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Sample records for factors included personal

  1. Factors of schizoid personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Allbutt, J

    1989-02-01

    The increasing use of schizoid personality scales with normals has led to a number of validation studies, but to date there are no published analyses of the factorial structure of these scales. This study presents results of factor analyses of schizoid personality scales in an initial attempt to delineate their factorial structure. Questionnaires were administered to 114 male and female undergraduates and factor analysed using Varimax, Quartimax, and Oblique rotations. A two-factor varimax solution yielded a first factor accounting for 49 per cent of total unrotated variance with high (0.70 to 0.91) loadings from Hallucinatory predisposition, Perceptual aberration, Schizophrenism, STA and STB scales, and was interpreted as reflecting a general factor of schizoid personality disorder. Psychoticism and Social anhedonia loaded on a second factor accounting for 20 per cent of the variance which was uncorrelated (r = 0.09) with factor 1. This factor solution was closely replicated using quartimax and oblimin rotation criteria. It is concluded that Social anhedonia and Psychoticism represent a separate dimension from other scales which reflect the more positive features of schizoid personality.

  2. Including the Learner in Personalized Learning. Connect: Making Learning Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickabaugh, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This issue is in response to Janet Twyman's brief, "Competency-Based Education: Supporting Personalized Learning" in the "Connect: Making Learning Personal" series. The discussion in Twyman's brief stopped short of being explicit regarding the aspect of personalized learning that Wisconsin's education innovation lab, the…

  3. Accidents - personal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  4. Leadership: The Personality Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    for many things such as total quality management, team building, understanding you and others better, communication patterns, interpersonal ...Feeling people apply personal priorities and continuously consider human values. Feelers are appreciative, trusting and value warmth in a...the impersonal aspects of decisions. b. Sensing/Feeling (SF) - make decisions by gathering facts, but place great importance on interpersonal

  5. Personal Factors Predicting College Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Gokcen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: With the changing perspective in modern education systems, success means more than grades and includes emotional, social, cognitive, and academic development. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of personal factors (academic self-efficacy, organization and attention to study, time utilization, classroom communication, stress…

  6. Personality, a key factor in personalized medicine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Benthem, Lambertus; van Beek, Andre P.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of health problems resulting from obesity is growing and obesity and its related diseases has become one of the main causes in death in industrialized societies. Environmental influences are crucial for the interactions between genetic, neurohormonal and metabolic factors that may be

  7. Personality, a key factor in personalized medicine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Benthem, Lambertus; van Beek, Andre P.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of health problems resulting from obesity is growing and obesity and its related diseases has become one of the main causes in death in industrialized societies. Environmental influences are crucial for the interactions between genetic, neurohormonal and metabolic factors that may be i

  8. Personality as a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Pouwer, Francois

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Personality can be defined as a stable set of behavioral characteristics of a person. In this review we systematically reviewed whether different personality charac......, while taking into account metabolic syndrome, lifestyle and socio-demographic factors.......OBJECTIVE: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Personality can be defined as a stable set of behavioral characteristics of a person. In this review we systematically reviewed whether different personality...... of risk factors that include the presence of the metabolic syndrome, as well as a more negative prone personality style, that both predispose to the development of coronary heart disease and diabetes. Future studies should investigate the role of personality measures in the development of these conditions...

  9. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.A.J.; Hofstee, W.K.B.; De Raad, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) assesses the Big Five factors of personality, both for self-ratings and for others' ratings. It consists of 100 brief and concrete statements, and can be administered in 10-15 min. in addition to the five factor scores, the FFPI may be used to assess 40 b

  10. Personality Factors and Occupational Specialty Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J.; Jones, Bonnie J.

    This study is a continuation of an earlier investigation of personality and medical specialty choice. The earlier study determined that personality differences existed among family practitioners, anesthesiologists, and general surgeons. Based on this initial research, an attempt was made to answer the question of how the personality factors of…

  11. Interpersonal problems and personality: using three factor solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michelle J; Linden, Paul D

    2003-10-01

    Attempting to bridge the gap between psychotherapy research on interpersonal discord and personality research on factors of normal and abnormal personality, the present study uses personality factors to predict interpersonal problems. Eysenck's P-E-N (Psychoticism-Extraversion-Neuroticism) model of personality and its correspondent index, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised is used as a schema from which to conceptualize and measure personality. Horowitz's Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, which includes six problems commonly reported by psychotherapy patients at intake (hard to be assertive, hard to be submissive, hard to be intimate, hard to be sociable, too controlling, and too responsible), was used as an index of interpersonal distress. Hierarchical multiple regression, in which the most significant predictor was entered into the equation first, indicate significant prediction of various problems by the personality factors considered here. Results are discussed in the context of interpersonal theory.

  12. CATTELL AND EYSENCK FACTOR SCORES RELATED TO COMREY PERSONALITY FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comrey, A L; Duffy, K E

    1968-10-01

    The Eysenck Personality Inventory, the Cattell 16 PF Inventory, and the Comrey Personality Inventory were administered to 272 volunteers. Eysenck and Cattell factor scores were correlated with scores over homogeneous item groups (FHIDs) which define the Comrey test factors. This matrix was factor analyzed to relate the Eysenck and Cattell factor scores to the factor structure underlying the Comrey test. The Eysenck Neuroticism, Comrey Neuroticism, and Cattell second-order Anxiety factors appeared to match. The Eysenck Introversion and the Comrey Shyness factors also matched. The 16 Cattell primary factors overlapped but did not match with the Comrey factors.

  13. The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Montag

    2014-01-01

    The study of the biological basis of personality is a timely research endeavor, with the aim of deepening our understanding of human nature. In recent years, a growing body of research has investigated the role of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the context of individual differences across human beings, with a focus on personality traits. A large number of different approaches have been chosen to illuminate the role of BDNF for personality, ranging from the measurement of BDNF...

  14. Eysenck Personality Inventory Item Factor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comrey, Andrew L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three methods were used to test the factor structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory administered to 583 Australians. The preferred method was to extract factors by the minimum residual method, use the Tandem Criteria Method, and then rotate that number of factors by the Tandem Criteria I method. (SLD)

  15. Cognitive, Personality, and Family Factors in Patients with Migraine Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Johari-Fard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a disorder that has debilitating pain, and affects all aspects of life, including the academic, social, and family life of patients. In addition, studies show the effects of migraine on patient's relationships with family members such as spouse, children, and other family members. In addition to physical pain, migraines are tied to significant psychological and economic costs. Migraineurs tend to have high levels of depression and anxiety, and migraine headaches have a profoundly negative impact on sufferers’ quality of life. In the present research, we investigated the correlations and regressions of cognitive, personality, and family factors with migraine headache, to find predictor factors of migraine. In this study, the following questionnaires were used: For migraine: six-item Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, and Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 2.1.; for cognitive factors: Irrational Beliefs Test and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale; for personality factors: NEO Personality Inventory; and for family factors: Family Assessment Device. This project was on 58 women with migraine headaches, diagnosed by neurologist. The findings show that, there is a significant regression between cognitive, personality, and family factors and HIT-6. In cognitive factors, frustration reactivity and anxious overconcern, in personality factors, extraversion trait, and in family factors, affective involvement are significant. Moreover, there is a significant regression between cognitive, personality, and family factors and MSQ. In cognitive factors, frustration reactivity, anxious overconcern, and helplessness, in personality factors, agreeableness and consciousness, and in family factors, affective involvement and general functioning are significant. This project showed that cognitive, personality, and family factors have a correlation with migraine headache.

  16. Assessment of the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, T A; Trull, T J

    1997-04-01

    The five-factor model (FFM) of personality is obtaining construct validation, recognition, and practical consideration across a broad domain of fields, including clinical psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, and health psychology. As a result, an array of instruments have been developed and existing instruments are being modified to assess the FFM. In this article, we present an overview and critique of five such instruments (the Goldberg Big Five Markers, the revised NEO Personality Inventory, the Interpersonal Adjective Scales-Big Five, the Personality Psychopathology-Five, and the Hogan Personality Inventory), focusing in particular on their representation of the lexical FFM and their practical application.

  17. Factor analytic study of the personality of female methadone outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, R B

    1980-10-01

    Several researchers have examined the personality of chemical abusers by employing a multivariate clustering strategy. All of these studies focused on hospitalized inpatient addicts. Only one included females in the study. The purpose of this study is to examine the transposed data factor analytically derived profiles of female methadone maintained outpatients. All clients were given the Mini-Mult short form version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Seventy profiles were randomly selected from 130 female profiles. Program Factor of the Analyses of Behavioral Sciences Data program series was employed in statistically processing this data. Descriptions of the five factors are provided. Most of the profile types seem to fall into the normal or personality disordered categories. Forth-two percent of the profiles were normal, 24% were Personality Disorders, 6% were Neurotic, and 28% were unclassified using five factors.

  18. Are "g" and the General Factor of Personality (GFP) Correlated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwing, Paul; Booth, Tom; Nyborg, Helmuth; Rushton, J. Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether the General Factor of Personality (GFP) is related to the "g" factor of cognitive ability using data from the Vietnam Experience Study which randomly sampled 4462 Vietnam War veterans from a total sample of about five million Vietnam era army veterans. Exclusionary criteria included passing a fitness test, achieving a…

  19. The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Montag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the biological basis of personality is a timely research endeavor, with the aim of deepening our understanding of human nature. In recent years, a growing body of research has investigated the role of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the context of individual differences across human beings, with a focus on personality traits. A large number of different approaches have been chosen to illuminate the role of BDNF for personality, ranging from the measurement of BDNF in the serum/plasma to molecular genetics to (genetic brain imaging. The present review provides the reader with an overview of the current state of affairs in the context of BDNF and personality.

  20. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... the CMDPSU or CPDM and the sampled work shift is less than 8 hours, the value of t used for... Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and...

  1. Metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Gender differences in personality are considered to have biological bases. In an attempt to understand the gender differences of personality on neurobiological bases, we conducted correlation analyses between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factors of personality in males and females. Thirty-six healthy right-handed volunteers (18 males, 33.8 {+-} 17.6 y;18 females, 36.2 {+-} 20.4 y) underwent FDG PET at resting state. Three temperament factors of personality (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) within 10 days of FDG PET scan. Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament factor was tested using SPM2. In males, a significant negative correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyri, the hippocampus and the insula, while it was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri, the right superior temporal gyrus and the left cingulate cortex and the putamen in females. A positive HA correlation was found in the right midbrain and the left cingulate gyrus in males, but in the bilateral basal ganglia in females. A negative RD correlation was observed in the right middle frontal and the left middle temporal gyri in males, while the correlation was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri and the right basal ganglia and the superior temporal gyrus in females. These data demonstrate different cortical and subcortical metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality between males and females. These results may help understand biological substrate of gender differences in personality and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses.

  2. Psychometric properties of the personal wellbeing index in Brazilian and Chilean adolescents including spirituality and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castellá Sarriera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI with two other versions which include the domains "Spirituality" and "Religion", separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047 and Chilean (n = 1.053 adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08, whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the differential contribution of each domain to the notion of global satisfaction, a regression on the item Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS was applied using structural equations. It is recommended the inclusion of the item spirituality in the original scale, considering the importance of such domain in both cultures.

  3. Higher order factors of personality: do they exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom; Goldberg, Lewis R; de Vries, Reinout E

    2009-05-01

    Scales that measure the Big Five personality factors are often substantially intercorrelated. These correlations are sometimes interpreted as implying the existence of two higher order factors of personality. The authors show that correlations between measures of broad personality factors do not necessarily imply the existence of higher order factors and might instead be due to variables that represent same-signed blends of orthogonal factors. Therefore, the hypotheses of higher order factors and blended variables can only be tested with data on lower level personality variables that define the personality factors. The authors compared the higher order factor model and the blended variable model in three participant samples using the Big Five Aspect Scales, and found better fit for the latter model. In other analyses using the HEXACO Personality Inventory, they identified mutually uncorrelated markers of six personality factors. The authors conclude that correlations between personality factor scales can be explained without postulating any higher order dimensions of personality.

  4. Personality Factors as Predictors of Foreign Language Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    The study addresses a problem which is inadequately investigated in second language acquisition research, that is, personality predictors of foreign language aptitude. Specifically, it focuses on the Five Factor model which includes Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism (Costa & McCrae, 1992) as…

  5. Risk factors associated with HIV infection among young persons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joshua Kembo * Joshua Kembo (PhD) is a Senior Researcher in the Bureau of Market Research (BMR) at the University of South Africa (Unisa). He holds a PhD in Epidemiology obtained from the School of Health Systems and Public Health (SHSPH) at the University of Pretoria. kemboj@unisa.ac.za

    2012-05-30

    May 30, 2012 ... To cite this article: Joshua Kembo (2012): Risk factors associated with HIV infection among young .... prevention programmes to combat the spread of HIV and AIDS ... 14.3% (Zimbabwe Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare 2010). Various ...... geted at young persons aged 15–24 years to include promoting.

  6. The relationship between stress and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voichita M. Dumitru

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the stress level in a group of nurses and to correlate the stress level andits subsequent symptoms with personality factors. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 34 psychiatric nurses, 68% of thembeing female. The average age of the male subjects was 32.25 years with a standard deviation of 6.21 years, while the average age of the femalesubjects was 35.18 years, with a standard deviation of 8.03 years. The analysis focused on the stress level, stress symptoms, age, durationof employment and personality factors. Results: The findings showed that female staff members were more affected by stress as they growolder and have spent a longer time on the job, while male staff members were subjected to higher stress levels at the beginning of their activity.Correlations between personality factors and stress both in concerns of perceived stress and the level of subsequent stress symptomatologywere identified. High stress levels were identified in people with low social presence (r=-0.417, p=0.01 and low empathy (r=-0.393, p=0.02.A higher intensity of psychological symptoms following stress was also associated with low social presence (r =-0.379, p=0.03, low empathy(r=-0.465, p<0.01, low independence (r=-0.347, p=0.04, low good impression (r=-0.380, p=0.03, low well-being state (r =-0.429, p=0.01,low tolerance (r=-0.484, p<0.01, low intellectual efficiency (r=-0.406, p=0.02, low psychological intuition (r=-0.437, p=0.01, low work orientation(r=-0.463, p<0.01 and increased femininity (r=0.431, p=0.01. Conclusion: Several personality factors, such as social presence, empathy,independence, good impression, intellectual efficiency, psychological intuition, work orientation, femininity render individuals morevulnerable to stress. There are significant differences between females and males in what concerns stress adaptation.

  7. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    .... (2) Electronic mail: zzMSHA-comments@dol.gov . Include ``RIN 1219- AB64'' in the subject line of the message. (3) Facsimile: 202-693-9441. Include ``RIN 1219-AB64'' in the subject line of the message. (4... on appropriate timeframes to switch out sampling devices, Coal Mine Dust Personal Sampler...

  8. Identification of Personal Factors in Motor Neurone Disease: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Ng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor neurone disease (MND is a devastating condition. This preliminary study aims to identify relevant personal factors affecting the experience of living with MND from the perspective of persons with MND (pwMND in an Australian cohort. A prospective cross-sectional survey of pwMND (=44 using an open-ended questionnaire identified personal factors that were categorised thematically. Standardised questionnaires assessed disease severity: depression, anxiety, and stress and coping strategies. Personal factors identified included demographic factors (socioeconomic status, emotional states (depression, anxiety, and fear, coping strategies (problem-based coping and denial, personality, beliefs (religious and personal values, attitudes (of the patient, and others (such as perceived support. An understanding of personal factors by treating clinicians is essential in the provision of optimal care in MND. This study may assist in the development of personal factors within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for improved consensus of care and communication amongst treating clinicians.

  9. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  10. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  11. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  12. The five-factor model of personality and borderline personality disorder: a genetic analysis of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Marijn A; Trull, Timothy J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M; Derom, Catherine A; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2009-12-15

    Recently, the nature of personality disorders and their relationship with normal personality traits has received extensive attention. The five-factor model (FFM) of personality, consisting of the personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, is one of the proposed models to conceptualize personality disorders as maladaptive variants of continuously distributed personality traits. The present study examined the phenotypic and genetic association between borderline personality and FFM personality traits. Data were available for 4403 monozygotic twins, 4425 dizygotic twins, and 1661 siblings from 6140 Dutch, Belgian, and Australian families. Broad-sense heritability estimates for neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, openness to experience, and borderline personality were 43%, 36%, 43%, 47%, 54%, and 45%, respectively. Phenotypic correlations between borderline personality and the FFM personality traits ranged from .06 for openness to experience to .68 for neuroticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that a combination of high neuroticism and low agreeableness best predicted borderline personality. Multivariate genetic analyses showed the genetic factors that influence individual differences in neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion account for all genetic liability to borderline personality. Unique environmental effects on borderline personality, however, were not completely shared with those for the FFM traits (33% is unique to borderline personality). Borderline personality shares all genetic variation with neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion. The unique environmental influences specific to borderline personality may cause individuals with a specific pattern of personality traits to cross a threshold and develop borderline personality.

  13. Scientific reasons for including persons with disabilities in clinical and translational diabetes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley M

    2012-03-01

    Despite disparities in health problems and outcomes, people with disabilities are underrepresented in diabetes research. This results in a lack of evidence-based knowledge regarding best approaches in caring for this population. This article addresses the need for research that includes people with disabilities and describes the common reasons persons with disabilities are not included in research, including scientists' concerns regarding threats to a study's internal validity and cost. Arguments are provided as to how involving people with disabilities in research will improve our science and reduce disparities in this population. In addition to the ethical reasons for including persons with disabilities in research, the ability to generalize study findings to this population and thus speed our development and translation of this knowledge for use by clinicians is discussed. The bias in study conclusions that arise from study samples that do not include persons with disabilities and its possible effect on care delivery are presented. Two strategies that researchers can use to increase the inclusion of persons with disabilities in research are described: (1) Universal Design of Research and (2) intervention optimization study designs. Universal Design of Research includes research design processes such as the use of multisensory formats for recruiting participants, approaches to designing and presenting research instruments and interventions, and methods of data collection to promote the inclusion of participants with a wide range of abilities in research studies. Intervention optimization study designs offer an efficient way for scientists to rapidly build the most potent interventions for a wide range of people, including those with disabilities participating in mainstream research.

  14. Personality factors as predictors of foreign language aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Biedroń

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses a problem which is inadequately investigated in second language acquisition research, that is, personality predictors of foreign language aptitude. Specifically, it focuses on the Five Factor model which includes Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism (Costa & McCrae, 1992 as traits differentiating gifted and nongifted foreign language learners and predicting results of foreign language aptitude tests. Although contemporary researchers generally agree that affect is an important variable in second language acquisition, most empirical studies demonstrate that personality factors are weakly correlated with cognitive abilities and that their contribution to the ultimate attainment is minor (cf. Robinson & Ellis, 2008. On the other hand, these factors constitute an integral part of cognitive ability development (cf. Dörnyei, 2009; therefore, neglecting them in research on foreign language aptitude would be unjustified. The following study is an attempt to analyze the Five Factors in two groups of learners: gifted and nongifted. In order to answer the question as to which and to what extent personality factors have a predictive effect on foreign language aptitude, the results were subjected to a multiple regression analysis. The findings of the study are presented and discussed in a wider context of research on cognitive abilities.

  15. 41 CFR 102-38.140 - What must we include in the public notice on sale of personal property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Advertising § 102-38.140 What must we include in the public notice on sale of personal property? In the public notice, you must provide... the public notice on sale of personal property? 102-38.140 Section 102-38.140 Public Contracts and...

  16. Personality factors and disorders in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, J N; Vaillancourt, P D

    1999-07-01

    It has long been recognized that there is a relationship between certain personality types and personality disorders (PD) and chronic nonmalignant pain (CP). The relationship, however, is far from understood and the physiological and psychological mechanisms that underlie it are unclear. Those who treat chronic pain face many challenges when dealing with individuals who have personality disorders and they often become frustrated when interacting with these patients. Patients with certain traits and personality disorders may continue to worry and ruminate about their symptoms long after the tissue pathology has resolved. Other individuals may overly rely on the clinician and assume a passive role in their treatment, thereby decreasing the likelihood for a positive outcome. Moreover, patients with personality disorders may be demanding (eg, borderline), self-absorbed (eg, narcissistic), or substance seeking (eg, antisocial, borderline). In an attempt to improve management of such patients, pain specialists have attempted to better understand the complex relationship between personality and chronic pain. In this article, we will review the predominant historical and current theories of pain and personality, discuss aspects of the gate-control theory of pain that may relate to personality, and discuss the diathesis-stress model of personality disorders in pain. Last, we will review studies of personality and personality disorders in chronic pain and their treatment implications. We conclude that, based on the underlying neurochemistry, there may be a direct or indirect link between PD and CP, but further prospective research, both on the biological and psychological relationship, should be conducted.

  17. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  18. Higher-Order Factors of Personality: Do They Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Michael C.; Lee, Kibeom; Goldberg, Lewis R.; de Vries, Reinout E.

    2010-01-01

    Scales that measure the Big Five personality factors are often substantially intercorrelated. These correlations are sometimes interpreted as implying the existence of two higher-order factors of personality. We show that correlations between measures of broad personality factors do not necessarily imply the existence of higher-order factors, and might instead be due to variables that represent same-signed blends of orthogonal factors. Therefore, the hypotheses of higher-order factors and blended variables can only be tested with data on lower-level personality variables that define the personality factors. We compared the higher-order factor model and the blended variable model in three participant samples using the Big Five Aspect Scales, and found better fit for the latter model. In other analyses using the HEXACO Personality Inventory, we identified mutually uncorrelated markers of six personality factors. We conclude that correlations between personality factor scales can be explained without postulating any higher-order dimensions of personality. PMID:19458345

  19. The HEXACO personality factors in the indigenous personality lexicons of English and 11 other languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibeom; Ashton, Michael C

    2008-10-01

    Two studies tested the correspondence between six dimensions obtained in lexical studies of personality structure and the proposed HEXACO personality framework. Study 1 examined the English personality lexicon using 449 adjectives selected according to rated frequency of use in personality description. Six validimax-rotated factors derived from adjective self-ratings showed strong convergent and weak discriminant correlations with questionnaire markers of the HEXACO factors; the six adjective dimensions were also recovered from peer ratings. In Study 2, lay judges rated the conceptual similarity between HEXACO factor descriptions and adjective lists summarizing the six indigenous lexical personality factors of each of 12 languages. Across languages, a pattern of strong convergent and weak discriminant similarity ratings was observed; similarity ratings for the English factors of Study 1 were comparable to those for other languages' factors. Results indicate that the six dimensions of the HEXACO framework are recovered from the personality lexicons of various languages.

  20. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. 1552.239-103 Section 1552.239... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in... Personal Computers, Monitors, and Printers (APR 1996) (a) The Contractor shall provide computer products...

  1. Teaching Basic Writers: The Personality Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigstad, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Reviews research on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator's (MBTI's) use in personalizing the basic writing curriculum. Describes an MBTI-based study of personality and writing performance in a basic writing class. Identifies ways MBTI results can inform teacher feedback and the use of prewriting, small groups, computers, and essay tests. (DMM)

  2. Factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory: Criterion-Related Validity and Relationship to the BIS/BAS and Five-Factor Models of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Scott R.; Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Thompson, Angela; Thurston, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder that includes interpersonal-affective and antisocial deviance features. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) contains two underlying factors (fearless dominance and impulsive antisociality) that may differentially tap these two sets of features. In a mixed-gender sample of undergraduates and prisoners,…

  3. Personalized Predictive Modeling and Risk Factor Identification using Patient Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kenney; Sun, Jimeng; Hu, Jianying; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Personalized predictive models are customized for an individual patient and trained using information from similar patients. Compared to global models trained on all patients, they have the potential to produce more accurate risk scores and capture more relevant risk factors for individual patients. This paper presents an approach for building personalized predictive models and generating personalized risk factor profiles. A locally supervised metric learning (LSML) similarity measure is trained for diabetes onset and used to find clinically similar patients. Personalized risk profiles are created by analyzing the parameters of the trained personalized logistic regression models. A 15,000 patient data set, derived from electronic health records, is used to evaluate the approach. The predictive results show that the personalized models can outperform the global model. Cluster analysis of the risk profiles show groups of patients with similar risk factors, differences in the top risk factors for different groups of patients and differences between the individual and global risk factors.

  4. Personality factors correlate with regional cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, R L; Kumari, V; Williams, S C R; Zelaya, F O; Connor, S E J; Alsop, D C; Gray, J A

    2006-06-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence pointing to a neurobiological basis of personality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological bases of the major dimensions of Eysenck's and Cloninger's models of personality using a noninvasive magnetic resonance perfusion imaging technique in 30 young, healthy subjects. An unbiased voxel-based analysis was used to identify regions where the regional perfusion demonstrated significant correlation with any of the personality dimensions. Highly significant positive correlations emerged between extraversion and perfusion in the basal ganglia, thalamus, inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellum and between novelty seeking and perfusion in the cerebellum, cuneus and thalamus. Strong negative correlations emerged between psychoticism and perfusion in the basal ganglia and thalamus and between harm avoidance and perfusion in the cerebellar vermis, cuneus and inferior frontal gyrus. These observations suggest that personality traits are strongly associated with resting cerebral perfusion in a variety of cortical and subcortical regions and provide further evidence for the hypothesized neurobiological basis of personality. These results may also have important implications for functional neuroimaging studies, which typically rely on the modulation of cerebral hemodynamics for detection of task-induced activation since personality effects may influence the intersubject variability for both task-related activity and resting cerebral perfusion. This technique also offers a novel approach for the exploration of the neurobiological correlates of human personality.

  5. Relationship between Consumer Identity and Brand Personality as a Factor of Brand Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Antonova N. V.; Morozova V.D.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the relationship between consumer identity and brand personality as a factor of consumer commitment to the brand. We hypothesized that: a) there is a link between consumer identity and preferred brand’s personality; b) the higher the similarity between the consumer identity and preferred brand’s personality, the higher the brand commitment. The sample included 150 subjects aged 18—25. Methods: the method of J. Aaker was used to study brand personality, and its modificatio...

  6. Fats and factors: lipid profiles associate with personality factors and suicidal history in bipolar subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Evans

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have shown efficacy in the treatment of bipolar disorder, however their specific role in treating the illness is unclear. Serum PUFA and dietary intakes of PUFA associate with suicidal behavior in epidemiological studies. The objective of this study was to assess serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels in bipolar subjects and determine possible associations with suicidal risk, including suicidal history and relevant personality factors that have been associated with suicidality. We studied 27 bipolar subjects using the NEO-PI to assess the big five personality factors, structured interviews to verify diagnosis and assess suicidal history, and lipomics to quantify n-3 and n-6 PUFA in serum. We found positive associations between personality factors and ratios of n-3 PUFA, suggesting that conversion of short chain to long chain n-3s and the activity of enzymes in this pathway may associate with measures of personality. Thus, ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to alpha linolenic acid (ALA and the activity of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2 involved in the conversion of ALA to DHA were positively associated with openness factor scores. Ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to ALA and ratios of EPA to DHA were positively associated with agreeableness factor scores. Finally, serum concentrations of the n-6, arachidonic acid (AA, were significantly lower in subjects with a history of suicide attempt compared to non-attempters. The data suggest that specific lipid profiles, which are controlled by an interaction between diet and genetics, correlate with suicidal history and personality factors related to suicidal risk. This study provides preliminary data for future studies to determine whether manipulation of PUFA profiles (through diet or supplementation can affect personality measures and disease outcome in bipolar subjects and supports the need for further investigations into individualized specific modulations of lipid

  7. Modeling the Effects of Person Group Factors on Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphry, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination has traditionally been parameterized for items but not other empirical factors. Consequently, if person factors affect discrimination they cause misfit. However, by explicitly formulating the relationship between discrimination and the unit of a metric, it is possible to parameterize discrimination for person groups. This article…

  8. Perinatal risk factors including malformation; Perinatale Risikofaktoren einschliesslich Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project `Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria` is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG). [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die haeufigsten in der Literatur beschriebenen Faktoren, die einen unguenstigen Einfluss auf den Schwangerschaftsverlauf ausueben koennen, gegeben. Ein Hauptgewicht liegt dabei auf der Beschreibung von solchen Faktoren, die mit der Induktion von Fehlbildungen in Zusammenhang gebracht werden koennen, so unter anderem auch der praenatalen Strahlenexposition. Diese Arbeit, die im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens `Strahlenbiologisches Umweltmonitoring Bayern` angefertigt wurde, bildet die Grundlage einer im Sinne einer umweltbezogenen Gesundheitsberichterstattung retro- bzw. prospektiv angelegten Auswertung der Saeuglingssterblichkeit, des Perinatalgeschehens und der Fehlbildungshaeufigkeit in Bayern, wobei neben der ionisierenden Strahlung als Risikofaktor auch andere im Rahmen einer oekologischen Studie erfassbare Risiken, wie beispielsweise Industrieansiedlungen, Muellverbrennungsanlagen und -deponien oder Urbanitaet beruecksichtigt werden sollen. (orig./MG).

  9. Critical Factors for Personal Cloud Storage Adoption in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jianya Wang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In order to explain and predict the adoption of personal cloud storage, this study explores the critical factors involved in the adoption of personal cloud storage and empirically validates their relationships to a user's intentions. Design/methodology/approach: Based on technology acceptance model (TAM), network externality, trust, and an interview survey, this study proposes a personal cloud storage adoption model. We conducted an empirical analysis by structural equation modeli...

  10. Reproductive Behavior and Personality Traits of the Five Factor Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, Markus; Alvergne, Alexandra; Pollet, Thomas V.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations between Five Factor Model personality traits and various outcomes of reproductive behavior in a sample of 15 729 women and men from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey. Personality and reproductive history was se

  11. Situational and Personality Factors: Interactive Effects on Attitude - Active Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Stan L.; Warner, Lyle G.

    1975-01-01

    An examination of the combined effect of a situational factor, disclosure, and two personality variables, "need for approval" and "inner-other directedness" on attitude - action relationships with respect to marijuana related attitudes and behavior of college students. Subjects with different personality characteristics were found to respond…

  12. Personality and coping traits: A joint factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this paper is to explore the structural similarities between Eysenck's model of personality and the dimensions of the dispositional COPE. Costa et al. {Costa P., Somerfield, M., & McCrae, R. (1996). Personality and coping: A reconceptualisation. In (pp. 44-61) Handbook of coping: Theory, research and applications. New York: Wiley} suggest that personality and coping behaviour are part of a continuum based on adaptation. If this is the case, there should be structural similarities between measures of personality and coping behaviour. This is tested using a joint factor analysis of personality and coping measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The EPQ-R and the dispositional COPE were administered to 154 participants, and the data were analysed using joint factor analysis and bivariate associations. RESULTS: The joint factor analysis indicated that these data were best explained by a four-factor model. One factor was primarily unrelated to personality. There was a COPE-neurotic-introvert factor (NI-COPE) containing coping behaviours such as denial, a COPE-extroversion (E-COPE) factor containing behaviours such as seeking social support and a COPE-psychoticism factor (P-COPE) containing behaviours such as alcohol use. This factor pattern, especially for NI- and E-COPE, was interpreted in terms of Gray's model of personality {Gray, J. A. (1987) The psychology of fear and stress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press}. NI-, E-, and P-COPE were shown to be related, in a theoretically consistent manner, to perceived coping success and perceived coping functions. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there are indeed conceptual links between models of personality and coping. It is argued that future research should focus on identifying coping 'trait complexes'. Implications for practice are discussed.

  13. Five-factor Personality Dimensions and 3 Healthrelated Personality Constructs as Predictors of Health

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine how 5-factor personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness) and 3 higher-order health-related personality constructs (negative experience, optimistic control, and passivity) are related to self-reports of subjective health outcomes (positive and negative mood, physical symptoms, and general health concern) and objective health conditions (chronic illnesses, serious illnesses, and physical injuries). Meth...

  14. Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of Courses in ... Female students in six (Arts, Education, Pharmacy, Science, Social Sciences and ... services to secondary school students in the choice of courses and career.

  15. Four factors of impulsivity differentiate antisocial and borderline personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShong, Hilary L; Kurtz, John E

    2013-04-01

    Impulsivity is a shared criterion for the diagnosis of antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and this link may account for the high comorbidity rates between the two disorders. The current study aimed to differentiate between borderline and antisocial personality disorders using the four factors of impulsivity identified by Whiteside and Lynam (2001). Five hundred thirty-six undergraduate participants completed the personality assessment inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to assess borderline and antisocial personality features and the NEO personality inventory, third edition (NEO-PI-3; McCrae & Costa, 2010) to assess the four factors of impulsivity. Results indicate that negative urgency and lack of perseverance were significantly and uniquely related to borderline features, while sensation seeking and lack of premeditation were significantly and uniquely related to antisocial features. The implications of these results for improved differential diagnosis are discussed.

  16. Personality factors in the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stacy L; Sun, Jenny X; Sebastiani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    within average population values. No significant differences were found between long-lived family members and their spouses.Discussion. Personality factors and more specifically low neuroticism and high extraversion may be important for achieving extreme old age. In addition, personality scores of family......Objectives. To evaluate personality profiles of Long Life Family Study participants relative to population norms and offspring of centenarians from the New England Centenarian Study.Method. Personality domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness were...... assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory in 4,937 participants from the Long Life Family Study (mean age 70 years). A linear mixed model of age and gender was implemented adjusting for other covariates. RESULTS: A significant age trend was found in all five personality domains. On average, the offspring...

  17. Personality factors and medical training: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Eva M; Nugent, Emmeline

    2011-02-01

    it has been acknowledged that certain personality characteristics influence both medical students' and doctors' performance. With regard to medical students, studies have been concerned with the role of personality, and performance indicators such as academic results and clinical competence. In addition, the link between personality and vulnerability to stress, which has implications for performance, has been investigated at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Most of the studies cited in the literature were published before the year 2000. The authors therefore undertook a literature search to determine whether any prospective systematic studies have been published since 2000. a review of the literature for 2000-2009 was performed, using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL. The search terms used were 'personality', 'performance', 'stress' and 'medical student'. Specific inclusion criteria required studies to be cohort studies carried out over a minimum period of 2 years, which measured medical student scores on valid and reliable personality tests, and used objective measures of performance and stress. the authors identified seven suitable studies. Four of these looked at personality factors and academic success, one looked at personality factors and clinical competence, and two looked at personality factors and stress. The main personality characteristic repeatedly identified in the literature was conscientiousness. the personality trait known as conscientiousness has been found to be a significant predictor of performance in medical school. The relationship between personality and performance becomes increasingly significant as learners advance through medical training. Additional traits concerning sociability (i.e. extraversion, openness, self-esteem and neuroticism) have also been identified as relevant, particularly in the applied medical environment. A prospective national study with the collaboration of all medical schools would make it

  18. Cross-culturally recurrent personality factors : Analyses of three factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B; Peabody, D

    2005-01-01

    This study proceeds from an earlier one that examined the 'Big Five' factors (Peabody & De Raad, 2002). That study considered the substantive nature of five factors from six European psycholexical studies. The results supported Big Five Factor III (Conscientiousness), but Factors I (Extraversion) an

  19. An inter-battery factor analysis of the comrey personality scales and the 16 personality factor questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon P. de Bruin

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The scores of 700 Afrikaans-speaking university students on the Comrey Personality Scales and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire were subjected to an inter-battery factor analysis. This technique uses only the correlations between two sets of variables and reveals only the factors that they have in common. Three of the Big Five personality factors were revealed, namely Extroversion, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. However, the Conscientiousness factor contained a relatively strong unsocialised component and in this regard it is similar to Eysencks Psychoticism factor. The results support the construct validity of the Comrey Personality Scales and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire. Implications for personality questionnaire design and validation are discussed. OpsommingDie tellings van 700 Afrikaanssprekende universiteitstudente vir die Comrey Persoonlikheidskale en die 16 Per- soonlikheidsfaktorvraelys is aan 'n interbattery-faktorontleding onderwerp. Hierdie tegniek gebruik slegs die korrelasies tussen twee stelle veranderlikes en ontbloot slegs faktore wat die twee stelle veranderlikes gemeen het. Drie van die faktore van die vyfFaktormodel is blootgele, naamlik Ekstroversie, Neurotisisme en Konsensieusheid. Die Konsensieusheidsfaktor het ook n relatief sterk ongesosialiseerdheidskomponent ingesluit en in hierdie sin is dit soortgelyk aan Eysenck se Psigotisisme faktor. Die resultate ondersteun die konstrukgeldigheid van die Comrey Persoonlikheidskale en die 16 Persoonlikheidsfaktorvraelys. Implikasies vir die ontwerp en validering van persoonlikheidstoetse word bespreek.

  20. Using person factors in social science research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K. Burger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis factorial es el método utilizado frecuentemente para la identificación de las dimensiones y estructuras que constituyen la base de un conjunto de medidas, lo cual es importante para la investigación. Mientras el análisis factorial de tipo R, produce los factores presentes en las variables, es conocido por muchos investigadores que el análisis de tipo Q describe los factores presentes en las personas, y ha sido utilizado con menor frecuencia. En el presente trabajo se describe el análisis factorial de tipo Q y lo distingue del análisis factorial de tipo R. Entonces, se examinan tres usos de factores derivados del análisis factorial tipo Q: para describir el perfil de los resultados de pruebas de individuos, para dar más opciones al análisis convencional de los datos y para investigar las cualidades del individuo en los instrumentos de medición. Se propone que los factores personales resultan útiles para estos propósitos, en las investigaciones de las ciencias sociales.

  1. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods: Prospecti

  2. Critical Factors for Personal Cloud Storage Adoption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianya Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to explain and predict the adoption of personal cloud storage, this study explores the critical factors involved in the adoption of personal cloud storage and empirically validates their relationships to a user's intentions. Design/methodology/approach: Based on technology acceptance model (TAM, network externality, trust, and an interview survey, this study proposes a personal cloud storage adoption model. We conducted an empirical analysis by structural equation modeling based on survey data obtained with a questionnaire. Findings: Among the adoption factors we identified, network externality has the salient influence on a user's adoption intention, followed by perceived usefulness, individual innovation, perceived trust, perceived ease of use, and subjective norms. Cloud storage characteristics are the most important indirect factors, followed by awareness to personal cloud storage and perceived risk. However, although perceived risk is regarded as an important factor by other cloud computing researchers, we found that it has no significant influence. Also, subjective norms have no significant influence on perceived usefulness. This indicates that users are rational when they choose whether to adopt personal cloud storage. Research limitations: This study ignores time and cost factors that might affect a user's intention to adopt personal cloud storage. Practical implications: Our findings might be helpful in designing and developing personal cloud storage products, and helpful to regulators crafting policies. Originality/value: This study is one of the first research efforts that discuss Chinese users' personal cloud storage adoption, which should help to further the understanding of personal cloud adoption behavior among Chinese users.

  3. Personal Exposure Monitoring of Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide, including Susceptible Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. M. Harrison; C. A. Thornton; R. G. Lawrence; D. Mark; R. P. Kinnersley; J. G. Ayres

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relation between personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM10, and exposures estimated from static concentrations of these pollutants measured within the same...

  4. The K-factor, Covitality, and personality : A Psychometric Test of Life History Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Aurelio José; Vásquez, Geneva; Brumbach, Barbara Hagenah; Schneider, Stephanie M R

    2007-03-01

    We present a psychometric test of life history theory as applied to human individual differences using MIDUS survey data (Brim et al. 2000). Twenty scales measuring cognitive and behavioral dimensions theoretically related to life history strategy were constructed using items from the MIDUS survey. These scales were used to construct a single common factor, the K-factor, which accounted for 70% of the reliable variance. The scales used included measures of personal, familial, and social function. A second common factor, Covitality, was constructed from scales for physical and mental health. Finally, a single general factor, Personality, was constructed from scales for the "Big Five" factors of personality. The K-factor, covitality factor, and general personality factor correlated significantly with each other, supporting the prediction that high K predicts high somatic effort and also manifests in behavioral display. Thus, a single higher-order common factor, the Super-K factor, was constructed that consisted of the K-factor, covitality factor, and personality factor.

  5. Women and vulnerability to depression: some personality and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Jesús M; Rojo, Nieves; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the role of sex differences and personality in vulnerability to depression. Sex differences in personality and some clinical variables are described. We also assess the value of the variables that revealed significant sex differences as predictors of vulnerability to depression. In a group of adult participants (N = 112), 50% males and 50% females (mean age = 41.30; SD = 15.09; range 17-67), we studied sex differences in the three-factor personality model, using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Form A (EPQ-A; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975), and in the Five-Factor Personality Model, with the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI; Costa & McCrae, 1985). The following clinical scales were used: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979), the Schizotypy Questionnaire (STQ; Claridge & Broks, 1984; Spanish version, Carrillo & Rojo, 1999), the THARL Scales (Dua, 1989, 1990; Spanish version, Dua & Carrillo, 1994) and the Adjustment Inventory (Bell, 1937; Spanish version, Cerdá, 1980). Subsequently, simple linear regression analysis, with BDI scores as criterion, were performed to estimate the value of the variables as predictors of vulnerability to depression. The results indicate that a series of personality variables cause women to be more vulnerable to depression than men and that these variables could be explained by a negative emotion main factor. Results are discussed within the framework of the psychological behaviorism theory of depression.

  6. ICF and ICF-CY lessons learned: Pandora's box of personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonsson, Rune J; Lollar, Don; Björck-Åkesson, Eva; Granlund, Mats; Brown, Scott C; Zhuoying, Qiu; Gray, David; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the component of "personal factors" described as a contextual factor in the ICF and ICF-CY. A critical examination of the construct of "personal factors" and description of the component was made with reference to conceptual and taxonomic criteria. The "personal factors" component in the ICF/ICF-CY is not defined, there is no taxonomy of codes, there is no explicit purpose stated for its use and no guidelines are provided for its application. In spite of these constraints, the component of "personal factors" is being applied as part of the classifications. Such uncontrolled applications constitute significant risks for the status of ICF/ICF-CY as the WHO reference classification in that: (a) the component is accepted for use by default simply by being applied; (b) component content is expanded with idiosyncratic exemplars by users; and (c) there is potential misuse of "personal factors" in documenting personal attributes, including "blaming the victim". In the absence of formal codes, any application of the component of "personal factors" lacks the legitimacy that documentation with a scientific taxonomy should provide. Given the growing use of the ICF/ICF-CY globally, a priority for the revision process should be to determine if there is in fact need for "personal" or any other factors in the ICF/ICF-CY. A central contribution of the ICF/ICF-CY is the universal language of codes for the components of body structure, body function, activities and participation and Environmental Factors. As such the codes provide taxonomical legitimacy and power for documenting dimensions of functioning and disability in clinical and rehabilitation contexts. As there are no codes of "personal factors", there is no basis for documentation of the component. Demographic information, if needed for identification, should be recorded in customary formats, independent of any component or codes of the ICF/ICF-CY.

  7. Role of biological factors in etiopathogenesis of borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally labile personality of borderline type (borderline personality occurs in 1-2% of individuals from general population; 75% of this group are women. Similarly to most of the other mental disorders, the borderline personality results from a combination of biological, social and psychological factors. The subject of this study is a survey of the current knowledge on biological factors of borderline personality. Most researchers are of the opinion that these personality disorders are determined genetically, with such inherited temperamental traits as: dysregulation, impulsivity, and hypersensitivity. Perhaps hereditary is also a defect within the serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system and/or dopaminergic system related to the reward system. Many researchers have recently perceived the dysfunction of endogenous opioid system as an integral component of borderline personality. There is now a lot of evidence showing that this dysfunction as well as that of the reward system may account for most of the borderline personality symptoms which constitute an involuntary attempt of stimulating the inefficient systems. This is how e.g. the presence of reckless sexual behaviours, unstable interpersonal relationships and inability to delay the reward in borderline personality is accounted for. Such observations may in the future constitute an important indication for seeking a more effective pharmacotherapy for patients with borderline personality. It is possible that in some patients the described dysfunctions may be alleviated with time. This is implied by the results of comprehensive prospective studies which show a significant regression of symptoms and improvement in functioning of most patients with borderline personality after at least several years.

