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Sample records for factors included personal

  1. Psychological Factors Including Demographic Features, Mental Illnesses, and Personality Disorders as Predictors in Internet Addiction Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farahani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Problematic internet use is an important social problem among adolescents and has become a global health issue. This study identified predictors and patterns of problematic internet use among adult students.Method: In this study, 400 students were recruited using stratified sampling technique. Participants were selected among students from 4 universities in Tehran and Karaj, Iran, during 2016 and 2017. Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - Third Edition (MCMI-III, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I, and semi-structured interview were used to diagnose internet addiction. Then, the association between main psychiatric disorders and internet addiction was surveyed. Data were analyzed using SPSS18 software by performing descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P- Values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: After controlling the demographic variables, it was found that narcissistic personality disorder, obsessive- compulsive personality disorder, anxiety, bipolar disorders, depression, and phobia could increase the odds ratio (OR of internet addiction by 2.1, 1.1, 2.6, 1.1, 2.2 and 2.5-folds, respectively (p-value<0.05, however, other psychiatric or personality disorders did not have a significant effect on the equation.Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that some mental disorders affect internet addiction. Considering the sensitivity and importance of the cyberspace, it is necessary to evaluate mental disorders that correlate with internet addiction.

  2. Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising a ra...... with healthy eating. The dietary habits reported were strongly influenced by personal intentions. Thus, the biggest challenge for public health nutritionists will be to reach non-compliers who seldom have intentions to eat healthily.......Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising...... a random sample of 3151 Danish adults aged 18-75 years. Dietary intake was estimated using a 7 d pre-coded food diary. information on social background, leisure-time physical activity, height, body weight and intention to eat healthily was Obtained by in-person interviews. Logistic regression models Were...

  3. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Borderline Personality Disorder: Therapeutic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Proponents of the now half-dozen major psychotherapeutic approaches tend to claim the superiority of their different approaches-known widely by their acronyms: CBT for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, DBT for Dialectic Behavioral Therapy, MBT for Mentalization-Based Therapy, TFP for Transference- Focused Psychotherapy, and so on. The data thus far support the utility of each method, but do not show clear-cut superiority of any one method. A large percentage of BPD patients eventually improve or even recover, but these favorable results appear to derive from a multiplicity of factors. These include the personality traits of both patient and therapist, the unpredictable life events over time, the socioeconomic and cultural background of the patient, and the placebo effect of simply being in treatment. These latter factors constitute the contextual model, which operates alongside the medical model, each playing a role in eventual outcome. The contextual model will be discussed extensively in a separate article.

  5. Personality, a key factor in personalized medicine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Benthem, Lambertus; van Beek, Andre P.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of health problems resulting from obesity is growing and obesity and its related diseases has become one of the main causes in death in industrialized societies. Environmental influences are crucial for the interactions between genetic, neurohormonal and metabolic factors that may be

  6. Personal Factors and Fast Food Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Saraniya Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Asian peoples including Sri Lankans are generally fond of cooking food items in their homes. It is understandable that on the other hand, growing knowledge and adoption of western culture bring a modification in food consumption pattern among Sri Lankan families who lives in a particular city area. As such, it is useful to identify the Personal Factors (PF) that influence on Fast Food Consumption (FFC), since the Sri Lankans change their behavior to have fast foods of developed countries from...

  7. Personal factors and personality characteristics as predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study set to investigate personal factors and personality characteristics as Predictors of customers satisfaction with health care services. The study utilized Ex-Post Facto design. A total number of 100 participants took part in the study which were made up of 57 (57%) males and 48 (48%) females, with a mean age of ...

  8. Person-fit to the Five Factor Model of personality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allik, J.; Realo, A.; Mõttus, R.; Borkenau, P.; Kuppens, P.; Hřebíčková, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2012), s. 35-45 ISSN 1421-0185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Five Factor Model * cross - cultural comparison * person-fit Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.638, year: 2012

  9. The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Montag

    2014-01-01

    The study of the biological basis of personality is a timely research endeavor, with the aim of deepening our understanding of human nature. In recent years, a growing body of research has investigated the role of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the context of individual differences across human beings, with a focus on personality traits. A large number of different approaches have been chosen to illuminate the role of BDNF for personality, ranging from the measurement of BDNF...

  10. Personality Factors in the Student Teaching Triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert, Jr.; And Others

    A match or mis-match of cooperating teachers and student teachers on personality characteristics may have an important role in the overall effectiveness of the student teaching experience. Among the different personality factors that may affect participant relationships are flexibility, empathy, and self-esteem. To assess the validity of measures…

  11. The General Factor of Personality: Ten Years After

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janek Musek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the empirical and theoretical research in past ten years, the General Factor of Personality (GFP was interpreted as the highest-order (most general personality dimension, which occupies the apex of the structural hierarchy of personality traits. Thus, the GFP is the central concept in the new structural paradigm of personality (the Pyramidal Model of Personality. In the majority of the studies, the GFP was conceptualized as a general factor with substantial psychological (cognitive and behavioural content reflecting the general social and personal adjustment or effectiveness. The alternative explanations of the GFP emphasize the role of the semantic factors, response styles and other biases. This study reviews the main results of the GFP research including the nature, the biological bases, the strength and cultural universality of GFP, its relations to intelligence and other prominent psychological variables, and its predictive power and practical importance.

  12. Cognitive, Personality, and Family Factors in Patients with Migraine Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Johari-Fard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a disorder that has debilitating pain, and affects all aspects of life, including the academic, social, and family life of patients. In addition, studies show the effects of migraine on patient's relationships with family members such as spouse, children, and other family members. In addition to physical pain, migraines are tied to significant psychological and economic costs. Migraineurs tend to have high levels of depression and anxiety, and migraine headaches have a profoundly negative impact on sufferers’ quality of life. In the present research, we investigated the correlations and regressions of cognitive, personality, and family factors with migraine headache, to find predictor factors of migraine. In this study, the following questionnaires were used: For migraine: six-item Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, and Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 2.1.; for cognitive factors: Irrational Beliefs Test and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale; for personality factors: NEO Personality Inventory; and for family factors: Family Assessment Device. This project was on 58 women with migraine headaches, diagnosed by neurologist. The findings show that, there is a significant regression between cognitive, personality, and family factors and HIT-6. In cognitive factors, frustration reactivity and anxious overconcern, in personality factors, extraversion trait, and in family factors, affective involvement are significant. Moreover, there is a significant regression between cognitive, personality, and family factors and MSQ. In cognitive factors, frustration reactivity, anxious overconcern, and helplessness, in personality factors, agreeableness and consciousness, and in family factors, affective involvement and general functioning are significant. This project showed that cognitive, personality, and family factors have a correlation with migraine headache.

  13. Assessment of the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, T A; Trull, T J

    1997-04-01

    The five-factor model (FFM) of personality is obtaining construct validation, recognition, and practical consideration across a broad domain of fields, including clinical psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, and health psychology. As a result, an array of instruments have been developed and existing instruments are being modified to assess the FFM. In this article, we present an overview and critique of five such instruments (the Goldberg Big Five Markers, the revised NEO Personality Inventory, the Interpersonal Adjective Scales-Big Five, the Personality Psychopathology-Five, and the Hogan Personality Inventory), focusing in particular on their representation of the lexical FFM and their practical application.

  14. Psychosocial risk factors and personality disorders in outpatient cardiology setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Suárez-Bagnasco

    2015-01-01

    Psychological risk factors and personality disorders comorbidities are more frequent than psychological risk factors only or personality disorders only in outpatient cardiology setting without cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Gender differences in personality are considered to have biological bases. In an attempt to understand the gender differences of personality on neurobiological bases, we conducted correlation analyses between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factors of personality in males and females. Thirty-six healthy right-handed volunteers (18 males, 33.8 {+-} 17.6 y;18 females, 36.2 {+-} 20.4 y) underwent FDG PET at resting state. Three temperament factors of personality (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) within 10 days of FDG PET scan. Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament factor was tested using SPM2. In males, a significant negative correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyri, the hippocampus and the insula, while it was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri, the right superior temporal gyrus and the left cingulate cortex and the putamen in females. A positive HA correlation was found in the right midbrain and the left cingulate gyrus in males, but in the bilateral basal ganglia in females. A negative RD correlation was observed in the right middle frontal and the left middle temporal gyri in males, while the correlation was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri and the right basal ganglia and the superior temporal gyrus in females. These data demonstrate different cortical and subcortical metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality between males and females. These results may help understand biological substrate of gender differences in personality and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses.

  16. Metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences in personality are considered to have biological bases. In an attempt to understand the gender differences of personality on neurobiological bases, we conducted correlation analyses between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factors of personality in males and females. Thirty-six healthy right-handed volunteers (18 males, 33.8 ± 17.6 y;18 females, 36.2 ± 20.4 y) underwent FDG PET at resting state. Three temperament factors of personality (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) within 10 days of FDG PET scan. Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament factor was tested using SPM2. In males, a significant negative correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyri, the hippocampus and the insula, while it was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri, the right superior temporal gyrus and the left cingulate cortex and the putamen in females. A positive HA correlation was found in the right midbrain and the left cingulate gyrus in males, but in the bilateral basal ganglia in females. A negative RD correlation was observed in the right middle frontal and the left middle temporal gyri in males, while the correlation was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri and the right basal ganglia and the superior temporal gyrus in females. These data demonstrate different cortical and subcortical metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality between males and females. These results may help understand biological substrate of gender differences in personality and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses

  17. Personal factors affecting organizational commitment of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational ...

  18. Burnout and its relationship with personality factors in oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente-Solana, Emilia I; Gómez-Urquiza, José L; Cañadas, Gustavo R; Albendín-García, Luis; Ortega-Campos, Elena; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2017-10-01

    To assess burnout levels in oncology nurses, to evaluate at what stage of burnout suffering they are and to analyze the relationship between burnout with personality factors. A quantitative, observational, cross-sectional multicenter study was done. Oncology nurses (n = 101) from the Andalusian Health Service (Andalusia, Spain) were included. The main variables were personality factors, assessed with the NEO-FFI questionnaire, anxiety and depression, assessed with the Educational-Clinical Questionnaire: Anxiety and Depression, and burnout, evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Student t-statistic was used for hypothesis contrasts and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to establish the association between personality factors and burnout. According to the burnout phases model, 29.6% of the sample is in the most severe phases. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are positively correlated with neuroticism and negatively correlated with agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion and openness. Personal accomplishment has a negative correlation with neuroticism and negative correlations with agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion and openness. Finally, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization have a positive correlation with anxiety and depression, while personal accomplishment has a negative correlation with anxiety and depression. A significant number of oncology nurses are in the most severe stages of burnout suffering. Personality factors have a key role in burnout development. The importance of personality factors in burnout development should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Five-Factor Model of Personality and Borderline Personality Disorder: A Genetic Analysis of Comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, M.A.; Trull, T.J.; Willemsen, G.; Vink, J.M.; Derom, C.A.; Lynskey, M.; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently, the nature of personality disorders and their relationship with normal personality traits has received extensive attention. The five-factor model (FFM) of personality, consisting of the personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and

  20. Predicting Personality Disorder Functioning Styles by the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in Healthy Volunteers and Personality Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qianqian; Ma, Guorong; Zhu, Qisha; Fan, Hongying; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Detecting personality disorders in the illiterate population is a challenge, but nonverbal tools measuring personality traits such as the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FFNPQ) might help. We hypothesized that FFNPQ traits are associated with personality disorder functioning styles in a predictable way, especially in a sample of personality disorder patients. We therefore invited 106 personality disorder patients and 205 healthy volunteers to answer the FFNPQ and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) which measures 11 personality disorder functioning styles. Patients scored significantly higher on the FFNPQ neuroticism and conscientiousness traits and all 11 PERM styles. In both groups, the 5 FFNPQ traits displayed extensive associations with the 11 PERM styles, respectively, and the associations were more specific in patients. Associations between neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness traits and most PERM styles were less exclusive, but conscientiousness was associated with antisocial (-) and obsessive-compulsive styles, and openness to experience with schizotypal and dependent (-) styles. Our study has demonstrated correlations between FFNPQ traits and PERM styles, and implies the nonverbal measure of personality traits is capable of aiding the diagnoses of personality disorders in the illiterate population. Enlarging sample size and including the illiterate might make for more stable results. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Psychometric properties of the personal wellbeing index in Brazilian and Chilean adolescents including spirituality and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castellá Sarriera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI with two other versions which include the domains "Spirituality" and "Religion", separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047 and Chilean (n = 1.053 adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08, whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the differential contribution of each domain to the notion of global satisfaction, a regression on the item Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS was applied using structural equations. It is recommended the inclusion of the item spirituality in the original scale, considering the importance of such domain in both cultures.

  2. Personality factors of critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, C D; Wilson, S F; Guido, G W

    1988-07-01

    Two hundred members of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses responded to a mail-out survey done to determine the psychologic profile of critical care nurses in terms of self-esteem, gender identity, and selected personality characteristics. The instruments used were Cattell's 16 PR, the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ), and the Texas Social Behavior Inventory (TSBI). Their personality factors tended to be aggressive, assertive, competitive, persevering, moralistic, resourceful, and mechanical. The nurses who enjoyed the field most were of the androgynous or masculine type and had high levels of self-esteem. On the basis of these findings, the nurse recruiter or faculty member doing career counseling could assess the personality characteristics, gender identity, and self-esteem levels of interested nurses. The goal would be to identify nurses who would both enjoy the field and remain active in critical care nursing after orientation. The goal could also be to help nurses dissatisfied with critical care nursing to seek means of improving their self-esteem.

  3. Five-Factor Personality Traits as Predictor of Career Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to determine the predictive strength of personality traits based on the five-factor theory on the level of career maturity Research Methods: The sample of the study included a total of 429 high school students, 248 females (57.8%) and 181 males (42.2%). The study utilized the "Career Maturity Scale" to determine…

  4. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  5. Cognitive, personality, and social factors associated with adolescents' online personal information disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Ang, Rebecca P; Lwin, May O

    2013-08-01

    The current study aims to understand the factors that influence adolescents' disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) on social networking sites (SNSs). A survey was conducted among 780 adolescent participants (between 13 and 18) who were Facebook users. Structural equation modeling was used for analyzing the data and obtaining an overarching model that include cognitive, personality, and social factors that influence adolescents' PII disclosure. Results showed privacy concern as the cognitive factor reduces adolescents' PII disclosure and it serves as a potential mediator for personality and social factors. Amongst personality factors, narcissism was found to directly increase PII disclosure, and social anxiety indirectly decreases PII disclosure by increasing privacy concern. Amongst social factors, active parental mediation decreases PII disclosure directly and indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Restrictive parental mediation decreases PII disclosure only indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Implications of the findings to parents, educators, and policy makers were discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lexical studies of indigenous personality factors: premises, products, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, G; Goldberg, L R; Institute, O R

    2001-12-01

    The rationale for lexical studies rests on the assumption that the most meaningful personality attributes tend to become encoded in language as single-word descriptors. We articulate some key premises of the lexical approach and then review a number of studies that have been conducted examining the factor structure of personality descriptors extracted from dictionaries. We compare lexical studies in English and 12 other languages, with attention to delineating consistencies between the structures found in diverse languages. Our review suggests that the Anglo-Germanic Big Five is reproduced better in some languages than in others. We propose some organizing rules for lexical factor structures that may be more generalizable than the contemporary Big-Five model. And, we propose several candidate structural models that should be compared with the Big Five in future studies, including structures with one, two, and three very broad factors, an alternative five-factor structure identified in Italian and Hungarian studies, and a seven-factor structure represented in Hebrew and Philippine studies. We recommend that in future studies more attention be paid to middle-level personality constructs and to examining the effects of methodological variations on the resulting factor structures.

  7. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  8. The five-factor model of personality and borderline personality disorder: a genetic analysis of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Marijn A; Trull, Timothy J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M; Derom, Catherine A; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2009-12-15

    Recently, the nature of personality disorders and their relationship with normal personality traits has received extensive attention. The five-factor model (FFM) of personality, consisting of the personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, is one of the proposed models to conceptualize personality disorders as maladaptive variants of continuously distributed personality traits. The present study examined the phenotypic and genetic association between borderline personality and FFM personality traits. Data were available for 4403 monozygotic twins, 4425 dizygotic twins, and 1661 siblings from 6140 Dutch, Belgian, and Australian families. Broad-sense heritability estimates for neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, openness to experience, and borderline personality were 43%, 36%, 43%, 47%, 54%, and 45%, respectively. Phenotypic correlations between borderline personality and the FFM personality traits ranged from .06 for openness to experience to .68 for neuroticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that a combination of high neuroticism and low agreeableness best predicted borderline personality. Multivariate genetic analyses showed the genetic factors that influence individual differences in neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion account for all genetic liability to borderline personality. Unique environmental effects on borderline personality, however, were not completely shared with those for the FFM traits (33% is unique to borderline personality). Borderline personality shares all genetic variation with neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion. The unique environmental influences specific to borderline personality may cause individuals with a specific pattern of personality traits to cross a threshold and develop borderline personality.

  9. Personality factors as predictors of foreign language aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Biedroń

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses a problem which is inadequately investigated in second language acquisition research, that is, personality predictors of foreign language aptitude. Specifically, it focuses on the Five Factor model which includes Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism (Costa & McCrae, 1992 as traits differentiating gifted and nongifted foreign language learners and predicting results of foreign language aptitude tests. Although contemporary researchers generally agree that affect is an important variable in second language acquisition, most empirical studies demonstrate that personality factors are weakly correlated with cognitive abilities and that their contribution to the ultimate attainment is minor (cf. Robinson & Ellis, 2008. On the other hand, these factors constitute an integral part of cognitive ability development (cf. Dörnyei, 2009; therefore, neglecting them in research on foreign language aptitude would be unjustified. The following study is an attempt to analyze the Five Factors in two groups of learners: gifted and nongifted. In order to answer the question as to which and to what extent personality factors have a predictive effect on foreign language aptitude, the results were subjected to a multiple regression analysis. The findings of the study are presented and discussed in a wider context of research on cognitive abilities.

  10. An inter-battery factor analysis of the comrey personality scales and the 16 personality factor questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Gideon P. de Bruin

    2000-01-01

    The scores of 700 Afrikaans-speaking university students on the Comrey Personality Scales and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire were subjected to an inter-battery factor analysis. This technique uses only the correlations between two sets of variables and reveals only the factors that they have in common. Three of the Big Five personality factors were revealed, namely Extroversion, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. However, the Conscientiousness factor contained a relatively strong uns...

  11. The five-factor model in schizotypal personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrera, Ronald J.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Voglmaier, Martina M.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of the five-factor model of personality in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) have produced inconsistent results, particularly with respect to openness. In the present study, the NEO-FFI was used to measure five-factor personality dimensions in 28 community volunteers with SPD and 24 psychiatrically healthy individuals. Standard multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate personality differences as a function of diagnosis and gender. Individuals with SPD had significan...

  12. Personal factors of moral responsibility in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Molchanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Responsibility as a measure of individual freedom comes only under the condition of freedom of choice and the ability to anticipate and take into account the consequences of acts. Therefore, personal factors play a key role in taking moral responsibility. Scholars have studied the personal bases of responsibility that comprises autonomy, independence, confidence, the locus of control, the motivation to achieve a goal, the level of aspiration. However, the role of the moral self and moral identity in the determination of responsibility is not sufficiently studied. Objective. The objective of the research is to study the relationship between the moral identity of the individual and the willingness to accept moral responsibility in adolescence. Proceeding from the general hypothesis about the essential role of moral identity in adopting and actualising themoral responsibility, two specific hypotheses are articulated, specifying the role of values and moral self-esteem in taking moral responsibility. Design. An empirical study of adolescents aged 13–17 years was conducted. Subjects are students of educational institutions of general education in Moscow (a total of 314 subjects. The study poses the challenges of studying the readiness to accept moral responsibility by adolescents in the situation of a moral dilemma, the connection of the moral and value orientation of adolescents and the willingness to accept moral responsibility, the connection of self-esteem of moral qualities and the readiness of adolescents to accept moral responsibility. The methodology for assessing moral responsibility in the situation of solving the moral dilemma «Moral Situations from Real Life» (MORS, a modified version of M. Rokich’s method for evaluating value orientations, the method of structured moral self-esteem (A.I. Podolsky, P. Heymans, O.A. Karabanova are used. Conclusion. The results revealed the influence of the participants’ moral dilemma

  13. Faculty Personality: A Factor of Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Wu, Xiaodong; Irwin, Kathleen C.; Patrizi, L. A. Chad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student retention and faculty personality as it was hypothesized that faculty personality has an effect on student retention. The methodology adopted for this study was quantitative and in two parts 1) using linear regression models to examine the impact or causality of faculty…

  14. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  15. Factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory: Criterion-Related Validity and Relationship to the BIS/BAS and Five-Factor Models of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Scott R.; Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Thompson, Angela; Thurston, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder that includes interpersonal-affective and antisocial deviance features. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) contains two underlying factors (fearless dominance and impulsive antisociality) that may differentially tap these two sets of features. In a mixed-gender sample of undergraduates and prisoners,…

  16. "Big Five" Personality Factors Research Using Christal's Self Description Inventory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Janet

    1999-01-01

    .... In all cases the resultant factor structures and distributions of scores were consistent and indicate that the AFSDI is capable of measuring the five personality factors across a variety of subject...

  17. The General Factor of Personality: A General Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Revelle, William; Wilt, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that all non-cognitive measures of personality share a general factor of personality. A problem with many of these studies is a lack of clarity in defining a general factor. In this paper we address the multiple ways in which a general factor has been identified and argue that many of these approaches find factors that are not in fact general. Through the use of artificial examples, we show that a general factor is not: The first factor or component of a correla...

  18. Personality factors and breast cancer development: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiker, E M; van der Ploeg, H M; Hendriks, J H; Adèr, H J

    1996-10-16

    It has been estimated that approximately 25% of all breast cancers in women can be explained by currently recognized somatic (i.e., hereditary and physiologic) risk factors. It has also been hypothesized that psychological factors may play a role in the development of breast cancer. We investigated the extent to which personality factors, in addition to somatic risk factors, may be associated with the development of primary breast cancer. We employed a prospective, longitudinal study design. From 1989 through 1990, a personality questionnaire was sent to all female residents of the Dutch city of Nijmegen who were 43 years of age or older. This questionnaire was sent as part of an invitation to participate in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women who developed breast cancer among those who returned completed questionnaires were compared with women without such a diagnosis in regard to somatic risk factors and personality traits, including anxiety, anger, depression, rationality, anti-emotionality (i.e., an absence of emotional behavior or a lack of trust in one's own feelings), understanding, optimism, social support, and the expression and control of emotions. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables that could best explain group membership (i.e., belonging to the case [breast cancer] or the control [without disease] group). Personality questionnaires were sent to 28 940 women, and 9705 (34%) were returned in such a way that they could be used for statistical analyses. Among the 9705 women who returned useable questionnaires, 131 were diagnosed with breast cancer during the period from 1989 through 1994. Seven hundred seventy-one age-matched control subjects (up to six per case patient) were selected for the analyses. Three variables were found to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer: 1) having a first-degree family member with breast cancer (versus not having an

  19. Success Factors for Personal Sale - Transaction Oriented

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Mihai Vasiliu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate that a complex of factors, which I called “the success factors", which decisively influence the sale process. Currently, companies spend significant amounts of money each year to train sales representatives in the art sale. Banking institutions are designed to successfully meet the financial needs of the customers, to identify new needs, to reshape banking products and services, to create and launch new products and services on market.

  20. The General Factor of Personality: A General Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, William; Wilt, Joshua

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that all non-cognitive measures of personality share a general factor of personality. A problem with many of these studies is a lack of clarity in defining a general factor. In this paper we address the multiple ways in which a general factor has been identified and argue that many of these approaches find factors that are not in fact general. Through the use of artificial examples, we show that a general factor is not: The first factor or component of a correlation or covariance matrix.The first factor resulting from a bifactor rotation or biquartimin transformationNecessarily the result of a confirmatory factor analysis forcing a bifactor solution We consider how the definition of what constitutes a general factor can lead to confusion, and we will demonstrate alternative ways of estimating the general factor saturation that are more appropriate.

  1. Reproductive Behavior and Personality Traits of the Five Factor Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, Markus; Alvergne, Alexandra; Pollet, Thomas V.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations between Five Factor Model personality traits and various outcomes of reproductive behavior in a sample of 15 729 women and men from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey. Personality and reproductive history was

  2. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.

  3. Using person factors in social science research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K. Burger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis factorial es el método utilizado frecuentemente para la identificación de las dimensiones y estructuras que constituyen la base de un conjunto de medidas, lo cual es importante para la investigación. Mientras el análisis factorial de tipo R, produce los factores presentes en las variables, es conocido por muchos investigadores que el análisis de tipo Q describe los factores presentes en las personas, y ha sido utilizado con menor frecuencia. En el presente trabajo se describe el análisis factorial de tipo Q y lo distingue del análisis factorial de tipo R. Entonces, se examinan tres usos de factores derivados del análisis factorial tipo Q: para describir el perfil de los resultados de pruebas de individuos, para dar más opciones al análisis convencional de los datos y para investigar las cualidades del individuo en los instrumentos de medición. Se propone que los factores personales resultan útiles para estos propósitos, en las investigaciones de las ciencias sociales.

  4. Performance ratings and personality factors in radar controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether primary or second-order personality questionnaire factors were related to job performance ratings on the Employee Appraisal Record in a sample of 264 radar controllers. A Pearson correlation matrix wa...

  5. Job Satisfaction and Personality: The Utility of the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    represented by E, symbolizes the focus on the P-E interaction (Dawis, 1992). Even prior to Lewin, Parsons (1909) emphasized this same concept in the...Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology. 41. 417-440. Ekehammar, B. (1974). Interactionism in personality

  6. Success Factors for Personal Sale - Transaction Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mihai Vasiliu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate that a complex of factors, which I called “the successfactors", which decisively influence the sale process. Currently, companies spend significant amountsof money each year to train sales representatives in the art sale. Banking institutions are designed tosuccessfully meet the financial needs of the customers, to identify new needs, to reshape bankingproducts and services, to create and launch new products and services on market.

