aware of the existence of TIO and PMTMCT,respectively.

  15. Marked elevation of hypusine formation activity on eukaryotic initiation factor 5A in v-HA-RAS transformed mouse NIH3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z P; Chen, K Y

    1997-05-19

    Hypusine formation on the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) precursor is ubiquitously present in eukaryotic cells and archebacteria. In this reaction, deoxyhypusine synthase catalyzes the conversion of one unique lysine residue on eIF-5A to deoxyhypusine using spermidine as the substrate. Hydroxylation of the deoxyhypusine residue completes hypusine formation on eIF-5A. Hypusine formation activity can be measured by an in vitro labeling technique in polyamine-depleted cells. In addition, an in vitro cross-labeling assay can be employed to measure simultaneously the relative deoxyhypusine synthase activity and protein substrate amount. Using these approaches, together with Western blot analysis, we showed that hypusine formation activity is serum-responsive and significantly elevated in Ras oncogene transfected NIH3T3 cells as compared to NIH3T3 cells. The large difference, >30-fold, in hypusine formation activity between these two cells is mainly due to difference in the amount of newly synthesized eIF-5A precursor rather than deoxyhypusine synthase. The deoxyhypusine synthase activity is about three-fold higher in Ras-3T3 cells than in 3T3 cells, and remains constant throughout serum stimulation in both cells. Despite the significant difference in eIF-5A protein amounts, the eIF-5A mRNA levels in 3T3 cells and in Ras-3T3 cells are almost identical. Furthermore, unlike serum-dependent increase in eIF-5A precursor protein, the eIF-5A mRNA in both cells is constitutively expressed after serum stimulation, suggesting that eIF-5A gene is regulated at posttranscriptional/translational level during serum stimulation and cell transformation.

  16. Including the spatial variability of metal speciation in the effect factor in life cycle impact assessment: Limits of the equilibrium partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, Clara; Bulle, Cécile; Deschênes, Louise

    2017-03-01

    In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach. Alternatively, the TBLM (Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model) has been used to determine an EF that accounts for speciation, but is not available for metals; hence it cannot be consistently applied to metals in an LCA context. This paper proposes an approach to include metal speciation by regionalizing the EqP method for Cu, Ni and Zn with a geochemical speciation model (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model 7.0), for 5213 soils selected from the Harmonized World Soil Database. Results obtained by this approach (EF(EqP)regionalized) are compared to the EFs calculated with the conventional EqP method, to the EFs based on available terrestrial data and to the EFs calculated with the TBLM (EF(TBLM)regionalized) when available. The spatial variability contribution of the EF to the overall spatial variability of the characterization factor (CF) has been analyzed. It was found that the EFs(EqP)regionalized show a significant spatial variability. The EFs calculated with the two non-regionalized methods (EqP and terrestrial data) fall within the range of the EFs(EqP)regionalized. The EFs(TBLM)regionalized cover a larger range of values than the EFs(EqP)regionalized but the two methods are not correlated. This paper highlights the importance of including speciation into the terrestrial EF and shows that using the regionalized EqP approach is not an

  17. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT WITH THE INHIBITORS OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR OF THE CHRONIC UVEITIS REFRACTORY TO THE BASIC THERAPY (INCLUDING AN ASSOCIATED WITH JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rudakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy of chronic uveitis refractory to the basic treatment, in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a very complex problem in pediatrics. Substantial progress in this area resulted after the implementation in practice of inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, as the most effective in such clinical situation drugs adalimumab and infliximab are considered (although infliximab was not officially approved in JIA. Objective. To estimate the cost effectiveness of TNF inhibitors — adalimumab, and infliximab in chronic uveitis, refractory to the basic therapy (including associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. A modeling on the basis of a comparative prospective cohort clinical study was carried out. The analysis was performed by the method «cost–effectiveness» from a position of health and social accounting perspective. Results. It was shown that the frequency and time of remission did not differ when treatment with infliximab (5 mg/kg at 0–2–6 weeks and further once in 6–8 weeks and adalimumab (24 mg/m2 once in 2 weeks. Adalimumab provides a long-term maintenance of remission (no recurrence in 60% of patients within 40 months of observation, whereas 1 year after the treatment with infliximab the frequency of exacerbations was returned to that observed before therapy. The proportion of patients without relapse in the treatment with infliximab for 40 months was 18.8%. Similar results were obtained in a subset of patients with chronic uveitis associated with JIA (with follow-up of 20 months of in a group of infliximab number patients without relapse was 11.1%, with adalimumab therapy — 63.6%. In the general population of patients with refractory chronic uveitis the factor «cost–effectiveness» calculated for a patient with the maintenance of remission for 3 years with adalimumab therapy was in 2,1–2,8 times less than in the treatment with infliximab. In chronic uveitis associated with JIA, the coefficient of

  18. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, among urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, M A; Boyer, C B

    1991-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of multiple psychosocial and knowledge-related antecedent factors that may predict sexual and alcohol and drug use behaviors that are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection. Five hundred forty-four ninth-grade urban high school students were surveyed regarding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to STDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that higher levels of STD and AIDS knowledge were associated with lower levels of STD and AIDS anxiety (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), fewer negative attitudes toward people with AIDS (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), stronger perceptions of self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.03; p less than 0.01), and stronger peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.05). Negative attitudes toward people with AIDS were inversely related to knowledge (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001), social support (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.01), and perceived self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.01; p less than 0.05). Predictors of alcohol and drug use included perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001) and strong peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.001). The best predictor of sexual risk behavior was alcohol and drug use (R2 delta = 0.07; p less than 0.001). Lower levels of knowledge (R2 delta = 0.14; p less than 0.01) and perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.05) predicted nonuse of condoms. Our results indicate that several factors relate to adolescent risk for STDs: the connection between peer influence and adolescent risk behaviors, the link between alcohol and drug use and sexual risk behavior, and the role of knowledge in determining nonuse of condoms.

  19. Degree and distribution of left ventricular hypertrophy as a determining factor for elevated natriuretic peptide levels in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: insights from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Rang; Choi, Jin-Oh; Han, Hye Jin; Chang, Sung-A; Park, Sung-Ji; Lee, Sang-Chol; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Seung Woo; Oh, Jae K

    2012-04-01

    Whether the left ventricular (LV) mass index (LVMI) and LV volumetric parameters are associated independently with natriuretic peptide levels is unclear in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Therefore, we investigated which parameters have an independent relationship with N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in HCM patients using echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). A total of 103 patients with HCM (82 men, age 53 ± 12 years) were evaluated. Echocardiographic evaluations included left atrial volume index (LAVI) and early diastolic mitral inflow E velocity to early annular Ea velocity ratio (E/Ea). LVMI, maximal wall thickness and LV volumetric parameters were measured using CMR. The median value of NT-proBNP level was 387.0 pg/ml. The mean NT-proBNP level in patients with non-apical HCM (n = 69; 36 patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy, 11 with diffuse, and 22 with mixed type) was significantly higher than in those with apical HCM (n = 34, P < 0.001). NT-proBNP level was negatively correlated with LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) (r = -0.263, P = 0.007) and positively with LVMI (r = 0.225, P = 0.022) and maximal wall thickness (r = 0.495, P < 0.001). Among the echocardiographic variables, LAVI (r = 0.492, P < 0.001) and E/Ea (r = 0.432, P < 0.001) were correlated with NT-proBNP. On multivariable analysis, non-apical HCM, increased maximal wall thickness and LAVI were independently related with NT-proBNP. Severity of LV hypertrophy and diastolic parameters might be important in the elevation of NT-proBNP level in HCM. Therefore, further evaluation of these parameters in HCM might be warranted.

  20. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  1. Escape by the Balearic Lizard (Podarcis lilfordi is affected by elevation of an approaching predator, but not by some other potential predation risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Cooper

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many predation risk factors to affect escape behavior by lizards, but effects of some potential risk factors are unknown or are variable among species. We studied effects of several risk factors on escape responses by the Balearic lizard (Podarcis lilfordi, Lacertidae on escape responses. Escape was elicited by an approaching experimenter who recorded flight initiation distance (predator-prey distance when escape begins and distance fled. When an experimenter approached from above (upslope, flight initiation distance and distance fled were longer than when the experimenter approached from below. This novel effect suggests that lizards exposed to aerial predation might have been naturally selected to respond rapidly to predators approaching from above or that effects of path inclination of escape ability may differ between predators and prey in a manner requiring a larger margin of safety during approaches from above than below. Although sex differences in aspects of escape occur in some lizards, including lacertids, no sex difference was observed in P. lilfordi. Because vigilance and some other aspects of antipredatory behavior exhibit cortical lateralization, we tested effects of approach from the left and right sides of lizards. As predicted by optimal escape theory, side of approach did not affect flight initiation distance. Because many lizards have color vision and respond to pigmentation of conspecifics in social settings, researchers have often worn only drably colored clothing when simulating predators. This precaution may be unnecessary because flight initiation distance did not differ among investigator shirt colors (red, orange, olive.

  2. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  3. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple factors, including non-motor impairments, influence decision making with regard to exercise participation in Parkinson's disease: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine; Clemson, Lindy; Canning, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    To explore how the meaning of exercise and other factors interact and influence the exercise behaviour of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled in a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program to prevent falls, regardless of whether they completed the prescribed exercise or not. This qualitative study utilised in-depth semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory methodology. Four main themes were constructed from the data: adapting to change and loss, the influence of others, making sense of the exercise experience and hope for a more active future. Participation in the PD-specific physiotherapy program involving group exercise provided an opportunity for participants to reframe their identity of their "active" self. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified and explored: non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, the belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. A model was developed incorporating the themes and influences to explain decision-making for exercise participation in this group. Complex and interacting issues, including non-motor impairments, need to be considered in order to enhance the development and ongoing implementation of effective exercise programmes for people with PD. Exercise participation can assist individuals to reframe their identity as they are faced with losses associated with Parkinson's disease and ageing. Non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue may influence exercise participation in people with Parkinson's disease. Particular attention needs to be paid to the provision of feedback in exercise programs for people with Parkinson's disease as it important for their decision-making about continuing exercise.

  5. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  6. Laser Microdissection Unravels Cell-Type-Specific Transcription in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots, Including CAAT-Box Transcription Factor Gene Expression Correlating with Fungal Contact and Spread1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogekamp, Claudia; Arndt, Damaris; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Becker, Jörg D.; Hohnjec, Natalija; Küster, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis. PMID:22034628

  7. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  8. Elevated serum levels of fetal antigen 1,a member of the epidermal growth factor superfamily, in patients with small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harken Jensen, C; Drivsholm, L; Laursen, I;

    1999-01-01

    of limited/extensive disease. Immunohistochemical analysis of a biopsy from 1 SCLC patient with an elevated serum FA1 also showed the presence of FA1 in tumor cells. FA1 in serum from SCLC patients was identical to that of FA1 in normal serum/amniotic fluid with respect to size distribution and also revealed...

  9. Identification of Leptospira interrogans phospholipase C as a novel virulence factor responsible for intracellular free calcium ion elevation during macrophage death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fang Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospira-induced macrophage death has been confirmed to play a crucial role in pathogenesis of leptospirosis, a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease. Intracellular free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]i elevation induced by infection can cause cell death, but [Ca(2+]i changes and high [Ca(2+]i-induced death of macrophages due to infection of Leptospira have not been previously reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first used a Ca(2+-specific fluorescence probe to confirm that the infection of L. interrogans strain Lai triggered a significant increase of [Ca(2+]i in mouse J774A.1 or human THP-1 macrophages. Laser confocal microscopic examination showed that the [Ca(2+]i elevation was caused by both extracellular Ca(2+ influx through the purinergic receptor, P2X7, and Ca(2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, as seen by suppression of [Ca(2+]i elevation when receptor-gated calcium channels were blocked or P2X7 was depleted. The LB361 gene product of the spirochete exhibited phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (L-PI-PLC activity to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 into inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3, which in turn induces intracellular Ca(2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum, with the Km of 199 µM and Kcat of 8.566E-5 S(-1. Secretion of L-PI-PLC from the spirochete into supernatants of leptospire-macrophage co-cultures and cytosol of infected macrophages was also observed by Western Blot assay. Lower [Ca(2+]i elevation was induced by infection with a LB361-deficient leptospiral mutant, whereas transfection of the LB361 gene caused a mild increase in [Ca(2+]i. Moreover, PI-PLCs (PI-PLC-β3 and PI-PLC-γ1 of the two macrophages were activated by phosphorylation during infection. Flow cytometric detection demonstrated that high [Ca(2+]i increases induced apoptosis and necrosis of macrophages, while mild [Ca(2+]i elevation only caused apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrated that L

  10. Stem cell mobilization induced by subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to improve cardiac regeneration after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: result of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled stem cells in myocardial infarction (STEMMI) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Jørgensen, Erik; Wang, Yongzhong

    2006-01-01

    of subcutaneous G-CSF injections on left ventricular function in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients (62 men; average age, 56 years) with ST-elevation myocardial infarction were included after successful primary percutaneous coronary stent intervention ... hours after symptom onset. Patients were randomized to double-blind treatment with G-CSF (10 microg/kg of body weight) or placebo for 6 days. The primary end point was change in systolic wall thickening from baseline to 6 months determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An independent core...

  11. Factors that elevate the internal radionuclide and chemical retention, dose and health risks to infants and children in a radiological-nuclear emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Richard B

    2009-06-01

    The factors that influence the dose and risk to vulnerable population groups from exposure and internal uptake of chemicals are examined and, in particular, the radionuclides released in chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive events. The paper seeks to identify the areas that would benefit from further research. The intake and body burdens of carbon and calcium were assessed as surrogates for contaminants that either act like or bind to hydrocarbons (e.g. tritium and (14)C) or bone-seeking radionuclides (e.g. (90)Sr and (239)Pu). The shortest turnover times for such materials in the whole body were evaluated for the newborn: 11 d and 0.5 y for carbon and calcium, respectively. However, their biokinetic behaviour is complicated by a particularly high percentage of the gut-absorbed dietary intake of carbon (approximately 16%) and calcium (approximately 100%) that is incorporated into the soft tissue and skeleton of the growing neonate. The International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1)) were examined for 14 radionuclides, including 9 of concern because of their potential use in radiological dispersal devices. The dose coefficients for a 3-month-old are greater than those for adults (2-56 times more for ingestion and 2-12 times for inhalation). The age-dependent dose and exposure assessment of contaminant intakes would improve by accounting for gender and growth where it is currently neglected. Health risk is evaluated as the product of the exposure and hazard factors, the latter being about 10-fold greater in infants than in adults. The exposure factor is also approximately 10-fold higher for ingestion by infants than by adults, and unity for inhalation varying with the contaminant. Qualitative and quantitative physiological and epidemiological evidence supports infants being more vulnerable to cancer and neurological deficit than older children.

  12. Hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of estrogen homeostasis: elevation of estrogenquinones as a risk factor for developing breast cancer in Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che; Hsieh, Wei-Chung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Yu, Wen-Fa; Hu, Suh-Woan; Sue, Hung-Jie; Ko, Mao-Hui; Juan, Chang-Hsin; Chung, Kuo-Suan; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2014-03-21

    The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to analyze estrogen quinone-derived adducts, including 17β-estradiol-2,3-quinone (E2-2,3-Q) and 17β-estradiol-3,4-quinone (E2-3,4-Q), in human hemoglobin (Hb). The methodology was then used to measure the levels of these adducts in Hb derived from female breast cancer patients (n=143) as well as controls (n=147) in Taiwan. Our result confirmed that both E2-2,3-Q- and E2-3,4-Q-derived adducts, including E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Hb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Hb, were detected in all breast cancer patients with median levels at 434 (215-1472) and 913 (559-2384) (pmol/g), respectively. Levels of E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Hb correlated significantly with those of E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Hb (r=0.622-0.628, pQ-4-S-Hb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Hb in breast cancer patients compared to those in the controls (pbreast cancer risk. We hypothesize that combination of genetic events and environmental factors may modulate estrogen homeostasis and enhance the production of estrogen quinones which lead to subsequent generation of pro-mutagenic DNA lesions in breast cancer patients.

  13. Factors Affecting Elevated Arsenic and Methyl Mercury Concentrations in Small Shield Lakes Surrounding Gold Mines near the Yellowknife, NT, (Canada) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Adam James; D'Onofrio, Rebecca; Kokelj, Steven V; Blais, Jules M

    2016-01-01

    Gold mines in the Yellowknife, NT, region--in particular, the Giant Mine--operated from 1949-99, releasing 237,000 tonnes of waste arsenic trioxide (As2O3) dust, among other compounds, from gold ore extraction and roasting processes. For the first time, we show the geospatial distribution of roaster-derived emissions of several chemical species beyond the mine property on otherwise undisturbed taiga shield lakes within a 25 km radius of the mine, 11 years after its closing. Additionally, we demonstrate that underlying bedrock is not a significant source for the elevated concentrations in overlying surface waters. Aquatic arsenic (As) concentrations are well above guidelines for drinking water (10 μg/L) and protection for aquatic life (5 μg/L), ranging up to 136 μg/L in lakes within 4 km from the mine, to 2.0 μg/L in lakes 24 km away. High conversion ratios of methyl mercury were shown in lakes near the roaster stack as well, with MeHg concentrations reaching 44% of total mercury. The risk of elevated exposures by these metals is significant, as many lakes used for recreation and fishing near the City of Yellowknife are within this radius of elevated As and methyl Hg concentrations.

  14. Factors Affecting Elevated Arsenic and Methyl Mercury Concentrations in Small Shield Lakes Surrounding Gold Mines near the Yellowknife, NT, (Canada Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Houben

    Full Text Available Gold mines in the Yellowknife, NT, region--in particular, the Giant Mine--operated from 1949-99, releasing 237,000 tonnes of waste arsenic trioxide (As2O3 dust, among other compounds, from gold ore extraction and roasting processes. For the first time, we show the geospatial distribution of roaster-derived emissions of several chemical species beyond the mine property on otherwise undisturbed taiga shield lakes within a 25 km radius of the mine, 11 years after its closing. Additionally, we demonstrate that underlying bedrock is not a significant source for the elevated concentrations in overlying surface waters. Aquatic arsenic (As concentrations are well above guidelines for drinking water (10 μg/L and protection for aquatic life (5 μg/L, ranging up to 136 μg/L in lakes within 4 km from the mine, to 2.0 μg/L in lakes 24 km away. High conversion ratios of methyl mercury were shown in lakes near the roaster stack as well, with MeHg concentrations reaching 44% of total mercury. The risk of elevated exposures by these metals is significant, as many lakes used for recreation and fishing near the City of Yellowknife are within this radius of elevated As and methyl Hg concentrations.

  15. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  16. The Risk of Intraocular Pressure Elevation in Pediatric Noninfectious Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Srishti; Foster, C Stephen; Pistilli, Maxwell; Liesegang, Teresa L; Daniel, Ebenezer; Sen, H Nida; Suhler, Eric B; Thorne, Jennifer E; Jabs, Douglas A; Levy-Clarke, Grace A; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Rosenbaum, James T; Lawrence, Scott D; Kempen, John H

    2015-10-01

    To characterize the risk and risk factors for intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in pediatric noninfectious uveitis. Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Nine hundred sixteen children (1593 eyes) younger than 18 years at presentation with noninfectious uveitis followed up between January 1978 and December 2007 at 5 academic uveitis centers in the United States. Medical records review by trained, certified experts. Prevalence and incidence of IOP of 21 mmHg or more and 30 mmHg or more and incidence of a rise in IOP by 10 mmHg or more. To avoid underascertainment, outcomes were counted as present when IOP-lowering therapies were in use. Initially, 251 (15.8%) and 46 eyes (2.9%) had IOP ≥21 mmHg and ≥30 mmHg, respectively. Factors significantly associated with presenting IOP elevation included age of 6 to 12 years (versus other pediatric ages), prior cataract surgery, pars plana vitrectomy, duration of uveitis ≥6 months, contralateral IOP elevation, presenting visual acuity worse than 20/40, and topical corticosteroid use (in a dose-response relationship). The median follow-up was 1.25 years (interquartile range, 0.4-3.66). The estimated incidence of any observed IOP elevation to ≥21 mmHg, to ≥30 mmHg, and increase in IOP by ≥10 mmHg was 33.4%, 14.8%, and 24.4%, respectively, within 2 years. Factors associated with IOP elevation included pars plana vitrectomy, contralateral IOP elevation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], up to 9.54; P uveitis. Statistically significant risk factors include IOP elevation or use of IOP-lowering treatment in the contralateral eye and local corticosteroid use that demonstrated a dose-and route of administration-dependent relationship. In contrast, use of immunosuppressive drug therapy did not increase such risk. Pediatric eyes with noninfectious uveitis should be followed up closely for IOP elevation, especially when strong risk factors such as the use of local corticosteroids and contralateral IOP elevation are present

  17. Elevated ZNF703 Protein Expression Is an Independent Unfavorable Prognostic Factor for Survival of the Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA show that the ZNF703 gene amplifies and overexpresses in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC. However, the clinical relevance of this observation in HNSCC is unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression of ZNF703 protein and its prognostic effect on HNSCC. Methods. Two hundred ten HNSCC patients from Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center with complete survival follow-up were included in this study. Tumor samples from primary sites were collected. The expression of the ZNF703 protein was tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Results. The high expression of ZNF703 in HNSCC tumor tissues was significantly higher than that of the matched noncancerous tissues (48.6% versus 11.6%, P<0.001. ZNF703 overexpression was correlated with tumor position (laryngeal carcinoma and recurrence (all P<0.05. Multivariate analysis revealed that ZNF703 protein overexpression was an independent prognostic factor (P=0.022, hazard ratio = 1.635, 95% CI 1.073–2.493 in HNSCC patients. Conclusion. ZNF703 overexpression is associated with adverse prognosis in HNSCC, which might be a novel biomarker of HNSCC.

  18. Maternal Plasma Concentration of the Pro-Inflammatory Adipokine Pre-B-Cell Enhancing Factor (PBEF)/ Visfatin Is Elevated In Pregnant Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Sun Kwon; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Gomez, Ricardo; Yoon, Bo H.; Yeo, Lami; Mittal, Pooja; Ogge, Giovanna; Gonzalez, Juan M.; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2012-01-01

    Problem Visfatin/pre-B-cell enhancing factor (PBEF) has been implicated in the regulation of the innate immune system, as well as in glucose metabolism. Specifically, visfatin plays a requisite role in delayed neutrophil apoptosis in patients with sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine whether pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with changes in maternal plasma visfatin concentration in normal weight and overweight/obese patients. Methods of Study This cross-sectional study included the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=200); and 2) pregnant women with pyelonephritis (n=40). Maternal plasma visfatin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) The median maternal plasma visfatin concentration was significantly higher in patients with pyelonephritis than in those with a normal pregnancy; 2) among overweight/obese pregnant women, those with pyelonephritis had a significantly higher median plasma visfatin concentration than women with a normal pregnancy; and 3) pyelonephritis was independently associated with higher maternal plasma visfatin concentrations after adjustment for maternal age, pre-gestational BMI, smoking status, gestational age at sampling, and birthweight. Conclusions Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with a high circulating maternal visfatin concentration. These findings suggest that visfatin/PBEF may play a role in the regulation of the complex and dynamic crosstalk between inflammation and metabolism during pregnancy. PMID:20085562

  19. Elevated placental adenosine signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Takayuki; Sun, Kaiqi; Parchim, Nicholas F; Li, Jessica; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Anren; Hart, Laura A; Blackwell, Sean C; Sibai, Baha M; Chan, Lee-Nien L; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Hicks, M John; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2015-02-24

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This pathogenic condition is speculated to be caused by placental abnormalities that contribute to the maternal syndrome. However, the specific factors and signaling pathways that lead to impaired placentas and maternal disease development remain elusive. Using 2 independent animal models of preeclampsia (genetically engineered pregnant mice with elevated adenosine exclusively in placentas and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model), we demonstrated that chronically elevated placental adenosine was sufficient to induce hallmark features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, small fetuses, and impaired placental vasculature. Genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that elevated placental adenosine coupled with excessive A₂B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling contributed to the development of these features of preeclampsia. Mechanistically, we provided both human and mouse evidence that elevated placental CD73 is a key enzyme causing increased placental adenosine, thereby contributing to preeclampsia. We determined that elevated placental adenosine signaling is a previously unrecognized pathogenic factor for preeclampsia. Moreover, our findings revealed the molecular basis underlying the elevation of placental adenosine and the detrimental role of excess placental adenosine in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, and thereby, we highlight novel therapeutic targets. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor....... In conclusion, spironolactone inhibits production of several proinflammatory cytokines considered to be of pathogenic importance in many immunoinflammatory diseases and shows positive effect in patients with chronic arthritis. Its effect as an anti-inflammatory drug should be explored, because prolonged...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  1. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    ,000 genes) and enzyme immunoassay for quantitating secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of spironolactone as an anti-inflammatory drug 21 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) or other arthritides were treated...... for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  2. Lineages of human T-cell clones, including T helper 17/T helper 1 cells, isolated at different stages of anti–factor VIII immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Ettinger, Ruth A.; James, Eddie A.; Kwok, William W.; Arthur R Thompson; Pratt, Kathleen P.

    2009-01-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) after factor VIII (FVIII) infusions is a serious complication that affects approximately one-quarter of hemophilia A patients who have access to replacement therapy. To investigate the differentiation of naive T cells into FVIII-specific helper T cells that promote B-cell activation and antibody secretion, HLA-DRA-DRB1*0101-restricted T-cell clones that respond to a specific epitope in FVIII were isolated from a mild hemophilia A subject...

  3. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; van Lankveld, Wim G J M; Vonk, Madelon C; Becker, Eni S; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. In total, 215 patients with SSc completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, physical functioning (HAQ-DI), pain (VAS), fatigue (CIS), psychosocial characteristics (CISS, ICQ, PRQ, ASE, FoP-Q-SF) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). Disease characteristics (disease duration, disease subtype, modified Rodnan Skin Score) were collected. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess associations with depressive symptoms. The mean CES-D score was 12.9 (SD=9.7) and the prevalence of patients scoring>= 16 and>=19 were 32.1% and 25.1%, respectively. The variance explained by sociodemographics and disease characteristics was negligible (R(2)≤.09). Fatigue and pain were independently associated with depressive symptoms (R(2) change=.35). After adding psychological factors (R(2) change=.21), satisfaction with social support, emotion-focused coping and helplessness were also significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher fear of progression was associated with more depressive symptoms (P≤.01), and appearance self-esteem showed a marginally significant association (P=.08). Depressive symptoms were common in the present sample of patients with SSc and were independently associated with pain, fatigue, social support, emotion-focused coping, helplessness and fear of progression. Results suggest that, in addition to assessment of disease characteristics, attention should be given also to psychosocial factors found to be associated with depressive symptoms. For the development and trialling of psychological interventions, fear of progression could be an important target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influences of environmental factors on the radial profile of sap flux density in Fagus crenata growing at different elevations in the Naeba Mountains, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Mitsumasa; Tenhunen, John; Zimmerman, Reiner; Schmidt, Markus; Adiku, Samuel; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2005-05-01

    Sap flux density was measured continuously during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons by the heat dissipation method in natural Fagus crenata Blume (Japanese beech) forests growing between 550 and 1600 m on the northern slope of the Kagura Peak of the Naeba Mountains, Japan. Sap flux density decreased radially toward the inner xylem and the decrease was best expressed in relation to the number of annual rings from the cambium, or in relation to the relative depth between the cambium and the trunk center, rather than as a function of absolute depth. The relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and soil water on sap flux density during the growing season were similar for the outer and inner xylem, and at all sites. Measurements of soil water content and water potential at a depth of 0.25 m demonstrated that sap flux density responded similarly and sensitively to water potential changes in this soil layer, despite large differences in rooting depth at different elevations, localizing one important control point in the functioning of this forest ecosystem. Identification of the relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and drying of the upper soil layer on sap flux density provides a framework for in-depth analysis of the control of transpiration in Japanese beech forests. In addition, the finding that the same general controls are operating on sap flux density despite climate gradients and large differences in overall forest stand structure will enhance understanding of water use by forests along elevation gradients.