  8. An exploratory analysis of personality factors contributed to suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who attempt suicide have certain individual predispositions, part of which is contributed by personality traits. Aims: The present study was conducted to identify the psycho-sociodemographic and personality related factors contributing to suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 104 suicide attempters admitted in various departments and referred to the department of psychiatry of IQRAA Hospital formed the study sample. They were evaluated with a self designed socio-demographic proforma, Eysenck′s Personality Questionnaire Revised, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Impulsivity Coping Scale, and Past Feelings and Acts of Violence Scale. Statistics Analysis: The data was initially analyzed by percentage of frequencies. Association between socio-demographic and selected psychological factors was analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. Intercorrelation among psychological factors was calculated by Pearson′s correlation coefficient "r". Results and Conclusion: Factors such as young age, being married, nuclear family, feeling lonely and burden to family, inability to solve the problems of day to day life, and presence of psychiatric diagnosis and personality traits such as neuroticism, impulsivity, and violence were contributed to suicide attempt. A significant positive relationship between these factors was also identified. Findings of the present study call the attention of mental health professionals to identify these high risk factors in susceptible individuals and to modify these factors to prevent them from attempting suicide.

  9. Lessons learned from different approaches towards classifying personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rachel; Geyh, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    To examine and compare existing suggestions towards a classification of Personal Factors (PF) of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Qualitative and quantitative content analyses of available categorizations of PF are conducted. While the eight categorizations greatly differ in their background and structure, the broad content areas covered seem to be similar and reflect the ICF definition of PF. They cover to various degrees 12 broad content areas: socio-demographic factors, behavioral and lifestyle factors, cognitive psychological factors, social relationships, experiences and biography, coping, emotional factors, satisfaction, other health conditions, biological/physiological factors, personality, motives/motivation. In comparing these categorizations, a common core of content issues for a potential ICF PF classification could be identified and valuable lessons learned. This can contribute to future classification development activities in relation to PF.

  10. Dose estimate for personal music players including earphone sensitivity and characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Christensen, Anders Tornvig

    2016-01-01

    Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user...

  11. Factors Contributing to Personal Commitment in Chinese Interethnic Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interethnic relationships are increasingly common in many societies, yet interethnic couples have a higher divorce rate compared to intraethnic couples. Given these facts and the dearth of research, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to couples’ commitment in interethnic relationships. This study investigated the personal commitment of Chinese interethnic couples in the United Kingdom and the United States. Specifically, whether love, dyadic adjustment and “couple cultural identity” (i.e. acculturation to the partner and couple’s similarity on individualism/collectivism would predict personal commitment and whether each variable would account for unique variance in personal commitment of the participants. Thirty-seven Chinese/non-Chinese heterosexual couples participated in the study and significant relationships between love and personal commitment, dyadic adjustment and personal commitment were found. Also, couple cultural identity was important for women’s personal commitment. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling showed that partners in interethnic relationships defined personal commitment in different ways with men emphasizing love and dyadic adjustment, and women emphasizing love and acculturation to their partner. The discovery of the importance of couple cultural identity in contributing to personal commitment, besides love and dyadic adjustment, helps researchers to gain a greater understanding of such relationships and to extend the research on interethnic relationships.

  12. The maladaptive Personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in relation to the HEXACO Personality factors and Schizotypy/Dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.P. Ashton; K. Lee (Kibeom); R.E. de Vries (Reinout); R.G. Hendrickse; M.Ph. Born (Marise)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), a new measure of maladaptive personality traits, has recently been developed by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup. The PID-5 variables were examined within the seven-factor space defined by the six HEXACO factors and th

  13. The maladaptive Personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in relation to the HEXACO Personality factors and Schizotypy/Dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.P. Ashton; K. Lee (Kibeom); R.E. de Vries (Reinout); R.G. Hendrickse; M.Ph. Born (Marise)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), a new measure of maladaptive personality traits, has recently been developed by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup. The PID-5 variables were examined within the seven-factor space defined by the six HEXACO factors and

  14. Investigating the influence of social desirability on personality factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, J E; Smith, D B; Sackett, P R

    2001-02-01

    This study provides a comprehensive investigation into whether social desirability alters the factor structure of personality measures. The study brought together 4 large data sets wherein different organizational samples responded to different personality measures. This facilitated conducting 4 separate yet parallel investigations. Within each data set, individuals identified through a social desirability scale as responding in an honest manner were grouped together, and individuals identified as responding in a highly socially desirable manner were grouped together. Using various analyses, the fit of higher order factor structure models was compared across the 2 groups. Results were the same for each data set. Social desirability had little influence on the higher order factor structures that characterized the relationships among the scales of the personality measures.

  15. The DSM-5 dimensional trait model and five-factor models of general personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Whitney L; Widiger, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    The current study tests empirically the relationship of the dimensional trait model proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) with five-factor models of general personality. The DSM-5 maladaptive trait dimensional model proposal included 25 traits organized within five broad domains (i.e., negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism). Consistent with the authors of the proposal, it was predicted that negative affectivity would align with five-factor model (FFM) neuroticism, detachment with FFM introversion, antagonism with FFM antagonism, disinhibition with low FFM conscientiousness and, contrary to the proposal; psychoticism would align with FFM openness. Three measures of alternative five-factor models of general personality were administered to 445 undergraduates along with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results provided support for the hypothesis that all five domains of the DSM-5 dimensional trait model are maladaptive variants of general personality structure, including the domain of psychoticism.

  16. Five-factor model personality traits in opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordvik Hilmar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality traits may form a part of the aetiology of opioid dependence. For instance, opioid dependence may result from self-medication in emotionally unstable individuals, or from experimenting with drugs in sensation seekers. The five factor model (FFM has obtained a central position in contemporary personality trait theory. The five factors are: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Few studies have examined whether there is a distinct personality pattern associated with opioid dependence. Methods We compared FFM personality traits in 65 opioid dependent persons (mean age 27 years, 34% females in outpatient counselling after a minimum of 5 weeks in buprenorphine replacement therapy, with those in a non-clinical, age- and sex-matched sample selected from a national database. Personality traits were assessed by a Norwegian version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R, a 240-item self-report questionnaire. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for the differences in personality trait scores. Results The opioid-dependent sample scored higher on Neuroticism, lower on Extraversion and lower on Conscientiousness (d = -1.7, 1.2 and 1.7, respectively than the controls. Effects sizes were small for the difference between the groups in Openness to experience scores and Agreeableness scores. Conclusion We found differences of medium and large effect sizes between the opioid dependent group and the matched comparison group, suggesting that the personality traits of people with opioid dependence are in fact different from those of non-clinical peers.

  17. Correlations of MMPI factor scales with measures of the five factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P T; Busch, C M; Zonderman, A B; McCrae, R R

    1986-01-01

    Two recent item factor analyses of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) classified the resulting factors according to a conceptual scheme offered by Norman's (1963) five factor model. The present article empirically evaluates those classifications by correlating MMPI factor scales with self-report and peer rating measures of the five factor model in a sample of 153 adult men and women. Both sets of predictions were generally supported, although MMPI factors derived in a normal sample showed closer correspondences with the five normal personality dimensions. MMPI factor scales were also correlated with 18 scales measuring specific traits within the broader domains of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness. The nine Costa, Zonderman, McCrae, and Williams (1985) MMPI factor scales appear to give useful global assessments of four of the five factors; other instruments are needed to provide detailed information on more specific aspects of normal personality. The use of the five factor model in routine clinical assessment is discussed.

  18. Risk Factors for Restricting Back Pain in Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Una E.; Fraenkel, Liana; Han, Ling; Leo-Summers, Linda; Gill, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify risk factors for back pain leading to restricted activity (restricting back pain) in older persons. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Greater New Haven, Connecticut. Participants 731 men and women aged 70 years or older, who were community-living and non-disabled in essential activities of daily living at baseline. Measurements Candidate risk factors were ascertained every 18 months for 108 months during comprehensive home-based assessments. Restricting back pain was assessed during monthly telephone interviews for up to 126 months. Incident episodes of: (1) short-term (one episode lasting one month) restricting back pain; and (2) persistent (one episode lasting two or more months) or recurrent (two or more episodes of any duration) restricting back pain were determined during each 18-month interval. The associations between the candidate risk factors and short-term and persistent/recurrent restricting back pain, respectively, were evaluated using a multivariable Cox model. Results The cumulative incidence was 21.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.6%, 23.1%) for short-term restricting back pain and 20.6% (CI 18.6%, 22.9%) for persistent/recurrent restricting back pain over a median follow-up of 109 months. In a recurrent event multivariable analysis, female sex (HR 1.30; 1.07, 1.58), weak grip strength (HR 1.24; 1.01,1.52), and hip weakness (HR 1.19; 1.07,1.32) were independently associated with an increased likelihood of having short-term restricting back pain, while female sex (HR 1.48; CI 1.13,1.94), depressive symptoms (HR 1.57; 1.23, 2.00), 2 or more chronic conditions (HR 1.38; 1.08, 1.77), and arthritis (HR1.66; 1.31, 2.09) were independently associated with persistent/recurrent restricting back pain. Conclusion In this prospective study, several factors were independently associated with restricting back pain, including some that may be modifiable and therefore potential targets for interventions to reduce this common and

  19. Parental bonding and depression: personality as a mediating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    According to Bowlby's theory of attachment, the role of early experience and parenting is of crucial importance to child development and mental health. In addition, several research findings suggest that parental bonding and different types of attachment play a crucial role in personality development. The present study examines the association between parental bonding experiences (lack of parental care, overprotection or both) and depression during adulthood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different personality dimensions as possible mediators of the relation between perceptions of parental bonding and depressive symptoms in adult life. 181 participants (15- 49-years-old) completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). The results show that lack of parental care and overprotection is linked with depressive symptoms and a number of personality characteristics, such as low self-esteem, introversion, distress and emotional instability. In contrast, high care and low protection (optimal bonding) is linked with increased self-confidence, less distress and less depressive symptoms. The results presented here are in line with Bowlby's theory of attachment and show that parental bonding is linked with problematic personality development and psychopathology. The present study provided evidence that personality factors may mediate the observed relationship between parental rearing style and depression. The potential causal mechanisms warrant longitudinal evaluation.

  20. Personality factors differentially predict exercise behavior in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, H C; Blumenthal, J A; Barefoot, J C; Peterson, B L; Saunders, W B; Dahlstrom, W G; Costa, P T; Suarez, E C; Helms, M J; Maynard, K E; Williams, R B

    1997-01-01

    Personality assessed with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in college was used to predict exercise behavior measured at midlife in 3,630 men and 796 women enrolled in the University of North Carolina Alumni Heart Study. Logistic regression models were fitted for each of the MMPI clinical scales to test the predictive effect of personality, gender, and their interaction on adult exercise behavior. Lower depression, social introversion, and psychopathic deviance scores were associated with increased probability of exercising in midlife for both men and women. Furthermore, better psychological health (indexed by lower hypochondriases and psychasthenia) in college was generally predictive of increased exercise for men, whereas higher scores on these same factors predicted midlife exercise for women. There were two other patterns of gender interactions: (a) for men, lower scores on hysteria and schizophrenia scales were associated with increased probability of exercising at midlife, whereas these factors were unrelated to exercise for women and (b) for women, lower ego strength and higher college scores on paranoia and mania were associated with exercise behavior at midlife. These data suggest that early adulthood personality predictors of exercise behavior at midlife are both gender-neutral and gender-specific; that is, where no gender differences exist, healthier personality traits predict exercise at midlife, and when gender differences do occur, healthier college patterns of personality predict exercise behavior for men and sedentary behavior for women.

  1. Five-Factor Model personality profiles of drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crum Rosa M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality traits are considered risk factors for drug use, and, in turn, the psychoactive substances impact individuals' traits. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in developing treatment approaches that match an individual's personality profile. To advance our knowledge of the role of individual differences in drug use, the present study compares the personality profile of tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin users and non-users using the wide spectrum Five-Factor Model (FFM of personality in a diverse community sample. Method Participants (N = 1,102; mean age = 57 were part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA program in Baltimore, MD, USA. The sample was drawn from a community with a wide range of socio-economic conditions. Personality traits were assessed with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R, and psychoactive substance use was assessed with systematic interview. Results Compared to never smokers, current cigarette smokers score lower on Conscientiousness and higher on Neuroticism. Similar, but more extreme, is the profile of cocaine/heroin users, which score very high on Neuroticism, especially Vulnerability, and very low on Conscientiousness, particularly Competence, Achievement-Striving, and Deliberation. By contrast, marijuana users score high on Openness to Experience, average on Neuroticism, but low on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Conclusion In addition to confirming high levels of negative affect and impulsive traits, this study highlights the links between drug use and low Conscientiousness. These links provide insight into the etiology of drug use and have implications for public health interventions.

  2. Trichotillomania and personality traits from the five-factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Keuthen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To examine whether personality traits have predictive validity for trichotillomania (TTM diagnosis, pulling severity and control, and hair pulling style.Methods:In study 1, logistic regression was used with TTM cases (n=54 and controls (n=25 to determine if NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI personality domains predicted TTM case vs. control classification. In study 2, hierarchical multiple regression was used with TTM cases (n=164 to determine whether NEO-FFI personality domains predicted hair pulling severity and control as well as focused and automatic pulling styles.Results:TTM case vs. control status was predicted by NEO-FFI neuroticism. Every 1-point increase in neuroticism scores resulted in a 10% greater chance of TTM diagnosis. Higher neuroticism, higher openness, and lower agreeableness were associated with greater pulling severity. Higher neuroticism was also associated with less control over hair pulling. Higher neuroticism and lower openness were associated with greater focused pulling. None of the personality domains predicted automatic hair pulling.Conclusions:Personality traits, especially neuroticism, can predict TTM diagnosis, hair pulling severity and control, and the focused style of pulling. None of the personality traits predicted automatic pulling. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether personality variables predispose to TTM onset, impact disorder course, and/or result from hair pulling behavior.

  3. Borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment ...

  4. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D.; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual’s financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor “source of funding”: students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors “agreeableness” and “openness” showed moderate to modest – but significant – effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion. PMID:24624100

  5. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne ePrinz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual’s financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002 lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version. Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor ‘source of funding’: students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships had much higher rates of risk aversion (RRA than subjects with support from family (RRAdiff=0.22; p=0.018. Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the IQ significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors ‘agreeableness’ and ‘openness’ showed moderate to modest – but significant - effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion.

  6. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual's financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor "source of funding": students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors "agreeableness" and "openness" showed moderate to modest - but significant - effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion.

  7. Personality factors underlying suicidal behavior among military youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Abdollah; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Mirsharafoddini, Hediye Sadat; Nikmorad, Alireza; Pilevarzadeh, Motahare

    2014-04-01

    Suicidal behavior is one the most significant mental health problems in the military. Militaries are closed systems that operate in particular situations. Military service is associated with certain stressful conditions. On this basis, there is likely of trauma in the military environment. Measures of suicidal behavior are pathologically complex. A range of biological, psychological, social, and institutional factors are involved in the incidence and prevalence of these behaviors. One of the underlying factors in suicidal behavior is individuals' personality. The study population comprised of the Iranian Armed Forces. To recruit the sample of the research, 1659 soldiers were selected by multistage sampling. Data were collected using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.323) between neuroticism and suicide ideation; however, significant negative correlations existed between three other personality traits --extraversion [r = -0.306], agreeableness [r = -0.227], and conscientiousness [r = -0.271] and suicidal ideation. Unlike neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness personality factors could reduce significantly (as much 14% as are predicted) levels of suicidal ideation. Based on these results, neuroticism might increase suicide, but extraversion and conscientiousness personality traits are associated with a reduced risk of suicide.

  8. Personal factors that influence deaf college students' academic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, John A; Kelly, Ronald R; Matchett, Mary Karol

    2012-01-01

    Research tells us that academic preparation is key to deaf students' success at college. Yet, that is not the whole story. Many academically prepared students drop out during their first year. This study identified entering deaf college students' personal factors as assessed by their individual responses to both the Noel-Levitz College Student Inventory Form B and the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, second edition (LASSI). Entering students in 3 successive cohorts (total n =437) participated in this study. Results show that in addition to entry measurements of reading and mathematic skills, personal factors contributed to the academic performance of students in their first quarter in college. The Noel-Levitz provided the comparatively better predictive value of academic performance: Motivation for Academic Study Scale (e.g., desire to finish college). The LASSI also showed statistically significant predictors, the Self-Regulation Component (e.g., time management) and Will Component (e.g., self-discipline), but accounted for relatively less variability in the students' initial grade point averages. For this group of underprepared students, results show that personal factors can play a significant role in academic success. Deaf students' personal factors are discussed as they relate to other first-year college students and to their subsequent academic performance and persistence.

  9. TRAIT PROCRASTINATION AND THE BIG-5 FACTORS OF PERSONALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOUWENBURG, HC; LAY, CH

    1995-01-01

    Trait procrastination is viewed as a summary variable linked to the predisposition to engage in dilatory behaviour. This paper sought to trace the sources of trait procrastination by locating it within the five-factor personality structure. Study 1 concerned self-ratings on trait adjectives (in Dutc

  10. Personality and Situational Factors Influencing the Advertising Sales Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfo, Lauranell; Rogus, Mary T.

    Focusing on situational and personality factors as predictors of two common types of sales behavior (the customer-oriented/marketing approach, and the adversarial/bottom-line approach), a study conducted a national survey of advertising sales people and media buyers in the summer and fall of 1987. A total of 3669 questionnaires were sent to…

  11. A Five-Factor Measure of Schizotypal Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Maryanne; Lynam, Donald R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Gore, Whitney L.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for a new measure of schizotypy from the perspective of the five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. Nine schizotypy scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of respective facets of the FFM (e.g., Aberrant Ideas as a maladaptive variant of…

  12. TRAIT PROCRASTINATION AND THE BIG-5 FACTORS OF PERSONALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOUWENBURG, HC; LAY, CH

    Trait procrastination is viewed as a summary variable linked to the predisposition to engage in dilatory behaviour. This paper sought to trace the sources of trait procrastination by locating it within the five-factor personality structure. Study 1 concerned self-ratings on trait adjectives (in

  13. Personality Factors Underlying Suicidal Behavior Among Military Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Abdollah; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Mirsharafoddini, Hediye Sadat; Nikmorad, Alireza; Pilevarzadeh, Motahare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Suicidal behavior is one the most significant mental health problems in the military. Militaries are closed systems that operate in particular situations. Military service is associated with certain stressful conditions. On this basis, there is likely of trauma in the military environment. Measures of suicidal behavior are pathologically complex. A range of biological, psychological, social, and institutional factors are involved in the incidence and prevalence of these behaviors. Objectives: One of the underlying factors in suicidal behavior is individuals' personality. Patients and Methods: The study population comprised of the Iranian Armed Forces. To recruit the sample of the research, 1659 soldiers were selected by multistage sampling. Data were collected using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Results: There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.323) between neuroticism and suicide ideation; however, significant negative correlations existed between three other personality traits --extraversion [r = -0.306], agreeableness [r = -0.227], and conscientiousness [r = -0.271] and suicidal ideation. Unlike neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness personality factors could reduce significantly (as much 14% as are predicted) levels of suicidal ideation. Conclusions: Based on these results, neuroticism might increase suicide, but extraversion and conscientiousness personality traits are associated with a reduced risk of suicide. PMID:24910793

  14. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Hengartner (Michael P.); D. van der Linden (Dimitri); L. Bohleber (Laura); A. von Wyl (Agnes)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the

  15. Personality-related problems and the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the empirical associations of a relatively broad and inclusive list of personality-related problems with both the high and low poles of the five-factor model of personality (FFM). Several studies have documented links between impaired functioning and the FFM, but these associations have largely been confined to the socially undesirable poles. In this study, a list of 310 personality-related problems was developed and administered to a large college student sample along with the International Personality Item Pool Representation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (IPIP-NEO) and an experimental manipulation of the NEO PI-R items (EXP-NEO). Numerous problems were associated with both poles of each trait domain and facet of the FFM, but both the IPIP-NEO and EXP-NEO were required to capture problems at both ends. Potential implications of emphasizing problems at one or both poles of trait continua are discussed. Future research should evaluate the structure and inclusiveness of the current list of personality-related problems against other representations of problem behavior, examine base rates of problems in other populations, and seek to understand the psychological mechanisms that might explain associations of problems across the full range of trait continua. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. The Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in the Czech context

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the psychometric properties of the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FF-NPQ) in a sample of 1,113 people. The FF-NPQ is a non-verbal measure of the Big Five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). The presented psychometric measures include scale internal consistencies, intercorrelations, and convergences with two verbal Big Five measures. Gender and age differences are reported. Further...

  17. Influences on Group Productivity. 2. Factors Inherent in the Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-15

    Eysenck , H.J. Cicero arid the state-trait theory of anxiety: Y,another case of delayed recoo nit ior,. Arnericarn 2_sYc~h_ 1_izt,I1983, O, 1 !4- 115...Productivity. II: Interim Factors Inherent in the Person 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(m) Sheryl Osato, Peter E...WORDS (Continua on reverse aide if neceeaary and Identify by block numlbor) Personality , hetercgeneity, culture, traits, research design, task

  18. The five-factor narcissism inventory: a five-factor measure of narcissistic personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Natalie; Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Crego, Cristina; Widiger, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    This study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for a new measure of narcissistic personality traits created from the perspective of the Five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. Fifteen scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of respective facets of the FFM (e.g., Reactive Anger as a narcissistic variant of angry hostility), with item selection made on the basis of a criterion-keying approach using results from 167 undergraduates. On the basis of data from 166 additional undergraduates, the convergent validity of these 15 scales was tested with respect to 8 established measures of narcissism (including measures of both grandiose and vulnerable narcissism) and the respective facets of the FFM. Discriminant validity was tested with respect to facets from other FFM domains. Incremental validity was tested with respect to the ability of the FFM narcissism trait scales to account for variance in 2 alternative measures of narcissism, after variance accounted for by respective NEO PI-R facet scales and other established measures of narcissism were first removed. The findings support the validity of these new scales as measures of narcissistic personality traits and as maladaptive variants of the FFM.

  19. Personality Assessment Through Internet: Factor Analyses By Age Group Of The Zka Personality Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Blanch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the psychometric properties of an on-line version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ by sex and age. The questionnaire was responded by 1598 people, 474 males and 1124 females, with a mean age of 32.57 (SD = 11.72. Males and females differed in their responses to all personality dimensions evaluated by this instrument, in a similar way as that reported in past research. In addition, younger people scored higher in the Aggressiveness factor, especially concerning the Physical Aggression facet, whereas older people scored higher in the Activity factor. Besides, younger people scored higher in the Neuroticism and the Sensation Seeking factors, even though there were no age differences in the Extraversion factor. The ZKA-PQ five-factor structure was clear and yielded high congruence coefficients with the original Spanish validation sample. Altogether, the findings support the validity of the online version of this instrument. The ZKAPQ online version is therefore helpful in both, basic and applied research settings about human personality and individual differences.

  20. The Big Five Personality Factors and Application Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Matuliauskaitė

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Big five factors are used in many research fields. The literature survey showed that the personality trait theory was used to study and explain relations with different variables. The article focuses on a brief description of methods that can help with identifying the Big five factors and considers the model for applying them in personnel selection. The paper looks at scientific researches assessing relations between the Big five factors and different variables such as job performance, academic performance, student knowledge management and evaluation.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Five-factor personality traits and pain sensitivity: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassend, Olav; Røysamb, Espen; Nielsen, Christopher S

    2013-05-01

    Factors underlying individual differences in pain responding are incompletely understood, but are likely to include genetic influences on basal pain sensitivity in addition to demographic characteristics such as age, sex, and ethnicity, and psychological factors including personality. This study sought to explore the relationship between personality traits and experimental pain sensitivity, and to determine to what extent the covariances between these phenotypes are mediated by common genetic and environmental factors. A sample composed of 188 twins, aged 23 to 35years, was included in the study. Heat pain intensity (HPI) and cold-pressor pain intensity (CPI) ratings were obtained using standardized pain testing procedures, and personality traits were assessed with the NEO Personality Inventory, Revised. Associations between personality and the pain sensitivity indices were examined using zero-order correlations and generalized estimating equations. Bivariate Cholesky models were used in the biometric analyses. The most robust finding was a significant phenotypic association between CPI and the personality facets Impulsiveness (a facet of Neuroticism) and Excitement-Seeking (a facet of Extraversion), and estimates of the genetic correlation were .37 (Ppersonality seemed weak and unstable, but a significant effect of Angry Hostility (a facet of Neuroticism) emerged in generalized estimating equations analysis. Although the genetic correlation between these phenotypes was essentially zero, a weak but significant individual-specific environmental correlation emerged (re=.21, Ppersonality dispositions than HPI, both phenotypically and genetically.

  2. Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Deiana, Barbara; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward G.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Unhealthy lipid levels are among the leading controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease. To identify the psychological factors associated with dyslipidemia, this study investigates the personality correlates of cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) and triglycerides. A community-based sample (N=5,532) from Sardinia, Italy, had their cholesterol and triglyceride levels assessed and completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R. All analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and diabetes. Low Conscientiousness and traits related to impulsivity were associated with lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglycerides. Compared to the lowest 10%, those who scored in top 10% on Impulsivity had a 2.5 times greater risk of exceeding the clinical threshold for elevated triglycerides (OR=2.51, CI=1.56–4.07). In addition, sex moderated the association between trait depression (a component of Neuroticism) and HDL cholesterol, such that trait depression was associated with lower levels of HDL cholesterol in women but not men. When considering the connection between personality and health, unhealthy lipid profiles may be one intermediate biomarker between personality and morbidity and mortality. PMID:20109519

  3. Cholesterol, triglycerides, and the Five-Factor Model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio; Deiana, Barbara; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward G; Costa, Paul T

    2010-05-01

    Unhealthy lipid levels are among the leading controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease. To identify the psychological factors associated with dyslipidemia, this study investigates the personality correlates of cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) and triglycerides. A community-based sample (N=5532) from Sardinia, Italy, had their cholesterol and triglyceride levels assessed and completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R. All analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and diabetes. Low Conscientiousness and traits related to impulsivity were associated with lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglycerides. Compared to the lowest 10%, those who scored in top 10% on Impulsivity had a 2.5 times greater risk of exceeding the clinical threshold for elevated triglycerides (OR=2.51, CI=1.56-4.07). In addition, sex moderated the association between trait depression (a component of Neuroticism) and HDL cholesterol, such that trait depression was associated with lower levels of HDL cholesterol in women but not men. When considering the connection between personality and health, unhealthy lipid profiles may be one intermediate biomarker between personality and morbidity and mortality. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Young Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. Methods: A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110 in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Results: Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010 and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031. Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003 and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003. Conclusion: Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process.

  5. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Young; Park, So Youn

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110) in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate) completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010) and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031). Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003) and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003). Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process.

  6. Psychosocial factors at work, personality traits and depressive symptoms: Longitudinal results from the GAZEL Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    PATERNITI, S; NIEDHAMMER, I; LANG, T; CONSOLI, S. M

    2002-01-01

    .... This association could be explained by personality traits. To examine the relationship between psychosocial factors at work and changes in depressive symptoms, taking into account personality traits...

  7. [Personality factors as predictors of alcohol consumption by university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natividade, Jean Carlos; Aguirre, Alba Recalde; Bizarro, Lisiane; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to verify differences in personality factors between abstainers and drinkers and between individuals with higher versus lower levels of alcohol consumption in the previous three months, and to test the predictive power of factors for any lifetime alcohol consumption and for at least monthly alcohol consumption. A total of 169 university students participated, of whom 66.7% were women, with a mean age of 21.2 years. Lifetime alcohol consumption was 90.1%; 42.3% had consumed at least twice in the previous three months; and 57.7% consumed alcohol at least monthly. Participants with less frequent consumption in the previous three months showed higher mean scores for personality factors involving socialization and achievement, while those that consumed more frequently scored higher on extroversion. A predictive model showed that increments in extroversion contributed to increased odds of drinking alcohol, while increments in achievement decreased the odds of drinking. Personality characteristics were able to distinguish between different groups of drinkers and predict the frequency of alcohol consumption.

  8. Personal factors affecting ethical performance in healthcare workers during disasters and mass casualty incidents in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehrzad; Fadavi, Mohsen; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Borhani, Fariba

    2017-02-20

    In emergencies and disasters, ethics are affected by both personal and organizational factors. Given the lack of organizational ethical guidelines in the disaster management system in Iran, the present study was conducted to explain the personal factors affecting ethics and ethical behaviors among disaster healthcare workers. The present qualitative inquiry was conducted using conventional content analysis to analyze the data collected from 21 in-depth unstructured interviews with healthcare workers with an experience of attending one or more fields of disaster. According to the data collected, personal factors can be classified into five major categories, including personal characteristics such as age and gender, personal values, threshold of tolerance, personal knowledge and reflective thinking. Without ethical guidelines, healthcare workers are intensely affected by the emotional climate of the event and guided by their beliefs. A combination of personal characteristics, competences and expertise thus form the basis of ethical conduct in disaster healthcare workers.

  9. The personality profile of borderline personality disordered patients using the five-factor model of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Verardi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio ex post facto es el análisis del perfil de personalidad de pacientes ambulatorios con trastorno límite de la personalidad según el modelo de personalidad de los Cinco Factores. Los pacientes (N = 52 completaron el Examen Internacional de los Trastornos de Personalidad (IPDE, el Cuestionario de los Cinco Grandes (BFQ, el Inventario de Depresion de Beck (BDI y la Escala de Desesperanza de Beck (BHS. Los resultaron muestran una alta comorbilidad con otros trastornos del Eje II del DSM-IV-TR, en particular con aquellos del clúster C. La puntuación media del BFQ indica que los pacientes ambulatorios con trastorno límite de la personalidad puntúan más bajo que los controles en las cinco dimensiones, especialmente en la estabilidad emocional. Correlacionaron las escalas del BFQ con las escalas IPDE. Estos resultados sugieren que perfiles específicos de personalidad están vinculados a diferentes patrones de comorbilidad. Más de la mitad de la muestra tiene puntuaciones clínicamente significativas en el BDI. Sorprendentemente, depresión y desesperanza no están correlacionados con la escala del trastorno límite de personalidad, ni tienen un efecto en la relacion entre personalidad y trastornos de la personalidad.

  10. The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaburu, Dan S.; Oh, In-Sue; Berry, Christopher M.; Li, Ning; Gardner, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Using meta-analytic tests based on 87 statistically independent samples, we investigated the relationships between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviors in both the aggregate and specific forms, including individual-directed, organization-directed, and change-oriented citizenship. We found that…

  11. The Relationship between Teachers' Personality Factors and Their Compliance with Administrative Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Janet C.

    The relationship between teachers' personality factors and their willingness to comply with administrative directives is examined in this report. A random sample of 200 elementary school teachers in Mississippi received mailed questionnaires, of which 158, or 79 percent, responded. Survey instruments included the Wilkes and Blackbourn Zones of…

  12. Personality factors and profiles in variants of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) variants (constipation, diarrhea, or both)and personality traits in non-psychiatric patients.METHODS: IBS was diagnosed using the Rome Ⅱ diagnostic criteria after exclusion of organic bowel pathology. The entry of each patient was confirmed following a psychiatric interview. Personality traits and the score of each factor were evaluated using the NEO Five Factor Inventory.RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients were studied.The mean age (±SD) was 33.4 (±11.0) year (62% female). Subjects scored higher in neuroticism (26.25±7.80 vs 22.92±9.54, P < 0.0005), openness (26.25±5.22 vs 27.94±4.87, P < 0.0005) and conscientiousness (32.90 ±7.80 vs 31.62±5.64, P < 0.01) compared to our general population derived from universities of Iran. Our studied population consisted of 71 patients with Diarrhea dominant-IBS, 33 with Constipation dominant-IBS and 46 with Altering type-IBS. Scores of conscientiousness and neuroticism were significantly higher in C-IBS compared to D-IBS and A-IBS (35.79±5.65 vs 31.95±6.80,P = 0.035 and 31.97±9.87, P = 0.043, respectively).Conscientiousness was the highest dimension of personality in each of the variants. Patients with C-IBS had almost similar personality profiles, composed of higher scores for neuroticism and conscientiousness, with low levels of agreeableness, openness and extraversion that were close to those of the general population.CONCLUSION: Differences were observed between IBS patients and the general population, as well as between IBS subtypes, in terms of personality factors.Patients with constipation-predominant IBS showed similar personality profiles. Patients with each subtype of IBS may benefit from psychological interventions, which can be focused considering the characteristics of each subtype.

  13. The five factors of personality and regional cortical variability in the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Sutin, Angelina; Davatzikos, Christos; Costa, Paul; Resnick, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Although personality changes have been associated with brain lesions and atrophy caused by neurodegenerative diseases and aging, neuroanatomical correlates of personality in healthy individuals and their stability over time have received relatively little investigation. In this study, we explored regional gray matter (GM) volumetric associations of the five-factor model of personality. Eighty-seven healthy older adults took the NEO Personality Inventory and had brain MRI at two time points 2 years apart. We performed GM segmentation followed by regional analysis of volumes examined in normalized space map creation and voxel based morphometry-type statistical inference in SPM8. We created a regression model including all five factors and important covariates. Next, a conjunction analysis identified associations between personality scores and GM volumes that were replicable across time, also using cluster-level Family-Wise-Error correction. Larger right orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and rolandic operculum were associated with lower Neuroticism; larger left temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and anterior cingulate cortices with higher Extraversion; larger right frontopolar and smaller orbitofrontal and insular cortices with higher Openness; larger right orbitofrontal cortex with higher Agreeableness; larger dorsolateral prefrontal and smaller frontopolar cortices with higher Conscientiousness. In summary, distinct personality traits were associated with stable individual differences in GM volumes. As expected for higher-order traits, regions performing a large number of cognitive and affective functions were implicated. Our findings highlight personality-related variation that may be related to individual differences in brain structure that merit additional attention in neuroimaging research.

  14. Testing the relationship between personality characteristics, contextual factors and entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Saeid; Biemans, Harm J A; Naderi Mahdei, Karim; Lans, Thomas; Chizari, Mohammad; Mulder, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Drawing upon the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we developed and tested a conceptual model which integrates both internal personality factors and external contextual factors to determine their associations with motivational factors and entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). We then investigated if the model of EI applies in a developing country, namely Iran. We also set out to identify the most relevant factors for EI within this developing country context. Do distal predictors of EI including personality factors (i.e. need for achievement, risk taking and locus of control) and contextual factors (i.e. perceived barriers and support) significantly relate to EI via proximal predictors including motivational factors (i.e. attitudes towards entrepreneurship and perceived behavioural control [PBC])? Data were collected on 331 students from 7 public universities. The findings support the TPB for EI in Iran. All three motivational factors related to EI, but PBC showed the strongest association, which is different than in developed country contexts. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed. All three personality characteristics indirectly related to EI via the proximal attitudes towards entrepreneurship and PBC. Perceived contextual support and barriers indirectly related to EI via proximal PBC while perceived barriers also directly related to EI. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. The relationship between the Five-Factor Model and latent DSM-IV personality disorder dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nestadt, Gerald; Costa, Paul T.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Eaton, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the latent structure of the DSM-IV personality disorders to the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality dimensions. The subjects in the study were 742 community-residing individuals who participated in the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorder Study. DSM-IV personality disorder traits were assessed by psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination, and personality disorder dimensions were derived previously using dichotomous factor ana...

  16. The relationship between the Five-Factor Model and latent DSM-IV personality disorder dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nestadt, Gerald; Costa, Paul T.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Eaton, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the latent structure of the DSM-IV personality disorders to the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality dimensions. The subjects in the study were 742 community-residing individuals who participated in the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorder Study. DSM-IV personality disorder traits were assessed by psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination, and personality disorder dimensions were derived previously using dichotomous factor ana...

  17. Correspondence between five-factor and RIASEC models of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, J A; Dye, D A; Curtiss, G

    1997-04-01

    In this study, we examined relationships between the full five-factor (FF; Costa & McCrae, 1985, 1992; Digman, 1990) and Holland's (1985a) RIASEC models of personality in a sample of 1,034 adults. The NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and the Self-Directed Search (Holland, 1985c) provided measures of the FF and RIASEC dimensions, respectively. Canonical correlation analyses provided evidence primarily for a pattern of linkages between the FF Extraversion, Openness, and Agreeableness measures and the RIASEC Enterprising, Artistic, and Social scales. Findings from this and previous studies indicated that the FF model appears to ignore the Realistic dimension and provides coverage of the Investigative and Conventional dimensions in women only. In turn, the RIASEC model appears to provide modest coverage of the FF Neuroticism and Conscientiousness domains for women and not at all for men.

  18. MECHANISM OF PERSONAL DESTRUCTIVE CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ADDICTIVE FACTORES AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTENCE TO ADDICVTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ryzhov V.V.; Telepova N.N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to offer the productive ideas about psychological mechanism of personal destructive changes under the influence of addictive factors and about the important aspects of personal development of resistance to addiction. This ideas are the result of the analysis of scientific literature and different researches on the issue of psychological and spiritual personal development and moral value standards influencing the personal development. The results of the research c...

  19. How Transdiagnostic Factors of Personality and Psychopathology Can Inform Clinical Assessment and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Eaton, Nicholas R; Krueger, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that many mental disorders-mood and anxiety, substance use, and personality psychopathology-are related through relatively few latent transdiagnostic factors. With regard to the comorbidity of personality disorders and common mental disorders, factor structures such as internalizing-externalizing have been replicated in numerous samples, across the life span, and around the globe. One critical feature of transdiagnostic factors is that they serve as a point of intersection between personality and psychopathology, making them particularly relevant phenomena for applied clinical work. Although numerous studies have supported the significance of transdiagnostic factors for research and classification purposes, there has been comparatively less articulation of how such factors might be of benefit to practicing assessment clinicians. Herein, we present an overview of transdiagnostic factor research findings, and we apply these findings to the clinical topics of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. For clinicians as well as researchers, the use of transdiagnostic constructs presents positive implications for efforts to understand, characterize, and ameliorate psychopathology-including its manifestations as personality disorder-in a valid, effective, and efficient way.

  20. Personality factors and suicide risk in a representative sample of the German general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Blüml

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown an association between certain personality characteristics and suicidality. Methodological differences including small sample sizes and missing adjustment for possible confounding factors could explain the varying results. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions on suicidality in a representative population based sample of adults. METHOD: Interviews were conducted in a representative German population-based sample (n=2555 in 2011. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10 and suicide risk was assessed with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated adjusting for depression, anxiety, and various sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Neuroticism and openness were significantly associated with suicide risk, while extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be protective. Significant sex differences were observed. For males, extraversion and conscientiousness were protective factors. Neuroticism and openness were found to be associated with suicide risk only in females. These associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the role of personality dimensions as risk factors for suicide-related behaviors. Different personality dimensions are significantly associated with suicide-related behaviors even when adjusting for other known risk factors of suicidality.

  1. Factores de riesgos psicosociales extralaborales en personal administrativo universitario

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Díaz, Carmen Helena; Beleño Navarro, Rosana; Ucros Campo, María; Echeverría González, Ana; Lasprilla Fawcett, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Introducción. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo caracterizar los factores de riesgo psicosociales extralaborales del personal administrativo de la Corporación Universidad de la Costa – CUC y la determinación de su nivel de estrés.Método. A partir de un censo se determinó la población, formada por 227 trabajadores. Es una investigación de campo, descriptiva, transaccional, de diseño no experimental. En la recolección de información se aplicó los instrumentos para la evaluación de fa...

  2. [Relevance of Personality Factors for Successful Vocational Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arling, V; Slavchova, V; Knispel, J; Spijkers, W

    2016-02-01

    The Main purpose of vocational rehabilitation is occupational reintegration of clients into the job market who have lost their job or whose job is threatened because of a handicap or chronicl illness. With regard to existing evidence for the relevance of personality factors for work performance and job achievement, the present study investigated the influence of participants' personality factors on a successful reintegration after a retraining program in a vocational training center over 2 years. A central research objective was to identify prognostic personality factors for successful vocational integration. In this longitudinal study 15 vocational training centers participated at 3 time points of measurement (T1, T2 and T3). Data gathering was based on rehabilitants' self-reports (standardized questionnaires: SVF, BSW, SPR, CSES) about personality aspects. First data collection started at the beginning (T1) and a second survey was conducted at the end of the training 2 years later (T2). Based on the data at measurement points T1 and T2, 4 prognostic models were computed (binary logistic regression analysis) and evaluated, examining the differenzial influence of several scales and items on direct reintegration after completing the vocational retraining and reintegration status 6 months later (T3). As expected, different variables turned out to be relevant for occupational integration at the end of the training program and 6 months later. Correspondingly other variables appeared to be relevant for occupational reintegration at T1 and at T2. At the end of the vocational training program, approximately 24% of the participants had a job. With respect to direct reintegration, regression analysis revealed that vocational self-efficacy (R(2)=0,175) and self-evaluation were relevant (R(2)=0,383). Approximately 70% of the participants had gotten a job 6 months later. Several stress coping strategies (R(2)=0,170), estimation of the own reintegration prognosis and aspects

  3. Psychostimulant drug abuse and personality factors in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Joshua T; Vu, Duc M; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2013-01-01

    Psychostimulants have a high abuse potential and are appealing to college students for enhancing their examination performance. This study was designed to examine the prevalence of psychostimulant drug abuse among medical students and to test the hypothesis that medical students who use psychostimulant drugs for non-medical reasons are characterized by a sensation seeking and aggressive-hostility personality and exhibit lower empathy. The Zuckerman-Kuhlman personality questionnaire and the Jefferson scale of empathy were completed anonymously on-line by 321 medical students in 2010-2011 academic year. A total of 45 students (14%) reported that they had abused psychostimulant medications either before or during medical school. RESULTS of multivariate analysis of variance provided support for one of our research hypothesis: students who reported using psychostimulant compared to the rest, obtained a significantly higher average score on the aggressive-hostility personality factor. No other significant differences were observed. Further research is needed to confirm the rate of psychostimulant drug abusers among medical students in other medical schools. In particular, it is desirable to examine if such psychostimulant drug abusers are likely to abuse other substances in medical school and later in their professional career.

  4. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Brief Version: factor structure and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toru

    2005-11-01

    The short scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQR-S; H. J. Eysenck & S. B. G. Eysenck, 1992) is a 48-item personality questionnaire primarily designed to measure an individual's level of extraversion (vs. introversion) and neuroticism. Although L. J. Francis, L. B. Brown, and R. Philipchalk (1992) created the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated (EPQR-A), an even briefer version of the EPQR-S, the reliability coefficients of some of the measures have been less than satisfactory (S. Forrest, C. A. Lewis, & M. Shevlin, 2000). Because brevity and reliability are both extremely important, the author of the present study created a briefer version of the EPQR-S, more reliable than the EPQR-A, by making slight alterations in the item content as well as the response format of the EPQR-S. Two hundred and sixty eight participants completed the original EPQR-S and the 24-item newly revised briefer version of the EPQR-S (EPQ-BV) twice. The findings revealed that the EPQ-BV has good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. A principal component analysis revealed a solution with factor loadings that accurately reflected the primary measures of the EPQR-S. These findings are discussed in relation to the psychometric properties of the EPQR-A and the original version of the EPQR-S.