  7. Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Deiana, Barbara; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward G.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Unhealthy lipid levels are among the leading controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease. To identify the psychological factors associated with dyslipidemia, this study investigates the personality correlates of cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) and triglycerides. A community-based sample (N=5,532) from Sardinia, Italy, had their cholesterol and triglyceride levels assessed and completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R. All analyses controlled for age, sex, BM...

  8. 13 CFR 120.102 - Funds not available from alternative sources, including personal resources of principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... source) when that owner's liquid assets exceed the amounts specified in paragraphs (a) (1) through (3) of... applicant must inject any personal liquid assets which are in excess of two times the total financing... the applicant must inject any personal liquid assets which are in excess of one and one-half times the...

  9. Four factors of impulsivity differentiate antisocial and borderline personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShong, Hilary L; Kurtz, John E

    2013-04-01

    Impulsivity is a shared criterion for the diagnosis of antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and this link may account for the high comorbidity rates between the two disorders. The current study aimed to differentiate between borderline and antisocial personality disorders using the four factors of impulsivity identified by Whiteside and Lynam (2001). Five hundred thirty-six undergraduate participants completed the personality assessment inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to assess borderline and antisocial personality features and the NEO personality inventory, third edition (NEO-PI-3; McCrae & Costa, 2010) to assess the four factors of impulsivity. Results indicate that negative urgency and lack of perseverance were significantly and uniquely related to borderline features, while sensation seeking and lack of premeditation were significantly and uniquely related to antisocial features. The implications of these results for improved differential diagnosis are discussed.

  10. Critical Factors for Personal Cloud Storage Adoption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianya Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to explain and predict the adoption of personal cloud storage, this study explores the critical factors involved in the adoption of personal cloud storage and empirically validates their relationships to a user's intentions. Design/methodology/approach: Based on technology acceptance model (TAM, network externality, trust, and an interview survey, this study proposes a personal cloud storage adoption model. We conducted an empirical analysis by structural equation modeling based on survey data obtained with a questionnaire. Findings: Among the adoption factors we identified, network externality has the salient influence on a user's adoption intention, followed by perceived usefulness, individual innovation, perceived trust, perceived ease of use, and subjective norms. Cloud storage characteristics are the most important indirect factors, followed by awareness to personal cloud storage and perceived risk. However, although perceived risk is regarded as an important factor by other cloud computing researchers, we found that it has no significant influence. Also, subjective norms have no significant influence on perceived usefulness. This indicates that users are rational when they choose whether to adopt personal cloud storage. Research limitations: This study ignores time and cost factors that might affect a user's intention to adopt personal cloud storage. Practical implications: Our findings might be helpful in designing and developing personal cloud storage products, and helpful to regulators crafting policies. Originality/value: This study is one of the first research efforts that discuss Chinese users' personal cloud storage adoption, which should help to further the understanding of personal cloud adoption behavior among Chinese users.

  11. Shift, Interrupted: Strategies for Managing Difficult Patients Including Those with Personality Disorders and Somatic Symptoms in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukaddam, Nidal; AufderHeide, Erin; Flores, Araceli; Tucci, Veronica

    2015-11-01

    Difficult patients are often those who present with a mix of physical and psychiatric symptoms, and seem refractory to usual treatments or reassurance. such patients can include those with personality disorders, those with somatization symptoms; they can come across as entitled, drug-seeking, manipulative, or simply draining to the provider. Such patients are often frequent visitors to Emergency Departments. Other reasons for difficult encounters could be rooted in provider bias or countertransference, rather than sole patient factors. Emergency providers need to have high awareness of these possibilities, and be prepared to manage such situations, otherwise workup can be sub-standard and dangerous medical mistakes can be made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwan, Toni; Ownsworth, Tamara

    2017-12-22

    To identify and appraise studies investigating the relationship between the Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke and evidence for personality change. Systematic searches of six databases (PsychINFO, CINAHL, Ovid Medline, Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science) were conducted from inception to June 2017. Studies involving adult stroke samples that employed a validated measure of at least one of the Big Five personality factors were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of studies. Eleven studies were identified that assessed associations between personality and psychological well-being after stroke (nine studies) or post-stroke personality change (two studies). A consistent finding was that higher neuroticism was significantly related to poorer psychological well-being. The evidence for the other Big Five factors was mixed. In terms of personality change, two cross-sectional studies reported high rates of elevated neuroticism (38-48%) and low extraversion (33-40%) relative to normative data. Different questionnaires and approaches to measuring personality (i.e., self vs. informant ratings, premorbid personality vs. current personality) complicated comparisons between studies. People high on neuroticism are at increased risk of poor psychological well-being after stroke. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to address the limited research on post-stroke personality change. Implications for rehabilitation High neuroticism is associated with poorer psychological well-being after stroke. Assessing personality characteristics early after stroke may help to identify those at risk of poor psychological outcomes.

  13. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  14. The FARE: a new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  15. Personality factors and adult attachment affecting job mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Feij, J.A.; Krausz, M.; Taris, R.

    2003-01-01

    Past research has revealed that individuals' job mobility is affected by factors such as job satisfaction, specific career enhancing attributes and job availability. This study examined personality factors predicting voluntary internal and external job mobility. Three types of voluntary job mobility

  16. A structured interview for the assessment of the Five-Factor Model of personality: facet-level relations to the axis II personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, T J; Widiger, T A; Burr, R

    2001-04-01

    The Structured Interview for the Five-Factor Model (SIFFM; Trull & Widiger, 1997) is an 120-item semistructured interview that assesses both adaptive and maladaptive features of the personality traits included in the five-factor model of personality, or "Big Five." In this article, we evaluate the ability of SIFFM scores to predict personality disorder symptomatology in a sample of 232 adults (46 outpatients and 186 nonclinical college students). Personality disorder symptoms were assessed using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised (PDQ-R; Hyler & Rider, 1987). Results indicated that many of the predicted associations between lower-order personality traits and personality disorders were supported. Further, many of these associations held even after controlling for comorbid personality disorder symptoms. These findings may help inform conceptualizations of the personality disorders, as well as etiological theories and treatment.

  17. Dose estimate for personal music players including earphone sensitivity and characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Christensen, Anders Tornvig

    2016-01-01

    Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user. In the pres......Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user...... earphone measurements published in the past. The work is on-going....

  18. Role of biological factors in etiopathogenesis of borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally labile personality of borderline type (borderline personality occurs in 1-2% of individuals from general population; 75% of this group are women. Similarly to most of the other mental disorders, the borderline personality results from a combination of biological, social and psychological factors. The subject of this study is a survey of the current knowledge on biological factors of borderline personality. Most researchers are of the opinion that these personality disorders are determined genetically, with such inherited temperamental traits as: dysregulation, impulsivity, and hypersensitivity. Perhaps hereditary is also a defect within the serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system and/or dopaminergic system related to the reward system. Many researchers have recently perceived the dysfunction of endogenous opioid system as an integral component of borderline personality. There is now a lot of evidence showing that this dysfunction as well as that of the reward system may account for most of the borderline personality symptoms which constitute an involuntary attempt of stimulating the inefficient systems. This is how e.g. the presence of reckless sexual behaviours, unstable interpersonal relationships and inability to delay the reward in borderline personality is accounted for. Such observations may in the future constitute an important indication for seeking a more effective pharmacotherapy for patients with borderline personality. It is possible that in some patients the described dysfunctions may be alleviated with time. This is implied by the results of comprehensive prospective studies which show a significant regression of symptoms and improvement in functioning of most patients with borderline personality after at least several years.

  19. Lessons learned from different approaches towards classifying personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rachel; Geyh, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    To examine and compare existing suggestions towards a classification of Personal Factors (PF) of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Qualitative and quantitative content analyses of available categorizations of PF are conducted. While the eight categorizations greatly differ in their background and structure, the broad content areas covered seem to be similar and reflect the ICF definition of PF. They cover to various degrees 12 broad content areas: socio-demographic factors, behavioral and lifestyle factors, cognitive psychological factors, social relationships, experiences and biography, coping, emotional factors, satisfaction, other health conditions, biological/physiological factors, personality, motives/motivation. In comparing these categorizations, a common core of content issues for a potential ICF PF classification could be identified and valuable lessons learned. This can contribute to future classification development activities in relation to PF.

  20. Hybridising Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility to Include Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the impact of the combination of two pedagogical models, Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility, for learners with disabilities experiencing a contactless kickboxing learning unit. Twelve secondary education students agreed to participate. Five had disabilities (intellectual and…

  1. Factors Contributing to Personal Commitment in Chinese Interethnic Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interethnic relationships are increasingly common in many societies, yet interethnic couples have a higher divorce rate compared to intraethnic couples. Given these facts and the dearth of research, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to couples’ commitment in interethnic relationships. This study investigated the personal commitment of Chinese interethnic couples in the United Kingdom and the United States. Specifically, whether love, dyadic adjustment and “couple cultural identity” (i.e. acculturation to the partner and couple’s similarity on individualism/collectivism would predict personal commitment and whether each variable would account for unique variance in personal commitment of the participants. Thirty-seven Chinese/non-Chinese heterosexual couples participated in the study and significant relationships between love and personal commitment, dyadic adjustment and personal commitment were found. Also, couple cultural identity was important for women’s personal commitment. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling showed that partners in interethnic relationships defined personal commitment in different ways with men emphasizing love and dyadic adjustment, and women emphasizing love and acculturation to their partner. The discovery of the importance of couple cultural identity in contributing to personal commitment, besides love and dyadic adjustment, helps researchers to gain a greater understanding of such relationships and to extend the research on interethnic relationships.

  2. DETERMINING EFFECT OF PERSONALITY TRAITS ON VOTER BEHAVIOR USING FIVE FACTOR PERSONALITY INVENTORY

    OpenAIRE

    Aldemir, Ceyhan; Bayraktaroğlu, Gül

    2014-01-01

    The researchers have used four sub-dimensions (rule obedience, innovativeness, reactiveness and self confidence) of the five factor personality inventory redeveloped and modified by Somer, Korkmaz and Tatar (2002) for Turkish citizens to analyze the interactions of personality and voter behavior. The intentions are examined as intentions for certain groups of parties: left, right, new, new and religious. Rule obedience is found to create significant differences among respondent’s intentions t...

  3. Personality-Related Problems and the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreaux, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This research identifies a broad and inclusive set of personality-related problems and examines their empirical associations with both the high and low poles of the five-factor model of personality (FFM). McCrae, Widiger, and colleagues (e.g., McCrae, 1994; McCrae, Löckenhoff, & Costa, 2005; Widiger, Costa, & McCrae, 2002, 2012) have proposed that individuals with particular personality traits may be predisposed to particular kinds of problems in life, and suggested that the FFM serve as a ba...

  4. Five-Factor Model personality profiles of drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crum Rosa M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality traits are considered risk factors for drug use, and, in turn, the psychoactive substances impact individuals' traits. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in developing treatment approaches that match an individual's personality profile. To advance our knowledge of the role of individual differences in drug use, the present study compares the personality profile of tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin users and non-users using the wide spectrum Five-Factor Model (FFM of personality in a diverse community sample. Method Participants (N = 1,102; mean age = 57 were part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA program in Baltimore, MD, USA. The sample was drawn from a community with a wide range of socio-economic conditions. Personality traits were assessed with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R, and psychoactive substance use was assessed with systematic interview. Results Compared to never smokers, current cigarette smokers score lower on Conscientiousness and higher on Neuroticism. Similar, but more extreme, is the profile of cocaine/heroin users, which score very high on Neuroticism, especially Vulnerability, and very low on Conscientiousness, particularly Competence, Achievement-Striving, and Deliberation. By contrast, marijuana users score high on Openness to Experience, average on Neuroticism, but low on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Conclusion In addition to confirming high levels of negative affect and impulsive traits, this study highlights the links between drug use and low Conscientiousness. These links provide insight into the etiology of drug use and have implications for public health interventions.

  5. Parental bonding and depression: personality as a mediating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    According to Bowlby's theory of attachment, the role of early experience and parenting is of crucial importance to child development and mental health. In addition, several research findings suggest that parental bonding and different types of attachment play a crucial role in personality development. The present study examines the association between parental bonding experiences (lack of parental care, overprotection or both) and depression during adulthood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different personality dimensions as possible mediators of the relation between perceptions of parental bonding and depressive symptoms in adult life. 181 participants (15- 49-years-old) completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). The results show that lack of parental care and overprotection is linked with depressive symptoms and a number of personality characteristics, such as low self-esteem, introversion, distress and emotional instability. In contrast, high care and low protection (optimal bonding) is linked with increased self-confidence, less distress and less depressive symptoms. The results presented here are in line with Bowlby's theory of attachment and show that parental bonding is linked with problematic personality development and psychopathology. The present study provided evidence that personality factors may mediate the observed relationship between parental rearing style and depression. The potential causal mechanisms warrant longitudinal evaluation.

  6. Trichotillomania and personality traits from the five-factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Keuthen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To examine whether personality traits have predictive validity for trichotillomania (TTM diagnosis, pulling severity and control, and hair pulling style.Methods:In study 1, logistic regression was used with TTM cases (n=54 and controls (n=25 to determine if NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI personality domains predicted TTM case vs. control classification. In study 2, hierarchical multiple regression was used with TTM cases (n=164 to determine whether NEO-FFI personality domains predicted hair pulling severity and control as well as focused and automatic pulling styles.Results:TTM case vs. control status was predicted by NEO-FFI neuroticism. Every 1-point increase in neuroticism scores resulted in a 10% greater chance of TTM diagnosis. Higher neuroticism, higher openness, and lower agreeableness were associated with greater pulling severity. Higher neuroticism was also associated with less control over hair pulling. Higher neuroticism and lower openness were associated with greater focused pulling. None of the personality domains predicted automatic hair pulling.Conclusions:Personality traits, especially neuroticism, can predict TTM diagnosis, hair pulling severity and control, and the focused style of pulling. None of the personality traits predicted automatic pulling. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether personality variables predispose to TTM onset, impact disorder course, and/or result from hair pulling behavior.

  7. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne ePrinz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual’s financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002 lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version. Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor ‘source of funding’: students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships had much higher rates of risk aversion (RRA than subjects with support from family (RRAdiff=0.22; p=0.018. Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the IQ significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors ‘agreeableness’ and ‘openness’ showed moderate to modest – but significant - effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion.

  8. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual's financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor "source of funding": students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors "agreeableness" and "openness" showed moderate to modest - but significant - effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion.

  9. Relations of age and personality dimensions to cognitive ability factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P T; Fozard, J L; McCrae, R R; Bosśe, R

    1976-11-01

    The relation between three cognitive ability factors - Information Processing Ability (IPA), Manual Dexterity (MD), and Pattern Analysis Capability (PAC) - and three personality dimensions - Anxiety, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience - were examined in three age groups. Subjects were 969 male volunteers ranging in age from 25 to 82. Subjects high in anixety scored lower on all three cognitive factors; subjects open to experience scored higher on IPA and PAC; and introverted subjects scored higher on PAC. Most of these effects remained when the education and socio-economic status were held constant in covariance analyses. Older subjects performed less well than younger ones on MD and PAC, but not on IPA. While personality has some influence on cognitive performance, the declines with age in performance on some cognitive tasks are not mediated by personality.

  10. Developmental Factors Associated with the Formation of the Antisocial Personality: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kent Wesley

    Research on factors which contribute to the development of antisocial personality disorder is reviewed. Methodological issues are critiqued, including major assessment instruments and frequently used research designs. Factors which current research indicates might lead to the continuation of antisocial behavior from childhood into adulthood are…

  11. Type D Personality : a five-factor model perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fruyt, F.; Denollet, J.K.L.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the position of Type D (high Negative Affectivity and high Social Inhibition) within the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality. A sample of 155 healthy subjects were administered the Type D Scale and the NEO-FFI, assessing the FFM traits. Subjects also filled out the General

  12. The Five-Factor Model of Personality and Career Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Scott E.; Kraimer, Maria L.

    2001-01-01

    Measures of career success and an inventory of the Five-Factor Model of Personality were completed by 496 workers. Extraversion was related positively to salary, promotion, and career satisfaction; neuroticism was related negatively to satisfaction. A significant negative relationship between agreeableness and salary was found for workers in…

  13. Personality and Situational Factors Influencing the Advertising Sales Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfo, Lauranell; Rogus, Mary T.

    Focusing on situational and personality factors as predictors of two common types of sales behavior (the customer-oriented/marketing approach, and the adversarial/bottom-line approach), a study conducted a national survey of advertising sales people and media buyers in the summer and fall of 1987. A total of 3669 questionnaires were sent to…

  14. Personal factors that influence deaf college students' academic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, John A; Kelly, Ronald R; Matchett, Mary Karol

    2012-01-01

    Research tells us that academic preparation is key to deaf students' success at college. Yet, that is not the whole story. Many academically prepared students drop out during their first year. This study identified entering deaf college students' personal factors as assessed by their individual responses to both the Noel-Levitz College Student Inventory Form B and the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, second edition (LASSI). Entering students in 3 successive cohorts (total n =437) participated in this study. Results show that in addition to entry measurements of reading and mathematic skills, personal factors contributed to the academic performance of students in their first quarter in college. The Noel-Levitz provided the comparatively better predictive value of academic performance: Motivation for Academic Study Scale (e.g., desire to finish college). The LASSI also showed statistically significant predictors, the Self-Regulation Component (e.g., time management) and Will Component (e.g., self-discipline), but accounted for relatively less variability in the students' initial grade point averages. For this group of underprepared students, results show that personal factors can play a significant role in academic success. Deaf students' personal factors are discussed as they relate to other first-year college students and to their subsequent academic performance and persistence.

  15. TRAIT PROCRASTINATION AND THE BIG-5 FACTORS OF PERSONALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOUWENBURG, HC; LAY, CH

    Trait procrastination is viewed as a summary variable linked to the predisposition to engage in dilatory behaviour. This paper sought to trace the sources of trait procrastination by locating it within the five-factor personality structure. Study 1 concerned self-ratings on trait adjectives (in

  16. Environmental factors and teenagers' personalities: The role of personal and familial Socio-Cultural Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menardo, Elisa; Balboni, Giulia; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-05-15

    Environmental (e.g., socio-cultural context), individual (e.g., genetic makeup), and interpersonal (e.g., caregiver-children relationships) factors can play a crucial role in shaping the development of the teenagers' personality. In this study, we focused on the Socio-Cultural Level that designates the set of preferences, knowledge, and behaviors that characterize an individual's way of life and depend on his or her cultural, social, and economic resources. We studied the relationship between Socio-Cultural Level (personal, maternal, and paternal) and Big Five personality traits of 191 teenagers living in the same geographical area. Results showed that Socioeconomic Status (i.e., parental education level and occupational prestige), which is the only dimension generally measured in investigations on Socio-Cultural Level, was not related with personality. In contrast, Cultural Capital and Social Capital were associated with different personality traits. Personal Cultural Capital was related to Openness to experience of boys and girls and to Extraversion of girls; personal Social Capital was related to Extraversion of girls, Emotional stability of boys, and Agreeableness of both boys and girls; maternal Cultural Capital was associated with Openness to experience of daughters. Overall, the personality of teenagers was more related to their own Cultural and Social Capital than to the Cultural and Social Capital of their parents. Moreover, the relationship between Cultural Capital and Social Capital of boys/girls and of fathers/mothers was moderate in strength. It seems that parents influence the development of personality of their teenagers indirectly, their Socio-Cultural Level shaping the Socio-Cultural Level of their sons and daughters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Big Five Personality Factors and Application Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Matuliauskaitė

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Big five factors are used in many research fields. The literature survey showed that the personality trait theory was used to study and explain relations with different variables. The article focuses on a brief description of methods that can help with identifying the Big five factors and considers the model for applying them in personnel selection. The paper looks at scientific researches assessing relations between the Big five factors and different variables such as job performance, academic performance, student knowledge management and evaluation.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Personal and social factors influencing age at first sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D A; Smith, A M; de Visser, R

    1999-08-01

    Early initiation of sexual activity is a concern, in part because of increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies among young people. In this study, 241 high schoolers were administered a questionnaire to establish the relationships between age at first sexual intercourse and personal qualities (sexual style, attractiveness, physical maturity, restraint, autonomy expectations, and attitudes to gender roles), smoking and drug use, and aspects of the social context (social activities, media impact, peer norms). There were few effects of sex of respondent and none in which respondents' sex impacted on age of initiation. Overall (and among the male sample), perceptions of greater physical maturity, greater use of uncommon (mostly illicit) drugs, and expectations of earlier autonomy significantly differentiated between early and later initiators. This group of factors tends to confirm the view that early experience of sexual intercourse is correlated with problem behaviors and a press toward "adult" behaviors. For girls, this pattern was even clearer, with use of uncommon drugs being replaced as a significant contributor to early sexual experience by relative lack of restraint. We conclude that the desire to achieve the transition to adulthood at an earlier age than their peers constitutes a powerful incentive for young people to become sexually active.

  19. Personality factors and cognitive functioning in elderly with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria de Oliveira Chardosim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease (PD is a chronic and progressive neurological disease, resulting from cell degeneration in the substantia nigra, responsible for the production of dopamine. Objective: This study aimed to characterize the cognitive functioning, personality factors and prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD. Furthermore, this study sought to analyze whether personality factors were predictors of cognitive functioning. Methods: The sample consisted of 30 elderly with PD. Participants completed a sociodemographic data sheet, the NEO-FFI-R (Five Factor Inventory NEO Revised, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Beta-III, the phonemic verbal fluency test and semantics (Animals, the digits span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults and the Boston Naming Test and the word list of the CERAD battery, the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results: The elderly with PD presented impairment in verbal episodic memory and executive functions. Most of the participants demonstrated low levels of neuroticism. The extraversion factor was positively correlated with executive functions and the openness to experience factor was positively correlated with verbal episodic memory. It was concluded that the elderly with PD presented memory and executive function impairments. The factor that most contributed to performance of the elderly with PD on memory and executive function tasks was the extraversion factor.

  20. Personality factors in the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stacy L; Sun, Jenny X; Sebastiani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate personality profiles of Long Life Family Study participants relative to population norms and offspring of centenarians from the New England Centenarian Study.Method. Personality domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness were...... assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory in 4,937 participants from the Long Life Family Study (mean age 70 years). A linear mixed model of age and gender was implemented adjusting for other covariates. RESULTS: A significant age trend was found in all five personality domains. On average, the offspring...... generation of long-lived families scored low in neuroticism, high in extraversion, and within average values for the other three domains. Older participants tended to score higher in neuroticism and lower in the other domains compared with younger participants, but the estimated scores generally remained...

  1. The personality profile of borderline personality disordered patients using the five-factor model of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Verardi; Rosetta Nicastro; Annabel McQuillan; Ineke Keizer; Jérôme Rossier

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio ex post facto es el análisis del perfil de personalidad de pacientes ambulatorios con trastorno límite de la personalidad según el modelo de personalidad de los Cinco Factores. Los pacientes (N = 52) completaron el Examen Internacional de los Trastornos de Personalidad (IPDE), el Cuestionario de los Cinco Grandes (BFQ), el Inventario de Depresion de Beck (BDI) y la Escala de Desesperanza de Beck (BHS). Los resultaron muestran una alta comorbilidad con otros trastor...

  2. The Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in the Czech context

    OpenAIRE

    Hřebíčková, M. (Martina)

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the psychometric properties of the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FF-NPQ) in a sample of 1,113 people. The FF-NPQ is a non-verbal measure of the Big Five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). The presented psychometric measures include scale internal consistencies, intercorrelations, and convergences with two verbal Big Five measures. Gender and age differences are reported. Further...

  3. Personality traits as vulnerability factors in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Katharina; Kollei, Ines; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid; Martin, Alexandra

    2013-11-30

    Cognitive behavioural models consider certain personality traits to be risk factors for the development of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). Research on personality traits in BDD is scarce, therefore this study examined perfectionism, aesthetic sensitivity and the behavioural inhibition system (BIS) in BDD. Furthermore, the association between these personality traits and the extent of dysmorphic concerns was investigated. Individuals with BDD (n=58) and a population based control sample (n=2071), selected from a representative German population survey, completed self-report questionnaires assessing DSM-5 criteria of BDD, dysmorphic concerns, perfectionism, aesthetic sensitivity and BIS-reactivity. Individuals with BDD reported significantly higher degrees of perfectionism as well as of BIS-reactivity compared to the population based control sample, whereas the groups did not differ significantly regarding aesthetic sensitivity. However, for the total sample, each of the personality traits was related dimensionally to dysmorphic concerns. Current BDD models consider perfectionism and aesthetic sensitivity to be vulnerability factors. In addition to these concepts, the present study suggests that BIS-reactivity is related to BDD. Self-reported aesthetic sensitivity was not found to be specifically pronounced in BDD, but along with perfectionism and BIS-reactivity aesthetic sensitivity was generally associated with dysmorphic concerns. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatherhood as a personality development factor in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenko, Julia

    2007-05-01

    The article represents an empirical study of paternity as a male personality development factor in men. Consensus is emerging that responsible fatherhood entitles the father to establish paternity, be present in the child's life, share economic support, and be personally involved in the child's life in collaboration with the mother. Literature reviews on fatherhood yield numerous empirical studies of specific fatherhood behaviors, whereas theory and the "bigger picture" have been notably insufficient. In the present article, problems of fatherhood in modern society, methodological problems of studying fathering, and cultural specifics of fatherhood are discussed. In addition, in order to aid further study of the phenomenon, the theoretically developed and experimentally approved model of the structure of paternity and the description of a specially developed training for fathers are presented. A principal finding of this report is that fatherhood is socially determined and influenced by contextual forces within the family and the community. The absence of a father-figure is detrimental to child personality development. At the same time, fatherhood can be a factor of male personality development of the father.