  5. Genetic inhibition of phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α does not block Aβ-dependent elevation of BACE1 and APP levels or reduce amyloid pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R Sadleir

    Full Text Available β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 initiates the production of β-amyloid (Aβ, the major constituent of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD. BACE1 is elevated ∼2-3 fold in AD brain and is concentrated in dystrophic neurites near plaques, suggesting BACE1 elevation is Aβ-dependent. Previously, we showed that phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α de-represses translation of BACE1 mRNA following stress such as energy deprivation. We hypothesized that stress induced by Aβ might increase BACE1 levels by the same translational mechanism involving eIF2α phosphorylation. To test this hypothesis, we used three different genetic strategies to determine the effects of reducing eIF2α phosphorylation on Aβ-dependent BACE1 elevation in vitro and in vivo: 1 a two-vector adeno-associated virus (AAV system to express constitutively active GADD34, the regulatory subunit of PP1c eIF2α phosphatase; 2 a non-phosphorylatable eIF2α S51A knockin mutation; 3 a BACE1-YFP transgene lacking the BACE1 mRNA 5' untranslated region (UTR required for eIF2α translational regulation. The first two strategies were used in primary neurons and 5XFAD transgenic mice, while the third strategy was employed only in 5XFAD mice. Despite very effective reduction of eIF2α phosphorylation in both primary neurons and 5XFAD brains, or elimination of eIF2α-mediated regulation of BACE1-YFP mRNA translation in 5XFAD brains, Aβ-dependent BACE1 elevation was not decreased. Additionally, robust inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation did not block Aβ-dependent APP elevation in primary neurons, nor did it reduce amyloid pathology in 5XFAD mice. We conclude that amyloid-associated BACE1 elevation is not caused by translational de-repression via eIF2α phosphorylation, but instead appears to involve a post-translational mechanism. These definitive genetic results exclude a role for eIF2α phosphorylation in Aβ-dependent BACE1 and

  6. Genetic inhibition of phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α does not block Aβ-dependent elevation of BACE1 and APP levels or reduce amyloid pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, Katherine R; Eimer, William A; Kaufman, Randal J; Osten, Pavel; Vassar, Robert

    2014-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) initiates the production of β-amyloid (Aβ), the major constituent of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). BACE1 is elevated ∼2-3 fold in AD brain and is concentrated in dystrophic neurites near plaques, suggesting BACE1 elevation is Aβ-dependent. Previously, we showed that phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α de-represses translation of BACE1 mRNA following stress such as energy deprivation. We hypothesized that stress induced by Aβ might increase BACE1 levels by the same translational mechanism involving eIF2α phosphorylation. To test this hypothesis, we used three different genetic strategies to determine the effects of reducing eIF2α phosphorylation on Aβ-dependent BACE1 elevation in vitro and in vivo: 1) a two-vector adeno-associated virus (AAV) system to express constitutively active GADD34, the regulatory subunit of PP1c eIF2α phosphatase; 2) a non-phosphorylatable eIF2α S51A knockin mutation; 3) a BACE1-YFP transgene lacking the BACE1 mRNA 5' untranslated region (UTR) required for eIF2α translational regulation. The first two strategies were used in primary neurons and 5XFAD transgenic mice, while the third strategy was employed only in 5XFAD mice. Despite very effective reduction of eIF2α phosphorylation in both primary neurons and 5XFAD brains, or elimination of eIF2α-mediated regulation of BACE1-YFP mRNA translation in 5XFAD brains, Aβ-dependent BACE1 elevation was not decreased. Additionally, robust inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation did not block Aβ-dependent APP elevation in primary neurons, nor did it reduce amyloid pathology in 5XFAD mice. We conclude that amyloid-associated BACE1 elevation is not caused by translational de-repression via eIF2α phosphorylation, but instead appears to involve a post-translational mechanism. These definitive genetic results exclude a role for eIF2α phosphorylation in Aβ-dependent BACE1 and APP elevation

  7. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Kepka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13–17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen for male adolescents ages 13–17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  8. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Hawkins, Amy J; Warner, Echo L; Boucher, Kenneth M

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13-17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for male adolescents ages 13-17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  9. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  10. Pegvisomant-induced serum insulin-like growth factor-I normalization in patients with acromegaly returns elevated markers of bone turnover to normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkinson, C; Kassem, M; Heickendorff, Lene

    2003-01-01

    cross-linked N-telopeptide/creatinine ratio, and urinary calcium (24 h collection) were measured (single-batch analysis) at study entry and after IGF-I normalization, along with sera from 32 age- and sex-matched controls. Compared with controls, PIIINP, OC, and CTx were significantly elevated......Active acromegaly is associated with increased biochemical markers of bone turnover. Pegvisomant is a GH receptor antagonist that normalizes serum IGF-I in 97% of patients with active acromegaly. We evaluated the effects of pegvisomant-induced serum IGF-I normalization on biochemical markers...... (PIIINP) and type I procollagen amino-terminal propeptide, osteocalcin (OC), bone-related alkaline phosphatase, C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), albumin-corrected calcium, intact PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25-(OH)(2) vit D], urinary type 1 collagen...

  11. 非ST段抬高心肌梗死预后的影响因素分析%Investigation of factors influencing prognosis of patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广彬; 彭永平; 江时森

    2011-01-01

    摘要:目的 分析影响非ST段抬高心肌梗死(NSTEMI)预后的相关因素及有效的治疗策略.方法 收集2001年1月~2010年1月资料完整的NSTEMI患者206例,随访≥6个月,以随访6个月和2年的预后分别为近期和远期预后,记录心血管事件,包括主要终点事件(心源性死亡)和联合终点事件[心源性死亡和(或)非致死性心肌梗死],应用Cox生存模型对影响预后的多因素进行分析.结果 142例完成6个月随访,共发生心血管事件20例,其中心源性死亡16例(11.27%)、非致死性心肌梗死4例(2.82%);93例完成2年随访,共发生心血管事件20例,其中心源性死亡15例(16.13%)、非致死性心肌梗死5例(5.38%).影响患者近期预后的因素为年龄、心力衰竭、肾功能不全、阿司匹林,影响患者远期预后的因素为年龄、心力衰竭、肾功能不全、阿司匹林、早期PCI.结论 NSTEMI患者预后不佳,年龄、心力衰竭、肾功能不全是最重要的危险因素,而阿司匹林是重要的保护因素,早期PCI可显著改善患者的远期预后.%Objective To evaluate the prognostic factors and the effective treatment strateges in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Methods 206 patients with NSTEMI were selected from the Department of Cardiology of our hospital during January 2001 to January 2010. The patients were followed up for 6 months to 2 years. The primary end point was cardiac death and the combined end point was a composite of cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction. Cox regression model was used to analyze the association between risk factors and combined end points. Results 142 patients finished the 6-months follow up,20 cardiovascular events occurred,including 16(11. 27%) cardiac death and 4(2. 82%) myocardial infarction. 93 patients finished the 2-years follow up,there were also 20 cardiovascular events,including 15 cardiac death and 5 myocardial infarction. The most

  12. Development of multidrug resistance due to multiple factors including P-glycoprotein overexpression under K-selection after MYC and HRAS oncogene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukari; Sato, Hiroyuki; Motokura, Toru

    2006-05-15

    Multistep tumorigenesis is a form of microevolution consisting of mutation and selection. To clarify the role of selection modalities in tumor development, we examined two alternative evolutionary conditions, r-selection in sparse culture, which allows cells to proliferate rapidly, and K-selection in confluent culture, in which overcrowding constrains cell proliferation. Using MYC- and EJ-RAS-transformed rat embryo fibroblasts, we found that K-selected cells acquired and stably maintained multidrug resistance (MDR) to DOX, VCR, MTX and Ara-C. Then, we examined the involvement of a number of factors potentially causal of the development of MDR, that is, ploidy, Tp53 mutation, doubling time and the expression levels of genes related to drug resistance. Although ploidy status and Tp53 mutations did not correlate with MDR, we found that Abcb1/Mdr1, encoding P-glycoprotein (Pgp), was significantly upregulated after K-selection. Cyclosporin A, a competitive inhibitor of Pgp, increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX and reduced the resistance to it. Indeed, the population of Pgp-transfected cells significantly expanded under K-, but not under r-selection. In addition to Pgp upregulation, altered expression of other genes such as Cda/cytidine deaminase and Slc29a1/equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 and prolonged doubling times were associated with MDR. This system reproduces events associated with MDR in vivo and would be useful for analysis of MDR development.

  13. Real-world Experience with Sofosbuvir-based Regimens for Chronic Hepatitis C, Including Patients with Factors Previously Associated with Inferior Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christina J; Roytman, Marina M; Hong, Leena K; Huddleston, Leslie; Trujillo, Ruby; Cheung, Alvin; Poerzgen, Peter; Tsai, Naoky C S

    2015-09-01

    The introduction of sofosbuvir, a direct acting antiviral, has revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Phase 3 clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy, simplicity, and tolerability of sofosbuvir-based regimens and report high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) rates. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical trial findings translate into a real-world setting, particularly with treatment of chronic HCV in our diverse, multiethnic population of Hawai'i. Retrospective analysis was performed for 113 patients with genotype 1-6 HCV infection being treated at the Queen's Liver Center between January 2014 and March 2015. SVR rates for our cohort were slightly lower than the rates published by the clinical trials. Data analysis also suggested that most baseline characteristics previously associated with inferior response might not be as significant for sofosbuvir-based regimens; in our cohort, male gender was the only factor significantly related to increased risk of virologic relapse. Pacific Islanders also had higher rate of relapse compared to other ethnic groups, but the small number of patients treated in this subgroup make it difficult to validate this finding. While newer all-oral treatment regimens have been introduced since this study, we highlight the importance of comparing real-world versus clinical trial results for new treatments, and provide data analyses for treatment of chronic HCV in Hawai'i.

  14. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis N Mavridis; Maria Meliou; Efstratios-Stylianos Pyrgelis

    2015-01-01

    Troponin (tr) elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words:“troponin elevation”and“subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr>1μg/L), worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients’ cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  15. Elevated D-glucose concentrations modulate TGF-beta 1 synthesis by human cultured renal proximal tubular cells. The permissive role of platelet-derived growth factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, A.O.; Steadman, R.; Topley, N; Williams, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis is a marker of progression of renal impairment in diabetic nephropathy. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 is one of a group of pro-fibrotic cytokines and growth factors that have been associated with the development of interstitial fibrosis. We have examined the modulating influence of glucose on the production of TGF-beta 1 by cultured human proximal tubular cells. Incubation of growth-arrested human proximal tubular cells (HPTC) (72 hours in serum free medium) in...

  16. Evaluating the prevalence of canceling surgical operations,including its influencing factors at Imam Khomeini hospital in Sari during 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zamani kiasari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Hospital admission for surgery is an important event for patients. Canceling surgical procedures produce several unpleasant results for patients such as waste of time, including payment. The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence and causes of canceling surgical procedures, in order to achieve problem solving methods.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Statistical data regarding all surgical procedures (without sampling performed during 2006 to 2007, were recorded in a checklist. Study variables were identified based on surgical procedures that were canceled during this study. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and statistical analysis tests.Results: Of 4,711 scheduled patients, 510 (10/9% surgical operations were canceled. The highest number of patient candidates for surgical operation was related to gynecology, orthopedic, urology, while the least were related to reconstructive and vascular surgery groups respectively. The most canceled surgical procedures were related to neurosurgical operation 32/4% (68 from 207 cases while the least canceled cases belonged to gynecology 4/4% (48 from 1094 cases.Conclusion: The results of our study showed that 54/2% of canceled cases were preventable. The results of this study and similar studies demonstrate that traditional pre-operative preparation for surgical scheduling, day before surgery is in need of serious consideration. We recommend a fundamental change by discarding traditional methods and creating a new committee including specialized bed or resource groups, monthly management meetings to discuss causes of canceling surgical procedures, in order to reduce its occurrence. Thus, decreasing the rate of canceling surgical wasted, while reducing anxiety in patients and their family. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(65:52-62 (Persian

  17. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim Chor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N = 25, PAD (N = 31, VTD (N = 35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2 years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

  18. Borrelidin Isolated from Streptomyces sp. Inhibited Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells via Several Factors Including GATA-Binding Protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Kondo, Yoshiyuki; Kawasaki, Takashi; Tokuyama, Shinji; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    An inhibitor of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was isolated from Streptomyces sp. TK08330 and identified by spectroscopy as the 18-membered macrolide borrelidin. Treatment with 1.0 μM borrelidin suppressed intracellular lipid accumulation by 80% and inhibited the expression of adipocyte-specific genes. Borrelidin suppressed the mRNA expression of two master regulators of adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα). Studies on well-known upstream regulators of PPARγ revealed that borrelidin down-regulated C/EBPδ mRNA expression but did not affect expression of C/EBPβ. Borrelidin increased mRNA expression of negative regulators of differentiation such as GATA-binding protein (GATA) 3, Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 3 and KLF7, as well as positive regulators, KLF4, KLF6 and KLF15, at early stages of differentiation. To elucidate a primary mediator of borrelidin differentiation inhibitory activity, small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection experiments were performed. The mRNA expression of PPARγ, which was down-regulated by borrelidin, was not changed by KLF3 and KLF7 siRNA treatment. In contrast, expression of PPARγ in GATA-3 siRNA-treated cells was not significantly different from that of control siRNA-treated cells. Borrelidin significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in control siRNA-treated cells, and treatment with GATA-3 siRNA slightly reduced the inhibitory effect of borrelidin. These results indicate that borrelidin inhibited adipocyte differentiation partially via GATA-3.

  19. Human CD34+ CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells cultured with growth factors including Angptl5 efficiently engraft adult NOD-SCID Il2rγ-/- (NSG mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Drake

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in clinical and research applications necessitates expansion of HSCs in vitro. Before these cells can be used they must be carefully evaluated to assess their stem cell activity. Here, we expanded cord blood CD34(+ CD133(+ cells in a defined medium containing angiopoietin like 5 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 and evaluated the cells for stem cell activity in NOD-SCID Il2rg(-/- (NSG mice by multi-lineage engraftment, long term reconstitution, limiting dilution and serial reconstitution. The phenotype of expanded cells was characterized by flow cytometry during the course of expansion and following engraftment in mice. We show that the SCID repopulating activity resides in the CD34(+ CD133(+ fraction of expanded cells and that CD34(+ CD133(+ cell number correlates with SCID repopulating activity before and after culture. The expanded cells mediate long-term hematopoiesis and serial reconstitution in NSG mice. Furthermore, they efficiently reconstitute not only neonate but also adult NSG recipients, generating human blood cell populations similar to those reported in mice reconstituted with uncultured human HSCs. These findings suggest an expansion of long term HSCs in our culture and show that expression of CD34 and CD133 serves as a marker for HSC activity in human cord blood cell cultures. The ability to expand human HSCs in vitro should facilitate clinical use of HSCs and large-scale construction of humanized mice from the same donor for research applications.

  20. Modifiable risk factors including sunlight exposure and fish consumption are associated with risk of hypertension in a large representative population from Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liang; Ho, Jacky; Feng, Jianzhang; Mpofu, Elias; Dibley, Michael J; Feng, Xiuhua; Van, Florance; Leong, Sokman; Lau, Winne; Lueng, Petra; Kowk, Carrie; Li, Yan; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye E

    2014-10-01

    Chinese populations are known to be at risk for vitamin D deficiency, with some evidence that this is due to lack of exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency and/or low sun exposure have been associated with higher incidence of hypertension in Caucasians. Thus, we investigated these associations in a Chinese population with a high rate of hypertension. From a random household survey of 1410 residents aged ≥18 years, height, weight and blood pressure were measured and demographic, exercise and dietary data were collected, as well as estimated hours of sunlight exposure on weekdays and weekends (in winter and summer). Modifiable predictors of hypertension in these data were lack of sunlight exposure and low intake of fish as well as smoking, obesity and lack of exercise. When investigated in a linear model, sunlight exposure was negatively associated with hypertension (β=-0.072, pexposure per day compared to none was associated with less hypertension (OR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Similarly, consuming either oily fish or seafood more than four times per week compared to less was also associated with less hypertension (oily fish (OR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.5); seafood consumption (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9)). Having daily moderate physical activity compared to none was also associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9). In contrast, being obese compared to normal weight and having more than five pack-years of smoking compared to none were associated with a higher risk of hypertension (OR=4.6, 95% CI: 3.7-5.7; OR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8, respectively). The major new findings of this study are that more sun exposure and high weekly fish consumption (especially oily fish) may be potentially modifiable independent factors for protecting against risk of hypertension in this population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 电梯平衡补偿装置设置的影响因素分析%Analysis of Inlfuencing Factors for Installation of Elevator Compensating Chain Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖长青; 王璇

    2016-01-01

    随着社会的发展,高层建筑日益增多,电梯已经成为了一种必不可少的高效运输交通工具,其中曳引式电梯应用更加广泛。现场检验时发现,低速电梯的平衡补偿装置设置情况各式各样,检规及相关标准对其设置没有明确规范,其合理性的判断一直困扰着检验人员。平衡补偿装置不仅对电梯的安全运行有着重大的意义,而且还影响电梯的节能性能及舒适感。本文通过对曳引能力、能耗及电梯乘坐舒适感等方面分析,确定影响平衡补偿装置设置的因素,供检验人员参考。%With the development of society, more and more high-rise buildings appeared, the elevator has become an essential and efifcient transportation. For the installation of low speed elevator compensating chain device, there is no rules to follow. So it is hard for inspector to judge the rationality. The compensating chain device is not only for safe operation of the elevator, but also affects the energy conservation and comfort. This paper analyzes the tractive force and energy consumption and comfort of elevator for the installation of compensating chain, and conifrmed the inlfuencing factors for inspector reference.

  2. Elevated levels of iron in groundwater in Prey Veng province in Cambodia: a possible factor contributing to high iron stores in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Murphy, Heather M; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Porter, Keith; Kroeun, Hou; Eath, Many; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-06-01

    Iron is a natural element found in food, water and soil and is essential for human health. Our aim was to determine the levels of iron and 25 other metals and trace elements in groundwater from 22 households in Prey Veng, Cambodia. Water analyses were conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and optical emission spectrometry. Compared to the 2011 World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality, aluminum, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 4.5, 72.7 and 40.9% of samples, respectively). Compared to the 2004 Cambodian drinking water quality standards, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 59.1 and 36.4% of samples, respectively). We found no evidence of arsenic contamination. Guidelines for iron were established primarily for esthetic reasons (e.g. taste), whereas other metals and elements have adverse effects associated with toxicity. Iron in groundwater ranged from 134 to 5,200 μg/L (mean ∼1,422 μg/L). Based on a daily consumption of 3 L groundwater, this equates to ∼0.4-15.6 mg iron (mean ∼4.3 mg/day), which may be contributing to high iron stores and the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Prey Veng women. Elevated levels of manganese in groundwater are a concern and warrant further investigation.

  3. Elevation-induced climate change as a dominant factor causing the late Miocene C(4) plant expansion in the Himalayan foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibin; Guo, Zhengtang; Guiot, Joël; Hatté, Christine; Peng, Changhui; Yu, Yanyan; Ge, Junyi; Li, Qin; Sun, Aizhi; Zhao, Deai

    2014-05-01

    During the late Miocene, a dramatic global expansion of C4 plant distribution occurred with broad spatial and temporal variations. Although the event is well documented, whether subsequent expansions were caused by a decreased atmospheric CO2 concentration or climate change is a contentious issue. In this study, we used an improved inverse vegetation modeling approach that accounts for the physiological responses of C3 and C4 plants to quantitatively reconstruct the paleoclimate in the Siwalik of Nepal based on pollen and carbon isotope data. We also studied the sensitivity of the C3 and C4 plants to changes in the climate and the atmospheric CO2 concentration. We suggest that the expansion of the C4 plant distribution during the late Miocene may have been primarily triggered by regional aridification and temperature increases. The expansion was unlikely caused by reduced CO2 levels alone. Our findings suggest that this abrupt ecological shift mainly resulted from climate changes related to the decreased elevation of the Himalayan foreland.

  4. Lycopene supplementation elevates circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and -2 concentrations in persons at greater risk of colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Korse, C.M.; Doorn, J. van; Cats, A.; Depla, A.C.; Timmer, R.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Veer, L.J. van 't; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Higher circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations have been related to a greater risk of cancer. Lycopene intake is inversely associated with cancer risk, and experimental studies have shown that it may affect the IGF system, possibly through an effect on IGF-binding

  5. Lycopene supplementation elevates circulating insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 and-2 concentrations in persons at greater risk of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bonfrer, J.M.; Korse, C.M.; Doorn, J.; Cats, A.; Depla, A.C.; Timmer, R.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, van F.E.; van't Veer, L.J.; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Higher circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations have been related to a greater risk of cancer. Lycopene intake is inversely associated with cancer risk, and experimental studies have shown that it may affect the IGF system, possibly through an effect on IGF-binding

  6. Lycopene supplementation elevates circulating insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 and-2 concentrations in persons at greater risk of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bonfrer, J.M.; Korse, C.M.; Doorn, J.; Cats, A.; Depla, A.C.; Timmer, R.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, van F.E.; van't Veer, L.J.; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Higher circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations have been related to a greater risk of cancer. Lycopene intake is inversely associated with cancer risk, and experimental studies have shown that it may affect the IGF system, possibly through an effect on IGF-binding

  7. Lycopene supplementation elevates circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and -2 concentrations in persons at greater risk of colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Korse, C.M.; Doorn, J. van; Cats, A.; Depla, A.C.; Timmer, R.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Veer, L.J. van 't; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Higher circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations have been related to a greater risk of cancer. Lycopene intake is inversely associated with cancer risk, and experimental studies have shown that it may affect the IGF system, possibly through an effect on IGF-binding

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is elevated in metabolically unhealthy obesity and affects lipid deposition, adipogenesis, and adipokine secretion of human abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Berti

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The hepatokine FGF21 exerts weak lipogenic and anti-adipogenic actions and marked adiponectin-suppressive and leptin and interleukin-6 release-promoting effects in human differentiating preadipocytes. Together with the higher serum concentrations in MUHO subjects, our findings reveal FGF21 as a circulating factor promoting the development of metabolically unhealthy adipocytes.

  9. Elevated interferon gamma expression in the central nervous system of tumour necrosis factor receptor 1-deficient mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wheeler, Rachel D; Zehntner, Simone P; Kelly, Lisa M

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) can be studied in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The proinflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) are implicated in EAE pathogenesis. Signals through the type 1 TNF receptor (TNFR1) are r...

  10. De stille elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  11. Elevated soluble urokinase receptor values in CSF, age and bacterial meningitis infection are independent and additive risk factors of fatal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzanakaki, G; Paparoupa, M; Kyprianou, M;

    2012-01-01

    outcome. Patients with levels of suPAR above the cut-off values and age ≥51 years, or patients in which either Neisseria meningitis or Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected were categorized as high risk patients. The combination of the above three predictors (suPAR, age and infectious agent......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) level, infection and age as risk factors for fatal outcome in patients suspected of having meningitis and/or bacteraemia on admission to hospital. A total of 545 cerebrospinal...

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-α-accelerated degradation of type I collagen in human skin is associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågren, Magnus S; Schnabel, Reinhild; Christensen, Lise H

    2015-01-01

    /ml) in the absence or presence of the nonselective MMP inhibitor GM6001 for 8 days. The basal culture conditions promoted type I collagen catabolism that was accelerated by TNF-α (p...Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induces matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may disrupt skin integrity. We have investigated the effects and mechanisms of exogenous TNF-α on collagen degradation by incubating human skin explants in defined serum-free media with or without TNF-α (10ng...... were associated with increased collagen degradation. TNF-α increased secretion of MMP-1 (p

  13. Soluble factor from murine bladder tumor-2 cell elevates nitric oxide production in macrophages and enhances the taxol-mediated macrophage cytotoxicity on tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suck-Chei; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Park, Jae-Sung; Han, Weon-Cheol; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Yun, Ki-Jung; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Nah, Yong-Ho; Cha, Young-Nam; Chung, Hun-Taeg; Jun, Chang-Duk

    2003-01-01

    The therapeutic mechanism of taxol is believed to reside primarily in its ability to stabilize microtubules and prevent cell progression through mitosis. Taxol also can activate macrophage-mediated antitumor mechanism through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent pathway. To address whether any mechanisms account for superficial urinary bladder tumor cell killing, we evaluated the effects of taxol on the growth and viability of murine bladder tumor-2 (MBT-2) cells in vitro, both in the absence and presence of murine macrophages. In addition, we evaluated whether a soluble factor generated from MBT-2 cells could modulate the antitumor activity of the taxol-activated macrophages. Although taxol inhibited the growth of MBT-2 cells, it did not kill the tumor cells. However, preincubation of macrophages with taxol significantly decreased the viability of MBT-2 cells. Secretion of NO correlated with MBT-2 cell killing, and the activated macrophages failed to kill tumor cell targets in the presence of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase. By the co-culture of macrophages and MBT-2 cells, untreated macrophages also released modest amount of NO and this was synergistically augmented by the treatment with taxol, indicating that MBT-2 tumor cells released some unknown factor that activated the macrophages and enhanced NO production. We named this factor the tumor-derived macrophage activating factor (TMAF). The TMAF-mediated activation of macrophages to enhance the NO production was not blocked by treatment of macrophages with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), implying that the scavenger receptor of macrophages is not involved. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor given to the MBT-2 cells, increased the activities of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and caspase-3 in MBT-2 cells and associated with nucleosomal fragmentation or apoptosis, whereas taxol had no direct effect on these parameters. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that taxol kills

  14. Lycopene supplementation elevates circulating insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 and-2 concentrations in persons at greater risk of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bonfrer, J.M.; Korse, C M; van Doorn, J.; Cats, A; Depla, A.C.; Timmer, R; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, van, P.J.; van 't Veer, L J; Rookus, M A; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Higher circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations have been related to a greater risk of cancer. Lycopene intake is inversely associated with cancer risk, and experimental studies have shown that it may affect the IGF system, possibly through an effect on IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Objective: The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of an 8-wk supplementation with tomato-derived lycopene (30 mg/d) on serum concentrations of total IGF-I, IGF...