  5. Personal factors predictive of health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Catipon, Terry; Hwang, Jengliang Eric

    2011-01-01

    We explored personal factors that can predict health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults. A convenience sample of 253 older adults was recruited to complete the Health Enhancement Lifestyle Profile (HELP), a comprehensive measure of health-promoting behaviors. Data were analyzed through univariate correlational/comparative statistics followed by stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine significant predictor variables for different aspects of health-related lifestyle. Personal health conditions, including the number of chronic diseases or impairments and self-rated health, were two strong predictors for the HELP (R2 = .571, p Leisure). When developing individualized plans for older adults in community settings, occupational therapists should consider the clients' strengths and vulnerabilities potentially derived from personal health factors and demographic attributes to yield more effective lifestyle interventions.

  6. The relations between parents' Big Five personality factors and parenting: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, Peter; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Deković, Maja; Reijntjes, Albert H A; Belsky, Jay

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the association between Big Five personality factors and three dimensions of parenting-warmth, behavioral control, and autonomy support-the authors conducted meta-analyses using 5,853 parent-child dyads that were included in 30 studies. Effect sizes were significant and robust across mother and father reports and across assessment methods of parenting (self-report versus observations) but were generally small in magnitude. Higher levels of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness and lower levels of Neuroticism were related to more warmth and behavioral control, whereas higher levels of Agreeableness and lower levels of Neuroticism were related to more autonomy support. Several factors moderated the relationship between specific personality dimensions and parenting: child and parental age, reliability of observational assessment of parenting behavior, and study design. Taken together, these results indicate that personality can be seen as an inner resource that affects parenting.

  7. Relationships among spirituality, religious practices, personality factors, and health for five different faith traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Brick; Yoon, Dong Pil; Cohen, Daniel; Schopp, Laura H; McCormack, Guy; Campbell, James; Smith, Marian

    2012-12-01

    To determine: (1) differences in spirituality, religiosity, personality, and health for different faith traditions; and (2) the relative degree to which demographic, spiritual, religious, and personality variables simultaneously predict health outcomes for different faith traditions. Cross-sectional analysis of 160 individuals from five different faith traditions including Buddhists (40), Catholics (41), Jews (22), Muslims (26), and Protestants (31). Brief multidimensional measure of religiousness/spirituality (BMMRS; Fetzer in Multidimensional measurement of religiousness/spirituality for use in health research, Fetzer Institute, Kalamazoo, 1999); NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI; in Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and the NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Costa and McCrae 1992); Medical outcomes scale-short form (SF-36; in SF-36 physical and mental health summary scores: A user's manual, The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, Boston, Ware et al. 1994). (1) ANOVAs indicated that there were no significant group differences in health status, but that there were group differences in spirituality and religiosity. (2) Pearson's correlations for the entire sample indicated that better mental health is significantly related to increased spirituality, increased positive personality traits (i.e., extraversion) and decreased personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness). In addition, spirituality is positively correlated with positive personality traits (i.e., extraversion) and negatively with negative personality traits (i.e., neuroticism). (3) Hierarchical regressions indicated that personality predicted a greater proportion of unique variance in health outcomes than spiritual variables. Different faith traditions have similar health status, but differ in terms of spiritual, religious, and personality factors. For all faith traditions, the presence of positive and

  8. Allelic variants of ADH, ALDH and the five factor model of personality in alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Salujha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of alcohol dependence is a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors. The genes for alcohol-metabolizing enzymes: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2 and ADH3 and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2 exhibit functional polymorphisms. Vulnerability of alcohol dependence may also be in part due to heritable personality traits. Aim: To determine whether any association exists between polymorphisms of ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 and alcohol dependence syndrome in a group of Asian Indians. In addition, the personality of these patients was assessed to identify traits predisposing to alcoholism. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 consecutive males with alcohol dependence syndrome attending the psychiatric outpatient department of a tertiary care service hospital and an equal number of matched healthy controls were included with their consent. Blood samples of all the study cases and controls were collected and genotyped for the ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 loci. Personality was evaluated using the neuroticism, extraversion, openness (NEO personality inventory and sensation seeking scale. Results: Allele frequencies of ADH2FNx012 (0.50, ADH3FNx011 (0.67 and ALSH2FNx012 (0.09 were significantly low in the alcohol dependent subjects. Personality traits of NEO personality inventory and sensation seeking were significantly higher when compared to controls. Conclusions: The functional polymorphisms of genes coding for alcohol metabolizing enzymes and personality traits of NEO and sensation seeking may affect the propensity to develop dependence.

  9. Relationship between Consumer Identity and Brand Personality as a Factor of Brand Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the relationship between consumer identity and brand personality as a factor of consumer commitment to the brand. We hypothesized that: a there is a link between consumer identity and preferred brand’s personality; b the higher the similarity between the consumer identity and preferred brand’s personality, the higher the brand commitment. The sample included 150 subjects aged 18—25. Methods: the method of J. Aaker was used to study brand personality, and its modification was used to study consumer identity. The questionnaire of J. Brovkina was used to study brand loyalty. Results: high correlations between consumer identity and brand personality were obtained on the scales Ruggedness, Sophistication, Excitement, and high correlations between brand loyalty and deltas of the values of consumer identity and brand personality on the same scales were also discovered. On the scales of Competence and Sincerity the correlations were lower, although important as well. Thus, the hypotheses were confirmed: a it is shown that there is a correlation between consumer identity and brand personality; b the higher this correlation is, the higher is the commitment to the preferred brand.

  10. Functioning styles of personality disorders and five-factor normal personality traits: a correlation study in Chinese students

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    Hou Jun

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies show that both the categorical and dimensional descriptors of personality disorders are correlated with normal personality traits. Recently, a 92-item inventory, the Parker Personality Measure (PERM was designed as a more efficient and precise first-level assessment of personality disorders. Whether the PERM constructs are correlated with those of the five-factor models of personality needs to be clarified. Methods We therefore invited 913 students from poly-technical schools and colleges in China to answer the PERM, the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FFNPQ, and the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ. Results Most personality constructs had satisfactory internal alphas. PERM constructs were loaded with FFNPQ and ZKPQ traits clearly on four factors, which can be labelled as Dissocial, Emotional Dysregulation, Inhibition and Compulsivity, as reported previously. FFNPQ Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness and Extraversion formed another Factor, named Experience Hunting, which was not clearly covered by PERM or ZKPQ. Conclusion The PERM constructs were loaded in a predictable way on the disordered super-traits, suggesting the PERM might offer assistance measuring personality function in clinical practice.

  11. Time-activity relationships to VOC personal exposure factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus D.; Schweizer, Christian; Llacqua, Vito; Lai, Hak Kan; Jantunen, Matti; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino

    Social and demographic factors have been found to play a significant role in differences between time-activity patterns of population subgroups. Since time-activity patterns largely influence personal exposure to compounds as individuals move across microenvironments, exposure subgroups within the population may be defined by factors that influence daily activity patterns. Socio-demographic and environmental factors that define time-activity subgroups also define quantifiable differences in VOC personal exposures to different sources and individual compounds in the Expolis study. Significant differences in exposures to traffic-related compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were observed in relation to gender, number of children and living alone. Categorization of exposures further indicated time exposed to traffic at work and time in a car as important determinants. Increased exposures to decane, nonane and undecane were observed for males, housewives and self-employed. Categorization of exposures indicated exposure subgroups related to workshop use and living downtown. Higher exposures to 3-carene and α-pinene commonly found in household cleaning products and fragrances were associated with more children, while exposures to traffic compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were reduced with more children. Considerable unexplained variation remained in categorization of exposures associated with home product use and fragrances, due to individual behavior and product choice. More targeted data collection methods in VOC exposure studies for these sources should be used. Living alone was associated with decreased exposures to 2-methyl-1-propanol and 1-butanol, and traffic-related compounds. Identification of these subgroups may help to reduce the large amount of unexplained variation in VOC exposure studies. Further they may help in assessing impacts of urban planning that result in changes in behavior of individuals, resulting in shifts in

  12. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  13. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour.

  14. Neurocognitive and personality factors in homo- and heterosexual pedophiles and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tillmann H C; Schiffer, Boris

    2011-06-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have suggested an association between pedophilia, neurocognitive disturbances, and specific personality profiles. However, inconsistencies in the findings have not been explained sufficiently, because many studies did not control for possible confounding factors, such as age, education level, or gender orientation. Therefore, the present investigation examined neurocognitive performance and personality profiles in pedophiles in dependence of sexual gender preferences and sexual deviance, as well as with regard to age and education level. Scores on the different neurocognitive tests, personality questionnaires, and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV (SCID) interviews. An extensive neurocognitive test battery (including a reduced version of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wisconsin card-sorting test, d2 Attention-Deficit Test, and the Corsi block-tapping test) as well as two personality questionnaires (Minnessota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI-2] and the Multiphasic Sex Inventory [MSI]) were used to examine a consecutive sample of 20 psychiatrically assessed (SCID I and II) pedophile inpatients (nine exclusively attracted to females and 11 to males) from two high security forensic hospitals and 28 healthy controls (14 heterosexual, 14 homosexual). Compared with controls, pedophiles showed neurocognitive impairments and personality specifics in the majority of tests and questionnaires, such as reduced values on the intelligence scale and weaker performances in information processing, together with high scores for psychopathy and paranoia, and signs of sexual obsessiveness and sexual dysfunction. In contrast to previous reports, some of these alterations were at least partly explained by factors other than pedophilia, such as education level or age. These alterations may be seen to be in line with the hypothesis of a perturbation of

  15. Adjective checklist to assess the big five personality factors in the Argentine population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rubén D; Sánchez, Roberto; Díaz-Lázaro, Carlos M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an adjective checklist to assess the Big Five personality factors in the Argentine population. The new instrument was administered to pilot (n= 112), validation (n= 372), and replication (n= 309) samples. The final version of the checklist included 67 adjectives encompassing its 5 dimensions. Factor analysis results were consistent with the Five-factor model. Internal consistency of scales was very good and convergent correlations with the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) were substantial. Face validity, as evaluated by 2 independent raters, was good. Preliminary evidence of validity for the checklist is presented. Finally, the Adjective Checklist for Personality Assessment and BFI are compared, taking into consideration their psychometric properties in our cultural context. Study limitations and future research are discussed.

  16. Relationships Between Activities, Participation, Personal Factors, Mental Health, and Life Satisfaction in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Christel M.; Post, Marcel W.; Westers, Paul; van der Woude, Lucas H.; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe; Slootman, Hans; Lindeman, Eline

    2012-01-01

    van Leeuwen CM, Post MW, Westers P, van der Woude LH, de Groot S. Sluis T, Slootman H, Lindeman E. Relationships between activities, participation, personal factors, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:82-9. Objective: To clarify rel

  17. Is Personality Fixed? Personality Changes as Much as "Variable" Economic Factors and More Strongly Predicts Changes to Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Christopher J.; Wood, Alex M.; Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2013-01-01

    Personality is the strongest and most consistent cross-sectional predictor of high subjective well-being. Less predictive economic factors, such as higher income or improved job status, are often the focus of applied subjective well-being research due to a perception that they can change whereas personality cannot. As such there has been limited…

  18. [Dependence of the formation of the addictive personality on the predisposing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A A; Rokhlina, M L

    2001-01-01

    During observation of 100 patients with consequences of different types of drug-addictions (heroin, opium, poly-drug, pervitine-ephedrine) a complex of social and biological factors was analyzed: heredity, premorbid personality, somatic diseases, nurture, age of the onset of drug-addiction, duration of drug abuse, a social behavior. Influence of these factors was studied according to the following parameters: alteration of personality; degree of the moral-ethic decline and of the intellectual-mnestic disorders; somatic complications; the presence of the suicidal trends; frequency of self-damages; a professional level; family interrelations; frequency of the delinquencies (including conviction). On the basis of the correlation analysis it was established that the most significant unfavorable prognostic factors, which had determined a rate of the formation of the addictive personality were the following (in order of the decrease of significance): perinatal pathology; family history of alcoholism, drug-addiction and other mental diseases; personality deviations in premorbid period; an early age of the onset of drug addiction; a type of the drug; education; alcoholic abuse before the addiction; duration of the addiction.

  19. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  20. Testing the relationship between personality characteristics, contextual factors and entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, S.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Naderi Mahdei, Karim; Lans, T.; Chizari, M.; Mulder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing upon the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we developed and tested a conceptual model which integrates both internal personality factors and external contextual factors to determine their associations with motivational factors and entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). We then investigated if

  1. Maladaptive Personality Trait Models: Validating the Five-Factor Model Maladaptive Trait Measures With the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-05-01

    Eight measures have been developed to assess maladaptive variants of the five-factor model (FFM) facets specific to personality disorders (e.g., Five-Factor Borderline Inventory [FFBI]). These measures can be used in their entirety or as facet-based scales (e.g., FFBI Affective Dysregulation) to improve the comprehensiveness of assessment of pathological personality. There are a limited number of studies examining these scales with other measures of similar traits (e.g., DSM-5 alternative model). The current study examined the FFM maladaptive scales in relation to the respective general personality traits of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the pathological personality traits of the DSM-5 alternative model using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results indicated the FFM maladaptive trait scales predominantly converged with corresponding NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 traits, providing further validity for these measures as extensions of general personality traits and evidence for their relation to the pathological trait model. Benefits and applications of the FFM maladaptive scales in clinical and research settings are discussed.

  2. The maladaptive personality traits of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in relation to the HEXACO personality factors and schizotypy/dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom; de Vries, Reinout E; Hendrickse, Joshua; Born, Marise Ph

    2012-10-01

    The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), a new measure of maladaptive personality traits, has recently been developed by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup. The PID-5 variables were examined within the seven-factor space defined by the six HEXACO factors and the Schizotypy/Dissociation factor (Ashton & Lee, 2012) using participant samples from Canada (N = 378) and the Netherlands (N = 476). Extension analyses showed that several PID-5 facet-level scales represented each of the Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Schizotypy/Dissociation factors. In contrast, only one PID-5 scale loaded strongly on HEXACO Agreeableness, and no PID-5 scales loaded strongly on Openness to Experience. In addition, a joint factor analysis involving the PID-5 variables and facets of the Five-Factor Model was conducted in the Canadian sample and recovered a set of seven factors corresponding rather closely to the HEXACO factors plus Schizotypy/Dissociation. The authors discuss implications for the assessment and structure of normal and abnormal personality.

  3. Factors that influence the medication decision making of persons with HIV/AIDS: a taxonomic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cynthia K; Bunting, Sheila M; Graney, Marshall; Hartig, Margaret T; Kisner, Patricia; Brown, Brian

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that patients often alter their medication regimens and that these changes may have profound consequences for their health outcomes. Not so well known are the factors that influence the medication decision making of persons managing their own treatment in their day-to-day home situations. In this study, persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) were asked about factors that affected the taking of their medications. Using semistructured interviews in this study of 57 PLWH, the authors used intensive analysis of the narratives to create taxonomies of the barriers and facilitators to taking HIV medications and the decisions that were involved. Categories of identified facilitators included motivation, factors of faith, routines, and others' influences. Categories of identified barriers included perceptions, psycho-emotional issues, provider/clinic issues, interpersonal factors, and disease and treatment factors. This study showed medication decision making to be a complex process, influenced by often-competing life and treatment issues and affected by participants' beliefs and values. These findings call for research into the everyday selfcare of PLWH to understand the reasoned decision-making that PLWH use in managing not only their medications but also their lives.

  4. An investigation into problematic smartphone use: The role of narcissism, anxiety, and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zaheer; Griffiths, Mark D; Sheffield, David

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Over the last decade, worldwide smartphone usage has greatly increased. Alongside this growth, research on the influence of smartphones on human behavior has also increased. However, a growing number of studies have shown that excessive use of smartphones can lead to detrimental consequences in a minority of individuals. This study examines the psychological aspects of smartphone use particularly in relation to problematic use, narcissism, anxiety, and personality factors. Methods A sample of 640 smartphone users ranging from 13 to 69 years of age (mean = 24.89 years, SD = 8.54) provided complete responses to an online survey including modified DSM-5 criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder to assess problematic smartphone use, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Results The results demonstrated significant relationships between problematic smartphone use and anxiety, conscientiousness, openness, emotional stability, the amount of time spent on smartphones, and age. The results also demonstrated that conscientiousness, emotional stability, and age were independent predictors of problematic smartphone use. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that problematic smartphone use is associated with various personality factors and contributes to further understanding the psychology of smartphone behavior and associations with excessive use of smartphones.

  5. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS IN THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lapshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides guidelines for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α  (TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis  (axSpA, including ankylosing spondylitis. It gives data on the efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with non-radiographic axSpA. By using international and Russian guidelines, the authors lay down indications for this therapy and criteria for evaluation of its efficiency and safety.

  6. FUEL CONSUMPTION: A MAJOR FACTOR INFLUENCING SALES OF NEW PERSONAL VEHICLES. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pîrvu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate empirically the validity of our supposition: the fuel consumption is currently the most important factor that influences sales of new personal vehicles. Factors that characterize an economical vehicle make 60 per cent of new personal vehicle buying decisions and the fuel consumption is the most important of these factors. The linear model for estimating the number of new personal vehicle registrations has good fit to the data.

  7. The Role of Communications, Socio-Psychological, and Personality Factors in the Maintenance of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many air transport incidents and accidents are the result of the improper or inadequate utilization of the resources accessible to flight dock crew members. These resources obviously include the hardware and technical information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the flight, but they also Include the human resources which must be coordinated effectively. The focus of this paper is upon the human resources, and how communication styles, socio-psychological factors, and personality characteristics can affect crew coordination.

  8. Chronotype and personality factors of predisposition to seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginska, Halszka; Oginska-Bruchal, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed to recognize the personality factors of a predisposition to seasonal mood fluctuations in a non-clinical sample. A group of 101 subjects (57 women, 44 men; mean age 26.4 ± 6.5 years) completed a battery of tests comprising a Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), a NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A smaller sample (n = 44) completed a Winter Blues Scale (WBS). Women scored significantly higher than men in seasonality (p = 0.014), neuroticism (p = 0.049), agreeableness (p = 0.010), and avoidance-oriented coping style (p = 0.041). Subjects with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (n = 41) or sub-SAD (n = 33), as diagnosed with SPAQ, exhibited higher levels of neuroticism (p = 0.017) and openness (p = 0.016) in comparison to non-SAD individuals. The latter declared a less frequent avoidance coping style. Both measures of seasonality, i.e. the SPAQ Global Seasonality Score and WBS, correlated significantly (r = 0.28 and 0.44, respectively) with the subjective amplitude of the circadian rhythm, as described with the "distinctness" scale of ChQ. Female gender, neuroticism and openness were confirmed as factors linked to seasonal mood variability. Additionally, the study revealed an association between susceptibility to mild winter depression and an avoidance-oriented coping style. The avoidance coping style was correlated positively with all the aspects of seasonality described by SPAQ (correlation coefficients from 0.21 to 0.34). Both sub-types of avoidance-oriented style, i.e. distraction and social diversion, were associated with marked subjective seasonal changes in sleep length, mood and the energy level. While the subjective amplitude of circadian rhythm proved to be connected with seasonality, the subjective acrophase of the rhythm (morningness-eveningness preference) did not. It may be hypothesized that sensitivity

  9. After Divorce: Personality Factors Related to the Process of Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sandra Paul

    1982-01-01

    Considered personality variables related to postdivorce adjustment using a sample of 58 females and 31 males. Found persons with the best adjustment scored significantly higher on dominance/assertiveness, self-assurance, intelligence, creativity/imagination, social boldness, liberalism, self-sufficiency, ego strength and tranquility. (Author/JAC)

  10. Personal Assistant for onLine Services: Addressing human factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, J.; Nagata, S.F.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Personal Assistant for onLine Services (PALS) project aims at substantially improving the user experience of mobile internet services. It focuses on a generic solution: a personal assistant, which attunes the interaction to the momentary user needs and use context (e.g. adjusting the

  11. Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Big 5 Personality Test Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to examine the validity of Big 5 Personality test inventory of 44 questions with 5-Likert Scale measurement. Confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) was conducted to determine the good fit indices of the 5 personality types. Those types are 1) extraversion, 2) agreeableness, 3) conscientiousness, 4) openness and 5) neuroticism.…

  12. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors-including genetics, personality, and environment-affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers' scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers' activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers' dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals' needs.

  13. The HEXACO and Five-Factor Models of Personality in Relation to RIASEC Vocational Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Derek A.; Tokar, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study extended the empirical research on the overlap of vocational interests and personality by (a) testing hypothesized relations between RIASEC interests and the personality dimensions of the HEXACO model, and (b) exploring the HEXACO personality model's predictive advantage over the five-factor model (FFM) in capturing RIASEC…

  14. Test Review: A Review of the Five Factor Personality Inventory-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, David A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Five Factor Personality Inventory-Children (FFPI-C), a quick and easily administered personality assessment for children and adolescents with clear and straightforward scoring and interpretation procedures. The FFPI-C is based on a theoretical model of personality developed through the work of Allport (Allport…

  15. Higher Order Factor Convergence and Divergence of Two Distinct Personality Systems: Cattell's HSPQ and Jackson's PRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesselroade, John B.; Bates, Paul B.

    1975-01-01

    Seeks empirical evidence of convergence of concepts measured by two personality inventories--Cattell's High School Personality Questionnaire and Jackson's Personality Research Form. Implication of the levels of factor convergence obtained in relation to theory building and prediction are discussed. (RC)

  16. Perfectionism and the Five-factor Personality Traits as Predictors of Mortality in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fry, Prem S.; Debats, Dominique L.

    2009-01-01

    The major hypothesis of the study was that perfectionism as a personality trait, along with the five-factor personality traits and dispositional optimism, is strongly associated with mortality in late life. After baseline assessment of health and personality traits as predictors of mortality, 450 pa

  17. Higher Order Factor Convergence and Divergence of Two Distinct Personality Systems: Cattell's HSPQ and Jackson's PRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesselroade, John B.; Bates, Paul B.

    1975-01-01

    Seeks empirical evidence of convergence of concepts measured by two personality inventories--Cattell's High School Personality Questionnaire and Jackson's Personality Research Form. Implication of the levels of factor convergence obtained in relation to theory building and prediction are discussed. (RC)

  18. Z' factor including siRNA design quality parameter in RNAi screening experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sławomir; Kozak, Karol

    2012-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) high-content screening (HCS) enables massive parallel gene silencing and is increasingly being used to reveal novel connections between genes and disease-relevant phenotypes. The application of genome-scale RNAi relies on the development of high quality HCS assays. The Z' factor statistic provides a way to evaluate whether or not screening run conditions (reagents, protocols, instrumentation, kinetics, and other conditions not directly related to the test compounds) are optimized. Z' factor, introduced by Zhang et al., ( 1) is a dimensionless value that represents both the variability and the dynamic range between two sets of sample control data. This paper describe a new extension of the Z' factor, which integrates bioinformatics RNAi non-target compounds for screening quality assessment. Currently presented Z' factor is based on positive and negative control, which may not be sufficient for RNAi experiments including oligonucleotides (oligo) with lack of knock-down. This paper proposes an algorithm which extends existing algorithm by using additional controls generetaed from on-target analysis.

  19. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  20. Should the space of basic personality traits be extended to include the disposition toward psychotic-like experiences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that there is a latent disposition toward psychotic-like experiences in the general population, labeled schizotypy. However, there is a dispute over the conceptual status of schizotypy: does it represent merely psychosis proneness, or is it a broad and general personality trait? If a disposition should be regarded even as a candidate for a personality trait, its scores would probably be distributed normally in the population and it must show irreducibility in regard to the previously discovered personality traits. In this research, these questions are addressed, using the construct of Disintegration as an operationalization of schizotypy. The results show that although some modalities of Disintegration have skewed distributions in the student sample (N=345, 65% female, the global Disintegration scores have a normal distribution. Furthermore, Disintegration modalities constitute a latent component which is distinct from the personality traits that form HEXACO model of basic personality structure. Nevertheless, Disintegration shares some variance with the HEXACO traits, especially with the negative poles of Extraversion and Conscientiousness. The results suggest that a conceptual view of a schizotypy as a personality trait is at least plausible and they can be used as guidelines for future empirical studies of this problem. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011

  1. Risk factors for ANA positivity in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan-Zhen; Karp, David R; Quan, Jiexia; Branch, Valerie K; Zhou, Jinchun; Lian, Yun; Chong, Benjamin F; Wakeland, Edward K; Olsen, Nancy J

    2011-03-02

    The finding of antinuclear antibody (ANA) positivity in a healthy individual is usually of unknown significance and in most cases is benign. However, a subset of such individuals is at risk for development of autoimmune disease. We examined demographic and immunological features that are associated with ANA positivity in clinically healthy persons to develop insights into when this marker carries risk of progression to lupus. Biological samples from healthy individuals and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were obtained from the Dallas Regional Autoimmune Disease Registry (DRADR). Measurements carried out on serum samples included ANA, extractable nuclear antibodies (ENA) and autoantibody profiling using an array with more than 100 specificities. Whole blood RNA samples from a subset of individuals were used to analyze gene expression on the Illumina platform. Data were analyzed for associations of high ANA levels with demographic features, the presence of other autoantibodies and with gene expression profiles. Overall, ANA levels are significantly higher in females than in males and this association holds in patients with the autoimmune diseases lupus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as in healthy controls (HC). Age was not significantly associated with ANA levels and the elevated ANA values could not be explained by higher IgG levels. Another autoantibody, anti- cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP), did not show gender dimorphism in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or healthy individuals. The autoantigen array showed significant elevations of other autoantibodies in high ANA HCs. Some of these autoantibodies were directed to antigens in skin and others were related to autoimmune conditions of kidney, thyroid or joints. Gene expression analyses showed a greater prevalence of significantly upregulated genes in HCs with negative ANA values than in those with significant ANA positivity. Genes upregulated in high ANA HCs included a celiac disease

  2. Personality traits measured by the Swedish universities Scales of Personality: factor structure and position within the five-factor model in an Estonian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluoja, Anu; Voogne, Helina; Maron, Eduard; Gustavsson, J Petter; Võhma, Ulle; Shlik, Jakov

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Estonian version of the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), and to characterize the position of the SSP-measured traits within the basic personality dimensions of the five-factor model. A total of 529 participants completed the Estonian version of the SSP. A subsample of 197 persons completed the SSP together with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). The internal consistency of the SSP scales was satisfactory. Principal component analysis yielded three factors representing neuroticism, aggression and disinhibition. The factor solution obtained in the Estonian sample was similar to the original SSP study in the Swedish normative sample. NEO-PI-R Neuroticism had highest correlations with SSP neuroticism factor scales. Extraversion had strongest relationship with adventure seeking and low detachment. Agreeableness correlated positively with SSP social desirability and negatively to aggression-irritability scales. Conscientiousness facet Deliberation correlated with Impulsiveness. The Estonian SSP showed acceptable reliability and validity, which confirms that SSP is applicable in different social and cultural background. The SSP measures traits that correspond to the major personality models. The SSP characterizes three broad dimensions of personality, namely neuroticism, disinhibition and aggression, which are useful in assessment of personality correlates of mental disorders.

  3. A six-factor model of brand personality and its predictive validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines applicability and usefulness of HEXACO-based model in the description of brand personality. Following contemporary theoretical developments in human personality research, Study 1 explored the latent personality structure of 120 brands using descriptors of six personality traits as defined in HEXACO model: Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness. The results of exploratory factor analyses have supported HEXACO personality six-factor structure to a large extent. In Study 2 we addressed the question of predictive validity of HEXACO-based brand personality. Brand personality traits, but predominantly Honesty-Humility, accounted for substantial amount of variance in prediction of important aspects of consumer-brand relationship: attitude toward brand, perceived quality of a brand, and brand loyalty. The implications of applying HEXACO-based brand personality in marketing research are discussed. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 179018 and Grant no. 175012

  4. Maladaptive personality functioning within the big five and the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Linda Anne; Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2002-10-01

    The five-factor model (FFM) of general personality functioning was derived originally from lexical studies of trait terms within the English language. Many studies have been conducted on the relationship of the FFM to personality disorder symptomatology but, as yet, no lexical study of the representation of maladaptive personality functioning within a language has been conducted. The current study identified the distribution of socially undesirable trait terms within each of the poles of the Big Five and compared this distribution to findings obtained with FFM personality disorder measures. The implications of the results for a FFM of personality disorders and for the FFM assessment of maladaptive personality functioning are discussed.

  5. Physical culture and sport as factors of socializations to personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamaeva E.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of publications is resulted on the topic of research. Essence of physical culture and sport is exposed and its place is certain in the system of public relations. The socializing function of sport is considered. Pedagogical facilities of forming personality of sportsman are exposed. A few determinations of concept of socialization are given. The basic institutes of socialization are presented. Influence of physical culture and sport is investigational on the process of socialization of personality. It is well-proven that efficiency of socialization in sport depends on the level of coincidence of values of sport and values of society and personality.

  6. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  7. [Relevance of personal contextual factors of the ICF for use in practical social medicine and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotkamp, S; Cibis, W; Bahemann, A; Baldus, A; Behrens, J; Nyffeler, I D; Echterhoff, W; Fialka-Moser, V; Fries, W; Fuchs, H; Gmünder, H P; Gutenbrunner, C; Keller, K; Nüchtern, E; Pöthig, D; Queri, S; Rentsch, H P; Rink, M; Schian, H-M; Schian, M; Schmitt, K; Schwarze, M; Ulrich, P; von Mittelstaedt, G; Seger, W

    2014-03-01

    Personal contextual factors play an essential part in the model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The WHO has not yet classified personal factors for global use although they impact on the functioning of persons positively or negatively. In 2010, the ICF working group of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) presented a proposal for the classification of personal factors into 72 categories previously arranged in 6 chapters. Now a positioning paper has been added in order to stimulate a discussion about the fourth component of the ICF, to contribute towards a broader and common understanding about the nature of personal factors and to incite a dialogue among all those involved in health care as well as those people with or with-out health problems in order to gain a comprehensive perspective about a person's condition.

  8. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oh Young Kwon; So Youn Park

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. Methods...

  9. Sensory Processing Sensitivity: Factors of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale and Their relationships to Personality and Subjective Health Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listou Grimen, Hanne; Diseth, Åge

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of a Norwegian version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS) and to investigate how sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is related to personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness and to subjective health complaints (SHC) in a sample of 167 undergraduate psychology students. The results showed that the variance in a shortened version of the HSPS was best described by three separate factors: ease of excitation (EOE), aesthetic sensitivity (AES), and low sensory threshold (LST). Furthermore, the result showed than an overall SPS factor (EOE, LST, and AES combined) was predicted positively by neuroticism and openness and negatively by extraversion. With respect to SHC, the results showed that EOE and LST were positively associated with psychological health complaints. However, the personality trait of neuroticism contributed more than the SPS factors as predictor of SHC. In conclusion, the present study supported a shortened version of the HSPS and its relation to personality factors and SHC.

  10. The Five Factor Model of Personality Applied to Adults Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverach, Lisa; O'Brian, Susan; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan; Lincoln, Michelle; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally; Menzies, Ross G.; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has not explored the Five Factor Model of personality among adults who stutter. Therefore, the present study investigated the five personality domains of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), in a sample of 93 adults seeking speech…

  11. Social Networks in the Classroom: Personality Factors as Antecedents of Student Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…

  12. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Buczkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors—including genetics, personality, and environment—affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers’ scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers’ activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers’ dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism and compliance (a component of agreeableness. The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals’ needs.

  13. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A.; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors—including genetics, personality, and environment—affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers’ scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers’ activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers’ dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals’ needs. PMID:28134805

  14. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  15. Data from "Cohort differences in big five personality factors over a period of 25 years"

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, Iris A. M.; Conor V Dolan; Harrie C. Vorst; Jelte M Wicherts; Timmerman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This data set comprises of scores of 8,954 psychology freshmen from the University of Amsterdam (1982-2007) on the ‘Vijf PersoonlijkheidsFactoren Test’ or 5PFT developed by Elshout and Akkerman, which is an instrument to measure the Big Five personality factors Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Data were collected during the yearly freshmen-testing program from 1982-2007 and include scores at the level of 70 items that can be used in stud...

  16. The effective family and personality factors on felony in adolescent felons of Khorramabad house of correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mandana Saki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social damage is one of the problems which destroys the active manpower and young population in the country and also prevents social development. Family is the first environment in which social ground for the child is provided.Any dispute, controversy or inferiority complex in the family may lead to wrong doings The present study aims at the effective family and personality factors on felony in felon adolescents kept in Khorramabad bouse of correction. Materials and Methods: This descriptive- analytic study was carried out on all of the adolescents in Khorramabad house of correction as case group selected using census random sampling and high school students as control group selected by cluster random sampling. Data gathering tool was a 2-part questionnaire including demographic information and standard SCL 90 questionnaire. Results: Results showed that there is a significant relationship between the place of residence, failure in school program, economic status of the family, parents presence, fathers job and education, mothers job and education, parents inter personal relationship and family conflicting. The results also showed that aggression, anxiety, depression, somatic complain, obsessive compulsive, inter personality sensitivity, Psychotic, paranoid and phobia had a significant difference in the case and control groups. Conclusion: Regarding the fact that family environment is considered as the most important educative factor and no social damage has not occurred out of family influence, so no society can claim to be healthy unless to have healthy families.

  17. Stress levels, gender and personality factors in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, D; Abouserie, R

    1993-06-01

    The study reports an investigation of stress levels, gender and personality dimensions in a sample of school teachers. The Professional Life Stress Scale (PLSS) was used to assess teachers' stress levels and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) was used to define their personality dimensions (Extroversion-Introversion, Neuroticism-High Psychoticism-Low Psychoticism). The study sample consisted of 95 teachers, 51 females and 44 males. Results revealed that the majority of teachers sampled, 72.6 per cent, were experiencing moderate levels of stress, and 23.2 per cent serious levels. T-test results showed no significant difference between male and female teachers in stress levels. Correlation analysis between stress level and personality dimensions revealed significant positive correlation between stress and psychoticism. A significant negative correlation emerged between stress and extroversion, and a significant positive correlation between stress and neuroticism. A multiple regression analysis revealed that extroversion and neuroticism were the best predictors of stress levels. Overall, the results therefore indicated that personality dimensions appear to contribute more to stress levels than do the variables of either age or gender.

  18. Personality prototype as a risk factor for eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Sanchez-Guarnido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To establish whether the risk of suffering from an eating disorder (ED is associated with the high-functioning, undercontrolled, or overcontrolled personality prototype groups.Method:The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2 were administered to 69 patients diagnosed as suffering from EDs (cases and 89 people free of any ED symptoms (control group. A cluster analysis was carried out to divide the participants into three groups based on their scores in the Big Five personality dimensions. A logistic regression model was then created.Results:Participants in the undercontrolled group had a risk of suffering from an ED 6.517 times higher than those in the high-functioning group (p = 0.019; odds ratio [OR] = 6.517, while those in the overcontrolled subgroup had a risk of ED 15.972 times higher than those in the high-functioning group.Conclusions:Two personality subtypes were identified in which the risk of EDs was six times higher (the undercontrolled group and almost 16 times higher (the overcontrolled group. Prevention and treatment programs for ED could benefit from focusing on the abovementioned personality profiles.

  19. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions... the international movement of personal and household effects. (b) Stricter national measures. The... household effect for the following species exceeds the quantity indicated in paragraphs (c)(3)(i)...

  20. Dimensions Underlying Measures of Disability, Personal Factors, and Health Status in Cervical Radiculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Marie; Kierkegaard, Marie; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin; Peolsson, Anneli; Dedering, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study sought to identify dimensions underlying measures of impairment, disability, personal factors, and health status in patients with cervical radiculopathy. One hundred twenty-four patients with magnetic resonance imaging-verified cervical radiculopathy, attending a neurosurgery clinic in Sweden, participated. Data from clinical tests and questionnaires on disability, personal factors, and health status were used in a principal-component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation. The PCA supported a 3-component model including 14 variables from clinical tests and questionnaires, accounting for 73% of the cumulative percentage. The first component, pain and disability, explained 56%. The second component, health, fear-avoidance beliefs, kinesiophobia, and self-efficacy, explained 9.2%. The third component including anxiety, depression, and catastrophizing explained 7.6%. The strongest-loading variables of each dimension were “present neck pain intensity,” “fear avoidance,” and “anxiety.” The three underlying dimensions identified and labeled Pain and functioning, Health, beliefs, and kinesiophobia, and Mood state and catastrophizing captured aspects of importance for cervical radiculopathy. Since the variables “present neck pain intensity,” “fear avoidance,” and “anxiety” had the strongest loading in each of the three dimensions; it may be important to include them in a reduced multidimensional measurement set in cervical radiculopathy. PMID:26091482

  1. Associations between the Big Five Personality Factors and Multiple Mini-Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, B.; Wilson, I.

    2012-01-01

    Given the accumulating evidence that performance in medical school and beyond is related to personality, it is important for research to consider how personality assessment can be included as part of the process of selecting medical students. Interviews are one way of measuring personality and this study extends prior research investigating…

  2. Prognostic factors of infantile spasms: role of treatment options including a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Yu, Hee Jun; Lee, Munhyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide additional evidences on prognostic factors for infantile spasms and the possible role of a ketogenic diet. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with infantile spasms who had been followed up for more than 6months between January 2000 and July 2012 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). We analyzed the association between possible prognostic factors and seizure/developmental outcomes. Sixty-nine patients were included in this study and their mean follow-up duration was 52.5 (9-147) months. In the patients who had been followed up for more than 2years, 53.6% (n=30/57) remained seizure-free at the last visit. Sixty patients (86.9%) showed developmental delay at last follow-up. Forty-two patients (60.9%) became spasm-free with one or two antiepileptic drugs, one patient with epilepsy surgery for a tumor, and seven patients with a ketogenic diet after the failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. The etiology and age of seizure onset were the significant prognostic factors. In this study, about 60% of the patients became spasm-free with vigabatrin and topiramate. Ketogenic diet increased the rate by 10% in the remaining antiepileptic drug resistant patients. However, 86.9% of the patients showed developmental delay, mostly a severe degree. Early diagnosis and prompt application of treatment options such as antiepileptic drugs, a ketogenic diet or epilepsy surgery can improve outcomes in patients with infantile spasms. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  4. Personality Traits as Factors Affecting E-Book Adoption among College Students: Does Personality Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurkaliza Bt Khalid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic materials such as e-book have become increasingly accepted as learning tools in the classroom nowadays. This study investigated the relationships between the big five personality traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extroversion with e-book adoption among college students. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regressions were conducted to analyze the data. Results revealed statistically significant relationships between the personality traits (conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion and e-book adoption. Implications of the findings are also discussed.

  5. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample - A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörman, Karolina; Nilsonne, Gustav; Howner, Katarina; Tamm, Sandra; Caman, Shilan; Wang, Hui-Xin; Ingvar, Martin; Edens, John F; Gustavsson, Petter; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Petrovic, Predrag; Fischer, Håkan; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R's reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227) in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i) the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), (ii) self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii) additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively). Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency) and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.

  6. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample - A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sörman

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R's reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227 in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV, (ii self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively. Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.

  7. Temperament Factors as Longitudinal Predictors of Young Adult Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, James E.; Halverson, Charles F., Jr.; Havill, Valerie; Martin, Roy P.

    2005-01-01

    While there is a general consensus that temperament forms the enduring, biologically based foundation of personality and that this biological basis should imply some continuity within the individual across time, there is a limited literature exploring linkages between these areas. The purpose of this article was to provide an initial assessment of…

  8. Temperament Factors as Longitudinal Predictors of Young Adult Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, James E.; Halverson, Charles F., Jr.; Havill, Valerie; Martin, Roy P.

    2005-01-01

    While there is a general consensus that temperament forms the enduring, biologically based foundation of personality and that this biological basis should imply some continuity within the individual across time, there is a limited literature exploring linkages between these areas. The purpose of this article was to provide an initial assessment of…

  9. Personality Factors and Expectation Effects in Teacher-Student Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.

    Although the effect of teacher expectations on student performance has been well documented, little research has focused on the effect of teacher personality styles on student-teacher interactions. To investigate the effect of teachers' locus of control and their expectations of their own effectiveness on student success, 77 female college…

  10. Ethical leader behavior and big five factors of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.; de Hoogh, A.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Most research on ethical leadership to date investigates the consequences of ethical leadership rather than its antecedents. Here, we aim to contribute to this field by studying leader personality as a potential antecedent of ethical leader behavior. In two multisource studies, we investigated the r

  11. A Study of Factors that Influence Unemployed Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Arie

    2006-01-01

    The following research analyzes, through a field study, several relevant personality traits, or variables, that may be used to help the unemployed by directing them to entrepreneurship. Three sample groups (unemployed, employed, and entrepreneurs) were compared using several intrinsically motivating variables: knowledge, inclination to…

  12. The role of personal protective factors in anchoring psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    whether adolescents with learning difficulties could show resilience, despite the .... which hampers a child's learning and growth towards adulthood from progressing ... The researcher used the first 10 questionnaires returned in each category to .... mindedness and the ability to fight for deserved personal rights in a socially ...

  13. Person-centred ergonomics: a Brantonian view of human factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oborne, David J; Oborne, D.T

    1993-01-01

    ... Cataloguing in Publication Data Person-Centred Ergonomics A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0-203-22123-0 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-27588-8 (Adobe eR...

  14. The role of personal protective factors in anchoring psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I report on a study that focused on the concept of resilience, ... of personal attributes in adolescents with learning difficulties, who were able to ... had demonstrated resilience, whilst the other half appeared to have reneged on ...

  15. A new laser-based system for obstacle detection including step, hole and slope for Personal Mobility Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    POLLARD, Evangeline; Fawzi NASHASHIBI

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Personal Mobility Vehicles (PMV) is is an important part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) domain. These new transport systems have been designed for urban traffic areas, pedestrian streets, green zones and private parks. In these areas, steps and curbs make the movement of disable or mobility reduced people with PMV, and with standard chair wheels difficult. In this paper, we present a step and curb detection system based on laser sensors. This system is ...

  16. Personality Traits as Factors Affecting E-Book Adoption among College Students: Does Personality Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Nurkaliza Bt Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Electronic materials such as e-book have become increasingly accepted as learning tools in the classroom nowadays. This study investigated the relationships between the big five personality traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extroversion with e-book adoption among college students. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regressions were conducted to analyze the data. Results revealed statistically significant relatio...

  17. SOME PERSONALITY FEATURES AS PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Butorac

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other behavioural disorders, models of drug and alcohol abuse stem from interaction of several factors such as social settings, biological and psychological configuration, individual’s personality dimensions as well as psychoactive effect of drug. To-date research predominantly targeted consequences of drug and alcohol abuse, treatment, rehabilitation and the explanation of dependent person’s behaviour. Much less effort and research addressed the issue of personality as a potent predisposition risk factor and its effect on this phenomenon. Although personality does not develop as a separate entity, drug abuse, amongst other factors, is initiated by different personality traits, cognitive processes, person’s expectancies and psychopathology. In the light of that, this article contains results of psychological research which indicate risk factors and their interactive relationships within general personality construct. These findings therefore relevantly contribute to the development of effective prevention programmes, risk groups identification and early treatment interventions.

  18. Toward a four-factor theory of temperament and/or personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenda, P F

    1987-01-01

    This article makes a case for a four-factor theory of temperament/personality, tracing its origin to Hippocrates, who first postulated a four-factor theory of temperament in 400 B.C. Historical developments are discussed as they relate to the postulation of a four-factor mode, continuing from Galen in the 2nd century A.D. to the present day. Theoretical formulations are discussed along with considerations of applications in the field of personality assessment.