  5. Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Deiana, Barbara; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward G.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Unhealthy lipid levels are among the leading controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease. To identify the psychological factors associated with dyslipidemia, this study investigates the personality correlates of cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) and triglycerides. A community-based sample (N=5,532) from Sardinia, Italy, had their cholesterol and triglyceride levels assessed and completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R. All analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and diabetes. Low Conscientiousness and traits related to impulsivity were associated with lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglycerides. Compared to the lowest 10%, those who scored in top 10% on Impulsivity had a 2.5 times greater risk of exceeding the clinical threshold for elevated triglycerides (OR=2.51, CI=1.56–4.07). In addition, sex moderated the association between trait depression (a component of Neuroticism) and HDL cholesterol, such that trait depression was associated with lower levels of HDL cholesterol in women but not men. When considering the connection between personality and health, unhealthy lipid profiles may be one intermediate biomarker between personality and morbidity and mortality. PMID:20109519

  6. Personality and psychological factors: Effects on dental beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhi Hathiwala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental treatment can be highly unpleasant for anxious patients. Despite all advancements, dental anxiety continues to upset the dentist-patient relationship. The psychological factors like individual personality and familial and peer influence may alter the dental beliefs of a patient. Aim: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among young adolescents to investigate the relationship among various psychological factors and the dental beliefs of an individual. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among higher secondary school children, aged 15−17 years in Udupi district. The dental anxiety of the participants was measured using Modified Dental Beliefs scale and the personality traits were assessed using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Pearson′s correlation and chi-square analysis were performed among these scales. Independent t-test was performed to compare dental anxiety scores with different socio-demographic and psychological characteristics. Results: In all 198 students, with a mean age of 16.6 years, completed the questionnaire. A majority of the participants had lower MDBS scores. The personality traits like Emotional Stability and Openness to New Experiences showed a negative correlation with the Dental Belief scores. Apart from these, the experience at first dental visit and peer support also affected the dental beliefs of the adolescents. Conclusion: Various psychological traits of adolescents influence their dental anxiety.

  7. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Hengartner (Michael P.); D. van der Linden (Dimitri); L. Bohleber (Laura); A. von Wyl (Agnes)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the

  8. Personal Factors That Influence Audit Manager’s Risk Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu Iancu Octavian; Turlea Eugeniu

    2011-01-01

    Risk is a fundamental concept in audit as well as in the business world at large. Yet, little is known about the personal factors that might influence the risk attitude of a decision maker. The business decision makers are usually faced with a degree of uncertainty when they have to assess risk and make decisions. This paper examines risk behaviour from an audit firm manager perspective and from an academic perspective. The emphasis is on the managerial risk behaviour in business decision mak...

  9. The personality profile of borderline personality disordered patients using the five-factor model of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Verardi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio ex post facto es el análisis del perfil de personalidad de pacientes ambulatorios con trastorno límite de la personalidad según el modelo de personalidad de los Cinco Factores. Los pacientes (N = 52 completaron el Examen Internacional de los Trastornos de Personalidad (IPDE, el Cuestionario de los Cinco Grandes (BFQ, el Inventario de Depresion de Beck (BDI y la Escala de Desesperanza de Beck (BHS. Los resultaron muestran una alta comorbilidad con otros trastornos del Eje II del DSM-IV-TR, en particular con aquellos del clúster C. La puntuación media del BFQ indica que los pacientes ambulatorios con trastorno límite de la personalidad puntúan más bajo que los controles en las cinco dimensiones, especialmente en la estabilidad emocional. Correlacionaron las escalas del BFQ con las escalas IPDE. Estos resultados sugieren que perfiles específicos de personalidad están vinculados a diferentes patrones de comorbilidad. Más de la mitad de la muestra tiene puntuaciones clínicamente significativas en el BDI. Sorprendentemente, depresión y desesperanza no están correlacionados con la escala del trastorno límite de personalidad, ni tienen un efecto en la relacion entre personalidad y trastornos de la personalidad.

  10. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Young; Park, So Youn

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110) in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate) completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010) and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031). Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003) and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003). Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process.

  11. Risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Catherine A; Denny, Clark H; Greenlund, Kurt J; Benjamin, Stephanie M; Strine, Tara W; Balluz, Lina S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether disabled diabetic persons have a higher prevalence of risk factors for heart disease and stroke than do diabetic persons without disability. RESEARCH, DESIGN, AND METHODS: Data were analyzed for noninstitutionalized adults in 27 states and the District of Columbia that participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2001 and/or 2003. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence and odds ratios of disabled diabetic persons, by sociodemographic characteristics. The logit form of each model was used to estimate conditional marginal probabilities of risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status. Diabetic persons with disability were more likely than those without disability to have more risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including insufficient leisure-time physical activity or inactivity (adjusted prevalence: 75.2% vs. 63.3%; Pvs. 43.3%; Pvs. 48.4%; P=.038), and hypertension (63.9% vs. 56.6%; Ptwo or more, three or more, and four or more risk factors (97.2% vs. 95.6%, 83.5% vs. 74.0%, 56.5% vs. 41.1%, and 22.2% vs. 13.6%, respectively; Pstroke. Health care guidelines specifically targeting diabetic patients with disability may be needed to aid health care providers in addressing these risk factors.

  12. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Young Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. Methods: A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110 in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Results: Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010 and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031. Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003 and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003. Conclusion: Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process.

  13. A Five-Factor Model framework for understanding childhood personality disorder antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip

    2012-12-01

    The present contribution reviews evidence that supports the relevance of childhood antecedents of personality disorders, and advocates that the validity of a Five-Factor Model framework for describing general trait differences in childhood can be extended towards the field of developmental personality difficulties. In addition, we suggest that several traditional childhood Axis I conditions include a substantial trait component that may be responsible for the recurring finding that childhood Axis I disorders are predictive for adult Axis II disorders. Given the valuable information provided by a trait assessment, we further propose to integrate dimensional personality and personality pathology measures as standard tools in mental health assessments at a young age. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Personality factors and profiles in variants of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) variants (constipation, diarrhea, or both)and personality traits in non-psychiatric patients.METHODS: IBS was diagnosed using the Rome Ⅱ diagnostic criteria after exclusion of organic bowel pathology. The entry of each patient was confirmed following a psychiatric interview. Personality traits and the score of each factor were evaluated using the NEO Five Factor Inventory.RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients were studied.The mean age (±SD) was 33.4 (±11.0) year (62% female). Subjects scored higher in neuroticism (26.25±7.80 vs 22.92±9.54, P < 0.0005), openness (26.25±5.22 vs 27.94±4.87, P < 0.0005) and conscientiousness (32.90 ±7.80 vs 31.62±5.64, P < 0.01) compared to our general population derived from universities of Iran. Our studied population consisted of 71 patients with Diarrhea dominant-IBS, 33 with Constipation dominant-IBS and 46 with Altering type-IBS. Scores of conscientiousness and neuroticism were significantly higher in C-IBS compared to D-IBS and A-IBS (35.79±5.65 vs 31.95±6.80,P = 0.035 and 31.97±9.87, P = 0.043, respectively).Conscientiousness was the highest dimension of personality in each of the variants. Patients with C-IBS had almost similar personality profiles, composed of higher scores for neuroticism and conscientiousness, with low levels of agreeableness, openness and extraversion that were close to those of the general population.CONCLUSION: Differences were observed between IBS patients and the general population, as well as between IBS subtypes, in terms of personality factors.Patients with constipation-predominant IBS showed similar personality profiles. Patients with each subtype of IBS may benefit from psychological interventions, which can be focused considering the characteristics of each subtype.

  15. The relations between parents’ big five personality factors and parenting: a meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Dekovic, M.; Reijntjes, A.H.A.; Belsky, J.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the association between Big Five personality factors and three dimensions of parenting-warmth, behavioral control, and autonomy support- the authors conducted meta-analyses using 5,853 parent-child dyads that were included in 30 studies. Effect sizes were significant and robust across

  16. Motivation and personality: relationships between putative motive dimensions and the five factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C

    2010-04-01

    There are few multidimensional measures of individual differences in motivation available. The Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire assesses 15 putative dimensions of motivation. The dimensions are based on evolutionary theory and preliminary evidence suggests the motive scales have good psychometric properties. The scales are reliable and there is evidence of their consensual validity (convergence of self-other ratings) and behavioral validity (relationships with self-other reported behaviors of social importance). Additional validity research is necessary, however, especially with respect to current models of personality. The present study tested two general and 24 specific hypotheses based on proposed evolutionary advantages/disadvantages and fitness benefits/costs of the five-factor model of personality together with the new motive scales in a sample of 424 participants (M age=28.8 yr., SD=14.6). Results were largely supportive of the hypotheses. These results support the validity of new motive dimensions and increase understanding of the five-factor model of personality.

  17. Personal factors affecting ethical performance in healthcare workers during disasters and mass casualty incidents in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehrzad; Fadavi, Mohsen; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Borhani, Fariba

    2017-09-01

    In emergencies and disasters, ethics are affected by both personal and organizational factors. Given the lack of organizational ethical guidelines in the disaster management system in Iran, the present study was conducted to explain the personal factors affecting ethics and ethical behaviors among disaster healthcare workers. The present qualitative inquiry was conducted using conventional content analysis to analyze the data collected from 21 in-depth unstructured interviews with healthcare workers with an experience of attending one or more fields of disaster. According to the data collected, personal factors can be classified into five major categories, including personal characteristics such as age and gender, personal values, threshold of tolerance, personal knowledge and reflective thinking. Without ethical guidelines, healthcare workers are intensely affected by the emotional climate of the event and guided by their beliefs. A combination of personal characteristics, competences and expertise thus form the basis of ethical conduct in disaster healthcare workers.

  18. Testing the relationship between personality characteristics, contextual factors and entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Saeid; Biemans, Harm J A; Naderi Mahdei, Karim; Lans, Thomas; Chizari, Mohammad; Mulder, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Drawing upon the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we developed and tested a conceptual model which integrates both internal personality factors and external contextual factors to determine their associations with motivational factors and entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). We then investigated if the model of EI applies in a developing country, namely Iran. We also set out to identify the most relevant factors for EI within this developing country context. Do distal predictors of EI including personality factors (i.e. need for achievement, risk taking and locus of control) and contextual factors (i.e. perceived barriers and support) significantly relate to EI via proximal predictors including motivational factors (i.e. attitudes towards entrepreneurship and perceived behavioural control [PBC])? Data were collected on 331 students from 7 public universities. The findings support the TPB for EI in Iran. All three motivational factors related to EI, but PBC showed the strongest association, which is different than in developed country contexts. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed. All three personality characteristics indirectly related to EI via the proximal attitudes towards entrepreneurship and PBC. Perceived contextual support and barriers indirectly related to EI via proximal PBC while perceived barriers also directly related to EI. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. The Role of the Big Five Personality Factors in Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Gh. Maleki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is defined as paying attention ability on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally. The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between mindfulness and big five factors of personality. In a correlational study, 304 (135 male and 169 female student of Shahid Beheshti Universitiy were selected by convenient sampling method. Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS and the short form of NEO questionnaire (NEO-FFI were used as the research tools. Data were analyzed through Pearson correlation and stepwise regressions. The results of Pearson correlation showed that mindfulness is positively correlated with extraversion, openness and conscientiousness and negatively correlated with neuroticisms (P<0.001. The results of stepwise regressions indicated predictive role of neuroticism, openness, extraversion, and conscientiousness factors in mindfulness ability of participants. According to the results of present study, these four factors of personality are significant predictors of mindfulness ability of participants. The results of this study were discussed toward the better understanding of mindfulness construct.

  20. The Role of Intra-personal and Inter-personal Factors in Fear of Childbirth: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Sommerfeld, Eliane; Ken-Dror, Daniel; Lacher, Rina; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2017-06-01

    Childbirth is a major life event, but for some women, the fear of childbirth goes beyond trepidation towards full-blown anxiety and panic, known as fear of childbirth (FOC) or tokophobia. In the present study the authors investigated and compared the intrapersonal and interpersonal factors that might be associated with FOC among women who previously gave birth (parous) and women who did not. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 529 women (parous women (n = 365) and women who had never given birth (n = 173). All participants completed self-report measures using an online survey system. The questionnaires assessed intrapersonal factors including attitudes toward pregnancy and birth, body image, self-esteem and life satisfaction as well as interpersonal factors namely relationship satisfaction. Multiple regression analyses revealed that among parous women age and attitudes toward pregnancy and birth, especially those that relate to body image and delivery were significantly associated with FOC. Among women who had never given birth, only attitudes toward pregnancy and birth, especially those that relate to body image, importance of pregnancy and delivery, and preference of caesarean section (CS), were significantly associated with FOC. In both groups, satisfaction with spousal relationship was not found to be associated with FOC. The results indicate that regarding FOC, intra-personal factors are more dominant than inter-personal factors. When assessing this medico-psychological fear, cognitive aspects should also be addressed.

  1. [Relevance of Personality Factors for Successful Vocational Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arling, V; Slavchova, V; Knispel, J; Spijkers, W

    2016-02-01

    The Main purpose of vocational rehabilitation is occupational reintegration of clients into the job market who have lost their job or whose job is threatened because of a handicap or chronicl illness. With regard to existing evidence for the relevance of personality factors for work performance and job achievement, the present study investigated the influence of participants' personality factors on a successful reintegration after a retraining program in a vocational training center over 2 years. A central research objective was to identify prognostic personality factors for successful vocational integration. In this longitudinal study 15 vocational training centers participated at 3 time points of measurement (T1, T2 and T3). Data gathering was based on rehabilitants' self-reports (standardized questionnaires: SVF, BSW, SPR, CSES) about personality aspects. First data collection started at the beginning (T1) and a second survey was conducted at the end of the training 2 years later (T2). Based on the data at measurement points T1 and T2, 4 prognostic models were computed (binary logistic regression analysis) and evaluated, examining the differenzial influence of several scales and items on direct reintegration after completing the vocational retraining and reintegration status 6 months later (T3). As expected, different variables turned out to be relevant for occupational integration at the end of the training program and 6 months later. Correspondingly other variables appeared to be relevant for occupational reintegration at T1 and at T2. At the end of the vocational training program, approximately 24% of the participants had a job. With respect to direct reintegration, regression analysis revealed that vocational self-efficacy (R(2)=0,175) and self-evaluation were relevant (R(2)=0,383). Approximately 70% of the participants had gotten a job 6 months later. Several stress coping strategies (R(2)=0,170), estimation of the own reintegration prognosis and aspects

  2. Factors associated with persons with disability employment in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraharisetti, Ramya; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-10-07

    Over twenty million persons with disability in India are increasingly being offered poverty alleviation strategies, including employment programs. This study employs a spatial analytic approach to identify correlates of employment among persons with disability in India, considering sight, speech, hearing, movement, and mental disabilities. Based on 2001 Census data, this study utilizes linear regression and spatial autoregressive models to identify factors associated with the proportion employed among persons with disability at the district level. Models stratified by rural and urban areas were also considered. Spatial autoregressive models revealed that different factors contribute to employment of persons with disability in rural and urban areas. In rural areas, having mental disability decreased the likelihood of employment, while being female and having movement, or sight impairment (compared to other disabilities) increased the likelihood of employment. In urban areas, being female and illiterate decreased the likelihood of employment but having sight, mental and movement impairment (compared to other disabilities) increased the likelihood of employment. Poverty alleviation programs designed for persons with disability in India should account for differences in employment by disability types and should be spatially targeted. Since persons with disability in rural and urban areas have different factors contributing to their employment, it is vital that government and service-planning organizations account for these differences when creating programs aimed at livelihood development.

  3. The relationship between the Five-Factor Model and latent DSM-IV personality disorder dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nestadt, Gerald; Costa, Paul T.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Eaton, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the latent structure of the DSM-IV personality disorders to the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality dimensions. The subjects in the study were 742 community-residing individuals who participated in the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorder Study. DSM-IV personality disorder traits were assessed by psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination, and personality disorder dimensions were derived previously using dichotomous factor ana...

  4. Modelling vital success factors in adopting personalized medicine system in healthcare technology and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhas C. Misra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical engineering has grown as a vast field of research that includes many areas of engineering and technology also. Personalized Medicine is an emerging approach in today’s medicare system. It bears a very strong potential to consolidate modern e-health systems fundamentally. Scientists have already discovered some of the personalized drugs that can shift the whole medicare system into a new dimension. However, bringing the change in the whole medicare system is not an easy task. There are several factors that can affect the successful adoption of Personalized Medicine systems in the healthcare management sector. This paper aims at identifying the critical factors with the help of an empirical study. A questionnaire was distributed amongst some clinicians, clinical researchers, practitioners in pharmaceutical industries, regulatory board members, and a larger section of patients. The response data collected thereby were analyzed by using appropriate statistical methods. Based on the statistical analysis, an attempt is made to prepare a list of critical success factors in the adoption of personalized medicine in healthcare management. The study indicates that eight of the thirteen hypothesized factors have statistical relationship with “Success”. The important success factors detected are: data management, team work and composition, privacy and confidentiality, mind-set, return on investment, sufficient time, R&D and alignment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first academic paper in which an attempt has been made to model the vital critical factors for the successful implementation of Personalized Medicine in healthcare management. The study bears the promise of important applications in healthcare engineering and technology. Keywords: Healthcare management, Personalized medicine, E-health, Success factors, Medicare systems, Regression analysis

  5. Personality factors and suicide risk in a representative sample of the German general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Blüml

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown an association between certain personality characteristics and suicidality. Methodological differences including small sample sizes and missing adjustment for possible confounding factors could explain the varying results. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions on suicidality in a representative population based sample of adults. METHOD: Interviews were conducted in a representative German population-based sample (n=2555 in 2011. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10 and suicide risk was assessed with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated adjusting for depression, anxiety, and various sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Neuroticism and openness were significantly associated with suicide risk, while extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be protective. Significant sex differences were observed. For males, extraversion and conscientiousness were protective factors. Neuroticism and openness were found to be associated with suicide risk only in females. These associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the role of personality dimensions as risk factors for suicide-related behaviors. Different personality dimensions are significantly associated with suicide-related behaviors even when adjusting for other known risk factors of suicidality.

  6. Time-activity relationships to VOC personal exposure factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus D.; Schweizer, Christian; Llacqua, Vito; Lai, Hak Kan; Jantunen, Matti; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino

    Social and demographic factors have been found to play a significant role in differences between time-activity patterns of population subgroups. Since time-activity patterns largely influence personal exposure to compounds as individuals move across microenvironments, exposure subgroups within the population may be defined by factors that influence daily activity patterns. Socio-demographic and environmental factors that define time-activity subgroups also define quantifiable differences in VOC personal exposures to different sources and individual compounds in the Expolis study. Significant differences in exposures to traffic-related compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were observed in relation to gender, number of children and living alone. Categorization of exposures further indicated time exposed to traffic at work and time in a car as important determinants. Increased exposures to decane, nonane and undecane were observed for males, housewives and self-employed. Categorization of exposures indicated exposure subgroups related to workshop use and living downtown. Higher exposures to 3-carene and α-pinene commonly found in household cleaning products and fragrances were associated with more children, while exposures to traffic compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were reduced with more children. Considerable unexplained variation remained in categorization of exposures associated with home product use and fragrances, due to individual behavior and product choice. More targeted data collection methods in VOC exposure studies for these sources should be used. Living alone was associated with decreased exposures to 2-methyl-1-propanol and 1-butanol, and traffic-related compounds. Identification of these subgroups may help to reduce the large amount of unexplained variation in VOC exposure studies. Further they may help in assessing impacts of urban planning that result in changes in behavior of individuals, resulting in shifts in

  7. Personality disorder traits, risk factors, and suicide ideation among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R; Poindexter, Erin K; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2015-11-01

    Personality disorder traits are relatively prevalent among older adults, and can be associated with complex and chronic difficulties, including suicide risk. However, there is a lack of research regarding personality disorders and suicide ideation in older adults. Depressive symptoms and hopelessness may be important to the relation between personality disorders and suicide risk. Additionally, variables from the interpersonal theory of suicide, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, may be critical risk factors for suicide in this population. We hypothesized that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, theory-based variables, would act as parallel mediators of the relation between personality disorder traits and suicide ideation, whereas depressive symptoms and hopelessness would not. The hypothesis was tested in a sample of 143 older adults recruited from a primary care setting. Participants completed self-report questionnaires of personality traits, suicide ideation, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness. Findings from a non-parametric bootstrapping procedure indicated that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms mediated the relation between total personality disorder traits and suicide ideation. Hopelessness did not act as a mediator. These findings indicate that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms are likely important risk factors for suicide ideation among older adults. Clinicians should be aware of these issues when assessing and treating suicide risk among older adults.

  8. Relationship between Consumer Identity and Brand Personality as a Factor of Brand Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the relationship between consumer identity and brand personality as a factor of consumer commitment to the brand. We hypothesized that: a there is a link between consumer identity and preferred brand’s personality; b the higher the similarity between the consumer identity and preferred brand’s personality, the higher the brand commitment. The sample included 150 subjects aged 18—25. Methods: the method of J. Aaker was used to study brand personality, and its modification was used to study consumer identity. The questionnaire of J. Brovkina was used to study brand loyalty. Results: high correlations between consumer identity and brand personality were obtained on the scales Ruggedness, Sophistication, Excitement, and high correlations between brand loyalty and deltas of the values of consumer identity and brand personality on the same scales were also discovered. On the scales of Competence and Sincerity the correlations were lower, although important as well. Thus, the hypotheses were confirmed: a it is shown that there is a correlation between consumer identity and brand personality; b the higher this correlation is, the higher is the commitment to the preferred brand.

  9. On the use of risk-informed regulation including organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, S.M.O.; Alvarenga, M.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Risk-Informed Regulation (RIR) can be applied by using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as a basic tool. Traditionally, PSA methodology encompasses the calculation of failure probabilities of Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) and direct associated human errors. However, there are indirect causes related to human failures, associated with Organizational Factors, which are normally not included in fault trees, that may influence plant risk evaluation. This paper discusses on possible applications of RIR and on Organizational Factors. It also presents a classification of Angra-1 NPP unresolved issues, aiming a future inclusion of these factors into a PSA calculation. (author)

  10. Personality and Defense Styles: Clinical Specificities and Predictive Factors of Alcohol Use Disorder in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, Aurélien; Dorard, Géraldine; Varescon, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated personality traits and defense styles in order to determine clinical specificities and predictive factors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in women. A female sample, composed of AUD outpatients (n = 48) and a control group (n = 50), completed a sociodemographic self-report and questionnaires assessing personality traits (BFI), defense mechanisms and defense styles (DSQ-40). Comparative and correlational analyses, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regressions, were performed. AUD women presented with higher neuroticism and lower extraversion and conscientiousness. They used less mature and more neurotic and immature defense styles than the control group. Concerning personality traits, high neuroticism and lower conscientiousness were predictive of AUD, as well as low mature, high neurotic, and immature defense styles. Including personality traits and defense styles in a logistic model, high neuroticism was the only AUD predictive factor. AUD women presented clinical specificities and predictive factors in personality traits and defense styles that must be taken into account in AUD studies. Implications for specific treatment for women are discussed.

  11. Personal and couple level risk factors: Maternal and paternal parent-child aggression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Meagan C; Rodriguez, Christina M; Baker, Levi R

    2017-07-01

    Previous literature examining parent-child aggression (PCA) risk has relied heavily upon mothers, limiting our understanding of paternal risk factors. Moreover, the extent to which factors in the couple relationship work in tandem with personal vulnerabilities to impact PCA risk is unclear. The current study examined whether personal stress and distress predicted PCA risk (child abuse potential, over-reactive discipline style, harsh discipline practices) for fathers as well as mothers and whether couple functioning mediated versus moderated the relation between personal stress and PCA risk in a sample of 81 couples. Additionally, the potential for risk factors in one partner to cross over and affect their partner's PCA risk was considered. Findings indicated higher personal stress predicted elevated maternal and paternal PCA risk. Better couple functioning did not moderate this relationship but partially mediated stress and PCA risk for both mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal stress evidenced a cross-over effect, wherein mothers' personal stress linked to fathers' couple functioning. Findings support the role of stress and couple functioning in maternal and paternal PCA risk, including potential cross-over effects that warrant further inquiry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships: empirical contribution. Understanding personality pathology in adolescents: the five factor model of personality and social information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, Christel; van den Hanenberg, Danique; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-02-01

    This study seeks to integrate two research traditions that lie at the base of the understanding of personality pathology in adolescents. The first research tradition refers to normal personality according to the Five Factor Model (FFM). The second tradition specifies the key feature of personality disorder as the capacity to mentalize, which can be reflected in Social Information Processing (SIP). In a clinical sample of 96 adolescents, the authors investigated response generation, coping strategy, and memories of past frustrating experiences as part of SIP, as mediator in the relationship between personality and personality pathology, and a possible moderating role of personality on the relationship between SIP and personality pathology. The hypothesized mediation, by which the effects of personality dimensions on personality pathology was expected to be mediated by SIP variables, was found only for the effect of Neuroticism, most specifically on BPD, which appeared to be mediated by memories the patients had about past frustrating conflict situations with peers. Some moderating effects of personality on the relationship between SIP variables and personality pathology were found, suggesting that high Agreeableness and sometimes low Neuroticism can buffer this relationship. These results suggest that personality dimensions and social cognitions both independently and together play a role in adolescents' personality pathology.