  15. Elevation in fibroblast growth factor 23 and its value for identifying subclinical atherosclerosis in first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Pan, Xiaoping; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supported an association between diabetes and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The goal of the present study was to explore alteration in serum FGF23 levels and to assess its value for identifying subclinical atherosclerosis in normoglycemic individuals with a first-degree family history of diabetes (FHD). The study enrolled 312 subjects with a first-degree FHD and 1407 subjects without an FHD. Serum FGF23 levels were detected by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum FGF23 levels were much higher in subjects with a first-degree FHD than in those without an FHD (P = 0.006). A first-degree FHD was positively associated with serum FGF23 levels, independent of C-IMT and cardiovascular factors (both P < 0.05). In subjects with a first-degree FHD, only those with serum FGF23 levels in the upper quartile were more likely to have an increased C-IMT (odds ratio = 2.263, P < 0.05). As conclusions, a first-degree FHD contributes to the increased serum FGF23 levels independently. Subjects with a first-degree FHD need higher serum FGF23 levels to indicate subclinical atherosclerosis. The influence of a first-degree FHD on serum FGF23 levels should be considered to avoid overestimating the risk of cardiovascular disease in normoglycemic individuals with a first-degree FHD. PMID:27698482

  16. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  17. Activation of the canonical nuclear factor-κB pathway is involved in isoflurane-induced hippocampal interleukin-1β elevation and the resultant cognitive deficits in aged rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng-Qian; Rong, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Ya-Jie; Ni, Cheng [Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Tian, Xiao-Sheng [Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Mo, Na [Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100021 (China); Chui, De-Hua, E-mail: dchui@bjmu.edu.cn [Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Guo, Xiang-Yang, E-mail: puthmzk@163.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Isoflurane induces hippocampal IL-1β elevation and cognitive deficits in aged rats. •Isoflurane transiently activates the canonical NF-κB pathway in aged rat hippocampus. •NF-κB inhibitor mitigates isoflurane-induced IL-1β elevation and cognitive deficits. •We report a linkage between NF-κB signaling, IL-1β expression, and cognitive changes. -- Abstract: Although much recent evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation contributes to volatile anesthetic-induced cognitive deficits, there are few existing mechanistic explanations for this inflammatory process. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane on canonical nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling, and to explore its association with hippocampal interleukin (IL)-1β levels and anesthetic-related cognitive changes in aged rats. After a 4-h exposure to 1.5% isoflurane in 20-month-old rats, increases in IκB kinase and IκB phosphorylation, as well as a reduction in the NF-κB inhibitory protein (IκBα), were observed in the hippocampi of isoflurane-exposed rats compared with control rats. These events were accompanied by an increase in NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation at 6 h after isoflurane exposure and hippocampal IL-1β elevation from 1 to 6 h after isoflurane exposure. Nevertheless, no significant neuroglia activation was observed. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate markedly suppressed the IL-1β increase and NF-κB signaling, and also mitigated the severity of cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze task. Overall, our results demonstrate that isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits may stem from upregulation of hippocampal IL-1β, partially via activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway, in aged rats.

  18. The Risk Factors of Cardiogenic Shock after Acute ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction%急性ST段抬高型心肌梗死并发心源性休克的相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖祁伟; 光雪峰; 景舒南; 李汝红; 赖碁; 付娟娟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨急性ST段抬高型心肌梗死患者并发心源性休克的危险因素.方法 以2010年1月至2011年1月期间住院治疗的185急性ST段抬高型心肌梗死患者为研究对象,以是否并发心源性休克为分组标准,对2组患者进行病例对照研究,通过多因素Logistic回归分析筛选出可能引起心源性休克的危险因素.结果 通过回归分析,进入回归方程的因素有血压(OR=6.314)、C-TnI (OR=12.932)、BNP (OR=3.523)、广泛前壁心肌梗死(OR=17.241)、冠脉多支血管病变(OR=5.039)、前降支病变(OR=9.955)、左室射血分数(OR=10.022)、室性心律失常(OR=7.513),差异有统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 血压、心率、心肌酶(CK-MB)、心肌标志物(C-TnI)、BNP、左心室射血分数、广泛前壁心肌梗死、前降支病变、多支血管病变、糖尿病史、房颤、左束支阻滞、室性心律失常是急性ST段抬高型心肌梗死患者并发心源性休克的危险因素,急性ST段抬高型心肌梗死患者并发心源性休克治疗关键在于尽早对导致心源性休克的危险因素进行评估,早期采取干预治疗.%Objective To analye the risk factors of cardiogenic shock after ST-elevation myocardial infaction Methods 185 patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction during 2010.1.-2011.1 were divided into two groups: group with or without cardiogenic shock. Basic characteristics of each case were record by case control study and variate logistic regression analysis was used to find out the risk factors of cardiogenic shock. Results The regression analysis showed that the factors in the regression equation were Blood Pressure (OR =6.314) , CTnI (OR =12.932), BNP (OR =3.523) , extensive anterior myocardial infarction (OR = 17.241), multi-vessel coronary disease (OR=5.039) , anterior descending branch involvement (OR =9.955) , left ventricular ejection fraction (OR=10.022) and ventricular arrhythmia (OR=7.513). Conclusions Blood Pressure

  19. National requirements for improved elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or

  20. 电梯检验过程人因失误及其影响因素的实证研究%Empirical Study on Influencing Factors of Human Errors in the Process of Elevator Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓; 黄端; 石岿然; 蒋凤

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the empirical test of key factors affecting human errors based on the samples of 248 senior and middle managers and primary technical staffs in foreign and state -owned elevator firms .The results show that personnel ability is negatively associated with human errors ;similarly ,organizational communication and organizational culture also have a directly and significantly negative impact on it .In addition ,there exists the related relationship among individual age ,work experiences ,marital status and human errors .This research provides sufficient basis to improve organizational management and avoid human errors for the elevator industry .%以248家电梯企业(包括外企和国企)的中高层管理人员和基层技术人员为调查对象,对人因失误的主要影响因素进行实证研究。研究结果表明,员工的能力素质、组织沟通与组织文化因素与人因失误的频繁程度显著负相关。此外,电梯检验过程人因失误与个体年龄、工龄、婚姻状况也存在相关性。研究结果为电梯行业改善组织管理,降低人因失误提供了充分的依据。

  1. Growth hormone (GH) secretory dynamics in a case of acromegalic gigantism associated with hyperprolactinemia: nonpulsatile secretion of GH may induce elevated insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Shimatsu, A; Sakane, N; Hizuka, N; Horikawa, R; Tanaka, T

    1996-01-01

    We describe a case of pituitary gigantism with low levels of growth hormone (GH), elevated insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGF-BP-3). The patient had characteristic clinical features of gigantism and acromegaly. The basal serum GH levels ranged from 1.2-1.9 micrograms/L, which were considered to be within normal limits. Serum GH response to either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or GH-releasing hormone was blunted. Frequent blood samplings during daytime and at night showed nonpulsatile GH secretion. Serum prolactin, IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 levels were elevated. After unsuccessful surgery, bromocryptine treatment normalized serum prolactin without affecting serum GH and IGF-I levels. Combined administration of octreotide and bromocryptine reduced serum GH and IGF-I levels. GH bioactivity as measured by Nb2 cell proliferation assay was within reference range. In the present case, nonpulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-I and IGF-BP-3 and cause clinical acromegalic gigantism.

  2. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  3. A functional polymorphism in the Eta-1 promoter is associated with allele specific binding to the transcription factor Sp1 and elevated gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshoj, Tina; Ryder, Lars P; Madsen, Hans O

    2005-01-01

    Early T lymphocyte activator 1 (Eta-1), also known as Osteopontin, is a cytokine produced by macrophages and T lymphocytes. It is involved in the regulation of IL-12 and IL-10 expression in macrophages and stimulates the polarization of T cells to the Th1 subset. Three promoter polymorphisms...... of the human Eta-1 gene, -443T/C, -156delG/G, -66T/G, were investigated for possible influence on gene expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) with nuclear extract from the human myeloid leukaemia premonocyte cell line, THP-1, revealed sequence specific binding of the transcription factor Sp1...... to the -66T allele but not the -66G allele, and haplotype -443C/-156G/-66T showed a marked increase in promoter activity of a luciferase reporter gene. Thus, a substitution of the T-base with G at position -66 in the Eta-1 promoter modulates the promoter activity of the Eta-1 gene, which might influence...

  4. The Histone Acetyltransferase GCN5 Expression Is Elevated and Regulated by c-Myc and E2F1 Transcription Factors in Human Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yan-Wei; Jin, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Wenjing; Gao, Beixue; Fang, Jiangao; Wei, Junmin; Zhang, Donna D.; Zhang, Jianing; Fang, Deyu

    2017-01-01

    The histone acetyltransferase GCN5 has been suggested to be involved in promoting cancer cell growth. But its role in human colon cancer development remains unknown. Herein we discovered that GCN5 expression is significantly upregulated in human colon adenocarcinoma tissues. We further demonstrate that GCN5 is upregulated in human colon cancer at the mRNA level. Surprisingly, two transcription factors, the oncogenic c-Myc and the proapoptotic E2F1, are responsible for GCN5 mRNA transcription. Knockdown of c-Myc inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation largely through downregulating GCN5 transcription, which can be fully rescued by the ectopic GCN5 expression. In contrast, E2F1 expression induced human colon cancer cell death, and suppression of GCN5 expression in cells with E2F1 overexpression further facilitated cell apoptosis, suggesting that GCN5 expression is induced by E2F1 as a possible negative feedback in suppressing E2F1-mediated cell apoptosis. In addition, suppression of GCN5 with its specific inhibitor CPTH2 inhibited human colon cancer cell growth. Our studies reveal that GCN5 plays a positive role in human colon cancer development, and its suppression holds a great therapeutic potential in antitumor therapy. PMID:26637399

  5. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on Hormo

  6. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on

  7. An Elevated Maternal Plasma Soluble fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 to Placental Growth Factor Ratio at Midtrimester Is a Useful Predictor for Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Fathy Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To assess the ability of mid-trimester sFlt-1/PlGF ratio for prediction of preeclampsia in two different Arabic populations. Methods. This study measured levels of sFlt-1, PlGF, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio at midtrimester in 83 patients who developed preeclampsia with contemporary 250 matched controls. Results. Women subsequently developed preeclampsia had significantly lower PlGF levels and higher sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio levels than women with normal pregnancies (P<0.0001 for all. Women who with preterm preeclampsia had significantly higher sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio than term preeclamptic women (P=0.01, 0.003, resp.. A cutoff value of 3198 pg/mL for sFlt-1 was able to predict preeclampsia with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 88%, 83.6%, and 84.7%, respectively, with odds ratio (OR 37.2 [95% confidence interval (CI 17.7–78.1]. PIGF at cutoff value of 138 pg/mL was able to predict preeclampsia with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 85.5%, 77.2%, and 79.3%, respectively, with OR 20 [95% CI, 10.2–39.5]. The sFlt-1/PIGF ratio at cutoff value of 24.5 was able to predict preeclampsia with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 91.6%, 86.4%, and 87.7%, respectively with OR 67 [95% CI, 29.3–162.1]. Conclusion. Midtrimester sFlt-1/PlGF ratio displayed the highest sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and OR for prediction of preeclampsia, demonstrating that it may stipulate more effective prediction of preeclampsia development than individual factor assay.

  8. Elevated serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor predict a poor prognosis of platinum-based chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang JL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jialan Zang,1–3,* Yong Hu,1,2,* Xiaoyue Xu,1,2 Jie Ni,1,2 Dali Yan,1,2 Siwen Liu,4 Jieyu He,5 Jing Xue,4 Jianzhong Wu,4 Jifeng Feng2 1The Fourth Clinical School of Nanjing Medical University, 2Department of Chemotherapy, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Cancer Hospital, Nanjing, 3Department of Oncology, The First Hospital of Harbin City, Harbin, 4Center of Clinical Laboratory, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Cancer Hospital, 5Department of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: This study was designed to investigate the predictive and prognostic values of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF level in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods: Patients’ peripheral blood samples were collected prior to chemotherapy and after 1 week of the third cycle of combination chemotherapy. Serum VEGF levels were evaluated through Luminex multiplex technique. Between September 2011 and August 2015, a total of 135 consecutive advanced or recurrent histologically verified NSCLC patients were enrolled in the study. Moreover, all the patients received platinum-based combination chemotherapy as a first-line treatment. Results: No significant associations were found between pretreatment serum VEGF levels and clinical characteristics, such as sex (P=0.0975, age (P=0.2522, stage (P=0.1407, lymph node metastasis (P=0.6409, tumor location (P=0.3520, differentiated degree (P=0.5608, pathological (histological type (P=0.4885, and response to treatment (P=0.9859. The VEGF load per platelet (VEGFPLT levels were not correlated with sex, age, primary tumor site, and pathological type in NSCLC patients (all P>0.05. The median survival time of progression-free survival (PFS was 6.407 and 5.29 months in the low and high groups, respectively, when using 280 pg/mL VEGF level as the cutoff point (P=0.024. Conclusion

  9. The space station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  10. Elevated Lipoprotein(A Impairs Platelet Radiolabeling Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Granegger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Platelet radiolabeling in clinical routine usually results in labeling efficiencies (LE above 80%. A variety of risk factors and clinical conditions are known to impair platelet labeling yield, among them elevated triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins. The potential influence of lipoprotein(a (Lp(a, an atherogenic lipoprotein particle containing a kringle subunit, which is widely found in the proteins of fibrinolysis pathway, has never been studied. Normal Lp(a levels range below 30 mg/ dl. The exact prevalence of elevated Lp(a is unknown, most likely ranging below 10%. Even more rare is an isolated elevation despite an otherwise normal lipoprotein profile. Methods: We examined the role of isolated elevated Lp(a (> 50 mg/dl, ranging up to 440 mg/dl compared to patients with normal lipid profile. Platelets were radiolabeled with in-111-oxine at 37 °C for 5 minutes using ISORBE-consensus methodology. Results: The findings indicate that already at levels below 100 mg/dl Lp(a decreases LE. LE assessment after cross-incubation of hyper-Lp(a platelets with normal Lp(a plasma and vice versa reveals that platelets rather than the plasmatic environment are responsible for the deterioration of labeling yield. This behavior already has been reported for elevated low-density lipoproteins. Apparently, the quantitative influence of LDL and Lp(a/mg is comparable. Plotting the sum of LDL and Lp(a versus LE reveals a clear significant negative correlation. Conclusion: As extremely elevated Lp(a, particularly above 150 mg/dl, may significantly impair labeling results. We therefore recommend to include extremely elevated Lp(a into the list of parameters, which should be known before performing radiolabeling of human platelets.

  11. Predation of freshwater fish in environments with elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midway, Stephen R.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Wagner, Tyler; Suski, Cory D.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) in fresh-water environments is poorly understood, yet in marine environments CO2 can affect fish behaviour, including predator–prey relationships. To examine changes in predator success in elevated CO2, we experimented with predatory Micropterus salmoides and Pimephales promelas prey. We used a two-factor fully crossed experimental design; one factor was 4-day (acclimation) CO2 concentration and the second factor CO2 concentration during 20-min predation experiments. Both factors had three treatment levels, including ambient partial pressure of CO2(pCO2; 0–1000 μatm), low pCO2 (4000–5000 μatm) and high pCO2 (8000–10 000 μatm). Micropterus salmoides was exposed to both factors, whereas P. promelas was not exposed to the acclimation factor. In total, 83 of the 96 P. promelas were consumed (n = 96 trials) and we saw no discernible effect of CO2 on predator success or time to predation. Failed strikes and time between failed strikes were too infrequent to model. Compared with marine systems, our findings are unique in that we not only saw no changes in prey capture success with increasing CO2, but we also used CO2 treatments that were substantially higher than those in past experiments. Our work demonstrated a pronounced resiliency of freshwater predators to elevated CO2 exposure, and a starting point for future work in this area.

  12. Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Ju; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M; Eisenmann, David M

    2014-05-13

    Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo. We used the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) method to screen for factors that bound to 13 fragments from the lin-39 region: twelve fragments contained sequences conserved between C. elegans and two other nematode species, while one fragment was known to drive reporter gene expression in the early embryo in cells that generate the VPCs. Sixteen transcription factors that bind to eight lin-39 genomic fragments were identified in yeast, and we characterized several factors by verifying their physical interactions in vitro, and showing that reduction of their function leads to alterations in lin-39 levels and lin-39::GFP reporter expression in vivo. Three factors, the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NHR-43, the hypodermal fate regulator LIN-26, and the GATA factor ELT-6 positively regulate lin-39 expression in the embryonic precursors to the VPCs. In particular, ELT-6 interacts with an enhancer that drives GFP expression in the early embryo, and the ELT-6 site we identified is necessary for proper embryonic expression. These three factors, along with the factors ZTF-17, BED-3 and TBX-9, also positively regulate lin-39 expression in the larval VPCs. These results significantly expand the number of factors known to directly bind and regulate lin-39 expression, identify the first factors required for lin-39 expression in the embryo, and hint at a

  13. 急性ST段抬高型心肌梗死继发心脏破裂的预测因素分析%Predictive factors of cardiac rupture in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng QIAN; Chen WU; Yun-dai CHEN; Chen-chen TU; Jin-wen WANG; Yong-an QIAN

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac rupture (CR) is a potentialy fatal mechanical complication of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors of CR in Chinese STEMI patients. A total of 9798 consecutive STEMI patients from four centers in China were retrospectively analyzed, among which 178 patients had CR. STEMI patients without CR were chosen as a control group. Clinical characteristics were compared between STEMI patients with CR and those without CR. The incidence of CR in STEMI patients was 1.82%, and the 30-d mortality was up to 61.2%. CR patients were significantly older, more female, and associated with a longer time from onset of pain to hospital admission than their non-CR counterparts (P<0.001). More patients with anterior myocardial infarction (82.1%) were found in the CR group, and CR patients had significantly higher heart rates than the control group ((91±19) bpm vs. (71±16) bpm;P<0.001). In multiple-adjusted models, the independent risk factors of CR were advanced age, female gender, anaemia, increased heart rate, anterior myocardial infarction, increased white blood cel (WBC) count, delayed admission, and renal dysfunction. The level of hemoglobin remained a significant deter-minant factor of CR (OR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.75–0.89);P<0.001) after adjusting for various potential confounding factors. Counts of WBC also remained a significant determinant of the CR (OR (95% CI): 1.08 (1.04–1.12);P<0.001). A number of variables were independently related to CR. This study indicated, for the first time, that both hemoglobin and WBC levels were independently correlated with occurrence of CR.

  14. Influence of time to treatment and other risk factors on infarct size and transmurality in the case of ST-elevated myocardial infarction managed by primary angioplasty and assessed by delayed enhancement magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the association between time to treatment and to check the effect of various risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension (HTN, smoking, family history of coronary artery disease (CAD and obesity on infarct size (IS, transmurality and ST-segment resolution (STR with DE-MRI (delayed enhancement magnetic resonance imaging on 3-month follow-up in patients treated for ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI, with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI. Background: Early PPCI decreases IS and transmurality but increases STR. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with STEMI treated with reperfusion therapy in the form of PPCI and underwent cardiac MRI at 3-month interval follow-up. The primary endpoint is final IS and transmurality as assessed by DE-MRI at 3-month follow-up. Results: IS and transmurality increase and STR decreases with increase in duration to percutaneous coronary intervention from the onset of symptoms. Similarly, the effect of various confounding factors such as diabetes mellitus, HTN, smoking, family history of CAD and obesity on IS, transmurality and STR was assessed which did not affect immediate prognosis during treatment. Conclusion: Primary angioplasty is the treatment modality of choice in the case of STEMI when available. Time to treatment directly influences STR, final IS and transmurality, that is, the earlier the intervention done, more will be STR and lesser will be final IS and transmurality. There is no significant effect of confounding variables such as cardiac risk factors except family history of CAD on immediate prognosis during treatment.

  15. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  16. Influence of elevated CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annibale, D' Alessandra; Larsen, Thomas; Sechi, Valentina; Cortet, Jérôme; Strandberg, Beate; Vincze, Éva; Filser, Juliane; Audisio, Paolo Aldo; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the combined effect of rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and increasing use of genetically modified (GM) crops in agriculture may affect soil food-webs. So we designed a study for the assessment of the effects of elevated CO2

  17. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte F.; Otzen, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  18. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte; Otzen, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  19. Udeskole og elevers handlekompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Elever elsker at komme væk fra undervisningen i skolen. Er det positivt eller negativt? Og hvad har betydning for, at eleverne får mest muligt ud af oplevelserne uden for skolen? Forskellige former for udeskole giver nogle oplagte muligheder, så eleverne udvikler sig som engagerede borgere i et...

  20. 电梯用439不锈钢耐腐蚀性的影响因素%Influencing Factors on Corrosion Resistance of 439 Stainless Steel Used in Elevators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁龙; 张波; 徐勇军

    2011-01-01

    The influencing factors were studied that relate to the corrosion resistance of 439 stainless steel used in elevators, through surface morphology evaluation and corrosion resistance test for the samples whose alloy element contents, production process and grinding technology were adjusted. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of 439 stainless steel can be improved by improving Cr content, adopting the technology of first grinding and then annealing and pickling, controlling the particle size of abrasive belt and S content of abrasive materials.%通过调整合金元素含量、生产工艺流程和研磨工艺,并对制备的产品试样进行了表面形态评定和耐腐蚀性试验,研究了影响电梯用439不锈钢耐腐蚀性的因素.结果表明:适当提高铬元素含量,采用先研磨后退火酸洗的工艺以及控制研磨过程中研磨砂带粒度和研磨介质中硫元素的含量,可提高439不锈钢的耐腐蚀性.

  1. Targeted taste cell-specific overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult taste buds elevates phosphorylated TrkB protein levels in taste cells, increases taste bud size, and promotes gustatory innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Irina V; Margolskee, Robert F; Nosrat, Christopher A

    2012-05-11

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most potent neurotrophic factor in the peripheral taste system during embryonic development. It is also expressed in adult taste buds. There is a lack of understanding of the role of BDNF in the adult taste system. To address this, we generated novel transgenic mice in which transgene expression was driven by an α-gustducin promoter coupling BDNF expression to the postnatal expression of gustducin in taste cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly stronger BDNF labeling in taste cells of high BDNF-expressing mouse lines compared with controls. We show that taste buds in these mice are significantly larger and have a larger number of taste cells compared with controls. To examine whether innervation was affected in Gust-BDNF mice, we used antibodies to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and ATP receptor P2X3. The total density of general innervation and specifically the gustatory innervation was markedly increased in high BDNF-expressing mice compared with controls. TrkB and NCAM gene expression in laser capture microdissected taste epithelia were significantly up-regulated in these mice. Up-regulation of TrkB transcripts in taste buds and elevated taste cell-specific TrkB phosphorylation in response to increased BDNF levels indicate that BDNF controls the expression and activation of its high affinity receptor in taste cells. This demonstrates a direct taste cell function for BDNF. BDNF also orchestrates and maintains taste bud innervation. We propose that the Gust-BDNF transgenic mouse models can be employed to further dissect the specific roles of BDNF in the adult taste system.

  2. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  3. Investigating students’ attitude towards the importance of factors included in the teaching evaluation forms of School of Public Health of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Dehghani Tafti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: students’ attitudes about teaching methodology have been widely recognised as a valid tool of evaluating teaching activities of faculty members. This study aims to determine the importance of the factors included in the teaching evaluation, from the students’ point of view. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Using a random cluster sampling, 332 students of the school of public health of Shahid Sadoughi University were selected .To collect data, a questionnaire containing three partswere used. These were demographic items, teachers’ evaluation (14 items and self-evaluation (4 items. Results: The students (80% scoredpersonal characteristics more. Among different fields of study, those studying occupational health scored the factorsless than others, and those studying at masters level scored them more than others.   The results indicated that there are significant correlation between age, marital status, and employment status of the students and the total average score.   The students scored the self-evaluation items more than 60%, There was a significant correlation between the average scores of evaluation and self-evaluation items. The students at bachelor level scored the factor more than masters students. Conclusion: The students’ focus on personal characteristics of teachers was remarkable. There is a need to revise the process of academics’ recruitment based on these findings. There is also a need to review the items included in evaluation forms of the school.

  4. Skuldertesten "Kombineret Elevation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Overkær, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Formål: At udarbejde en testprotokol for testen Kombineret Elevation (KE) og undersøge test-retest variationen ved test af elite svømmere, samt diskutere testens relevans og validitet. Materiale og Metode: 9 elite og 10 sub-elite svømmere, heraf var 11 mænd og 8 kvinder, gennemførte testen KE 2...

  5. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  6. Public health significance of elevated homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selhub, Jacob

    2008-06-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid whose metabolism stands at the intersection of two pathways: remethylation, which requires folic acid and vitamin B12 coenzymes; and transsulfuration, which requires pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, the vitamin B6 coenzyme. Data from a number of laboratories suggest that mild elevations of homocysteine in plasma are a risk factor for occlusive vascular disease. In the Framingham studies, we have shown that plasma homocysteine concentration is inversely related to the intake and plasma levels of folate and vitamin B6 as well as vitamin B12 plasma levels. Almost two-thirds of the prevalence of high homocysteine is attributable to low vitamin status or intake. Elevated homocysteine concentrations in plasma are a risk factor for prevalence of extracranial carotid-artery stenosis > or = 25% in both men and women. Prospectively elevated plasma homocysteine is associated with increased total and cardiovascular mortality, increased incidence of stroke, increased incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease, increased incidence of bone fracture, and higher prevalence of chronic heart failure. It was also shown that elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for preeclampsia and maybe neural tube defects (NTD). This multitude of relationships between elevated plasma homocysteine and diseases that afflict the elderly, pregnant women, and the embryo points to the existence ofa common denominator which may be responsible for these diseases. Whether this denominator is homocysteine itself or homocysteine is merely a marker, remains to be determined.

  7. Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

    2014-08-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD.

  8. Factors associated with mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults initiating protease inhibitor-containing therapy: role of education level and of early transaminase level elevation (APROCO-ANRS EP11 study). The Antiprotéases Cohorte Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA EP 11 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Charlotte; Raffi, François; Cuzin, Lise; Cailleton, Valérie; Vildé, Jean-Louis; Chêne, Geneviève; Allavena, Clotilde; Salamon, Roger; Leport, Catherine

    2002-09-01

    This study attempted to identify factors associated with mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults starting a protease inhibitor (PI)-containing therapy. Among 1155 patients consecutively enrolled in the APROCO study between May 1997 and June 1998, clinical characteristics were as follows: median age, 36 years; median baseline CD4 cell count, 288 cells/mm(3); and median baseline plasma HIV RNA load, 4.4 log(10) copies/mL. After a median follow-up of 27 months, 48 deaths had occurred, of which 44% were related to acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The mortality rate was 2.9% at 12 months. When both data at baseline and data at 4 months after the start of PI therapy were considered, factors independently associated with mortality were (Cox model) low baseline plasma creatinine level, low school education level, low CD4 cell count at 4 months, low hemoglobin level, and elevated hepatic transaminase levels. Thus, social context plus clinical and biologic data, including the 4-month response to treatment, must be considered in treatment of HIV-infected patients.

  9. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  10. Preliminary analysis of factors which elevate blood pressure levels among children in three provinces of China%我国三省7~13岁儿童血压升高影响因素的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟荣; 翟屹; 沈冲; 宋逸; 施小明

    2011-01-01

    , vegetables, and dairy consumption were statistically associated with elevated blood pressure in children (P<0.05); Logistic regression analysis showed that type of residence, overweight and obesity, central obesity, height, province of residence, and breakfast that included pickled salted vegetables were closely related to elevated blood pressure among children. Conclusions Overweight and obesity, often eating pickled salted vegetables are important risk factors for children high blood pressure. Control of children's obesity is important from controlling high blood pressure a-mong children.

  11. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  12. Airports and Airfields, Airstrip locations within Sedgwick County. Primary attributes include site number, location ID, facility type, effective date, air strip name, city name, latitude, longitude, and elevation., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Airports and Airfields dataset current as of 2008. Airstrip locations within Sedgwick County. Primary attributes include site number, location ID, facility type,...