  19. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  20. The relationship of personality factors to teacher longevity of mathematics and science teachers in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Ruby Jee

    The problem of teacher shortage in the United States has been studied extensively. Struggling schools and school districts have resorted to filling positions with unqualified teachers, substitutes, and recruiting teachers from foreign nations. Despite recommendations made by the research, each year schools confront the same problem of teachers leaving the classroom. The need to hire and retain good mathematics and science teachers in our nation's secondary schools is high. It is posited that if the personality factors of mathematics and science teachers in Nevada could be determined in teachers who remain in education, then recommendations could be made in conjunction with the existing data for how to better retain those teachers longer. The purpose of this study was to determine if there were any correlations between personality factors, as measured by the Cattell 16PF, with longevity of stay in mathematics and science teachers in Nevada. Seventy-nine subjects took part in the study. They came from six school districts in Nevada: four rural and two urban. Subjects volunteered based upon proctor requests from each participating school district. The Cattell 16PF Questionnaire and demographic form were administered to each participant along with an incentive for completing the forms. Data were collected between October, 2007 -- October, 2008. T-tests were used to compare rural and urban school district teachers, a one-way ANOVA was used to compare rural, urban, and nationally normed teacher means, and a Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) was used to determine if significant correlations existed between each personality factor and longevity of stay. Results of the study showed Nevada mathematics and science teachers had low mean scores for personality factor A (Warmth) and personality factor I (Sensitivity). They had means near the middle for all other personality factors. The study also found two personality factors that correlated significantly with

  1. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, D C

    2001-01-01

    Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.

  3. The clinical utility of the Five Factor Model of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Natalie G; Crego, Cristina; Widiger, Thomas A

    2012-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that clinicians would be unable to recover DSM-IV-TR personality disorder diagnoses on the basis of information provided by the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality disorder. However, the prior research did not provide all of the information that would be available to a clinician when determining a personality disorder diagnosis; more specifically, the maladaptive personality traits associated with each FFM trait elevation. In the current study, 201 clinicians provided DSM-IV-TR personality disorder diagnoses on the basis of either the DSM-IV-TR criterion sets or the respective FFM maladaptive personality traits. Accuracy using the FFM maladaptive traits was much improved over the prior research and comparable to the accuracy obtained with the criterion sets. The clinicians also rated the FFM and the DSM-IV-TR as comparably useful for obtaining a DSM-IV-TR personality disorder diagnosis.

  4. Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, R R; Costa, P T

    1987-01-01

    Two data sources--self-reports and peer ratings--and two instruments--adjective factors and questionnaire scales--were used to assess the five-factor model of personality. As in a previous study of self-reports (McCrae & Costa, 1985b), adjective factors of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness-antagonism, and conscientiousness-undirectedness were identified in an analysis of 738 peer ratings of 275 adult subjects. Intraclass correlations among raters, ranging from .30 to .65, and correlations between mean peer ratings and self-reports, from .25 to .62, showed substantial cross-observer agreement on all five adjective factors. Similar results were seen in analyses of scales from the NEO Personality Inventory. Items from the adjective factors were used as guides in a discussion of the nature of the five factors. These data reinforce recent appeals for the adoption of the five-factor model in personality research and assessment.

  5. Project Manager Personality as a Factor for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ Figure 1. Myers-Briggs Personality Types 26 Table 5. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator...vertical stripes in Figure 2 (also in green shading, i.e., 1ST], INFP , INT], ENF], and ENTJ) demonstrate those MBT1 types that were hypothesized to...appropriate training programs. 32 ISFJ ISTP ISFP INFP ESTP ESFP ENFP 1 (2.00/0) ESTJ CD D D ESFJ 2 (4.1%) MBTI Type hypothesized to match

  6. Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Colorectal Cancer: A Personalized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Rockall

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is an exciting time for all those engaged in the treatment of colorectal cancer. The advent of new therapies presents the opportunity for a personalized approach to the patient. This approach considers the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis in addition to classical clinicopathological staging. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have stemmed from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and therapeutics are discussed with a focus on mismatch repair status, KRAS, BRAF, 18qLOH, CIMP and TGF-β.

  7. A meta-analytic review of the relationships between the five-factor model and DSM-IV-TR personality disorders: a facet level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2008-12-01

    Theory and research have suggested that the personality disorders contained within the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) can be understood as maladaptive variants of the personality traits included within the five-factor model (FFM). The current meta-analysis of FFM personality disorder research both replicated and extended the 2004 work of Saulsman and Page (The five-factor model and personality disorder empirical literature: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1055-1085) through a facet level analysis that provides a more specific and nuanced description of each DSM-IV-TR personality disorder. The empirical FFM profiles generated for each personality disorder were generally congruent at the facet level with hypothesized FFM translations of the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders. However, notable exceptions to the hypotheses did occur and even some findings that were consistent with FFM theory could be said to be instrument specific.

  8. The NEO Personality Inventory: Using the Five-Factor Model in Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), which is based on Five-Factor Model taxonomy of personality traits. Summarizes characteristics of test, features for administration and scoring, and studies of reliability, stability, and validity. Claims NEO-PI may be particularly appropriate for use in counseling because it is brief,…

  9. The Five-Factor Model Personality Assessment for Improved Student Design Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogot, Madara; Okudan, Gul E.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have long noted the correlation of various personality traits and team performance. Studies relating aggregate team personality traits to team performance are scattered in the literature and may not always be relevant to engineering design teams. This paper synthesizes the results from applicable Five-Factor Model (FFM)-based…

  10. Associations between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Health Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Douglas A.; Levine, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In fall 2006, the authors examined associations between the five-factor model of personality and several key health behaviors. Methods: College students (N = 583) completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment and the International Personality Item Pool Big Five short-form questionnaire. Results:…

  11. Factors Associated with Behavioral Intention to Disclose Personal Information on Geosocial Networking Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Trissa

    2012-01-01

    Information privacy is a major concern for consumers adopting emerging technologies dependent on location-based services. This study sought to determine whether a relationship exists among factors of personalization, locatability, perceived playfulness, privacy concern and behavioral intention to disclose personal information for individuals using…

  12. The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space a correlational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Schiano di Cola, Armando; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to pe

  13. The General Factor of Personality (GFP) and parental support: Testing a prediction from Life History Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, D. van der; Figueredo, A.J.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we tested whether the General Factor of Personality (GFP) is related to the level of parental support. The GFP is assumed to occupy the apex of the hierarchy of human personality structure and is believed to reflect a socially and sexually selected aggregate of behavioral chara

  14. Meta-analyses of Big Six Interests and Big Five Personality Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lisa M.; Rottinghaus, Patrick J.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2002-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 24 samples demonstrated overlap between Holland's vocational interest domains (measured by Self Directed Search, Strong Interest Inventory, and Vocational Preference Inventory) and Big Five personality factors (measured by Revised NEO Personalty Inventory). The link is stronger for five interest-personality pairs:…

  15. The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space a correlational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Schiano di Cola, Armando; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to pe

  16. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions Targeting Personality Risk Factors for Youth Alcohol Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Comeau, Nancy; Maclean, A. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Sensation seeking, anxiety sensitivity, and hopelessness are personality risk factors for alcohol use disorders, each associated with specific risky drinking motives in adolescents. We developed a set of interventions and manuals that were designed to intervene at the level of personality risk and associated maladaptive coping strategies,…

  17. Conceptualizations of Personality Disorders with the Five Factor Model-Count and Empathy Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, Petri J.; Dåderman, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has long advocated that emotional and behavioral disorders are related to general personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model (FFM). The addition of section III in the latest "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) recommends that extremity in personality traits together with maladaptive…

  18. The Five-Factor Model Personality Assessment for Improved Student Design Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogot, Madara; Okudan, Gul E.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have long noted the correlation of various personality traits and team performance. Studies relating aggregate team personality traits to team performance are scattered in the literature and may not always be relevant to engineering design teams. This paper synthesizes the results from applicable Five-Factor Model (FFM)-based…

  19. Should borderline personality disorder be included in the fourth edition of the Chinese classification of mental disorders?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jie; LEUNG Freedom

    2007-01-01

    @@ Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious Bpersonality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disturbances in mood regulation, impulse control, self-image and interpersonal relationships.1 In the United States, the prevalence of BPD has been estimated at 1%-2% of the general population, 10% of psychiatric outpatients, and 20% of inpatients.2,3 According to the 4th text revision of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-Ⅳ-TR),1 about 75% of BPD patients are women. The BPD diagnosis has been associated with heightened risk (8.5% to 10.0% among BPD patients) for completed suicide, a rate almost 50times higher than in the general population.4

  20. Molecular basis for para-Bombay phenotypes in Chinese persons, including a novel nonfunctional FUT1 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lixing; Zhu, Faming; Xu, Xianguo; Hong, Xiaozhen; Lv, Qinfeng

    2005-05-01

    The para-Bombay phenotype is characterized by H-deficient or H-partially deficient red blood cells (RBCs) in persons who secrete ABH antigens in their saliva. The studies that determined the genotypes for two Chinese individuals with the para-Bombay phenotype are described. RBC phenotypes were characterized by conventional serologic methods. Exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were amplified, as well as the entire coding region for FUT1 and FUT2, with four independence polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) from genomic DNA. PCR products were excised, purified from agarose gels, and sequenced directly. Mutations of FUT1 were identified by TOPO cloning sequencing. For both individuals, RBC ABO genotypes correlated with ABH substances in their saliva. One individual (a patient) had two heterozygous mutations of FUT1 by direct DNA sequencing, namely, a C-->T heterozygous mutation at position 293(C293T) and AG heterozygous deletion (CAGAGAG-->CAGAG) at position 547 to 552. These two mutations were confirmed to be compound heterozygotes; that is, each mutation was determined to be on a separate homologous chromosome by TOPO cloning sequencing. The FUT2 genotype was Se(357)Se(357). The other individual (a blood donor) had an AG deletion at position 547 to 552 homozygous allele in FUT1. The FUT2 genotype was Se(357)Se(357,385). C293T mutation can cause Thr/Met at amino acid position 98. AG deletion at position 547 to 552 caused a reading frameshift and a premature stop codon. A novel nonfunctional FUT1 allele C293T was identified in a person with the para-Bombay phenotype. This rare H-deficient phenotype may result from different nonfunctional alleles.

  1. Relationships between five-factor personality traits and specific health-related personality dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinan las relaciones entre 15 rasgos de personalidad relevantes para la investigación en salud, así como sus relaciones con los cinco grandes factores de la personalidad y dos factores de orden superior alfa y beta. El análisis factorial de 15 rasgos de la personalidad relacionados con la salud dio lugar a tres amplios componentes: Afectividad negativa, Control optimista y Pasividad. Los resultados obtenidos indican que los tres componentes relacionados con la salud, y la mayoría de sus medidas, podrían explicarse por la combinación de los cinco factores de la personalidad. Extraversión, Neuroticismo y Apertura están representados en los conceptos relacionados con la salud mucho más que Amabilidad y Responsabilidad. Locus de control de la salud y pasividad mostraron el mayor grado de independencia de los cinco grandes factores de la personalidad. El factor alfa se relaciona principalmente con la baja afectividad negativa, mientras que el factor beta lo hace con un alto control optimista. Los resultados sugieren que los cinco grandes factores, y los factores alfa y beta de orden superior, son útiles como marco general para la investigación en salud y personalidad, aunque también existe la necesidad de utilizar medidas específicas.

  2. Factors associated with knowledge of personal gestational weight gain recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Tracey; Van Den Berg, Patricia; Leung, Patrick; Berens, Pamela D

    2015-08-13

    Excess adiposity (obesity and excess gestational weight gain, GWG) during pregnancy (EADP) increases risk for gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and child and maternal obesity. Personal GWG goals predict total GWG. Some estimates suggest only 30% of pregnant women have personal GWG goals that are congruent with Institute of Medicine GWG recommendations. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which perceived pre-pregnancy weight status, healthcare provider advice, knowledge of EADP risks, and value for healthy GWG predicted knowledge of GWG recommendations. The secondary purpose was to determine sources of GWG information among pregnant women. Pregnant women with a confirmed singleton pregnancy completed a one-time survey in obstetric clinic waiting rooms. Logistic regression analysis was used. 246 predominantly African American, low income, overweight/obese women completed surveys. Average age was 25 (SD 5.3) and gestation age ranged from 7 to 40 weeks. Knowledge of pre-pregnancy weight status was the only unique predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (B = .642, p = .03). The top three sources of GWG information were physicians, internet, and books. The least frequently reported sources of GWG information were other healthcare providers, community programs, and television. In low income diverse overweight/obese pregnant women, accurate pre-pregnancy weight status perception was the only significant unique predictor of knowledge of GWG recommendations. Physicians were the preferred source of GWG information. Clinicians should have frequent, ongoing conversations about weight status with women before, during, and after pregnancy.

  3. Do DSM-5 Section II personality disorders and Section III personality trait domains reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Krueger, R F; Ystrom, E; Torvik, F A; Rosenström, T H; Aggen, S H; South, S C; Neale, M C; Knudsen, G P; Kendler, K S; Czajkowski, N O

    2017-09-01

    DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity. Schizotypal, Paranoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-compulsive PDs were assessed at the same time as the maladaptive personality traits and 10 years previously. Schizoid, Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Dependent PDs were only assessed at the first interview. Biometric models were used to estimate overlap in genetic and environmental risk factors. When measured concurrently, there was 100% genetic overlap between the maladaptive trait domains and Paranoid, Schizotypal, Antisocial, Borderline, and Avoidant PDs. For OCPD, 43% of the genetic variance was shared with the domains. Genetic correlations between the individual domains and PDs ranged from +0.21 to +0.91. The pathological personality trait domains, which are part of the Alternative Model for classification of PDs in DSM-5 Section III, appears to tap, at an aggregate level, the same genetic risk factors as the DSM-5 Section II classification for most of the PDs.

  4. Testing the relationship between personality characteristics, contextual factors and entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, S.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Naderi Mahdei, Karim; Lans, T.; Chizari, M.; Mulder, M.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we developed and tested a conceptual model which integrates both internal personality factors and external contextual factors to determine their associations with motivational factors and entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). We then investigated if th

  5. Distribution and Risk Factors of Disability Attributed to Personality Disorders: A National Cross-sectional Survey in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Ting Zhang; Yue-Qin Huang; Zhao-Rui Liu; Hong-Guang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background:Personality disorders can lead to some disability.However,little is known about the disability prevalence and function impairments.This study aimed to describe the disability prevalence attributed to personality disorders,its distribution,impairments of daily activities and social functions,and risk factors in China.Methods:Using a descriptive and analytic epidemiological method,data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006 were analyzed.The disability prevalence attributed to personality disorders,its distribution in different people and regions,and risk factors were statistically calculated.Results:Respondents included 1,909,205 adults.The disability prevalence rate attributed to personality disorders in China was 5.9/100,000.The disability rate attributed to personality disorders of males was higher than that of females (P =0.012),while the rate of the unemployed was higher than that of the employed (P<0.001).Furthermore,the rates of unmarried/divorced/widowed people and the illiterate population were higher than those of married and educated people (P < 0.001).Regarding the severity of disability attributable to personality disorders,mild disability accounted for a majority or 60% of the respondents.The data showed that disability mainly impaired respondents' ability to engage in daily activities,get along with people,and participate in social situations.According to the case-control study,marriage,employment,and higher education were protective factors of disability.Conclusions:The prevalence of disability attributed to personality disorders is low in China and always leads to mild disability.The distribution of disability attributed to personality disorders also varies in the Chinese population.

  6. The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Gjertsen, Siri Renate; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Kvam, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-01-01

    ..., and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Methods In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e...

  7. Depressive symptoms as a risk factor for disabling back pain in community-dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M Carrington; Williams, Christianna S; Concato, John; Tinetti, Mary E; Gill, Thomas M

    2003-12-01

    To determine whether the presence of depressive symptoms is an independent risk factor for disabling back pain in community-dwelling older persons. Prospective cohort study with a 12-month follow-up period. General community. Seven hundred forty-four members of a large health plan who were aged 70 and older and independent in bathing, walking, dressing, and transferring at baseline. The presence of depressive symptoms, defined as a score of 16 or greater on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, was documented during a comprehensive baseline assessment that also included information regarding participants' demographic, medical, and physical/cognitive status. The occurrence of disabling back pain was ascertained during monthly telephone interviews. Depressive symptoms were present in 153 (20.6%) participants at baseline. Over the 12-month follow-up period, 186 participants (25.0%) reported disabling back pain during 1 to 2 months and 91 (12.2%) during 3 or more months. After adjustment for potential confounders, the presence of depressive symptoms was independently associated with the occurrence of disabling back pain (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-4.4) for 1 to 2 months with disabling back pain; AOR=7.8 (95% CI=3.7-16.4) for 3 or more months with disabling back pain). The presence of depressive symptoms is a strong, independent, and highly prevalent risk factor for the occurrence of disabling back pain in community-dwelling older persons.

  8. More Photos From Me to Thee: Factors Influencing the Intention to Continue Sharing Personal Photos on an Online Social Networking (OSN) Site among Young Adults in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldad, Ardion D.; Hegner, Sabrina M.

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the factors influencing photo sharing continuance intention of Dutch Facebook users aged 18 to 25 years old. The focus was specifically on personal photos (those that include the person sharing), as their disclosure is expected to result in privacy-related issues for t

  9. More Photos From Me to Thee : Factors Influencing the Intention to Continue Sharing Personal Photos on an Online Social Networking (OSN) Site among Young Adults in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldad, Ardion Daroca; Hegner, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the factors influencing photo sharing continuance intention of Dutch Facebook users aged 18 to 25 years old. The focus was specifically on personal photos (those that include the person sharing), as their disclosure is expected to result in privacy-related issues for

  10. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and personality traits in patients with major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Baba, Hajime; Satomura, Emi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Takebayashi, Naoko; Namekawa, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors. Previous studies have demonstrated lower serum BDNF levels in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and reported an association between BDNF levels and depression-related personality traits in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to explore for a possible association between peripheral BDNF levels and personality traits in patients with MDD. Methods In this cross...

  11. Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with chronic daily headache and migraine: a selective overview including personality traits and suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Di Cosimo, Daniela; Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Tatarelli, Roberto; Martelletti, Paolo

    2009-08-01

    Studies on the prevalence and impact of psychiatric disorders among headache patients have yielded findings that have clarified the relationship between migraine and major affective disorders, anxiety, illicit drug abuse, nicotine dependence, and suicide attempts. Studies in both clinical and community-based settings have demonstrated an association between migraine and a number of specific psychiatric disorders. In large-scale population-based studies, persons with migraine are from 2.2 to 4.0 times more likely to have depression. In longitudinal studies, the evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between migraine and depression, with each disorder increasing the risk of the other disorder. Although a strong association has been demonstrated consistently for migraine and major depression, especially for migraine with aura, there has been less systematic research on the links between migraine and bipolar disorder. This review will focus on the way in which psychiatric disorders decrease the quality of life and result in a worse prognosis, chronicity of the disease, and a worse response to treatment. Short-term pharmaceutical care intervention improves the patients' mental health, but it does not significantly change the number and severity of headaches. The increase in self-efficacy and mental health associated with pharmaceutical care may be instrumental in improving the long-term pharmacotherapy of patients with migraine and headache.

  12. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  13. Instructional Materials for Career Education and Occupational and Personal Guidance: A Revised Catalog of Materials included in Traveling Package Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkin, Abigail, Comp.; Pellant, William, Comp.

    Approximately 75 instructional materials(including books, filmstrips, cassettes, and tapes) said to be appropriate for career education programs for pre-vocational and vocational special education students are listed in the areas of vocational guidance, personal guidance, and reading, math and other specialized job-related skills. Materials on…

  14. The Five-Factor Model of personality disorder and DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    The Five-Factor Model of personality disorders (FFMPD; Widiger & Mullins-Sweatt, ) developed from the recognition that the popular Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality could be used to describe and understand the official personality disorder (PD) constructs from the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) diagnostic manuals (e.g., DSM-IV-TR, APA, ). This article provides an overview of the FFM, highlighting its validity and utility in characterizing PDs as well as its ability to provide a comprehensive account of personality pathology in general. In 2013, DSM-5 is scheduled to appear, and the "hybrid" PD proposal will emphasize a 25-personality trait model. I present the current version of this new model, compare it to the FFMPD, and discuss issues related to the implementation of the FFMPD.

  15. Personality and psychopathology: an application of the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, T A; Trull, T J

    1992-06-01

    Our review is concerned with the relationship of the five-factor model of personality to psychopathology, focusing in particular on Axis II personality disorders and depression. The five factors provide a particularly compelling model for interpreting the Axis II personality disorders as maladaptive variants of normal personality traits. However, we also discuss methodological and conceptual limitations of this application. There has been little research on the relationship of Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness to Axis I mental disorders, but considerable attention has been given to Neuroticism and Extraversion. We focus in particular on the difficulty in distinguishing between the various ways in which personality can relate to depression, either as a predisposition to, a complication of, a pathoplastic effect upon, or a spectrum variant of the mental disorder. We conclude with recommendations for future research.

  16. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  17. Prediction of Five Factor Personality Dimensions Through Self- Esteem in Turkish Late Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Sevda

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between five factor personality dimensions and self-esteem in terms of how self-esteem predicts five factor personality dimensions. The study group consisted of a total of 122 students 98 of whom were females (80%) and 24 males (19.7 %). Personality Test Based on Adjectives (Bacanlı, İlhan ve Aslan, 2009) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965; Çuhadaroğlu, 1986) were used as data collection instruments in this study. The data gathered f...

  18. Subjective symptoms due to solvent mixtures, dioxin, and toluene: impact of exposure versus personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, A; Demes, P; Golka, K; Kiesswetter, E; Schäper, M; van Thriel, C; Zupanic, M

    2000-10-01

    In this study, we analyse the impact of personality factors on the frequency of self-reported symptoms for workers under different exposure conditions. Reported symptoms may depend on the level and type of exposure, as well as on personality factors such as trait anxiety of the worker or his general sensitivity with regard to the environment. The employed data stems from three studies: The first study contains information of 60 workers who suspected to be exposed to polychlorined dibenzodioxins and dibenzofuranes (Lifetime Weighted Average Exposure, LWAE, as an index for contact with the substances). The second study concerns 40 workers who are exposed to different concentrations of solvent mixtures in paint manufacturing (LWAE of total hydrocarbons about 10 ppm). The third study includes repeated measurements of two subgroups of workers from rotogravure printing plants who are exposed to different concentrations of toluene: a "high" exposure group (n = 129, LWAE about 46 ppm, current exposure 25 ppm) and a "low" exposure group (n = 96, LWAE for toluene about 9 ppm, current exposure 3 ppm). Trait anxiety, environmental sensitivity, and self-reported symptoms are measured by validated questionnaires and age as well as verbal intelligence are controlled. To determine the effect of the individual characteristics and the different exposures on self-reported symptoms, frequency analyses and variance analyses are conducted and linear models are fitted. For all analyses, trait anxiety explains the highest share of the variance. If there is no effect of the exposure on the reported symptoms (dioxin and low-level toluene study), trait anxiety seems to have a larger explanatory power in comparison with those studies where the exposure has an effect on the reported symptoms (solvent-mixture and high-level toluene study). Neurotoxicological risk analysis has to account for the detected dependence of self-reported symptoms on personality traits: assessments for elevated

  19. Barriers and Factors Affecting Personal Protective Equipment Usage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    2Consultant Physician, Head of Department Medicine, St Mary's Hospital Lacor, ... of this study was to identify and describe the factors that influence a HCWs' ... and lack of safety training has been reported as the main impedance to use of ...

  20. [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief - Likert format: Factor structure analysis in general population in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchiou, A; Todorov, L; Lajnef, M; Baudin, G; Pignon, B; Richard, J-R; Leboyer, M; Szöke, A; Schürhoff, F

    2016-09-16

    The main objective of the study was to explore the factorial structure of the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) in a Likert format, in a representative sample of the general population. In addition, differences in the dimensional scores of schizotypy according to gender and age were analyzed. As the study in the general population of schizotypal traits and its determinants has been recently proposed as a way toward the understanding of aetiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, consistent self-report tools are crucial to measure psychometric schizotypy. A shorter version of the widely used Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-Brief) has been extensively investigated in different countries, particularly in samples of students or clinical adolescents, and more recently, a few studies used a Likert-type scale format which allows partial endorsement of items and reduces the risk of defensive answers. A sample of 233 subjects representative of the adult population from an urban area near Paris (Créteil) was recruited using the "itinerary method". They completed the French version of the SPQ-B with a 5-point Likert-type response format (1=completely disagree; 5=completely agree). We examined the dimensional structure of the French version of the SPQ-B with a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) followed by a promax rotation. Factor selection was based on Eigenvalues over 1.0 (Kaiser's criterion), Cattell's Scree-plot test, and interpretability of the factors. Items with loadings greater than 0.4 were retained for each dimension. The internal consistency estimate of the dimensions was calculated with Cronbach's α. In order to study the influence of age and gender, we carried out a simple linear regression with the subscales as dependent variables. Our sample was composed of 131 women (mean age=52.5±18.2 years) and 102 men (mean age=53±18.1 years). SPQ-B Likert total scores ranged from 22 to 84 points (mean=43.6

  1. Key factors for a successful implementation of personalized e-health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Lena; Sedlmayr, Brita; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Criegee-Rieck, Manfred; Sedlmayr, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Personalized e-health services hold many promises, e.g. the improvement of health care quality or the reduction of costs. However, such services can't tap their full potential if they will not be used. That's why it is essential to understand what brings potential users to accept them. In the literature many acceptance models exist that predict the usage of innovations, but none of them specifically refers to the adoption of e-health services. Therefore we combined the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and the e-health literacy concept and enhanced the resulting model with additional factors. MEDLINE® was searched; 75 studies were included for final analysis. Apart from the UTAUT variables and e-health literacy, 10 additional factors were identified: anxiety, trust, attitude toward using, computer self-efficacy, perceived system quality, search strategy, user's condition, health specific knowledge, Internet dependency and satisfaction with medical care. Future research will include the devolvement of an instrument for assessing these factors and testing the initial research model in an international context.

  2. Personality Characteristics as Predictive Factors for the Occurrence of Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajraktarov, Stojan; Gudeva-Nikovska, Dance; Manuševa, Nensi; Arsova, Slavica

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The depressive disorder is one of the most frequent mental disorders, which is often associated with severe dysfunctionality. Personality traits are considered as important factors for the occurrence of depressive disorder. AIM: To determine the specificity of personality dimensions as predictive factors of depressive disorder. METHODS: This research was conducted at the University Psychiatric Clinic Skopje as a “case-control” study. TCI-R (temperament and character inventory – revised) was used as the main research instrument. RESULTS: There are specific personality traits expressed through high scores of Harm Avoidance and low scores of Self –Directedness traits as predictive factors related to an incidence of the depressive disorder. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that certain personal traits, and more specific HA and SD, are with a specific predictability of the depressive disorder. PMID:28293316

  3. E-Learning Personalization Using Triple-Factor Approach in Standard-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksitowening, K. A.; Santoso, H. B.; Hasibuan, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    E-Learning can be a tool in monitoring learning process and progress towards the targeted competency. Process and progress on every learner can be different one to another, since every learner may have different learning type. Learning type itself can be identified by taking into account learning style, motivation, and knowledge ability. This study explores personalization for learning type based on Triple-Factor Approach. Considering that factors in Triple-Factor Approach are dynamic, the personalization system needs to accommodate the changes that may occurs. Originated from the issue, this study proposed personalization that guides learner progression dynamically towards stages of their learning process. The personalization is implemented in the form of interventions that trigger learner to access learning contents and discussion forums more often as well as improve their level of knowledge ability based on their state of learning type.

  4. Factorization of Radiative Leptonic Decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ Mesons Including the Soft Photon Region

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ji-Chong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the radiative leptonic decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ mesons using factorization approach. Factorization is proved to be valid explicitly at 1-loop level at any order of $O(\\Lambda _{\\rm QCD}\\left/m_Q\\right.)$. We consider the contribution in the soft photon region that $E_{\\gamma} \\sim \\left. \\Lambda^2 _{\\rm QCD} /\\right. m_Q$. The numerical results shows that, the soft photon region is very important for both the $B$ and $D$ mesons. The branching ratios of $B\\to \\gamma e\

  5. Personality and mental health: Arabic Scale of Mental Health, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and Neo Five Factor Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this research was to explore associations of mental health and personality factors through two studies. Two separate convenience samples of volunteer Kuwaiti college students took part in the study (n1 = 193, n2 = 128). Their ages ranged between 18 and 32 years. They responded, in small group sessions, to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and to Costa and McCrae's Five Personality Factors in their Arabic forms. In addition, both samples responded to the Arabic Scale of Mental Health (ASMH). In the first study, scorers on the ASMH were significantly correlated (r) with Neuroticism (-.63), Extraversion (.57), and Lie (.22) scores. Two orthogonal components were retained and labeled "Mental health and Extraversion versus Neuroticism," and "Psychoticism versus Lie." In Study 2, mental health scores were significantly positively correlated with Conscientiousness (.62), Extraversion (.59), Agreeableness (.34), and Openness (.26) scores, and negatively with Neuroticism (-.62) scores. Two orthogonal components were retained and labeled "Mental health, Agreeableness, Extraversion versus Neuroticism," and "Openness, Conscientiousness, and Mental health." It was concluded that the salient associations of the ASMH were with positive traits and scores on Extraversion, Conscientiousness (positive), and with Neuroticism (negative), indicating good construct validity of the ASMH.

  6. Data from ‘Cohort Differences in Big Five Personality Factors Over a Period of 25 Years’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris A. M. Smits

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This data set comprises of scores of 8,954 psychology freshmen from the University of Amsterdam (1982-2007 on the ‘Vijf PersoonlijkheidsFactoren Test’ or 5PFT developed by Elshout and Akkerman, which is an instrument to measure the Big Five personality factors Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Data were collected during the yearly freshmen-testing program from 1982-2007 and include scores at the level of 70 items that can be used in studies of psychometrics and the nature of personality.

  7. Personality Factors Underlying Suicidal Behavior Among Military Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Soltaninejad, Abdollah; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Mirsharafoddini, Hediye Sadat; Nikmorad, Alireza; Pilevarzadeh, Motahare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Suicidal behavior is one the most significant mental health problems in the military. Militaries are closed systems that operate in particular situations. Military service is associated with certain stressful conditions. On this basis, there is likely of trauma in the military environment. Measures of suicidal behavior are pathologically complex. A range of biological, psychological, social, and institutional factors are involved in the incidence and prevalence of these behaviors....

  8. Personality Factors Underlying Suicidal Behavior Among Military Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Soltaninejad, Abdollah; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Mirsharafoddini, Hediye Sadat; Nikmorad, Alireza; Pilevarzadeh, Motahare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Suicidal behavior is one the most significant mental health problems in the military. Militaries are closed systems that operate in particular situations. Military service is associated with certain stressful conditions. On this basis, there is likely of trauma in the military environment. Measures of suicidal behavior are pathologically complex. A range of biological, psychological, social, and institutional factors are involved in the incidence and prevalence of these behaviors....

  9. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of th

  10. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  11. Occupation as a factor of personality subjective wellbeing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapetyan L.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines personality subjective well-being and describes its psychological structure, general components and characteristics. An overview of foreign theories and studies on subjective well-being is presented. Correlations among related concepts such as happiness, life satisfaction and subjective well-being are also described. Subjective well-being is seen as a multivariate construction of a stable nature in mobile equilibrium. It is argued that a type of professional activity can have great importance and a positive impact on an individual’s social life, health, identity shaping and psychological wellness. This article’s findings are substantiated by the survey administered to 2229 respondents divided into groups according to their area of business: students, psychologists, doctors, teachers, engineering and technical staff, representatives of service industries, workers, military men, and prisoners. The descriptors identified two types of natures: positive, directed to a person’s inner world (happy, lucky, optimistic and to the outer world (trustworthy, competent, successful, and negative (pessimistic, unhappy, envious. This division of nature type was categorized according to the participants’ subjective well-being index. Empirical evidence has shown that occupational specificity influences a person’s subjective well-being. A substantial difference was found in subjective well-being index of the respondents. A higher index is typical of students and military men. Educators and industrial intelligentsia also demonstrate an increased level of subjective well-being, whereas prisoners tend to have a low level of subjective well-being. The same low index is characteristic of servicing trade representatives and psychologists.

  12. Comorbidities as risk factors of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant survival prolongation in HIV-infected patients due to effective antiretroviral therapy is connected with increasing prevalence of chronic non-infective diseases in this population, among them chronic kidney disease. The pathogenesis of kidney disease in the setting of HIV includes conditions specific for HIV infection: direct effect of the virus, stage of immunodeficiency and drug toxicity. Chronic comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, are additional significant risk factors of kidney disease. In HIV-infected individuals some distinct features of these conditions are observed, which are partly related to the virus and antiretroviral therapy. The article summarizes the effect of comorbidities on kidney function in HIV-infected persons.

  13. Blood pressure and lipid management fall far short in persons with type 2 diabetes: results from the DIAB-CORE Consortium including six German population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rückert Ina-Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most deaths among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D are attributable to cardiovascular disease, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors appear to be inadequately treated in medical practice. The aim of this study was to describe hypertension, dyslipidemia and medical treatment of these conditions in a large population-based sample. Methods The present analysis was based on the DIAB-CORE project, in which data from five regional population-based studies and one nationwide German study were pooled. All studies were conducted between 1997 and 2006. We assessed the frequencies of risk factors and co-morbidities, especially hypertension and dyslipidemia, in participants with and without T2D. The odds of no or insufficient treatment and the odds of pharmacotherapy were computed using multivariable logistic regression models. Types of medication regimens were described. Results The pooled data set comprised individual data of 15, 071 participants aged 45–74 years, including 1287 (8.5% participants with T2D. Subjects with T2D were significantly more likely to have untreated or insufficiently treated hypertension, i.e. blood pressure of > = 140/90 mmHg (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.26-1.61 and dyslipidemia i.e. a total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio > = 5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.59-2.04 than participants without T2D. Untreated or insufficiently treated blood pressure was observed in 48.9% of participants without T2D and in 63.6% of participants with T2D. In this latter group, 28.0% did not receive anti-hypertensive medication and 72.0% were insufficiently treated. In non-T2D participants, 28.8% had untreated or insufficiently treated dyslipidemia. Of all participants with T2D 42.5% had currently elevated lipids, 80.3% of these were untreated and 19.7% were insufficiently treated. Conclusions Blood pressure and lipid management fall short especially in persons with T2D across Germany. The importance of sufficient

  14. Factors influencing relationships between personal and ambient concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen Ward; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Suh, Helen H; Coull, Brent A; Koutrakis, Petros

    2009-06-01

    Previous exposure studies have shown considerable inter-subject variability in personal-ambient associations. This paper investigates exposure factors that may be responsible for inter-subject variability in these personal-ambient associations. The personal and ambient data used in this paper were collected as part of a personal exposure study conducted in Boston, MA, during 1999-2000. This study was one of a group of personal exposure panel studies funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory to address areas of exposure assessment warranting further study, particularly associations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants. Twenty-four-hour integrated personal, home indoor, home outdoor and ambient sulfate, elemental carbon (EC), PM(2.5), ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide were measured simultaneously each day. Fifteen homes in the Boston area were measured for 7 days during winter and summer. A previous paper explored the associations between personal-indoor, personal-outdoor, personal-ambient, indoor-outdoor, indoor-ambient and outdoor-ambient PM(2.5), sulfate and EC concentrations. For the current paper, factors that may affect personal exposures were investigated, while controlling for ambient concentrations. The data were analyzed using mixed effects regression models. Overall personal-ambient associations were strong for sulfate during winter (ppersonal-ambient mixed model slope for PM(2.5) during winter but was not significant at p=0.10. Personal exposures to most pollutants, with the exception of NO(2), increased with ventilation and time spent outdoors. An opposite pattern was found for NO(2) likely due to gas stoves. Personal exposures to PM(2.5) and to traffic-related pollutants, EC and NO(2), were higher for those individuals living close to a major road. Both personal and indoor sulfate and PM(2.5) concentrations were

  15. Emotional intelligence and big-five personality factors in female student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Stoimenova-Canevska, Emilija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to figure out possible connectedness between emotional intelligence and five big personality factors in female students selected from social sciences faculties. The evaluated sample comprised 66 healthy students, of Macedonian nationality, mean age 18.9 ± 0.63 years. As psychometric instruments, we used the EI-test and NEO-PI-R, both with eligible metric characteristic and already used in the Republic of Macedonia. Statistical analysis was performed using Sta17, both descriptive and inferential statistics including medians, standard deviations, and two-tailed Pearson's correlation. The obtained results for emotional intelligence showed an average anxiety level (M = 77.35), extraversion (M = 50.91) and a realistic outlook on life (M = 81.64), high self-confidence (M = 44.44) and generally satisfactory empathy (M = 85.39). Personality characteristics obtained with NEO-PI-R showed high extroversion (M = 123. 70), low agreeableness (M = 105.82) and consciousness (M = 104.67), as well as mild neuroticism (M = 91.33) and openness (M = 117.45). The results confirmed a high positive correlation between anxiety, optimism, and empathy; and between self-confidence and empathy within the EI test. Within NEO-PR-R there was a positive correlation between factors Extroversion and Openness to Experience and a negative correlation between the factors Extroversion and Agreeableness. However, just one negative correlation is noted, between Extroversion from EI and Openness to experience from NEO-PR-R (-0,25; p < 0.05). We concluded that similar facets measured with different psychometric instruments have different basic concepts. The obtained results, although they figure out some support from other research, also differ from other studies. It is important for us to follow the obtained results and to provoke further research on a bigger and more diverse sample.

  16. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  17. The N(H2/I(CO Conversion Factor: A Treatment that Includes Radiative Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento que explica mejor el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO y que incluye la transferencia radiativa. A primera vista, incluir la transferencia radiativa parece superfluo para una línea óptimamente gruesa como CO J = 1 0. No obstante, dado que el medio interestelar es inhomogéneo, los fragmentos de gas (es decir, grumos todavía pueden ser óptimamente delgadas hacia sus bordes y en las alas de los pérfiles de la línea. El tratamiento estadístico de Martin et al. (1984 de la transferencia radiativa a través una nube molecular con grumos se usa para derivar una expresión para el factor de conversión que su- pera los defectos de las explicaciones más tradicionales basadas en Dickman et al. (1986. Por un lado, el tratamiento presentado aquí posiblemente representa un avance importante al entender el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO pero, por otro lado, tiene sus propios defectos, que son discutidos aquí brevemente.

  18. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  19. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  20. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; van der Linden, Dimitri; Bohleber, Laura; von Wyl, Agnes

    2017-02-01

    We conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64 years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the emergency eventually turned out to be a false alarm, various witnesses showed pronounced distress owing to a vast police operation. The GFP structure was replicated using two alternative modelling approaches. Neuroticism related substantially to acute fear and traumatic distress as well as to more enduring maladaptive coping. Agreeableness was negatively associated with the coping strategy of medication use, whereas both agreeableness and conscientiousness related positively to social activity following the emergency. The GFP related moderately to peri-traumatic distress and showed a substantial negative association with medication use and a strong positive association with social activity. In conclusion, both the GFP and Big Five traits significantly moderate stress responses following a stressful life event. The GFP predominantly relates to socially adaptive coping, whereas in particular neuroticism accounts for acute stress reactions such as fear and traumatic distress. These findings support the notion that personality influences how persons react in the face of adversity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Exploring Information Literacy in Relationship: Intelligence and Personality as Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    In the last three decades, the domain of Information Literacy (IL) has caught the attention of international college educators and information professionals. The explosion of information in education, government and business requires college students to have the skills necessary to enter an information-rich digital age. These skills include the…

  2. Factores de personalidad en el personal de enfermería de unidades de cuidados paliativos Personality factors on nursing staff of palliative care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gómez Cantorna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio hemos tratado de evaluar si poseer un determinado factor de personalidad por parte de las enfermeras que trabajan en cuidados paliativos con pacientes terminales, influye sobre su trabajo. La muestra es de 94 enfermeras del SERGAS (Servicio Galego de Saúde, y se han utilizado como instrumentos de evaluación un cuestionario de datos sociodemográficos y organizacionales y el cuestionario de personalidad Big Five (formado por cinco dimensiones de personalidad. De este modo sabremos que existen una serie de parámetros de nuestra personalidad que se ven influenciados por los diferentes datos sociodemográficos y organizacionales, en las enfermeras de cuidados paliativos.In this study we wanted to evaluate whether having a particular personality factor of nurses working in palliative care with terminal patients, influences their work. The sample was 94 nurses Sergas (Servicio Galego de Saude and were used as screening tools, a questionnaire on demographic and organizational data and Personality Questionnaire "Big Five" (consisting of five dimensions of personality. Thus we know that there are a number of parameters of our personalities that are influenced by different socio-demographic and organizational, in the palliative care nurses.

  3. Empirical evidence for a four factor framework of personality disorder organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gina; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (Millon, Millon, Davis, & Grossman, 2006) personality disorder scales was analyzed using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis on data obtained from a Danish (N = 2030) and a Belgian (N = 1210) sample. Two-, three-, and four f...

  4. The influence of product- and person-related factors on consumer hedonic responses to soy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, A.; Backhaus, Birte W.; Hoof, van J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Consumers in Western countries increasingly appreciate health benefits of soy products. However, several barriers prevent full acceptance of these products. This study investigates the effects of product-related factors (perceived familiarity and expected healthiness) and person-related factors (foo

  5. Factors Related to the Employment of Visually Impaired Persons: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Yvonne H. H.; van Lierop, Brigitte A. G.; Houkes, Inge; Nijhuis, Frans J. N.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review of the literature is to increase understanding of the factors that influence the labor force participation of persons who are visually impaired. Labor force participation was associated with many factors, such as communication training and education. Future research should focus on high-quality studies of labor…

  6. Personality, smoking, and alcohol as synergistic risk factors for cancer of the mouth and pharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossarth-Maticek, R; Eysenck, H J

    1990-12-01

    34 male patients suffering from cancer of the mouth or pharynx were studied with reference to their personality type, smoking and drinking habits, and compared with a healthy sample of 1706 men. The three risk factors showed a strong tendency to be related to cancer only in combination, adding new evidence to the theory that risk factors in cancer act in a synergistic fashion.

  7. Risk factors for acute care hospital readmission in older persons in Western countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Kyndi; Meyer, Gabriele; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    summary and metasynthesis of the quantitative findings was conducted. RESULTS: Based on a review of nine studies from ten Western countries, we found several significant risk factors pertaining to readmission to an acute care hospital within one month of discharge in persons aged 65 years and over....... To allow health professionals to focus more intensively on patients at risk of readmission, there is a need to identify the characteristics of those patients. OBJECTIVES: To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on risk factors for acute care hospital readmission within one month of discharge...... in older persons in Western countries. INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: Participants were older persons from Western countries, hospitalized and discharged home or to residential care facilities. TYPES OF INTERVENTION(S)/PHENOMENA OF INTEREST: The factors of interest considered generic factors...

  8. Factor structure of items from the personality Adjective Check List in a sample of normal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tous, Josep M; Pont, Núria; Ruben, Muiños

    2006-11-01

    We present the results of a principal-components analysis of the Personality Adjective Check List (PACL) at the item level, rather than at the scale level. The PACL was constructed by Strack (1987) to evaluate the personality scales proposed by Millon (1981). Data were obtained from a sample of normal adolescents. A scree test was applied to determine the number of factors to be extracted, and the retained factors were then rotated using a varimax procedure. Using the data from this second analysis, congruence coefficients were calculated by correlating the factor weights from the two analyses of men and women. Results reveal the existence in the whole sample of five unipolar personality factors, which we have called: Aggressive, Conscientious, Inhibited, Impulsive and Gregarious. These are not similar to those obtained from a sample of normal adults.

  9. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  10. Predisposing factors on the surface of the skin in persons with pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, M; Kümpel, D; Friederich, H C

    1975-12-31

    This is a report on biochemical and physiological examinations carried out on 20 test persons who in the last 2 years had contacted and completely recovered from pityriasis versicolor and on 25 control persons of corresponding age and sex. The tests on the skin surface of the patients with pityriasis versicolor show, when compared with the corresponding control group, the following significant results: 1. Significantly more amino acids could be extracted from the skin of the pityriasis versicolor patients than from the skin of the control persons. 2. A significantly shorter alkali neutralisation time was to be found in the pityriasis versicolor patients than in the control persons. 3. The degree of water spreading on the skin was found to be significantly reduced in the pityriasis versicolor patients when compared with the control persons. It is probable that these results point to important predisposing factors for pityriasis versicolor.