  13. Factors associated with family violence by persons with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Travis; Solomon, Phyllis L

    2016-10-30

    Family violence by persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) is a highly under-researched area. The primary objective of the present analysis was to identify perpetrator, victim, and interaction/relationship factors associated with this phenomenon. The secondary objective was to examine the extent to which the relationship between caregiving and family violence was mediated by limit-setting practices used towards relatives with PD. 573 adults across the U.S. with an adult relative with PD completed an online survey. Multivariate logistic regression was performed examining the association of factors with the occurrence of family violence. Mediation was assessed with Sobel testing. Family violence was significantly associated with the following factors: perpetrator-income, illegal drug use, psychiatric hospitalization, treatment attendance, and use of medications; victim-age, employment status, income, and mental health status; interaction/relationship-parental relationship, co-residence, use of limit-setting practices, representative payeeship, and unofficial money management. Mediation was statistically significant. Increasing access to mental health and/or substance abuse treatment may decrease the risk of family violence. Interventions may benefit from attempting to decrease/modify the use of limit-setting practices. Where family representative payeeship or unofficial money management exists, it is advisable for practitioners to assess and address financial coercion and promote greater collaboration in financial decision-making. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Post-Partum Depression, Personality, and Cognitive-Emotional Factors: A Longitudinal Study on Spanish Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Marín-Morales, Dolores; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Velasco Furlong, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, our purpose was to examine whether personality and cognitive factors could be related to post-partum depression (PPD), mediated by anxiety, in Spanish women. Women were evaluated for personality and cognitive factors after the first trimester, for anxiety in the third trimester, and for PPD 4 months after childbirth. A structural equation model revealed that personality and cognitive factors were associated with anxiety and PPD as predictors. Neuroticism and extroversion proved to be the most relevant factors. Conscientiousness was associated with pregnancy anxiety. Pregnancy anxiety appeared as an independent predictor of PPD. The model presented here includes personality and cognitive and emotional factors as predictors of PPD. Comprehensive care for pregnant women should contemplate assessment and intervention on all these aspects. Special focus should be on cognitive factors and emotional regulation strategies, so as to minimize the risk of later development of emotional disorders during puerperal phases.

  15. Interpersonal trauma moderates the relationship between personality factors and suicidality of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yongjoon; Park, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Soowon; Cho, Maeng Je; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more prone to suicidal ideation and behavior. While those who have experienced interpersonal trauma exhibit more suicidality than those who have experienced non-interpersonal trauma, it is unclear how the traumatic effects are related to an individual's personality characteristics. This study examined the association between interpersonal trauma and personality factors with suicidality, and elucidated the moderating role of interpersonal trauma in individuals with PTSD. The study included 6,022 participants from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011. The Korean Version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for the survey, including the participants' history of suicidality, the traumas they have experienced, and their PTSD symptoms. The 11-item version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-11) was used to assess the participants' personality factors. 76 individuals were diagnosed with PTSD, while 810 had been exposed to trauma but were not diagnosed with any DSM-IV mental disorder. Among the individuals with PTSD, those who had experienced interpersonal trauma were more likely to have suicidal ideation than those who had experienced non-interpersonal trauma (p = .020; odds ratio [OR] = 3.643; 95% confidence interval of OR = [1.226, 10.825]). High agreeableness and conscientiousness predicted less suicidality in those exposed to non-interpersonal trauma, while predicting more suicidality in those exposed to interpersonal trauma. Clinicians examining individuals with PTSD should pay closer attention to the trauma that they have experienced, as well as their personality factors, to provide appropriate treatment.

  16. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Neurocognitive and personality factors in homo- and heterosexual pedophiles and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tillmann H C; Schiffer, Boris

    2011-06-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have suggested an association between pedophilia, neurocognitive disturbances, and specific personality profiles. However, inconsistencies in the findings have not been explained sufficiently, because many studies did not control for possible confounding factors, such as age, education level, or gender orientation. Therefore, the present investigation examined neurocognitive performance and personality profiles in pedophiles in dependence of sexual gender preferences and sexual deviance, as well as with regard to age and education level. Scores on the different neurocognitive tests, personality questionnaires, and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV (SCID) interviews. An extensive neurocognitive test battery (including a reduced version of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wisconsin card-sorting test, d2 Attention-Deficit Test, and the Corsi block-tapping test) as well as two personality questionnaires (Minnessota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI-2] and the Multiphasic Sex Inventory [MSI]) were used to examine a consecutive sample of 20 psychiatrically assessed (SCID I and II) pedophile inpatients (nine exclusively attracted to females and 11 to males) from two high security forensic hospitals and 28 healthy controls (14 heterosexual, 14 homosexual). Compared with controls, pedophiles showed neurocognitive impairments and personality specifics in the majority of tests and questionnaires, such as reduced values on the intelligence scale and weaker performances in information processing, together with high scores for psychopathy and paranoia, and signs of sexual obsessiveness and sexual dysfunction. In contrast to previous reports, some of these alterations were at least partly explained by factors other than pedophilia, such as education level or age. These alterations may be seen to be in line with the hypothesis of a perturbation of

  18. Some factors including radiation affecting the productivity of proteinase enzymes by mucor lamprosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.I.

    1996-01-01

    In the present time, great attention has been focused on the production of milk clotting enzymes from microbial source for use as remain substitute due to the increasing demands on rennin for cheese making and the prohibition of the slaughter of small calves. The present investigation included the isolation and identification of remin-like enzyme fungal producers from different egyptian food and soil samples. Different factors including gamma radiation affecting the capability of selected isolate to produce the enzyme was also included. Special attention has also given to study the effect of different purification methods of the produced enzyme. The properties of the purified enzyme were also investigated

  19. Personality Factors Affecting Pilot Combat Performance: A Preliminary Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siem, Frederick M; Murray, Michael W

    1997-01-01

    .... The present research was designed to examine the relationship between personality and combat performance using the "Big Five" model of personality and a multicomponent model of pilot combat performance...

  20. Relationships Between Activities, Participation, Personal Factors, Mental Health, and Life Satisfaction in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Christel M.; Post, Marcel W.; Westers, Paul; van der Woude, Lucas H.; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe; Slootman, Hans; Lindeman, Eline

    van Leeuwen CM, Post MW, Westers P, van der Woude LH, de Groot S. Sluis T, Slootman H, Lindeman E. Relationships between activities, participation, personal factors, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:82-9. Objective: To clarify

  1. Is Personality Fixed? Personality Changes as Much as "Variable" Economic Factors and More Strongly Predicts Changes to Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Christopher J.; Wood, Alex M.; Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2013-01-01

    Personality is the strongest and most consistent cross-sectional predictor of high subjective well-being. Less predictive economic factors, such as higher income or improved job status, are often the focus of applied subjective well-being research due to a perception that they can change whereas personality cannot. As such there has been limited…

  2. Personal Hearing Protection including Active Noise Reduction (Les dispositifs de protection de l'ouie, y compris l'attenuation du bruit actif) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steeneken, H. J; Dancer, A; McKinley, R; Buck, K; James, S

    2005-01-01

    .... SYSTEMS DETAIL NOTE: Adobe Acrobat Reader is included on disc. ABSTRACT: Personal hearing protection and speech communication facilities are essential for optimal performance in military operations...

  3. Person-related factors associated with work participation in employees with health problems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Mariska; Wind, Haije; Hulshof, Carel T J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to explore and provide systematically assessed information about the association between person-related factors and work participation of people with health problems. The research question was: what is the association between selected person-related factors and work participation of workers with health problems? A systematic review was carried out in PubMed and PsycINFO to search for original papers published between January 2007 and February 2017. The risk of bias of the studies included was assessed using quality assessment tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE framework for prognostic studies. In total, 113 studies were included, all of which addressed the association between person-related factors and work participation. The factors positively associated with work participation were positive expectations regarding recovery or return to work, optimism, self-efficacy, motivation, feelings of control, and perceived health. The factors negatively associated with work participation were fear-avoidance beliefs, perceived work-relatedness of the health problem, and catastrophizing. Different coping strategies had a negative or a positive relationship with work participation. The results of this review provide more insight into the associations between different cognitions and perceptions and work participation. The results of this study suggest that person-related factors should be considered by occupational- and insurance physicians when they diagnose, evaluate or provide treatment to employees. Further research is required to determine how these physicians could obtain and apply such information and whether its application leads to a better quality of care.

  4. Personal Factors that Affect the Satisfaction of Female Patients Undergoing Esthetic Suture after Typical Thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Young; Kim, Jung Won; Park, Jin Hyung; Kim, Jung Hun; Han, Yea Sik

    2013-07-01

    In esthetic surgery, understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction is important for successful practice. We hypothesize that the factors that influence patient satisfaction include not only aesthetic and functional outcomes, but also personal factors such as the level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations regarding aesthetic outcome. One hundred patients who underwent esthetic closure after thyroidectomy were included in this study. In order to evaluate the individual characteristics of the patients, a preoperative survey was administered to the patients. We estimated the patient satisfaction six months postoperatively and assessed the aesthetic and functional outcomes using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. According to the results of correlation analysis, level of familiarity with wound healing factors had a positive correlation with satisfaction. High expectations, pain, itching, and high observer scale score had negative correlations with satisfaction. The factors that were correlated with satisfaction were included in the multiple regression analysis. Level of familiarity with wound healing factors was found to have a positive relationship with satisfaction, while itching and observer scale were found to have a negative relationship with satisfaction. After excluding 10 patients who had hypertrophic scars, only level of familiarity with wound healing factors and expectations affected satisfaction. The level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations were found to independently affect satisfaction. Improving patients' level of familiarity with wound healing factors and reducing their expectations by providing suitable preoperative education has the potential to improve patient satisfaction.

  5. PREDICTORS AND OUTCOME OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS ADVERTISING: DEMOGRAPHICS, PERSONAL FACTORS AND WOM

    OpenAIRE

    Kursan Milaković, Ivana; Mihić, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes towards advertising represent an important research concept of consumer behaviour and marketing communication. The main purpose of this research is to explore the importance of demographics (age, gender, education) and personal factors (shopping enjoyment, price sensitivity, intellect) for attitudes towards advertising formation, as well as the influence of such attitudes on word-of-mouth communication (WOM). The research included representative sample of thousand Croatian responden...

  6. The big five personality factors as predictors of driving status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbois, Emily A; Dugan, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Although factors including cognitive and health status have been associated with driving cessation in older adults, the role of psychosocial variables is not well studied. Previous research on young adult drivers has suggested that personality may be related to driving behavior, but this study is among the first to explore the relationship between driving status and the Big Five Model of personality for older adults. Data are from the Health and Retirement Study (2008 wave, n = 4,028). Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Neuroticism (β = -0.4511, p Personality adds a unique contribution to the prediction of late-life driving status. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Job risk and employee substance use: the influence of personal background and work environment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Wayne E K; Bennett, Joel B

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have noted that employees who work in jobs with physical risk report more substance use than employees working in nonrisky jobs. This study examined the extent to which this relationship could be explained by personal background, specifically general deviance or psychosocial functioning, or work characteristics, including job stressors, organizational bonding, or work group drinking climate. Results from two worksites (ns = 943, 923) indicated that the relationship of job risk and alcohol problems could be fully explained by personal characteristics, particularly deviant behavior styles. Interaction effects were also found. Employees with more deviance indicators were particularly susceptible to recent drug use and problem drinking when they worked in drinking climates or exposed to co-worker drinking. These results suggest the joint influence of personal and job factors and support prevention programs that target the workplace social environment.

  8. The distressed (Type D) personality factor of social inhibition, but not negative affectivity, enhances eyeblink conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M T; Handy, J D; Blankenship, M R; Servatius, R J

    2018-06-01

    Recent work has focused on a learning diathesis model in which specific personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI) may influence associative learning and in turn increase risk for the development of anxiety disorders. We have found in a series of studies that individuals self-reporting high levels of BI exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks. In the study reported here, hypotheses were extended to include distressed (Type D) personality which has been found to be related to BI. Type D personality is measured with the DS-14 scale which includes two subscales measuring negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI). We hypothesized that SI, which is similar to BI, would result in enhanced acquisition while the effect of NA is unclear. Eighty nine participants completed personality inventories including the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI) and DS-14. All participants received 60 acquisition trials with a 500 ms, 1000 Hz, tone CS and a co-terminating 50 ms, 5 psi corneal airpuff US. Participants received either 100% CS-US paired trials or a schedule of partial reinforcement where 50% US alone trials were intermixed into CS-US training. Acquisition of CRs did not differ between the two training protocols. Whereas BI was significantly related to Type D, SI, and NA, only BI and SI individuals exhibited enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as compared to non-inhibited individuals. Personality factors now including social inhibition can be used to identify individuals who express enhanced associative learning which lends further support to a learning diathesis model of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Personality assessment based on the five-factor model of personality structure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Kimio; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Shioe, Kunihiko; Kanba, Shigenobu; Iijima, Hiroyuki; Tsukahara, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    Several characteristic personality types have been reported for glaucoma patients in previous studies. However, none of the previous studies used a common structural theory of personality. In this study, we conducted a multicenter cross-sectional case-control study using the recently established five-factor model of personality structure. Personality was evaluated using the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which is a questionnaire specifically designed to test the five-factor model of personality: neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), openness (O), agreeableness (A), and conscientiousness (C). Eligible questionnaires were obtained from 196 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) (99 men, 97 women) and 223 reference subjects with no ocular disease except cataract (87 men, 136 women). The mean score of each NEO-FFI factor for POAG patients was compared to the scores for the reference subjects. Compared with the reference subjects, the mean N score was significantly higher (P = 0.013), the mean scores for A and C were significantly lower (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001, respectively), and the mean E score tended to be lower (P = 0.055) in male POAG patients. The mean E score was significantly lower (P = 0.023) in female POAG patients. Characteristic personality traits were noted in POAG patients, and a more significant relationship was found between personality and glaucoma in men than in women.

  10. Factor analysis of temperament and personality traits in bipolar patients: Correlates with comorbidity and disorder severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Frank; Akiskal, Hagop S; Kelsoe, John R; Greenwood, Tiffany A

    2017-01-01

    Temperament and personality traits have been suggested as endophenotypes for bipolar disorder based on several lines of evidence, including heritability. Previous work suggested an anxious-reactive factor identified across temperament and personality inventories that produced significant group discrimination and could potentially be useful in genetic analyses. We have attempted to further characterize this factor structure in a sample of bipolar patients. A sample of 1195 subjects with bipolar I disorder was evaluated, all with complete data available. Dimension reduction across two inventories identified 18 factors explaining 39% of the variance. The two largest factors reflected affective instability and general anxiety/worry, respectively. Subsequent analyses of the clinical features associated with bipolar disorder revealed specificity for the factors in a predictable pattern. Cluster analysis of the factors identified a subgroup defined by a strong lack of general anxiety and low affective instability represented by the first two factors. The remaining subjects could be distinguished into two clusters by the presence of either more positive characteristics, including persistence/drive, spirituality, expressivity, and humor, or more negative characteristics of depression and anxiety. These analyses involved bipolar I subjects only and must be extended to other bipolar spectrum diagnoses, unaffected relatives, and individuals at risk. These results suggest that temperament and personality measures access latent traits associated with important clinical features of bipolar disorder. By translating clinical variables into quantitative traits, we may identify subgroups of bipolar patients with distinct clinical profiles, thereby facilitating both individual treatment strategies and genetic analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Forming Factors And Builder Indicators Of Brand Personality Models In Traditional Retail Traders

    OpenAIRE

    Yunelly Asra; Teguh Widodo

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to find the factors forming and indicator builder model of brand personality of traditional retail traders through measuring the influence of retail mix and culture. The formation of brand personality uses Aaker brand personality dimension to 250 consumers in Bengkalis Regency. The type of research is causal research design. The research variables are brand personality Retail Mix and Brand Personality. Data collection is done by probability sampling with purposive method. Data...

  12. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  13. Policies for including disabled people in education. obstacles and facilitating factors for their implementation: Bucaramanga, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Serrano R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to explore the factors enabling or hindering the implementation of inclusive education policies for the disabled population of Bucaramanga. Methodology: a descriptive study, involving representatives from governmental agencies (EG, members of the faculty boards of educational institutions (DIE and guardians of disabled individuals (APSD. Physical, social, and political obstacles and facilitating factors that could potentially determine the implementation of these policies were analyzed. Data was collected through interviews. Results: there was a total of 2, 32, and 34 participants from the EG, DIE, and APSD groups respectively. Identified obstacles included: lack of strategies to support educational institutions, poor or limited teacher training, high tuition fees, and negative attitude towards disability. The facilitating factors included: availability of places, inclusion of this issue in the political agenda, and desire of the disabled individuals’ families to provide them with education. Discussion: These findings provide useful information for further research on this issue and show how action has been taken, as well as how urgent it is to establish a direct relationship between academia and the public sector to propose strategies for assessing and modifying these policies.

  14. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  15. The role of personal protective factors in anchoring psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I report on a study that focused on the concept of resilience, in order to determine the nature of personal attributes in adolescents with learning difficulties, who were able to rebound from life's onslaughts, and to continue determinedly along the path of self-actualisation. The personal attributes impacting on the ...

  16. Maladaptive Personality Trait Models: Validating the Five-Factor Model Maladaptive Trait Measures With the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-05-01

    Eight measures have been developed to assess maladaptive variants of the five-factor model (FFM) facets specific to personality disorders (e.g., Five-Factor Borderline Inventory [FFBI]). These measures can be used in their entirety or as facet-based scales (e.g., FFBI Affective Dysregulation) to improve the comprehensiveness of assessment of pathological personality. There are a limited number of studies examining these scales with other measures of similar traits (e.g., DSM-5 alternative model). The current study examined the FFM maladaptive scales in relation to the respective general personality traits of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the pathological personality traits of the DSM-5 alternative model using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results indicated the FFM maladaptive trait scales predominantly converged with corresponding NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 traits, providing further validity for these measures as extensions of general personality traits and evidence for their relation to the pathological trait model. Benefits and applications of the FFM maladaptive scales in clinical and research settings are discussed.

  17. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  18. Carpal tunnel syndrome among laboratory technicians in relation to personal and ergonomic factors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Helaly, Mohamed; Balkhy, Hanan H; Vallenius, Laura

    2017-11-25

    Work-related carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has been reported in different occupations, including laboratory technicians, so this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the associated personal and ergonomic factors for CTS among laboratory technicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 279 laboratory technicians at King Fahd Hospital, Saudi Arabia, who filled in a self-administered questionnaire, including questions regarding their demographic criteria, occupational history, job tasks, workplace tools, ergonomic factors at work, and symptoms suggestive of CTS. Physical examinations and electrodiagnostic studies were carried out for those who had symptoms suggestive of CTS to confirm the diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for both personal and physical factors in association with confirmed CTS among laboratory technicians. The prevalence of CTS among the laboratory technicians was 9.7% (27/279). The following were the statistically significant risk factors for CTS among them: gender (all cases of CTS were female, P=0.00), arm/hand exertion (OR: 7.96; 95% CI: 1.84-34.33), pipetting (OR: 7.27; 95% CI: 3.15-16.78), repetitive tasks (OR: 4.60; 95% CI: 1.39-15.70), using unadjustable chairs or desks (OR: 3.35; 95% CI: 1.23-9.15), and working with a biosafety cabinet (OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.11-5.59). CTS cases had significant longer work duration (17.9 ± 5.6 years) than CTS non-case (11.5 ± 7.4 yeas) with low OR (1.108). This study demonstrates some personal and ergonomic factors associated with CTS among the laboratory technicians, including female gender, arm/hand exertion, pipetting, repetitive tasks, working with a biosafety cabinet, and an unadjusted workstation.

  19. An investigation into problematic smartphone use: The role of narcissism, anxiety, and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zaheer; Griffiths, Mark D; Sheffield, David

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Over the last decade, worldwide smartphone usage has greatly increased. Alongside this growth, research on the influence of smartphones on human behavior has also increased. However, a growing number of studies have shown that excessive use of smartphones can lead to detrimental consequences in a minority of individuals. This study examines the psychological aspects of smartphone use particularly in relation to problematic use, narcissism, anxiety, and personality factors. Methods A sample of 640 smartphone users ranging from 13 to 69 years of age (mean = 24.89 years, SD = 8.54) provided complete responses to an online survey including modified DSM-5 criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder to assess problematic smartphone use, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Results The results demonstrated significant relationships between problematic smartphone use and anxiety, conscientiousness, openness, emotional stability, the amount of time spent on smartphones, and age. The results also demonstrated that conscientiousness, emotional stability, and age were independent predictors of problematic smartphone use. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that problematic smartphone use is associated with various personality factors and contributes to further understanding the psychology of smartphone behavior and associations with excessive use of smartphones.

  20. Personality as a risk factor in large bowel cancer: data from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kune, G A; Kune, S; Watson, L F; Bahnson, C B

    1991-02-01

    In a case control study which formed one arm of a large, population-based investigation of colorectal cancer incidence, aetiology and survival. 'The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study', among others, 22 psychosocially orientated questions were asked by personal interview of 637 histologically confirmed new cases of colorectal cancer and 714 age/sex frequency matched community controls, from Melbourne (population 2.81 million). Self-reported childhood or adult life 'unhappiness' was statistically significantly more common among the cancer cases, while 'unhappiness with retirement' was similarly distributed among cases and controls. Questions which were formulated to test a particular personality profile as a cancer risk, and which included the elements of denial and repression of anger and of other negative emotions, a commitment to prevailing social norms resulting in the external appearance of a 'nice' or 'good' person, a suppression of reactions which may offend others and the avoidance of conflict, showed a statistically significant discrimination between cases and controls. The risk of colorectal cancer with respect to this model was independent of the previously found risk factors of diet, beer intake, and family history of colorectal cancer, and was also independent of other potential confounding factors of socioeconomic level, marital status, religion and country of birth. Although the results must be interpreted with caution, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that this personality type may play a role in the clinical expression of colorectal cancer and merits further study.

  1. An investigation into problematic smartphone use: The role of narcissism, anxiety, and personality factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zaheer; Griffiths, Mark D.; Sheffield, David

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Over the last decade, worldwide smartphone usage has greatly increased. Alongside this growth, research on the influence of smartphones on human behavior has also increased. However, a growing number of studies have shown that excessive use of smartphones can lead to detrimental consequences in a minority of individuals. This study examines the psychological aspects of smartphone use particularly in relation to problematic use, narcissism, anxiety, and personality factors. Methods A sample of 640 smartphone users ranging from 13 to 69 years of age (mean = 24.89 years, SD = 8.54) provided complete responses to an online survey including modified DSM-5 criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder to assess problematic smartphone use, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Results The results demonstrated significant relationships between problematic smartphone use and anxiety, conscientiousness, openness, emotional stability, the amount of time spent on smartphones, and age. The results also demonstrated that conscientiousness, emotional stability, and age were independent predictors of problematic smartphone use. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that problematic smartphone use is associated with various personality factors and contributes to further understanding the psychology of smartphone behavior and associations with excessive use of smartphones. PMID:28849667

  2. The Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in the Czech context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřebíčková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2010), s. 165-177 ISSN 0039-3320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Nonverbal personality measurement * five -factor model * The Five -Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire * FF-NPQ Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.254, year: 2010

  3. The Role of Communications, Socio-Psychological, and Personality Factors in the Maintenance of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many air transport incidents and accidents are the result of the improper or inadequate utilization of the resources accessible to flight dock crew members. These resources obviously include the hardware and technical information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the flight, but they also Include the human resources which must be coordinated effectively. The focus of this paper is upon the human resources, and how communication styles, socio-psychological factors, and personality characteristics can affect crew coordination.

  4. Coeliac disease in adolescence: Coping strategies and personality factors affecting compliance with gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gudrun; Zeiler, Michael; Grylli, Vasileia; Berger, Gabriele; Huber, Wolf-Dietrich; Woeber, Christian; Rhind, Charlotte; Karwautz, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Patients suffering from a chronic condition such as coeliac disease (CD) need to develop coping strategies in order to preserve emotional balance and psychosocial functioning while adhering to their obligatory life-long gluten free diet (GFD). However, this can be particularly challenging for adolescents and may lead to dietary transgressions. Little is currently known about the influence of coping strategies and personality factors on dietary compliance. This study aims to explore these factors for the first time in adolescents with biopsy-proven CD. We included 281 adolescents with CD and 95 healthy controls. We classified patients according to their GFD adherence status (adherent vs. non-adherent) and assessed coping strategies using the KIDCOPE and personality traits using the Junior-Temperament and Character Inventory (J-TCI). Adolescents with CD adherent to GFD used less emotional regulation and distraction as coping strategies than non-adherent patients. In terms of personality traits, adherent patients differed from non-adherent patients with respect to temperament, but not with respect to character, showing lower scores in novelty seeking, impulsivity and rule transgressions and higher scores in eagerness with work and perfectionism compared to non-adherent patients. No differences were found between healthy controls and adherent CD patients across these personality traits. Coping strategies and personality traits differ in adolescent patients with CD adherent to GFD from those not adherent, and may therefore relate to risk or protective factors in adherence. Targeting coping and temperament using psychological interventions may therefore be beneficial to support adolescents with CD and optimise their adherence to GFD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Personality correlates of obese eating behaviour: Swedish universities Scales of Personality and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfhag, K

    2005-12-01

    To study the relationship between personality characteristics and eating behaviour in obese patients. The participants were 45 patients with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 39 kg/m2. Eating behaviour was measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) also taking the subscales Flexible Control and Rigid Control into account, and Personality was assessed with the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). In linear regression analyses the personality characteristic greater Lack of Assertiveness could explain 17% of Disinhibited eating and 13% of Hunger scores, whereas less Lack of Assertiveness could explain 12% of Flexible Control. BMI was negatively related to one of the personality characteristics, Adventure Seeking. A lacking ability to be socially self-assertive and confident characterized obese patients with more problematic eating behaviours that imply a risk for over consumption of food. A greater self-assertiveness was found in patients with a relatively more efficient eating strategy such as flexible control over eating.