  13. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Jonathan E; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Benedict, Ashwini; Costantino, Julie; Ward, Michael; Peyser, Brian D; Retterer, Cary J; Tressler, Lyal E; Wanner, Laura M; McGovern, Hugh F; Zaidi, Anum; Anthony, Scott M; Kota, Krishna P; Bavari, Sina; Hakami, Ramin M

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  14. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Nuss

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  15. Risk factor for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in young adults%年轻患者发生急性ST段抬高型心肌梗死的危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东宝; 陈文明; 华琦; 刘志

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk factors of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in young adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: A cohort of 1137 consecutive STEMI patients admitted to our hospitals from April 1995 to May 2005 were divided into three groups according to ages; 21- to 40-year-old group (n = 55) , 41- to 60-year-old group (n =364) and 61- to 90-year-old group (n =718). Data on clinical cardiovascular risk factors, demographic features and angiographic findings were gathered and analyzed. RESULTS: Only 4. 84% of the hospitalized STEMI patients over the 10-year period were < 40 years of age. Young adults were found to be predominantly male and most had a smoking and alcohol history (P <0. 01). Diabetes and hypertension were less prevalent in the group of young adults. Analysis of lipid profiles showed comparatively higher total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride values in the young age group (P < 0. 01). Angiography showed a high propensity toward single-vessel involvement in the young adult group (P <0. 01). In-hospital and 5-year all-cause deaths in the young age group were lower than those in older adults (P<0. 01). CONCLUSION: The risk factor profile and angiographic involvement differ considerably between the high-risk young population and older adults. However, the short- and long-term prognosis in young adults is more favorable.%目的:分析急性ST段抬高型心肌梗死(STEMI)患者中年轻患者的临床特点.方法:连续入选1995年4月~ 2005年5月入院的1 137名STEMI患者,根据年龄分为3组:21 ~40岁(n=55)、41~60岁(n =364)以及61 ~90岁(n=718),收集其心血管危险因素、人口统计学特点以及血管影像学结果并进行分析.结果:连续10年内入住本院的STEMI患者只有4.84%的患者年龄小于40岁,这些患者男性居多,多具有吸烟史、饮酒史(P<0.01);糖尿病和高血压病在年轻患者中相对较

  16. Phosphoproteome and transcription factor activity profiling identify actions of the anti-inflammatory agent UTL-5g in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells including disrupting actin remodeling and STAT-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Nicholas J; Stemmer, Paul M; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Frederick; Gao, Xiaohua; Guatam, Subhash C; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2017-09-15

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator. It reduces cisplatin-induced side effects by protecting kidney, liver, and platelets, thereby increasing tolerance for cisplatin. UTL-5g also reduces radiation-induced acute liver toxicity. The mechanism of action for UTL-5g is not clear at the present time. A phosphoproteomic analysis to a depth of 4943 phosphopeptides and a luminescence-based transcription factor activity assay were used to provide complementary analyses of signaling events that were disrupted by UTL-5g in RAW 264.7 cells. Transcriptional activity downstream of the interferon gamma, IL-6, type 1 Interferon, TGF-β, PKC/Ca(2+) and the glucocorticoid receptor pathways were disrupted by UTL-5g. Phosphoproteomic analysis indicated that hyperphosphorylation of proteins involved in actin remodeling was suppressed by UTL-5g (gene set analysis, FDR 5g. This global characterization of UTL-5g activity in a macrophage cell line discovered that it disrupts selected aspects of LPS signaling including Stat3 activation and actin remodeling providing new insight on how UTL-5g acts to reduce cisplatin-induced side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Falsely elevated troponin: rare occurrence or future problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Nguyen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Troponins are known to be released in response to cardiac damage and therefore are the biomarkers of choice for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, improving outcome in patients presenting with chest pain. However, false results can occur due to interference from other substances in the blood. Case: A 52-year-old male with a past medical history of alcohol abuse, hypertension, and coronary artery bypass graft at age 34 with normal stress test 2 years before presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of 1 day of non-exertional chest pain with radiation to the neck and left arm. His troponin was elevated to 5 ng/mL in two samples drawn 12 h apart, with normal CK-MB. Renal function was normal. Electrocardiogram (ECG showed normal sinus rhythm with no ST elevations or depressions. He underwent cardiac catheterization which showed no obstructive lesions. Five years later, he returned to the ED with abdominal pain and shortness of breath. Troponin was elevated and showed no signs of downtrend on repeat every 6 h. ECG was unchanged from 5 years before. He was discharged with a follow-up cardiac computed tomography (CT. Troponin was measured on the day of his scan and remained elevated; he was asymptomatic. Cardiac CT showed unremarkable coronaries and bypass grafts. Given persistently positive troponin in the setting of minimal to no symptoms, he was thought to have falsely elevated troponins. Centrifugation and 2:1 dilution of the sample resulted in the same general value, respectively. Rheumatoid factor and heterophile antibodies were negative. When his blood sample was sent to a different hospital utilizing a three-site immunoassay method, the value was found zero. Discussion: Cardiac troponins (cTn are structural proteins unique to the heart, not expressed outside of cardiac tissue and have high sensitivity and specificity for myocardial damage. Therefore, it is the test of choice for the diagnosis of

  18. Understanding factors that influence the use of risk scoring instruments in the management of patients with unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the Netherlands: a qualitative study of health care practitioners’ perceptions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, J.; Heeren, M.J.; Wulp, I. van der; Bruijne, M.C. de; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac risk scores estimate a patient’s risk of future cardiac events or death. They are developed to inform treatment decisions of patients diagnosed with unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Despite recommending their use in guidelines and evidenc

  19. Understanding factors that influence the use of risk scoring instruments in the management of patients with unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the Netherlands: a qualitative study of health care practitioners’ perceptions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, J.; Heeren, M.J.; Wulp, I. van der; Bruijne, M.C. de; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac risk scores estimate a patient’s risk of future cardiac events or death. They are developed to inform treatment decisions of patients diagnosed with unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Despite recommending their use in guidelines and evidenc

  20. 75 FR 29253 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    .... Washington County. Approximately 100 feet None +109 downstream of State Road 77. Flat Creek At the confluence... Elevation in meters (MSL) Existing Modified City of Hampton, Virginia Virginia City of Hampton... ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. ** BFEs to be changed include the...

  1. Elevated copper and oxidative stress in cancer cells as a target for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, Anshul; Mumper, Russell J

    2009-02-01

    As we gain a better understanding of the factors affecting cancer etiology, we can design improved treatment strategies. Over the past three to four decades, there have been numerous successful efforts in recognizing important cellular proteins essential in cancer growth and therefore these proteins have been targeted for cancer treatment. However, studies have shown that targeting one or two proteins in the complex cancer cascade may not be sufficient in controlling and/or inhibiting cancer growth. Therefore, there is a need to examine features which are potentially involved in multiple facets of cancer development. In this review we discuss the targeting of the elevated copper (both in serum and tumor) and oxidative stress levels in cancer with the aid of a copper chelator d-penicillamine (d-pen) for potential cancer treatment. Numerous studies in the literature have reported that both the serum and tumor copper levels are elevated in a variety of malignancies, including both solid tumor and blood cancer. Further, the elevated copper levels have been shown to be directly correlated to cancer progression. Enhanced levels of intrinsic oxidative stress has been shown in variety of tumors, possibly due to the combination of factors such as elevated active metabolism, mitochondrial mutation, cytokines, and inflammation. The cancer cells under sustained ROS stress tend to heavily utilize adaptation mechanisms and may exhaust cellular ROS-buffering capacity. Therefore, the elevated copper levels and increased oxidative stress in cancer cells provide for a prospect of selective cancer treatment.

  2. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and drought on nocturnal water fluxes in Eucalyptus saligna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppel, Melanie J B; Lewis, James D; Medlyn, Belinda; Barton, Craig V M; Duursma, Remko A; Eamus, Derek; Adams, Mark A; Phillips, Nathan; Ellsworth, David S; Forster, Michael A; Tissue, David T

    2011-09-01

    Nocturnal water flux has been observed in trees under a variety of environmental conditions and can be a significant contributor to diel canopy water flux. Elevated atmospheric CO(2) (elevated [CO(2)]) can have an important effect on day-time plant water fluxes, but it is not known whether it also affects nocturnal water fluxes. We examined the effects of elevated [CO(2)] on nocturnal water flux of field-grown Eucalyptus saligna trees using sap flux through the tree stem expressed on a sapwood area (J(s)) and leaf area (E(t)) basis. After 19 months growth under well-watered conditions, drought was imposed by withholding water for 5 months in the summer, ending with a rain event that restored soil moisture. Reductions in J(s) and E(t) were observed during the severe drought period in the dry treatment under elevated [CO(2)], but not during moderate- and post-drought periods. Elevated [CO(2)] affected night-time sap flux density which included the stem recharge period, called 'total night flux' (19:00 to 05:00, J(s,r)), but not during the post-recharge period, which primarily consisted of canopy transpiration (23:00 to 05:00, J(s,c)). Elevated [CO(2)] wet (EW) trees exhibited higher J(s,r) than ambient [CO(2)] wet trees (AW) indicating greater water flux in elevated [CO(2)] under well-watered conditions. However, under drought conditions, elevated [CO(2)] dry (ED) trees exhibited significantly lower J(s,r) than ambient [CO(2)] dry trees (AD), indicating less water flux during stem recharge under elevated [CO(2)]. J(s,c) did not differ between ambient and elevated [CO(2)]. Vapour pressure deficit (D) was clearly the major influence on night-time sap flux. D was positively correlated with J(s,r) and had its greatest impact on J(s,r) at high D in ambient [CO(2)]. Our results suggest that elevated [CO(2)] may reduce night-time water flux in E. saligna when soil water content is low and D is high. While elevated [CO(2)] affected J(s,r), it did not affect day-time water

  3. Lærer-elev-relationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Per Fibæk; Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2015-01-01

    I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence.......I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence....

  4. Design of a powered elevator control system. [powered elevator system for modified C-8A aircraft for STOL operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glende, W. L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication and flight testing of a powered elevator system for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA or Mod C-8A) are discussed. The system replaces a manual spring tab elevator control system that was unsatisfactory in the STOL flight regime. Pitch control in the AWJSRA is by means of a single elevator control surface. The elevator is used for both maneuver and trim control as the stabilizer is fixed. A fully powered, irreversible flight control system powered by dual hydraulic sources was designed. The existing control columns and single mechanical cable system of the AWJSRA have been retained as has been the basic elevator surface, except that the elevator spring tab is modified into a geared balance tab. The control surface is directly actuated by a dual tandem moving body actuator. Control signals are transmitted from the elevator aft quadrant to the actuator by a linkage system that includes a limited authority series servo actuator.

  5. Elevated triglycerides and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Kamara, David Alim; Reiss, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the relationship between elevated triglyceride levels and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in HIV-positive persons after adjustment for total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (HDL-C) and nonlipid risk factors. Background: Although elevated...... the independent association between the latest triglyceride level and MI risk after adjusting for TC and HDL-C, nonlipids cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, HIV and treatment-related factors. Results: The 33 308 persons included in the study from 1999 to 2008 experienced 580 MIs over 178 835 person......-years. Unadjusted, the risk of MI increased by 67% [relative risk (RR) 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.54–1.80] per doubling in triglyceride level. After adjustment for the latest TC and HDL-C level, the RR dropped to 1.33 (95% confidence interval 1.21–1.45); this effect was further attenuated by other CVD risk...

  6. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Vermont, elevation data are critical for hazard mitigation, geologic resource assessment, natural resources conservation, agriculture and precision farming, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  7. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Nebraska, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  8. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion of the full scale ground test and flight test activities, the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, and the production status. Prior to flight testing of the advanced composites elevator, ground, flight flutter, and stability and control test plans were reviewed and approved by the FAA. Both the ground test and the flight test were conducted according to the approved plan, and were witnessed by the FAA. Three and one half shipsets have now been fabricated without any significant difficulty being encountered. Two elevator system shipsets were weighed, and results validated the 26% predicted weight reduction. The program is on schedule.

  9. The Risk of Intraocular Pressure Elevation in Pediatric Non-infectious Uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Srishti; Foster, C. Stephen; Pistilli, Maxwell; Liesegang, Teresa L.; Daniel, Ebenezer; Sen, H. Nida; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Jabs, Douglas A.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Lawrence, Scott D.; Kempen, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the risk and risk factors for intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in pediatric non-infectious uveitis. Design Multi-center retrospective cohort study. Participants Nine hundred sixteen children (1593 eyes) uveitis followed between January 1978 through December 2007 at five academic uveitis centers in United States. Methods Medical records review by trained, certified experts. Main outcome measures Prevalence and incidence of IOP≥21 and ≥30mmHg and incidence of a rise in IOP by ≥10mmHg. To avoid under ascertainment, outcomes were counted as present when IOP-lowering therapies were in use. Results Initially 251 (15.8%) and 46 eyes (2.9%) had IOP≥21 and ≥30mmHg, respectively. Factors associated with presenting IOP elevation included age 6–12 years (versus other pediatric ages), prior cataract surgery (adjusted odds ratio≥21mmHg [aOR21]=2.42, P=0.01), pars plana vitrectomy (adjusted odds ratio≥30mmHg[aOR30]=11.1, P=0.03), duration of uveitis ≥6 months (aORs30 up to 11.8, Puveitis. Statistically significant risk factors include IOP elevation or use of IOP-lowering treatment in the contralateral eye and local corticosteroid use – that demonstrated a dose-and route of administration-dependent relationship. In contrast, use of immunosuppressive drug therapy did not increase such risk. Pediatric eyes with non-infectious uveitis should be followed closely for IOP elevation when strong risk factors such as the use of local corticosteroids and contralateral IOP elevation are present. PMID:26233626

  10. Correlation of astrocyte elevated gene‑1, basic‑fibroblast growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Background: Breast cancer is the second most frequent cancer in the ... Departments of Pathology, 2Biostatistics and 3General Surgery, ..... of the nuclear factor kappaB pathway by astrocyte elevated gene‑1: Implications.

  11. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, J. L.; Griggs, J. A.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Gogineni, S. P.; Howat, I.; Mouginot, J.; Paden, J.; Palmer, S.; Rignot, E.; Steinhage, D.

    2013-03-01

    We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM) over the entire island including across the glaciated-ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  12. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated–ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  13. Studieintro: fra elev til studerende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2011-01-01

    Dette kompendium indeholder materiale til kurset Studieintro: fra elev til studerende. Kurset er obligatorisk for studerende på bacheloruddannelsens første år.......Dette kompendium indeholder materiale til kurset Studieintro: fra elev til studerende. Kurset er obligatorisk for studerende på bacheloruddannelsens første år....

  14. Elevated Plasma C-Terminal Endothelin-1 Precursor Fragment Concentrations Are Associated with Less Anxiety in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Results from the Observational DIAST-CHF Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer

    Full Text Available The role of endothelin-1 (ET-1 in the neurobiology of anxiety is unknown, therefore, we assessed in the observational multicenter DIAST-CHF study whether the C-terminal ET-1 precursor fragment (CT-proET-1 is linked to anxiety.Plasma concentrations of CT-proET-1 were measured in a total of 1,410 patients presenting with cardiovascular risk factors (mean age 66.91±8.2 years, 49.3% males, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 60.0±8.2% who had completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire.Among the total study cohort (n = 1,410, there were 118 subjects (8.4% with an HADS anxiety score above the cut-off level of 11 suggestive of clinically relevant anxiety. Plasma CT-proET-1 levels were significantly lower in the group of anxious patients as compared to non-anxious patients (p = 0.013. In regression models adjusted for sex, age, systolic blood pressure, and diameters of left atrium and ventricle, plasma CT-proET-1 was again linked to anxiety (Exp(β = 0.247, 95%-confidence interval [95%-CI] = 0.067-0.914, p = 0.036. Given the high prevalence of depressive disorders in anxious patients, we additionally included the HADS depression score as an independent variable in the models and found that CT-proET-1 remained a significant predictor of anxiety, independent of comorbid depression (Exp(β = 0.114, 95%-CI = 0.023-0.566, p = 0.008.Our data from a population-based study in outpatients with cardiovascular risk factors revealed that circulating CT-proET-1 levels are negatively associated with anxiety. Further investigations are required to clarify the putative anxiolytic effect of ET-1 or its precursor molecules in humans and to decipher its mechanistic pathways.

  15. Elevated Striatal Dopamine Function in Immigrants and Their Children: A Risk Mechanism for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Alice; Howes, Oliver D; Houle, Sylvain; McKenzie, Kwame; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Bagby, Michael R; Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Kenk, Miran; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Suridjan, Ivonne; Chaddock, Chistopher A; Winton-Brown, Toby T; Allen, Paul; Rusjan, Pablo; Remington, Gary; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McGuire, Philip K; Mizrahi, Romina

    2017-03-01

    Migration is a major risk factor for schizophrenia but the neurochemical processes involved are unknown. One candidate mechanism is through elevations in striatal dopamine synthesis and release. The objective of this research was to determine whether striatal dopamine function is elevated in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants and the relationship with psychosis. Two complementary case-control studies of in vivo dopamine function (stress-induced dopamine release and dopamine synthesis capacity) in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants were performed in Canada and the United Kingdom. The Canadian dopamine release study included 25 immigrant and 31 nonmigrant Canadians. These groups included 23 clinical high risk (CHR) subjects, 9 antipsychotic naïve patients with schizophrenia, and 24 healthy volunteers. The UK dopamine synthesis study included 32 immigrants and 44 nonimmigrant British. These groups included 50 CHR subjects and 26 healthy volunteers. Both striatal stress-induced dopamine release and dopamine synthesis capacity were significantly elevated in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants, independent of clinical status. These data provide the first evidence that the effect of migration on the risk of developing psychosis may be mediated by an elevation in brain dopamine function. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  16. Implementation of four layer automatic elevator controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. K. V.; Kumar, P. Satish; Charles, B. S.; Srilakshmi, G.

    2017-07-01

    In this modern era, elevators have become an integral part of any commercial or public complex. It facilitates the faster movement of people and luggage between floors. The lift control system is one among the keenest aspects in electronics controlling module that are used in auto motive filed. Usually elevators are designed for a specific building taking into account the main factors like the measure of the building, the count of persons travelling to each floor and the expected periods of large usage. The lift system was designed with different control strategies. This implementation is based on FPGA, which could be used for any building with any number of floors, with the necessary inputs and outputs. This controller can be implemented based on the required number of floors by merely changing a control variable from the HDL code. This approach is based on an algorithm which reduces the number of computation necessary, on concentrating only on the relevant principles that improves the score and ability of the club of elevator structure. The elevator controller is developed using Verilog HDL and is perfectly executed on a Xilinx ISE 12.4 and Spartan -3E FPGA.

  17. To investigate the mechanism about the pathogenic factors including Hhcy, in coronary artery coronary endothelial cell damage mechanism%Hhcy对冠脉内皮细胞损伤机制的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆成; 张向峰; 韩晓丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism about the pathogenic factors including Hhcy, etc in coronary artery coronary endothelial cell damage mechanism.Methods In this paper, according to coronary angiography examination,select 121 cases of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. According to the clinical symptom of coronary heart disease group, heartache group 71 cases, acute myocardial infarction group 50 cases. 95 cases of normal healthy subjects were selected as control group. The Hcy, EC, ET, niacin and vitamin B12 were measured.Results In patients with coronary artery stenosis groups of Hcy, EC, ET, niacin, vitamin B12 indicators along with the change of coronary artery stenosis degree change, the more the degree of stenosis serious Hcy, EC, ET, etc indicators increased, the more obvious, in severe stenosis group (P<0.01). Hcy, EC, ET in CHD group significantly increased than the normal control group. The study also found that the level of serum Hcy and EC, Hcy and ET, Hcy and niacin had a positive correlation (r=0.61, r=0.55, r=0.62). Hcy had niacin, Hcy had vitamin B12 had a negative correlation (r=-0.62, r=-0.58).Conclusions The level of Hcy, EC, ET increasing and the level of niacin, vitamin B12 reducing has important significance in coronary artery intimal injury, plaque formation, leading to coronary artery stenosis.%目的:探讨Hhcy等致病因素在冠脉冠脉内皮细胞损伤的机制。方法:本文选择冠心病(CHD)患者121例,根据冠心病临床症状分组,心痛组71例,急性心肌梗塞组50例,选取95例冠状动脉造影等检查为正常健康者作为正常对照组。测定所有受试者同型半胱氨酸(Hcy),内皮细胞(EC),内皮素(ET),烟酸,维生素B12等指标。结果:冠脉狭窄患者各组Hcy,EC,ET、烟酸,维生素B12等指标随冠脉狭窄程度的改变而改变,狭窄程度愈严重Hcy,EC,ET等指标增高越明显(P<0.01)。CHD组Hcy,EC,ET等指标较正

  18. Altered Expression Levels of MMP1, MMP9, MMP12, TIMP1, and IL-1β as a Risk Factor for the Elevated IOP and Optic Nerve Head Damage in the Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Lukasz; Pytel, Dariusz; Mucha, Bartosz; Szymanek, Katarzyna; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P; Majsterek, Ireneusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of presented work was to analyze the impact of particular polymorphic changes in the promoter regions of the -1607 1G/2G MMP1, -1562 C/T MMP9, -82 A/G MMP12, -511 C/T IL-1β, and 372 T/C TIMP1 genes on their expression level in POAG patients. Blood and aqueous humor samples acquired from 50 patients with POAG and 50 control subjects were used for QPCR and protein levels analysis by ELISA. In vivo promoter activity assays were carried on HTM cells using dual luciferase assay. All studied subjects underwent ophthalmic examination, including BCVA, intraocular pressure, slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, HRT, and OCT scans. Patients with POAG are characterized by an increased mRNA expression of MMP1, MMP9, MMP12, and IL-1β genes as compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Aqueous humor acquired from patients with POAG displayed increased protein expression of MMP1, MMP9, MMP12, and IL-1β compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Allele -1607 1G of MMP1 gene possesses only 42,91% of the -1607 2G allele transcriptional activity and allele -1562 C of MMP9 gene possesses only 21,86% of the -1562 T allele. Increased expression levels of metalloproteinases can be considered as a risk factor for the development of POAG.

  19. Altered Expression Levels of MMP1, MMP9, MMP12, TIMP1, and IL-1β as a Risk Factor for the Elevated IOP and Optic Nerve Head Damage in the Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Markiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented work was to analyze the impact of particular polymorphic changes in the promoter regions of the -1607 1G/2G MMP1, -1562 C/T MMP9, -82 A/G MMP12, -511 C/T IL-1β, and 372 T/C TIMP1 genes on their expression level in POAG patients. Blood and aqueous humor samples acquired from 50 patients with POAG and 50 control subjects were used for QPCR and protein levels analysis by ELISA. In vivo promoter activity assays were carried on HTM cells using dual luciferase assay. All studied subjects underwent ophthalmic examination, including BCVA, intraocular pressure, slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, HRT, and OCT scans. Patients with POAG are characterized by an increased mRNA expression of MMP1, MMP9, MMP12, and IL-1β genes as compared to the control group (P<0.001. Aqueous humor acquired from patients with POAG displayed increased protein expression of MMP1, MMP9, MMP12, and IL-1β compared to the control group (P<0.001. Allele -1607 1G of MMP1 gene possesses only 42,91% of the -1607 2G allele transcriptional activity and allele -1562 C of MMP9 gene possesses only 21,86% of the -1562 T allele. Increased expression levels of metalloproteinases can be considered as a risk factor for the development of POAG.

  20. Inferior ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Associated with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Koeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM is usually characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Due to the clinical symptoms which include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated myocardial markers, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is frequently mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the absence of a significant coronary artery disease. Otherwise an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery can produce a typical Takotsubo contraction pattern. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is frequently associated with emotional stress, but to date no cases of STEMI triggering TCM have been reported. We describe a case of a female patient with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by TCM.

  1. Inferior ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Associated with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeth, Oliver; Zeymer, Uwe; Schiele, Rudolf; Zahn, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is usually characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Due to the clinical symptoms which include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated myocardial markers, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is frequently mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the absence of a significant coronary artery disease. Otherwise an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery can produce a typical Takotsubo contraction pattern. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is frequently associated with emotional stress, but to date no cases of STEMI triggering TCM have been reported. We describe a case of a female patient with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by TCM. PMID:20811565

  2. Digital elevation modeling via curvature interpolation for lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital elevation model (DEM) is a three-dimensional (3D) representation of a terrain's surface - for a planet (including Earth), moon, or asteroid - created from point cloud data which measure terrain elevation. Its modeling requires surface reconstruction for the scattered data, which is an ill-p...

  3. Viral and host factors related with histopathologyc activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B and moderate or intermittently elevated alanine aminotransferase levels Influencia de factores virales y del huésped en la actividad histológica en pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus de la hepatitis B y elevación moderada o intermitente de alanina aminotransferasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Molina Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: viral and host factors are related with progression of pathological lesion in chronic hepatitis B. We analyzed these factors in patients with moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels, and its threshold that determinate significant histological activity. Patients and methods: retrospective analyses of viral and host parameters in 89 consecutive chronic hepatitis B patients biopsied because of moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels [1-2 x ULN (ULN = 39 IU/mL] and/or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL in AntiHBe+ patients. It was analyzed age, gender, ALT levels, HBeAg, viral load and genotype. It was considered advanced histological lesion a Knodell Score (KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment, lobular inflammation ≥ 2 or fibrosis ≥ 2 according to Scheuer Classification. Results: KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment was found in 47.8 and 60.7% respectively. It was observed relationship between age, male gender, ALT levels and viral load with histological damage (p ULN (69.1 vs. 47.1%, p = 0.04. There were not significant upper frequencies of advanced lesion when a cut-off of 40 years or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL viral load or serological status HBeAg was considerate. Histological activity was lesser in genotype D patients than those infected with others genotypes (p Objetivo: analizar factores virales y del huésped relacionados con actividad histológica en un subgrupo de pacientes con hepatitis crónica B y elevación intermitente o moderada de alanina aminotransferasa (ALT, y el umbral que determine daño histológico indicativo de tratamiento. Pacientes y métodos: análisis retrospectivo de parámetros virales y del huésped en 89 pacientes con hepatitis crónica B biopsiados consecutivamente por elevación intermitente o moderada de ALT [1-2 x USN (USN = 39 UI/mL]. Fueron analizados edad, sexo, ALT, HBeAg, carga viral y genotipo. Se consideró como lesion histologica avanzada un Índice de

  4. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Griggs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2011. Around 344 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with the majority of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated/ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice shelf thickness was determined where a floating tongue exists, in particular in the north. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings near the ice sheet margin and 2.5 km in the interior. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±6 m to about ±200 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new data sets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes most marked. We use the new bed and surface DEMs to calculate the hydraulic potential for subglacial flow and present the large scale pattern of water routing. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land/ice mask would raise eustatic sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  5. Risk factors for obesity at age 3 in Alaskan children, including the role of beverage consumption: results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and its three-year follow-up survey, CUBS, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Young, Margaret B; Perham-Hester, Katherine A; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages.

  6. A multifactorial approach including tumoural epidermal growth factor receptor, p53, thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase to predict treatment outcome in head and neck cancer patients receiving 5-fluorouracil

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, M. C.; Pivot, X; Formento, J. L.; Bensadoun, R J; Formento, P.; Dassonville, O; Francoual, M.; Poissonnet, G.; Fontana, X; Schneider, M.; Demard, F.; Milano, G

    1999-01-01

    The prognostic value of tumoural epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), p53, thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) was analysed on 82 advanced head and neck cancer patients (71 men, 11 women; mean age 59). Induction treatment was cisplatin–5-FU ± folinic acid (61 patients, Chem group) or concomitant cisplatin–5-FU–radiotherapy (21 patients, RChem group). EGFR (binding assay), p53 protein (Sangtec immunoluminometric assay), TS and DPD activities (radioenzymatic ...

  7. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Young, Margaret B.; Katherine A Perham-Hester; de Schweinitz, Peter; Bradford D Gessner

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic ...