  11. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  12. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout. PMID:27478835

  13. The relationship between the Big Five personality factors and burnout: a study among volunteer counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B; Van der Zee, Karen I; Lewig, Kerry A; Dollard, Maureen F

    2006-02-01

    In the present study of 80 volunteer counselors who cared for terminally ill patients, the authors examined the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (C. Maslach, S. E. Jackson, & M. P. Leiter, 1996) and the 5 basic (Big Five) personality factors (A. A. J. Hendriks, 1997): extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and intellect/autonomy. The results of 3 separate stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that (a) emotional exhaustion is uniquely predicted by emotional stability; (b) depersonalization is predicted by emotional stability, extraversion, and intellect/autonomy; and (c) personal accomplishment is predicted by extraversion and emotional stability. In addition, some of the basic personality factors moderated the relationship between relative number of negative experiences and burnout, suggesting that personality may help to protect against known risks of developing burnout in volunteer human service work.

  14. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Shin Yuh; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout.

  15. Influence of selected demographic factors on traumas in persons over 65 years of age reporting to the Hospital Medical Ward

    OpenAIRE

    Mateusz Andrzej Pytlak; Natalia Tomska; Andrzej Bohatyrewicz; Aleksandra Rył; Iwona Rotter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Falls and traumas in elderly persons don’t only result in health problems, but they also involve social and economic, psychological and political consequences. The most frequent trauma mechanisms in the elderly include: falls and traffic accidents. ;b:Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess selected factors influencing the energy, type and area of a trauma incurred by elderly people. Material and methods. A group of 108 patients aged 65–93 treated at the SPSK 1...

  16. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    explosion, and the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, such an approach may have helped to maintain the integrity of the designed provisions against major deviations resulting in these disasters. In order to make this paradigm operational, safety management and in particular risk assessment tools need to be refined....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...... Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...

  17. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sarpong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental awareness has received a great deal of public attention. However, little emphasis has been put on the influence of environmental factors (weather, personal attitudes, policies, physical structures, transportation, etc. on the quality of life of persons infected with HIV/AIDS. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of selected environmental factors on the quality of life of persons affected by HIV/AIDS. To achieve this goal, the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF subscales including Policies, Physical Structure, Work/School, Attitudes/Support, and Service/ Assistance were evaluated in patients selected from a STD/HIV clinic in Jackson, MS. They were chosen based on previously diagnosed HIV/AIDS status and age (16-95. Written consents, demographics sheets and self-administered questionnaires were obtained. Data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS software. Interviews started in July 2007 and ended in August, 2007. One hundred and thirteen patients responded. Participants were 72.6% (82 male, 26.5% (30 female and 0.9% (1 transgender. The median age of participants was 38.8 (18-63. Over 50% (65 had some college or higher education, and 35.4% reported annual incomes less than $10,000. Multivariate analysis showed marginal significance between disease diagnosis and gender (p < 0.10, and statistical significance between disease diagnosis and income (p = 0.03. Also, age (p = 0.01 and education (p = 0.03 were significant predictors in one of the subscales. The CHIEF subscales that showed the greatest significance among AIDS respondents were Attitudes and Support, and Government Policies with mean sensitivity scores of 1.39 and 1.42, respectively. The element with the least effect on AIDS patients was the Work/School subscale, with a mean score of 0.74. In general AIDS patients were disproportionately affected in all but one of the five subscales observed. Conversely those with HIV were more

  18. Podcasts from the journal Medical Education. Personality factors and medical training: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Eva M; Eva, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that certain personality characteristics influence both medical students’ and doctors’ performance. With regard to medical students, studies have been concerned with the role of personality, and performance indicators such as academic results and clinical competence. Eva Doherty (Director of human factors and patient safety, National Surgical Training Centre, The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland) speaks to Kevin Eva, Editor in Chief of Medical Edu...

  19. Analysis of factors influencing acceptance of personal, academic and professional development e-portfolios.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ejaz; Ward, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates factors that influence students’ intentions to use personal, academic and professional development portfolios using a theoretical model based on the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB). Electronic portfolios (e-portfolios) are important pedagogical tools and a substantial amount of literature supports their role in personal, academic and professional development. However, achieving students’ acceptance of e-portfolios is still a challenge for higher educat...

  20. The Relationship between Self-Leadership and Personality: A Comparison of Hierarchical Factor Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery D. Houghton

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-leadership and personality through an analysis and comparison of hierarchical factor structures. More specifically, this study examined the relationships between the self-leadership dimensions of behavior-focused strategies, natural reward strategies, and constructive thought strategies, and the personality dimensions of extraversion, emotional stability, and conscientiousness. The results of the study provide evidence that the self-leadershi...

  1. Factors associated with job and personal satisfaction in adult Brazilian intensivists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar Junior, Antonio Paulo; Azevedo, Luciano César Pontes de

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate job and personal satisfaction rates in physicians who work in adult intensive care units and to identify the factors associated with satisfaction. A cross-sectional study performed with physicians who participated in two intensive medicine online discussion groups. A questionnaire designed to assess the physician's sociodemographic profile and job was available for both groups for 3 months. At the end of the questionnaire, the participants addressed their degrees of job and personal satisfaction using a Likert scale in which 1 represented "very dissatisfied" and 5 represented "very satisfied". The association between sociodemographic and job characteristics with job and personal satisfaction was evaluated. Variables independently associated with satisfaction were identified using a logistic regression model. The questionnaire was answered by 250 physicians, of which 137 (54.8%) declared they were satisfied with their jobs and 34 (13.5%) were very satisfied. None of the evaluated characteristics were independently associated with job satisfaction. Regarding personal satisfaction, 136 (54.4%) physicians reported being satisfied, and 48 (19.9%) reported being very satisfied. Job satisfaction (OR = 7.21; 95%CI 3.21 - 16.20) and working in a university hospital (OR = 3.24; 95%CI 1.29 - 8.15) were factors independently associated with the personal satisfaction of the participants. The participant physicians reported job and personal satisfaction with their work in intensive care. Job satisfaction and working in a university hospital were independently associated with greater personal satisfaction.

  2. Factors associated with job and personal satisfaction in adult Brazilian intensivists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar Junior, Antonio Paulo; de Azevedo, Luciano César Pontes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate job and personal satisfaction rates in physicians who work in adult intensive care units and to identify the factors associated with satisfaction. Methods A cross-sectional study performed with physicians who participated in two intensive medicine online discussion groups. A questionnaire designed to assess the physician's sociodemographic profile and job was available for both groups for 3 months. At the end of the questionnaire, the participants addressed their degrees of job and personal satisfaction using a Likert scale in which 1 represented "very dissatisfied" and 5 represented "very satisfied". The association between sociodemographic and job characteristics with job and personal satisfaction was evaluated. Variables independently associated with satisfaction were identified using a logistic regression model. Results The questionnaire was answered by 250 physicians, of which 137 (54.8%) declared they were satisfied with their jobs and 34 (13.5%) were very satisfied. None of the evaluated characteristics were independently associated with job satisfaction. Regarding personal satisfaction, 136 (54.4%) physicians reported being satisfied, and 48 (19.9%) reported being very satisfied. Job satisfaction (OR = 7.21; 95%CI 3.21 - 16.20) and working in a university hospital (OR = 3.24; 95%CI 1.29 - 8.15) were factors independently associated with the personal satisfaction of the participants. Conclusion The participant physicians reported job and personal satisfaction with their work in intensive care. Job satisfaction and working in a university hospital were independently associated with greater personal satisfaction. PMID:27410405

  3. Study of Personality Disorders Among Fertile and Infertile Women and Some Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Noorbala

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence and predisposing factors of personality disorders among infertile in comparison to fertile women. Materials and Methods:  By a descriptive- analytic study in Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center, 300 women entered the research.  Eysenck personality (EPQ and structured researcher questionnaires were applied for all patients. Demographic characteristics and predisposing personality factors were recorded and personality symptoms were scaled. For data analysis, SPSS-11-5 software system, chi-square and T-test were used.  P-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: Based on EPQ, personality instability was significantly more frequent in infertile women in comparison to fertile women (P<0.001. Housewives are at higher risk of developing personality instability as compared to working women. This finding was also statistically significant (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of personality disorders among infertile women, it seems that more serious attention is required from gynecologists, psychiatrists and psychologists for better treatment of these disorders. The use of psychotherapy, especially supportive methods, should be considered as part of the general therapeutic framework of infertility.

  4. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and study the positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicide intent in schizophrenic population with suicide attempt compared to nonattempters, along with socio-demographic parameters. METHODS A sample of 60 consecutive patients attending OPD of a Private tertiary care Hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for the presence of past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters, and analysed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, Beck’s hopelessness scale (BHS, and Suicide intent scale (SIS. RESULTS Among the disorders schizophrenia is rated the second most common reason for suicide attempts (53.3%, especially when associated with positive symptoms, depressive features and significant hopelessness. Demographic parameters like age, sex, educational status, occupation, economic status, and marital status were not found to be significant factors linked to the suicide attempts, however family history of suicide had a significant association in schizophrenic suicide attempts. Suicidal intent severity was medium to high among most of the attempters; poisoning was the commonest method; and were found to be due to positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in the schizophrenic illness course.

  5. Emotional intelligence, personality, and gender as factors in disordered eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu

    2014-08-01

    We examined the hypotheses that proposing higher levels of emotional intelligence (ability test and self-report) and lower neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness associate with lower levels of disordered eating. In a correlational study, 126 Israeli college students completed two measures of emotional intelligence, a brief five-factor personality test, demographic data questionnaires, and questionnaires assessing food preoccupation, namely, the Body Weight, Image and Self-Esteem Scale and the Appearance Schema Inventory. Results suggested that ability emotional intelligence is associated with disordered eating beyond gender and personality. Self-reported emotional intelligence did not associate with any of the outcomes after controlling for personality. Implications and applications are briefly discussed.

  6. From the big five to the general factor of personality: a dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Joan C; Amigó, Salvador; Caselles, Antonio

    2014-10-28

    An integrating and dynamic model of personality that allows predicting the response of the basic factors of personality, such as the Big Five Factors (B5F) or the general factor of personality (GFP) to acute doses of drug is presented in this paper. Personality has a dynamic nature, i.e., as a consequence of a stimulus, the GFP dynamics as well as each one of the B5F of personality dynamics can be explained by the same model (a system of three coupled differential equations). From this invariance hypothesis, a partial differential equation, whose solution relates the GFP with each one of the B5F, is deduced. From this dynamic approach, a co-evolution of the GFP and each one of the B5F occurs, rather than an unconnected evolution, as a consequence of the same stimulus. The hypotheses and deductions are validated through an experimental design centered on the individual, where caffeine is the considered stimulus. Thus, as much from a theoretical point of view as from an applied one, the models here proposed open a new perspective in the understanding and study of personality like a global system that interacts intimately with the environment, being a clear bet for the high level inter-disciplinary research.

  7. The Five-Factor Model personality traits in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Shimada, Takamitsu; Nitta, Yusuke; Kihara, Hiroaki; Okubo, Hiroaki; Uehara, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-30

    Personality is one of important factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia because it affects patients' symptoms, cognition and social functioning. Several studies have reported specific personality traits in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy subjects. However, the results were inconsistent among studies. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measures five personality traits: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C). Here, we performed a meta-analysis of these personality traits assessed by the NEO-FFI in 460 patients with schizophrenia and 486 healthy subjects from the published literature and investigated possible associations between schizophrenia and these traits. There was no publication bias for any traits. Because we found evidence of significant heterogeneity in all traits among the studies, we applied a random-effect model to perform the meta-analysis. Patients with schizophrenia showed a higher score for N and lower scores for E, O, A and C compared with healthy subjects. The effect sizes of these personality traits ranged from moderate to large. These differences were not affected by possible moderator factors, such as gender distribution and mean age in each study, expect for gender effect for A. These findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a different personality profile compared with healthy subjects.

  8. Contribution of Environmental Risk Factors Including Lifestyle to Inequalities Noncommunicable (Chronic Diseases such as Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Grochowska Niedworok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health inequalities: differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Some health inequalities are attributable to biological variations or free choice and others are attributable to the external environment and conditions mainly outside the control of the individuals concerned. 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2012 an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a normal body weight can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Risk factors: 1. Age- the prevalence of diabetes rises steeply with age: *one in twenty people over the age of 65 have diabetes, *and this rises to one in five people over the age of 85 years. The diagnosis of diabetes may be delayed in older people, with symptoms of diabetes being wrongly attributed to ageing. 2. Ethnic: type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in people of South Asian descent and up to three times more common in those of African and African-Caribbean descent then in the white population. It is also more common in people of Chinese descent and other non-Caucasian groups. 3. Gender: the frequency of diabetes usually is higher in men than in women. This may be because gender compounds other aspects of inequality- women often bear the brunt of poverty, and socio-economic differences in the prevalence of diabetes are more marked for women, probably because of differences in smoking rates, food choices and the prevalence of obesity. 4. Overweight/Obesity: every 1 kg/m2 more causes increase risk: cardiovascular diseases 2%, coronary artery disease- 3% , myocardial infarction- 5% , heart failure- 5% , peripheral vascular disease- 5%. Health inqualities important in diabetes -- modifiable:  social

  9. Association between the Five Factor personality traits and perceived stress: is the effect mediated by general self-efficacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    of neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and to explore the role of general self-efficacy (GSE). A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Denmark, in 2006-2008. Men and women (N=3471) aged 18-69, were randomly......-significant - whilst neuroticism had a positive association. The associations with agreeableness and openness became positive and significant, respectively, when GSE was included. All five personality-stress models were mediated by GSE, with extroversion and conscientiousness having the strongest mediating effect....... The strongest stress-association was found for neuroticism. GSE was shown to change the impact and interpretation of the personality dimensions on perceived stress. These results indicate that GSE is an important factor to consider in the link between personality and perceived stress....

  10. Breast cancer and personal environmental risk factors in Marin County - Pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Farren, G.; Baltzell, K.; Chew, T.; Clarkson, C.; Fleshman, R.; Leary, C.; Mizroch, M.; Orenstein, F.; Russell, M.L.; Souders-Mason, V.; Wrensch, M.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the Personal Environmental Risk Factor Study (PERFS) pilot project was to develop methodologies and a questionnaire for a future population-based case-control study to investigate the role of selected environmental exposures in breast cancer development. Identification of etiologically relevant exposures during a period of potential vulnerability proximate to disease onset offers the possibility of clinical disease prevention even when disease initiation may have already occurred many years earlier. Certain personal environmental agents or combinations of agents may influence disease promotion. Therefore, this pilot study focused on exposures that occurred during the ten-year period prior to diagnosis for cases and the last ten years for controls, rather than more historic exposures. For this pilot study, they used a community-based research approach. In the collaborative efforts, community members participated with academic researchers in all phases of the research, including research question identification, study design, development of research tools, development of the human subjects protocol, and report writing. Community member inclusion was based upon the concept that community participation could improve the relevance of scientific studies and ultimate success of the research by encouraging an ongoing dialogue between community members and academic representatives. Early activities of this project focused on the collection of input from the community regarding the possible role of environmental factors in the incidence of breast cancer in Marin County. The intent was to inform the scientists of community concerns, enhance the research team's understanding of the community being studied, and provide interested community members with a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional research methods through active participation in the research process.

  11. Reassessment of NRC`s dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed a review and analysis of its dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy. As a result of this review, the NRC has decided to adopt a $2000 per person-rem conversion factor, subject it to present worth considerations, and limit its scope solely to health effects. This is in contrast to the previous policy and staff practice of using an undiscounted $1000 per person-rem conversion factor that served as a surrogate for all offsite consequences (health and offsite property). The policy shift has been incorporated in ``Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission,`` NUREG/BR-0058, Revision 2, November 1995.

  12. The hoarding dimension of OCD: psychological comorbidity and the five-factor personality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSalle-Ricci, V Holland; Arnkoff, Diane B; Glass, Carol R; Crawley, Sarah A; Ronquillo, Jonne G; Murphy, Dennis L

    2006-10-01

    Although hoarding has been associated with several psychological disorders, it is most frequently linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study assessed hoarding obsessions and compulsions in 204 individuals with OCD, and evaluated how hoarding was related to obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, psychological comorbidity, and personality as measured by the five-factor model. Results indicated that hoarding in OCD is a dimensional variable that is positively associated with dysphoria, total number of lifetime Axis I disorders, and lifetime histories of bipolar I, PTSD, and body dysmorphic disorder. Hoarding was negatively correlated with the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) factor of Conscientiousness and positively associated with the NEO-PI-R factor of Neuroticism. When all personality and psychopathology variables were entered into a regression equation, dysphoria, bipolar II disorder, Conscientiousness, age, and Extraversion emerged as significant predictors of hoarding severity. Recommendations are made for clinicians and for future research.

  13. Prognostic factors for disability claim duration due to musculoskeletal symptoms among self-employed persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter JM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees and self-employed persons have, among others, different personal characteristics and different working conditions, which may influence the prognosis of sick leave and the duration of a disability claim. The purpose of the current study is to identify prognostic factors for the duration of a disability claim due to non-specific musculoskeletal disorders (MSD among self-employed persons in the Netherlands. Methods The study population consisted of 276 self-employed persons, who all had a disability claim episode due to MSD with at least 75% work disability. The study was a cohort study with a follow-up period of 12 months. At baseline, participants filled in a questionnaire with possible individual, work-related and disease-related prognostic factors. Results The following prognostic factors significantly increased claim duration: age > 40 years (Hazard Ratio 0.54, no similar symptoms in the past (HR 0.46, having long-lasting symptoms of more than six months (HR 0.60, self-predicted return to work within more than one month or never (HR 0.24 and job dissatisfaction (HR 0.54. Conclusions The prognostic factors we found indicate that for self-employed persons, the duration of a disability claim not only depends on the (history of impairment of the insured, but also on age, self-predicted return to work and job satisfaction.

  14. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.

  15. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.

  16. Pedestrian road traffic injuries in urban Peruvian children and adolescents: case control analyses of personal and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Donroe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting. METHODS: This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites. FINDINGS: After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52, absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26, high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54, high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55, and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56. Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82 and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99. CONCLUSION: Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.

  17. Association of Personality Traits with Psychological Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Psychological Distress: A Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to find the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress

  18. Personal and Psychological Factors-Does it Impact the Choice of Advertising Medium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izian Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Advertising is a multidimensional phenomenon that has been studied in several disciplines. It is one of the most fascinating phenomena in modern capitalist markets. It is pervasive, perplexing, multidimensional and unfathomably rich. The effectiveness of advertising depends on both the quality of the product being advertised and the quality of the ad itself and also the media context in which the ad appears. Personal factors (such as gender and age and psychological factors (for example status and personality may affect the choice of advertising medium. Consumers’ interest may change due to these factors. The analysis had proved that both factors do impact the choice of advertising medium. The study may help marketers, advertisers and businesses to create and come out with suitable advertisements that suits the interests of consumers’ derived from those factors. It may help them to choose suitable advertising media for different target market. The study searched for to find out whether personal and psychological factors have any impact to the choice of advertising medium. Approach: For this study purposes, questionnaires and copy testing had been used to addresses issues related to the effectiveness of each advertisement. About 100 printed questionnaires were distributed among respondents which comprised age from 18 years old and above where 30 respondents were tested for copy testing from all mediums, online and traditional where these respondents were given a series of all advertisements from newspaper, magazine, TV, radio, Internet, SMS and MMS. Results: The coefficient analysis showed that both personal and psychological factors had positive relationship with customer satisfaction. Between these two factors, personal factors had high level of significant relationship (p = 0.000 compared to psychological factors (p = 0.087. The analysis had proved that both factors do impact the choice of advertising medium. Conclusion

  19. Circadian typology and the Alternative Five-Factor Model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Pascalis, Vilfredo De; Fabbri, Marco; Martoni, Monica; Russo, Paolo Maria; Natale, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    Two studies were carried out to explore the relationship between circadian typology and the Alternative Five-Factor Model of personality. In the first study, 379 participants (232 females) were administered the reduced version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. Evening types reported higher impulsive sensation-seeking scores than morning and intermediate types, whereas morning types scored higher than evening types on activity factor. In the second study, the association between morningness and activity personality factor was verified through the objective-actigraphic monitoring of the rest-activity cycle. Actigraphy allowed us to operationalise both circadian typology, through the computing of midpoint of sleep (early values, expressed in hours and minutes, correspond to an advanced phase of the sleep/wake cycle), and activity factor by the means of motor activity recording. Fifty-one individuals (30 females) wore an actigraph on the nondominant wrist continuously for 1 week. A negative correlation was observed between midpoint of sleep and mean diurnal motor activity, demonstrating that an early phase of the sleep/wake cycle (i.e. morningness preference) was related to higher diurnal motor activity. Assessed both subjectively and objectively, the results of both studies highlight a significant relationship between morningness and activity personality factor. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Gjertsen, Siri Renate; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Kvam, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-06-01

    Aims Although relationships between addiction and personality have previously been explored, no study has ever simultaneously investigated the interrelationships between several behavioral addictions, and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Methods In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e., Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction) as well as an instrument assessing the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Results Of the 21 bivariate intercorrelations between the seven behavioral addictions, all were positive (and nine significantly). The results also showed that (i) Neuroticism was positively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction, (ii) Extroversion was positively associated with Facebook addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, (iii) Openness to experience was negatively associated with Facebook addiction and mobile phone addiction, (iv) Agreeableness was negatively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, and (v) Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction. Conclusions The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and 17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors.

  1. Personality factors and styles among college students who binge eat and drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Christina C; Becker, Sara J; Curry, John F

    2009-03-01

    Elevated rates of comorbidity between binge eating and alcohol use problems have been widely documented. Prior studies have examined specific personality traits associated with the co-occurrence of these problems. The current study explores comprehensive personality factors that are associated with the co-occurrence of binge eating and binge drinking among a diverse sample of 208 college undergraduates. Using the Five Factor Model of personality, the authors assessed both comprehensive personality factors and style of impulse control, a personality style defined by different combinations of neuroticism and conscientiousness. On the basis of responses to a screening instrument, college students were assigned to one of four groups: binge eat, binge drink, binge eat and drink, and non-binge. The binge eat and drink group reported a higher level of neuroticism than did students in the binge drink and non-binge groups. Additionally, the binge eat and drink group was more likely to report an undercontrolled style of impulse control than were other groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Predicting suicide ideation through intrapersonal and interpersonal factors: The interplay of Big-Five personality traits and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Nailah

    2015-11-01

    While a specific personality trait may escalate suicide ideation, contextual factors such as social support, when provided effectively, may alleviate the effects of such personality traits. This study examined the moderating role of social support in the relationship between the Big-Five personality traits and suicide ideation. Significant interactions were found between social support and extraversion and emotional stability. Specifically, the relationship between emotional stability and extraversion to suicide ideation was exacerbated when social support was low. Slope analysis showed openness also interacted with low social support. Results were computed for frequency, duration and attitude dimensions of suicide ideation. Extraversion interacted with social support to predict all three dimensions. Social support moderated emotional stability to predict frequency and duration, moderated conscientiousness towards frequency and attitude, and moderated openness towards attitude. The results imply that whereas personality traits may be difficult to alter, social support may play a significant role in saving a life. Psychologists should include family and friends when treating a suicidal youth, guiding them to awareness of one's personality and being more supportive.

  3. Comparing the factor structure of the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Georgina M; Mellin, Juliann; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-10-01

    Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct that captures the expression of schizophrenic symptoms and impairment from subclinical levels to full-blown psychosis. The present study examined the comparability of the factor structure of 2 leading psychometric measures of schizotypy: the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales (WSS) and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Both the SPQ and WSS purportedly capture the multidimensional structure of schizotypy; however, whether they are measuring comparable factors has not been empirically demonstrated. This study provided support for a 2-factor model with positive and negative factors underlying the WSS; however, contrary to previous findings, the best fit for the SPQ was for a 4-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis, and a 2-factor model using exploratory factor analysis. The WSS factors were relatively distinct, whereas those underlying the SPQ showed high overlap. The WSS positive and SPQ cognitive-perceptual factors appeared to tap comparable constructs. However, the WSS negative and SPQ interpersonal factors appeared to tap somewhat different constructs based on their correlation and their patterns of associations with other schizotypy dimensions and the Five-Factor Model-suggesting that the SPQ interpersonal factor may not adequately tap negative or deficit schizotypy. Although the SPQ offers the advantage over the WSS of having a disorganization factor, it is not clear that this SPQ factor is actually distinct from positive schizotypy. Existing measures should be used with caution and new measures based on a priori theories are necessary to further understand the factor structure of schizotypy.

  4. [Evaluation of the Uchida-Kräpelin psychodiagnostic test based on the Five-Factor Model of personality traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, S; Yamada, K

    1995-04-01

    A method was proposed for evaluating the Uchida-Kräpelin psychodiagnostic (UK) test in terms of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits. First, the oblique incomplete procrustes factor-rotation method by Jöreskog (1965) was applied to the results of the Adjective Check List (ACL) and the UK test administered to 370 subjects. Six oblique primary pattern values for the UK test were obtained as related to the task of addition work and personality traits. Second, the basic statistics including the values of test-retest reliabilities for work-curve measures in the UK test were presented, and canonical correlation analysis was applied to the data based on both personality traits and work-curve measures. Finally, correlations between the items of the ACL and the work-curve measures in the UK test were presented in order to confirm the validity of the present proposal for the UK test based on the FFM of personality traits.

  5. [Use of personal protective equipment for motorcycle taxi drivers: perception of risks and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Santos, Ninalva de Andrade; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Santos, Ramon Araújo dos; Mota, Tilson Nunes

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the practices and perceptions of motorcycle taxi drivers concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), based on field research and an exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach. Thirty motorcycle taxi drivers from Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, were interviewed. Data collection used a semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results showed: Category 1 - risk perception, subcategory conditioning/determinant factors for the use of PPE; Category 2 - adherence, subcategory adherence to the use of personal protective equipment; Category 3 - PPE as a protective factor against traffic accidents, subcategories 1 - work-related accidents, 2 - use of PPE at the time of the accident, 3 - non-use of PPE at the time of the accident. Finally, motorcycle taxi drivers clearly have some knowledge of personal protective equipment and even acknowledge the importance of its use, despite not always using it properly.

  6. Job satisfaction in the European union: the role of macroeconomic, personal, and job-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Job satisfaction is influenced by many factors. Most of them are attributed to personality or company features. Little research has been conducted identifying the relationship of job satisfaction with macroeconomic parameters. We used data collected by European Commission (Eurostat, Eurofound) and World Health Organization (WHO) for personal (eg, subjective health, physical activity), company (eg, career advancement perspectives, negative health effects of work), or macroeconomic parameters (eg, Gross Domestic Product, unemployment rate) on state level. Correlation analysis and a stepwise linear regression model were obtained. Gross domestic product (GDP) was the best predictor for job satisfaction across the European Union member states ahead of good career perspectives, and WHO-5 score (depressive symptoms). Beside personal, job-related, and organizational factors that influence job satisfaction, the macroeconomic perspective has to be considered, too.

  7. Core Self-Evaluations as Personal Factors in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model: An Application in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmanian, Rana; Smedema, Susan Miller; Thompson, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate Chan, Gelman, Ditchman, Kim, and Chiu's (2009) revised World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model using core self-evaluations (CSE) to account for Personal Factors in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: One hundred eighty-seven adults with SCI were…

  8. Personal dose equivalent angular response factors for photons with energies up to 1 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, K G

    2013-04-01

    When performing personal dosemeter calibrations, the dosemeters are typically irradiated while mounted on slab-type phantoms and oriented facing the source. Performance testing standards or intercomparison studies may also specify various rotational angles to test the response of the dosemeter and associated algorithm as this rotation introduces changes in the quantity of delivered dose. Correction factors for rotational effects are available, but many have not been updated in recent years and were typically calculated using the kerma approximation. The personal dose equivalent, Hp(d), is the quantity recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements to be used as an approximation of the protection quantity effective dose when performing personal dosemeter calibrations. The personal dose equivalent can be defined for any location and depth within the body, but typically the location of interest is the trunk where personal dosemeters are worn and in this instance a suitable approximation is a 30 cm × 30 cm × 15 cm slab-type phantom. In this work personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients for photons with energies up to 1 GeV have been calculated for depths of 0.007, 0.3 and 1.0 cm in the slab phantom for rotational angles ranging from 15° to 75°. Angular response factors have been determined by comparing the conversion coefficients for each angle and energy to those reported in an earlier work for a non-rotational (e.g. perpendicular to the phantom face) geometry. The angular response factors were determined for discrete angles, but fits of the factors are provided.

  9. Association between risk factors for injurious falls and new benzodiazepine prescribing in elderly persons

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed to elderly patients' despite concerns about adverse effects leading to injurious falls. Previous studies have not investigated the extent to which patients with pre-existing risk factors for falls are prescribed benzodiazepines. The objective of this study is to assess if some of the risk factors for falls are associated with new benzodiazepine prescriptions in elderly persons. Methods Using provincial administrative databases, eld...

  10. Personal and Psychological Factors-Does it Impact the Choice of Advertising Medium?

    OpenAIRE

    Izian Idris; Mohd S.A. Yajid; Ali Khatibi

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Advertising is a multidimensional phenomenon that has been studied in several disciplines. It is one of the most fascinating phenomena in modern capitalist markets. It is pervasive, perplexing, multidimensional and unfathomably rich. The effectiveness of advertising depends on both the quality of the product being advertised and the quality of the ad itself and also the media context in which the ad appears. Personal factors (such as gender and age) and psychological factor...

  11. Confirmatory Factor Analytical Study of the Revised Developmental Work Personality Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alex W. K.; O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Strauser, David R.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated psychometric properties of the Revised Developmental Work Personality Scale (RDWPS). Results yielded a 14-item three-factor model that aligns with the original DWPS and fits the data very well. RDWPS scores were useful in predicting the resolution of Erikson's fourth stage of development, indicating construct validity.…

  12. Perceived Environmental and Personal Factors Associated with Walking and Cycling for Transportation in Taiwanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined perceived environmental and personal factors associated with walking and cycling as means of transportation for Taiwanese adults. A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with Taiwanese adults aged 20 to 64 years. Data on time spent walking and cycling for transportation and perceptions of neighborhood environment and personal characteristics were obtained from 1065 adults by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long version and its environmental module. Adjusted binary logistic regression was performed. The results showed that, after adjusting potential confounders, common and different personal and perceived environmental factors were associated with walking and cycling for transportation. For common personal factors, adults who had employment were less likely to engage in 150 min of walking per week (odds ratio [OR] = 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.27–0.62 and to use cycling as a means of transportation (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.32–0.79. For common perceived environmental factors, adults who perceived good connectivity of streets were more likely to walk (OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.20–3.16 and cycle (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.16–3.54 for transportation. Targeting employed adults and improving the connectivity of streets should be a priority for developing transport policies and intervention strategies to promote active transportation.

  13. Demographic Factors, Personality and Entrepreneurial Inclination: A Study among Indian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of demographic, social and personal dispositional factors on determining the entrepreneurial inclination. Specifically, the author examined the role of gender, age, stream of study, family business background and six psychological traits of locus of control, tolerance for…

  14. Time Use Efficiency and the Five-Factor Model of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.; Johnson, Judith L.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between self-perceived time use efficiency and the five-factor model of personality, 105 university students were administered the Time Use Efficiency Scale (TUES; Kelly, 2003) and Saucier's Big-Five Mini-Markers (Saucier, 1994). The results indicated that time use efficiency was strongly, positively related to…

  15. The relationship between the big five personality factors and burnout : A study among volunteer counselors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, AB; Van der Zee, KI; Lewig, KA; Dollard, MF

    2006-01-01

    In the present study of 80 volunteer counselors who cared for terminally ill patients, the authors examined the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (C. Maslach, S. E. Jackson, & M. P. Leiter, 1996) and the 5 basic (Big Five) personality factors (A. A. J. Hendrik

  16. Longitudinal Analysis of Personal and Work-Related Factors Associated With Turnover Among Nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estryn-Behar, Madeleine; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Fry, Clementine; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2010-01-01

    AB Background: Although many scholars have acknowledged the relationship between personal and work-related factors associated with job search and actual turnover, there is a lack of longitudinal designs that test this relationship empirically. Objectives: This longitudinal study examines specific

  17. Cognitive and personality factors in the regular practice of martial arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, Rosa A; Towey, Giulia E

    2017-05-05

    The effects of regular practice of martial arts is considered controversial and studies in this field limited their attention to singular psychological benefits. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the regular practice of martial arts and cognitive and personality factors, such as: attention, creativity and school performance, together with, self-esteem, self-efficacy and aggression. The design consists in a factorial design with two independent variables (groups and age levels) and seven dependent variables (attention, creativity, intelligence, school performance, self-esteem, self-efficacy and aggression). Seventy-six people practicing martial arts were compared with a control group (70 participants) not involved in any martial arts training. Martial artists were divided into groups of three levels of experience: beginners, intermediate and experts. Each completed a battery of tests that measured all the cognitive and personality factors. Martial artists presented a better performance in the attentional and creativity tests. All the personality factors analyzed presented a significant difference between the two groups, resulting in higher levels of self-esteem and self- efficacy, and a decrease of aggressiveness. Regular practice of martial arts can influence many functional aspects, leading to positive effects on both personality and cognitive factors, with implications in psychological well-being, and in the educational field. The results were discussed with reference to theories claiming that regular activity has a differential positive effect on some aspects of cognition.

  18. The Belief that Alcohol Use Is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40…

  19. Impact of Environmental Factors on Community Participation of Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…

  20. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  1. Individual Differences in Response to Automation: The Five Factor Model of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, James L.; Taylor, Grant S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of operator personality (Five Factor Model) and characteristics of the task and of adaptive automation (reliability and adaptiveness--whether the automation was well-matched to changes in task demand) to operator performance, workload, stress, and coping. This represents the first investigation of how the Five…

  2. The substantive nature of psycholexical personality factors : A comparison across languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peabody, D; De Raad, B

    2002-01-01

    The psycholexical approach to personality structure in American English has led to the Big Five factors. The present study considers whether this result is similar or different in other languages. Instead of placing the usual emphasis on quantitative indices, this study examines the substantive natu

  3. SAT Performance: Understanding the Contributions of Cognitive/Learning and Social/Personality Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda; McNaughton-Cassill, Mary

    2011-07-01

    This study identifies a number of sources of individual differences in SAT performance by examining the simultaneous contributions of factors from two otherwise disparate research areas, namely cognition/learning and social/personality. Preliminary analysis revealed that just the cognitive/learning measures accounted for 37.8, 41.4 and 21.9% of the variance in SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT performance, respectively while just the social/personality measures accounted for 21.4, 18.2 and 17.3% of the variance. When combined, cognitive/learning and social/personality factors accounted for even larger amounts of variance in performance; specifically 43.4, 44.6 and 28% for the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT, respectively. Finally, the results revealed that three measures consistently predicted performance on the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT; two measures were the learning/cognitive factors of working memory and integration of new text-based information with information from long-term memory and one measure was the social/personality factor, test anxiety.

  4. The relationship between the big five personality factors and burnout : A study among volunteer counselors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Lewig, K.A.; Dollard, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study of 80 volunteer counselors who cared for terminally ill patients, the authors examined the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (C. Maslach, S. E. Jackson, & M. P. Leiter, 1996) and the 5 basic (Big Five) personality factors (A. A. J. Hendrik

  5. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  6. Background Noise Acceptance and Personality Factors Involved in Library Environment Choices by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Lemley, Trey

    2012-01-01

    For decades, academic libraries made efforts to provide study environments differing in acoustic environment. The present study aimed to provide an evidence basis for this practice by comparing background noise acceptance and personality factors of two groups of college-aged students self identified as preferring quiet or background noise when…

  7. Juvenile criminal recidivism : relations with personality and post release environmental risk and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, C. van

    2005-01-01

    The general aim of the present dissertation is to get more insight in the contribution of personality traits and post release environmental risk and protective factors on juvenile criminal recidivism. One year after their release from a juvenile detention centre, a sample of 60 adolescent male offen

  8. Comparative Factor Analyses of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, John K.; Cunningham, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) as measures of androgyny. Results showed that femininty (Concern for Others) and masculinity (Dominance) accounted for most of the variance, but for PAQ, clusters of male- and female-valued items (i.e., Extroversion and Insecurity) formed subsidiary factors.…

  9. How should teaching on whole person medicine, including spiritual issues, be delivered in the undergraduate medical curriculum in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbinson, Mark T; Bell, David

    2015-06-02

    Although the General Medical Council recommends that United Kingdom medical students are taught 'whole person medicine', spiritual care is variably recognised within the curriculum. Data on teaching delivery and attainment of learning outcomes is lacking. This study ascertained views of Faculty and students about spiritual care and how to teach and assess competence in delivering such care. A questionnaire comprising 28 questions exploring attitudes to whole person medicine, spirituality and illness, and training of healthcare staff in providing spiritual care was designed using a five-point Likert scale. Free text comments were studied by thematic analysis. The questionnaire was distributed to 1300 students and 106 Faculty at Queen's University Belfast Medical School. 351 responses (54 staff, 287 students; 25 %) were obtained. >90 % agreed that whole person medicine included physical, psychological and social components; 60 % supported inclusion of a spiritual component within the definition. Most supported availability of spiritual interventions for patients, including access to chaplains (71 %), counsellors (62 %), or members of the patient's faith community (59 %). 90 % felt that personal faith/spirituality was important to some patients and 60 % agreed that this influenced health. However 80 % felt that doctors should never/rarely share their own spiritual beliefs with patients and 67 % felt they should only do so when specifically invited. Most supported including training on provision of spiritual care within the curriculum; 40-50 % felt this should be optional and 40 % mandatory. Small group teaching was the favoured delivery method. 64 % felt that teaching should not be assessed, but among assessment methods, reflective portfolios were most favoured (30 %). Students tended to hold more polarised viewpoints but generally were more favourably disposed towards spiritual care than Faculty. Respecting patients' values and beliefs and the need for guidance in

  10. Factors associated with future intentions to use personal vaporisers among those with some experience of vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bernice Hua; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; McNeill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara C

    2017-05-31

    Personal vaporisers (PV), including e-cigarettes, may be a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control. This study aims to identify factors associated with future intentions to vape among smokers and ex-smokers in Australia and the UK. Cross-sectional data of smokers and ex-smokers (n = 1199, mean age = 45.3 years, 44.8% male), collected in 2014/2015 and divided into four subgroups: smoking past vapers (SPV), smoking vapers (SV), ex-smoking past vapers (ESPV) and ex-smoking vapers (ESV), from the International Tobacco Control Australia and UK surveys were analysed by using regression models. Higher vaping satisfaction increased vaping intentions for all groups except ESPV. Perceiving PVs as less harmful predicted intentions to vape for all groups except ESV. The importance of PVs for stopping smoking predicted lower intentions to continue vaping for SV, but higher intentions to initiate vaping for SPV. The importance of PVs for cutting down smoking was a positive predictor only for SPV. Among ex-smokers, importance for maintaining not smoking was a positive predictor for ESPV, but not for ESV. The importance of perceiving vapour being less harmful also depended on vaping status for ex-smokers. The only country interaction was that only in the UK was perceiving PVs as less harmful associated with intention among SPV. Factors influencing intentions vary by smoking and/or vaping status, with greater differences between the ex-smoker subgroups. This is consistent with PVs being seen as a way of managing smoking, rather than something that has intrinsic value, for all except the ex-smoking vapers. [Ma BH, Yong H-H, Borland R, McNeill A, Hitchman SC. Factors associated with future intentions to use personal vaporisers among those with some experience of vaping. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Personal factors of burnout syndrome in teachers in the framework of self-determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers perform numerous professional roles that can serve as the source of prolonged stress and lead to the occurrence of burnout syndrome. This research was aimed at studying the personal factors of burnout, using self-determination theory as a starting point. We used a sample of 200 teachers to study the following: the level of satisfaction of basic psychological needs at work, the prominence of self-orientations and the presence of burnout syndrome. We also studied whether these variables were significant burnout predictors, as well as whether there was a difference in the pattern of personal burnout predictors in primary school and university teachers. The following instruments were used: the scale of satisfaction of basic psychological needs at work, the ego function questionnaire, the scale of burnout syndrome in teachers. The results point to a relatively moderate satisfaction of all psychological needs, a higher level of integrated self-regulation as well as the medium presence of ego-invested and impersonal orientations. On the whole, teachers showed low burnout. Significant burnout predictors include an integrated self and the need for autonomy (university teachers and an impersonal self (primary school teachers. This implies that teachers whose psychological needs are satisfied and who have an integrated self are less susceptible to burnout. The findings are discussed from the viewpoint of the self-determination theory, their educational implications and the possibility of preventing work burnout in education workers. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002: Indikatori i modeli usklađivanja porodičnih i poslovnih uloga

  12. The perceptions of the personal and professional factors influencing social workers in Saudi hospitals: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalli, Nadir; Albrithen, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    The perceptions of 10 social workers regarding the personal and professional characteristics influencing their practice at Saudi hospitals were examined using semi-structured interviews. A qualitative analysis employing a thematic approach informed by grounded theory was undertaken and produced three broad interrelated themes: "skills upgrading," "departmental support," and "personal experience in the workplace," which subsequently informed the development of the overarching theme of "personal and professional factors." The discussion illustrates social work practitioners are inhibited from effectively performing their roles. These include: (a) Deficiencies related to job training and professional skills updating where there is a lack of efficient and accessible inservice training programs, especially in relation to practical issues. Further, these perceptions relate to a lack of long-term educational opportunities that impact on individual practitioner's currency of skills, techniques and pedagogy enabling/disenabling him/her to excel at his/her job, (b) Obvious bureaucracy within the controlling hierarchy and difficulty with the dissemination of information between the social workers were perceived to detrimentally impact on a practitioner's ability to attend to one's work demands, and (c) Personal day to day work experiences, including counterproductive emotional feelings (high stress), increased dissatisfaction with the job, and ineffective communication within the workplace were seen as limiting the social workers' professional potential. This article will focus on how these themes were addressed in terms of qualitative interview data.

  13. Association between risk factors for injurious falls and new benzodiazepine prescribing in elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvestre Marie-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed to elderly patients' despite concerns about adverse effects leading to injurious falls. Previous studies have not investigated the extent to which patients with pre-existing risk factors for falls are prescribed benzodiazepines. The objective of this study is to assess if some of the risk factors for falls are associated with new benzodiazepine prescriptions in elderly persons. Methods Using provincial administrative databases, elderly Quebec residents were screened in 1989 for benzodiazepine use and non-users were followed for up to 5 years. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate potential predictors of new benzodiazepine use among patient baseline characteristics. Results In the 252,811 elderly patients who had no benzodiazepine prescription during the baseline year (1989, 174,444 (69% never filled a benzodiazepine prescription and 78,367 (31% filled at least one benzodiazepine prescription. In the adjusted analysis, several risk factors for falls were associated with statistically significant increases in the risk of receiving a new benzodiazepine prescription including the number of prescribing physicians seen at baseline (OR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.11–1.13, being female (OR: 1.20; 95% CI 1.18–1.22 or a diagnosis of arthritis (OR: 1.11; 95% CI 1.09–1.14, depression (OR: 1.42; 95% CI 1.35–1.49 or alcohol abuse (OR: 1.24; 95% CI 1.05–1.46. The strongest predictor for starting a benzodiazepine was the use of other medications, particularly anti-depressants (OR: 1.85; 95% CI 1.75–1.95. Conclusion Patients with pre-existing conditions that increase the risk of injurious falls are significantly more likely to receive a new prescription for a benzodiazepine. The strength of the association between previous medication use and new benzodiazepine prescriptions highlights an important medication safety issue.