  6. Interpersonal trauma moderates the relationship between personality factors and suicidality of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yongjoon; Park, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Soowon; Cho, Maeng Je; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more prone to suicidal ideation and behavior. While those who have experienced interpersonal trauma exhibit more suicidality than those who have experienced non-interpersonal trauma, it is unclear how the traumatic effects are related to an individual’s personality characteristics. This study examined the association between interpersonal trauma and personality factors with suicidality, and elucidated the moderating role of interpersonal trauma in individuals with PTSD. The study included 6,022 participants from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011. The Korean Version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for the survey, including the participants’ history of suicidality, the traumas they have experienced, and their PTSD symptoms. The 11-item version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-11) was used to assess the participants’ personality factors. 76 individuals were diagnosed with PTSD, while 810 had been exposed to trauma but were not diagnosed with any DSM-IV mental disorder. Among the individuals with PTSD, those who had experienced interpersonal trauma were more likely to have suicidal ideation than those who had experienced non-interpersonal trauma (p = .020; odds ratio [OR] = 3.643; 95% confidence interval of OR = [1.226, 10.825]). High agreeableness and conscientiousness predicted less suicidality in those exposed to non-interpersonal trauma, while predicting more suicidality in those exposed to interpersonal trauma. Clinicians examining individuals with PTSD should pay closer attention to the trauma that they have experienced, as well as their personality factors, to provide appropriate treatment. PMID:29329352

  7. The HEXACO and Five-Factor Models of Personality in Relation to RIASEC Vocational Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Derek A.; Tokar, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study extended the empirical research on the overlap of vocational interests and personality by (a) testing hypothesized relations between RIASEC interests and the personality dimensions of the HEXACO model, and (b) exploring the HEXACO personality model's predictive advantage over the five-factor model (FFM) in capturing RIASEC…

  8. A constriction factor based particle swarm optimisation algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem including losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Steven; Montakhab, Mohammad; Nouri, Hassan

    2011-07-15

    Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the most important problems to be solved in power generation as fractional percentage fuel reductions represent significant cost savings. ED wishes to optimise the power generated by each generating unit in a system in order to find the minimum operating cost at a required load demand, whilst ensuring both equality and inequality constraints are met. For the process of optimisation, a model must be created for each generating unit. The particle swarm optimisation technique is an evolutionary computation technique with one of the most powerful methods for solving global optimisation problems. The aim of this paper is to add in a constriction factor to the particle swarm optimisation algorithm (CFBPSO). Results show that the algorithm is very good at solving the ED problem and that CFBPSO must be able to work in a practical environment and so a valve point effect with transmission losses should be included in future work.

  9. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  10. A six-factor model of brand personality and its predictive validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines applicability and usefulness of HEXACO-based model in the description of brand personality. Following contemporary theoretical developments in human personality research, Study 1 explored the latent personality structure of 120 brands using descriptors of six personality traits as defined in HEXACO model: Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness. The results of exploratory factor analyses have supported HEXACO personality six-factor structure to a large extent. In Study 2 we addressed the question of predictive validity of HEXACO-based brand personality. Brand personality traits, but predominantly Honesty-Humility, accounted for substantial amount of variance in prediction of important aspects of consumer-brand relationship: attitude toward brand, perceived quality of a brand, and brand loyalty. The implications of applying HEXACO-based brand personality in marketing research are discussed. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 179018 and Grant no. 175012

  11. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors-including genetics, personality, and environment-affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process. : In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers' scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers' activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers' dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals' needs.

  12. Personality prototype as a risk factor for eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Sanchez-Guarnido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To establish whether the risk of suffering from an eating disorder (ED is associated with the high-functioning, undercontrolled, or overcontrolled personality prototype groups.Method:The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2 were administered to 69 patients diagnosed as suffering from EDs (cases and 89 people free of any ED symptoms (control group. A cluster analysis was carried out to divide the participants into three groups based on their scores in the Big Five personality dimensions. A logistic regression model was then created.Results:Participants in the undercontrolled group had a risk of suffering from an ED 6.517 times higher than those in the high-functioning group (p = 0.019; odds ratio [OR] = 6.517, while those in the overcontrolled subgroup had a risk of ED 15.972 times higher than those in the high-functioning group.Conclusions:Two personality subtypes were identified in which the risk of EDs was six times higher (the undercontrolled group and almost 16 times higher (the overcontrolled group. Prevention and treatment programs for ED could benefit from focusing on the abovementioned personality profiles.

  13. Personal factors associated with health-related quality of life in persons with morbid obesity on treatment waiting lists in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdal, Anners; Andenæs, Randi; Bjørnsborg, Eva; Bonsaksen, Tore; Borge, Lisbet; Christiansen, Bjørg; Eide, Hilde; Hvinden, Kari; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2011-10-01

    To explore relationships of socio-demographic variables, health behaviours, environmental characteristics and personal factors, with physical and mental health variables in persons with morbid obesity, and to compare their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores with scores from the general population. A cross-sectional correlation study design was used. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from adult patients within the first 2 days of commencement of a mandatory educational course. Of 185 course attendees, 142 (76.8%) volunteered to participate in the study. Valid responses on all items were recorded for 128 participants. HRQoL was measured with the Short Form 12v2 from which physical (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores were computed. Other standardized instruments measured regular physical activity, social support, self-esteem, sense of coherence, self-efficacy and coping style. Respondents scored lower on all the HRQoL sub-domains compared with norms. Linear regression analyses showed that personal factors that included self-esteem, self-efficacy, sense of coherence and coping style explained 3.6% of the variance in PCS scores and 41.6% in MCS scores. Personal factors such as self-esteem, sense of coherence and a high approaching coping style are strongly related to mental health in obese persons.

  14. The influence of product- and person-related factors on consumer hedonic responses to soy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Backhaus, Birte W.; van Hoof, Joris Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Consumers in Western countries increasingly appreciate health benefits of soy products. However, several barriers prevent full acceptance of these products. This study investigates the effects of product-related factors (perceived familiarity and expected healthiness) and person-related factors

  15. [Relevance of personal contextual factors of the ICF for use in practical social medicine and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotkamp, S; Cibis, W; Bahemann, A; Baldus, A; Behrens, J; Nyffeler, I D; Echterhoff, W; Fialka-Moser, V; Fries, W; Fuchs, H; Gmünder, H P; Gutenbrunner, C; Keller, K; Nüchtern, E; Pöthig, D; Queri, S; Rentsch, H P; Rink, M; Schian, H-M; Schian, M; Schmitt, K; Schwarze, M; Ulrich, P; von Mittelstaedt, G; Seger, W

    2014-03-01

    Personal contextual factors play an essential part in the model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The WHO has not yet classified personal factors for global use although they impact on the functioning of persons positively or negatively. In 2010, the ICF working group of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) presented a proposal for the classification of personal factors into 72 categories previously arranged in 6 chapters. Now a positioning paper has been added in order to stimulate a discussion about the fourth component of the ICF, to contribute towards a broader and common understanding about the nature of personal factors and to incite a dialogue among all those involved in health care as well as those people with or with-out health problems in order to gain a comprehensive perspective about a person's condition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The five-factor model of personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaburu, Dan S; Oh, In-Sue; Berry, Christopher M; Li, Ning; Gardner, Richard G

    2011-11-01

    Using meta-analytic tests based on 87 statistically independent samples, we investigated the relationships between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviors in both the aggregate and specific forms, including individual-directed, organization-directed, and change-oriented citizenship. We found that Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness/Intellect have incremental validity for citizenship over and above Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, 2 well-established FFM predictors of citizenship. In addition, FFM personality traits predict citizenship over and above job satisfaction. Finally, we compared the effect sizes obtained in the current meta-analysis with the comparable effect sizes predicting task performance from previous meta-analyses. As a result, we found that Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Extraversion have similar magnitudes of relationships with citizenship and task performance, whereas Openness and Agreeableness have stronger relationships with citizenship than with task performance. This lends some support to the idea that personality traits are (slightly) more important determinants of citizenship than of task performance. We conclude with proposed directions for future research on the relationships between FFM personality traits and specific forms of citizenship, based on the current findings. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Forming Factors And Builder Indicators Of Brand Personality Models In Traditional Retail Traders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunelly Asra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the factors forming and indicator builder model of brand personality of traditional retail traders through measuring the influence of retail mix and culture. The formation of brand personality uses Aaker brand personality dimension to 250 consumers in Bengkalis Regency. The type of research is causal research design. The research variables are brand personality Retail Mix and Brand Personality. Data collection is done by probability sampling with purposive method. Data analysis was done by perception analysis frequency distribution and multiple regression using SPSS version 21.0. The results of this study are The factor of retail mix partially has a positive and significant impact on the brand personality of traditional retail traders in Bengkalis Regency. Factor cultural partially does not affect the brand personality of traditional retail traders in Bengkalis Regency. Simultaneously retail mix and cultural have positive and significant influence on traditional brand traders brand personality in Bengkalis Regency. Initial forming factor of brand personality model of traditional retail traders in Bengkalis Regency is Retail Mix Factor. Indicator of the model of traditional traders brand personality builder in Bengkalis are sincerity excitement competence sophistication competence ruggedness.

  18. Social Networks in the Classroom: Personality Factors as Antecedents of Student Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…

  19. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  20. Risk factors for hip fracture in elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Olivi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this observational study, promoted by the Health Authorities of the Regione Veneto (Italy, is to assess the prevalence of the most relevant environmental and individual risk factors in subjects with a recent hip fracture. Methods: Patients aged more than 60 years of both genders with a recent hip fracture not associated with malignancies, were administered questionnaires on dietary habits, sun exposure, and disability score. A complete family, pharmacological and pathology history was collected together with information on previous falls, details of the fracture index, and anthropometric data. In all subjects, blood was taken for the measurement of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD. Results: The study included 704 patients (573 women and 131 men. Mean age was 81±8 years (range 60-102. Severe pre-fracture disability was a common feature (58% associated with multiple co-morbidities (84%, more frequently cardio- vascular and neurological diseases, and specific medications. In a large proportion (86% of the patients, environmental or individual risk factors for falling were found. Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25OHD levels <75 nmol/l was quite common (70%, particularly in the regional Health Districts were strategies for preventing vitamin D deficiency were not implemented (91%. Only a small proportion (17% of the study population had been evaluated and treated for osteoporosis. Conclusions: In senile patients with a recent hip fracture, pre-existing disability, multiple co-morbidities, high risk of falling and inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is relatively common. Community and case-finding interventions aimed at selecting subjects at high risk of osteoporosis, preventing vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency, and increasing awareness on the environmental risks of falling are highly warranted.

  1. The Effects of Chronic Aerobic Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Emily M; Headley, Samuel A E

    2017-09-12

    Aerobic exercise training is a component of diabetes mellitus (DM) care guidelines due to its favorable effects on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this review is to outline the recent evidence regarding the clinical effects of chronic aerobic exercise on CVD risk factors in persons with DM and to compare the effects of varying intensities and types of exercise. Among individuals with DM, all types of aerobic exercise training can impact positively on some traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD. Training programs with a higher volume or intensity induce greater improvements in vascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lipid profiles. The beneficial outcomes of aerobic training include improvements in glycemic control, endothelial function, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, myocardial function, adiposity, and CRF. Findings regarding markers of inflammation are discrepant and further research should focus on the role of exercise to impact upon the chronic inflammation associated with DM.

  2. Reflexivity as a control factor of personal coping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    BEKHTER A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of coping behavior control. The author defines the criteria, levels and aspects of reflexivity within the framework of personal coping behavior. In conclusion the author describes the key facets of coping behavior control and how reflexivity affects them.

  3. Ethical leader behavior and big five factors of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.; de Hoogh, A.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Most research on ethical leadership to date investigates the consequences of ethical leadership rather than its antecedents. Here, we aim to contribute to this field by studying leader personality as a potential antecedent of ethical leader behavior. In two multisource studies, we investigated the

  4. The Influence of Personality Attributes and Social Factors on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was a cross sectional survey research, which adopted Ex- post facto design. ... The results also revealed that personality attributes of extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, conscientiousness agreeableness and self – esteem did not significantly independently and co-jointly predict fraudulent practices among ...

  5. Personal and Contextual Factors Associated with Students' Cheating in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Yasemin; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted a correlational study to investigate the relations among seventh-grade Turkish students' cheating behavior, academic self-efficacy beliefs, usage of self-handicapping strategies, personal goal orientations, and classroom goal structures specific to the science domain. The Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales was administered…

  6. 76 FR 81004 - Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures Against Foreign Persons, Including a Ban on U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7741] Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures Against Foreign... Nonproliferation, Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: A determination has been made that a number of foreign entities and one foreign person have engaged in activities that warrant the imposition of measures...

  7. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  8. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to

  9. Personality Traits as Factors Affecting E-Book Adoption among College Students: Does Personality Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurkaliza Bt Khalid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic materials such as e-book have become increasingly accepted as learning tools in the classroom nowadays. This study investigated the relationships between the big five personality traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extroversion with e-book adoption among college students. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regressions were conducted to analyze the data. Results revealed statistically significant relationships between the personality traits (conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion and e-book adoption. Implications of the findings are also discussed.

  10. Data from "Cohort differences in big five personality factors over a period of 25 years"

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, I.A.M.; Dolan, C.; Vorst, H.C.M.; Wicherts, J.M.; Timmerman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This data set comprises of scores of 8,954 psychology freshmen from the University of Amsterdam (1982-2007) on the ‘Vijf PersoonlijkheidsFactoren Test’ or 5PFT developed by Elshout and Akkerman, which is an instrument to measure the Big Five personality factors Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Data were collected during the yearly freshmen-testing program from 1982-2007 and include scores at the level of 70 items that can be used in stud...

  11. The effective family and personality factors on felony in adolescent felons of Khorramabad house of correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mandana Saki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social damage is one of the problems which destroys the active manpower and young population in the country and also prevents social development. Family is the first environment in which social ground for the child is provided.Any dispute, controversy or inferiority complex in the family may lead to wrong doings The present study aims at the effective family and personality factors on felony in felon adolescents kept in Khorramabad bouse of correction. Materials and Methods: This descriptive- analytic study was carried out on all of the adolescents in Khorramabad house of correction as case group selected using census random sampling and high school students as control group selected by cluster random sampling. Data gathering tool was a 2-part questionnaire including demographic information and standard SCL 90 questionnaire. Results: Results showed that there is a significant relationship between the place of residence, failure in school program, economic status of the family, parents presence, fathers job and education, mothers job and education, parents inter personal relationship and family conflicting. The results also showed that aggression, anxiety, depression, somatic complain, obsessive compulsive, inter personality sensitivity, Psychotic, paranoid and phobia had a significant difference in the case and control groups. Conclusion: Regarding the fact that family environment is considered as the most important educative factor and no social damage has not occurred out of family influence, so no society can claim to be healthy unless to have healthy families.

  12. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  13. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Pipe elbow stiffness coefficients including shear and bend flexibility factors for use in direct stiffness codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Historically, developments of computer codes used for piping analysis were based upon the flexibility method of structural analysis. Because of the specialized techniques employed in this method, the codes handled systems composed of only piping elements. Over the past ten years, the direct stiffness method has gained great popularity because of its systematic solution procedure regardless of the type of structural elements composing the system. A great advantage is realized with a direct stiffness code that combines piping elements along with other structural elements such as beams, plates, and shells, in a single model. One common problem, however, has been the lack of an accurate pipe elbow element that would adequately represent the effects of transverse shear and bend flexibility factors. The purpose of the present paper is to present a systematic derivation of the required 12x12 stiffness matrix and load vectors for a three dimensional pipe elbow element which includes the effects of transverse shear and pipe bend flexibility according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. The results are presented analytically and as FORTRAN subroutines to be directly incorporated into existing direct stiffness codes. (Auth.)

  15. Pesticide exposure as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including histopathological subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Akerman, Måns

    2008-10-01

    We report a population based case-control study of exposure to pesticides as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Male and female subjects aged 18-74 years living in Sweden were included during December 1, 1999, to April 30, 2002. Controls were selected from the national population registry. Exposure to different agents was assessed by questionnaire. In total 910 (91 %) cases and 1016 (92%) controls participated. Exposure to herbicides gave odds ratio (OR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.51. Regarding phenoxyacetic acids highest risk was calculated for MCPA; OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.27-6.22, all these cases had a latency period >10 years. Exposure to glyphosate gave OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.10-3.71 and with >10 years latency period OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.16-4.40. Insecticides overall gave OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.96-1.72 and impregnating agents OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.07-2.30. Results are also presented for different entities of NHL. In conclusion our study confirmed an association between exposure to phenoxyacetic acids and NHL and the association with glyphosate was considerably strengthened.

  16. Dimensions Underlying Measures of Disability, Personal Factors, and Health Status in Cervical Radiculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Marie; Kierkegaard, Marie; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin; Peolsson, Anneli; Dedering, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study sought to identify dimensions underlying measures of impairment, disability, personal factors, and health status in patients with cervical radiculopathy. One hundred twenty-four patients with magnetic resonance imaging-verified cervical radiculopathy, attending a neurosurgery clinic in Sweden, participated. Data from clinical tests and questionnaires on disability, personal factors, and health status were used in a principal-component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation. The PCA supported a 3-component model including 14 variables from clinical tests and questionnaires, accounting for 73% of the cumulative percentage. The first component, pain and disability, explained 56%. The second component, health, fear-avoidance beliefs, kinesiophobia, and self-efficacy, explained 9.2%. The third component including anxiety, depression, and catastrophizing explained 7.6%. The strongest-loading variables of each dimension were “present neck pain intensity,” “fear avoidance,” and “anxiety.” The three underlying dimensions identified and labeled Pain and functioning, Health, beliefs, and kinesiophobia, and Mood state and catastrophizing captured aspects of importance for cervical radiculopathy. Since the variables “present neck pain intensity,” “fear avoidance,” and “anxiety” had the strongest loading in each of the three dimensions; it may be important to include them in a reduced multidimensional measurement set in cervical radiculopathy. PMID:26091482

  17. Association between the Five Factor personality traits and perceived stress: is the effect mediated by general self-efficacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Ill-health resulting from chronic stress is influenced by personality traits leading to different ways of appraising and coping with life's daily hassles. Using a large population sample the study aimed to investigate possible associations between perceived stress and the personality dimensions......-significant - whilst neuroticism had a positive association. The associations with agreeableness and openness became positive and significant, respectively, when GSE was included. All five personality-stress models were mediated by GSE, with extroversion and conscientiousness having the strongest mediating effect....... The strongest stress-association was found for neuroticism. GSE was shown to change the impact and interpretation of the personality dimensions on perceived stress. These results indicate that GSE is an important factor to consider in the link between personality and perceived stress....

  18. Study of Personality Factors in Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    has ever been on an alcoholism treatment unit can attest to the high rate of nicotine and caffeine consumption in this population. More empirically...administrations of cannabis . Moreover, despite the crucial role of learning in substance use, people still choose and perceive their learning...Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45’, 609-611. Bachman, J., & Jones, R. Personality correlates of cannabis dependence. Addictive Behaviors

  19. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample - A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sörman

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R's reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227 in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV, (ii self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively. Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.

  20. Personal, professional and workplace factors that contribute to burnout in Australian midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Jennifer; Lubomski, Anna; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify personal, professional and workplace factors that contribute to burnout in midwives. Burnout is prevalent in the midwifery workforce. Burnout adversely affects the well-being of midwives, diminishes the quality of care they provide and can shorten career duration. Self-administered online survey. The survey included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and personal and professional variables related to age, children, years of experience, role, model of care and satisfaction with work life. Midwives were invited to participate via an email sent from the Australian College of Midwives and through professional networks between June and July 2014. Variables associated with burnout were entered in a multinomial logistic regression. A total of 1,037 responses were received and 990 analysed. The prevalence of moderate to severe personal (N = 643; 64.9%) and work-related burnout (N = 428; 43.8%) were high. Having children, providing caseload midwifery care and working in a regional area were associated with low burnout. However, midwives registered for 5-10 years were more likely to report work and client-related burnout. Similarly, midwives reporting a lack of satisfaction with work-life balance were also more likely to report personal and work-related burnout. Family-friendly work environments that facilitate work-life balance can help to reduce the personal and organizational costs of burnout. Similarly, providing continuity of midwifery care in a caseload model can facilitate work-life balance and provide significant mental health benefits to participating midwives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Personality disorders are important risk factors for disability pensioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, Kristian Amundsen; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Ystrom, Eivind; Gjerde, Line C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether personality disorders (PDs) are associated with increased risk of disability pensioning in young adults, independent of other common mental disorders. 2,770 young adults from the general population were assessed for PDs by the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality, and for common mental disorders by the Composite of International Diagnostic Interview. These data were linked to the Norwegian National Insurance Administration's recordings of disability benefits for a 10-year period. Logistic regression analyses were applied to investigate the association between PDs and disability pensioning. The analyses were conducted for three types of PD measures: categorical diagnoses (any PD), dimensional scores of individual PDs and higher order components retrieved by principal component analyses. Having any PD was strongly associated with disability pensioning, regardless of disability diagnosis. The estimated odds ratio (OR) was substantially higher for PDs [OR 4.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-8.5)] than for mood disorders [OR 1.3 (CI 0.7-2.3)] and anxiety disorders [OR 2.3 (CI 1.3-4.3)]. Measured dimensionally, all PD traits except antisocial traits were significantly associated with disability pensioning. After adjusting for co-occurring traits of other PDs, only schizoid, dependent and borderline PD traits showed a significant positive association with disability pension, while antisocial traits showed a significant negative association. The principal component analyses showed that negative affectivity, psychoticism, and detachment was associated with an increased risk of disability pensioning, while antagonism/disinhibition and obsessivity were not. PDs are strongly associated with disability pensioning in young adults, and might be more important predictors of work disability than anxiety and depressive disorders. Certain aspects of pathologic personalities are particularly important predictors of disability.

  2. Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Colorectal Cancer: A Personalized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Rockall

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is an exciting time for all those engaged in the treatment of colorectal cancer. The advent of new therapies presents the opportunity for a personalized approach to the patient. This approach considers the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis in addition to classical clinicopathological staging. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have stemmed from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and therapeutics are discussed with a focus on mismatch repair status, KRAS, BRAF, 18qLOH, CIMP and TGF-β.

  3. Socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality and antibiotics use: A cross-cultural study among European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaygısız, Ümmügülsüm; Lajunen, Timo; Gaygısız, Esma

    There are considerable cross-national differences in public attitudes towards antibiotics use, use of prescribed antibiotics, and self-medication with antibiotics even within Europe. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality characteristics and the antibiotic use in Europe. Data included scores from 27 European countries (14 countries for personality analysis). Correlations between socio-economic variables (Gross National Income per capita, governance quality, life expectancy, mean years of schooling, number of physicians), Hofstede's cultural value dimensions (power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, indulgence), national personality characteristic (extraversion, neuroticism, social desirability) and antibiotic use were calculated and three regression models were constructed. Governance quality (r=-.51), mean years of schooling (r=-.61), power distance (r=.59), masculinity (r=.53), and neuroticism (r=.73) correlated with antibiotic use. The highest amount of variance in antibiotic use was accounted by the cultural values (65%) followed by socio-economic factors (63%) and personality factors (55%). Results show that socio-economic factors, cultural values and national personality characteristics explain cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe. In particular, governance quality, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and neuroticism were important factors explaining antibiotics use. The findings underline the importance of socio-economic and cultural context in health care and in planning public health interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of surgeon personality factors on risk tolerance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Jack; Suarez, Luis; Kyriakides, Tassos; Nadzam, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the association between surgeon personality factors (measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality inventory (MBTI(®))) and risk tolerance (measured by the Revised Physicians' Reactions to Uncertainty (PRU) and Physician Risk Attitude (PRA) scales). Instrument assessing surgeon personality profile (MBTI) and 2 questionnaires measuring surgeon risk tolerance and risk aversion (PRU and PRA). Saint Raphael campus of Yale New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut. Twenty categorical surgery residents and 7 surgical core faculty members. The following findings suggest there might be a relationship between surgeon personality factors and risk tolerance. In certain areas of risk assessment, it appears that surgeons with personality factors E (Extravert), T (Thinking), and P (Perception) demonstrated higher tolerance for risk. Conversely, as MBTI(®) dichotomies are complementary, surgeons with personality factors I (Introvert), F (Feeling), and J (Judgment) suggest risk aversion on these same measures. These findings are supported by at least 2 studies outside medicine demonstrating that personality factors E, N, T, and P are associated with risk taking. This preliminary research project represents an initial step in exploring what may be considered a fundamental component in a "successful" surgical personality. © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships between five-factor personality traits and specific health-related personality dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinan las relaciones entre 15 rasgos de personalidad relevantes para la investigación en salud, así como sus relaciones con los cinco grandes factores de la personalidad y dos factores de orden superior alfa y beta. El análisis factorial de 15 rasgos de la personalidad relacionados con la salud dio lugar a tres amplios componentes: Afectividad negativa, Control optimista y Pasividad. Los resultados obtenidos indican que los tres componentes relacionados con la salud, y la mayoría de sus medidas, podrían explicarse por la combinación de los cinco factores de la personalidad. Extraversión, Neuroticismo y Apertura están representados en los conceptos relacionados con la salud mucho más que Amabilidad y Responsabilidad. Locus de control de la salud y pasividad mostraron el mayor grado de independencia de los cinco grandes factores de la personalidad. El factor alfa se relaciona principalmente con la baja afectividad negativa, mientras que el factor beta lo hace con un alto control optimista. Los resultados sugieren que los cinco grandes factores, y los factores alfa y beta de orden superior, son útiles como marco general para la investigación en salud y personalidad, aunque también existe la necesidad de utilizar medidas específicas.

  6. Personal factors that contribute to or impair women's ability to achieve orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucena, B B; Abdo, C H N

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to identify factors that contribute and those that impair the ability to experience orgasm during sexual activity. It compared women (n=96) aged 18-61 (M=38.5 years) in a stable relationship that, after a normal arousal phase, do not have an orgasm (OD) with those that do (OA) regarding sociodemographic data, sexual frequency, talking about sex with their physician, talking about sex with their partner, sexual education, masturbation, sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, depression and anxiety. We found differences between the OD and OA groups with regard to level of education (P=0.022), sex education during childhood and/or adolescence (Porgasm problems included the variables 'masturbation', 'high school', 'sexual desire' and 'anxiety'. Orgasm difficulties are influenced by personal factors, such as anxiety and low sexual desire. Increased levels of anxiety also increase orgasmic difficulties. Women who masturbate and/or have completed high school are considerably more likely to reach orgasm during sexual activity.