  8. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  9. Sustained elevation of circulating growth and differentiation factor-15 and a dynamic imbalance in mediators of muscle homeostasis are associated with the development of acute muscle wasting following cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Susannah A A; Lee, Jen Y; Wort, S John; Polkey, Michael I; Kemp, Paul R; Griffiths, Mark J D

    2013-04-01

    Acute muscle wasting in the critically ill is common and causes significant morbidity. In a novel human model of acute muscle wasting following cardiac surgery, known or potential circulating modulators of muscle mass--insulin-like growth factor-1, myostatin, and growth and differentiation factor-15--were measured over a week. It was hypothesized that patients who developed acute muscle wasting would show distinct patterns of change in these mediators. A prospective longitudinal observational study of high-risk elective cardiac surgical patients identifying, by ultrasound, those developing muscle wasting. Tertiary cardiothoracic referral center: Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK. Forty-two patients undergoing elective high-risk cardiothoracic surgery. Circulating insulin-like growth factor-1, myostatin, and growth and differentiation factor-15 were assayed preoperatively and over the first week postoperatively. The ability of growth and differentiation factor-15 to cause muscle wasting in vitro was determined in C2C12 myotubes. Of the 42 patients, 23 (55%) developed quadriceps atrophy. There was an acute decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 and unexpectedly myostatin, known mediators of muscle hypertrophy and atrophy, respectively. By contrast, plasma growth and differentiation factor-15 concentrations increased in all patients. This increase in growth and differentiation factor-15 was sustained at day 7 in those who developed muscle wasting (day 7 compared with baseline, p0.05). Insulin-like growth factor-1 did not recover in those who developed muscle wasting (day 7 compared with baseline, p0.05). Finally, we demonstrated that growth and differentiation factor-15 caused atrophy of myotubes in vitro. These data support the hypothesis that acute muscle loss occurs as a result of an imbalance between drivers of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. Growth and differentiation factor-15 is a potential novel factor associated with muscle atrophy, which may become a

  10. Coastal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation models (DEMs) of U.S. and other coasts that typically integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography. The DEMs support NOAA's mission to understand...

  11. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  12. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) is a seamless, nationwide, multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) hydrologic database derived from a version of...

  13. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  14. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) is a seamless, nationwide, multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) hydrologic database derived from a version of...

  15. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  16. Primary Immunodeficiencies with Elevated IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Trine H

    2016-01-01

    In recent years a number of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) characterized by elevated Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels have been uncovered and termed as Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). In addition to the elevated levels of IgE, patients with these PIDs display a spectrum of infections by staphylococci and fungi, and in some cases viruses, particularly affecting skin and lungs. Most of these PIDs also have a non-infectious phenotype, comprising musculoskeletal, vascular, and neurological abnormalities. The genetic basis for the majority of conditions with elevated IgE has now been established and includes mutations in STAT3, DOCK8, TYK2, and most recently PGM3 molecules. However, in some patients with the relevant phenotype, mutations in these molecules are not identified, suggesting additional genetic etiologies of HIES not yet discovered. As the immunological and molecular basis of HIES is being unraveled, important insights are emerging that may have implications for our understanding of basic principles of immunology and protective immunity as well as for the pathogenesis and clinical management of patients with these complex and challenging PIDs. In this review, are presented the current knowledge on the clinical presentation, infectious phenotype, and the genetic and immunological pathogenesis of hyper-IgE syndromes as well as some other PIDs with elevated levels of IgE.

  17. THE ABUNDANCE, DIVERSITY AND METABOLIC FOOTPRINT OF SOIL NEMATODES IS HIGHEST IN HIGH ELEVATION ALPINE GRASSLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kergunteuil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are key components of soil biodiversity and represent valuable bio-indicators of soil food webs. Numerous community indices have been developed in order to track variations in soil ecosystem processes, but their use is mainly restricted to anthropogenic stresses. In this study, we propose to expand the use of nematodes’ derived ecological indices in order to shed light on variations of soil food webs in natural systems distributed along elevation gradients. For this purpose, we aimed at determining how elevation affects the community structure and the trophic diversity by studying the abundance, the composition and the functional diversity of nematode communities. Nematode communities were sampled every 200 m across five transects that span about 2000 m in elevation in the Alps. To understand the underlying ecological parameters driving these patterns we studied both abiotic factors (soil properties and biotic factors (trophic links, relationships with plant diversity. We found that (1 nematode abundance increases with elevation of lowland forests and alpine meadows; (2 differences in nematodes communities rely on habitat-specific functional diversity (e.g. tolerance to harsh environments, colonizer/persister status while most trophic groups are ubiquitous; and (3 the metabolic footprint of the complete nematode community increases with elevation. We thus conclude that the contribution of soil dwelling nematodes to belowground ecosystem processes, including carbon and energy flow, is stronger at high elevation. The resulting cascading effects on the soil food web structure are discussed from an ecosystem functioning perspective. Overall, this study highlights the importance of nematodes in soil ecosystems and brings insights in their enhanced role along ecological gradients.

  18. Synergistic effects of elevated homocysteine level and abnormal blood lipids on the onset of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hao; Zhenzhen Cheng; Qiang Wu; Shuzhang Li; Liming Chen; Xiaoyong Sai; Zhefeng Liu; Guang Yang; Rongzeng Yan; Lili Wang; Caiyun Fu; Xuan Xu

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and abnormal blood lipids are independent risk factors for stroke. However, whether both factors exert a synergistic effect in the onset of stroke remains unclear. The present study is a retrospective analysis of 2 089 cases of stroke and 2 089 control cases of simple inter-vertebral disk protrusion using a paired multivariate logistic regression method. Adjusting for known confounding variables including the patients’ age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, patient and family medical history, and clinical biochemical indices, elevated homocysteine level was related to the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids showed a 40.9%increase in the risk for stroke compared to patients with normal ho-mocysteine levels and blood lipids (odds ratio 1.409;95%confidence interval 1.127-1.761). These results indicate that elevated homocysteine and abnormal blood lipids exert synergistic effects in the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids are predis-posed to stroke.

  19. Risk factors for obesity at age 3 in Alaskan children, including the role of beverage consumption: results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and its three-year follow-up survey, CUBS, 2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Wojcicki

    Full Text Available Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups.Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS, we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children.We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5. Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (<$10,000 in the year before the child was born (OR 3.94, 95%CI 1.22--17.03 and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01 and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995. Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60. Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state.The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages.

  20. Growth responses of Melastoma malabathricum to elevated carbon dioxide and water regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Wan Nur Ain Mat; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan; Musa, Nor Lailatul Wahidah

    2016-11-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 has significant effects on plant growth depending on the species and the interaction between treatments given. In other words, the impacts vary among species, depending on differences in photosynthetic pathways, intrinsic growth rates and other properties. In this research we studied the effects of increased carbon dioxide concentration and water regimes on a shrub species, Melastoma malabathricum in a shade house at ambient CO2 and open roof greenhouse at elevated CO2. The factor of water stress was also included, in which for each CO2 treatment, the amount of water was given once or twice daily. The treatment of elevated CO2 was at 800 ppm, when the plants were exposed daily from 0900h until 1100h. The plant growth was monitored through their biomass, height and leaf area that were recorded fortnightly for six months. The results showed that the height of M. malabathricum stem in elevated CO2 was significantly higher than those in ambient CO2. Similarly, leaf area in the elevated CO2 showed a big difference with a value of 46.24 cm2 for elevated CO2 with twice watering, but only 17.94 cm2 for ambient CO2 with twice watering. Even for once watering, we can see the values of leaf area were higher with 32.06 cm2 for elevated and 24.35 cm2 in ambient CO2. The above ground and below ground biomass differed significantly between ambient and elevated CO2. Above ground biomass in ambient CO2 was higher than that in elevated CO2 with a percentage of 25.7%. In contrast, the below ground biomass in elevated CO2 was higher than that in ambient CO2 with a percentage of 17.4%. The results suggested that the increment of CO2 concentrations and water regime in the natural environment may influence the growth and ultimately the abundance and distribution of this shrub species in urban forest.

  1. 山体效应及其对林线分布的影响%Mass elevation effect and its forcing on timberline altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Fang; YAO Yonghui; DAI Shibao; WANG Chun; SUN Ranhao; XU Juan; ZHANG Baiping

    2012-01-01

    @@%The concept of mass elevation effect (massenerhebungseffect,MEE) was introduced by A.de Quervain about 100 years ago to account for the observed tendency for temperature-related parameters such as tree line and snowline to occur at higher elevations in the central Alps than on their outer margins.It also has been widely observed in other areas of the world,but there have not been significant,let alone quantitative,researches on this phenomenon.Especially,it has been usually completely neglected in developing fitting models of timberline elevation,with only longitude or latitude considered as impacting factors.This paper tries to quantify the contribution of MEE to timberline elevation.Considering that the more extensive the land mass and especially the higher the mountain base in the interior of land mass,the greater the mass elevation effect,this paper takes mountain base elevation (MBE) as the magnitude of MEE.We collect 157 data points of timberline elevation,and use their latitude,longitude and MBE as independent variables to build a multiple linear regression equation for timberline elevation in the southeastern Eurasian continent.The results turn out that the contribution of latitude,longitude and MBE to timberline altitude reach 25.11%,29.43%,and 45.46%,respectively.North of northern latitude 32°,the three factors' contribution amount to 48.50%,24.04%,and 27.46%,respectively; to the south,their contribution is 13.01%,48.33%,and 38.66%,respectively.This means that MBE,serving as a proxy indicator of MEE,is a significant factor determining the elevation of alpine timberline.Compared with other factors,it is more stable and independent in affecting timberline elevation.Of course,the magnitude of the actual MEE is certainly determined by other factors,including mountain area and height,the distance to the edge of a land mass,the structures of the mountains nearby.These factors need to be included in the study of MEE quantification in the

  2. Outcomes Following Traumatic Grain Elevator Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolefree, Sydnei; Truong, Anthony; Ward, Jeanette; Dong, Fanglong; Ablah, Elizabeth; Haan, James

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a comprehensive database of grain elevator-associated injuries hinders accurate evaluation of injury prevalence and may lead to discordant information about injury frequencies. The main purpose of this study was to identify the most common mechanisms of injury related to grain elevator events. Comparisons of hospital outcomes between patients who sustained traumatic injuries associated with grain elevators at Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-regulated industrial sites versus those on OSHA-exempt farming operations were also made. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients' presenting with grain elevator-related injuries at a level-1 trauma center between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. Data collected included demographics, mechanism of injury, injury severity, hospitalization details, and discharge disposition. Data were summarized, and comparisons were made between the groups. All patients (N = 18) in the study were male, with a mean age of 37 years. Falls and being caught in equipment each accounted for 27.8% of injuries. Among the 18 patients, there were a total of 37 injuries. The majority of injuries were either lower extremity (29.7%) or chest injuries (21.6%). The average hospital length of stay was 4 ± 4.5 days, and one patient required mechanical ventilation. There were no reported deaths. The literature reports entrapments as the leading cause of grain elevator-related injuries; however, this study found that falls and being caught in equipment were the most common mechanisms of injury. This suggests that a greater emphasis should be placed on fall prevention and equipment safety.

  3. The pyrH gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris encoding UMP kinase is transcribed as part of an operon including the frr1 gene encoding ribosomal recycling factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lüders; Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    2000-01-01

    establishing the ability of the encoded protein to synthesize UDP. The pyrH gene in L. lactis is flanked downstream by frr1 encoding ribosomal recycling factor 1 and upstream by an open reading frame, orfA, of unknown function. The three genes were shown to constitute an operon transcribed in the direction orf......A-pyrH-frr1 from a promoter immediately in front of orfA. This operon belongs to an evolutionary highly conserved gene cluster, since the organization of pyrH on the chromosomal level in L. lactis shows a high resemblance to that found in Bacillus subtilis as well as in Escherichia coli and several other...

  4. Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infraction after High Dose Intravenous Immunoglobulin Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Mizrahi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs are used for several indications, including autoimmune conditions. IVIg treatment is associated with several possible adverse reactions including induction of a hypercoagulable state. We report a 76-year-old woman treated with IVIg for myasthenia gravis, which developed chest pain and weakness following IVIg infusion. The symptoms were associated with ST segment depression in V4–6 and elevated troponin levels. The patient was diagnosed with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI. The patient had no significant risk factor besides age and a cardiac perfusion scan was interpreted as normal (the patient refused to undergo cardiac catheterization. This case is compatible with IVIg-induced hypercoagulability resulting in NSTEMI. Cardiac evaluation should therefore be considered prior to initiation of IVIg treatment especially in patients with multiple cardiovascular risks.

  5. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients. There...

  6. Marathon pacing and elevation change

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, J B

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of marathon pacing and elevation change is presented. It is based on an empirical observation of how the pace of elite and non-elite marathon runners change over the course of the marathon and a simple approximation of the energy cost of ascent and decent. It was observed that the pace of the runners slowed in a regular manner that could be broken up into four regions. That observation can be used to project target paces for a desired marathon finish time. However, that estimate fails to take in to account the energetic costs of elevation changes (hills) along the marathon course. Several approximations are made to give a coarse estimate of target paces for marathon run on courses with significant elevation changes, i.e. a hilly course. The 2012 Oakland Marathon course is used as and example of a hilly course and the times of 23 finishers are examined.

  7. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  8. Tether Elevator Crawler Systems (TECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Frank R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the needs of the experimenters on the space station is access to steady and controlled-variation microgravity environments. A method of providing these environments is to place the experiment on a tether attached to the space station. This provides a high degree of isolation from structural oscillations and vibrations. Crawlers can move these experiments along the tethers to preferred locations, much like an elevator. This report describes the motion control laws developed for these crawlers and the testing of laboratory models of these tether elevator crawlers.

  9. Characteristics of Ground Surface Temperatures as in situ Observed in Elevational Permafrost on the Northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, D.; Jin, H.; Marchenko, S. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2016-12-01

    Elevational permafrost is primarily distributed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) at mid-latitudes, where the average elevation is higher than 4,000 m a.s.l. The topography, including the elevation and aspect, obviously is the decisive controlling factor of thermal regimes of elevational permafrost, which is warm and extremely sensitive to anthropogenic activities and climate changes. Due to the harsh weather conditions and unfavorable logistics accommodations, however, the elevational permafrost on the QTP, especially in the rugged topography, is hard to be plotted through ground-based field investigations. The exact distribution of elevational permafrost could be simulated through GST. In this study, we set up three monitoring sites of GST at the beginning of 2015. One located in the rugged mountain of the source area of the Yellow River, one located in the sunny slope of the Bayan Har Mountain Pass, and one another located in a degrading alpine meadow of the source area of the Yangtze River. Based on these GST records, the daily, monthly, seasonal and year-average values of GST, freezing and thawing indices calculated from GST, and empirical Stefan Equation to calculate the ALT, as well as the GIPL-2.0 model to simulate the freezing and thawing processes of the active layer were integrative executed for these three sites. Results demonstrate that GST could be a much more reliable driving parameter to simulate the active layer and permafrost than the air temperature and land surface temperature.

  10. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alok; Deshpande; Yochai; Birnbaum

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions(STEMI) are established; howeverearly perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In additionST elevation(STE) caused by conditions other thanacute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may beconfused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram(ECG). As a result, activating the primarypercutaneous coronary intervention(pPCI) protocooften depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting theECG in its clinical context and appropriately activatingthe pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, asreflected in the 2013 American College of CardiologyFoundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studiedand are currently being further perfected. No mattethe strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be bet-ter outcomes.

  11. Model-based approach for elevator performance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, E.; Salgado, O.; Iturrospe, A.; Isasa, I.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a dynamic model for an elevator installation is presented in the state space domain. The model comprises both the mechanical and the electrical subsystems, including the electrical machine and a closed-loop field oriented control. The proposed model is employed for monitoring the condition of the elevator installation. The adopted model-based approach for monitoring employs the Kalman filter as an observer. A Kalman observer estimates the elevator car acceleration, which determines the elevator ride quality, based solely on the machine control signature and the encoder signal. Finally, five elevator key performance indicators are calculated based on the estimated car acceleration. The proposed procedure is experimentally evaluated, by comparing the key performance indicators calculated based on the estimated car acceleration and the values obtained from actual acceleration measurements in a test bench. Finally, the proposed procedure is compared with the sliding mode observer.

  12. Preoperative elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis in gynecologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menczer, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Platelets have multiple functions and they also play an important role in malignancies. Elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis at the time of diagnosis in patients with many solid tumors correlates with prognosis and is associated with poor survival. The aim of the following report is to review the literature concerning elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis in gynecologic malignancies. A PubMed search of all English literature peer-reviewed publications was performed containing the terms elevated platelet count or thrombocytosis and vulvar cancer, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer. All studies published until December 31, 2015, were included in the following review. A pretreatment elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis have been shown to be associated with a poor prognosis in many studies of gynecologic malignancies with the exception of vulvar carcinoma. Since elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis may be prevented by blocking thrombopoietic cytokines, their assessment may, in the future, be of therapeutic significance.

  13. Instent neointimal hyperplasia after percutaneous intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction and treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. Results from the stem cells in myocardial infarction (STEMMI) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized pluripotent cells from the bone marrow are proposed to have a regenerative potential. Though, a report of excessive instent restenosis, in patients treated with G-CSF before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) warrants caution....

  14. Stem cell mobilization induced by subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to improve cardiac regeneration after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: result of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled stem cells in myocardial infarction (STEMMI) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Jørgensen, Erik; Wang, Yongzhong;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phase 1 clinical trials of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment after myocardial infarction have indicated that G-CSF treatment is safe and may improve left ventricular function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial aimed to assess the efficacy...

  15. Instent neointimal hyperplasia after percutaneous intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction and treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. Results from the stem cells in myocardial infarction (STEMMI) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Baldazzi, Federica; Ripa, Rasmus S

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized pluripotent cells from the bone marrow are proposed to have a regenerative potential. Though, a report of excessive instent restenosis, in patients treated with G-CSF before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) warrants caution....

  16. What is the impact of obtaining medical clearance to participate in a randomised controlled trial examining a physical activity intervention on the socio-demographic and risk factor profiles of included participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Rebar, Amanda L; Maeder, Anthony J; Tague, Rhys; Savage, Trevor N; van Itallie, Anetta; Mummery, W Kerry; Kolt, Gregory S

    2016-12-07

    Requiring individuals to obtain medical clearance to exercise prior to participation in physical activity interventions is common. The impact this has on the socio-demographic characteristic profiles of participants who end up participating in the intervention is not clear. As part of the multi-component eligibility screening for inclusion in a three-arm randomised controlled trial examining the efficacy of a web-based physical activity intervention, individuals interested in participating were required to complete the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). The PAR-Q identified individuals as having lower or higher risk. Higher-risk individuals were required to obtain medical exercise clearance prior to enrolment. Comparisons of the socio-demographic characteristics of the lower- and higher-risk individuals were performed using t tests and chi-square tests (p = 0.05). A total of 1244 individuals expressed interest in participating, and 432 were enrolled without needing to undergo further screening. Of the 251 individuals required to obtain medical clearance, 148 received clearance, 15 did not receive clearance and 88 did not return any form of clearance. A total of 105 individuals were enrolled after obtaining clearance, and the most frequent reason for being required to seek clearance was for using blood pressure/heart condition medication. Higher-risk individuals were significantly older, had a higher body mass index and engaged in more sedentary behaviour than lower-risk individuals. Use of more inclusive participant screening protocols that maintain high levels of participant safety are encouraged. Allowing individuals to obtain medical clearance to participate can result in including a more diverse population likely to benefit most from participation. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12611000157976 ). Registered on 9 February 2011.

  17. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  18. Dannelsen af den ansvarlige elev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Denne artikel handler om den del af lærergerningen, der har at gøre med udarbejdelse af elevplaner. Der tages udgangspunkt i en foucaultsk forståelse, hvor beskrivelsen af den enkelte elev udtrykker et særligt normativt ideal om, hvilke former for elevhed der er de ønskværdige i den danske...

  19. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    2011-01-01

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  20. Studieintro: fra elev til studerende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Dette kompendium indeholder materiale til kurset Studieintro: fra elev til studerende. Kurset er obligatorisk for studerende på Grunduddannelsens første år (GR1), og indgår i studieelementet Designteori og –metode. Ud over almen orientering om kurset (her nedenfor) kan I finde omtale af de...

  1. Studieintro: fra elev til studerende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2010-01-01

    Dette kompendium indeholder materiale til kurset Studieintro: fra elev til studerende. Kurset er obligatorisk for studerende på Grunduddannelsens første år (GR1), og indgår i studieelementet Designteori og –metode. Ud over almen orientering om kurset (her nedenfor) kan I finde omtale af de...

  2. J point elevation as a predictor of premature ventricular beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoshvili, Z; Petriashvili, Sh; Archvadze, A; Azaladze, I

    2014-01-01

    Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is a common ECG variant, characterized by J point elevation manifested either as terminal QRS slurring (the transition from the QRS segment to the ST segment) or notching (a positive deflection inscribed on terminal QRS complex) associated with concave upward ST-segment elevation and prominent T waves in at least two contiguous leads. 36 patients were included in this observation. There are 36 patients (19-68 years old) with early repolarization ECG patterns. All this 36 patients were divided into two groups according to their level of J point elevation. First group consisted of 12 patients with J point elevation ≥0,15 mV; second group - of 24 patients with J point elevation premature ventricular beat during 24 h. Before and during this monitoring patients don't take any antyarrhythmic drugs. In the first group (J point elevation ≥0,15 mV) sum of premature ventricular beats were 27432, in the second group (J point elevation premature ventricular beats were 31 896. The results of this observational study shows that there is 1,72 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in first group. So, J point elevation equal or more then 0,15 mV, is more arrhythmogenic and induces premature ventricular beats. This is principally new and very important result.

  3. Experimental prototype of an electric elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiceanu, M.; Epure, S.; Ciuta, S.

    2016-08-01

    The main objective is to achieve an elevator prototype powered by a three-phase voltage system via a bidirectional static power converter ac-ac with regenerating capability. In order to diminish the power size of the electric motor up to 1/3 of rated power, the elevator contains two carriages of the same weight, one serving as the payload, and the other as counterweight. Before proper operation of the static power converter, the capacitor must be charged at rated voltage via a precharge circuit. At the moment of stabilizing the DC voltage at nominal value, the AC-AC power converter can operates in the proper limits. The functions of the control structure are: the load control task, speed and torque controls. System includes transducers for current measuring, voltage sensors and encoder. As reserve power sources the hybrid battery-photovoltaic panels are used. The control voltage is modulated by implementing four types of pulse width modulations: sinusoidal, with reduced commutation, third order harmonic insertion, and the space vector modulation. Therefore, the prototype could operates with an increased efficiency, in spite of the existing ones. The experimental results confirm the well design of the chosen solution. The control solution assures bidirectional power flow control, precharge control, and load control and it is implemented on a digital signal processor. The elevator capacity is between 300-450 kg, and it is driven by using a 1.5 kW three-phase asynchronous machine.

  4. Elevated ozone alters soybean-virus interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Damla D; Aldea, Mihai; O'Neill, Bridget F; Benitez, Marisol; Li, Min; Clough, Steven J; DeLucia, Evan H

    2008-10-01

    Increasing concentrations of ozone (O(3)) in the troposphere affect many organisms and their interactions with each other. To analyze the changes in a plant-pathogen interaction, soybean plants were infected with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) while they were fumigated with O(3). In otherwise natural field conditions, elevated O(3) treatment slowed systemic infection and disease development by inducing a nonspecific resistance against SMV for a period of 3 weeks. During this period, the negative effect of virus infection on light-saturated carbon assimilation rate was prevented by elevated O(3) exposure. To identify the molecular basis of a soybean nonspecific defense response, high-throughput gene expression analysis was performed in a controlled environment. Transcripts of fungal, bacterial, and viral defense-related genes, including PR-1, PR-5, PR-10, and EDS1, as well as genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathways (and concentrations of their end products, quercetin and kaempherol derivatives) increased in response to elevated O(3). The drastic changes in soybean basal defense response under altered atmospheric conditions suggest that one of the elements of global change may alter the ecological consequences and, eventually, coevolutionary relationship of plant-pathogen interactions in the future.

  5. Nerve growth factor treatment of sensory neuron primary cultures causes elevated levels of the mRNA encoding the ATP synthase beta-subunit as detected by a novel PCR-based differential cloning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, G; Ensor, E; Crankson, H D; Latchman, D S

    1996-03-01

    The mRNA encoding the rat ATP synthase beta-subunit was rapidly induced by nerve growth factor, within 60 min, in cultured adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. ATP synthase beta-subunit cDNA clones were isolated from a lambda library. The library was constructed using rat dorsal root ganglion mRNA that was differentially screened with cDNA-derived probes from untreated and nerve-growth-factor-treated primary cultures of adult rat dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. Radiolabelled probes were made from submicrogram quantities of RNA, by a novel PCR-based technique, which allows small amounts of primary tissue to be used for library screening. The use of this technique in isolating novel differentially expressed mRNAs is discussed.

  6. What's in an elevation difference? Accuracy and corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantification of glacier changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nuth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing number of DEMs available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes impossible and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: remove DEM shifts, check for elevation-dependent biases, and check for higher-order, sensor-specific biases. An analytic, simple and robust method to co-register elevation data is presented in regions where stable terrain is either plentiful (case study New Zealand or limited (case study Svalbard. The method is exemplified using the three global elevation data sets available, SRTM, ICESat and the ASTER GDEM, and with automatically generated DEMs from satellite stereo instruments of ASTER and SPOT5-HRS. After three-dimensional co-registration, significant biases related to elevation were found in some of the stereoscopic DEMs. Biases related to the satellite acquisition geometry (along/cross track were detected at two frequencies in the automatically generated ASTER DEMs. The higher frequency bias seems to be related to satellite emph{jitter}, most effective in the back-looking pass of the satellite. The origins of the more significant lower frequency bias is uncertain. ICESat-derived elevations are found to be the most consistent globally available elevation data set available so far. Before performing regional-scale glacier elevation change studies or mosaicking DEMs from multiple individual tiles (e.g. ASTER GDEM, we recommend to co-register all elevation data to ICESat as a global vertical reference system. The proposed methodological framework is exemplified for elevation changes on the Fox, Franz Joseph, Tasman and Murchison glaciers of New Zealand and the glaciers of central Spitsbergen, Svalbard.

  7. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor is elevated in alveolar macrophages from sheep naturally infected with maedi-visna virus and stimulates maedi-visna virus replication in macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Harkiss, G D; Hopkins, J; Woodall, C J

    2002-08-01

    Infection by maedi-visna virus, a lentivirus of sheep, leads to chronic inflammatory reactions of various tissues. In this report we have analysed the role of specific cytokines in the disease process. A significant increase in expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA was observed in alveolar macrophages isolated from the lungs of naturally infected animals when compared with lungs of seronegative controls. Levels of GM-CSF mRNA expression in alveolar macrophages correlated with the presence of lung lesions, but there was no correlation of interleukin-10, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA levels in alveolar macrophages from animals with pulmonary lesions. In vitro investigation showed that GM-CSF in the range 0.1-10 ng/ml induced a significant increase in viral p25 production after 7 days in acutely infected blood monocyte-derived macrophages. The production of p25 peaked between 7 and 14 days exposure to 10 ng/ml of GM-CSF. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the level of viral DNA in monocyte-derived macrophages was dose-dependent following GM-CSF treatment in the range 0.1-100 ng/ml after 7 days. Viral mRNA expression was also enhanced. These findings indicate a role for GM-CSF in the pathogenesis of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia in infected animals.