  14. The Italian version of the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire: a confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Giulio; Cioffi, Raffaele; Saggino, Aristide; Wilson, Glenn

    2008-12-01

    An experimental version of the Italian Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire with a 5-point scale was administered to a group of 1,000 high school students, 200 within each age group from 11 to 15 years. Following a previous exploratory factor analysis, which yielded a fourth factor in addition to the original three, the aim of the present research was to study the factor structure of the Italian version using confirmatory factor analysis. Three models were tested, a three-factor orthogonal model, a three-factor oblique model, and a four-factor model based on an a priori separation of extraversion items into two sets. None of the considered models converged satisfactorily. An interpretation of the results was proposed.

  15. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included…

  16. The General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD): factor structure, incremental validity of self-pathology, and relations to DSM-IV personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Annett G; Livesley, W John

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the classification of personality disorder, especially moves toward more dimensional systems, create the need to assess general personality disorder apart from individual differences in personality pathology. The General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD) is a self-report questionnaire designed to evaluate general personality disorder. The measure evaluates 2 major components of disordered personality: self or identity problems and interpersonal dysfunction. This study explores whether there is a single factor reflecting general personality pathology as proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), whether self-pathology has incremental validity over interpersonal pathology as measured by GAPD, and whether GAPD scales relate significantly to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]) personality disorders. Based on responses from a German psychiatric sample of 149 participants, parallel analysis yielded a 1-factor model. Self Pathology scales of the GAPD increased the predictive validity of the Interpersonal Pathology scales of the GAPD. The GAPD scales showed a moderate to high correlation for 9 of 12 DSM-IV personality disorders.

  17. Simultaneous determination of multiclass preservatives including isothiazolinones and benzophenone-type UV filters in household and personal care products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gazpio, Josu; Garcia-Arrona, Rosa; Millán, Esmeralda

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a simple and reliable micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the separation and quantification of 14 preservatives, including isothiazolinones, and two benzophenone-type UV filters in household, cosmetic and personal care products was developed. The selected priority compounds are widely used as ingredients in many personal care products, and are included in the European Regulation concerning cosmetic products. The electrophoretic separation parameters were optimized by means of a modified chromatographic response function in combination with an experimental design, namely a central composite design. After optimization of experimental conditions, the BGE selected for the separation of the targets consisted of 60 mM SDS, 18 mM sodium tetraborate, pH 9.4 and 10% v/v methanol. The MEKC method was checked in terms of linearity, LODs and quantification, repeatability, intermediate precision, and accuracy, providing appropriate values (i.e. R(2) ≥ 0.992, repeatability RSD values ˂9%, and accuracy 90-115%). Applicability of the validated method was successfully assessed by quantifying preservatives and UV filters in commercial consumer products.

  18. [Graphical procedures for assessing person-fit in item factor analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando Piera, Pere Joan; Morales Vives, Fàbia

    2010-05-01

    Flagging the individuals who did not answer consistently can be very useful in certain applied domains, especially in clinical and personnel selection areas. Identification of inconsistent patterns prevents erroneous interpretations of test scores. Two graphic procedures based on linear factor analysis are proposed in this paper. They allow the possible causes of low intra-individual consistency to be assessed once a pattern has been flagged as inconsistent. Moreover, these procedures allow us to identify the items that have contributed the most to the inconsistency. The procedures are illustrated with some empirical examples in personality. Lastly, implications of the results in the construction of personality measures are discussed.

  19. Personal, Familial, and Social Factors Contributing to Addiction Relapse, Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug addiction is deemed one of the gravest threats to society. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine what factors (personal, familial, or social are correlated with addiction relapse. Patients and Methods In this descriptive study, 146 addicts referring to addiction treatment centers in the Iranian city of Ahvaz were selected via purposive and non-randomized sampling. The study tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and SPSS software were used for data analysis. Results The results showed that 46.1% of the participants aged between 20 and 30 years. All the subjects had at least one attempt at quitting drug abuse. Single individuals comprised 52.9% of the study population. The most significant physical factors were lack of appetite (23.9%, numbness and pins and needles (23.3%, and bone pain (22.4%, while the most significant mental factor was loneliness (44%. Concerning the social factors, association with addicted and misleading friends (35.2% had the utmost importance. Furthermore, lack of a permanent job (43% and absence of appropriate family relationships (32%, respectively, constituted the most important factors among the career and familial factors. Conclusions Our results showed that many personal, familial, and social factors play a role in addiction relapse. The high prevalence of return to addiction necessitates further strategies for the more optimal control of these factors.

  20. Comparing factor analytic models of the DSM-IV personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Schmitt, Thomas A; Richard, David C S; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    There is little agreement about the latent factor structure of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) personality disorders (PDs). Factor analytic studies over the past 2 decades have yielded different results, in part reflecting differences in factor analytic technique, the measure used to assess the PDs, and the changing DSM criteria. In this study, we explore the latent factor structure of the DSM (4th ed.; IV) PDs in a sample of 1200 psychiatric outpatients evaluated with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV PDs (B. Pfohl, N. Blum, & M. Zimmerman, 1997). We first evaluated 2 a priori models of the PDs with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), reflecting their inherent organization in the DSM-IV: a 3-factor model and a 10-factor model. Fit statistics did not suggest that these models yielded an adequate fit. We then evaluated the latent structure with exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Multiple solutions produced more statistically and theoretically reasonable results, as well as providing clinically useful findings. On the basis of fit statistics and theory, 3 models were evaluated further--the 4-, 5-, and 10-factor models. The 10-factor model, which did not resemble the 10-factor model of the CFA, was determined to be the strongest of all 3 models. Future research should use contemporary methods of evaluating factor analytic results in order to more thoroughly compare various factor solutions.

  1. Personality and psychopathology: Higher order relations between the five factor model of personality and the MMPI-2 Restructured Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, P.T. van der; Rossi, G.M.P.; Veld, W.M. van der; Derksen, J.J.L.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between personality and psychopathology as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and the Minnesota Multhiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) in a combined dataset of patients wit

  2. Clinical Symptoms as a Function of Client Personality in College Students: Incorporating the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Marie S.; Lockman, Jennifer D.; Temple, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between personality characteristics and presenting clinical symptoms of individuals at a college counseling center was examined. Analysis of assessments of personality (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and mental health symptoms (Farrell & McCullough, 1989) suggests that the personality characteristics of individuals…

  3. Clinical Symptoms as a Function of Client Personality in College Students: Incorporating the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Marie S.; Lockman, Jennifer D.; Temple, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between personality characteristics and presenting clinical symptoms of individuals at a college counseling center was examined. Analysis of assessments of personality (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and mental health symptoms (Farrell & McCullough, 1989) suggests that the personality characteristics of individuals…

  4. Higher-order factors of the big five model of personality: a reanalysis of Digman (1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Christopher

    2005-02-01

    Based on the results from factor analyses conducted on 14 different data sets, Digman proposed a model of two higher-order factors, or metatraits, that subsumed the Big Five personality traits. In the current article, problems in Digman's analyses were explicated, and more appropriate analyses were then conducted using the same 14 correlation matrices from Digman's study. The resultant two-factor model produced improper solutions, poor model fit indices, or both, in almost all of the 14 data sets and thus raised serious doubts about the veracity of Digman's proposed model.

  5. The substantive nature of psycholexical personality factors: a comparison across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Dean; De Raad, Boele

    2002-10-01

    The psycholexical approach to personality structure in American English has led to the Big Five factors. The present study considers whether this result is similar or different in other languages. Instead of placing the usual emphasis on quantitative indices, this study examines the substantive nature of the factors. Six studies in European languages were used to develop a taxonomy of content categories. The English translations of the relevant terms were then classified under this taxonomy. The results support the generality of Big Five Factor III (Conscientiousness). Factors IV (Emotional Stability) and V (Intellect) generally did not cohere. Factors I (Extraversion) and II (Agreeableness) tended to split when this was necessary to produce 5 factors. The analysis was extended to several additional studies.

  6. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  7. Heritability of dimensions of Eysenck's pen model and the alternative five-factor model of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smederevac Snežana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to estimate the heritability of AFFM and PEN dimensions, including 67 pairs of twins (34 monozygotic and 33 dizygotic of both genders, aged 18 - 44. The heritability has been estimated by the biometric method, two full (ACE and ADE and three reduced (AE, DE and CE models tested for each personality trait. Taking into consideration the AFFM dimensions, additive genetic factors and a non-shared environment contribute the most significantly to the phenotypic variation of activity, sociability and the impulsive sensation seeking; anxiety and aggressiveness are best accounted for by the dominant genetic effects. In the PEN domain, fit indicators suggest that ACE and the reduced AE models provide the best explanation for the phenotypic manifestations of neuroticism, while ACE and CE models account for the variation of L scale. Although the fit indicators calculated for extraversion and psychotic behavior are somewhat problematic, the parameter estimates show that extraversion is best accounted for by the additive genetic variance, shared environmental effects, and the non-shared environment, whereas psychotic behavior is the most adequately explained by both shared and non-shared environmental effects.

  8. Personal factors and working conditions as predictors of work injuries among industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, M I; Atta, H Y; Foda, N T; Mostafa, Y A; Youssef, R M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the personal factors and working conditions that predict work injuries among industrial workers. To fulfill this aim, a case control study was conducted including 2003 industrial workers who sustained a work injury and an equal number of controls. All were subjected to an interview questionnaire to collect relevant information. Moreover, records were reviewed to obtain the medical history of enrolled workers. Data revealed that workers in the index and control groups are comparable in respect to their sociodemographic characteristics. The multivariate logistic regression analysis pointed out that safety training significantly reduces the risk of work accidents among industrial workers. On the other hand, work accidents are more likely to occur in the main working shift. Moreover, workers who suffer from chronic health problems calling for surgical treatment, as well as those who reported family problems, are more likely to experience work accidents. These workers should receive considerable attention to reduce the extent of work injuries. More importantly, safety-training programs are mandatory for accident prevention in industrial settings.

  9. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Song E; Han-Na Kim; Juhee Cho; Min-Jung Kwon; Yoosoo Chang; Seungho Ryu; Hocheol Shin; Hyung-Lae Kim

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed usi...

  10. Personality and early maladaptive schemas: a five-factor model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimm, Jens C

    2010-12-01

    According to Young's schema model (Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press), innate personality tendencies are important for the understanding of early maladaptive schemas (EMS). The current study examined the relations between EMS and the dimensions of the five-factor model of personality (FFM). One hundred and forty-seven adult outpatients completed the NEO PI-R, the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Correlational analyses showed a substantial overlap between EMS and the FFM, neuroticism in particular. EMS predicted depressive symptoms above and beyond the FFM personality dimensions. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Chronotype and personality factors in the daily consumption of alcohol and psychostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, A

    1994-04-01

    This paper analyses the influence of and possible interaction between chronotype (Morning-types, Neither-types and Evening-types) and personality dimensions (neuroticism, extroversion and psychoticism) in the daily consumption of alcohol and psychostimulants (nicotine and caffeine). In a sample of 537 subjects (257 men and 280 women), who were students and professionals with different but fixed work schedules, there were significant differences among the chronotypes regarding the consumption of all the above. Evening-types consumed more alcohol, nicotine and caffeine (coffee and cola), while Morning-types consumed more caffeine from tea. Personality was only related to the consumption of cola: the greater the neuroticism the higher the consumption of this beverage. Stimulant drinks showed various types of interaction with personality types, which revealed a complex pattern of group action. The results stress the need to consider chronotype as a contributory psychological factor in a multi-causal model of consumption of psychoactive substances.

  12. Regional analysis of big five personality factors and suicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Extending cross-national and intranational studies on possible aggregate-level associations between personality dimensions and suicide prevalence, this study examined the associations of the Big Five personality factors and suicide rates across 32 regions of the Russian Federation. Failing to replicate one key finding of similar geographic studies, namely, a correspondence of higher suicide rates with lower Agreeableness and Conscientiousness (i.e., higher Psychoticism) scores, higher suicide rates corresponded to higher Agreeableness scores. This effect was obtained with one available data source (regional-level Big Five ratings based on the National Character Survey), but not with another (based on the NEO-PI-R measure). All in all, regional suicide rates across Russia were dissociated from regional variation in personality dimensions.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF PERSONAL, SITUATIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS ON VOLUNTEERS COMMITTEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Sefora (SANA NEMTEANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Volunteerism as an activity in the context of non profit organizations aknowledged an increasing growth in Romania after the fall of comunism. Research in the nonprofit field is clustered around the identification ofinfluencial factors regarding volunteer involvement. Interest in academic research regarding non profit, third sector and non profit marketing gainedmore popularity in the last two decades. Theories of marketingapplicable in nonprofit sector are disscused, being adopted theorethical constructs from either sciences alsoas sociology, psychology, anthropology and organizational behavior schiences. General accepted conceptual and empirical constructs are not yet developed, which leads to the fact that study on influencial factors on volunteerism stillneeds to be developed and tested. The maininfluencial factors identified in the literature review cluster around personal, situational and organizational. Personal factors analysed were the socio-demographic, motivations, situational factors were cost and time oportunity, availability, experience in the field. On theother side organizational factors identified were charachteristics of the job, internal marketing and relationship with clients. Identified factors have influence on volunteer satisfaction regarding the activity in the organization and organizational commitement, increasing the retention of volunteers

  14. Socio-demographic factors, behaviour and personality: associations with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Suzanne Helen; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Passey, Megan; Lyle, David; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Harris, Mark Ford

    2012-04-01

    Anxiety, psychological distress and personality may not be independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however they may contribute via their relationship with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. This study aimed to examine the association between psychological distress, risk behaviours and patient demographic characteristics in a sample of general practice patients aged 40-65 years with at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cross-sectional analytic study. Patients, randomly selected from general practice records, completed a questionnaire about their behavioural risk factors and psychological health as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial of a general practice based intervention to prevent chronic vascular disease. The Kessler Psychological Distress Score (K10) was the main outcome measure for the multilevel, multivariate analysis. Single-level bi-variate analysis demonstrated a significant association between higher K10 and middle age (p = 0.001), high neuroticism (p = 0), current smoking (p = 0), physical inactivity (p = 0.003) and low fruit and vegetable consumption (p = 0.008). Socioeconomic (SES) indicators of deprivation (employment and accommodation status) were also significantly associated with higher K10 (p = 0). No individual behavioural risk factor was associated with K10 on multilevel multivariate analysis; however indicators of low SES remained significant (p factors were considered, psychological distress was not associated with behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Other underlying factors, such as personality type and socioeconomic status, may be associated with both the behaviours and the distress.

  15. Psychosocial factors and functional capacity evaluation among persons with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisser, Michael E; Robinson, Michael E; Miller, Quaintance L; Bade, Suzanne M

    2003-12-01

    Psychosocial factors have been found to have a significant impact on functional activity, particularly among persons with chronic pain. While various systems have been developed to assess functional limitations through functional capacity evaluation (FCE), assessment of psychosocial factors that may impact function have been largely ignored. This paper examines the existing literature on psychosocial factors and FCE performance. Given that there are few studies that have directly addressed this issue, the paper also examines psychosocial factors that have been found to influence function in persons with pain. The results of the literature review indicate that few psychosocial factors have been found to be directly associated with FCE and functional measures, although many are related to various measures of disability. The strongest evidence that psychosocial factors are related to functional performance is based on the studies examining the association between functional activity and pain-related fear, self-efficacy, and illness behavior. Psychosocial factors have also been shown to influence measures of sincerity of effort often obtained during FCE. Proposals for modifying FCE assessment are given based on the available data, as well as suggestions for future research.

  16. SELF-REGULATION AS A FACTOR IN PERSONAL-PROFESSIONAL SELF-DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna G. Garanina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article considers the problem of personal and professional self-development of future specialists at the stage of higher education and the role of self-regulation in this process. The specifics and the stage of self-regulation process, among which are stages of awareness of the importance of selfdevelopment process, the formation of personal and professional goals, assessment of possible conditions of its achievement, self-programming stages of performing activities, monitoring and evaluation of the achievement of self-development purposes. Materials and Methods: the author used psychodiagnostic methods aimed at identifying the personal and profes¬sional characteristics of students. The correlation and cluster analysis was used for statistical treatment of results. Results: As a result of experimental research on personal and professional self-development of psychology students the factors were identified, which play an important role in achieving self-development purposes in the course of training. Cluster analysis revealed three groups of students with different levels of development of self-regulation, willingness to self-knowledge and self-development, and the level of self-control and self-efficacy. Discussion and Conclusions: the results show that self-regulation of students is related to such characteristics as commitment to self-development, self-attitude, self-efficacy and reflection. Professional and personal self-development of psychology students is quite a meaningful life value, which depends on the awareness of their professional and personal goals as well as on the level of formation of regulatory and reflective qualities that affect the focus and systematic process of personality .

  17. Hierarchical structure of maladaptive personality traits in older adults: joint factor analysis of the PID-5 and the DAPP-BQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Joke; Bastiaansen, Leen; Rossi, Gina; Dierckx, Eva; De Clercq, Barbara; Hofmans, Joeri

    2014-04-01

    In DSM-5, the categorical model and criteria for the 10 personality disorders included in DSM-IV will be reprinted in Section II. Moreover, an alternative dimensional classification model will appear in Section III. This alternative DSM-5 proposal for the diagnosis of a personality disorder is based on two fundamental criteria: impairments in personality functioning (Criterion A) and the presence of pathological personality traits (Criterion B). In the maladaptive trait model that has been developed to operationalize Criterion B, 25 pathological traits are organized according to five higher order dimensions. The current study focuses on the convergence of the proposed DSM-5 trait model (as measured by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 [PID-5]) with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP) model (as measured by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire [DAPP-BQ]) in a sample of older people. A joint hierarchical factor analysis showed clear convergence between four PID-5 dimensions (Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition) and conceptually similar DAPP-BQ components. Moreover, the PID-5 and the DAPP-BQ showed meaningful associations on different levels of their joint hierarchical factor structure. Methodological and theoretical implications of these initial results for the conceptualization of personality pathology are discussed.

  18. MODULAR COMPETENCE APPROACH AS THE FACTOR OF FORMATION OF LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Alekseevna Zakharova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article Modular competence approach as the factor of formation of linguistic personality the attention focuses on the fact that the distinguishing feature of the new Federal State Educational Standard is its activity nature which main objective is to develop the student’s personality.It requires the new pedagogical researches in the field of methodology of teaching, search of innovative tools, forms and methods of training and education associated with the development and introduction of modern educational technologies into the educational process.Perhaps currently in Russia the problem of being expert with free and actually cultural words is more relevant than ever for any member of society due to the new social conditions and needs.The linguistic personality is formed through the integration of the linguistic, language, communicative and cultural competences.The choice of modular technology is not random as it involves the interrelated and interdependent activities of a teacher and a student; it allows activation of the formation process of the complex of linguistic knowledge and gives the opportunity to acquire practical experience necessary for the elementary school teacher. This approach makes the lesson work motivating and purposeful one and allows to create a linguistic personality.The article presents the practical experience of use of the modular competence approach for the formation of a linguistic personality on the lessons of Russian with the methods of teaching in primary school in N.K. Kalugin Pedagogical College of the City of Orenburg.

  19. Five-Factor Model Personality Traits and the Objective and Subjective Experience of Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on middle-aged and older adults. The present research sought to (a) replicate these associations in a young adult sample, (b) examine whether sex, race, or ethnicity moderate these associations, and (c) test whether personality is associated with the subjective experience of body weight and discrepancies between perceived and actual weight. Participants (N = 15,669; M(age) = 29; 53% female; ∼40% ethnic/racial minority) from Wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health completed a Five-Factor Model personality measure and reported their weight, height, and perception of weight category (e.g., overweight); trained staff measured participants' height, weight, and waist circumference. Conscientiousness was associated with healthier weight, with a nearly 5 kg difference between the top and bottom quartiles. Neuroticism among women and Extraversion among men were associated with higher adiposity. Neuroticism was also associated with misperceived heavier weight, whereas Extraversion was associated with misperceived taller and leaner. The associations were similar across race/ethnic groups. Personality is associated with objective and subjective adiposity in young adulthood. Although modest, the effects are consistent with life span theories of personality, and the misperceptions are consistent with the conceptual worldviews associated with the traits.

  20. College students with tattoos and piercings: motives, family experiences, personality factors, and perception by others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, G B

    2001-12-01

    The motives, family experiences, and personality characteristics of 341 college students with and without tattoos or piercings were studied. Participants completed Lippa's 1991 measures of the Big Five personality factors, a shortened version of the Body Cathexis Scale, a series of questions about their childhood experiences, and questions about risk-taking behaviors. In addition, reasons to have or not have body modifications and the perceptions of people with body modifications were investigated. Of the 116 men and 186 women, 25% and 33%, respectively, had at least one tattoo or body piercing. There were very few differences in the childhood experiences or personality characteristics of people with or without body modifications. Although people with body modifications did not differ from people without modifications on the Big Five personality measures, people without modifications perceived people with modifications as much different from themselves on these measures. These results indicate that tattoos and piercings in college students are associated with significantly more risk-taking behavior, greater use of alcohol and marijuana, and less social conformity. However, the traditional stereotype that body modifications are indicators of social or personal pathology does not describe contemporary college students.

  1. Neighborhood Disorder and the Sense of Personal Control: Which Factors Moderate the Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongbaeck; Conley, Meghan E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether and how select individual characteristics moderate the relationship between neighborhood disorder and a sense of personal control. Our findings show that neighborhood disorder is associated with a decreased sense of control. However, regression analyses including interaction terms of neighborhood disorder and some…

  2. The Personal Service Gap: Factors Affecting Adolescents' Willingness to Seek Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Amiram; Raviv, Alona; Vago-Gefen, Idit; Fink, Abby Schachter

    2009-01-01

    The study explores adolescents' attitudes toward seeking help for emotional problems. The personal service gap is examined by asking adolescents about their willingness to refer themselves and others to formal (psychologists) and informal (friends) help sources, using a within-subjects design. The study included 662 Israeli adolescents in the 10th…

  3. Life history factors, personality and the social clustering of sexual experience in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent sexual behaviour may show clustering in neighbourhoods, schools and friendship networks. This study aims to assess how experience with sexual intercourse clusters across the social world of adolescents and whether predictors implicated by life history theory or personality traits can account for its between-individual variation and social patterning. Using data on 2877 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we ran logistic multiple classification models to assess the clustering of sexual experience by approximately 17.5 years in schools, neighbourhoods and friendship networks. We examined how much clustering at particular levels could be accounted for by life history predictors and Big Five personality factors. Sexual experience exhibited substantial clustering in friendship networks, while clustering at the level of schools and neighbourhoods was minimal, suggesting a limited role for socio-ecological influences at those levels. While life history predictors did account for some variation in sexual experience, they did not explain clustering in friendship networks. Personality, especially extraversion, explained about a quarter of friends' similarity. After accounting for life history factors and personality, substantial unexplained similarity among friends remained, which may reflect a tendency to associate with similar individuals or the social transmission of behavioural norms. PMID:27853543

  4. Developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking from adolescence to the early thirties: personality and behavioral risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Whiteman, Martin; Cohen, Patricia; Finch, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from ages 14 to 32, and to examine adolescent personality factors that distinguish trajectories of smoking behavior. Participants (N = 975) were randomly selected and followed prospectively since 1975. Follow-up data on cigarette use and personality and behavioral attributes were collected at five points in time, using structured interviews given in private by trained interviewers. Of these subjects, 746 comprised the cohort used in this study. Growth mixture modeling identified five smoking trajectory groups: nonsmokers, occasional smokers, late starters, quitters, and heavy/continuous smokers. Adolescent personality and behavioral risk factors such as lower ego integration, more externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations distinguished the trajectory groups. No gender differences were noted. The findings supported the hypotheses indicating multiple distinct trajectory groups of smoking behavior. Smoking behavior appeared in early adolescence and most often continued into adulthood. Emotional difficulties (i.e., lower ego integration), externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations in early adolescence were associated both with smoking at an early age and with continuing to smoke into the thirties. To be more effective, smoking prevention programs should target personality and behavioral variations before smoking becomes habitual, particularly focused on characteristics reflecting behavioral problems as manifested in emotional difficulties, externalizing behavior, and low educational aspirations in early adolescence. The implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed.

  5. The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Schiano di Cola, Armando; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to personality and anxiety factors even though such a comparison would help to clarify to what extent they share similar mechanisms and characteristics. The aim of the present paper was to investigate whether personality dimensions and anxiety levels are associated with reaching and comfort distances. Seventy university students (35 females) were administered the Big Five Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; afterwards, they had to provide reachability- and comfort-distance judgments towards human confederates while standing still (passive) or walking towards them (active). The correlation analyses showed that both spaces were positively related to anxiety and negatively correlated with the Dynamism in the active condition. Moreover, in the passive condition higher Emotional Stability was related to shorter comfort distance, while higher cognitive Openness was associated with shorter reachability distance. The implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Factors associated with treatment for latent tuberculosis in persons living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva de Aquino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to identify factors associated with non-initiation of prophylactic treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBi in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA, based on a prospective cohort study of PLWA ≥ 18 years of age in two referral services for HIV/AIDS. Of the 232 patients eligible for treatment of LTBi, 69.8% initiated treatment. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, only treatment in one of the two referral services was associated with non-initiation of treatment for LTBi (p < 0.001. TB incidence in the cohort was 0.6/100 person-years. TB incidence in patients that initiated treatment of LTBi was 0.4/100 person-years, compared to 1.2/100 person-years in those that did not initiate treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant. The study’s most interesting finding was that the main factor associated with the likelihood of treatment for LTBi was the health service where the patient was treated.

  7. Big five personality factors and cigarette smoking: a 10-year study among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Taha, Farah; Bono, Amanda; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between the big five personality traits and any lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence among adults in the United States (US) over a ten-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) I and II (N = 2101). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between continuously measured personality factors and any lifetime cigarette use, smoking progression, and smoking persistence at baseline (1995-1996) and at follow-up (2004-2006). The results revealed that higher levels of openness to experience and neuroticism were each significantly associated with increased risk of any lifetime cigarette use. Neuroticism also was associated with increased risk of progression from ever smoking to daily smoking and persistent daily smoking over a ten-year period. In contrast, conscientiousness was associated with decreased risk of lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence. Most, but not all, associations between smoking and personality persisted after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems. The findings suggest that openness to experience and neuroticism may be involved in any lifetime cigarette use and smoking progression, and that conscientiousness appears to protect against smoking progression and persistence. These data add to a growing literature suggesting that certain personality factors--most consistently neuroticism--are important to assess and perhaps target during intervention programs for smoking behavior.

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the M5-50: An Implementation of the International Personality Item Pool Item Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Alan; Cooper, Christopher A.; McCord, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) provides researchers with public-domain, free-access personality measurement scales that are proxies of well-established published scales. One of the more commonly used IPIP sets employs 50 items to measure the 5 broad domains of the 5-factor model, with 10 items per factor. The…

  9. The Interplay of "Big Five" Personality Factors and Metaphorical Schemas: A Pilot Study with 20 Lung Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzmann, Lutz; Moser, Karin S.; Vetsch, Esther; Grieder, Erhard; Klaghofer, Richard; Naef, Rahel; Russi, Erich W.; Boehler, Annette; Buddeberg, Claus

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interplay between personality factors and metaphorical schemas. The "Big Five" personality factors of 20 patients after lung transplantation were examined with the NEO-FFI. Patients were questioned about their social network, and self- and body-image. The interviews were assessed with metaphor…

  10. An examination of the relationship between personality and aggression using the general aggression and five factor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, Julia; Gilbert, Flora; Simpson, Katrina; Daffern, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between personality and aggression using the general aggression (GAM, Anderson and Bushman [2002] Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51) and five factor models (FFMs) (Costa and McCrae [1992] Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Specifically, it examined Ferguson and Dyck's (Ferguson and Dyck [2012] Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228) criticisms that the GAM has questionable validity in clinical populations and disproportionately focuses on aggression-related knowledge structures to the detriment of other inputs, specifically personality variables. Fifty-five male offenders attending a community forensic mental health service for pre-sentence psychiatric and/or psychological evaluation were assessed for aggressive script rehearsal, aggression-supportive normative beliefs, FFM personality traits, trait anger and past aggressive behavior. With regard to relationships between five factor variables and aggression, results suggested that only agreeableness and conscientiousness were related to aggression. However, these relationships were: (1) weak in comparison with those between script rehearsal, normative beliefs and trait anger with aggression and (2) were not significant predictors in hierarchical regression analysis when all of the significant univariate predictors, including GAM-specified variables were regressed onto life history of aggression; normative beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and trait anger were significantly related to aggression in this regression analysis. These results provide further support for the application of the GAM to aggressive populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Trait-based assessment of borderline personality disorder using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Phenotypic and genetic support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Grant, Julia D.; Maples, Jessica; Trull, Timothy J.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the reliability and validity of a trait-based assessment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Correlations between the Five-Factor Inventory-BPD composite (FFI-BPD) and explicit measures of BPD were examined across six samples, including undergraduate, community, and clinical samples. The median correlation was .60, which was nearly identical to the correlation between measures of BPD and a BPD composite generated from the full Revised NEO Personality Inventory (i.e., NEO-BPD; r =.61). Correlations between FFI-BPD and relevant measures of psychiatric symptomatology and etiology (e.g., childhood abuse, drug use, depression, and personality disorders) were also examined and compared to those generated using explicit measures of BPD and NEO-BPD. As expected, the FFI-BPD composite correlated most strongly with measures associated with high levels of Neuroticism, such as depression, anxiety, and emotion dysregulation, and the pattern of correlations generated using the FFI-BPD was highly similar to those generated using explicit measures of BPD and NEO-BPD. Finally, genetic analyses estimated that FFI-BPD is 44% heritable, which is comparable to meta-analytic research examining genetics associated with BPD, and revealed that 71% of the genetic influences are shared between FFI-BPD and a self-report measure assessing BPD (Personality Assessment Inventory – Borderline subscale; Morey, 1991). Generally, these results support the use of FFI-BPD as a reasonable proxy for BPD, which has considerable implications, particularly for potential gene-finding efforts in large, epidemiological datasets that include the NEO FFI. PMID:25984635

  12. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  13. Assessment of identity disturbance: Factor structure and validation of the Personality Structure Questionnaire in an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Raul; Kellett, Stephen; Fiorani, Christina; Poggioli, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    There are few brief measures of identity disturbance for use in clinical practice that have been subject to any cross-cultural validation. This study investigated the construct validity of the Personality Structure Questionnaire (PSQ) in Italian clinical (N = 237) and community (N = 296) samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to investigate the internal structure of the PSQ. A 3-factor structure (i.e., differing self-states, mood variability, and behavioral loss of control) including a second-order factor provided the best fit to the data. This structure was demonstrated to be invariant across sex and clinical diagnosis, with clinical diagnosis significantly predicting increased PSQ scores. A global PSQ score of between 26 and 28 was found to be an appropriate cutoff for assisting in diagnostic processes. The clinical implication of the study is that quantitative assessment of identity disturbance can be rapidly achieved via the PSQ, usefully supplementing necessary diagnostic and formulation work. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. THE CORRELATION AMONG ATTITUDE, MOTIVATION AND SPEAKING ACHIEVEMENT OF COLLEGE STUDENTS ACROSS PERSONALITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Lailatul Khoiriyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the important of understanding about the attitude, motivation and the personality of the students in the English learning process, this research is aimed at finding the relationship between attitude and motivation which are acknowledged as influential factors in speaking achievement across their personality factors. Sixty Non-EFL students of Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University of Malang who take English as their compulsory subject were participated as the research sample. They were the fourth semester undergraduate taking TOEFL and Speaking Course. Attitude and Motivation Test Battery (AMTB, The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, speaking test and TOEFL-like test were administered. The results of this research revealed that there was significant correlation among attitude, motivation and speaking achievement of extrovert and Introvert students.

  15. Are indigenous personality dimensions culture specific? Philippine inventories and the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katigbak, Marcia S; Church, A Timothy; Guanzon-Lapeña, Ma Angeles; Carlota, Annadaisy J; del, PilarGregorioH

    2002-01-01

    The authors addressed the culture specificity of indigenous personality constructs, the generalizability of the 5-factor model (FFM), and the incremental validity of indigenous measures in a collectivistic culture. Filipino college students (N = 508) completed 3 indigenous inventories and the Filipino version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). On the basis of the factor and regression analyses, they concluded that (a) most Philippine dimensions are well encompassed by the FFM and thus may not be very culture specific: (b) a few indigenous constructs are less well accounted for by the FFM: these constructs are not unknown in Western cultures, but they may be particularly salient or composed somewhat differently in the Philippines; (c) the structure of the NEO-PI-R FFM replicates well in the Philippines: and (d) Philippine inventories add modest incremental validity beyond the FFM in predicting selected culture-relevant criteria.

  16. Correlation Analysis of Personality Characteristics of Children with TIC Disorder with Family Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; WANG Liqun; MA Chunxia; MA Lixian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the personality characteristics of children with tic disorders and their relationship with family factors.Methods Sixty cases of children with tic disorders diagnosed in our hospital were selected as the case group and 65 cases of normal children were selected as the control group.The children of two groups were assessed using Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ),Family Environment Scale (FES-CV) and general situation questionnaire of family (GSQ),respectively.The scores of EPQ personality characteristics,FES-CV and GSQ scores were compared for the children in the two groups.The Person correlation analysis method was used to analyze the correlation between personality scores of children in case group and family environment factors.Results The general situation questionnaire results showed that there was significant statistically difference in parenting style,parental education level and family types of the children between case group and control group (P < 0.05);EPQ results showed that the neuroticism and psychoticism scores of children in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P< 0.05) and the lying degree scores in the control group were significantly higher than those in the case group (P< 0.05);FES-CV results showed that the family cohesion scores of the case group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05),and the family conflict scores in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05).The Person correlation analysis results indicated that the psychoticism score was negatively correlated with the score of family cohesion (P<0.05),and positively correlated with family conflict (P<0.05),while the neuroticism score was positively correlated with family conflict score (P<0.05).Conclusion The children with tic disorders have significant personality deviation compared to the normal children,and the personality deviation degree is

  17. Task Recognition and Person Identification in Cyclic Dance Sequences with Multi Factor Tensor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Manoj; Shiratori, Takaaki; Kudoh, Shunsuke; Nakazawa, Atsushi; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to recognize motion styles and identify people using the Multi Factor Tensor (MFT) model. We apply a musical information analysis method in segmenting the motion sequence relevant to the keyposes and the musical rhythm. We define a task model by considering the repeated motion segments, where the motion is decomposed into a person-invariant factor task and a person-dependent factor style. Given the motion data set, we formulate the MFT model, factorize it efficiently in different modes, and use it in recognizing the tasks and the identities of the persons performing the tasks. We capture the motion data of different people for a few cycles, segment it using the musical analysis approach, normalize the segments using a vectorization method, and realize our MFT model. In our experiments, Japanese traditional dance sequences performed by several people are used. Provided with an unknown motion segment which is to be probed and which was performed at a different time in the time space, we first normalize the motion segment and flatten our MFT model appropriately, then recognize the task and the identity of the person. We follow two approaches in conducting our experiments. In one experiment, we recognize the tasks and the styles by maximizing a function in the tensor subdomain, and in the next experiment, we use a function value in the tensorial subdomain with a threshold for recognition. Interestingly, unlike the first experiment, we are capable of recognizing tasks and human identities that were not known beforehand. We conducted various experiments to evaluate the potential of the recognition ability of our proposed approaches, and the results demonstrate the high accuracy of our model.

  18. The Belief that Alcohol Use is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40 schools were analyzed using a structural equation model. Autonomy was negatively correlated with intention to use alcohol and subsequent alcohol use ...

  19. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

    OpenAIRE

    Golovey L.A.; Vasilenko V.E.; Savenysheva S.S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling) and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction). The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from sing...

  20. The Effect of Socio-Personal Factors on Economic and Managerial Variables in Shahroud Commercial Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Kashfi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effects of fourpersonal and social variables including the age, literacy,job experience and size of herd on different variables such asimplementing of managerial strategies in transition period,relevant costs of these strategies, average production per headand gross income of milk sale per head. For this purpose allrequired information were collected through questionnairedistribution among the owners of commercial dairy farms ofShahroud district. This questionnaire was included three parts.Relevant information about personal and social indices wasinserted in first part. Second part included of relevant informationabout performance and non-performance of considered managerialstrategies in transition period and third part was aboutrelevant information about production and economic records.Finally all information about 50 herds was obtained andcompared as well. Data analysis was through applying MultipleLinear Regression (MLR method. Also it was possible tospecify any relation among independent and dependent variablesthrough calculation of Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Finallyit was revealed that social and personal factors have a significanteffect on the implementation of management strategies andother independent factors.

  1. Dimensions Underlying Measures of Disability, Personal Factors, and Health Status in Cervical Radiculopathy: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Marie; Kierkegaard, Marie; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin; Peolsson, Anneli; Dedering, Åsa

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study sought to identify dimensions underlying measures of impairment, disability, personal factors, and health status in patients with cervical radiculopathy. One hundred twenty-four patients with magnetic resonance imaging-verified cervical radiculopathy, attending a neurosurgery clinic in Sweden, participated. Data from clinical tests and questionnaires on disability, personal factors, and health status were used in a principal-component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation. The PCA supported a 3-component model including 14 variables from clinical tests and questionnaires, accounting for 73% of the cumulative percentage. The first component, pain and disability, explained 56%. The second component, health, fear-avoidance beliefs, kinesiophobia, and self-efficacy, explained 9.2%. The third component including anxiety, depression, and catastrophizing explained 7.6%. The strongest-loading variables of each dimension were "present neck pain intensity," "fear avoidance," and "anxiety." The three underlying dimensions identified and labeled Pain and functioning, Health, beliefs, and kinesiophobia, and Mood state and catastrophizing captured aspects of importance for cervical radiculopathy. Since the variables "present neck pain intensity," "fear avoidance," and "anxiety" had the strongest loading in each of the three dimensions; it may be important to include them in a reduced multidimensional measurement set in cervical radiculopathy.

  2. Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe;

    2009-01-01

    fibre and Saturated fat. Results: Greater food variety (OR = 1.32 for women, 1.13 for men), high leisure-time physical activity (OR = 2.20 for women, 1.91 for men), frequent intentions to eat healthily (OR = 8.19 for women, 5.40 for men) and low energy intake (OR = 0.78 for women, 0.85 for men) were...

  3. Social and personal factors of stable remission for people with drug addictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova, H. A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research on the most effective measures in rehabilitation programs for people with chemical addictions and research on the personal characteristics that influence the complete cessation of drug and alcohol consumption. Building a model of an effective rehabilitation process is one of the most significant problems in organizing aid for drug and alcohol addicts. Analysis of the results of previous research revealed a number of factors that influence the stability of remission: individual biological factors (general state of health, presence of co-existing diseases; individual psychological factors (coping strategies, shifting of attention, self-control, aggressiveness; rehabilitation program factors (duration of programs, rehabilitation measures, form of rehabilitation, conditions for admission to a rehabilitation center; social factors (family support, rehabilitation with children, availability of communities with no drug addictions; spiritual factors (call to a divine power for help. We have researched the most effective measures of rehabilitation programs for people with chemical addictions, as well as personal characteristics that influence the full cease in drug and alcohol consumption. In our research we studied people undergoing rehabilitation in different programs (nonstate 12-step, confessional, and state. Five groups of respondents participated in the research; the total number of respondents was 945. The purpose of our research was to investigate the factors of stable remission for drug addicts in different rehabilitation programs. Our conclusion is that there are outer (social and inner (personal factors of stable remission. Our research revealed that during positive remission (abstinence from taking drugs addicts had fewer social and psychological problems, and their social and psychological personal characteristics improved; it also revealed those measures that furthered the development of remission. Respondents

  4. Is there a genetic correlation between general factors of intelligence and personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehlin, John C; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bratko, Denis; Martin, Nicholas G; Nichols, Robert C; Wright, Margaret J

    2015-06-01

    We tested a hypothesis that there is no genetic correlation between general factors of intelligence and personality, despite both having been selected for in human evolution. This was done using twin samples from Australia, the United States, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Croatia, comprising altogether 1,748 monozygotic and 1,329 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs. Although parameters in the model-fitting differed among the twin samples, the genetic correlation between the two general factors could be set to zero, with a better fit if the U.S. sample was excepted.

  5. [Sudden Cardiac Death of Young Persons: Risk Factors, Causes, Morphological Equivalents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, M A; Mamedov, M N

    2015-01-01

    The article contains literature review on the problem of causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among young people as well as results of author's own retrospective study of deaths of persons before 39 years based on forensic autopsies performed during 10 year period. The study of structure and dynamics of causes of death, its risk factors and the role of connective tissue dysplasia in development of terminal symptomocomlexes allowed to establish that main mechanism of SCD in young people was arrhythmogenic developing as a response to provoking factors--physical effort, psychoemotional stress, consumption of light alcoholic beverages.

  6. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DEL SINDROME DE BURNOUT VINCULADO A FACTORES LABORALES EN EL PERSONAL DE ENFERMERIA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    “Estudio comparativo del síndrome de burnout vinculado a factores laborales En el personal de enfermería” Objetivo: Analizar los factores laborales que se asocian al síndrome de burnout en dos grupos de enfermeras y poder generar estrategias para minimizar el padecimiento. Metodología estudio cuantitativo, comparativo y transversal. El estudio se realizo de marzo a junio del 2008 en 33 enfermeras (os) de un hospital de la secretaria de salud y 30 enfermeras (os) del In...

  7. Is there a need to include HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the Saudi premarital screening program on the basis of their prevalence and transmission risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, F M; O'Brien, S J

    2010-11-01

    In January 2008, the Saudi Arabian health authority included mandatory testing for HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the premarital screening program. Epidemiologically, there were few justifications for their inclusion as disease prevalences and distributions are poorly understood in the population. This study aims to provide information about HBV, HCV and HIV prevalences and risk factors for disease transmission and so produce evidence for informed decision-making on the inclusion of these infectious diseases in the screening program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74,662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540). The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses. The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.

  8. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  9. The number and kind of invariant personality (Q) factors: a partial replication of Eysenck and Eysenck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagg, P R; Hammond, S B

    1976-06-01

    A study by Eysenck & Eysenck (1969) investigated the invariance across sex of factors derived from the Eysenck, Cattell and Guilford personality inventories. They found only neuroticism and extraversion invariant. The present study was designed as a partial replication of their study, but employed simpler, common-sense methods that gave the more moderate sized factors a chance to demonstrate the extent of their invariance across sex. Four invariant factors were found: the first two, neuroticism and sociability, were large and demonstrated almost complete invariance across sex; the third and fourth factors were moderate-sized and showed less, but substantial invariance across sex. They were called 'sensitivity v. practicality' and 'group-centred morality v. self-centred independence'.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  11. Effects of socio-demographic, personality and medical factors on quality of life of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Małgorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanisławska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, Elżbieta

    2014-06-26

    Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman's organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life.

  12. An investigation of the five-factor model of personality and coping behaviour in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Greenlees, Iain; Jones, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Coping strategies are important for performance in sport and individual differences may contribute to the coping strategies adopted by athletes. In this study, we explored the main and interactive effects of the big five personality dimensions on sport-related coping and compared personality profiles of discrete groups of athletes. Altogether, 253 athletes (mean age 21.1 years, s=3.7) completed the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and the Coping Function Questionnaire for Sport (Kowalski & Crocker, 2001). Results showed that extraverted athletes, who were also emotionally stable and open to new experiences (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of problem-focused coping strategies. Conscientious athletes (main effect), and athletes displaying high levels of extraversion, openness, and agreeableness (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and athletes with low levels of openness, or high levels of neuroticism (main effects), reported a greater use of avoidance coping strategies. Different personality characteristics were observed between higher-level and lower-level athletes, between men and women athletes, and between individual and team sport athletes. These findings suggest that the five-factor model of personality can help distinguish various levels of athletic involvement and can help identify the coping strategies athletes are likely to adopt during participation.