  7. Personal, Psychosocial and Environmental Factors Related to Sick Building Syndrome in Official Employees of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome (SBS is a combination of symptoms that can be attributed to exposure to specific building conditions. The present study recruited 389 participants aged 20–65 years from 87 offices of 16 institutions to examine if personal factors, work-related psychosocial stress, and work environments, were associated with five groups of SBS symptoms, including symptoms for eyes, upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract, skin, and non-specific systems. Indoor environmental conditions were monitored. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression (MLR analyses and were reported as adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR. SBS symptoms for eyes were associated with older age, sensitivity to tobacco, and low indoor air flow. Upper respiratory symptoms were related to smoking, low social support, longer work days, and dry air. High indoor air flow was associated with reduced upper respiratory symptoms (aOR = 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.13–0.67. Lower respiratory symptoms were associated with high work pressure, longer work hours, chemical exposure, migraine, and exposure to new interior painting. Recent interior painting exposure was associated with a high estimated relative risk of low respiratory symptoms (aOR = 20.6; 95% CI = 2.96–143. Smoking, longer work days, low indoor air flow, indoor dryness, and volatile organics exposure, were associated with other non-specified symptoms including headache, tiredness, difficulty concentrating, anger, and dizziness. In conclusion, there are various SBS symptoms associated with different personal characteristics, psychosocial, and environmental factors. Psychosocial factors had stronger relationships with lower respiratory symptoms than with other types of SBS symptoms. Good ventilation could reduce risk factors and may relieve SBS symptoms.

  8. Should borderline personality disorder be included in the fourth edition of the Chinese classification of mental disorders?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jie; LEUNG Freedom

    2007-01-01

    @@ Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious Bpersonality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disturbances in mood regulation, impulse control, self-image and interpersonal relationships.1 In the United States, the prevalence of BPD has been estimated at 1%-2% of the general population, 10% of psychiatric outpatients, and 20% of inpatients.2,3 According to the 4th text revision of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-Ⅳ-TR),1 about 75% of BPD patients are women. The BPD diagnosis has been associated with heightened risk (8.5% to 10.0% among BPD patients) for completed suicide, a rate almost 50times higher than in the general population.4

  9. Risk Factor Analysis for AKI Including Laboratory Indicators: a Nationwide Multicenter Study of Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Nie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Risk factor studies for acute kidney injury (AKI in China are lacking, especially those regarding non-traditional risk factors, such as laboratory indicators. Methods: All adult patients admitted to 38 tertiary and 22 secondary hospitals in China in any one month between July and December 2014 were surveyed. AKI patients were screened according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes’ definition of AKI. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for AKI, and Cox regression was used to analyze the risk of in-hospital mortality for AKI patients; additionally, a propensity score analysis was used to reconfirm the risk factors among laboratory indicators for mortality. Results: The morbidity of AKI was 0.97%. Independent risk factors for AKI were advancing age, male gender, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. All-cause mortality was 16.5%. The predictors of mortality in AKI patients were advancing age, tumor, higher uric acid level and increases in Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. The hazard ratio (HR for mortality with uric acid levels > 9.1 mg/dl compared with ≤ 5.2 mg/dl was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.58 for the AKI patients as a group, and was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.24 to 2.42 for a propensity score-matched set. Conclusion: In addition to traditional risk factors, uric acid level is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality after AKI.

  10. The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space a correlational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Schiano di Cola, Armando; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to

  11. Conceptualizations of Personality Disorders with the Five Factor Model-Count and Empathy Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, Petri J.; Dåderman, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has long advocated that emotional and behavioral disorders are related to general personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model (FFM). The addition of section III in the latest "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) recommends that extremity in personality traits together with maladaptive…

  12. Clinician Acceptance of Electronic Medical Records (EMRs): Relating Personality Factors to Continuance Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Molly Ann

    2011-01-01

    Many models currently exist for evaluating acceptance and continued use of technology. However, none of these models are healthcare specific, nor do they involve aspects of users' personality. Although the five-factor model (FFM) of personality has been effectively used in psychology and human resources and management research to predict…

  13. Differential Impact of Administrative, Organizational, and Personality Factors on Teacher Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Pamela J.; Lynch, Mervin D.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a study which examined the extent to which teacher personality characteristics, organizational structure, and principal's leadership style are determinants of teacher burnout. Additionally, the influence of four background variables (personal, experiential, environmental, and health factors) were also examined.…

  14. Associations between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Health Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Douglas A.; Levine, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In fall 2006, the authors examined associations between the five-factor model of personality and several key health behaviors. Methods: College students (N = 583) completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment and the International Personality Item Pool Big Five short-form questionnaire. Results:…

  15. Using the Bayes Factors to Evaluate Person Fit in the Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianshu; Yin, Yue

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we propose using the Bayes factors (BF) to evaluate person fit in item response theory models under the framework of Bayesian evaluation of an informative diagnostic hypothesis. We first discuss the theoretical foundation for this application and how to analyze person fit using BF. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach,…

  16. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of

  17. Barriers and Factors Affecting Personal Protective Equipment Usage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    However compliance to it by HCWs has remained poor even in high-risk clinical situation. The objective of this study was to identify and describe the factors that influence a HCWs' decision to wear .... necrotizing fasciitis, osteomyelitis, abscesses, urosepsis etc are admitted. Casualty, burns .... J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017 Mar 1 ...

  18. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients.HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events.In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs and vascular events. Such results are preliminary and require

  19. Alexithymia and Personality Factors Among Students With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Rahbar Karbasdehi

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: The results garnered from this study implied that alexithymia and personality factors were significantly influenced by ASD. The findings of this research persuaded the pivotal implication of aforesaid facts on education and mental health of the students.

  20. Interaction of Occupational and Personal Risk Factors in Workforce Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandalai, Sudha; Wulsin, Victoria; Chun, HeeKyoung

    2012-01-01

    Most diseases, injuries, and other health conditions experienced by working people are multifactorial, especially as the workforce ages. Evidence supporting the role of work and personal risk factors in the health of working people is frequently underused in developing interventions. Achieving a longer, healthy working life requires a comprehensive preventive approach. To help develop such an approach, we evaluated the influence of both occupational and personal risk factors on workforce health. We present 32 examples illustrating 4 combinatorial models of occupational hazards and personal risk factors (genetics, age, gender, chronic disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, prescription drug use). Models that address occupational and personal risk factors and their interactions can improve our understanding of health hazards and guide research and interventions. PMID:22021293

  1. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-10-11

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lack of a role for AP1 in GPEI mediated trans-activation in F9 cells, although endogenously present AP1 can influence GPEI in HeLa cells. Co-transfection of delta fosB with c-jun, which forms an inactive c-Jun/delta FosB heterodimer that binds TRE sequences, inhibits GPEI-mediated transcription in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well as AP1-containing HeLa cells. These data suggest novel factor(s) other than AP1 are influencing GPEI. Binding studies reveal multiple nucleoproteins bind to GPEI. These factors are likely responsible for the high level of GPEI-mediated transcription observed in the absence of AP1 and during hepatocarcinogenesis.

  2. Do DSM-5 Section II personality disorders and Section III personality trait domains reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Krueger, R F; Ystrom, E; Torvik, F A; Rosenström, T H; Aggen, S H; South, S C; Neale, M C; Knudsen, G P; Kendler, K S; Czajkowski, N O

    2017-09-01

    DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity. Schizotypal, Paranoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-compulsive PDs were assessed at the same time as the maladaptive personality traits and 10 years previously. Schizoid, Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Dependent PDs were only assessed at the first interview. Biometric models were used to estimate overlap in genetic and environmental risk factors. When measured concurrently, there was 100% genetic overlap between the maladaptive trait domains and Paranoid, Schizotypal, Antisocial, Borderline, and Avoidant PDs. For OCPD, 43% of the genetic variance was shared with the domains. Genetic correlations between the individual domains and PDs ranged from +0.21 to +0.91. The pathological personality trait domains, which are part of the Alternative Model for classification of PDs in DSM-5 Section III, appears to tap, at an aggregate level, the same genetic risk factors as the DSM-5 Section II classification for most of the PDs.

  3. Personality disorder is an excess risk factor for physical multimorbidity among women with mental state disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shae E; Stuart, Amanda L; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan Olsen, Sharon L; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Honkanen, Risto; Lukkala, Pyry S; Chanen, Andrew M; Kotowicz, Mark; Williams, Lana J

    2017-11-01

    We examined whether mental state disorders (lifetime mood, anxiety, eating, substance misuse) with comorbid personality disorder are associated with physical multimorbidity in a population-based sample of women. Mental state and personality disorders were assessed using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Clinical measures were performed and medical conditions, medication use and lifestyle factors were documented by questionnaire. Mental state disorders were associated with higher odds of physical multimorbidity; risk was especially high for those with comorbid personality disorder. These findings suggest that mental state and physical comorbidity might be worsened by the additional comorbidity of personality disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dimensional models of personality: the five-factor model and the DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, Timothy J.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that the classification of personality disorder is shifting toward a dimensional trait model and, more specifically, the five-factor model (FFM). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the FFM of personality disorder. It will begin with a description of this dimensional model of normal and abnormal personality functioning, followed by a comparison with a proposal for future revisions to DSM-5 and a discussion of its potential advantages as an integrative hierarchical model of normal and abnormal personality structure. PMID:24174888

  5. Occupation as a factor of personality subjective wellbeing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapetyan L.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines personality subjective well-being and describes its psychological structure, general components and characteristics. An overview of foreign theories and studies on subjective well-being is presented. Correlations among related concepts such as happiness, life satisfaction and subjective well-being are also described. Subjective well-being is seen as a multivariate construction of a stable nature in mobile equilibrium. It is argued that a type of professional activity can have great importance and a positive impact on an individual’s social life, health, identity shaping and psychological wellness. This article’s findings are substantiated by the survey administered to 2229 respondents divided into groups according to their area of business: students, psychologists, doctors, teachers, engineering and technical staff, representatives of service industries, workers, military men, and prisoners. The descriptors identified two types of natures: positive, directed to a person’s inner world (happy, lucky, optimistic and to the outer world (trustworthy, competent, successful, and negative (pessimistic, unhappy, envious. This division of nature type was categorized according to the participants’ subjective well-being index. Empirical evidence has shown that occupational specificity influences a person’s subjective well-being. A substantial difference was found in subjective well-being index of the respondents. A higher index is typical of students and military men. Educators and industrial intelligentsia also demonstrate an increased level of subjective well-being, whereas prisoners tend to have a low level of subjective well-being. The same low index is characteristic of servicing trade representatives and psychologists.

  6. Prevalence and Influencing Factors of Metabolic Syndrome Among Persons with Physical Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghee Jeong, RN, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors. However, it remains unclear to what extent metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors among Korean persons with physical disabilities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities using the Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort. Methods: The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome influencing factors and prevalence, which were evaluated in a representative sample from the 2013 Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort database. Characteristics were compared based on frequency using the χ2 test. The associations between metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were estimated using logistic multivariable regression analysis. Results: Metabolic syndrome was detected in 31.5% of the surveyed persons with physical disabilities. Female sex, age of ≥65 years, smoking, greater alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, higher body mass index, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased risks of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The major risk factors for metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities were obesity and older age. Performing physical activity was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recommend using a continuous obesity management program and physical activity to prevent metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities. Keywords: disabled persons, metabolic syndrome X, physical activity, obesity

  7. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  8. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24±4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor

  9. Environmental and personal hygiene practices: risk factors for diarrhoea among children of Nigerian market women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyemade, A; Omokhodion, F O; Olawuyi, J F; Sridhar, M K; Olaseha, I O

    1998-12-01

    A Cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the environmental and personal hygiene practices of mothers of children aged less than five years in two markets in Ibadan--one with poor sanitary conditions (Bodija) and the other one with better sanitation facilities (Gbagi). The study sought to identify the risk factors for diarrhoea among these children. Two hundred and sixty-six mothers in Bodija and 260 in Gbagi were interviewed. A questionnaire was used for collecting information on social and demographic characteristics, personal and environmental hygiene practices, including sources of food and water for their children, waste-disposal practices and occurrence of diarrhoea among their children aged less than five years. The educational status of the women in Bodija was lower than that of the women in Gbagi (p homes, and 45 (17%) bought it from vendors in the market. The corresponding figures for women of the Gbagi market were 41 (16%), 98 (38%) and 19 (7%). Two hundred and thirty-four (90%) women in Gbagi prepared breakfast at home for their children compared to 216 (81%) women in Bodija. This difference was statistically significant (p Waste disposal and personal hygiene practices were poorer among the women in Bodija. Yet the occurrence of diarrhoea was not significantly different in both the markets. Risk factors for diarrhoea identified in this study were water and food bought from vendors, child defaecation practices, mothers' cleaning up practices after child's defaecation, and refuse-disposal practices. The inherent risk of sale of unwholesome food and water by vendors is a great concern for public health authorities in Nigeria. Efforts to control diarrhoea must not only be focused on improving mothers' knowledge about food hygiene but also on environmental hygiene practices within the community.

  10. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that traditional safety management needs to be improved on the aspect of preparedness for coping with expected and unexpected deviations, avoiding an overly optimistic reliance on safety systems. Remembering recent major accidents, such as the Deep Water Horizon, the Texas City....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...

  11. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  12. No evidence for a role of the serotonin 4 receptor in five-factor personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup; Fisher, Patrick Mac Donald

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) brain architecture appears to be implicated in normal personality traits as supported by genetic associations and studies using molecular brain imaging. However, so far, no studies have addressed potential contributions to variation in normal personality traits from in vivo...... in the healthy brain. In 69 healthy participants (18 females), the associations between personality traits assessed with the five-factor NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) and regional cerebral 5-HT4R binding in neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were investigated...... using linear regression models. The associations between each of the five personality traits and a latent variable construct of global 5-HT4R levels were also evaluated using latent variable structural equation models. We found no significant associations between the five NEO personality traits...

  13. [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief - Likert format: Factor structure analysis in general population in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchiou, A; Todorov, L; Lajnef, M; Baudin, G; Pignon, B; Richard, J-R; Leboyer, M; Szöke, A; Schürhoff, F

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to explore the factorial structure of the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) in a Likert format, in a representative sample of the general population. In addition, differences in the dimensional scores of schizotypy according to gender and age were analyzed. As the study in the general population of schizotypal traits and its determinants has been recently proposed as a way toward the understanding of aetiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, consistent self-report tools are crucial to measure psychometric schizotypy. A shorter version of the widely used Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-Brief) has been extensively investigated in different countries, particularly in samples of students or clinical adolescents, and more recently, a few studies used a Likert-type scale format which allows partial endorsement of items and reduces the risk of defensive answers. A sample of 233 subjects representative of the adult population from an urban area near Paris (Créteil) was recruited using the "itinerary method". They completed the French version of the SPQ-B with a 5-point Likert-type response format (1=completely disagree; 5=completely agree). We examined the dimensional structure of the French version of the SPQ-B with a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) followed by a promax rotation. Factor selection was based on Eigenvalues over 1.0 (Kaiser's criterion), Cattell's Scree-plot test, and interpretability of the factors. Items with loadings greater than 0.4 were retained for each dimension. The internal consistency estimate of the dimensions was calculated with Cronbach's α. In order to study the influence of age and gender, we carried out a simple linear regression with the subscales as dependent variables. Our sample was composed of 131 women (mean age=52.5±18.2 years) and 102 men (mean age=53±18.1 years). SPQ-B Likert total scores ranged from 22 to 84 points (mean=43.6

  14. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... species is included, except for certain worked African elephant ivory as provided in paragraph (f) of this... within 1 year of changing your residence from one country to another. (4) The shipment, or shipments if..., inherited, or otherwise acquired before you changed your residence. (f) African elephant worked ivory. You...

  15. De-novo discovery of differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites including their positional preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilwagen, Jens; Grau, Jan; Paponov, Ivan A; Posch, Stefan; Strickert, Marc; Grosse, Ivo

    2011-02-10

    Transcription factors are a main component of gene regulation as they activate or repress gene expression by binding to specific binding sites in promoters. The de-novo discovery of transcription factor binding sites in target regions obtained by wet-lab experiments is a challenging problem in computational biology, which has not been fully solved yet. Here, we present a de-novo motif discovery tool called Dispom for finding differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites that models existing positional preferences of binding sites and adjusts the length of the motif in the learning process. Evaluating Dispom, we find that its prediction performance is superior to existing tools for de-novo motif discovery for 18 benchmark data sets with planted binding sites, and for a metazoan compendium based on experimental data from micro-array, ChIP-chip, ChIP-DSL, and DamID as well as Gene Ontology data. Finally, we apply Dispom to find binding sites differentially abundant in promoters of auxin-responsive genes extracted from Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, and we find a motif that can be interpreted as a refined auxin responsive element predominately positioned in the 250-bp region upstream of the transcription start site. Using an independent data set of auxin-responsive genes, we find in genome-wide predictions that the refined motif is more specific for auxin-responsive genes than the canonical auxin-responsive element. In general, Dispom can be used to find differentially abundant motifs in sequences of any origin. However, the positional distribution learned by Dispom is especially beneficial if all sequences are aligned to some anchor point like the transcription start site in case of promoter sequences. We demonstrate that the combination of searching for differentially abundant motifs and inferring a position distribution from the data is beneficial for de-novo motif discovery. Hence, we make the tool freely available as a component of the open

  16. Induced Systemic Tolerance to Multiple Stresses Including Biotic and Abiotic Factors by Rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Je Yoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, global warming and drastic climate change are the greatest threat to the world. The climate change can affect plant productivity by reducing plant adaptation to diverse environments including frequent high temperature; worsen drought condition and increased pathogen transmission and infection. Plants have to survive in this condition with a variety of biotic (pathogen/pest attack and abiotic stress (salt, high/low temperature, drought. Plants can interact with beneficial microbes including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, which help plant mitigate biotic and abiotic stress. This overview presents that rhizobacteria plays an important role in induced systemic resistance (ISR to biotic stress or induced systemic tolerance (IST to abiotic stress condition; bacterial determinants related to ISR and/or IST. In addition, we describe effects of rhizobacteria on defense/tolerance related signal pathway in plants. We also review recent information including plant resistance or tolerance against multiple stresses (bioticabiotic. We desire that this review contribute to expand understanding and knowledge on the microbial application in a constantly varying agroecosystem, and suggest beneficial microbes as one of alternative environment-friendly application to alleviate multiple stresses.

  17. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  18. Cognitive, Personality, and Family Factors in Patients with Migraine Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Johari-Fard; Farzad Goli; Amirreza Boroumand

    2014-01-01

    Migraine is a disorder that has debilitating pain, and affects all aspects of life, including the academic, social, and family life of patients. In addition, studies show the effects of migraine on patient's relationships with family members such as spouse, children, and other family members. In addition to physical pain, migraines are tied to significant psychological and economic costs. Migraineurs tend to have high levels of depression and anxiety, and migraine headaches have a profoundly ...

  19. The measurement equivalence of Big Five factor markers for persons with different levels of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammstedt, Beatrice; Goldberg, Lewis R; Borg, Ingwer

    2010-02-01

    Previous findings suggest that the Big-Five factor structure is not guaranteed in samples with lower educational levels. The present study investigates the Big-Five factor structure in two large samples representative of the German adult population. In both samples, the Big-Five factor structure emerged only in a blurry way at lower educational levels, whereas for highly educated persons it emerged with textbook-like clarity. Because well-educated persons are most comparable to the usual subjects of psychological research, it might be asked if the Big Five are limited to such persons. Our data contradict this conclusion. There are strong individual differences in acquiescence response tendencies among less highly educated persons. After controlling for this bias the Big-Five model holds at all educational levels.

  20. E-Learning Personalization Using Triple-Factor Approach in Standard-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksitowening, K. A.; Santoso, H. B.; Hasibuan, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    E-Learning can be a tool in monitoring learning process and progress towards the targeted competency. Process and progress on every learner can be different one to another, since every learner may have different learning type. Learning type itself can be identified by taking into account learning style, motivation, and knowledge ability. This study explores personalization for learning type based on Triple-Factor Approach. Considering that factors in Triple-Factor Approach are dynamic, the personalization system needs to accommodate the changes that may occurs. Originated from the issue, this study proposed personalization that guides learner progression dynamically towards stages of their learning process. The personalization is implemented in the form of interventions that trigger learner to access learning contents and discussion forums more often as well as improve their level of knowledge ability based on their state of learning type.

  1. More Photos From Me to Thee : Factors Influencing the Intention to Continue Sharing Personal Photos on an Online Social Networking (OSN) Site among Young Adults in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldad, Ardion Daroca; Hegner, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the factors influencing photo sharing continuance intention of Dutch Facebook users aged 18 to 25 years old. The focus was specifically on personal photos (those that include the person sharing), as their disclosure is expected to result in privacy-related issues for

  2. Comorbidities as risk factors of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant survival prolongation in HIV-infected patients due to effective antiretroviral therapy is connected with increasing prevalence of chronic non-infective diseases in this population, among them chronic kidney disease. The pathogenesis of kidney disease in the setting of HIV includes conditions specific for HIV infection: direct effect of the virus, stage of immunodeficiency and drug toxicity. Chronic comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, are additional significant risk factors of kidney disease. In HIV-infected individuals some distinct features of these conditions are observed, which are partly related to the virus and antiretroviral therapy. The article summarizes the effect of comorbidities on kidney function in HIV-infected persons.

  3. [Comorbidities as risk factors of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Zofia; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Knysz, Brygida

    2015-12-16

    Significant survival prolongation in HIV-infected patients due to effective antiretroviral therapy is connected with increasing prevalence of chronic non-infective diseases in this population, among them chronic kidney disease. The pathogenesis of kidney disease in the setting of HIV includes conditions specific for HIV infection: direct effect of the virus, stage of immunodeficiency and drug toxicity. Chronic comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, are additional significant risk factors of kidney disease. In HIV-infected individuals some distinct features of these conditions are observed, which are partly related to the virus and antiretroviral therapy. The article summarizes the effect of comorbidities on kidney function in HIV-infected persons.

  4. Human factors design of nuclear power plant control rooms including computer-based operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.; Felkel, L.; Becker, G.; Bohr, E.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific handling of human factors problems in control rooms began around 1970 on the basis of safety considerations. Some recent research work deals with the development of computerized systems like plant balance calculation, safety parameter display, alarm reduction and disturbance analysis. For disturbance analysis purposes it is necessary to homogenize the information presented to the operator according to the actual plant situation in order to supply the operator with the information he most urgently needs at the time. Different approaches for solving this problem are discussed, and an overview is given on what is being done. Other research projects concentrate on the detailed analysis of operators' diagnosis strategies in unexpected situations, in order to obtain a better understanding of their mental processes and the influences upon them when such situations occur. This project involves the use of a simulator and sophisticated recording and analysis methods. Control rooms are currently designed with the aid of mock-ups. They enable operators to contribute their experience to the optimization of the arrangement of displays and controls. Modern control rooms are characterized by increasing use of process computers and CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) displays. A general concept for the integration of the new computerized system and the conventional control panels is needed. The technical changes modify operators' tasks, and future ergonomic work in nuclear plants will need to consider the re-allocation of function between man and machine, the incorporation of task changes in training programmes, and the optimal design of information presentation using CRTs. Aspects of developments in control room design are detailed, typical research results are dealt with, and a brief forecast of the ergonomic contribution to be made in the Federal Republic of Germany is given

  5. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and study the positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicide intent in schizophrenic population with suicide attempt compared to nonattempters, along with socio-demographic parameters. METHODS A sample of 60 consecutive patients attending OPD of a Private tertiary care Hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for the presence of past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters, and analysed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, Beck’s hopelessness scale (BHS, and Suicide intent scale (SIS. RESULTS Among the disorders schizophrenia is rated the second most common reason for suicide attempts (53.3%, especially when associated with positive symptoms, depressive features and significant hopelessness. Demographic parameters like age, sex, educational status, occupation, economic status, and marital status were not found to be significant factors linked to the suicide attempts, however family history of suicide had a significant association in schizophrenic suicide attempts. Suicidal intent severity was medium to high among most of the attempters; poisoning was the commonest method; and were found to be due to positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in the schizophrenic illness course.

  6. Data from ‘Cohort Differences in Big Five Personality Factors Over a Period of 25 Years’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris A. M. Smits

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This data set comprises of scores of 8,954 psychology freshmen from the University of Amsterdam (1982-2007 on the ‘Vijf PersoonlijkheidsFactoren Test’ or 5PFT developed by Elshout and Akkerman, which is an instrument to measure the Big Five personality factors Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Data were collected during the yearly freshmen-testing program from 1982-2007 and include scores at the level of 70 items that can be used in studies of psychometrics and the nature of personality.

  7. Factores de personalidad en el personal de enfermería de unidades de cuidados paliativos Personality factors on nursing staff of palliative care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gómez Cantorna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio hemos tratado de evaluar si poseer un determinado factor de personalidad por parte de las enfermeras que trabajan en cuidados paliativos con pacientes terminales, influye sobre su trabajo. La muestra es de 94 enfermeras del SERGAS (Servicio Galego de Saúde, y se han utilizado como instrumentos de evaluación un cuestionario de datos sociodemográficos y organizacionales y el cuestionario de personalidad Big Five (formado por cinco dimensiones de personalidad. De este modo sabremos que existen una serie de parámetros de nuestra personalidad que se ven influenciados por los diferentes datos sociodemográficos y organizacionales, en las enfermeras de cuidados paliativos.In this study we wanted to evaluate whether having a particular personality factor of nurses working in palliative care with terminal patients, influences their work. The sample was 94 nurses Sergas (Servicio Galego de Saude and were used as screening tools, a questionnaire on demographic and organizational data and Personality Questionnaire "Big Five" (consisting of five dimensions of personality. Thus we know that there are a number of parameters of our personalities that are influenced by different socio-demographic and organizational, in the palliative care nurses.