  8. A review of major storm impacts on coastal wetland elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Storms have long been recognized as agents of geomorphic change to coastal wetlands. A review of recent data on soil elevation dynamics before and after storms revealed that storms affected wetland elevations by storm surge, high winds, and freshwater flushing of the estuary (inferred). The data also indicate that measures of sediment deposition and erosion can often misrepresent the amount and even direction of elevation change because of storm influences on subsurface processes. Simultaneous influence on both surface and subsurface processes by storms means that soil elevation cannot always be accurately estimated from surface process data alone. Eight processes are identified as potentiatly influencing soil elevation: sediment deposition, sediment erosion, sediment compaction, soil shrinkage, root decomposition (following tree mortality from high winds), root growth (following flushing with freshwater, inferred), soil swelling, and lateral folding of the marsh root mat. Local wetland conditions (e.g., marsh health, tide height, groundwater level) and the physical characteristics of the storm (e.g., angle of approach, proximity, amount of rain, wind speed, and storm surge height) were apparently important factors determining the storm's effect on soil elevation. Storm effects on elevation were both permanent (on an ecological time scale) and short-lived, but even short-term changes have potentially important ecological consequences. Shallow soil subsidence or expansion caused by a storm must be considered when calculating local rates of relative sea level rise and evaluating storm effects on wetland stability.

  9. Flight performance and competitive displacement of hummingbirds across elevational gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L

    2006-02-01

    Hummingbirds, with their impressive flight ability and competitive aerial contests, make ideal candidates for applying a mechanistic approach to studying community structure. Because flight costs are influenced by abiotic factors that change systematically with altitude, elevational gradients provide natural experiments for hummingbird flight ecology. Prior attempts relied on wing disc loading (WDL) as a morphological surrogate for flight performance, but recent analyses indicate this variable does not influence either territorial behavior or competitive ability. Aerodynamic power, by contrast, can be derived from direct measurements of performance and, like WDL, declines across elevations. Here, I demonstrate for a diverse community of Andean hummingbirds that burst aerodynamic power is associated with territorial behavior. Along a second elevational gradient in Colorado, I tested for correlated changes in aerodynamic power and competitive ability in two territorial hummingbirds. This behavioral analysis revealed that short-winged Selasphorus rufus males are dominant over long-winged Selasphorus platycercus males at low elevations but that the roles are reversed at higher elevations. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the burst rather than sustained aerodynamic performance mediates competitive ability at high elevation. A minimum value for burst power may be required for successful competition, but other maneuverability features gain importance when all competitors have sufficient muscle power, as occurs at low elevations.

  10. Elevated Aurora B expression contributes to chemoresistance and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqian; Jiang, Chunling; Li, Huilan; Lv, Feng; Li, Xiaoyan; Qian, Xiaolong; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo; Guo, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Aurora-B is a major kinase responsible for appropriate mitotic progression. Elevated expression of Aurora-B has been frequently associated with several types of cancer, including breast cancer. However, it is not clear whether the alteration contributes to tumor responses to therapies and prognosis. In this study, we conducted immunohistochemistry using antibodies against Aurora-B, S1981p-ATM, Ki67, and p53 in paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 312 invasive breast cancer patients. The correlation between disease-free-survival (DFS) and Aurora-B expression was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine whether Aurora-B was an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer. We found that Aurora-B expression was correlated with the proliferation index (P breast cancer tissues. Further we found that Aurora-B expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) and histological grade (P = 0.001). Multivariate analyses indicated that elevated Aurora-B expression predicted a poor survival. In a subgroup of patients that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we found that elevated Aurora-B contributed to chemoresistance (P = 0.011). In conclusion, elevated Aurora-B expression in breast cancer patients contributes to chemoresistance and predicts poor prognosis.

  11. Sensitive indicators of Stipa bungeana response to precipitation under ambient and elevated CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaohui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Jiang, Yanling; Wang, Hui; Xu, Zhenzhu

    2017-09-01

    Precipitation is a primary environmental factor in the semiarid grasslands of northern China. With increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases, precipitation regimes will change, and high-impact weather events may be more common. Currently, many ecophysiological indicators are known to reflect drought conditions, but these indicators vary greatly among species, and few studies focus on the applicability of these drought indicators under high CO2 conditions. In this study, five precipitation levels (- 30%, - 15%, control, + 15%, and + 30%) were used to simulate the effects of precipitation change on 18 ecophysiological characteristics in Stipa bungeana, including leaf area, plant height, leaf nitrogen (N), and chlorophyll content, among others. Two levels of CO2 concentration (ambient, 390 ppm; 550 ppm) were used to simulate the effects of elevated CO2 on these drought indicators. Using gray relational analysis and phenotypic plasticity analysis, we found that total leaf area or leaf number (morphology), leaf water potential or leaf water content (physiology), and aboveground biomass better reflected the water status of S. bungeana under ambient and elevated CO2 than the 13 other analyzed variables. The sensitivity of drought indicators changed under the elevated CO2 condition. By quantifying the relationship between precipitation and the five most sensitive indicators, we found that the thresholds of precipitation decreased under elevated CO2 concentration. These results will be useful for objective monitoring and assessment of the occurrence and development of drought events in S. bungeana grasslands.

  12. Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanohashi, Asako; Prust, Morgan; Wang, Jichuan; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Bloom, Miriam; Rice, Gillian I.; Schmidt, Johanna L.; Crow, Yanick J.; Lebon, Pierre; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study explores a large panel of cytokines in plasma and CSF of patients with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) at different ages, in order to establish signatures of cytokines most predictive of AGS. Methods: Plasma from 22 subjects with known mutations were assayed for cytokines using the Milliplex MAP Immunobead system, and compared to results from 8 age-matched normal controls. CSF of 11 additional patients with mutation-proven AGS was tested in an identical manner and compared to results from age-matched controls. Samples were banked and analysis was carried out retrospectively. Results: Significant elevations were seen in FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, IP-10, interleukin (IL)–12p40, IL-15, tumor necrosis factor α, and soluble IL 2 receptor α in both AGS patient plasma and CSF relative to controls. Additionally, this cytokine signature was able to correctly cluster 9 of 11 AGS cases based on CSF values. While most cytokines decreased exponentially with age, a subgroup including IP-10 demonstrated persistent elevation beyond early childhood. Conclusion: Patients with AGS exhibit plasma and CSF elevations of proinflammatory cytokines. Selected cytokines remain persistently elevated beyond the initial disease phase. This panel of proinflammatory cytokines may be considered for use as diagnostic and therapeutic markers of disease, and may permit improved understanding of disease pathogenesis. PMID:23408864

  13. The National Map seamless digital elevation model specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Constance, Eric W.; Arundel, Samantha T.; Lowe, Amanda J.; Mantey, Kimberly S.; Phillips, Lori A.

    2017-08-02

    This specification documents the requirements and standards used to produce the seamless elevation layers for The National Map of the United States. Seamless elevation data are available for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Alaska, and the U.S. territories, in three different resolutions—1/3-arc-second, 1-arc-second, and 2-arc-second. These specifications include requirements and standards information about source data requirements, spatial reference system, distribution tiling schemes, horizontal resolution, vertical accuracy, digital elevation model surface treatment, georeferencing, data source and tile dates, distribution and supporting file formats, void areas, metadata, spatial metadata, and quality assurance and control.

  14. Clinical considerations in the interpretation of elevated troponin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rujic, Dragana; Pareek, Manan; Egholm, Gro

    2015-01-01

    The essential role of cardiac troponin (cTn) in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction has led to the development of high-sensitivity assays, which are able to detect very small amounts of myocardial necrosis. However, although elevated blood levels of cTn indicate myocardial injury, they do...... not provide a causal explanation. The differential diagnosis of minor elevations of the cTn-level is broad and includes both acute and chronic cardiac and non-cardiac conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review common causes of elevated cTn-levels in daily clinical practice....

  15. Differential Abundance of Microbial Functional Groups along the Elevation Gradient from the Coast to the Luquillo Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial communities respond to multiple abiotic and biotic factors that change along elevation gradients. We compare changes in microbial community composition in soil and review previous research on differential abundance of microbial functional groups along an elevation gradi...

  16. Why does Rhinopithecus bieti prefer the highest elevation range in winter? A test of the sunshine hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Chang Quan

    Full Text Available Environmental factors that affect spatiotemporal distribution patterns of animals usually include resource availability, temperature, and the risk of predation. However, they do not explain the counterintuitive preference of high elevation range in winter by the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti. We asked whether variation of sunshine along with elevations is the key driving force. To test this hypothesis, we conducted field surveys to demonstrate that there was a statistically significant pattern of high elevation use during winter. We then asked whether this pattern can be explained by certain environmental factors, namely temperature, sunshine duration and solar radiation. Finally, we concluded with a possible ecological mechanism for this pattern. In this study, we employed GIS technology to quantify solar radiation and sunshine duration across the monkey's range. Our results showed that: 1 R. bieti used the high altitude range between 4100-4400 m in winter although the yearly home range spanned from 3500-4500 m; 2 both solar radiation and sunshine duration increased with elevation while temperature decreased with elevation; 3 within the winter range, the use of range was significantly correlated with solar radiation and sunshine duration; 4 monkeys moved to the areas with high solar radiation and duration following a snowfall, where the snow melts faster and food is exposed earlier. We concluded that sunshine was the main factor that influences selection of high elevation habitat for R. bieti in winter. Since some other endotherms in the area exhibit similar winter distributional patterns, we developed a sunshine hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. In addition, our work also represented a new method of integrating GIS models into traditional field ecology research to study spatiotemporal distribution pattern of wildlife. We suggest that further theoretical and empirical studies are necessary for better understanding

  17. [Surgical dilemmas. Sinus floor elevation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Bruggenkate, C M; Schulten, E A J M; Zijderveld, S A

    2008-12-01

    Limited alveolar bone height prevents the placement of dental implants. Sinus floor elevation is an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus that allows implants to be placed. The principle of this surgical procedure is the preparation of a 'top hinge door', that is raised together with the Schneiderian membrane in the cranial direction. The space which created under this lid is filled with a bone transplant. Autogenous bone is the standard transplant material, despite the fact that a second surgery site is necessary. Under certain circumstances bone substitutes can be used, with a longer healing phase. If sufficient alveolar bone height is available to secure implant stability, simultaneous implantation and sinus floor elevation are possible. Considering the significant anatomical variation in the region of the maxillary sinus, a sound knowledge of the anatomy is of great importance.

  18. Determinantes prognósticos em pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda sem elevação do segmento ST Prognostic factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Carolina Matos D'Almeida Santos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Em pacientes com Síndromes Coronarianas Agudas (SCA sem Supradesnivelamento do Segmento ST (SST, sugere-se que uma série de marcadores (células inflamatórias, hiperglicemia e função renal é capaz de identificar indivíduos com maior risco para eventos cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto desses parâmetros laboratoriais em desfechos intra-hospitalares de pacientes com SCA sem SST. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados prospectivamente 195 pacientes admitidos consecutivamente com SCA sem SST. Foram registrados dados clínicos, demográficos e laboratoriais ao longo do período de internação no hospital, em relação à ocorrência ou não de eventos combinados. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 67 ± 12 anos, e 52% eram homens. Na análise da área sob a curva ROC, somente a razão neutrófilo/linfócito (AUC: 70%, IC95%: 56%-82%, p = 0,006 e a creatinina (AUC: 62%, IC95%: 50%-80%, p = 0,03 discriminaram aqueles pacientes com SCA sem SST que apresentaram algum desfecho. Os pacientes que sofreram algum evento adverso durante a internação apresentaram menores contagens de linfócitos (1502 ± 731 / mm³ vs. 2020 ± 862 / mm³; p = 0,002, menores taxas de filtração glomerular (51 ± 27 mL/min vs. 77±34 mL/min; p BACKGROUND: In patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS without ST segment elevation (SSE, it is suggested that a series of markers (inflammatory cells, hyperglycemia and renal function can identify individuals with increased risk for cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of these laboratory parameters on intra-hospital outcomes of patients with ACS with no SSE. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 195 patients consecutively admitted with ACS with no SSE. Demographic and clinical laboratory data were recorded during the course of the hospitalization period in relation to the occurrence of combined events. RESULTS: Mean age was 67 ± 12 years, and 52% were men. In analyzing the area under the ROC

  19. Crowdsourced Contributions to the Nation's Geodetic Elevation Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS), a United States Department of Commerce agency, is engaged in providing the nation's fundamental positioning infrastructure - the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) - which includes the framework for latitude, longitude, and elevation determination as well as various geodetic models, tools, and data. Capitalizing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology for improved access to the nation's precise geodetic elevation infrastructure requires use of a geoid model, which relates GNSS-derived heights (ellipsoid heights) with traditional elevations (orthometric heights). NGS is facilitating the use of crowdsourced GNSS observations collected at published elevation control stations by the professional surveying, geospatial, and scientific communities to help improve NGS' geoid modeling capability. This collocation of published elevation data and newly collected GNSS data integrates together the two height systems. This effort in turn supports enhanced access to accurate elevation information across the nation, thereby benefiting all users of geospatial data. By partnering with the public in this collaborative effort, NGS is not only helping facilitate improvements to the elevation infrastructure for all users but also empowering users of NSRS with the capability to do their own high-accuracy positioning. The educational outreach facet of this effort helps inform the public, including the scientific community, about the utility of various NGS tools, including the widely used Online Positioning User Service (OPUS). OPUS plays a key role in providing user-friendly and high accuracy access to NSRS, with optional sharing of results with NGS and the public. All who are interested in helping evolve and improve the nationwide elevation determination capability are invited to participate in this nationwide partnership and to learn more about the geodetic infrastructure which is a vital component of viable spatial data for

  20. Elevator deflections on the icing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  1. Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential to all cells in the body. Both high levels and low levels of vitamin B12 are significant. High serum cobalamin (vitamin B12 levels are found particularly in hematological disorders, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases and infectious diseases; and this elevation is associated with prognosis in some of these diseases. High levels of serum vitamin B12 should be taken into consideration and more studies should be performed on this issue.

  2. Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max).......To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max)....

  3. 29 CFR 780.710 - A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A country elevator may sell products and services to... Elevator § 780.710 A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers. Section 13(b)(14... the exemption, includes “such an establishment which sells products and services used in the...

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on growth and N2 fixation of a legume subshrub (Caragana microphylla Lam. in temperate grassland in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available It is well demonstrated that the responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO(2 concentration are species-specific and dependent on environmental conditions. We investigated the responses of a subshrub legume species, Caragana microphylla Lam., to elevated CO(2 and nitrogen (N addition using open-top chambers in a semiarid temperate grassland in northern China for three years. Measured variables include leaf photosynthetic rate, shoot biomass, root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity, and leaf N content. Symbiotic nitrogenase activity was determined by the C(2H(2 reduction method. Elevated CO(2 enhanced photosynthesis and shoot biomass by 83% and 25%, respectively, and the enhancement of shoot biomass was significant only at a high N concentration. In addition, the photosynthetic capacity of C. microphylla did not show down-regulation under elevated CO(2. Elevated CO(2 had no significant effect on root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity and leaf N content. Under elevated CO(2, N addition stimulated photosynthesis and shoot biomass. By contrast, N addition strongly inhibited symbiotic nitrogenase activity and slightly increased leaf N content of C. microphylla under both CO(2 levels, and had no significant effect on root biomass. The effect of elevated CO(2 and N addition on C. microphylla did not show interannual variation, except for the effect of N addition on leaf N content. These results indicate that shoot growth of C. microphylla is more sensitive to elevated CO(2 than is root growth. The stimulation of shoot growth of C. microphylla under elevated CO(2 or N addition is not associated with changes in N(2-fixation. Additionally, elevated CO(2 and N addition interacted to affect shoot growth of C. microphylla with a stimulatory effect occurring only under combination of these two factors.

  5. Effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on growth and N2 fixation of a legume subshrub (Caragana microphylla Lam.) in temperate grassland in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Wu, Dongxiu; Shi, Huiqiu; Zhang, Canjuan; Zhan, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Shuangxi

    2011-01-01

    It is well demonstrated that the responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration are species-specific and dependent on environmental conditions. We investigated the responses of a subshrub legume species, Caragana microphylla Lam., to elevated CO(2) and nitrogen (N) addition using open-top chambers in a semiarid temperate grassland in northern China for three years. Measured variables include leaf photosynthetic rate, shoot biomass, root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity, and leaf N content. Symbiotic nitrogenase activity was determined by the C(2)H(2) reduction method. Elevated CO(2) enhanced photosynthesis and shoot biomass by 83% and 25%, respectively, and the enhancement of shoot biomass was significant only at a high N concentration. In addition, the photosynthetic capacity of C. microphylla did not show down-regulation under elevated CO(2). Elevated CO(2) had no significant effect on root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity and leaf N content. Under elevated CO(2), N addition stimulated photosynthesis and shoot biomass. By contrast, N addition strongly inhibited symbiotic nitrogenase activity and slightly increased leaf N content of C. microphylla under both CO(2) levels, and had no significant effect on root biomass. The effect of elevated CO(2) and N addition on C. microphylla did not show interannual variation, except for the effect of N addition on leaf N content. These results indicate that shoot growth of C. microphylla is more sensitive to elevated CO(2) than is root growth. The stimulation of shoot growth of C. microphylla under elevated CO(2) or N addition is not associated with changes in N(2)-fixation. Additionally, elevated CO(2) and N addition interacted to affect shoot growth of C. microphylla with a stimulatory effect occurring only under combination of these two factors.

  6. Plant invasion and speciation along elevational gradients on the oceanic island La Palma, Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbauer, Manuel; Irl, Severin David Howard; González-Mancebo, Juana Maria

    2017-01-01

    systematically along three elevational gradients covering large parts of the climatic range of La Palma, Canary Islands. Results: Species richness was negatively correlated with elevation, while the percentage of Canary endemic species showed a positive relationship. However, the percentage of Canary-Madeira...... from high elevations indicating directional ecological filtering. Increasing ecological isolation with elevation drives diversification and thus increased percentages of Canary endemics. The best preserved eastern transect, including mature laurel forests is an exception. The high percentage of Canary-Madeira...

  7. Evaluation of airborne lidar elevation surfaces for propagation of coastal inundation: the importance of hydrologic connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Sandra; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed information about coastal inundation is vital to understanding dynamic and populated areas that are impacted by storm surge and flooding. To understand these natural hazard risks, lidar elevation surfaces are frequently used to model inundation in coastal areas. A single-value surface method is sometimes used to inundate areas in lidar elevation surfaces that are below a specified elevation value. However, such an approach does not take into consideration hydrologic connectivity between elevation grids cells resulting in inland areas that should be hydrologically connected to the ocean, but are not. Because inland areas that should drain to the ocean are hydrologically disconnected by raised features in a lidar elevation surface, simply raising the water level to propagate coastal inundation will lead to inundation uncertainties. We took advantage of this problem to identify hydrologically disconnected inland areas to point out that they should be considered for coastal inundation, and that a lidar-based hydrologic surface should be developed with hydrologic connectivity prior to inundation analysis. The process of achieving hydrologic connectivity with hydrologic-enforcement is not new, however, the application of hydrologically-enforced lidar elevation surfaces for improved coastal inundation mapping as approached in this research is innovative. In this article, we propagated a high-resolution lidar elevation surface in coastal Staten Island, New York to demonstrate that inland areas lacking hydrologic connectivity to the ocean could potentially be included in inundation delineations. For inland areas that were hydrologically disconnected, we evaluated if drainage to the ocean was evident, and calculated an area exceeding 11 ha (~0.11 km2) that could be considered in inundation delineations. We also assessed land cover for each inland area to determine the type of physical surfaces that would be potentially impacted if the inland areas were considered as

  8. Evaluation of Airborne Lidar Elevation Surfaces for Propagation of Coastal Inundation: The Importance of Hydrologic Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Poppenga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information about coastal inundation is vital to understanding dynamic and populated areas that are impacted by storm surge and flooding. To understand these natural hazard risks, lidar elevation surfaces are frequently used to model inundation in coastal areas. A single-value surface method is sometimes used to inundate areas in lidar elevation surfaces that are below a specified elevation value. However, such an approach does not take into consideration hydrologic connectivity between elevation grids cells resulting in inland areas that should be hydrologically connected to the ocean, but are not. Because inland areas that should drain to the ocean are hydrologically disconnected by raised features in a lidar elevation surface, simply raising the water level to propagate coastal inundation will lead to inundation uncertainties. We took advantage of this problem to identify hydrologically disconnected inland areas to point out that they should be considered for coastal inundation, and that a lidar-based hydrologic surface should be developed with hydrologic connectivity prior to inundation analysis. The process of achieving hydrologic connectivity with hydrologic-enforcement is not new, however, the application of hydrologically-enforced lidar elevation surfaces for improved coastal inundation mapping as approached in this research is innovative. In this article, we propagated a high-resolution lidar elevation surface in coastal Staten Island, New York to demonstrate that inland areas lacking hydrologic connectivity to the ocean could potentially be included in inundation delineations. For inland areas that were hydrologically disconnected, we evaluated if drainage to the ocean was evident, and calculated an area exceeding 11 ha (~0.11 km2 that could be considered in inundation delineations. We also assessed land cover for each inland area to determine the type of physical surfaces that would be potentially impacted if the inland areas

  9. Analysis of the Causes of Elevated C-Reactive Protein Level in the Early Postoperative Period After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Dong Hwan; Oh, Won Seuk; Sim, Jae Ang; Lee, Yong Seuk; Lee, Beom Koo

    2016-09-01

    Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as a screening test for acute periprosthetic joint infection has high sensitivity and low specificity. We performed the present study to analyze the causes of elevated CRP levels in the early postoperative period after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study is intended to help the postoperative care of patients through understanding the factors associated with postoperative elevation of CRP. The records for 627 patients who underwent primary TKA between January 2005 and May 2013 were examined. We excluded 50 patients for whom TKA with inflammatory arthritis or revision TKA was performed. We measured serial CRP levels during the 4-week early postoperative period in all included cases to find the cases that showed a CRP pattern of elevation-depression-elevation (a bimodal pattern). We analyzed the causes of re-elevated CRP levels in patients with a bimodal pattern of CRP change. Of the 577 included patients, 76 showed bimodal CRP elevation patterns. Eighteen elevations were caused by postoperative infections (periprosthetic infection), 10 by cardiovascular problems, 11 by gastrointestinal problems, 12 by urologic problems, 10 by respiratory problems, and 15 had unknown origins. Our study shows that elevated CRP levels after TKA can have various causes. Although there may be other causes for an elevated CRP, it is essential to perform a work-up for prosthetic joint infections. In addition, there seems to be a need to evaluate noninfectious causes and infection of other sites, in addition to periprosthetic infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aeshnid dragonfly larvae as bioindicators of methylmercury contamination in aquatic systems impacted by elevated sulfate loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiason, Jeffrey D.; Reiser, T. K.; Weitz, R. A.; Berndt, M.E.; Aiken, George R.

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) levels in dragonfly larvae and water were measured over two years in aquatic systems impacted to varying degrees by sulfate releases related to iron mining activity. This study examined the impact of elevated sulfate loads on MeHg concentrations and tested the use of MeHg in dragonfly larvae as an indicator of MeHg levels in a range of aquatic systems including 16 river/stream sites and two lakes. MeHg concentrations in aeshnid dragonfly larvae were positively correlated (R2 = 0.46, p  0.05). MeHg in dragonfly larvae were not elevated at the highest sulfate sites, but rather the reverse was generally observed. Record rainfall events in 2012 and above average rainfall in 2013 likely delivered the majority of Hg and MeHg to these systems via interflow and activated groundwater flow through reduced sediments. As a result, the impacts of elevated sulfate releases due to mining activities were not apparent in these systems where little of the sulfate is reduced. Lower bioaccumulation factors for MeHg in aeshnid dragonfly larvae were observed with increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. This finding is consistent with previous studies showing that MeHg in high DOC systems is less bioavailable; an equilibrium model shows that more MeHg being associated with DOC rather than algae at the base of the food chain readily explains the lower bioaccumulation factors.

  11. Potential effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere has steadily increased from 280 parts per million (ppm) in preindustrial times to 381 ppm today and is predicted by some models to double within the next century. Some of the important pathways whereby changes in atmospheric CO2 may impact coastal wetlands include changes in temperature, rainfall, and hurricane intensity (fig. 1). Increases in CO2 can contribute to global warming, which may (1) accelerate sea-level rise through melting of polar ice fields and steric expansion of oceans, (2) alter rainfall patterns and salinity regimes, and (3) change the intensity and frequency of tropical storms and hurricanes. Sea-level rise combined with changes in storm activity may affect erosion and sedimentation rates and patterns in coastal wetlands and maintenance of soil elevations.Feedback loops between plant growth and hydroedaphic conditions also contribute to maintenance of marsh elevations through accumulation of organic matter. Although increasing CO2 concentration may contribute to global warming and climate changes, it may also have a direct impact on plant growth and development by stimulating photosynthesis or improving water use efficiency. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey are examining responses of wetland plants to elevated CO2 concentration and other factors. This research will lead to a better understanding of future changes in marsh species composition, successional rates and patterns, ecological functioning, and vulnerability to sea-level rise and other global change factors.

  12. The role of lidocaine, epinephrine, and flap elevation in wound healing after chemical peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, B; Guyuron, B; Husami, T

    1991-03-01

    We have observed 5 patients with hypertrophic scarring at the lateral boundaries of the chemically peeled area when circumoral peel was combined with facial rhytidectomy. Some of the potential contributory factors include flap elevation, epinephrine, and lidocaine hydrochloride. To discover whether any one of these three factors or a combination played a role, a rat model study was designed. Initially, 40, 400-gm Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups, each comprised by 10 rats. Injections with lidocaine or lidocaine with epinephrine, and chemical peel were done in 2 groups. The same injections were used in the remaining 2 groups together with simultaneous preliminary flap elevations and chemical peeling. After the review of the initial study results, another 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were used to repeat the study and compare on a larger scale the effects of lidocaine with and without epinephrine on the depth of chemical peel. The findings of the rat model studies indicate that preliminary injections with lidocaine containing solution (with or without epinephrine) result in a major delay in healing time. Flap elevation and chemical peeling were associated with major morbidity and mortality in the test rats. The presence of epinephrine in lidocaine solution had no significant role in increasing the delay in the healing process.

  13. Aeshnid dragonfly larvae as bioindicators of methylmercury contamination in aquatic systems impacted by elevated sulfate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiason, J D; Reiser, T K; Weitz, R A; Berndt, M E; Aiken, G R

    2016-04-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) levels in dragonfly larvae and water were measured over two years in aquatic systems impacted to varying degrees by sulfate releases related to iron mining activity. This study examined the impact of elevated sulfate loads on MeHg concentrations and tested the use of MeHg in dragonfly larvae as an indicator of MeHg levels in a range of aquatic systems including 16 river/stream sites and two lakes. MeHg concentrations in aeshnid dragonfly larvae were positively correlated (R(2) = 0.46, p 0.05). MeHg in dragonfly larvae were not elevated at the highest sulfate sites, but rather the reverse was generally observed. Record rainfall events in 2012 and above average rainfall in 2013 likely delivered the majority of Hg and MeHg to these systems via interflow and activated groundwater flow through reduced sediments. As a result, the impacts of elevated sulfate releases due to mining activities were not apparent in these systems where little of the sulfate is reduced. Lower bioaccumulation factors for MeHg in aeshnid dragonfly larvae were observed with increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. This finding is consistent with previous studies showing that MeHg in high DOC systems is less bioavailable; an equilibrium model shows that more MeHg being associated with DOC rather than algae at the base of the food chain readily explains the lower bioaccumulation factors.