  13. Some See It, Some Don't: Exploring the Relation between Inattentional Blindness and Personality Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Kreitz

    Full Text Available Human awareness is highly limited, which is vividly demonstrated by the phenomenon that unexpected objects go unnoticed when attention is focused elsewhere (inattentional blindness. Typically, some people fail to notice unexpected objects while others detect them instantaneously. Whether this pattern reflects stable individual differences is unclear to date. In particular, hardly anything is known about the influence of personality on the likelihood of inattentional blindness. To fill this empirical gap, we examined the role of multiple personality factors, namely the Big Five, BIS/BAS, absorption, achievement motivation, and schizotypy, in these failures of awareness. In a large-scale sample (N = 554, susceptibility to inattentional blindness was associated with a low level of openness to experience and marginally with a low level of achievement motivation. However, in a multiple regression analysis, only openness emerged as an independent, negative predictor. This suggests that the general tendency to be open to experience extends to the domain of perception. Our results complement earlier work on the possible link between inattentional blindness and personality by demonstrating, for the first time, that failures to consciously perceive unexpected objects reflect individual differences on a fundamental dimension of personality.

  14. Examining How Media Literacy and Personality Factors Predict Skepticism Toward Alcohol Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Muldrow, Adrienne; Austin, Bruce W

    2016-05-01

    To examine the potential effectiveness of media literacy education in the context of well-established personality factors, a survey of 472 young adults, focused on the issue of alcohol marketing messages, examined how individual differences in personality associate with constructs representing aspects of media literacy. The results showed that need for cognition predicted social expectancies and wishful identification with media portrayals in alcohol advertising only through critical thinking about media sources and media content, which are foci of media literacy education. Need for affect did not associate with increased or diminished levels of critical thinking. Critical thinking about sources and messages affected skepticism, represented by expectancies through wishful identification, consistent with the message interpretation process model. The results support the view that critical thinking about media sources is an important precursor to critical thinking about media messages. The results also suggest that critical thinking about media (i.e., media literacy) reflects more than personality characteristics and can affect wishful identification with role models observed in media, which appears to be a key influence on decision making. This adds support to the view that media literacy education can improve decision making across personality types regarding alcohol use by decreasing the potential influence of alcohol marketing messages.

  15. Clinical, psychophysiological and psychological aspects of risk factors of periodontal disease development in clinically healthy persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Nikulina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine risk factors of periodontal disease development, psychophysiological personal types and their interrelations in clinically healthy persons. 47 first-year cadets of St.-Petersburg Military School of radio electronics have been examined. This group of respondents has been chosen by presence of such social stressor as change of place of living (97,9% cadets have arrived in St.-Petersburg from other cities and republics of the Russian Federation and strict disciplinary conditions. The research has revealed a low level of oral hygiene, cases of mild gingivitis in most respondents. The general mental state of group under study is characterized by raised level of personal anxiety and low indices of reactive anxiety. The examined group has demonstrated anxiety, tension, indecision and lowered stress stability. Clinically healthy persons are more liable to develop inflammatory and inflammatory-destructive periodontal diseases. It was possible to determine psychophysiological features correlated with physiological parameters of risk degree of periodontal diseases. It may have a great significance in defining of periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis

  16. Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Małgorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanisławska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life. PMID:24972032

  17. Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1 Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2 Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT. (3 Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life.

  18. Identifying barriers to HIV testing: personal and contextual factors associated with late HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra; Richards, T Anne; Frank, Heidi; Wenzel, Conrad; Hsu, Ling Chin; Chin, Chi-Sheng Jennie; Murphy, Jessie; Dilley, James

    2011-07-01

    Late diagnosis of HIV is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Despite the availability of HIV testing, persons continue to test late in the course of HIV infection. We used the HIV/AIDS case registry of San Francisco Department of Public Health to identify and recruit 41 persons who developed AIDS within 12 months of their HIV diagnosis to participate in a qualitative and quantitative interview regarding late diagnosis of HIV. Thirty-one of the participants were diagnosed with HIV because of symptomatic disease and 50% of the participants were diagnosed with HIV and AIDS concurrently. Half of the subjects had not been tested for HIV prior to diagnosis. Fear was the most frequently cited barrier to testing. Other barriers included being unaware of improved HIV treatment, free/low cost care, and risk for HIV. Recommendations for health care providers to increase early diagnosis of HIV include routine ascertainment of HIV risk behaviors and testing histories, stronger recommendations for patients to be tested, and incorporating testing into routine medical care. Public health messages to increase testing include publicizing that (1) effective, tolerable, and low cost/free care for HIV is readily available, (2) early diagnosis of HIV improves health outcomes, (3) HIV can be transmitted to persons who engage in unprotected oral and insertive anal sex and unprotected receptive anal intercourse without ejaculation and from HIV-infected persons whose infection is well-controlled with antiretroviral therapy, (4) persons who may be infected based upon these behaviors should be tested following exposure, (5) HIV testing information will be kept private, and (6) encouraging friends and family to get HIV tested is beneficial.

  19. [The model of the big five personality factors and problematic Internet use in Colombian youth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Carbonell, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to relate the basic dimensions of personality formulated by the model of the big five factors with problematic Internet use in a sample of 411 Colombian youngsters, 18-28 years of age, attending three private universities. Online survey questionnaires were administered for: socio-demographics and Internet usage habits, the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue and Kentle, 1991), to assess personality, and the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998), to determine the degree of use of the Internet (controlled, problematic or addictive). The results revealed that 9.7% of the sample has a problematic Internet use. Among them, the majority were male (x2= 12.93, p= 0.01) and performing communication and leisure activities. The problematic use correlates positively with neuroticism and negatively with friendliness and responsibility. On the other hand, is not related to extraversion and openness to experience. Being female and the responsibility dimension are protective factors from problematic use, while neuroticism predicts it. In conclusion, the study data provides empirical evidence of the relationship between personality and problematic Internet use.

  20. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and personality traits in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Baba, Hajime; Satomura, Emi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Takebayashi, Naoko; Namekawa, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2015-03-04

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors. Previous studies have demonstrated lower serum BDNF levels in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and reported an association between BDNF levels and depression-related personality traits in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to explore for a possible association between peripheral BDNF levels and personality traits in patients with MDD. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 123 inpatients with MDD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition) at the Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital were recruited. Serum levels of BDNF were measured. Personality traits were assessed using the 125-item short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, dose of antidepressant, and depression severity showed that TCI Self-Directedness (SD) scores were negatively associated with serum BDNF levels (β = -0.23, p = 0.026). MDD patients who have low SD did not show the reduction in serum BDNF levels that is normally associated with depressive state. Our findings suggest that depression-related biological changes may not occur in these individuals.

  1. An observational investigation of poker style and the five-factor personality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven C; Mitchell, Laura A

    2010-06-01

    Little empirical investigation has been made of the relationship between personality and gambling play style. In an observation of on-table poker behavior, this study classified 44 players competing in an amateur league (43 male; mean age 32) according to two main dimensions of play style; tight or loose and aggressive or passive. Superstitious beliefs towards the game were additionally measured. The NEO-PI-R questionnaire (Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual, 1992) was used to measure personality according to the five-factor model. Results showed players with superstitious beliefs to be significantly higher in neuroticism and lower in conscientiousness and than those with no superstitious beliefs. Results approaching significance showed players adopting an aggressive style to be higher in extraversion than passive players and superstitious players to be lower in extraversion than non-superstitious players. Analysis of play style according to age of player revealed a significantly higher mean age among loose compared to tight players. Implications of results concerning validity of these style classifications and potential development in future work are discussed.

  2. Low openness on the revised NEO personality inventory as a risk factor for treatment-resistant depression.

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    Michio Takahashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, we reported that low reward dependence, and to a lesser extent, low cooperativeness in the Temperature and Character Inventory (TCI may be risk factors for treatment-resistant depression. Here, we analyzed additional psychological traits in these patients. METHODS: We administered Costa and McCrae's five-factor model personality inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R, to antidepressant-treatment resistant depressed patients (n=35, remitted depressed patients (n=27, and healthy controls (n=66. We also evaluated the relationships between scores on NEO and TCI, using the same cohort of patients with treatment-resistant depression, as our previous study. RESULTS: Patients with treatment-resistant depression showed high scores for neuroticism, low scores for extraversion, openness and conscientiousness, without changes in agreeableness, on the NEO. However, patients in remitted depression showed no significant scores on NEO. Patients with treatment-resistant depression and low openness on NEO showed positive relationships with reward dependence and cooperativeness on the TCI. CONCLUSIONS: Many studies have reported that depressed patients show high neuroticism, low extraversion and low conscientiousness on the NEO. Our study highlights low openness on the NEO, as a risk mediator in treatment-resistant depression. This newly identified trait should be included as a risk factor in treatment-resistant depression.

  3. Educational achievement, personality, and behavior: assessment, factor structure and implications for theory and practice.

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    Gaffney, Tim W; Perryman, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to first examine the evidence regarding the factor structure of educational achievement tests in the context of two theoretical models of cognitive ability (psychometric g and mutualism) that have been proposed to explain this structure as well as the underlying processes that may be responsible for its emergence in dimensionality studies. Then, the factor structure underlying a sample of the standardized educational achievement tests used by California in its statewide school accountability program was compared to those emerging from a selection of behavioral and personality assessments. As expected, the educational achievement tests exhibited a strong and uniformly positive manifold resulting in greater unidimensionality as evidenced by a dominant general factor in bi-factor analysis then either the personality or behavioral assessments. The implications of these structural differences are discussed with respect to the two theoretical perspective as well as in the context of formative and summative educational inferences in particular, and the school accountability and reform movement in general.

  4. Attitude Toward Ambiguity: Empirically Robust Factors in Self-Report Personality Scales.

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    Lauriola, Marco; Foschi, Renato; Mosca, Oriana; Weller, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the factor structure of attitude toward ambiguity, a broad personality construct that refers to personal reactions to perceived ambiguous stimuli in a variety of context and situations. Using samples from two countries, Study 1 mapped the hierarchical structure of 133 items from seven tolerance-intolerance of ambiguity scales (N = 360, Italy; N = 306, United States). Three major factors-Discomfort with Ambiguity, Moral Absolutism/Splitting, and Need for Complexity and Novelty-were recovered in each country with high replicability coefficients across samples. In Study 2 (N = 405, Italian community sample; N =366, English native speakers sample), we carried out a confirmatory analysis on selected factor markers. A bifactor model had an acceptable fit for each sample and reached the construct-level invariance for general and group factors. Convergent validity with related traits was assessed in both studies. We conclude that attitude toward ambiguity can be best represented a multidimensional construct involving affective (Discomfort with Ambiguity), cognitive (Moral Absolutism/Splitting), and epistemic (Need for Complexity and Novelty) components.

  5. [The development of clinical reasoning skills and leadership: personal factors and organizational factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Caroline; Dubois, Sylvie; Girard, Francine; Goudreau, Johanne; Dumont, Katia

    2013-03-01

    Continuing education of newly graduated nurses (NGN) depends on several factors related to the characteristics of skills to be developed, the target population and the organizational context. Few studies describe both how nurses develop their skills and how institutions promote this development. The objectives of this manuscript are to (1) describe the behaviors that the NGN use to develop their reasoning skills and leadership and (2) document the organizational elements that facilitate this development. Method. Individual interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 34) using a grid of semistructured interviews and two group interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 7) and managers (n = 19) in two teaching hospitals in eastern Canada. The results show that nurses develop mainly by reflecting on their professional practice in their workplace. However, the lack of time for reflection in the workspace is a considerable obstacle while managerial leadership is an important asset.

  6. Personal risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in female visual display unit workers

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    Matteo Riccò

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Material and Methods: Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years. Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Results: Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.347–27.904, history (> 5 years of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701–8.354 and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281–9.136. Conclusions: The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:927–936

  7. Personal risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in female visual display unit workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Signorelli, Carlo

    2016-11-18

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years). Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction) for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.347-27.904), history (> 5 years) of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701-8.354) and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281-9.136). The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):927-936.

  8. Analysis of Factors That Affects the Capital Structure within Companies Included In the Index of LQ45 During 2011 - 2013

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    Dominica Rufina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors of ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size affecting Capital Structure. The population in this study is the companies included in the Index LQ45 Indonesia Stock Exchange from the period 2011 to 2013, the data of a total of 270 listed companies in LQ45 during that period, only 90 corporate data that successively included in the index LQ45. The data used in this study uses secondary data from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website www.idx.co.id. In the process of data analysis and testing the assumptions of classical hypothesis testing using multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS v20.00. The results showed that partially variable ROA, Asset Structure, and Firm Size has a significant influence on the Capital Structure, Growth Sales whereas variable has no influence on the Capital Structure. Simultaneously ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size effect on Capital Structure.

  9. Using exploratory factor analysis in personality research: Best-practice recommendations

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    Sumaya Laher

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Exploratory factor analysis is the method of choice with objective personality instruments, particularly to establish the construct validity and construct equivalence of trait-based instruments.Research purpose: This article presents more objective methods to determine the number of factors, most notably parallel analysis and Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP. The benefits of rotation are also discussed. The article argues for more consistent use of Procrustes rotation and congruence coefficients in factor analytic studies.Motivation for the study: Exploratory factor analysis is often criticised for not being rigorous and objective enough in terms of the methods used to determine the number of factors, the rotations to be used and ultimately the validity of the factor structure.Research design, approach and method: The article adopts a theoretical stance to discuss the best-practice recommendations for factor analytic research in the field of psychology. Following this, an example located within personality assessment and using the NEO-PI-R specifically is presented. A total of 425 students at the University of the Witwatersrand completed the NEO-PI-R. These responses were subjected to a principal components analysis using varimax rotation. The rotated solution was subjected to a Procrustes rotation with Costa and McCrae’s (1992 matrix as the target matrix. Congruence coefficients were also computed.Main findings: The example indicates the use of the methods recommended in the article and demonstrates an objective way of determining the number of factors. It also provides an example of Procrustes rotation with coefficients of agreement as an indication of how factor analytic results may be presented more rigorously in local research.Practical/managerial implications: It is hoped that the recommendations in this article will have best-practice implications for both researchers and practitioners in the field who employ factor

  10. The relationship between brain behavioral systems and the characteristics of the five factor model of personality with aggression among Iranian students

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    Saeid Komasi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Aggression is one of the negative components of emotion and it is usually considered to be the outcome of the activity of the Behavioral Inhibition and the Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS: components which can be considered as predisposing factors for personality differences. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain behavioral systems and the characteristics of the five factor model of personality with aggression among students. Methods: The present study has a correlation descriptive design. The research population included all of the Razi University students in the academic year of 2012 -2013. The sampling was carried out with a random stratified method and 360 people (308 female and 52 male were studied according to a table of Morgan. The study instruments were Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, NEO Personality Inventory (Short Form, and Carver and White scale for BAS/BIS. Finally, SPSS20 was utilized to analyze the data using Pearson correlation,regression analysis, and canonical correlation. Results: The data showed a significant positive relationship between the neurosis and agreeableness personality factors with aggression; but there is a significant negative relationship between the extrov ersion, openness, and conscientiousness personality factors with aggression. Furthermore, there is a significant positive relationship between all the components of brain behavioral systems (impulsivity, novelty seeking, sensitivity, tender and aggressio n. The results of regression analysis indicated the personality characteristics and the brain behavioral systems which can predict 29 percent of the changes to aggression, simultaneously. Conclusions: According to a predictable level of aggressiveness by the personality characteristics and brain behavioral systems, it is possible to identify the personality characteristics and template patterns of brain behavioral systems

  11. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

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    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  12. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

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    Song E Kim

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950 were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  13. A latent profile analysis of the Five Factor Model of personality: Modeling trait interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Erin L; Roesch, Scott C

    2011-12-01

    Interactions among the dimensions of the Five Factor Model (FFM) have not typically been evaluated in mental health research, with the extant literature focusing on bivariate relationships with psychological constructs of interest. This study used latent profile analysis to mimic higher-order interactions to identify homogenous personality profiles using the FFM, and also examined relationships between resultant profiles and affect, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and coping efficacy. Participants (N = 371) completed self-report and daily diary questionnaires. A 3-profile solution provided the best fit to the data; the profiles were characterized as well-adjusted, reserved, and excitable. The well-adjusted group reported better psychological functioning in validation analyses. The reserved and excitable groups differed on anxiety, with the excitable group reporting generally higher anxiety than the reserved group. Latent profile analysis may be a parsimonious way to model personality heterogeneity.

  14. Personal Efficacy and Factors of Effective Learning Environment in Higher Education: Croatian and American Students

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    Violeta Vidaček - Hainš

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful learning in higher education incorporates various factors related to knowledge, skills, habits, and motivation. Additionally, students’ personalities and self-efficacy may contribute to their adjustment, planning of activities, and achieving success. The objective of this paper is to analyze students’ needs for support services, which enhance the effectiveness of their learning environment at higher education institutions. Answers received from a sample of undergraduate freshmen at one American University and one Croatian University were analyzed and compared. The students from both countries agree that there is a need for developing self-reliance and personal responsibility in using support services, as well as for the timely and accurate information on availability of these services. Students’ suggestions and their desire to enhance effectiveness of their learning environment may be used in creating and improving support services in higher education institutions as well as training their staff.

  15. Creative thinking and Big Five factors of personality measured in Italian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Sagone, Elisabetta

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the relations of creative thinking with Big Five factors of personality and the differences by sex and age on creativity. A sample of Italian schoolchildren (56 boys, 56 girls), between 8 to 10 years of age, completed the Test of Creative Thinking and the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Analysis of results indicated that older children obtained significantly higher scores than the younger ones on Elaboration and Production of titles. Girls obtained significantly higher scores than boys on Originality and Elaboration. The results suggested a modest and negative relation of Flexibility with Conscientiousness and Production of titles with Emotional instability. These findings support the need to explore the connection between creativity and personality with developmental age by means of multiple tasks for evaluating creative thinking.

  16. A Reanalysis of Toomela (2003: Spurious measurement error as cause for common variance between personality factors

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    MATTHIAS ZIEGLER

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article reanalyzed data collected by Toomela (2003. The data contain personality self ratings and cognitive ability test results from n = 912 men with military background. In his original article Toomela showed that in the group with the highest cognitive ability, Big-Five-Neuroticism and -Conscientiousness were substantially correlated and could no longer be clearly separated using exploratory factor analysis. The present reanalysis was based on the hypothesis that a spurious measurement error caused by situational demand was responsible. This means, people distorted their answers. Furthermore it was hypothesized that this situational demand was felt due to a person’s military rank but not due to his intelligence. Using a multigroup structural equation model our hypothesis could be confirmed. Moreover, the results indicate that an uncorrelated trait model might represent personalities better when situational demand is partialized. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Soldiers 2.5 Years after Military Deployment in Afghanistan: The Role of Personality Traits as Predisposing Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N = 445). Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevale...

  18. Changing the personality of a face: Perceived Big Two and Big Five personality factors modeled in real photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mirella; Vetter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    General, spontaneous evaluations of strangers based on their faces have been shown to reflect judgments of these persons' intention and ability to harm. These evaluations can be mapped onto a 2D space defined by the dimensions trustworthiness (intention) and dominance (ability). Here we go beyond general evaluations and focus on more specific personality judgments derived from the Big Two and Big Five personality concepts. In particular, we investigate whether Big Two/Big Five personality judgments can be mapped onto the 2D space defined by the dimensions trustworthiness and dominance. Results indicate that judgments of the Big Two personality dimensions almost perfectly map onto the 2D space. In contrast, at least 3 of the Big Five dimensions (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness) go beyond the 2D space, indicating that additional dimensions are necessary to describe more specific face-based personality judgments accurately. Building on this evidence, we model the Big Two/Big Five personality dimensions in real facial photographs. Results from 2 validation studies show that the Big Two/Big Five are perceived reliably across different samples of faces and participants. Moreover, results reveal that participants differentiate reliably between the different Big Two/Big Five dimensions. Importantly, this high level of agreement and differentiation in personality judgments from faces likely creates a subjective reality which may have serious consequences for those being perceived-notably, these consequences ensue because the subjective reality is socially shared, irrespective of the judgments' validity. The methodological approach introduced here might prove useful in various psychological disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Factors influencing the person-carer relationship in people with anxiety and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Aimee; Orrell, Martin; Charlesworth, Georgina; Marston, Louise

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between people with dementia and their carers is complex and has a significant impact on the dementia experience. The aim of this current study was to determine (1) which factors are associated with the quality of the patient-carer relationship and (2) whether these differ between the two perspectives. Participants (people with dementia and their carers) were taken from a randomised controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety in dementia. The quality of the relationship from both perspectives, anxiety and depression in both parties; and the quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive functioning in people with dementia was examined at three time points (baseline, 15 weeks and 6 months). There were 127 observations from 50 dyads (100 individuals) across the three time points. Factors significantly related to quality of relationship from the person with dementia's perspective were their own aggression, agitation, irritability, depression, anxiety and quality of life. Factors significantly associated with quality of relationship from the carer's perspective were their own anxiety and depression, and the depression, irritability, behavioural disturbances and quality of life of the person with dementia. People with dementia generally rated the quality of relationship higher, irrespective of level of dementia, depression or anxiety. This study is novel in that it provides a valuable insight into the impact of mental health on relationship quality for both members of the dyad. The findings emphasise the importance of providing interventions which target mood for both parties, and behavioural problems for people with dementia.

  20. The "Ocean" and the Night-Sky: Relations Between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Noctcaelador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between noctcaelador, psychological attachment to the night-sky, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. University students (N = 108) were administered the Noctcaelador Inventory and Saucier's Big-Five Mini-Markers of Personality. Noctcaelador was significantly positively related to Openness to Experience…

  1. School Variables as Mediators of Personal and Family Factors on School Violence in Taiwanese Junior High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2012-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 3,058 junior high school students in Taiwan, this study examines a model of how personal traits, family factors, and school dynamics influence school violence committed by students against students and teachers. This model proposed that school violence is directly influenced by personal traits,…

  2. Greek EPQ-J: Further Support for a Three-Factor Model of Personality in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Panayiotou, Georgia; Charalambous, Kyriakos; Antoniadou, Nafsika; Davazoglou, Aggeliki

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the validity of the Eysenckian personality dimensions in 1,368 children and adolescents who completed the Greek Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Junior (EPQ-J). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were employed. Controversial issues regarding the Lie and Psychoticism scales were also investigated. Finally,…

  3. Bienestar personal, adaptación social y factores de personalidad: Estudios con las Escalas Eudemon

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    Alfredo Fierro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan brevemente los resultados de 14 Estudios realizados a lo largo de un decenio mediante sendas Escalas de Bienestar Personal (EBP y de Adaptación Social (EAS. En ellos se ha estudiado la asociación que bienestar y adaptación, evaluados con estas Escalas, tienen con diferentes factores, estilos y dimensiones personales: indicadores clínicos, factores básicos de personalidad, factores de inteligencia. Los resultados muestran un perfil claro de relaciones entre variables. Los valores de correlación han sido por lo general superiores a .60, pero siempre significativos y positivos, entre EBP y EAS, y en cambio negativos con indicadores clínicos, tales como ansiedad y depresión, pero también con el factor de neuroticismo. Los valores de correlación descienden, pero se mantienen significativos y positivos con extraversión y con otros factores básicos de personalidad. Entre EBP y EAS, por un lado, y factores de inteligencia, por otro, no han aparecido correlaciones significativas, que sí, en cambio, ha habido con componentes de la inteligencia emocional.

  4. Organizational citizenship behavior and social loafing: the role of personality, motives, and contextual factors.

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    Tan, Hwee Hoon; Tan, Min Li

    2008-01-01

    The present study integrates the literature on social loafing and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The authors examined the roles of personality, motives, and contextual factors in influencing the work behaviors of OCB and social loafing. In a sample of 341 individuals working in project groups, with data collected over 3 time periods, the authors found that conscientiousness was negatively related to social loafing. They also found the known positive relation of OCB with conscientiousness. Felt responsibility was negatively related to social loafing. The authors found no significant relations between social loafing and OCB motives.

  5. Schedule of factors influencing access to psychiatric treatment in persons with schizophrenia: Validity and pilot testing

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    K Shanivaram Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : A substantial proportion of patients with severe mental disorders remain untreated in India. Qualitative research has highlighted the complex interplay of multiple factors that preclude schizophrenia patients in rural Indian settings from accessing treatment. Aims: (a To establish the face and content validities of an interview schedule titled "Schedule of Factors Influencing Access (SOFIAc to Psychiatric Treatment in Persons with Schizophrenia," which comprehensively assesses the factors that prevent schizophrenia patients from accessing psychiatric treatment. (b To assess the feasibility of its administration. Materials and Methods: SOFIAc contains 15 items. This schedule involves three phases of interviewing patients and family members. This was given to 12 experts. They used Likert scales (1=not at all satisfactory to 5=very much satisfactory to rate each item of the schedule. In addition, the experts rated (the same way as above the following five dimensions of the schedule (as a whole separately: A (comprehensiveness of the factors, B (scoring system, C (interviewing method, D (general instructions given to the raters, E (overall schedule. Later on, 10 persons with schizophrenia were interviewed with SOFIAc to test the feasibility of administration. Results: Thirteen items were rated as either satisfactory (score=4 or very much satisfactory (score=5 by all 12 experts; remaining two were rated as 4 or 5 by 11 experts. Regarding comprehensiveness of the factors, scoring methods and general instructions given to the interviewers, all provided scores >4; regarding the method of interviewing, 11 provided the score of >4; with regard to overall interview schedule, all experts provided scores >4. Pilot testing revealed that it took 60 min to administer SOFIAc. Conclusion: SOFIAc has satisfactory face and content validities. It is also feasible to administer SOFIAc.

  6. Five-factor model (Big Five) personality traits and universal-diverse orientation in counselor trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Russel L; Brossart, Daniel F; Carlozzi, Alfred F; Miville, Marie L

    2002-09-01

    In this study the authors explored the relationship between five-factor model (FFM: Big Five) personality traits (J. M. Digman, 1990; R. R. McCrae & O. P. John, 1992; J. S. Wiggins & P. D. Trappnell, 1997) and universal-diverse orientation (UDO; M. L. Miville et al., 1999) in counselor trainees. FFM traits were measured using the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992). Statistically significant relationships were found between UDO and one of the Big Five personality traits (Openness to Experience) in counselor trainees. Further regression analysis suggested a relationship between UDO and a particular facet of Openness to Experience, Openness to Aesthetics. This finding suggests that counselor trainees who are open to the creative expressions of others may be comfortable working with a wide variety of clients. These results suggest that counselor training that encourages experiences of aesthetic diversity in addition to an exploration of values may promote trainees' ability to work with diverse clients.

  7. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors in the development of personality disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depue, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    A dimensional model of personality disturbance is presented that is defined by extreme values on interacting subsets of seven major personality traits. Being at the extreme has marked effects on the threshold for eliciting those traits under stimulus conditions: that is, the extent to which the environment affects the neurobiological functioning underlying the traits. To explore the nature of development of extreme values on these traits, each trait is discussed in terms of three major issues: (a) the neurobiological variables associated with the trait, (b) individual variation in this neurobiology as a function of genetic polymorphisms, and (c) the effects of environmental adversity on these neurobiological variables through the action of epigenetic processes. It is noted that gene-environment interaction appears to be dependent on two main factors: (a) both genetic and environmental variables appear to have the most profound and enduring effects when they exert their effects during early postnatal periods, times when the forebrain is undergoing exuberant experience-expectant dendritic and axonal growth; and (b) environmental effects on neurobiology are strongly modified by individual differences in "traitlike" functioning of neurobiological variables. A model of the nature of the interaction between environmental and neurobiological variables in the development of personality disturbance is presented.

  8. Morningness-eveningness, sex, and the Alternative Five Factor Model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana

    2009-08-01

    Recent research on personality and circadian typology indicates that evening-type subjects are more extraverted, impulsive, and novelty-seeking, while morning ones tend to be more introverted, conscientious, agreeable, and emotionally stable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between circadian typologies on the Zuckerman's Alternative Five Factor Model of personality (AFFM), which has a strong biological basis, controlling for sex and age. A sample of 533 university students (168 men) participated in the study. Results showed that morning-type subjects had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type subjects in Activity, and in its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. A significant interaction between circadian typology and sex was found for Neuroticism-Anxiety: morning-type men showed higher scores than evening-type and neither-type, who had the lowest scores. Women presented the opposite pattern: neither-type obtained the highest scores, while morning-type showed the lowest. This is the first time the AFFM has been used in the context of circadian rhythms research. The results suggest that activity is the only trait related to extraversion associated with morningness, while Neuroticism-Anxiety was modulated by sex. These results might help highlight previous results on the association between morningness-eveningness and other models of personality assessment, and they offer new data that calls for further research.

  9. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  10. Five-factor trait instability in borderline relative to other personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Zanarini, Mary C

    2010-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is related to five-factor model (FFM) traits and can be characterized as involving psychological and behavioral instability. A previous study comparing the FFM trait stability across individuals with borderline and other personality disorders found that the BPD group tended to have lower stability, particularly on neuroticism and conscientiousness and the overall configuration of FFM profiles over 6 years, suggesting that associated psychological and behavioral variability may be due to trait variability. The current study was designed to test the degree to which these findings replicate in another sample using different diagnostic and trait measures and extending the measurement period to 10 years. Results are consistent with previous findings in showing lower differential (rank-order) stability on conscientiousness, greater mean-level decreases on neuroticism, lower individual-level stability on conscientiousness, and lower ipsative stability of trait profile configurations among those with BPD. However, unlike the previous study, no differences were observed for differential or individual-level neuroticism or mean-level conscientiousness. Overall, findings show that the instability characteristic of BPD extends into typically stable personality traits, and that it does so with some specificity in terms of which traits are affected and how instability manifests.

  11. The Network Structure of Human Personality According to the NEO-PI-R: Matching Network Community Structure to Factor Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goekoop, R.; Goekoop, J.G.; Scholte, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. Aim: To directly compare the ability of network comm

  12. It's "Supposed" to Be Personal: Personal and Educational Factors Associated with Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, Comfort and Skill in Health Profession Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lindsey M.; Stepleman, Lara M.; Wilson, Christina K.; Campbell, Jeff; Villarosa, Margo; Bodie, Brittany; Decker, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The health professional and the patient are cultural beings with beliefs and attitudes that are shaped by family traditions, social development, and exposure to novel experiences. As such, it is especially important for health profession students to gain awareness about the personal and educational factors that likely inform their practice and…

  13. Persons with dementia “are given a voice” when music and singing are included as part of their everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    During a post-doctoral project person with dementia and their relatives are involved in the research-process. The aim is to explore their experiences and what importance it has for them that singing and music are part of their everyday life and the rehabilitation effort. The research is carried out...... and their relatives, also have focus on an professional and interdisciplinary perspective and an organizational perspective aimed at the conditions for implementation of singing and music in practice. Following research question will be elucidated: a) What experiences does persons with dementia and their relatives...... perspective that song and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in rehabilitation and in everyday life for a person with dementia and how does it affects the quality of the intervention? c) Which ideas and suggestions does persons with dementia, relatives and professional have for improvement...

  14. Toward a periodic table of personality: Mapping personality scales between the five-factor model and the circumplex model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen A; Anderson, Neil R

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we examine the structures of 10 personality inventories (PIs) widely used for personnel assessment by mapping the scales of PIs to the lexical Big Five circumplex model resulting in a Periodic Table of Personality. Correlations between 273 scales from 10 internationally popular PIs with independent markers of the lexical Big Five are reported, based on data from samples in 2 countries (United Kingdom, N = 286; United States, N = 1,046), permitting us to map these scales onto the Abridged Big Five Dimensional Circumplex model (Hofstee, de Raad, & Goldberg, 1992). Emerging from our findings we propose a common facet framework derived from the scales of the PIs in our study. These results provide important insights into the literature on criterion-related validity of personality traits, and enable researchers and practitioners to understand how different PI scales converge and diverge and how compound PI scales may be constructed or replicated. Implications for research and practice are considered.

  15. Desgaste profesional en el personal sanitario y su relación con los factores personales y ambientales Burnout syndrome in health workers and relationship with personal and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Grau

    2005-12-01

    workers and to determine its relationship with personal and environmental factors. Methods: A total of 2290 health workers from five hospitals in the province of Girona (Spain were invited to participate. Interviewees were given a specifically designed questionnaire, a questionnaire on organizational climate, and the Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, which includes three scales: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Results: Responses were received from 1095 health workers (a response rate of 47.8%. A high level of emotional exhaustion was found in 41.6% of staff members, especially among doctors and nurses; a high level of depersonalization was found in 23%, mainly among doctors, and reduced personal accomplishment was found in 27.9%, mainly among technicians and doctors. Multiple logistic regression revealed that a high level of emotional exhaustion was associated with frequent consumption of tranquilizers or antidepressants, whereas optimism and job satisfaction showed an inverse association. The variables that were inversely associated with a high level of depersonalization were the number of years in the profession, optimism, evaluation of work as being useful and the perception of being valued by others. Reduced personal accomplishment was also inversely associated with optimism, satisfaction with the usefulness of one's work, and satisfaction with teamwork. Conclusions: In view of the results obtained, to reduce professional burnout in hospitals, optimism and a sense of self-worth among individuals should be encouraged and the organizational environment should be improved.

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF RURAL AND URBAN CONSUMERS OF SELECT PERSONAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS IN COIMBATORE REGION, TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Ramamurthi; Arun, A.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on buying behaviour of rural and urban consumers on select personal hygiene products in the Coimbatore region of Tamilnadu. It examines the factors influencing consumer behaviour in respect to purchase of personal hygiene products identified by the researcher based on the data collected from the rural and urban consumers. The study has used a 5 point Likert type scale for measuring the reasons for buying a particular purchase format, rank preferences on factors influencin...

  17. A new prognostic model for cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy including pretreatment thrombocytosis and standard pathological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Renninger, Markus; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

    2012-12-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (cohort series) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Preoperative thrombocytosis has been identified as a predictor of poor outcome in various cancer types. However, the prognostic role of platelet count in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy is unknown. The present study demonstrates that preoperative thrombocytosis is an independent risk factor for decreased cancer-specific survival after radical treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We developed a new prognostic scoring model for cancer-specific outcomes after radical cystectomy including platelet count and established pathological risk factors. Consideration of platelet count in the final model increased its predictive accuracy significantly. Thrombocytosis may be a useful parameter to include within established international bladder cancer nomograms. •  To investigate the oncological significance of preoperative thrombocytosis in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, as it has been reported as a marker for aggressive tumour biology in a variety of solid tumours. •  The series comprised 258 patients undergoing radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2010 in whom different clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed. •  Elevated platelet count was defined as >450 × 10(9) /L. •  Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariable analysis a new weighted scoring model was developed to predict cancer-specific outcomes. •  The median follow-up was 30 months (6-116). •  Of the 258 patients, 26 (10.1%) had elevated and 232 (89.9%) had normal platelet count. The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with normal and elevated platelet count was 61.5% and 32.7%, respectively (P thrombocytosis (2.68, 1.26-5.14; P= 0.011). •  The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with a score 0 (low risk), 1-2 (intermediate risk) and 3

  18. Importance of personality traits and psychosocial factors for the development of coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous studies have provided clear and convincing evidence that psychosocial factors contribute to the pathogenesis and expression of coronary heart disease (CHD. These factors have been related to the following psychosocial domains: personality factors and character traits, depression, anxiety, social isolation and chronic life stress. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of personality traits and psychosocial risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease. Methods. The investigation was conducted as observational cross-sectional (case-control study. Based on medical records all subjects were divided into two groups: the group of patients with CHD (61 participants, and the control group of 41 healthy participants. All participants fulfilled the Eysenck Inventory Questionnaire, Paykel stress scale and Bortner scale of A-B self-estimation. Results. The participants with CHD were shown to have lower education than healthy participants, but were comparable by gender, age and place of residence. According to the Bortner scale, most participants with CHD expressed type A personality, whereas most healthy participants expressed types B and AB. The patients with CHD achieved higher scores on the Paykel stress scale of life events, and they had the higher level of neurotic and psychotic tendencies, as well as the lower level of extroversion compared to the healthy participants. Multivariate logistic regression model identified chronic stress (odds ratio 1.018; 95% confidence interval 1.007−1.028 as an important predictor for the occurrence of coronary heart disease, when adjusted for age, gender, nourishment and blood pressure. On the other side, the lower risk for the occurrence of CHD was observed among the participants who had the higher level of extroversion (odds ratio 0.859; 95% confidence interval 0.636−0.902. Conclusion. Chronic stress and introversion can be considered important risk factors for

  19. Factors Affecting Participation in the eRedBook: A Personal Child Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhan; Devlin, Alison M; McGee-Lennon, Marilyn; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mair, Frances S

    2016-01-01

    A personal child health record called the eRedBook was recently piloted in the United Kingdom. A qualitative exploratory case study was used to examine how public health nurses engaged or recruited parents and what factors hindered participation. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with those implementing the eRedBook and those taking part in the pilot study. A range of project documentation was also reviewed. Thematic analysis using the framework approach was applied to draw out themes. Numerous socio-technical factors such as the usability of the software, concerns over data protection and costs, poor digital literacy skills and a lack of Internet connectivity emerged. These barriers need to be addressed before the eRedBook is implemented nationwide.

  20. Five-factor model of personality and job satisfaction: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Heller, Daniel; Mount, Michael K

    2002-06-01

    This study reports results of a meta-analysis linking traits from the 5-factor model of personality to overall job satisfaction. Using the model as an organizing framework, 334 correlations from 163 independent samples were classified according to the model. The estimated true score correlations with job satisfaction were -.29 for Neuroticism, .25 for Extraversion, .02 for Openness to Experience, .17 for Agreeableness, and .26 for Conscientiousness. Results further indicated that only the relations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with job satisfaction generalized across studies. As a set, the Big Five traits had a multiple correlation of .41 with job satisfaction, indicating support for the validity of the dispositional source of job satisfaction when traits are organized according to the 5-factor model.

  1. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors, and SAT Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results revealed many significant predictors of GPA for both freshmen and non-freshmen. However, subsequent regressions showed that only academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning, and high-knowledge integration explained unique variance in GPA (19%-freshmen, 23.2%-non-freshmen). Further for freshmen, SAT scores explained an additional unique 10.6% variance after the influences attributed to these three predictors was removed whereas for non-freshmen, SAT scores failed to explain any additional variance. These results highlight the unique and important contributions of academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning and high-knowledge integration to GPA beyond other previously-identified predictors. PMID:25568884

  2. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors, and SAT Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-10-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results revealed many significant predictors of GPA for both freshmen and non-freshmen. However, subsequent regressions showed that only academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning, and high-knowledge integration explained unique variance in GPA (19%-freshmen, 23.2%-non-freshmen). Further for freshmen, SAT scores explained an additional unique 10.6% variance after the influences attributed to these three predictors was removed whereas for non-freshmen, SAT scores failed to explain any additional variance. These results highlight the unique and important contributions of academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning and high-knowledge integration to GPA beyond other previously-identified predictors.

  3. Attitude to substance abuse: do personality and socio-demographic factors matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Tabatabaee, Sayed Mosa; Tosi, Jalileh

    2014-09-01

    Substance abuse is a serious global problem that is affected by multiple psychosocial and socio-demographic factors. This study aimed to investigate the leading factors in positive attitude and tendency toward substance abuse in terms of personality, socio-economic, and socio-demographic factors. In a cross-sectional study, 200 college students (105 females and 95 males) residing in Damghan University dormitory in northeast of Iran were recruited by random sampling from March to July 2013. The participants were instructed and asked to complete the NEO FIVE-factor Inventory, the attitude to substance abuse scale, and the demographic questionnaire. Then data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression employing PASW 18. Being male sex and neuroticism had a significant positive role in predicting positive attitude toward substance abuse in university students. In addition, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and socio-economic status had a significant negative role in predicting tendency toward substance abuse (P 0.05). Lower agreeableness, decreased conscientiousness, higher neuroticism, diminished openness, low socio-economic status, and male sex might make university students more inclined to substance abuse. Thus, it is reasonable to show the importance of these factors in tailored prevention programs.

  4. Empirical evidence for a four factor framework of personality disorder organization: multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality disorder scales across Belgian and Danish data samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gina; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik

    2010-02-01

    The factor structure of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (Millon, Millon, Davis, & Grossman, 2006) personality disorder scales was analyzed using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis on data obtained from a Danish (N = 2030) and a Belgian (N = 1210) sample. Two-, three-, and four factor models, a priori specified using structures found by Dyce, O'Connor, Parkins, and Janzen (1997), were fitted to the data. The best fitting model was a four factor structure (RMSEA = .066, GFI = .98, CFI = .93) with partially invariant factor loadings. The robustness of this four-factor model clearly supports the efforts to organize future personality disorder description in a four-factor framework by corroborating four domains that were predominant in dimensional models (Widiger & Simonsen, 2005): Factor 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively corresponded to emotional dysregulation versus stability, antagonism versus compliance, extraversion versus introversion, and constraint versus impulsivity.

  5. Five-factor model personality domains in the prediction of Axis II personality disorders: an exploratory study in late adulthood women non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Junqueira, Diana; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta

    2014-05-01

    Relationships between Axis II personality disorders (DSM-IV) and the five-factor model were explored in a non-clinical sample of late adulthood women. The sample consists of 90 women (M = 72.29 years of age, standard deviation = 7.10), who were administered with two measures, the NEO-FFI and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+. Some personality disorders scales such as paranoid, schizotypal, borderline and dependent demonstrate a differentiated pattern of five-factor model domain predictors. Low agreeableness predicted schizoid, narcissistic and antisocial; histrionic, obsessive-compulsive and negativistic were predicted by high neuroticism and low agreeableness; high neuroticism and low extraversion, in turn, predicted dependent and depressive scales. Also, two clusters of personality disorders are identified, one associated with low agreeableness and another with low agreeableness and high neuroticism. This study suggest that some traits become maladaptive personality traits, and correspond more closely to psychopathology, when they become opposite to what would be expected in line with studies in normal late adulthood development.

  6. Personality disorders, but not cancer severity or treatment type, are risk factors for later generalised anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder in non metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Anne-Laure; Brunault, Paul; Huguet, Grégoire; Suzanne, Isabelle; Senon, Jean-Louis; Body, Gilles; Rusch, Emmanuel; Magnin, Guillaume; Voyer, Mélanie; Réveillère, Christian; Camus, Vincent

    2016-02-28

    This study aimed to determine whether personality disorders were associated with later Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in breast cancer patients. This longitudinal and multicentric study included 120 French non-metastatic breast cancer patients. After cancer diagnosis (T1) and 7 months after diagnosis (T3), we assessed MDD and GAD (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0). We assessed personality disorders 3 months after diagnosis (VKP). We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine what were the factors associated with GAD and MDD at T3. At T3, prevalence rate was 10.8% for MDD and 19.2% for GAD. GAD at T3 was significantly and independently associated with GAD at T1 and with existence of a personality disorder, no matter the cluster type. MDD at T3 was significantly and independently associated with MDD at T1 and with the existence of a cluster C personality disorder. Initial cancer severity and the type of treatment used were not associated with GAD or MDD at T3. Breast cancer patients with personality disorders are at higher risk for GAD and MDD at the end of treatment. Patients with GAD should be screened for personality disorders. Specific interventions for patients with personality disorders could prevent psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Personality disorders among Spanish prisoners starting hepatitis C treatment: Prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Andrés; Antón, José J; Saiz de la Hoya, Pablo; de Juan, José; Faraco, Inmaculada; Caylà, Joan A; Trujols, Joan

    2015-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) and their associated factors in prisoners who initiate chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment in 25 Spanish prisons. The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 was used to diagnose PDs according to DSM-IV criteria. Factors potentially associated with a PD diagnosis were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Two hundred and fifty-five patients were initially assessed and 62 (24.3%) were excluded due to an incomplete or invalid self-report screening questionnaire. PD prevalence was 70.5%, with antisocial PD being the most prevalent (46.1%). In terms of PD clusters, the most prevalent was cluster-B (55.4%). PD diagnosis was associated with HCV genotypes 1, 2, or 3 (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-4.49). Patients with a cluster-B PD were more likely to be infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2, or 3 (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.08-5.23) and be HIV-infected (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.10-4.39), to report past-year injection drug use (OR 7.17, 95% CI 1.49-34.58), and to have stage 3 or 4 fibrosis (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.06-4.49). The prevalence of PDs in Spanish prisoners who initiate CHC treatment is very high. PD management issues should be considered in treating CHC patients in prisons.