  8. Prevalence and Influencing Factors of Metabolic Syndrome Among Persons with Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeonghee; Yu, Jungok

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors. However, it remains unclear to what extent metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors among Korean persons with physical disabilities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome influencing factors and prevalence, which were evaluated in a representative sample from the 2013 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database. Characteristics were compared based on frequency using the χ 2 test. The associations between metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were estimated using logistic multivariable regression analysis. Metabolic syndrome was detected in 31.5% of the surveyed persons with physical disabilities. Female sex, age of ≥65 years, smoking, greater alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, higher body mass index, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased risks of metabolic syndrome. The major risk factors for metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities were obesity and older age. Performing physical activity was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recommend using a continuous obesity management program and physical activity to prevent metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Personality profile of binge drinking in university students is modulated by sex. A study using the Alternative Five Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, Ana; Navarro, José Francisco; Forero, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of binge drinking (BD), found especially among young people, is increasing worldwide and has become an important social and health concern. We studied, for the first time, the personality profile, using the Alternative Five Factor Model, among university students with BD and healthy controls, taking into account the possible influence of sex. 70 participants with BD (30 men) and 70 healthy controls (30 men) were included, selected to control for characteristics that are known to be related to BD (physical and mental disorders, consumption of other drugs, circadian rhythms), completed the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). The scores on Neuroticism-Anxiety and Impulsive Sensation-Seeking were higher in the BD group compared to the controls (pAnxiety are due to higher scores in the women's group (p=0.014), while those in Impulsive Sensation-Seeking are due to higher scores in the men's group (p=0.009), both in the Impulsivity and in the Sensation-Seeking subscales (p<0.045). Sex could be a factor that modulates the endophenotype of drug dependence (impulsive and anxious personality) and the prevention and/or treatment programs for BD should include not only the management of the personality risk factors but also different tailored approaches according to sex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory: Cross-Cultural Generalizability across 13 Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřebíčková, Martina; Hendriks, A. A. J.; Perugini, M.; Angleitner, A.; Ostendorf, F.; Johnson, J. A.; De Fruyt, F.; Kreitler, S.; Murakami, T.; Bratko, D.; Conner, M.; Nagy, J.; Rodríges-Fornells, A.; Ruisel, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2003), s. 347-374 ISSN 0890-2070 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/99/1155; GA ČR GA406/01/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : five-factor model * Personality Inventory Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2003

  11. Development and Initial Validation of the Five-Factor Model Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (FFM-APQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E; Glendon, A Ian

    2018-01-01

    This research reports on the 4-phase development of the 25-item Five-Factor Model Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (FFM-APQ). The purpose was to develop and determine initial evidence for validity of a brief adolescent personality inventory using a vocabulary that could be understood by adolescents up to 18 years old. Phase 1 (N = 48) consisted of item generation and expert (N = 5) review of items; Phase 2 (N = 179) involved item analyses; in Phase 3 (N = 496) exploratory factor analysis assessed the underlying structure; in Phase 4 (N = 405) confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a 25-item inventory with 5 subscales.

  12. Interpersonal and personal factors influencing sexual debut among Mexican-American young women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Melissa L; Berlin, Amy; Kozloski, Mike; Hernandez, Maida; Grundy, Maureen

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand factors influencing the age of sexual initiation among Latina youth. Prior qualitative research with young women from the target population and the existing literature determined the theoretical framework for this study. A quantitative instrument was then developed and pre-tested. We enrolled a convenience sample of predominantly Mexican-American adolescent and young adult women from the west side of Chicago. A total of 271 participants were included in the analysis. Bi-variate and multivariable analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with age of first sexual intercourse. We found that personal, family, and peer/partner related factors influence the sexual decision making of these young women. Strong family expectations regarding educational attainment, negative parental messages about premarital sex and pregnancy, resistance to the influence of peers and partners, greater sense of personal control over sexual behaviors, preference for speaking Spanish, and small age difference between the young woman and her first sexual partner were all positively associated with age of sexual initiation. Among these, greater sense of personal control over behaviors was the strongest factor influencing age of sexual initiation. This study provides a model that can be used to better understand Latina sexual decision making. Our findings might also inform future programs for Latinas, as they suggest that increasing girls' feelings of personal control over decisions regarding sexual debut and helping Latino parents to communicate strong messages about educational achievement, pregnancy, and sexuality may lead to positive health behaviors.

  13. An examination of the factor structure of DSM-IV Narcissistic Personality Disorder Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) contains two factors or types: overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable. A recent factor analysis of DSM-IV NPD symptoms supported a similar two-factor model. The present research tested this proposed two-factor solution against a one-factor solution (N = 298; 72% patients) using both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and an examination of associations between the resultant factors and theoretically relevant criteria (other PDs; depression, anxiety). The results of the CFA supported a one-factor solution. Likewise, the two factors each yielded a similar pattern of correlations with relevant criteria. Together, these results argue against a two-factor structure for the current DSM-IV NPD symptoms. Given the broader research literature suggesting a two-factor structure of narcissism, strategies for assessing both overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable forms of narcissism in DSM-V are discussed. PMID:18243885

  14. A Study on Musculoskeletal Disorders and Personal and Occupational Risk Factors among Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tirgar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Surgery is a high risk profession owing to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. Fine and precise operations cause surgeons to adopt prolonged fixed posture. As there is limited information in this region, the purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of MSDs and personal and occupational risk factors among surgeons in Babol (a northern city in Iran. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 45 surgeons during 2011 using a questionnaire in three parts including: Demographic and occupational data, Nordic standardized musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire (NMQ, and Body Discomfort Assessment technique. The working posture during operation was assessed by Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical indexes and chi- square test, and a p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: According to the data, the mean of work experience was 19.9±6 years, and the mean of work hours was 54.2±14 (ranged 20-80 hours per week. Ninety five percent of surgeons reported experiencing one or more MSDs symptoms during the previous year. Neck pain (66.7% and low back pain (LBP (51% was the more frequent reported complaint. The results showed a significant statistical difference between LBP with weekly regular exercise and work experience. Conclusion: The results indicate that MSDs are the common problems among the surgeons and they are at risk because of their personal and occupational conditions. So, ergonomics interventions in order to prevent MSDs are recommended.

  15. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; van der Linden, Dimitri; Bohleber, Laura; von Wyl, Agnes

    2017-02-01

    We conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64 years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the emergency eventually turned out to be a false alarm, various witnesses showed pronounced distress owing to a vast police operation. The GFP structure was replicated using two alternative modelling approaches. Neuroticism related substantially to acute fear and traumatic distress as well as to more enduring maladaptive coping. Agreeableness was negatively associated with the coping strategy of medication use, whereas both agreeableness and conscientiousness related positively to social activity following the emergency. The GFP related moderately to peri-traumatic distress and showed a substantial negative association with medication use and a strong positive association with social activity. In conclusion, both the GFP and Big Five traits significantly moderate stress responses following a stressful life event. The GFP predominantly relates to socially adaptive coping, whereas in particular neuroticism accounts for acute stress reactions such as fear and traumatic distress. These findings support the notion that personality influences how persons react in the face of adversity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Birth weight and long-term overweight risk: systematic review and a meta-analysis including 643,902 persons from 66 studies and 26 countries globally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Schellong

    Full Text Available Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis.Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (p4,000 g was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.55-1.77. Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500-4,000 g as reference category (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.63-0.84, and OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.45-1.77, respectively. Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.43-2.67.Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy, might therefore be a promising strategy of genuine overweight prevention, globally.

  17. Time diary and questionnaire assessment of factors associated with academic and personal success among university undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Darren; Dixon, Sinikka; Stansal, Emory; Gelb, Shannon Lund; Pheri, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 231 students attending a private liberal arts university in central Alberta, Canada, completed a 5-day time diary and a 71-item questionnaire assessing the influence of personal, cognitive, and attitudinal factors on success. The authors used 3 success measures: cumulative grade point average (GPA), Personal Success--each participant's rating of congruence between stated goals and progress toward those goals--and Total Success--a measure that weighted GPA and Personal Success equally. The greatest predictors of GPA were time-management skills, intelligence, time spent studying, computer ownership, less time spent in passive leisure, and a healthy diet. Predictors of Personal Success scores were clearly defined goals, overall health, personal spirituality, and time-management skills. Predictors of Total Success scores were clearly defined goals, time-management skills, less time spent in passive leisure, healthy diet, waking up early, computer ownership, and less time spent sleeping. Results suggest alternatives to traditional predictors of academic success.

  18. Personality change following head injury: assessment with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannoo, E; de Deyne, C; Colardyn, F; de Soete, G; Jannes, C

    1997-11-01

    We evaluated personality change following head injury in 68 patients at 6 months postinjury using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess the five personality dimensions of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. All items had to be rated twice, once for the preinjury and once for the current status. Twenty-eight trauma patients with injuries to other parts of the body than the head were used as controls. For the head-injured group, 63 relatives also completed the questionnaire. The results showed no differences between the ratings of head-injured patients and the ratings of trauma control patients. Both groups showed significant change in the personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. Compared to their relatives, head-injured patients report a smaller change in Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Changes were not reported on the Openness and Agreeableness scales, by neither the head-injured or their relatives, nor by the trauma controls.

  19. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sarpong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental awareness has received a great deal of public attention. However, little emphasis has been put on the influence of environmental factors (weather, personal attitudes, policies, physical structures, transportation, etc. on the quality of life of persons infected with HIV/AIDS. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of selected environmental factors on the quality of life of persons affected by HIV/AIDS. To achieve this goal, the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF subscales including Policies, Physical Structure, Work/School, Attitudes/Support, and Service/ Assistance were evaluated in patients selected from a STD/HIV clinic in Jackson, MS. They were chosen based on previously diagnosed HIV/AIDS status and age (16-95. Written consents, demographics sheets and self-administered questionnaires were obtained. Data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS software. Interviews started in July 2007 and ended in August, 2007. One hundred and thirteen patients responded. Participants were 72.6% (82 male, 26.5% (30 female and 0.9% (1 transgender. The median age of participants was 38.8 (18-63. Over 50% (65 had some college or higher education, and 35.4% reported annual incomes less than $10,000. Multivariate analysis showed marginal significance between disease diagnosis and gender (p < 0.10, and statistical significance between disease diagnosis and income (p = 0.03. Also, age (p = 0.01 and education (p = 0.03 were significant predictors in one of the subscales. The CHIEF subscales that showed the greatest significance among AIDS respondents were Attitudes and Support, and Government Policies with mean sensitivity scores of 1.39 and 1.42, respectively. The element with the least effect on AIDS patients was the Work/School subscale, with a mean score of 0.74. In general AIDS patients were disproportionately affected in all but one of the five subscales observed. Conversely those with HIV were more

  20. Identifying depression severity risk factors in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan T; Wilson, Catherine S; Heinemann, Allen W; Lazowski, Linda E; Fann, Jesse R; Bombardier, Charles H

    2014-02-01

    Examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, health-, and injury-related characteristics, and substance misuse across multiple levels of depression severity. 204 persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) volunteered as part of screening efforts for a randomized controlled trial of venlafaxine extended release for major depressive disorder (MDD). Instruments included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression scale, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Substance Abuse in Vocational Rehabilitation-Screener (SAVR-S), which contains 3 subscales: drug misuse, alcohol misuse, and a subtle items scale. Each of the SAVR-S subscales contributes to an overall substance use disorder (SUD) outcome. Three proportional odds models were specified, varying the substance misuse measure included in each model. 44% individuals had no depression symptoms, 31% had mild symptoms, 16% had moderate symptoms, 6% had moderately severe symptoms, and 3% had severe depression symptoms. Alcohol misuse, as indicated by the AUDIT and the SAVR-S drug misuse subscale scores were significant predictors of depression symptom severity. The SAVR-S substance use disorder (SUD) screening outcome was the most predictive variable. Level of education was only significantly predictive of depression severity in the model using the AUDIT alcohol misuse indicator. Likely SUD as measured by the SAVR-S was most predictive of depression symptom severity in this sample of persons with traumatic SCI. Drug and alcohol screening are important for identifying individuals at risk for depression, but screening for both may be optimal. Further research is needed on risk and protective factors for depression, including psychosocial characteristics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. The Relationship between Self-Leadership and Personality: A Comparison of Hierarchical Factor Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton, Jeffery D.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-leadership and personality through an analysis and comparison of hierarchical factor structures. More specifically, this study examined the relationships between the self-leadership dimensions of behavior-focused strategies, natural reward strategies, and constructive thought strategies, and the personality dimensions of extraversion, emotional stability, and conscientiousness. The results of the study provide evidence that the self-leadershi...

  2. Personality factors and posttraumatic stress: associations in civilians one year after air attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Knezevic, Goran; Priebe, Stefan

    2003-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate on which risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress symptoms are more important--personality traits reflecting vulnerability, previous stressful experiences or characteristics of the traumatic event. In this study, posttraumatic stress symptoms and their relationship with personality traits, previous stressful experiences and exposure to stressful events during air attacks in Yugoslavia were investigated. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI; Millon, 1983), Impact of Events Scale (IES; Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979), Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSCL-R; Wolfe & Kimerling, 1997), and List of Stressors were administered to a homogeneous group of medical students 1 year after the attacks. In multiple regression analyses, compulsive and passive-aggressive personality traits and a higher level of exposure to stressors during air attacks independently predicted the degree of intrusion symptoms. Avoidance symptoms were predicted by avoidant personality traits and a higher exposure to stressors both previously in life and during the attacks. In the next step, we tested in analyses of variance whether personality traits, previous stressful experiences, and stressful events during attacks as independent variables interact in predicting intrusion and avoidance symptoms. For this, students were clustered into three groups depending on their predominant personality traits. In addition to direct predictive effects, there were significant interaction effects in predicting both intrusion and avoidance. The findings suggest that each of the tested factors, i.e., personality traits, previous stressful experiences, and exposure to traumatic events may have an independent and direct influence on developing posttraumatic stress. However, the effect of these factors cannot just be added up. Rather, the factors interact in their impact on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Bigger samples and longitudinal designs will be required to

  3. Factors associated with job and personal satisfaction in adult Brazilian intensivists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar Junior, Antonio Paulo; Azevedo, Luciano César Pontes de

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate job and personal satisfaction rates in physicians who work in adult intensive care units and to identify the factors associated with satisfaction. A cross-sectional study performed with physicians who participated in two intensive medicine online discussion groups. A questionnaire designed to assess the physician's sociodemographic profile and job was available for both groups for 3 months. At the end of the questionnaire, the participants addressed their degrees of job and personal satisfaction using a Likert scale in which 1 represented "very dissatisfied" and 5 represented "very satisfied". The association between sociodemographic and job characteristics with job and personal satisfaction was evaluated. Variables independently associated with satisfaction were identified using a logistic regression model. The questionnaire was answered by 250 physicians, of which 137 (54.8%) declared they were satisfied with their jobs and 34 (13.5%) were very satisfied. None of the evaluated characteristics were independently associated with job satisfaction. Regarding personal satisfaction, 136 (54.4%) physicians reported being satisfied, and 48 (19.9%) reported being very satisfied. Job satisfaction (OR = 7.21; 95%CI 3.21 - 16.20) and working in a university hospital (OR = 3.24; 95%CI 1.29 - 8.15) were factors independently associated with the personal satisfaction of the participants. The participant physicians reported job and personal satisfaction with their work in intensive care. Job satisfaction and working in a university hospital were independently associated with greater personal satisfaction.

  4. The Five-Factor Model personality traits in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Shimada, Takamitsu; Nitta, Yusuke; Kihara, Hiroaki; Okubo, Hiroaki; Uehara, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-30

    Personality is one of important factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia because it affects patients' symptoms, cognition and social functioning. Several studies have reported specific personality traits in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy subjects. However, the results were inconsistent among studies. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measures five personality traits: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C). Here, we performed a meta-analysis of these personality traits assessed by the NEO-FFI in 460 patients with schizophrenia and 486 healthy subjects from the published literature and investigated possible associations between schizophrenia and these traits. There was no publication bias for any traits. Because we found evidence of significant heterogeneity in all traits among the studies, we applied a random-effect model to perform the meta-analysis. Patients with schizophrenia showed a higher score for N and lower scores for E, O, A and C compared with healthy subjects. The effect sizes of these personality traits ranged from moderate to large. These differences were not affected by possible moderator factors, such as gender distribution and mean age in each study, expect for gender effect for A. These findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a different personality profile compared with healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. From the big five to the general factor of personality: a dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Joan C; Amigó, Salvador; Caselles, Antonio

    2014-10-28

    An integrating and dynamic model of personality that allows predicting the response of the basic factors of personality, such as the Big Five Factors (B5F) or the general factor of personality (GFP) to acute doses of drug is presented in this paper. Personality has a dynamic nature, i.e., as a consequence of a stimulus, the GFP dynamics as well as each one of the B5F of personality dynamics can be explained by the same model (a system of three coupled differential equations). From this invariance hypothesis, a partial differential equation, whose solution relates the GFP with each one of the B5F, is deduced. From this dynamic approach, a co-evolution of the GFP and each one of the B5F occurs, rather than an unconnected evolution, as a consequence of the same stimulus. The hypotheses and deductions are validated through an experimental design centered on the individual, where caffeine is the considered stimulus. Thus, as much from a theoretical point of view as from an applied one, the models here proposed open a new perspective in the understanding and study of personality like a global system that interacts intimately with the environment, being a clear bet for the high level inter-disciplinary research.

  6. The Role of Big Five Personality Factors and Defense Mechanisms in Predicting Quality of Life in Sexually Dysfunctional Female Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. salary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction can lead to behavioral problems and reduction in a person's quality of life. In 50 % of patients with personality disorders, there is also sexual dysfunction. Psychoanalysis approach attributes the cause of sexual dysfunction to a kind of fundamental anxiety as well as the use of immature mechanisms in these patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of big five personality traits and defensive mechanisms in predicting these patients' quality of life. Statistical sample of this research included 80 women attending sexual health and family clinics of Shahed University using accessible sampling during 2010 and 2011. These subjects were given the Neo Personality Inventory Traits, Defensive Mechanisms, and the World Health organization Quality of Life Questionnaires to answer. The findings showed that personality traits could predict the quality of life in woman with sexual dysfunction. Moreover, among those five personality traits, neuroticism (:./24 P=./04 and conscientiousness(:./31 P=./03 were able to predict the quality of life while predictability rate of both factors was 37% of variance on the whole (p=0/05. Based on regression analysis, there was a significant relationship between the quality of life and defensive mechanisms so that using more mature defensive mechanisms (:./37 P=./006 and immature defensive mechanisms (:-./31 P= ./02 could significantly predict quality of life (p=0/0001. Also, neurotic defensive mechanisms were not significant predictors of these women' quality of life. (;./04 P=./78.

  7. Breast cancer and personal environmental risk factors in Marin County - Pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Farren, G.; Baltzell, K.; Chew, T.; Clarkson, C.; Fleshman, R.; Leary, C.; Mizroch, M.; Orenstein, F.; Russell, M.L.; Souders-Mason, V.; Wrensch, M.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the Personal Environmental Risk Factor Study (PERFS) pilot project was to develop methodologies and a questionnaire for a future population-based case-control study to investigate the role of selected environmental exposures in breast cancer development. Identification of etiologically relevant exposures during a period of potential vulnerability proximate to disease onset offers the possibility of clinical disease prevention even when disease initiation may have already occurred many years earlier. Certain personal environmental agents or combinations of agents may influence disease promotion. Therefore, this pilot study focused on exposures that occurred during the ten-year period prior to diagnosis for cases and the last ten years for controls, rather than more historic exposures. For this pilot study, they used a community-based research approach. In the collaborative efforts, community members participated with academic researchers in all phases of the research, including research question identification, study design, development of research tools, development of the human subjects protocol, and report writing. Community member inclusion was based upon the concept that community participation could improve the relevance of scientific studies and ultimate success of the research by encouraging an ongoing dialogue between community members and academic representatives. Early activities of this project focused on the collection of input from the community regarding the possible role of environmental factors in the incidence of breast cancer in Marin County. The intent was to inform the scientists of community concerns, enhance the research team's understanding of the community being studied, and provide interested community members with a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional research methods through active participation in the research process.

  8. Reassessment of NRC's dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed a review and analysis of its dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy. As a result of this review, the NRC has decided to adopt a $2000 per person-rem conversion factor, subject it to present worth considerations, and limit its scope solely to health effects. This is in contrast to the previous policy and staff practice of using an undiscounted $1000 per person-rem conversion factor that served as a surrogate for all offsite consequences (health and offsite property). The policy shift has been incorporated in ''Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission,'' NUREG/BR-0058, Revision 2, November 1995

  9. Personal risk factors associated with burnout among psychotherapists: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionato, Gabrielle K; Simpson, Susan

    2018-03-24

    Emotionally taxing job demands place psychotherapists at risk for burnout, often to the detriment of the therapist, clients, and the profession of psychotherapy (Maslach, 2007). The aim of the present systematic review was to (a) explore the levels of both burnout and job stress in psychotherapists, (b) identify tools used to measure work-related stress and burnout, and (c) identify personal risk factors for developing burnout among psychotherapists. Databases PsycINFO, Medline, EMBASE, ASSIA, and CINHAL were searched. Forty articles met inclusion criteria. Over half of sampled psychotherapists reported moderate-high levels of burnout, with the majority of results based on quantitative cross-sectional self-report surveys. Younger age, having less work experience, and being overinvolved in client problems were the most common personal risk factors for moderate-high levels of stress and burnout among psychotherapists. It appears that psychotherapists commonly experience some burnout, and personal factors influence burnout development. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The General Factor of Personality: A meta-analysis of Big Five intercorrelations and a criterion-related validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, D.; te Nijenhuis, J.; Bakker, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that a General Factor of Personality (GFP) occupies the top of the hierarchical personality structure. We present a meta-analysis (K = 212, total N = 144,117) on the intercorrelations among the Big Five personality factors (Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion,

  11. Prognostic factors for disability claim duration due to musculoskeletal symptoms among self-employed persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter JM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees and self-employed persons have, among others, different personal characteristics and different working conditions, which may influence the prognosis of sick leave and the duration of a disability claim. The purpose of the current study is to identify prognostic factors for the duration of a disability claim due to non-specific musculoskeletal disorders (MSD among self-employed persons in the Netherlands. Methods The study population consisted of 276 self-employed persons, who all had a disability claim episode due to MSD with at least 75% work disability. The study was a cohort study with a follow-up period of 12 months. At baseline, participants filled in a questionnaire with possible individual, work-related and disease-related prognostic factors. Results The following prognostic factors significantly increased claim duration: age > 40 years (Hazard Ratio 0.54, no similar symptoms in the past (HR 0.46, having long-lasting symptoms of more than six months (HR 0.60, self-predicted return to work within more than one month or never (HR 0.24 and job dissatisfaction (HR 0.54. Conclusions The prognostic factors we found indicate that for self-employed persons, the duration of a disability claim not only depends on the (history of impairment of the insured, but also on age, self-predicted return to work and job satisfaction.

  12. Personality Assessment Inventory scale characteristics and factor structure in the assessment of alcohol dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, J A

    1995-02-01

    Individual scale characteristics and the inventory structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) were examined by conducting internal consistency and factor analyses of item and scale score data from a large group (N = 301) of alcohol-dependent patients. Alpha coefficients, mean inter-item correlations, and corrected item-total scale correlations for the sample paralleled values reported by Morey for a large clinical sample. Minor differences in the scale factor structure of the inventory from Morey's clinical sample were found. Overall, the findings support the use of the PAI in the assessment of personality and psychopathology of alcohol-dependent patients.

  13. Factors Influencing Employment and Employability for Persons with Disability: Insights from a City in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Srikrishna S; Murthy, G V S; Shamanna, B R; Allagh, Komal P; Pant, Hira B; John, Neena

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence on barriers faced by persons with disability in accessing employment opportunities in India. This study was undertaken to ascertain both employee and employer perceptions on barriers existing among Information Technology (IT) and IT-enabled sectors to employ persons with disabilities. Two hundred participants from six IT/IT-enabled sector organizations were included in the study; study was conducted at Hyderabad, India. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the participants. Physical access to and within the worksite was highlighted as a concern by 95% of respondents. Majority perceived that communication, attitude of people, discrimination, harassment at work place, and information were critical barriers. Only 3.8% of employers were aware that their company had a written policy on employing persons with disabilities. Employers stated that commitment and perseverance were important facilitators among persons with disabilities. Evidence from this study will help in planning need-based employment for persons with disabilities.

  14. Long-term effects of earthquake experience of young persons on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yumei; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Ji, Chunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to study the long-term effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors of stress from direct experience of an earthquake as a young person. Material and methods We selected workers born between July 1, 1958 and July 1, 1976 who were examined at Kailuan General Hospital between May and October of 2013. Data on cardiovascular events were taken during the workers’ annual health examination conducted between 2006 and 2007. All subjects were divided into three groups according to their experience of the Tangshan earthquake of July 28, 1976, as follows: control group; exposed group 1 and exposed group 2. We compared cardiovascular disease risk factors between the three groups as well as by gender and age. Results One thousand one hundred and ninety-six workers were included in the final statistical analysis. Among all subjects, resting heart rate (p = 0.003), total cholesterol (p earthquake compared with unexposed controls, but were unrelated to loss of relatives. No significant difference in triglyceride levels was observed between the three groups (p = 0.900). Further refinement showed that the effects were restricted to males 40 years of age or older at the time of analysis, but were due primarily to age at the time of earthquake exposure (p = 0.002, p Earthquake experience in the early years of life has long-term effects on adult resting heart rate, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, especially among men. PMID:28144258

  15. Evaluation of prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer in Cuba. Its role in personalized therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez Goyanes, Rosa Irene

    2011-01-01

    The identification of prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer has allowed applying personalized therapeutic programs without achieving, still, the individualization for all patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of estrogen receptors, progesterone and HER2 along with the expression of the EGFR1 and ganglioside NglicolilGM3. 1509 patients found the frequency of expression of the aforementioned receivers, which were correlated with the morphological and General variables. It was compared the AcM recognition ior egf/r3 with a game of diagnosis - shopping, and the AcM 14F7 vitro tissue fresh and included in paraffin and in vivo labelled with 99mTc. It was obtained the frequency in Cuba of these prognostic and prediction markers of response, noting her hormone dependence of tumor associated with less aggressive features. The AcM 14F7 showed a broad recognition that was not correlated with prognostic factors, but was able to detect live in primary breast tumors. The ior egf/r3 exhibited 100% specificity and positive predictive value, as well as a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 68 and 73% respectively. The recognition of the AcM 14F7 and ior egf/r3 opens a new possibility of therapeutic directed against these targets for breast cancer (author)

  16. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.