  14. Oxidative stress and nephrolithiasis: a comparative pilot study evaluating the effect of pomegranate extract on stone risk factors and elevated oxidative stress levels of recurrent stone formers and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Chad R; Henning, Jonathan R; Newton, Mark R; Aviram, Michael; Bridget Zimmerman, M

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have linked oxidative stress and nephrolithiasis. Animal studies have demonstrated that pomegranate juice may play a role in preventing stone formation. We examined differences between recurrent stone formers (RSFs) and non-stone formers (NSFs) regarding oxidative stress and the effect of pomegranate administration on risk factors for nephrolithiasis. RSFs were recruited prospectively and matched to a group of NSFs. Subjects submitted urine and blood samples prior to and after receiving pomegranate polyphenol extract (1,000 mg) for 90 days. Serum and urine samples were analyzed for stone risk and oxidative stress. Thirty subjects completed the study. RSFs had significantly higher levels of oxidative stress at baseline as measured by urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (p 0.99), or by highly sensitive C-reactive protein (p > 0.99). Following pomegranate supplementation, there was a 10 % increase in PON1 activity in RSFs (p = 0.007), which correlated with a trend toward decreasing values of supersaturation of calcium oxalate (SSCaOx; p = 0.05). RSFs have markedly higher levels of oxidative stress than NSFs. While the ability to prevent stone formation through supplementation cannot be determined in this pilot study, supplementation with pomegranate extract does not increase the risk of stones and may confer some benefit in lowering SSCaOX in those patients with increased PON-1 levels following supplementation, confirming findings of previous animal models.

  15. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maciel Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During dengue virus (DV infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA, TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes.

  16. Adherence to Antihypertensive Therapy and Elevated Blood Pressure: Should We Consider the Use of Multiple Medications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedidja Hedna

    Full Text Available Although a majority of patients with hypertension require a multidrug therapy, this is rarely considered when measuring adherence from refill data. Moreover, investigating the association between refill non-adherence to antihypertensive therapy (AHT and elevated blood pressure (BP has been advocated.Identify factors associated with non-adherence to AHT, considering the multidrug therapy, and investigate the association between non-adherence to AHT and elevated BP.A retrospective cohort study including patients with hypertension, identified from a random sample of 5025 Swedish adults. Two measures of adherence were estimated by the proportion of days covered method (PDC≥80%: (1 Adherence to any antihypertensive medication and, (2 adherence to the full AHT regimen. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to investigate the association between sociodemographic factors (age, sex, education, income, clinical factors (user profile, number of antihypertensive medications, healthcare use, cardiovascular comorbidities and non-adherence. Moreover, the association between non-adherence (long-term and a month prior to BP measurement and elevated BP was investigated.Non-adherence to any antihypertensive medication was higher among persons < 65 years (Odds Ratio, OR 2.75 [95% CI, 1.18-6.43] and with the lowest income (OR 2.05 [95% CI, 1.01-4.16]. Non-adherence to the full AHT regimen was higher among new users (OR 2.04 [95% CI, 1.32-3.15], persons using specialized healthcare (OR 1.63, [95% CI, 1.14-2.32], and having multiple antihypertensive medications (OR 1.85 [95% CI, 1.25-2.75] and OR 5.22 [95% CI, 3.48-7.83], for 2 and ≥3 antihypertensive medications, respectively. Non-adherence to any antihypertensive medication a month prior to healthcare visit was associated with elevated BP.Sociodemographic factors were associated with non-adherence to any antihypertensive medication while clinical factors with non-adherence to the full AHT regimen. These

  17. Når elever producerer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Jesper; Hansen, Rune; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel præsenterer centrale resultater fra studiet Elevopgaver og elevproduktion i det 21. århundrede der blandt andet rummer den første større kvantitative undersøgelse af opgavedidaktik og elevers produktive arbejde i den danske grundskole. Studiet omfatter også en kvalitativ del, og i k...... for udvikling af en opgavedidaktik, som et betydningsfuldt didaktisk delaspekt, der især knytter sig til kategorier som elevaktivitet, fagligt indhold samt organisering og arbejdsmåde. Som et bidrag hertil gives i kapitlet et bud på en opgavedidaktisk model....

  18. Elevation gradient of soil bacterial communities in bamboo plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Te; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Elevation trends of macro organisms have long been well studied. However, whether microbes also exhibit such patterns of elevation change is unknown. Here, we investigated the changes in bamboo forest soil bacterial communities along six elevation gradients, from 600 to 1800 m a.s.l. in Mt. Da-an, a subtropical montane area in Nantou county at central Taiwan. Data from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that more than 70 % of the six communities contained Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria, although the relative abundance differed. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of the distribution of operational taxonomic units showed differences in bamboo soil bacterial communities across gradients. The bacterial communities at 1000 and 1200 m showed greater diversity than the communities at both lower (600 and 800 m) and higher (1400 and 1800 m) elevations. In contrast to the bacterial community trend, soil C and N and microbial biomass properties increased linearly with elevation. The bamboo soil bacterial community could interact with multiple factors such as soil organic matter content and temperature, for differences in composition and diversity with change in elevation.

  19. Review article: elevated troponin: diagnostic gold or fool's gold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atifur; Broadley, Simon A

    2014-04-01

    Troponin is a highly sensitive biomarker of myocardial injury and has been used extensively in everyday clinical practice in the community as well as in hospitals for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and for risk stratification of patients with acute coronary symptoms. Dynamic elevations in biomarkers (troponin) are considered fundamental to the diagnosis of AMI. Unfortunately, many clinical conditions can cause troponin elevation in the absence of myocardial ischaemia, and elevated levels sometimes pose a diagnostic dilemma. In some cases, inappropriate diagnosis of 'AMI' based primarily on a raised troponin can have a deleterious impact on an individual, including on driving, insurance and other medicolegal matters. An incorrect diagnosis of myocardial infarction can also lead to the oversight of serious life-threatening alternative causes of troponin elevation (e.g. pulmonary embolism). This article discusses the role of troponin in our everyday clinical practice in the ED.

  20. Laryngeal Elevation Velocity and Aspiration in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Yun; Wei, Na; Yang, Bo; Wang, Anxin; Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Liping; Ouyoung, Melody; Villegas, Brenda; Groher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aspiration after stroke has been associated with aspiration pneumonia, which contributes to increased mortality of stroke. Laryngeal elevation is a core mechanism for protection from aspiration. Few studies have explored the predictive value of laryngeal elevation velocity for aspiration after stroke. This study aimed to explore the ability of laryngeal elevation velocity to predict aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods This was a prospective cohort study that included consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated at a teaching hospital during a 10-month period. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Patients who were at risk of aspiration and could swallow 5 ml of diluted barium (40%, w/v) for a videofluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) study were included. The association between abnormal indices in the oral and pharyngeal phase of the VFS study and aspiration was examined using univariate analyses. These indices included the lip closure, tongue movement and control, laryngeal elevation velocity and range, the latency of pharyngeal swallowing, pharyngeal transit time (PTT), abnormal epiglottis tilt, residual barium in the pharynx, and the duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. The laryngeal elevation velocity (%/s) was calculated as the range of laryngeal elevation (%) from the resting position to the maximum superior position or to the position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the corresponding duration of laryngeal elevation. The range of laryngeal elevation (%) was the percentage calculated as the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the maximum superior excursion position or position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the lowest edge of the mandible. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value for aspiration

  1. Scaling coastal dune elevation changes across storm-impact regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph W.; de Bakker, Anouk T. M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme storms drive change in coastal areas, including destruction of dune systems that protect coastal populations. Data from four extreme storms impacting four geomorphically diverse barrier islands are used to quantify dune elevation change. This change is compared to storm characteristics to identify variability in dune response, improve understanding of morphological interactions, and provide estimates of scaling parameters applicable for future prediction. Locations where total water levels did not exceed the dune crest experienced elevation change of less than 10%. Regions where wave-induced water levels exceeded the dune crest exhibited a positive linear relationship between the height of water over the dune and the dune elevation change. In contrast, a negative relationship was observed when surge exceeded the dune crest. Results indicate that maximum dune elevation, and therefore future vulnerability, may be more impacted from lower total water levels where waves drive sediment over the dune rather than surge-dominated flooding events.

  2. Use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to Obtain High-Resolution Elevation Data for Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Roger A.; Nardi, Mark R.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2008-01-01

    Sussex County, Delaware, occupies a 938-square-mile area of low relief near sea level in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The county is bounded on the east by the Delaware Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, including a barrier-island system, and inland bays that provide habitat for valuable living resources. Eastern Sussex County is an area of rapid population growth with a long-established beach-resort community, where land elevation is a key factor in determining areas that are appropriate for development. Of concern to State and local planners are evacuation routes inland to escape flooding from severe coastal storms, as most major transportation routes traverse areas of low elevation that are subject to inundation. The western half of the county is typically rural in character, and land use is largely agricultural with some scattered forest land cover. Western Sussex County has several low-relief river flood-prone areas, where accurate high-resolution elevation data are needed for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) studies. This fact sheet describes the methods and techniques used to collect and process LiDAR elevation data, the generation of the digital elevation model (DEM) and the 2-foot contours, and the quality-assurance procedures and results. It indicates where to view metadata on the data sets and where to acquire bare-earth mass points, DEM data, and contour data.

  3. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  4. Digtial Elevation Model (DEM) 250K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  5. Digitial Elevation Model (DEM) 100K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USG to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  6. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  7. Competitive Interactions upon Secondary Contact Drive Elevational Divergence in Tropical Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Benjamin G

    2015-10-01

    Tropical mountains harbor exceptionally high biodiversity, which is in part due to the marked elevational stratification of tropical biotas. However, the factors that influence the evolution of elevational distributions remain uncertain. I used a database of sister species of tropical montane birds from 41 families and three regions-the Neotropics, the Himalayas, and New Guinea-to test whether patterns of elevational divergence were consistent with (1) a stochastic process, (2) ecological sorting of elevational divergence that occurred in allopatry, or (3) elevational divergence driven by competitive interactions upon secondary contact. The stochastic and ecological sorting hypotheses predict that increased elevational divergence in sympatric sister species is explained by their greater evolutionary age, whereas the competitive interactions hypothesis predicts that elevational divergence is explained by geographical overlap. I found that genetic distances were unrelated to elevational divergence and that allopatric sister species occupied similar elevational distributions regardless of genetic distance in each region. Instead, sympatry was the only significant predictor of elevational divergence; regardless of evolutionary age, sympatric sister species had greater elevational divergence than allopatric sister species in each region, as predicted by the competitive interactions hypothesis. Importantly, this pattern occurred in all three geographic regions, which suggests that competition-driven elevational divergence upon secondary contact is a general process of community assembly in tropical montane avifaunas.

  8. Technology Development and Demonstration Concepts for the Space Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s several discoveries and advances in the development of carbon nano-tube (CNT) materials indicated that material strengths many times greater than common high-strength composite materials might be possible. Progress in the development of this material led to renewed interest in the space elevator concept for construction of a tether structure from the surface of the Earth through a geostationary orbit (GEO) and thus creating a new approach to Earth-to-orbit transportation infrastructures. To investigate this possibility the author, in 1999, managed for NASA a space elevator work:hop at the Marshall Space Flight Center to explore the potential feasibility of space elevators in the 21 century, and to identify the critical technologies and demonstration missions needed to make development of space elevators feasible. Since that time, a NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) funded study of the Space Elevator proposed a concept for a simpler first space elevator system using more near-term technologies. This paper will review some of the latest ideas for space elevator development, the critical technologies required, and some of the ideas proposed for demonstrating the feasibility for full-scale development of an Earth to GEO space elevator. Critical technologies include CNT composite materials, wireless power transmission, orbital object avoidance, and large-scale tether deployment and control systems. Numerous paths for technology demonstrations have been proposed utilizing ground experiments, air structures. LEO missions, the space shuttle, the international Space Station, GEO demonstration missions, demonstrations at the lunar L1 or L2 points, and other locations. In conclusion, this paper finds that the most critical technologies for an Earth to GEO space elevator include CNT composite materials development and object avoidance technologies; that lack of successful development of these technologies need not preclude continued development of

  9. Does allochthony in lakes change across an elevation gradient?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kevin C; Williamson, Craig E; Kissman, Carrie E H; Saros, Jasmine E

    2015-12-01

    Ecosystems are subsidized with inputs of mass and energy from their surroundings. These allochthonous inputs regulate many ecosystem characteristics. In inland waters, terrestrial inputs of organic matter regulate food-web structure, ecosystem metabolism, water clarity, and thermal stratification. Future changes in allochthony may be especially pronounced in high-elevation ecosystems due to increases in vegetation and precipitation associated with climate change. Several techniques exist to characterize the degree of allochthony of organic matter in aquatic systems, including metrics such as ΔH, the net isotopic discrimination between water and particulate organic matter (POM) of deuterium stable isotopes, and the fluorescence index (FI), which characterizes the fluorescence of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Despite the importance of allochthonous organic carbon inputs, little is known about either how allochthony varies across elevation gradients or whether different metrics are similarly related to allochthony. We measured AH, FI, and a suite of related water-quality characteristics in 30 lakes across a montane to alpine elevation gradient (2340 to 3205 m) in the Beartooth Mountains of Montana and Wyoming, USA, to understand how FI and AH varied with elevation, with one another, and with other allochthony-related water-quality characteristics. We hypothesized that allochthony of POM and DOM would decrease at higher elevations, with alpine lakes above treeline being more autochthonous compared with low-elevation lakes below treeline. We observed a significant inverse linear relationship between AH and Fl, with both metrics indicating a decrease in allochthony at higher elevations. Characteristics including the natural log of the ratio of concentrations of dissolved organic carbon to chlorophyll a (ln(DOC: Chl)), the spectral slope ratio between different spectra of two wavebands (SR, ratio of spectra at 275-295 to 350-400 nm), and a ratio of diffuse attenuation

  10. Integrated firn elevation change model for glaciers and ice caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saß, Björn; Sauter, Tobias; Braun, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    We present the development of a firn compaction model in order to improve the volume to mass conversion of geodetic glacier mass balance measurements. The model is applied on the Arctic ice cap Vestfonna. Vestfonna is located on the island Nordaustlandet in the north east of Svalbard. Vestfonna covers about 2400 km² and has a dome like shape with well-defined outlet glaciers. Elevation and volume changes measured by e.g. satellite techniques are becoming more and more popular. They are carried out over observation periods of variable length and often covering different meteorological and snow hydrological regimes. The elevation change measurements compose of various components including dynamic adjustments, firn compaction and mass loss by downwasting. Currently, geodetic glacier mass balances are frequently converted from elevation change measurements using a constant conversion factor of 850 kg m-³ or the density of ice (917 kg m-³) for entire glacier basins. However, the natural conditions are rarely that static. Other studies used constant densities for the ablation (900 kg m-³) and accumulation (600 kg m-³) areas, whereby density variations with varying meteorological and climate conditions are not considered. Hence, each approach bears additional uncertainties from the volume to mass conversion that are strongly affected by the type and timing of the repeat measurements. We link and adapt existing models of surface energy balance, accumulation and snow and firn processes in order to improve the volume to mass conversion by considering the firn compaction component. Energy exchange at the surface is computed by a surface energy balance approach and driven by meteorological variables like incoming short-wave radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, wind speed, all-phase precipitation, and cloud cover fraction. Snow and firn processes are addressed by a coupled subsurface model, implemented with a non-equidistant layer discretisation. On

  11. A global digital elevation model - GTOP030

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    GTOP030, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth, provides the flrst global coverage of moderate resolution elevation data.  The original GTOP30 data set, which was developed over a 3-year period through a collaborative effort led by the USGS, was completed in 1996 at the USGS EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.  The collaboration involved contributions of staffing, funding, or source data from cooperators including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United Nations Environment Programme Global Resource Information Database (UNEP/GRID), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) of Mexico, the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) of Japan, Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research of New Zealand, and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). In 1999, work was begun on an update to the GTOP030 data set. Additional data sources are being incorporated into GTOP030 with an enhanced and improved data set planned for release in 2000.

  12. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  13. Elevated CO2 and Soil Nitrogen Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmockel, K.; Schlesinger, W.

    2002-12-01

    Although forests can be large terrestrial carbon sinks, soil fertility can limit carbon sequestration in response to increased atmospheric CO2. During five years of CO2 fertilization (ambient + 200ppm) at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, net primary production increased significantly by an average of 25% in treatment plots. Total nitrogen in the foliar canopy increased by 16%, requiring an additional 1.3 g N m-2yr-1 to be taken up from soils under elevated CO2. Mechanisms supporting increased nitrogen acquisition have not been identified. Here we report on biological N-fixation rates, using the acetylene reduction assay, in litter and mineral soil during three years of the CO2 enrichment experiment. Lack of a significant CO2 treatment effect on acetylene reduction indicates that carbon is not directly limiting biological N fixation. Nutrient addition experiments using a complete block design with glucose, Fe, Mo and P indicate biological N fixation is co-limited by molybdenum and carbon. These results suggest even if elevated atmospheric CO2 enhances below-ground carbon availability via root exudation, biological nitrogen fixation may not be stimulated due to micronutrient limitations. Assessment of future carbon sequestration by forest stands must consider limitations imposed by site fertility, including micronutrients.

  14. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift device intended for...

  15. Elever med adfærdsvanskeligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul

    2001-01-01

    Artikel i særnummer om folkeskolens urolige elever, hvor der redegøres for den viden der aktuelt er i Danmark på området samt vanskelighederne med at skelne mellem de elever i skolen, der reagerer "sundt" på omgivelsernes pres og de elever som har alvorligere problemer. De kan se ens ud på...

  16. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Recent papers mention ideas on the topics of biodiversity conservation strategies and priorities (Redford et al. 2003; Lamoreux et al. 2006; Rodrı´guez et al. 2006), the current status of biodiversity (Loreau et al. 2006), the obligations of conservation biologists regarding management policies...... (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture...

  17. The Reliability of Highly Elevated CA 19-9 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Osswald

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available CA 19-9 is used as a tumour marker of the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, extremely elevated CA 19-9 levels are found also in patients with benign diseases. Cholestasis was present in 97.1 % of patients with high elevated CA 19-9, independent of their primary disease. 50% of patients with non-malignant diseases and increased CA 19-9 levels showed liver cirrhosis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis and/or hepatitis. In 8.8% no explanation was found for the extremely high CA 19-9 level. The results provide evidence of different factors influencing the CA 19-9 level.

  18. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  19. Explaining the species richness of birds along a subtropical elevational gradient in the Hengduan Mountains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yongjie; Colwell, Robert K.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    AimTo document the species richness pattern of birds in the Hengduan Mountains and to understand its causes. LocationHengduan Mountains, China. MethodsSpecies richness of 738 breeding bird species was calculated for each 100-m elevational band along a gradient from 100 to 6000m a.s.l. Climate data......) in each elevational band. Simple and multiple regression models were used to test the explanatory power of variables associated with different factors proposed to account for elevational species richness gradients. ResultsThe elevational pattern in species richness, for all breeding birds, was hump......-shaped, with the peak occurring at 800-1800m elevation. Endemic and non-endemic species, as well as four elevational range size categories of birds, also showed the general hump-shaped patterns of species richness, but with peaks at different elevations. In most data sets, species richness correlated well with climatic...

  20. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  1. The floor effect: impoverished spatial memory for elevator buttons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Michael; Castel, Alan D; Holyoak, Keith J

    2013-05-01

    People typically remember objects to which they have frequently been exposed, suggesting that memory is a by-product of perception. However, prior research has shown that people have exceptionally poor memory for the features of some objects (e.g., coins) to which they have been exposed over the course of many years. Here, we examined how people remember the spatial layout of the buttons on a frequently used elevator panel, to determine whether physical interaction (rather than simple exposure) would ensure the incidental encoding of spatial information. Participants who worked in an eight-story office building displayed very poor recall for the elevator panel but above-chance performance on a recognition test. Performance was related to how often and how recently the person had used the elevator. In contrast to their poor memory for the spatial layout of the elevator buttons, most people readily recalled small distinctive graffiti on the elevator walls. In a more implicit test, the majority were able to locate their office floor and the eighth floor button when asked to point toward these buttons when in the actual elevator, with the button labels covered. However, identification was very poor for other floors (including the first floor), suggesting that even frequent interaction with information does not always lead to accurate spatial memory. These findings have implications for understanding the complex relationships among attention, expertise, and memory.

  2. Surgical outcome in monocular elevation deficit: A retrospective interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Rakhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Monocular elevation deficiency (MED is characterized by a unilateral defect in elevation, caused by paretic, restrictive or combined etiology. Treatment of this multifactorial entity is therefore varied. In this study, we performed different surgical procedures in patients of MED and evaluated their outcome, based on ocular alignment, improvement in elevation and binocular functions. Study Design: Retrospective interventional study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients were included in this study, from June 2003 to August 2006. Five patients underwent Knapp procedure, with or without horizontal squint surgery, 17 patients had inferior rectus recession, with or without horizontal squint surgery, three patients had combined inferior rectus recession and Knapp procedure and three patients had inferior rectus recession combined with contralateral superior rectus or inferior oblique surgery. The choice of procedure was based on the results of forced duction test (FDT. Results: Forced duction test was positive in 23 cases (82%. Twenty-four of 28 patients (86% were aligned to within 10 prism diopters. Elevation improved in 10 patients (36% from no elevation above primary position (-4 to only slight limitation of elevation (-1. Five patients had preoperative binocular vision and none gained it postoperatively. No significant postoperative complications or duction abnormalities were observed during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Management of MED depends upon selection of the correct surgical technique based on employing the results of FDT, for a satisfactory outcome.

  3. Perforation of the sinus membrane during sinus floor elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Fodich, Ivo; Bornstein, Michael M;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the frequency of perforation of the sinus membrane during maxillary sinus floor elevation (SFE) and to assess possible risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven cases of SFE performed with a lateral window approach were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical and radiogra......PURPOSE: To analyze the frequency of perforation of the sinus membrane during maxillary sinus floor elevation (SFE) and to assess possible risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven cases of SFE performed with a lateral window approach were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical...... (presence and height of septum, height of residual ridge, thickness of lateral sinus wall, width of antrum, and thickness and status of sinus membrane). RESULTS: The following factors presented with at least a 10% difference in rates of perforations: smokers (46.2%) versus nonsmokers (23.4%), simultaneous...... the lateral window approach....

  4. Low physical activity is a determinant for elevated blood pressure in high cardiovascular risk obstructive sleep apnea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendelson, Monique; Tamisier, Renaud; Laplaud, David; Dias-Domingos, Sonia; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Laurent; Koltes, Christian; Chavez, Léonidas; de Lamberterie, Gilles; Herengt, Frédéric; Levy, Patrick; Flore, Patrice; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    .... Beyond the severity of nocturnal hypoxia, other factors such as metabolic abnormalities but also sedentary behaviors and insufficient physical activity may contribute to elevated blood pressure (BP...

  5. The surface elevation table: marker horizon method for measuring wetland accretion and elevation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, John C.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Lynch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Tidal wetlands are highly sensitive to processes that affect their elevation relative to sea level. The surface elevation table–marker horizon (SET–MH) method has been used to successfully measure these processes, including sediment accretion, changes in relative elevation, and shallow soil processes (subsidence and expansion due to root production). The SET–MH method is capable of measuring changes at very high resolution (±millimeters) and has been used worldwide both in natural wetlands and under experimental conditions. Marker horizons are typically deployed using feldspar over 50- by 50-cm plots, with replicate plots at each sampling location. Plots are sampled using a liquid N2 cryocorer that freezes a small sample, allowing the handling and measurement of soft and easily compressed soils with minimal compaction. The SET instrument is a portable device that is attached to a permanent benchmark to make high-precision measurements of wetland surface elevation. The SET instrument has evolved substantially in recent decades, and the current rod SET (RSET) is widely used. For the RSET, a 15-mm-diameter stainless steel rod is pounded into the ground until substantial resistance is achieved to establish a benchmark. The SET instrument is attached to the benchmark and leveled such that it reoccupies the same reference plane in space, and pins lowered from the instrument repeatedly measure the same point on the soil surface. Changes in the height of the lowered pins reflect changes in the soil surface. Permanent or temporary platforms provide access to SET and MH locations without disturbing the wetland surface.

  6. Implementation of PLC Based Elevator Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandar Htay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes programmable logic controller based elevator control system. An elevator is one of the important aspects in electronics control module in automotive application. Nowadays, Myanmar is a developing country and there is enormous increase in high-rise building in Myanmar. This paper mainly focuses on using programmable logic controller to control the circuit and building the elevator model. Hall Effect sensor is used for the elevator position. DC Motor is used to control the up and down movement of the elevator car. Push buttons are used to call the elevator car. The elevator position is described by using the display unit. In this paper, Auto Station Software ladder logic program is used for four floors control system

  7. 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arundel, Samantha T.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Phillips, Lori A.; Roche, Brittany L.; Constance, Eric W.

    2015-10-21

    In January 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center began producing the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model data product. This new product was developed to provide high resolution bare-earth digital elevation models from light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and other elevation data collected over the conterminous United States (lower 48 States), Hawaii, and potentially Alaska and the U.S. territories. The 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model consists of hydroflattened, topographic bare-earth raster digital elevation models, with a 1-meter x 1-meter cell size, and is available in 10,000-meter x 10,000-meter square blocks with a 6-meter overlap. This report details the specifications required for the production of the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model.

  8. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Diabetes Associated with Elevated Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Shindler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have suggested that homocysteine may be a contributing factor to development of retinopathy in diabetic patients based on observed correlations between elevated homocysteine levels and the presence of retinopathy. The significance of such a correlation remains to be determined, and potential mechanisms by which homocysteine might induce retinopathy have not been well characterized. Ganapathy and colleagues1 used mutant mice that have endogenously elevated homocysteine levels due to heterozygous deletion of the cystathionine-β-synthase gene to examine changes in retinal pathology following induction of diabetes. Their finding that elevated homocysteine levels hastens loss of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer suggests that toxicity to ganglion cells may warrant further investigation as a potential mechanism of homocysteine enhanced susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy.

  9. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  10. [Elevated coronary mortality in Mauritius: risk factors and genetic analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baligadoo, Soorianarain

    2012-10-01

    In 1986, early mortality by acute myocardial infarction was found to be much higher in Mauritius than in the United States, among both males and females. For example, among 40-to-44 year olds there were 109 deaths/100,000 males per year in Mauritius, compared to only 34.5/100,000 in the U S. A study comparing two non hospital populations of Mauritian and U S. residents showed a higher prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance in Mauritius. Likewise, a case-control study comparing 60 young patients who had MI before age 45 years and age-matched Mauritian residents showed statistically significant differences in terms of abnormal glucose metabolism (PMauritius, and show the polygenic nature of the disease.

  11. Reducing temperature elevation of robotic bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Arne; Wandel, Jasmin; Zysset, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    This research work aims at reducing temperature elevation of bone drilling. An extensive experimental study was conducted which focused on the investigation of three main measures to reduce the temperature elevation as used in industry: irrigation, interval drilling and drill bit designs. Different external irrigation rates (0 ml/min, 15 ml/min, 30 ml/min), continuously drilled interval lengths (2 mm, 1 mm, 0.5 mm) as well as two drill bit designs were tested. A custom single flute drill bit was designed with a higher rake angle and smaller chisel edge to generate less heat compared to a standard surgical drill bit. A new experimental setup was developed to measure drilling forces and torques as well as the 2D temperature field at any depth using a high resolution thermal camera. The results show that external irrigation is a main factor to reduce temperature elevation due not primarily to its effect on cooling but rather due to the prevention of drill bit clogging. During drilling, the build up of bone material in the drill bit flutes result in excessive temperatures due to an increase in thrust forces and torques. Drilling in intervals allows the removal of bone chips and cleaning of flutes when the drill bit is extracted as well as cooling of the bone in-between intervals which limits the accumulation of heat. However, reducing the length of the drilled interval was found only to be beneficial for temperature reduction using the newly designed drill bit due to the improved cutting geometry. To evaluate possible tissue damage caused by the generated heat increase, cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM43) were calculated and it was found that the combination of small interval length (0.5 mm), high irrigation rate (30 ml/min) and the newly designed drill bit was the only parameter combination which allowed drilling below the time-thermal threshold for tissue damage. In conclusion, an optimized drilling method has been found which might also enable drilling in more

  12. . and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov., and emended description of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus to include V factor-dependent and V factor-independent isolates, Reclassification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans gen. nvo., comb. nov., Aggregatibacter aphrophilus comb. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, N.; Kilian, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reinvestigate the relationships and the generic affiliations of the species Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis. The nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase gene (nadV) conferring V factor-ind......)=NCTC 5906(T)) and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov. (type strain HK316(T)=ATCC 33393(T)=CCUG 10787(T)=CCUG 12838(T)=CIP 103292(T)=NCTC 10977(T)). The species of the genus Aggregatibacter are independent of X factor and variably dependent on V factor for growth in vitro......The aim of this study was to reinvestigate the relationships and the generic affiliations of the species Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis. The nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase gene (nadV) conferring V factor......-independent growth was identified in Haemophilus aphrophilus. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 462 amino acids that shows 74.5 % amino acid sequence identity to the corresponding enzyme from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Ten isolates of Haemophilus paraphrophilus all carried a nadV pseudogene. DNA from...