  8. Factors associated with self-esteem in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Fagermoen, May Solveig; Lerdal, Anners

    2015-01-01

    Living with chronic illnesses can be stressful and may negatively impact persons' self-esteem. Personal factors, like self-efficacy and illness perceptions, and also factors related to the environment, activity, and participation may be associated with self-esteem in chronic illness populations. This cross-sectional comparative study explored sociodemographic variables, work, physical activity, illness perceptions, and general self-efficacy in relation to self-esteem in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study had a cross-sectional design. A total of 223 eligible participants were recruited from patient education courses, and data were collected at baseline. Self-esteem was measured with The Rosenberg self-esteem scale; the general self-efficacy scale was used to measure self-efficacy, and brief illness perception questionnaire was also used. This is an instrument assessing cognitions about the illness and emotional responses towards it. Multivariate linear regression was used in the statistical analyses. In obese participants (n = 134), higher self-esteem was associated with lower emotional response, a shorter timeline, and higher general self-efficacy. In COPD participants (n = 89), higher self-esteem was associated with higher general self-efficacy. The independent variables accounted for 42.9% (morbid obesity) and 49.4% (COPD) of the self-esteem variance. In participants in both illness groups, higher self-efficacy was associated with increased self-esteem. A shorter timeline and lower emotional response to illness was related to higher self-esteem only for the obese participants. The results indicate that believing in one's capacity to cope with everyday challenges is important for self-esteem in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with COPD, whereas illness perceptions related to the duration of illness and the coping with emotions also is important for self-esteem in persons with morbid

  9. Personality factors in recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients: a preliminary investigation with the NEO-FFI scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Braz de Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes some prevalent personality dimensions of recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients. A sample of 33 female recently diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS was assessed with the NEO-FFI personality scale. Beck depression (BDI and anxiety (BAI scales were also used. No significant levels of anxiety or depression were identified in this group. As for personality factors, conscientiousness was the most common factor found, whereas openness to experience was the least observed. Literature on the relationship between personality and MS is scarce and there are no Brazilian studies on this subject. Some personality traits might complicate or facilitate the experience of living with a chronic, disabling and uncertain neurological condition such as MS.

  10. Association study of a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and personality trait and intelligence in healthy young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Yu, Younger W-Y; Chen, Tai-Jui

    2004-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the nerve-growth-factor family, plays an important role in neuronal survival and development, and it can modulate serotonergic activity. Further, BDNF has been implicated in the expression of personality traits and in cognitive function. We tested the associations between functional BDNF Val66Met genetic variants, and personality trait and intelligence in a cohort of 114 healthy young Chinese females. Subjects with the Val/Val genotype had a significantly higher mean performance IQ than Val/Met carriers, especially for the Object Assembly subtest. No significant association was demonstrated for the BDNF polymorphism and any of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire personality-factor scores, including harm avoidance. These results suggest that genetic variants of the BDNF gene may play a role in specific cognitive functions, but not in overall intelligence. In contrast to a recent report, however, this polymorphism does not appear to be associated with the neuroticism-related personality trait.

  11. Protein intake as a determinant factor of physical activity in older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina K. Kusumaratna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the proportion of people aged 60 and over is growing faster than any other age group. It has been well-established that the aging process can be associated with increased susceptibility to chronic conditions, disability, and co-morbidity, which however may be minimized or even partially reversed by physical activity. The assessment of physical activity is becoming an increasingly important component in the evaluation of elderly persons. Nutritional intake and status play an essential role in determining the physical activity level potentially capable of minimizing the health burden of older persons. The objective of this study was to find out whether nutritional intake and status were correlated with physical activity in community-dwelling older persons. The study population included 219 aged 60 to 69 years, of whom complete measures of socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, nutritional intake and physical activity were obtained. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin and hemoglobin concentration were measured as nutritional indicators (biomarkers. The nutrient content of food intakes was analyzed and calculated by “Nutrisurvey” software. Analysis indicated that there was a significant correlation between nutritional biomarkers [total protein (r=-0.211; p=0.002 and globulin (r=-0.247; p=0.000] and physical activity. Compared to other food intakes, intakes of carbohydrate (r=0.241; p=0.001 and animal protein (r=0.149; p=0.027 were significantly correlated with physical activity. Our findings lend support to the existence among healthy older persons of a relationship between nutrional intake and status and physical activity.

  12. Protein intake as a determinant factor of physical activity in older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina K. Kusumaratna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the proportion of people aged 60 and over is growing faster than any other age group. It has been well-established that the aging process can be associated with increased susceptibility to chronic conditions, disability, and co-morbidity, which however may be minimized or even partially reversed by physical activity. The assessment of physical activity is becoming an increasingly important component in the evaluation of elderly persons. Nutritional intake and status play an essential role in determining the physical activity level potentially capable of minimizing the health burden of older persons. The objective of this study was to find out whether nutritional intake and status were correlated with physical activity in community-dwelling older persons. The study population included 219 aged 60 to 69 years, of whom complete measures of socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, nutritional intake and physical activity were obtained. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin and hemoglobin concentration were measured as nutritional indicators (biomarkers. The nutrient content of food intakes was analyzed and calculated by “Nutrisurvey” software. Analysis indicated that there was a significant correlation between nutritional biomarkers [total protein (r=-0.211; p=0.002 and globulin (r=-0.247; p=0.000] and physical activity. Compared to other food intakes, intakes of carbohydrate (r=0.241; p=0.001 and animal protein (r=0.149; p=0.027 were significantly correlated with physical activity. Our findings lend support to the existence among healthy older persons of a relationship between nutrional intake and status and physical activity.

  13. Persons with dementia “are given a voice” when music and singing are included as part of their everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    have when singing and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in everyday life and in their interaction and relationship with caregivers and what impact does it have on their quality of life and well-being? b) What impact does it have, from a professional and an interdisciplinary...... perspective that song and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in rehabilitation and in everyday life for a person with dementia and how does it affects the quality of the intervention? c) Which ideas and suggestions does persons with dementia, relatives and professional have for improvement...... and to the implementation and anchoring-process when singing and music are used as a communicative form of intervention? d) How can we develop a manual that makes it possible to implement and anchor song and music as communicative form of intervention in rehabilitation for persons with dementia? The research project...

  14. Personal and other factors affecting acceptance of smartphone technology by older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi; Chan, Alan H S; Chen, Ke

    2016-05-01

    It has been well documented that in the 21st century, there will be relatively more older people around the world than in the past. Also, it seems that technology will expand in this era at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of technology by older people. The positive impact that the use of mobile applications can have for older people was confirmed by a previous study (Plaza et al., 2011). The study reported here aimed to explore and confirm, for older adults in China, the key influential factors of smartphone acceptance, and to describe the personal circumstances of Chinese older adults who use smartphone. A structured questionnaire and face to face individual interviews were used with 120 Chinese older adults (over 55). Structural Equation Modeling was used to confirm a proposed smartphone acceptance model based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The results showed that those who were younger, with higher education, non-widowed, with better economic condition related to salary or family support were more likely to use smartphone. Also, cost was found to be a critical factor influencing behavior intention. Self-satisfaction and facilitating conditions were proved to be important factors influencing perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

  15. Personality disorders in substance abusers: Validation of the DIP-Q through principal components factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorders are common in substance abusers. Self-report questionnaires that can aid in the assessment of personality disorders are commonly used in assessment, but are rarely validated. Methods The Danish DIP-Q as a measure of co-morbid personality disorders in substance abusers was validated through principal components factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis. A 4 components structure was constructed based on 238 protocols, representing antagonism, neuroticism, introversion and conscientiousness. The structure was compared with (a a 4-factor solution from the DIP-Q in a sample of Swedish drug and alcohol abusers (N = 133, and (b a consensus 4-components solution based on a meta-analysis of published correlation matrices of dimensional personality disorder scales. Results It was found that the 4-factor model of personality was congruent across the Danish and Swedish samples, and showed good congruence with the consensus model. A canonical correlation analysis was conducted on a subset of the Danish sample with staff ratings of pathology. Three factors that correlated highly between the two variable sets were found. These variables were highly similar to the three first factors from the principal components analysis, antagonism, neuroticism and introversion. Conclusion The findings support the validity of the DIP-Q as a measure of DSM-IV personality disorders in substance abusers.

  16. Personality Factors Predicting Smartphone Addiction Predisposition: Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems, Impulsivity, and Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yejin; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong-Jin; Kwak, Minjung; Rho, Mi Jung; Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP). Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854) aged 20-49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52); participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS) for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS), the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII), and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS). In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use). We analyzed the data in three steps: (1) identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2) deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN), and (3) computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female), weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors.

  17. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma.

  18. An Evaluation of Evaluative Personality Terms: A Comparison of the Big Seven and Five-Factor Model in Predicting Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrett, Christine; Trull, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    Two personality models are compared regarding their relationship with personality disorder (PD) symptom counts and with lifetime Axis I diagnoses. These models share 5 similar domains, and the Big 7 model also includes 2 domains assessing self-evaluation: positive and negative valence. The Big 7 model accounted for more variance in PDs than the…

  19. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rahimian-Boogar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer .Method: A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R, the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ, the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18 .Results: Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (p<0.001. R2 was 0.73 for the final model (p<.001.Conclusion: The results revealed that two character dimensions (low cooperativeness and self-transcendence, high neurotic defense style and young age of the deceased person were involved in the psychopathological course of the complicated and prolonged grief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief.

  20. Genome-wide association study of the five-factor model of personality in young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Na; Roh, Seung-Ju; Sung, Yeon Ah; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Jong-Young; Cho, Juhee; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2013-10-01

    Personality is a determinant of behavior and lifestyle associated with health and human diseases. Although personality is known to be a heritable trait, its polygenic nature has made the identification of genetic variants elusive. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1089 Korean women aged 18-40 years whose personality traits were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the five-factor model of personality. To reduce environmental factors that may influence personality traits, this study was restricted to young adult women. In the discovery phase, we identified variants of PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D) that associated this gene with the Openness domain. Other genes that were previously reported to be associated with neurological phenotypes were also associated with personality traits. In particular, DRD1 and OR1A2 were linked to Neuroticism, NKAIN2 with Extraversion, HTR5A with Openness and DRD3 with Agreeableness. Data from our replication study of 2090 subjects confirmed the association between OR1A2 and Neuroticism. We first identified and confirmed a novel region on OR1A2 associated with Neuroticism [corrected]. Candidate genes for psychiatric disorders were also enriched. These findings contribute to our understanding of the genetic architecture of personality traits and provide critical clues to the neurobiological mechanisms that influence them.

  1. Five factor model personality traits relate to adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder but not to their distinct neurocognitive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Fiona E; Mostert, Jeannette; Glennon, Jeffrey; Onnink, Marten; Dammers, Janneke; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Kan, Cornelis; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Hoogman, Martine; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-08-19

    Deficits in multiple neuropsychological domains and specific personality profiles have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study we investigated whether personality traits are related to neurocognitive profiles in adults with ADHD. Neuropsychological performance and Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits were measured in adults with ADHD (n = 133) and healthy controls (n = 132). Three neuropsychological profiles, derived from previous community detection analyses, were investigated for personality trait differences. Irrespective of cognitive profile, participants with ADHD showed significantly higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness than healthy controls. Only the FFM personality factor Openness differed significantly between the three profiles. Higher Openness was more common in those with aberrant attention and inhibition than those with increased delay discounting and atypical working memory / verbal fluency. The results suggest that the personality trait Openness, but not any other FFM factor, is linked to neurocognitive profiles in ADHD. ADHD symptoms rather than profiles of cognitive impairment have associations with personality traits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Observer-Rated Alexithymia and its Relationship with the Five-Factor-Model of Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Rosenberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining the relationship between alexithymia and personality exclusively employed self-report measures of alexithymia. In the present study, we examined the relationship of both observer-rated and self-reported alexithymia with the Big Five personality dimensions. We administered the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA as an interview-based measure of alexithymia and, in addition, two self-report questionnaires, the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 and the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ. Fifty-one university students were interviewed and completed the alexithymia scales and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. In contrast to TAS-20 and BVAQ, the Difficulty identifying feelings (DIF scale of the TSIA was found to be unrelated to neuroticism, suggesting that the frequently reported association between DIF and neuroticism could be due to the use of self-report scales. In contrast, the affective dimension of alexithymia, measured by the BVAQ, was even negatively related with neuroticism. Thus, a paucity of fantasy and little emotional arousal goes together with increased emotional stability. Furthermore, we revealed negative correlations between interview-based alexithymia scores and openness to experience and agreeableness, which cross-validated the self-report findings. Finally, extraversion and conscientiousness each showed only one negative correlation, namely with subscales of the BVAQ. Taken together, our findings show that on the basis of interviews there is no evidence for a relation of DIF with neuroticism, while associations of alexithymia with low openness to experience and low agreeableness emerged irrespective of assessment approach. The relations of alexithymia with personality are discussed in the light of different measurement approaches.

  3. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: shared associations with seasonality and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2013-12-27

    Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits - associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders [Ref. (1-3) for reviews], it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n = 412) of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of

  4. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the

  5. Maladaptive Five Factor Model personality traits associated with Borderline Personality Disorder indirectly affect susceptibility to suicide ideation through increased anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Greg J; Smith, Caitlin E; Capron, Dan W; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N; Wingate, LaRicka R

    2016-12-30

    The current study investigated the relationship between maladaptive Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, and suicide ideation in a sample of 131 undergraduate students who were selected based on their scores on a screening questionnaire regarding Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms. Those who endorsed elevated BPD symptoms in a pre-screen analyses completed at the beginning of each semester were oversampled in comparison to those with low or moderate symptoms. Indirect effect (mediation) results indicated that the maladaptive personality traits of anxious/uncertainty, dysregulated anger, self-disturbance, behavioral dysregulation, dissociative tendencies, distrust, manipulativeness, oppositional, and rashness had indirect effects on suicide ideation through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. All of these personality traits correlated to suicide ideation as well. The maladaptive personality traits of despondence, affective dysregulation, and fragility were positive correlates of suicide ideation and predicted suicide ideation when all traits were entered in one linear regression model, but were not indirectly related through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The implication for targeting anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns in evidence-based practices for reducing suicide risk in those with BPD is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction. The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from single parent families had higher indicators of anxiety, insecurity, depressiveness, self-distrust, hostility, feeling of inferiority, conflicts and difficulties in communication. In families with pronounced overprotection and characteristics of an authoritarian style children had lower self- esteem and higher indicators of anxiety and hostility. Children's aggressiveness was more pronounced in the case of permissive style and instability of parenting style. It was shown that emotional well-being in the parent-child relationships can be regarded as a resource for personal development of the child: understanding the causes of child s state, empathy. However we revealed that one third part of mothers had difficulties in emotional interaction with children. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №13-06-00480 «The family as a resource of child´s mental development in stable and critical ontogenetic periods».

  7. The nature of creativity: The roles of genetic factors, personality traits, cognitive abilities, and environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Spinath, Frank M; Borkenau, Peter; Penke, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This multitrait multimethod twin study examined the structure and sources of individual differences in creativity. According to different theoretical and metrological perspectives, as well as suggestions based on previous research, we expected 2 aspects of individual differences, which can be described as perceived creativity and creative test performance. We hypothesized that perceived creativity, reflecting typical creative thinking and behavior, should be linked to specific personality traits, whereas test creativity, reflecting maximum task-related creative performance, should show specific associations with cognitive abilities. Moreover, we tested whether genetic variance in intelligence and personality traits account for the genetic component of creativity. Multiple-rater and multimethod data (self- and peer reports, observer ratings, and test scores) from 2 German twin studies-the Bielefeld Longitudinal Study of Adult Twins and the German Observational Study of Adult Twins-were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded the expected 2 correlated aspects of creativity. Perceived creativity showed links to openness to experience and extraversion, whereas tested figural creativity was associated with intelligence and also with openness. Multivariate behavioral genetic analyses indicated that the heritability of tested figural creativity could be accounted for by the genetic component of intelligence and openness, whereas a substantial genetic component in perceived creativity could not be explained. A primary source of individual differences in creativity was due to environmental influences, even after controlling for random error and method variance. The findings are discussed in terms of the multifaceted nature and construct validity of creativity as an individual characteristic. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Personal and behavioral factors associated with bicycling in adults from Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilson Kienteka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycling is an important form of physical activity that can promote health benefits. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between personal and behavioral aspects in transportation bicycling and leisure time bicycling in adults. Data was drawn from a household survey involving 677 adults (53.1% female in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. The prevalence of bicycling was 11.2% for transportation and 16.7% for leisure. The frequency of leisure time bicycling was higher among men (PR = 2.08; p < 0.001, young people < 30 and adults aged between 30 and 39.9, bicycle owners (PR = 8.76; p < 0.001 and among the physically active. Transportation bicycling occurred more frequently among men (PR = 3.63; p < 0.001, individuals aged 30 to 39.9, those with a low socioeconomic status (PR = 5.00; p = 0.006, bicycle owners (PR = 10.2; p < 0.001 and individuals with a negative perception of their quality of life. The prevalence of bicycling is low in Curitiba considering its potential as a means of physical activity. Personal and behavioral factors were associated with each form of bicycling.

  9. Factors that explain excretion of enteric pathogens by persons without diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Myron M; Robins-Browne, Roy M

    2012-12-01

    Excretion of enteropathogens by subjects without diarrhea influences our appreciation of the role of these pathogens as etiologic agents. Characteristics of the pathogens and host and environmental factors help explain asymptomatic excretion of diarrheal pathogens by persons without diarrhea. After causing acute diarrhea followed by clinical recovery, some enteropathogens are excreted asymptomatically for many weeks. Thus, in a prevalence survey of persons without diarrhea, some may be excreting pathogens from diarrheal episodes experienced many weeks earlier. Volunteer challenges with Vibrio cholerae O1, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia document heterogeneity among enteropathogen strains, with some inexplicably not eliciting diarrhea. The immune host may not manifest diarrhea following ingestion of a pathogen but may nevertheless asymptomatically excrete. Some human genotypes render them less susceptible to symptomatic or severe diarrheal infection with certain pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae O1 and norovirus. Pathogens in stools of individuals without diarrhea may reflect recent ingestion of inocula too small to cause disease in otherwise susceptible hosts or of animal pathogens (eg, bovine or porcine ETEC) that do not cause human illness.

  10. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the set...

  11. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the settin

  12. Cross-Validation of the Factor Structure of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihm, Elson M.; Poindexter, Ann R.

    1991-01-01

    The original factor structure of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist was cross-validated with a U.S. sample of 470 persons with moderate to profound mental retardation (27 percent nonambulatory). Results replicated previous findings, suggesting that the original five factors (irritability, lethargy, stereotypic behavior, hyperactivity, and…

  13. Personality Traits and Critical Thinking Skills in College Students: Empirical Tests of a Two-Factor Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Jennifer S.; Boufal, Magdalen M.; Kurtz, John E.

    2004-01-01

    The two-factor theory defines critical thinking skills as a combined effect of cognitive abilities and personality dispositions. Although the available research supports the association between critical thinking and measures of cognitive ability, the specific traits contained in the dispositional factor have not been clearly identified through…

  14. Risk Factors for Borderline Personality Disorder in Treatment Seeking Patients with a Substance Use Disorder : An International Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapp, Manuela; van de Glind, Geurt; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Skutle, Arvid; Bu, Eli-Torlid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Kaye, Sharlene; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Barta, Csaba; Fatseas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Levin, Frances R.; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van den Brink, Wim; Moggi, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) often co-occur, partly because they share risk factors. In this international multicenter study, risk factors for BPD were examined for SUD patients. In total, 1,205 patients were comprehensively examined by standardized interv

  15. Exploring How Factors Impact the Activities and Participation of Persons with Disability: Constructing a Model through Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Joy; Paterson, Margo

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a conceptualization of how factors impact activities of daily living (ADL) and participation from the perspective of persons with disability. This study identified what, and how, factors perceived by participants affect their daily activities, to better inform reporting of scores obtained on measures of ADLs and participation…

  16. The Adjustment of Offspring of Within-Group and Interracial/Intercultural Marriages: A Comparison of Personality Factor Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1986-01-01

    Results indicated offspring of within-group versus across-racial/ethnic marriages did not differ in personality test scores. As compared with offspring of within-group marriages, male offspring of across-group marriages scored higher on a factor measuring socially desirable traits and lower on a factor measuring intraception, while female…

  17. Personal, Social and Environmental Risk Factors of Problematic Gambling Among High School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, T.A.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Adal, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among

  18. Mapping explicit social motives of achievement, power, and affiliation onto the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeser, Stefan; Langens, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Previous research has shown that explicit motives are meaningfully related to the five-factor model of personality. The present study extends this research by using different measures of the explicit social motives of achievement, power and affiliation, and by employing measures of both approach and avoidance of these motives. Correlational and factor analyses demonstrated that explicit motives of achievement, power, and affiliation, both approach and avoidance components of these motives, can be consistently mapped onto personality trait measures of the five-factor model. Implications of this general finding, along with some exceptions, are discussed with regard to further research.

  19. Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: distinguishing rumination from reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapnell, P D; Campbell, J D

    1999-02-01

    A distinction between ruminative and reflective types of private self-attentiveness is introduced and evaluated with respect to L. R. Goldberg's (1982) list of 1,710 English trait adjectives (Study 1), the five-factor model of personality (FFM) and A. Fenigstein, M. F. Scheier, and A. Buss's (1975) Self-Consciousness Scales (Study 2), and previously reported correlates and effects of private self-consciousness (PrSC; Studies 3 and 4). Results suggest that the PrSC scale confounds two unrelated, motivationally distinct dispositions--rumination and reflection--and that this confounding may account for the "self-absorption paradox" implicit in PrSC research findings: Higher PrSC scores are associated with more accurate and extensive self-knowledge yet higher levels of psychological distress. The potential of the FFM to provide a comprehensive framework for conceptualizing self-attentive dispositions, and to order and integrate research findings within this domain, is discussed.

  20. The moderating effects of sample type as evidence of the effects of faking on personality scale correlations and factor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEVIN M. BRADLEY

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivational differences as a function of sample type (applicants versus incumbents have frequently been suspected of causing meaningful differences in the psychometric properties of personality inventories due to the effects of faking. In this quantitative review, correlations among the Big Five personality constructs were estimated and sample type was examined as a potential moderator of the personality construct inter-correlations. The resulting subgroup meta-analytic correlation matrices were factor-analyzed, and the second order factor solutions for job incumbents and job applicants were compared. Results of the meta-analyses indicate frequent, but small moderating effects. The second order factor analyses indicated that the observed moderation had little effect on the congruence of factor loadings. Together, the results are consistent with the position that faking is of little practical consequence in selection settings.

  1. Examination of Turkish extreme athletes' personality traits in terms of gender and some demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Ceylan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for the purpose of examining the personality traits of extreme athletes. In line with this purpose a total of 227 extreme athletes, as 86 female and 141 male athletes selected through judgment sampling, that either actively compete or trains to compete in any of the branches of snowboarding, snowkiting, kitesurfing, windsurfing, river kayaking, mountain biking, free diving, paragliding and rafting were included within the sample group of the study. Questionnaire applications were carried out in extreme sports facilities throughout the country. Within the scope of the study, an 85-item short form of the Five Factor Personality Scale developed by Somer, Korkmaz and Tatar was used as the data collection tool. Data analysis was carried out by means of the SPSS 16.0 software and the percentages frequencies, mean, standard deviation and to find the differences between the sexes "independent t" test were calculated. Examining the obtained results showed that the male athletes have higher extravertion level from female athletes (p <0.05. This finding obtained in our study suggest that, in an essentially male-dominant society, the higher level of pressure women are subjected to in social, economic, cultural and psychological terms and the difficulties and pressure they experience in the working life are significant factors for women to be more introvert.     Özet Bu araştırma, ekstrem sporcuların kişilik özelliklerinin incelemesi amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırmaya, yargısal örnekleme yöntemiyle seçilmiş, snowboard, snowkite, uçurtma sörfü, rüzgar sörfü, akarsu ve nehir kanosu, dağ bisikleti, serbest dalış, yamaç paraşütü, kaya tırmanışı ve rafting branşlarında yarışmacı olan ya da bir yarışmaya katılmak için hazırlık yapan, 86’sı kadın, 141’i erkek olmak üzere 227 ekstrem sporcu katılmıştır.  Anket uygulamaları, ülke genelinde bulunan

  2. The Impact of Environmental Design on Doffing Personal Protective Equipment in a Healthcare Environment: A Formative Human Factors Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihey, Tracey A; Gelmi, Stefano; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Hall, Trevor N T

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the impact of environmental design on doffing personal protective equipment in a simulated healthcare environment. METHODS A mixed-methods approach was used that included human-factors usability testing and qualitative questionnaire responses. A patient room and connecting anteroom were constructed for testing purposes. This experimental doffing area was designed to overcome the environmental failures identified in a previous study and was not constructed based on any generalizable hospital standard. RESULTS In total, 72 healthcare workers from Ontario, Canada, took part in the study and tested the simulated doffing area. The following environmental design changes were tested and were deemed effective: increasing prominence of color-coded zones; securing disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer; outlining disposal bins locations; providing mirrors to detect possible contamination; providing hand rails to assist with doffing; and restricting the space to doff. Further experimentation and iterative design are required with regard to several important features: positioning the disposal bins for safety, decreasing the risk of contamination and user accessibility; optimal positioning of mirrors for safety; communication within the team; and positioning the secondary team member for optimal awareness. Additional design suggestions also emerged during this study, and they require future investigation. CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of the environment on doffing personal protective equipment in a healthcare setting. Iterative testing and modification of the design of the environment (doffing area) are important to enhancing healthcare worker safety. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:712-717.

  3. The Relation between Personal, Family, Social and Economic Factors With the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Gholizadeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present study aimed to investigate the relationship between personal, familial,social and economical factorswith the level of life satisfaction of aged people of Isfahan.To achieve this end ,from among 84912 elderlypeople above 65 living in the eleven districts of Isfahan in 1386 a sample of 384 was selected using clustersampeling method and Kurjesy-Morgan formula.The research procedure was a descriptive survey in which aresearcher,developed questionaire with 44 close ended questions was employed for data collection.Therespandants provided their answers based on Lickerts five-point scale.The reliability values for the first 29questions and subsequent 15questions on the questionaire were 0.84 and 0.88 respectively.The questionstargeted not only demographic factors such as age ,sex ,educational and so on,but also research variablesunder investigation ; namely, personal, familial,social and economical factors.The data was analayzed, at bothdescriptive and inferential statistical techniques.while the first accounted forpercentage,frequency,median and mean values, the second enlisted pearson and spearman correlations,F,Tand multiple regression tests .The finding revealed that the level of life satisfaction was positivelycorrelated with social(r=0.652,economical(r=0.656, family (r=0.618, physical health (r=0.183 andindividual independence (r=0.525.In addition there was no significant difference in life satisfaction of theelderly people in regard with marital status for the F-value of 4.516 at the confidence level of 0.001.

  4. Personal and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in meat processing industry workers in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Riccò

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a musculoskeletal condition that often impairs the fitness to work. Our aim is to retrospectively evaluate the association between physical exposures in meat processing industry in Northern Italy and the CTS, taking into account non-occupational factors. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to include 434 workers (236 males, 198 females, 37.0±10.6 years old, working age: 12.6±10.8 years from meat processing industries. Signs and symptoms were collected at the compulsory occupational medical surveillance. Occupational risk factors were assessed through a questionnaire and direct assessment by investigators. Adjusted odds ratios (ORadj for factors of interest were estimated through binary logistic regression. Results: Diagnosis of the CTS was reported for 61 out of 434 subjects (14.1% for an incidence of 11.3/1000 person- years. In general, signs and symptoms for the CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: smoking history (OR = 1.909, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.107–3.293, previous traumas of the upper limb (OR = 3.533, 95% CI: 1.743–7.165, hypothyroidism status (OR = 7.897, 95% CI: 2.917–21.38 and, in the case of female participants only, previous pregnancies (OR = 2.807, 95% CI: 1.200–6.566 as well as a personal history of oral contraceptive therapy and/or steroidal replacement therapy (OR = 11.57, 95% CI: 4.689–28.56. The carpal tunnel syndrome cases were associated with the following occupational factors (> 4 h/day: forceful hand exertion (ORadj = 3.548, 95% CI: 1.379–9.131, repeated trauma of the hand (ORadj = 3.602, 95% CI: 1.248– 10.395, repeated movements of the wrist (ORadj = 2.561, 95% CI: 1.100–5.960. Conclusions: Increasing levels of hand activity and force were associated with the increased CTS prevalence among participants. Recommendations have to be provided in order to reduce occupational exposure to these risk factors and

  5. Personal and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in meat processing industry workers in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccò, Matteo; Signorelli, Carlo

    2017-03-24

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a musculoskeletal condition that often impairs the fitness to work. Our aim is to retrospectively evaluate the association between physical exposures in meat processing industry in Northern Italy and the CTS, taking into account non-occupational factors. A cross-sectional study was performed to include 434 workers (236 males, 198 females, 37.0±10.6 years old, working age: 12.6±10.8 years) from meat processing industries. Signs and symptoms were collected at the compulsory occupational medical surveillance. Occupational risk factors were assessed through a questionnaire and direct assessment by investigators. Adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) for factors of interest were estimated through binary logistic regression. Diagnosis of the CTS was reported for 61 out of 434 subjects (14.1%) for an incidence of 11.3/1000 person- years. In general, signs and symptoms for the CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: smoking history (OR = 1.909, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.107-3.293), previous traumas of the upper limb (OR = 3.533, 95% CI: 1.743-7.165), hypothyroidism status (OR = 7.897, 95% CI: 2.917-21.38) and, in the case of female participants only, previous pregnancies (OR = 2.807, 95% CI: 1.200-6.566) as well as a personal history of oral contraceptive therapy and/or steroidal replacement therapy (OR = 11.57, 95% CI: 4.689-28.56). The carpal tunnel syndrome cases were associated with the following occupational factors (> 4 h/day): forceful hand exertion (ORadj = 3.548, 95% CI: 1.379-9.131), repeated trauma of the hand (ORadj = 3.602, 95% CI: 1.248- 10.395), repeated movements of the wrist (ORadj = 2.561, 95% CI: 1.100-5.960). Increasing levels of hand activity and force were associated with the increased CTS prevalence among participants. Recommendations have to be provided in order to reduce occupational exposure to these risk factors and improve medical surveillance. Med Pr 2017;68(2):199-209.

  6. Mediating Factors of Personal Wellbeing in Gifted College Students: Early-College Entrants and Honors College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANETTE K. BOAZMAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many educational, behavioral, dietary, safety, and other factors influence the wellbeing of adolescents around the world (Currieet al., 2008. Previous studies examined multiple adolescent subpopulations, but none looked at academically advanced students.In this study, the Personal Wellbeing Index (International Wellbeing Group, 2005 was used to assess the wellbeing of 213 giftedcollege students who entered university in either an early-college-entrance program or entered at normal ages and were acceptedinto an honors college. One hundred twenty-two participants were students from the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science(TAMS. TAMS is an early-college entrance program allowing gifted students to enter college after their sophomore (secondyear of high school, approximately 15 to 16 years old at the time of entrance to the University. Ninety-one participants werestudents who attended the UNT Honors College. Honors College students are gifted students who enter college at a traditionalage in America, after high school graduation (18 to 19 years old. This study also examined the participants’ general self-efficacy,beliefs about of intelligence, hope, gratitude, religiosity, and resiliency; and assessed any mediating effects they had on personalwellbeing in the high-ability college students. Data analysis included latent transition, general linear model, repeated measures,and regression. Results of the study revealed that dispositional mood and hope-agency were significantly related to the developmentof personal wellbeing for high-ability students during their first year of college regardless of age. Knowledge of psychologicalconstructs that are facilitative of the positive personal wellbeing helps parents, teachers, administrators, and counselors preparegifted students for success in college and beyond.

  7. Predicting nicotine dependence profiles among adolescent smokers: the roles of personal and social-environmental factors in a longitudinal framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinjan Marloes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have reported that symptoms of nicotine dependence can occur after limited exposure to smoking, the majority of research on nicotine dependence has focused on adult smokers. Insufficient knowledge exists regarding the epidemiology and aetiology of nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers. The objective of the present study is to identify the effects of theoretically driven social and individual predictors of nicotine dependence symptom profiles in a population-based sample of adolescent smokers. Method A longitudinal study among 6,783 adolescents (12 to 14 years old at baseline was conducted. In the first and second year of secondary education, personality traits and exposure to smoking in the social environment were assessed. Two and a half years later, adolescents' smoking status and nicotine dependence symptom profiles were assessed. A total of 796 adolescents were identified as smokers and included in the analyses. Results At follow-up, four distinct dependence symptom profiles were identified: low cravings only, high cravings and withdrawal, high cravings and behavioural dependence, and overall highly dependent. Personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion did not independently predict nicotine dependence profiles, whereas exposure to smoking in the social environment posed a risk for the initial development of nicotine dependence symptoms. However, in combination with environmental exposure to smoking, extraversion and neuroticism increased the risk of developing more severe dependence symptom profiles. Conclusions Nicotine dependence profiles are predicted by interactions between personal and environmental factors. These insights offer important directions for tailoring interventions to prevent the onset and escalation of nicotine dependence. Opportunities for intervention programs that target individuals with a high risk of developing more severe dependence symptom profiles are

  8. Environmental, personal, and behavioral factors are related to body mass index in a group of multi-ethnic, low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-12-01

    Environmental, personal, and behavioral determinants of body mass index (BMI) are not well understood in the low-income demographic. To investigate these factors, a cross-sectional survey was developed using Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), utilizing formative data from focus groups and measured environmental, personal, and behavioral constructs, in addition to food-related self-identity, food security, and heights and weights. Participants were urban women (n=330) who qualified for a food and nutrition assistance program. Data collection occurred at sites within the community, including homeless shelters, food pantries, libraries, and community centers. The outcome of interest was BMI and the relationship to environmental, personal, and behavioral constructs, and food-related self-identity. All three SCT construct models were significant, but the personal construct regression model predicted the greatest variance in BMI among the women (31%). Decreased BMI was associated with SCT and self-identity variables indicating preventative behaviors, while increased BMI was associated with SCT and self-identity emotional eating variables. Overall results suggest that personal, behavioral, and self-identity factors can help to explain some weight variation observed among women living in similar obesogenic, low-income environments. Although additional research is needed, results suggest interventions with this population should address eating healthy to prevent disease, exercising for health, and shaping health-promoting self-identities.

  9. Going ill to work--what personal circumstances, attitudes and work-related factors are associated with sickness presenteeism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. D.; Andersen, JH

    2008-01-01

    of SP. Finally, we found that those with a conservative attitude to absence were most likely to turn up ill at work. Overall, work-related factors seem to be slightly more important than personal circumstances or attitudes in determining people's 'decision' to go ill at work. However, the relatively low......The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a broad range of possible factors relating to work, personal circumstances and attitudes towards sickness absence on a person's decision to go to work despite feeling ill, a phenomenon that has been termed sickness presence (SP), or 'presenteeism...... (measured by working in a small company, having non-standard hours and degree of cooperation) both increase the likelihood of SP. However, personal circumstances and attitudes, e.g. treating work as home (cf. Hochschild's thesis) and being over-committed to work, were also found to lead to higher levels...

  10. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS: A Three-Factor Model of Psychopathology in Marginally Housed Persons with Substance Dependence and Psychiatric Illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle J Giesbrecht

    Full Text Available Rates of psychopathology are elevated in marginalized and unstably housed persons, underscoring the need for applicable clinical measures for these populations. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS is a clinical instrument principally developed for use in schizophrenia to identify the presence and severity of psychopathology symptoms. The current study investigates whether a reliable and valid PANSS factor structure emerges in a marginally housed, heterogeneous sample recruited from the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver where substance use disorders and psychiatric illness are pervasive. Participants (n = 270 underwent structured clinical assessments including the PANSS and then were randomly assigned to either exploratory (EFA or confirmatory factor analytic (CFA subsamples. EFA pointed to a novel three factor PANSS. This solution was supported by CFA. All retained items (28 out of 30 load significantly upon hypothesized factors and model goodness of fit analyses are in the acceptable to good range. Each of the three first-order factor constructs, labeled Psychosis/Disorganized, Negative Symptoms/Hostility, and Insight/Awareness, contributed significantly to measurement of a higher-order psychopathology construct. Further, the latent structure of this 3-factor solution appears temporally consistent over one-year. This PANSS factor structure appears valid and reliable for use in persons with multimorbidity, including substance use disorders. The structure is somewhat distinct from existing solutions likely due to the unique characteristics of this marginally housed sample.

  11. Analysis: linking laboratory data to human factors and inclusion of persons with disabilities in diabetes technology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann S

    2011-09-01

    In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Friedrichs and colleagues present a study of the injection force of four reusable insulin pens and another study of the dosing accuracy of three different insulin pens. For the study of injection force, the authors claim that lower injection force has numerous advantages for patients, including making use of pens easier for people with decreased hand strength. For the study of dosing accuracy, the authors state that dose accuracy is critical for glycemic control. Both study designs have significant strengths, including measurements of the variable of interest using two different methodologies and thorough documentation of methods and materials. However, the careful, precise measurements of injection force and dosing accuracy are not matched by equivalent precision supporting the significance of the studies. The authors do not provide any information about what measured injection force is easy or difficult for individuals with and without manual problems or what level of dosing inaccuracy is clinically significant. Therefore, the implications for practice remain unclear. Data about these and other relevant human factors are needed to provide meaningful context for laboratory measurements of diabetes technologies. Furthermore, researchers conducting studies of diabetes technology that include human subjects should intentionally recruit persons with disabilities so diabetes care professionals can know whether and how technical information about diabetes technology applies to the full range of patients, including those with disabilities.

  12. Eysenck’s Two Big Personality Factors and Their Relationship to Depression in Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Pain Disorder: A Clinimetric Validation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Lunde; Per Bech; Stine Bjerrum Møller

    2012-01-01

    Aim. The clinimetric aspects of Eysenck's two big personality factors (neuroticism and extraversion) were originally identified by principal component analysis but have been insufficiently analysed with item response theory models. Their relationship to states of melancholia and anxiety was subsequently analysed. Method. Patients with chronic idiopathic pain disorder were included in the study. The nonparametric item response model (Mokken) was compared to the coefficient alpha to validate th...

  13. Influence of selected demographic factors on traumas in persons over 65 years of age reporting to the Hospital Medical Ward

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    Mateusz Andrzej Pytlak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Falls and traumas in elderly persons don’t only result in health problems, but they also involve social and economic, psychological and political consequences. The most frequent trauma mechanisms in the elderly include: falls and traffic accidents. ;b:Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess selected factors influencing the energy, type and area of a trauma incurred by elderly people. Material and methods. A group of 108 patients aged 65–93 treated at the SPSK 1 in Szczecin were tested by a diagnostic survey with the use of a questionnaire. The eligibility criteria included a trauma as a result of an accident, the age of the subject above 65 years of age and expressing written, voluntary and informed consent to participation in the study. Results. 177 traumas were recorded in the analysed group of 108 patients. The most frequent traumas included fractures and contusions and the lower limbs and the left arm were the most frequently injured body parts. Men were more often injured during low-energy events. Patients more often had their upper body and left leg injured during low-energy events than during high-energy ones. In persons over 65 years of age, usually one fracture occurred during a low-energy accident. Conclusions. The most common result of injuries among people aged 65+ admitted to the emergency department are fractures. With age the number of LE T increases and the number of HET decreases. It’s necessary therefore to create an appropriate health policy covering education for elderly people and their families to prevent injuries of low energy content.

  14. Person-related work and incident use of antidepressants: relations and mediating factors from the Danish work environment cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Diderichsen, Finn; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who "work with people" (i.e., do person-related work) are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. However, these studies were purely register-based and consequently unable to point to factors underlying this elevated...... risk. This paper examines whether person-related work is associated with incident use of antidepressants, and whether this association is mediated by several work environment exposures....

  15. Intellectual and personality factors in the achievement of high exam effectiveness in first-year Russian university students

    OpenAIRE

    Gorchakova, Olesya Yu.; Matsuta, Valeria V.; Sergey A. Bogomaz

    2016-01-01

    The goals set forth in regulatory documents for the development of Russian education presuppose quantitative evaluation of factors and conditions that ensure students’ achievement of high competence, personality development, and self-realization. Evaluation of intellectual and personality characteristics of first-year university students and study of the relationship among these characteristics thus become important tasks. The research objective was to evaluate relationships among social ...

  16. Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were

  17. Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) and personality traits: the modifying effect of season of birth and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, A; Gaysina, D; Kutlumbetova, Yu; Kanzafarova, R; Malykh, S; Lobaskova, M; Khusnutdinova, E

    2015-01-02

    Personality traits are complex phenotypes influenced by interactions of multiple genetic variants of small effect and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is involved in personality traits. Season of birth (SOB) has also been shown to affect personality traits due to its influences on brain development during prenatal and early postnatal periods. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BDNF on personality traits; and the modifying effects of SOB and sex on associations between BDNF and personality traits. A sample of 1018 young adults (68% women; age range 17-25years) of Caucasian origin from the Russian Federation was assessed on personality traits (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-transcendence) with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). Associations between personality traits and 12 BDNF SNPs were tested using linear regression models. The present study demonstrated the effect of rs11030102 on Persistence in females only (PFDR=0.043; r(2)=1.3%). There were significant interaction effects between Val66Met (rs6265) and SOB (PFDR=0.048, r(2)=1.4%), and between rs2030323 and SOB (PFDR=0.042, r(2)=1.3%), on Harm Avoidance. Our findings provide evidence for the modifying effect of SOB on the association between BDNF and Harm Avoidance, and for the modifying effect of sex on the association between BDNF and Persistence.

  18. Falls in older persons : Associated factors and the effects of drug withdrawal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D.A. Boyé (Nicole)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Part I starts with a literature overview on the impact of falls in the elderly, the burden on healthcare, and the costs for society. Part II provides insight into various factors associated with falls in older adults. Part III includes the IMPROveFALL study protocol in Ch

  19. Five-Factor Model of Personality, Work Behavior Self-Efficacy, and Length of Prior Employment for Individuals with Disabilities: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Strauser, David R.; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2012-01-01

    With the continued lower employment rate for persons with disabilities, researchers are focusing more on barriers to employment that reach beyond functional impairment. Personality and self-efficacy have consistently been important factors when considering employment outcomes for persons without disability; less is known about these factors as…

  20. Five-Factor Model of Personality, Work Behavior Self-Efficacy, and Length of Prior Employment for Individuals with Disabilities: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Strauser, David R.; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2012-01-01

    With the continued lower employment rate for persons with disabilities, researchers are focusing more on barriers to employment that reach beyond functional impairment. Personality and self-efficacy have consistently been important factors when considering employment outcomes for persons without disability; less is known about these factors as…