  13. Geodetic Imaging of Marsh Surface Elevation with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C. T.; Starek, M. J.; Gibeaut, J. C.; Lord, A.

    2015-12-01

    The resilience of marshes to a rising sea is dependent on their elevation response. Given the level of precision required to measure minute changes in marsh elevation over time, survey methods have to be adapted to minimize impacts to the sediment surface. Current approaches include Surface Elevation Tables (SETs), which are used to monitor wetland surface change with respect to an in situ vertical benchmark. Although SETs have been proven as an effective technique to track subtle sedimentation rates (productive estuarine ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. The study region is covered by dense and tall saw-grass that makes it a challenging environment for bare-earth mapping. For this survey, a Riegl VZ-400 TLS (1550 nm wavelength) was utilized. The system is capable of recording multiple returns per a transmitted pulse (up to 15) and provides full-waveform output for signal post-processing to extract returns. The objectives of the study are twofold: 1) examine impacts of TLS survey design, scan angle and scan density on marsh elevation mapping; 2) assess the capabilities of multiple-echo and full-waveform TLS data to extract the bare-earth surface below the dense vegetation. This presentation will present results of the study including the developed TLS survey protocol and data processing workflow, details on waveform and multi-echo approaches for ground point detection, and a discussion on error analysis and challenges for measuring marsh surface elevation with TLS.

  14. Data acquisition time constraints in elevation mapping corneal topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, William S.; Baron, Sandra F.

    1997-05-01

    Elevation mapping corneal topography instruments provide an array of x, y, z data points describing the corneal surface. An advantage of elevation mapping instruments is their ability to calculate the 3D data array strictly from the instrument's geometry and calibration data; no assumptions about the corneal surface itself are needed. However, uncompensated eye movements can affect accuracy. Longitudinal eye movements occur along the z axis, due to pulmonary and cardiac pulsations. Eye rotations due to saccades and drifts are normal occurrences, as are translational body movements. An analysis of eye and body movements at the cornea's surface indicates a nearly linear relationship between data acquisition times of less than 33 msec, and the possible change in elevation at a point referenced to an instrument axis. The proportionality constant is expected to vary by a factor of about six over the range of clinical patients, since eye and body movements are exaggerated in juvenile patients, geriatric patients, and patients with poor vision. The analysis estimates an elevation change due to rotation and longitudinal translation of the eye of up to +/- 285 micrometers in 33 msec within the clinical population. This analysis indicates that when a topographer's acquisition time is greater than 100 microsecond(s) ec (during which an apparent elevation change of up to 1.0 micrometers may occur) testing on static objects may not provide a realistic measure of an instrument's clinical performance.

  15. Optimal house elevation for reducing flood-related losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Kunreuther, Howard

    2017-05-01

    FEMA recommends that houses in coastal flood zones be elevated to at least 1 foot above the base flood elevation (BFE). However, this guideline is not specific and ignores characteristics of houses that affect their vulnerability. An economically optimal elevation level (OEL) is proposed that minimizes the combined cost of elevation and cumulative insurance premiums over the lifespan of the house. As an illustration, analysis is performed for various coastal houses in Ortley Beach, NJ. Compared with the strategy of raising houses to 1 foot above BFE, the strategy of raising houses to their OELs is much more economical for the homeowners. Elevating to the OELs also significantly reduces government spending on subsidizing low-income homeowners through, for example, a voucher program, to mitigate flood risk. These results suggest that policy makers should consider vulnerability factors in developing risk-reduction strategies. FEMA may recommend OELs to homeowners based on their flood hazards as well as house characteristics or at least providing more information and tools to homeowners to assist them in making more economical decisions. The OEL strategy can also be coupled with a voucher program to make the program more cost-effective.

  16. Elevation alters ecosystem properties across temperate treelines globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Jordan R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Classen, Aimée T.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Clément, Jean-Christophe; Fajardo, Alex; Lavorel, Sandra; Sundqvist, Maja K.; Bahn, Michael; Chisholm, Chelsea; Cieraad, Ellen; Gedalof, Ze’Ev; Grigulis, Karl; Kudo, Gaku; Oberski, Daniel L.; Wardle, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is a primary driver of the distribution of biodiversity as well as of ecosystem boundaries. Declining temperature with increasing elevation in montane systems has long been recognized as a major factor shaping plant community biodiversity, metabolic processes, and ecosystem dynamics. Elevational gradients, as thermoclines, also enable prediction of long-term ecological responses to climate warming. One of the most striking manifestations of increasing elevation is the abrupt transitions from forest to treeless alpine tundra. However, whether there are globally consistent above- and belowground responses to these transitions remains an open question. To disentangle the direct and indirect effects of temperature on ecosystem properties, here we evaluate replicate treeline ecotones in seven temperate regions of the world. We find that declining temperatures with increasing elevation did not affect tree leaf nutrient concentrations, but did reduce ground-layer community-weighted plant nitrogen, leading to the strong stoichiometric convergence of ground-layer plant community nitrogen to phosphorus ratios across all regions. Further, elevation-driven changes in plant nutrients were associated with changes in soil organic matter content and quality (carbon to nitrogen ratios) and microbial properties. Combined, our identification of direct and indirect temperature controls over plant communities and soil properties in seven contrasting regions suggests that future warming may disrupt the functional properties of montane ecosystems, particularly where plant community reorganization outpaces treeline advance.

  17. Impact of land-surface elevation and riparian evapotranspiration seasonality on groundwater budget in MODFLOW models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Hoori; Meixner, Thomas; Maddock, Thomas; Hogan, James F.; Guertin, D. Phillip

    2011-09-01

    Riparian groundwater evapotranspiration (ETg) constitutes a major component of the water balance especially in many arid and semi-arid environments. Although spatial and temporal variability of riparian ETg are controlled by climate, vegetation and subsurface characteristics, depth to water table (DTWT) is often considered the major controlling factor. Relationships between ETg rates and DTWT, referred to as ETg curves, are implemented in MODFLOW ETg packages (EVT, ETS1 and RIP-ET) with different functional forms. Here, the sensitivity of the groundwater budget in MODFLOW groundwater models to ETg parameters (including ETg curves, land-surface elevation and ETg seasonality) are investigated. A MODFLOW model of the hypothetical Dry Alkaline Valley in the Southwestern USA is used to show how spatial representation of riparian vegetation and digital elevation model (DEM) processing methods impact the water budget when RIPGIS-NET (a GIS-based ETg program) is used with MODFLOW's RIP-ET package, and results are compared with the EVT and ETS1 packages. Results show considerable impact on ETg and other groundwater budget components caused by spatial representation of riparian vegetation, vegetation type, fractional coverage areas and land-surface elevation. RIPGIS-NET enhances ETg estimation in MODFLOW by incorporating vegetation and land-surface parameters, providing a tool for ecohydrology studies, riparian ecosystem management and stream restoration.

  18. Integrated physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis identifies important traits and mechanisms associated with differential response of rice genotypes to elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghireddy eSailaja

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In changing climate, heat stress caused by high temperature poses a serious threat to rice cultivation. A multiple organizational analysis at physiological, biochemical and molecular level is required to fully understand the impact of elevated temperature in rice. This study was aimed at deciphering the elevated temperature response in eleven popular and mega rice cultivars widely grown in India. Physiological and biochemical traits specifically membrane thermostability (MTS, antioxidants, and photosynthesis were studied at vegetative and reproductive phases which were used to establish a correlation with grain yield under stress. Several useful traits in different genotypes were identified which will be important resource to develop high temperature tolerant rice cultivars. Interestingly, Nagina22 emerged as best performer in terms of yield as well as expression of physiological and biochemical traits at elevated temperature. It showed lesser relative injury, lesser reduction in chlorophyll content, increased super oxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity, lesser reduction in net photosynthetic rate (PN, high transpiration rate (E and other photosynthetic/ fluorescence parameters contributing to least reduction in spikelet fertility and grain yield at elevated temperature. Further, expression of 14 genes including heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins was analyzed in Nagina22 (tolerant and Vandana (susceptible at flowering phase, strengthening the fact that N22 performs better at molecular level also during elevated temperature. This study shows that elevated temperature response is complex and involves multiple biological processes which are needed to be characterized to address the challenges of future climate extreme conditions.

  19. Raster dataset showing the probability of elevated concentrations of nitrate in ground water in Colorado, hydrogeomorphic regions included and fertilizer use estimates not included.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is one of eight datasets produced by this study. Four of the datasets predict the probability of detecting atrazine and(or) desethyl-atrazine (a...

  20. Raster dataset showing the probability of elevated concentrations of nitrate in ground water in Colorado, hydrogeomorphic regions not included and fertilizer use estimates included.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is one of eight datasets produced by this study. Four of the datasets predict the probability of detecting atrazine and(or) desethyl-atrazine (a...

  1. Phase-preserved optical elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-01-01

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  2. Activated protein C resistance testing for factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadauke, Stephan; Khor, Bernard; Van Cott, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    Activated protein C resistance assays can detect factor V Leiden with high accuracy, depending on the method used. Factor Xa inhibitors such as rivaroxaban and direct thrombin inhibitors including dabigatran, argatroban, and bivalirudin can cause falsely normal results. Lupus anticoagulants can cause incorrect results in most current assays. Assays that include dilution into factor V-deficient plasma are needed to avoid interference from factor deficiencies or elevations, which can arise from a wide variety of conditions such as warfarin, liver dysfunction, or pregnancy. The pros and cons of the currently available assays are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Air temperature variability in a high-elevation Himalayan catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynen, Martin; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Buri, Pascal; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Air temperature is a key control of processes affecting snow and glaciers in high-elevation catchments, including melt, snowfall and sublimation. It is therefore a key input variable to models of land-surface-atmosphere interaction. Despite this importance, its spatial variability is poorly

  4. Elevator and Escalator Safety Education for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Roma Stovall

    1996-01-01

    In eight focus groups in five cities, older adults identified their concerns about safety on elevators and escalators, often related to misunderstanding of the equipment. Their preferences for delivery of safety information included video/television, pamphlets, discussions, and posters. Educational interventions and modifications for disabilities…

  5. Elevated sodium and dehydration stimulate inflammatory signaling in endothelial cells and promote atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Natalia I; Burg, Maurice B

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading health problem worldwide. Epidemiologic studies link high salt intake and conditions predisposing to dehydration such as low water intake, diabetes and old age to increased risk of CVD. Previously, we demonstrated that elevation of extracellular sodium, which is a common consequence of these conditions, stimulates production by endothelial cells of clotting initiator, von Willebrand Factor, increases its level in blood and promotes thrombogenesis. In present study, by PCR array, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we analyzed the effect of high NaCl on 84 genes related to endothelial cell biology. The analysis showed that the affected genes regulate many aspects of endothelial cell biology including cell adhesion, proliferation, leukocyte and lymphocyte activation, coagulation, angiogenesis and inflammatory response. The genes whose expression increased the most were adhesion molecules VCAM1 and E-selectin and the chemoattractant MCP-1. These are key participants in the leukocyte adhesion and transmigration that play a major role in the inflammation and pathophysiology of CVD, including atherosclerosis. Indeed, high NaCl increased adhesion of mononuclear cells and their transmigration through HUVECs monolayers. In mice, mild water restriction that elevates serum sodium by 5 mmol/l, increased VCAM1, E-selectin and MCP-1 expression in mouse tissues, accelerated atherosclerotic plaque formation in aortic root and caused thickening or walls of coronary arteries. Multivariable linear regression analysis of clinical data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n=12779) demonstrated that serum sodium is a significant predictor of 10 Years Risk of coronary heart disease. These findings indicate that elevation of extracellular sodium within the physiological range is accompanied by vascular changes that facilitate development of CVD. The findings bring attention to serum sodium as a risk factor for

  6. Elevated sodium and dehydration stimulate inflammatory signaling in endothelial cells and promote atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I Dmitrieva

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are a leading health problem worldwide. Epidemiologic studies link high salt intake and conditions predisposing to dehydration such as low water intake, diabetes and old age to increased risk of CVD. Previously, we demonstrated that elevation of extracellular sodium, which is a common consequence of these conditions, stimulates production by endothelial cells of clotting initiator, von Willebrand Factor, increases its level in blood and promotes thrombogenesis. In present study, by PCR array, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, we analyzed the effect of high NaCl on 84 genes related to endothelial cell biology. The analysis showed that the affected genes regulate many aspects of endothelial cell biology including cell adhesion, proliferation, leukocyte and lymphocyte activation, coagulation, angiogenesis and inflammatory response. The genes whose expression increased the most were adhesion molecules VCAM1 and E-selectin and the chemoattractant MCP-1. These are key participants in the leukocyte adhesion and transmigration that play a major role in the inflammation and pathophysiology of CVD, including atherosclerosis. Indeed, high NaCl increased adhesion of mononuclear cells and their transmigration through HUVECs monolayers. In mice, mild water restriction that elevates serum sodium by 5 mmol/l, increased VCAM1, E-selectin and MCP-1 expression in mouse tissues, accelerated atherosclerotic plaque formation in aortic root and caused thickening or walls of coronary arteries. Multivariable linear regression analysis of clinical data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n=12779 demonstrated that serum sodium is a significant predictor of 10 Years Risk of coronary heart disease. These findings indicate that elevation of extracellular sodium within the physiological range is accompanied by vascular changes that facilitate development of CVD. The findings bring attention to serum sodium as a

  7. Elevated Serum Liver Enzymes in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-hypopnea Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Li; Yan-Lin Zhang; Rui Chen; Yi Wang; Kang-Ping Xiong; Jun-Ying Huang; Fei Han

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with elevated liver enzymes and fatty liver.The purpose of this study was to measure serum liver enzyme levels in patients evaluated by polysomnography (PSG) and the factors associated with liver injury in OSAS patients.Methods: All patients referred to PSG for evaluation of sleep apnea symptoms between June 2011 and November 2014 were included in this study.Demographic data and PSG parameters were recorded.Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels were systematically measured.OSAS patients were divided into mild, moderate, and severe groups according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) values of 5-14 events/h, 15-29 events/h, and ≥30 events/h.Results: A total of 540 patients were enrolled in this study;among these patients, 386 were male.Elevated liver enzymes were present in 42.3% of OSAS patients (32.4% in mild/moderate group;51.0% in severe group) and 28.1% patients without OSAS.Patients with OSAS had higher body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.01).In the bivariate correlation, the liver enzymes level was negatively correlated with age and the lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), and was positively correlated with BMI, oxygen desaturation index, percent of total time with oxygen saturation level <90% (TS90%), AHI, total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG).In logistic regression analysis, Age,BMI, TS90%, TC, and TG were included in the regression equation.Conclusions: Our data suggest that OSAS is a risk factor for elevated liver enzymes.The severity of OSAS is correlated with liver enzyme levels;we hypothesize that hypoxia is one of main causes of liver damage in patients with OSAS.

  8. Elevated body mass index and fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marović Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obesity and overweight, expressed by elevated Body Mass Index (BMI, result from excessive consumption of fatty food and carbohydrates above the body needs. The fat from the blood, through free fatty acids, is taken directly into the liver. Objective The aim of this study was to examine correlation among the accepted ultrasonography findings of the fatty liver and the normal ultrasonography findings and the elevated average level of BMI and those with normal BMI in examinees in one investigation. All was done aimed at proving that the BMI is one of the direct factors of the increased occurence of fatty liver. METHOD The method of the investigation consisted of anthropometric measuring of height and weight on the basis of which there were established BMI values. Consequently, the examinees were divided in two groups: one with normal BMI (under 24.9 kg/m2 and the other with increased BMI (over 25 kg/m2. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver of the examinees was observed by ultrasonography. Thus there were given subgroups of the examinees, one with the findings of fatty liver and the second with a normal finding, without changes. After that, the obtained results were statistically analysed. Results It was found that the average level of BMI in the examinees was by two units higher in the subgroup with ultrasonography findings of fatty liver than the average value of BMI in the subgroup with the normal ultrasonography findings of the liver. The difference was tested by the Student's t-test and a significant difference was found. The difference in frequencies of the appearance of the finding of fatty liver in the subgroups was tested by χ2-test. A statistically significant difference was found in frequencies of the appearance of fatty liver in the subgroup with the increased value of BMI. Conclusion The increased BMI, which is represented by overweight and obesity, is one of the direct risk factors which cause fatty liver, checked by

  9. Biogeographical Interpretation of Elevational Patterns of Genus Diversity of Seed Plants in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Feng, Jianmeng

    2015-01-01

    This study tests if the biogeographical affinities of genera are relevant for explaining elevational plant diversity patterns in Nepal. We used simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models to investigate the explanatory power of several predictors in explaining the diversity-elevation relationships shown in genera with different biogeographical affinities. Delta akaike information criterion (ΔAIC) was used for multi-model inferences and selections. Our results showed that both the total and tropical genus diversity peaked below the mid-point of the elevational gradient, whereas that of temperate genera had a nearly symmetrical, unimodal relationship with elevation. The proportion of temperate genera increased markedly with elevation, while that of tropical genera declined. Compared to tropical genera, temperate genera had wider elevational ranges and were observed at higher elevations. Water-related variables, rather than mid-domain effects (MDE), were the most significant predictors of elevational patterns of tropical genus diversity. The temperate genus diversity was influenced by energy availability, but only in quadratic terms of the models. Though climatic factors and mid-domain effects jointly explained most of the variation in the diversity of temperate genera with elevation, the former played stronger roles. Total genus diversity was most strongly influenced by climate and the floristic overlap of tropical and temperate floras, while the influences of mid-domain effects were relatively weak. The influences of water-related and energy-related variables may vary with biogeographical affinities. The elevational patterns may be most closely related to climatic factors, while MDE may somewhat modify the patterns. Caution is needed when investigating the causal factors underlying diversity patterns for large taxonomic groups composed of taxa of different biogeographical affinities. Right-skewed diversity-elevation patterns may be produced by the differential

  10. Biogeographical Interpretation of Elevational Patterns of Genus Diversity of Seed Plants in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Feng, Jianmeng

    2015-01-01

    This study tests if the biogeographical affinities of genera are relevant for explaining elevational plant diversity patterns in Nepal. We used simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models to investigate the explanatory power of several predictors in explaining the diversity-elevation relationships shown in genera with different biogeographical affinities. Delta akaike information criterion (ΔAIC) was used for multi-model inferences and selections. Our results showed that both the total and tropical genus diversity peaked below the mid-point of the elevational gradient, whereas that of temperate genera had a nearly symmetrical, unimodal relationship with elevation. The proportion of temperate genera increased markedly with elevation, while that of tropical genera declined. Compared to tropical genera, temperate genera had wider elevational ranges and were observed at higher elevations. Water-related variables, rather than mid-domain effects (MDE), were the most significant predictors of elevational patterns of tropical genus diversity. The temperate genus diversity was influenced by energy availability, but only in quadratic terms of the models. Though climatic factors and mid-domain effects jointly explained most of the variation in the diversity of temperate genera with elevation, the former played stronger roles. Total genus diversity was most strongly influenced by climate and the floristic overlap of tropical and temperate floras, while the influences of mid-domain effects were relatively weak. The influences of water-related and energy-related variables may vary with biogeographical affinities. The elevational patterns may be most closely related to climatic factors, while MDE may somewhat modify the patterns. Caution is needed when investigating the causal factors underlying diversity patterns for large taxonomic groups composed of taxa of different biogeographical affinities. Right-skewed diversity-elevation patterns may be produced by the differential

  11. Using the Electroretinogram to Understand How Intraocular Pressure Elevation Affects the Rat Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang V. Bui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP elevation is a key risk factor for glaucoma. Our understanding of the effect that IOP elevation has on the eye has been greatly enhanced by the application of the electroretinogram (ERG. In this paper, we describe how the ERG in the rodent eye is affected by changes in IOP magnitude, duration, and number of spikes. We consider how the variables of blood pressure and age can modify the effect of IOP elevation on the ERG. Finally, we contrast the effects that acute and chronic IOP elevation can have on the rodent ERG.

  12. Evaluation Digital Elevation Model Generated by Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makineci, H. B.; Karabörk, H.

    2016-06-01

    Digital elevation model, showing the physical and topographical situation of the earth, is defined a tree-dimensional digital model obtained from the elevation of the surface by using of selected an appropriate interpolation method. DEMs are used in many areas such as management of natural resources, engineering and infrastructure projects, disaster and risk analysis, archaeology, security, aviation, forestry, energy, topographic mapping, landslide and flood analysis, Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Digital elevation models, which are the fundamental components of cartography, is calculated by many methods. Digital elevation models can be obtained terrestrial methods or data obtained by digitization of maps by processing the digital platform in general. Today, Digital elevation model data is generated by the processing of stereo optical satellite images, radar images (radargrammetry, interferometry) and lidar data using remote sensing and photogrammetric techniques with the help of improving technology. One of the fundamental components of remote sensing radar technology is very advanced nowadays. In response to this progress it began to be used more frequently in various fields. Determining the shape of topography and creating digital elevation model comes the beginning topics of these areas. It is aimed in this work , the differences of evaluation of quality between Sentinel-1A SAR image ,which is sent by European Space Agency ESA and Interferometry Wide Swath imaging mode and C band type , and DTED-2 (Digital Terrain Elevation Data) and application between them. The application includes RMS static method for detecting precision of data. Results show us to variance of points make a high decrease from mountain area to plane area.

  13. The 3D Elevation Program—Summary for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2016-02-03

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, scientific research, national security, recreation, and many others. For the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, elevation data are critical for flood risk management, landslide mitigation, natural resources conservation, sea level rise and subsidence, coastal zone management, infrastructure and construction management, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, U.S. territorial, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and selected U.S. territories, and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data for Alaska, all with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle, provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A‒16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional (3D) representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  14. EVALUATION DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL GENERATED BY SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Makineci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation model, showing the physical and topographical situation of the earth, is defined a tree-dimensional digital model obtained from the elevation of the surface by using of selected an appropriate interpolation method. DEMs are used in many areas such as management of natural resources, engineering and infrastructure projects, disaster and risk analysis, archaeology, security, aviation, forestry, energy, topographic mapping, landslide and flood analysis, Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Digital elevation models, which are the fundamental components of cartography, is calculated by many methods. Digital elevation models can be obtained terrestrial methods or data obtained by digitization of maps by processing the digital platform in general. Today, Digital elevation model data is generated by the processing of stereo optical satellite images, radar images (radargrammetry, interferometry and lidar data using remote sensing and photogrammetric techniques with the help of improving technology. One of the fundamental components of remote sensing radar technology is very advanced nowadays. In response to this progress it began to be used more frequently in various fields. Determining the shape of topography and creating digital elevation model comes the beginning topics of these areas. It is aimed in this work , the differences of evaluation of quality between Sentinel-1A SAR image ,which is sent by European Space Agency ESA and Interferometry Wide Swath imaging mode and C band type , and DTED-2 (Digital Terrain Elevation Data and application between them. The application includes RMS static method for detecting precision of data. Results show us to variance of points make a high decrease from mountain area to plane area.

  15. Cholecystokinin Elevates Mouse Plasma Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lichun; Yang, Hong; Lin, Xinghua; Okoro, Emmanuel U.; Guo, Zhongmao

    2012-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR−/−) mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL) with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR−/− mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine. PMID:23300532

  16. On a lunar space elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, E. H.

    We consider a space elevator system for lunar surface access that consists of a space station in circumlunar orbit, a cable reaching down to some meters above the surface and a magnetically levitated vehicle driven by a linear motor. It accelerates the load to be lifted to the speed of the cable end. Loads to be delivered are either put on the vehicle and slowed down by it or they are slowed down by a sand braking technique in a mare terrain. It is technically possible to operate this transport system nearly without fuel supply from Earth. We calculate various steel cable dimensions for a static stress maximum of 1/5th of the tensile strength. The process of takeover is considered in detail. Five ways of eliminating the adverse large cable elongation due to the load are described. The touchdown process and behaviour of the cable after disconnection are analysed. The positive difference between the speed of the load at takeover and cable end can excite a large inplane swing motion. We propose to damp it by a dissipative pulley that hangs in a loop of wire leading to the ends of two beams mounted on the space station tangentially to the orbit, the pulley's core being connected with the load. Roll librations are damped by energy losses in the elastic beams; damping can be reinforced by viscous beam elements and/or controlled out-of-plane motions of the beams. We argue in favour of the possibility of fast deployment. The problems of vehicle vibrations and agglutination at sand braking blades are underlined and their combined experimental investigation is suggested.

  17. Cholecystokinin elevates mouse plasma lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Zhou

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/- mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR(-/- mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine.

  18. Effects of prescribed burning on marsh-elevation change and the risk of wetland loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Grace, James B.

    2012-01-01

    nutrient addition had no detectable influence on elevation dynamics. 3. Burning decreased standing and fallen plant litter, reducing fuel load. Hurricanes Gustav and Ike also removed fallen litter from all plots. 4. Aboveground and belowground production rates varied annually but were unaffected by burning and nutrient treatments. 5. Decomposition (of a standard cellulose material) in upper soil layers was increased in burned plots but was unaffected by nutrient treatments. 6. Soil physicochemistry was unaffected by burning or nutrient treatments. 7. The elevation deficit (difference between rate of submergence and vertical land development) prior to hurricanes was less in burned plots (6.2 millimeters per year [mm yr-1]) compared to nonburned plots (7.2 mm yr-1). 8. Storm sediments delivered by Hurricane Ike raised elevations an average of 7.4 centimeters (cm), which countered an elevation deficit that had accrued over 11 years. Our findings provide preliminary insights into elevation dynamics occurring in brackish marshes of the Texas Chenier Plain under prescribed fire management. The results of this study indicate that prescribed burning conducted at 3- to 5-year intervals is not likely to negatively impact the long-term sustainability of S. patens-dominated brackish marshes at McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge and may offset existing elevation deficits by ≈ 1 mm yr-1. The primary drivers of elevation change varied in time and space, leading to a more complex situation in terms of predicting how disturbances may alter elevation trajectories. The potential effect of burning on elevation change in other marshes will depend on several site-specific factors, including geomorphic/ sedimentary setting, tide range, local rate of relative sea level rise, plant species composition, additional management practices (for example, for flood control), and disturbance types and frequency (for example, hurricanes or herbivore grazing). Increasing the scope of inference would require

  19. Elevational distribution and conservation biogeography of phanaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sebastian K; Hamel-Leigue, A Caroli; Larsen, Trond H; Mann, Darren J; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W; Gill, Bruce D; Edmonds, W D; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann's and Rapoport's rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann's rule. Rapoport's rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport's and refutation of Bergmann's rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for identifying