  17. Pedestrian road traffic injuries in urban Peruvian children and adolescents: case control analyses of personal and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Donroe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting.This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites.After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52, absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26, high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54, high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55, and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56. Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82 and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99.Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.

  18. Personality and mate preferences: five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwin, M D; Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-03-01

    Although personality characteristics figure prominently in what people want in a mate, little is known about precisely which personality characteristics are most important, whether men and women differ in their personality preferences, whether individual women or men differ in what they want, and whether individuals actually get what they want. To explore these issues, two parallel studies were conducted, one using a sample of dating couples (N = 118) and one using a sample of married couples (N = 216). The five-factor model, operationalized in adjectival form, was used to assess personality characteristics via three data sources-self--report, partner report, and independent interviewer reports. Participants evaluated on a parallel 40-item instrument their preferences for the ideal personality characteristics of their mates. Results were consistent across both studies. Women expressed a greater preference than men for a wide array of socially desirable personality traits. Individuals differed in which characteristics they desired, preferring mates who were similar to themselves and actually obtaining mates who embodied what they desired. Finally, the personality characteristics of one's partner significantly predicted marital and sexual dissatisfaction, most notably when the partner was lower on Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect-Openness than desired.

  19. Phobic, panic, and major depressive disorders and the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, O J; Nestadt, G; Samuels, J F; Costa, P T; Howard, W T; Eaton, W W

    2001-03-01

    This study investigated five-factor model personality traits in anxiety (simple phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder) and major depressive disorders in a population-based sample. In the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-up Study, psychiatrists administered the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry to 333 adult subjects who also completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. All of the disorders except simple phobia were associated with high neuroticism. Social phobia and agoraphobia were associated with low extraversion. In addition, lower-order facets of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with certain disorders (i.e., low positive emotions in panic disorder; low trust and compliance in certain phobias; and low competence, achievement striving, and self-discipline in several disorders). This study emphasizes the utility of lower-order personality assessments and underscores the need for further research on personality/psychopathology etiologic relationships.

  20. Personality factors versus expectations and self-reported symptoms among patients awaiting advanced prosthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakestam, U; Söderfeldt, B; Rydén, O; Glantz, P O

    1997-09-01

    To assess simple questions for identifying patient personality traits among a normal Swedish population and to assess possible relationships between personality and symptoms, attitudes, dental problems, and received dental care, a questionnaire was sent to 489 subjects awaiting prosthodontic treatment (response rate 84.2%). Three personality traits could be identified: "Fearful-depressed" subjects consumed more tranquillisers, were worried and had many symptoms, whilst "Open-minded" were optimistic about treatment, had high expectations and few symptoms. "Control-minded" did not reveal worries and guarded their autonomy. It was concluded that personality indicators were related to clinically relevant factors: salience of teeth, perceptions of problems, dental attendance pattern, expectations and perceptions of symptoms.

  1. No evidence for a role of the serotonin 4 receptor in five-factor personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) brain architecture appears to be implicated in normal personality traits as supported by genetic associations and studies using molecular brain imaging. However, so far, no studies have addressed potential contributions to variation in normal personality traits from in vivo...... serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R) brain availability, which has recently become possible to image with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). This is particularly relevant since availability of 5-HT4R has been shown to adapt to synaptic levels of 5-HT and thus offers information about serotonergic tone...... in the healthy brain. In 69 healthy participants (18 females), the associations between personality traits assessed with the five-factor NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) and regional cerebral 5-HT4R binding in neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were investigated...

  2. The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Gjertsen, Siri Renate; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Kvam, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-06-01

    Aims Although relationships between addiction and personality have previously been explored, no study has ever simultaneously investigated the interrelationships between several behavioral addictions, and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Methods In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e., Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction) as well as an instrument assessing the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Results Of the 21 bivariate intercorrelations between the seven behavioral addictions, all were positive (and nine significantly). The results also showed that (i) Neuroticism was positively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction, (ii) Extroversion was positively associated with Facebook addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, (iii) Openness to experience was negatively associated with Facebook addiction and mobile phone addiction, (iv) Agreeableness was negatively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, and (v) Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction. Conclusions The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and 17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors.

  3. Personality factors and styles among college students who binge eat and drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Christina C; Becker, Sara J; Curry, John F

    2009-03-01

    Elevated rates of comorbidity between binge eating and alcohol use problems have been widely documented. Prior studies have examined specific personality traits associated with the co-occurrence of these problems. The current study explores comprehensive personality factors that are associated with the co-occurrence of binge eating and binge drinking among a diverse sample of 208 college undergraduates. Using the Five Factor Model of personality, the authors assessed both comprehensive personality factors and style of impulse control, a personality style defined by different combinations of neuroticism and conscientiousness. On the basis of responses to a screening instrument, college students were assigned to one of four groups: binge eat, binge drink, binge eat and drink, and non-binge. The binge eat and drink group reported a higher level of neuroticism than did students in the binge drink and non-binge groups. Additionally, the binge eat and drink group was more likely to report an undercontrolled style of impulse control than were other groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Personality disorder risk factors for suicide attempts over 10 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Emily B; Wright, Aidan G C; Markowitz, John C; Sanislow, Charles A; Hopwood, Christopher J; Zanarini, Mary C; Yen, Shirley; Pinto, Anthony; McGlashan, Thomas H; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-04-01

    Identifying personality disorder (PD) risk factors for suicide attempts is an important consideration for research and clinical care alike. However, most prior research has focused on single PDs or categorical PD diagnoses without considering unique influences of different PDs or of severity (sum) of PD criteria on the risk for suicide-related outcomes. This has usually been done with cross-sectional or retrospective assessment methods. Rarely are dimensional models of PDs examined in longitudinal, naturalistic prospective designs. In addition, it is important to consider divergent risk factors in predicting the risk of ever making a suicide attempt versus the risk of making an increasing number of attempts within the same model. This study examined 431 participants who were followed for 10 years in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Baseline assessments of personality disorder criteria were summed as dimensional counts of personality pathology and examined as predictors of suicide attempts reported at annual interviews throughout the 10-year follow-up period. We used univariate and multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression models to simultaneously evaluate PD risk factors for ever attempting suicide and for increasing numbers of attempts among attempters. Consistent with prior research, borderline PD was uniquely associated with ever attempting. However, only narcissistic PD was uniquely associated with an increasing number of attempts. These findings highlight the relevance of both borderline and narcissistic personality pathology as unique contributors to suicide-related outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Perinatal risk factors in offenders with severe personality disorder: a population-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Bakiyeva, Liliya; Cnattingius, Sven; Grann, Martin; Hultman, Christina M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Geddes, John R

    2012-10-01

    Although perinatal factors are associated with the development of several psychiatric disorders, it is unknown whether these factors are linked with personality disorder. Cases of personality disorder were drawn from a national registry of all forensic psychiatric evaluations (n = 150). Two control groups were used: (1) A sample of forensic evaluations without any psychiatric disorder (n = 97) allowing for a nested case-control investigation; and (2) A population-based sample matched by age and gender with no history of psychiatric hospitalization (n = 1498). Prematurity (personality disorder, both in the nested and the population-based case-control comparisons with adjusted odds ratios (OR) for this risk factor ranging from 2 to 4. Asphyxia (adjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.1) and complicated delivery (adjusted OR = 1.5, 1.0-2.1) were associated with personality disorder in the population-based study, and the former remained significant in multivariate models. Overall, perinatal complications were found to be associated with a later diagnosis of personality disorder in this selected sample. As with other psychiatric disorders where such associations have been demonstrated, changes during the perinatal period may lead to abnormal brain development and function.

  6. Relationships between activities, participation, personal factors, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Christel M; Post, Marcel W; Westers, Paul; van der Woude, Lucas H; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe; Slootman, Hans; Lindeman, Eline

    2012-01-01

    To clarify relationships between activities, participation, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and specify how personal factors (self-efficacy, neuroticism, appraisals) interact with these components. We hypothesized that (1) activities are related directly to participation, participation is related directly to mental health and life satisfaction, and mental health and life satisfaction are 2 interrelated outcome variables; and (2) appraisals are mediators between participation and mental health and life satisfaction, and self-efficacy and neuroticism are related directly to mental health and life satisfaction and indirectly through appraisals. Follow-up measurement of a multicenter prospective cohort study 5 years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Eight Dutch rehabilitation centers with specialized SCI units. Persons (N=143) aged 18 to 65 years at the onset of SCI. Not applicable. Mental health was measured by using the Mental Health subscale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and life satisfaction with the sum score of "current life satisfaction" and "current life satisfaction compared with life satisfaction before SCI." Structural equation modeling showed that activities and neuroticism were related to participation and explained 49% of the variance in participation. Self-efficacy, neuroticism, and 2 appraisals were related to mental health and explained 35% of the variance in mental health. Participation, 3 appraisals, and mental health were related to life satisfaction and together explained 50% of the total variance in life satisfaction. Mental health and life satisfaction can be seen as 2 separate but interrelated outcome variables. Self-efficacy and neuroticism are related directly to mental health and indirectly to life satisfaction through the mediating role of appraisals. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Exploratory Factor Analysis to Explore Personal Attitudes Influencing the People-Plant Relationship in Danish Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderstrup-Andersen, Hans H. K.; Thomsen, Jane Dyrhauge; Müller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    office workplaces. A paper-pencil questionnaire was developed in order to collect demographical information about the employees at the workplaces under investigation. A scale composed of 13 items regarding the attitudes towards ornamental plants at the workplace was also included in the questionnaire...... was 0.79 and 0.93 for the second factor. These two factors form an interesting platform from which the question of how personal attitudes are influencing the people-plant relationship at Danish workplaces can be investigated further. However, it should be noted that the results reported here...

  8. Using exploratory factor analysis to explore personal attitudes influencing the people-plant relationship in Danish workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jane Dyrhauge; Müller, Renate; Sønderstrup-Andersen, Hans H. K.

    2012-01-01

    office workplaces. A paper-pencil questionnaire was developed in order to collect demographical information about the employees at the workplaces under investigation. A scale composed of 13 items regarding the attitudes towards ornamental plants at the workplace was also included in the questionnaire...... was 0.79 and 0.93 for the second factor. These two factors form an interesting platform from which the question of how personal attitudes are influencing the people-plant relationship at Danish workplaces can be investigated further. However, it should be noted that the results reported here...

  9. Factor analysis of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in developmentally disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nuovo, Santo F; Buono, Serafino

    2006-12-01

    The results of previous studies on the factorial structure of Wechsler Intelligence Scales are somewhat inconsistent across normal and pathological samples. To study specific clinical groups, such as developmentally disabled persons, it is useful to examine the factor structure in appropriate samples. A factor analysis was carried out using the principal component method and the Varimax orthogonal rotation on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) in a sample of 203 developmentally disabled persons, with a mean age of 25 years 4 months. Developmental disability ranged from mild to moderate. Partially contrasting with previous studies on normal samples, results found a two-factor solution. Wechsler's traditional Verbal and Performance scales seems to be more appropriate for this sample than the alternative three-factor solution.

  10. A five-factor measure of avoidant personality: the FFAvA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R; Loehr, Abbey; Miller, Joshua D; Widiger, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of avoidant personality disorder (AVD) was developed using a general trait model of personality (Five-factor model; FFM) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of 10 FFM traits found to be robustly related to AVD across a variety of methods. In a sample of 291 undergraduates, the scales from the Five Factor Avoidant Assessment (FFAvA) proved to be internally consistent and strongly related to the original FFM scales from which they were derived. The FFAvA scales also demonstrated substantial incremental validity in the prediction of existing AVD measures and indexes of social discomfort over their FFM counterparts. The FFAvA provides an opportunity to examine AVD and its correlates using smaller, more basic units of personality rather than more global symptoms that might blend these elements.

  11. Job satisfaction in the European union: the role of macroeconomic, personal, and job-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Job satisfaction is influenced by many factors. Most of them are attributed to personality or company features. Little research has been conducted identifying the relationship of job satisfaction with macroeconomic parameters. We used data collected by European Commission (Eurostat, Eurofound) and World Health Organization (WHO) for personal (eg, subjective health, physical activity), company (eg, career advancement perspectives, negative health effects of work), or macroeconomic parameters (eg, Gross Domestic Product, unemployment rate) on state level. Correlation analysis and a stepwise linear regression model were obtained. Gross domestic product (GDP) was the best predictor for job satisfaction across the European Union member states ahead of good career perspectives, and WHO-5 score (depressive symptoms). Beside personal, job-related, and organizational factors that influence job satisfaction, the macroeconomic perspective has to be considered, too.

  12. Birth Weight and Long-Term Overweight Risk: Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis Including 643,902 Persons from 66 Studies and 26 Countries Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Thomas; Plagemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (poverweight (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59–0.76). High birth weight (>4,000 g) was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.55–1.77). Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500–4,000 g) as reference category (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84, and OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45–1.77, respectively). Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.43–2.67). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy

  13. Social Recognition, Participation, and the Dynamic between the Environment and Personal Factors of Students with Deafblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2007-01-01

    The study describes environmental and personal factors that, from the student perspective, impede participation in education in secondary upper schools by students with postlingual deafblindness. The discussion is framed by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The researchers use the theory of social recognition…

  14. Background Noise Acceptance and Personality Factors Involved in Library Environment Choices by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Lemley, Trey

    2012-01-01

    For decades, academic libraries made efforts to provide study environments differing in acoustic environment. The present study aimed to provide an evidence basis for this practice by comparing background noise acceptance and personality factors of two groups of college-aged students self identified as preferring quiet or background noise when…

  15. Cognitive and personality factors in the regular practice of martial arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, Rosa A; Towey, Giulia E

    2018-06-01

    The effects of regular practice of martial arts is considered controversial and studies in this field limited their attention to singular psychological benefits. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the regular practice of martial arts and cognitive and personality factors, such as: attention, creativity and school performance, together with, self-esteem, self-efficacy and aggression. The design consists in a factorial design with two independent variables (groups and age levels) and seven dependent variables (attention, creativity, intelligence, school performance, self-esteem, self-efficacy and aggression). Seventy-six people practicing martial arts were compared with a control group (70 participants) not involved in any martial arts training. Martial artists were divided into groups of three levels of experience: beginners, intermediate and experts. Each completed a battery of tests that measured all the cognitive and personality factors. Martial artists presented a better performance in the attentional and creativity tests. All the personality factors analyzed presented a significant difference between the two groups, resulting in higher levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy, and a decrease of aggressiveness. Regular practice of martial arts can influence many functional aspects, leading to positive effects on both personality and cognitive factors, with implications in psychological well-being, and in the educational field. The results were discussed with reference to theories claiming that regular activity has a differential positive effect on some aspects of cognition.

  16. The Influence of Professional Training and Personal Factors on Technostress: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajah, Bertram A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of professional training and personal factors on five categories of technostress: techno-overload, techno-invasion, techno-complexity, techno-insecurity, and techno-uncertainty. The goal of the study was to determine whether experience and knowledge gained during professional training influenced the level of…

  17. Longitudinal Analysis of Personal and Work-Related Factors Associated With Turnover Among Nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estryn-Behar, Madeleine; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Fry, Clementine; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2010-01-01

    AB Background: Although many scholars have acknowledged the relationship between personal and work-related factors associated with job search and actual turnover, there is a lack of longitudinal designs that test this relationship empirically. Objectives: This longitudinal study examines specific

  18. The Belief that Alcohol Use Is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40…

  19. Comparative Factor Analyses of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, John K.; Cunningham, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) as measures of androgyny. Results showed that femininty (Concern for Others) and masculinity (Dominance) accounted for most of the variance, but for PAQ, clusters of male- and female-valued items (i.e., Extroversion and Insecurity) formed subsidiary factors.…

  20. Personality Traits of Expert Teachers of Students with EBD: Clarifying a Teacher's X-Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, Svenja; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan; Van den Bosch, Els

    2016-01-01

    Teaching students with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) is a challenge for many teachers in inclusive education. Much research has been done to find out what differentiates expert teachers from their less skilled colleagues. Recent evidence points to personality as an underlying core factor influencing teacher performance. In this…

  1. Impact of Environmental Factors on Community Participation of Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…

  2. Explaining IT Professionals' Organizational Commitment Based on Age, Gender, and Personality Trait Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Javaid A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the Emotional Stability dimension of the Big Five factors of personality traits theory to predict or explain a relationship with Employee Organizational Commitment, when the relationship between Emotional Stability (ES) and Employee Organizational Commitment (EOC) was moderated by Gender and AgeGroup.…

  3. Demographic Factors, Personality and Entrepreneurial Inclination: A Study among Indian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of demographic, social and personal dispositional factors on determining the entrepreneurial inclination. Specifically, the author examined the role of gender, age, stream of study, family business background and six psychological traits of locus of control, tolerance for…

  4. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  5. The relationship between the big five personality factors and burnout : A study among volunteer counselors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Lewig, K.A.; Dollard, M.F.

    In the present study of 80 volunteer counselors who cared for terminally ill patients, the authors examined the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (C. Maslach, S. E. Jackson, & M. P. Leiter, 1996) and the 5 basic (Big Five) personality factors (A. A. J.

  6. Data from "Cohort differences in big five personality factors over a period of 25 years"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, I.A.M.; Dolan, C.; Vorst, H.C.M.; Wicherts, J.M.; Timmerman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This data set comprises of scores of 8,954 psychology freshmen from the University of Amsterdam (1982-2007) on the ‘Vijf PersoonlijkheidsFactoren Test’ or 5PFT developed by Elshout and Akkerman, which is an instrument to measure the Big Five personality factors Extraversion, Agreeableness,

  7. Risk and protective factors of different functional trajectories in older persons : Are these the same?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, G.I.; Ranchor, A.V.; van Sonderen, E.; van Jaarsveld, C.H.; Sanderman, R.

    We examined whether risk and protective factors of different functional trajectories were the same in 1,765 Dutch older persons. We assessed disability in 1993 and reassessed it in 2001. For 2001 as compared with 1993, we distinguished three trajectory groups: substantially poorer, somewhat poorer,

  8. Identification of the Predictive Power of Five Factor Personality Traits for Individual Instrument Performance Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Gökhan; Dalkiran, Esra

    2017-01-01

    This study, with the aim of identifying the predictive power of the five-factor personality traits of music teacher candidates on individual instrument performance anxiety, was designed according to the relational screening model. The study population was students attending the Music Education branch of Fine Arts Education Departments in…

  9. Self-Efficacy as a Mediator of the Relationships between Personality Factors and Career Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Relationships among the Big Five personality factors (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism), career interests, and career self-efficacy (using Holland's realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional types for both of the latter) were examined. Among a sample of 147 college students,…

  10. Factors associated with future intentions to use personal vaporisers among those with some experience of vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bernice Hua; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; McNeill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara C

    2018-02-01

    Personal vaporisers (PV), including e-cigarettes, may be a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control. This study aims to identify factors associated with future intentions to vape among smokers and ex-smokers in Australia and the UK. Cross-sectional data of smokers and ex-smokers (n = 1199, mean age = 45.3 years, 44.8% male), collected in 2014/2015 and divided into four subgroups: smoking past vapers (SPV), smoking vapers (SV), ex-smoking past vapers (ESPV) and ex-smoking vapers (ESV), from the International Tobacco Control Australia and UK surveys were analysed by using regression models. Higher vaping satisfaction increased vaping intentions for all groups except ESPV. Perceiving PVs as less harmful predicted intentions to vape for all groups except ESV. The importance of PVs for stopping smoking predicted lower intentions to continue vaping for SV, but higher intentions to initiate vaping for SPV. The importance of PVs for cutting down smoking was a positive predictor only for SPV. Among ex-smokers, importance for maintaining not smoking was a positive predictor for ESPV, but not for ESV. The importance of perceiving vapour being less harmful also depended on vaping status for ex-smokers. The only country interaction was that only in the UK was perceiving PVs as less harmful associated with intention among SPV. Factors influencing intentions vary by smoking and/or vaping status, with greater differences between the ex-smoker subgroups. This is consistent with PVs being seen as a way of managing smoking, rather than something that has intrinsic value, for all except the ex-smoking vapers. [Ma BH, Yong H-H, Borland R, McNeill A, Hitchman SC. Factors associated with future intentions to use personal vaporisers among those with some experience of vaping. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Personal factors of burnout syndrome in teachers in the framework of self-determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers perform numerous professional roles that can serve as the source of prolonged stress and lead to the occurrence of burnout syndrome. This research was aimed at studying the personal factors of burnout, using self-determination theory as a starting point. We used a sample of 200 teachers to study the following: the level of satisfaction of basic psychological needs at work, the prominence of self-orientations and the presence of burnout syndrome. We also studied whether these variables were significant burnout predictors, as well as whether there was a difference in the pattern of personal burnout predictors in primary school and university teachers. The following instruments were used: the scale of satisfaction of basic psychological needs at work, the ego function questionnaire, the scale of burnout syndrome in teachers. The results point to a relatively moderate satisfaction of all psychological needs, a higher level of integrated self-regulation as well as the medium presence of ego-invested and impersonal orientations. On the whole, teachers showed low burnout. Significant burnout predictors include an integrated self and the need for autonomy (university teachers and an impersonal self (primary school teachers. This implies that teachers whose psychological needs are satisfied and who have an integrated self are less susceptible to burnout. The findings are discussed from the viewpoint of the self-determination theory, their educational implications and the possibility of preventing work burnout in education workers. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002: Indikatori i modeli usklađivanja porodičnih i poslovnih uloga

  12. Predicting suicide ideation through intrapersonal and interpersonal factors: The interplay of Big-Five personality traits and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Nailah

    2015-11-01

    While a specific personality trait may escalate suicide ideation, contextual factors such as social support, when provided effectively, may alleviate the effects of such personality traits. This study examined the moderating role of social support in the relationship between the Big-Five personality traits and suicide ideation. Significant interactions were found between social support and extraversion and emotional stability. Specifically, the relationship between emotional stability and extraversion to suicide ideation was exacerbated when social support was low. Slope analysis showed openness also interacted with low social support. Results were computed for frequency, duration and attitude dimensions of suicide ideation. Extraversion interacted with social support to predict all three dimensions. Social support moderated emotional stability to predict frequency and duration, moderated conscientiousness towards frequency and attitude, and moderated openness towards attitude. The results imply that whereas personality traits may be difficult to alter, social support may play a significant role in saving a life. Psychologists should include family and friends when treating a suicidal youth, guiding them to awareness of one's personality and being more supportive. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Health-related quality of life and hand eczema--a comparison of two instruments, including factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Lena-Marie; Nyfjäll, Mats; Lindberg, Magnus; Meding, Birgitta

    2004-06-01

    Hand eczema is a disease of long duration, affecting the individual and society. The purpose of this study of 100 patients (51 females and 49 males) at an occupational dermatology clinic was to investigate whether the generic questionnaire Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the dermatology-specific Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are appropriate for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with hand eczema, and whether gender differences in HRQL could be detected. HRQL was affected by hand eczema, measured with both SF-36 and DLQI. The SF-36 showed more impaired HRQL for females than for males, in the mental health dimension, whereas no gender-related differences were detected with the DLQI. To compare the instruments we used factor analysis, with a polychoric correlation matrix as input, thus taking the ordinal aspect of the data into account. There was a high correlation between the instruments for physical health, but lower for mental health. In this context our interpretation of the factor analysis is that the SF-36 measures mental health better than the DLQI. The SF-36 therefore appears suitable for use in future studies for measuring HRQL, and gender differences in HRQL, in persons with reported hand eczema.

  14. Analysis of personality traits as a risk factor in crash related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Goyal, Rahul; Singh, Ajai; Sharma, Vineet; Srivastava, Rajeshwer Nath; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Ashish

    2016-09-01

    Due to increasing stress, individual personality traits are becoming a significant contributor to CRT (Crash Related Trauma). In the present study, we hypothesized that there will be no difference in personality characteristics of CRT patients and control subjects and there will be no association between trauma and personality characteristics of CRT patients. A total of 119 cases and 112 controls of age >18 years were selected as per criteria decided. After obtaining ethical clearance, patients presenting to the emergency orthopedic unit were included in the study. After primary management all enrolled subjects were assessed by ICD 10 module screening questionnaire and analyzed for nine personality traits, subject to written informed consent. Of all the cases enrolled 82.35% were males. Impulsive personality trait is found in 84.78% (39/46) cases. There were 46 motorcyclists out of 119 cases enrolled. Most of the personality traits showed a statistical significant association (p personality characteristics which accounted for 84.78% and 82.61% cases respectively. These traits showed a statistical significant association with CRT.

  15. Core Self-Evaluations as Personal Factors in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model: An Application in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmanian, Rana; Smedema, Susan Miller; Thompson, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate Chan, Gelman, Ditchman, Kim, and Chiu's (2009) revised World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model using core self-evaluations (CSE) to account for Personal Factors in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: One hundred eighty-seven adults with SCI were…

  16. Musculoskeletal pain in Europe: role of personal, occupational and social risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli, Andrea; Mattioli, Stefano; Quaglieri, Anna; Curti, Stefania; Violante, Francesco S; Coggon, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in European countries varies considerably. We analyzed data from the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) to explore the role of personal, occupational, and social risk factors in determining the national prevalence of musculoskeletal pain. Methods During 2010, 43,816 subjects from 34 countries were interviewed. We analyzed the one-year prevalence of back and neck/upper limb pain. Personal risk factors studied were: sex; age; educational level; socio-economic status; housework or cooking; gardening and repairs; somatising tendency; job demand-control; six physical occupational exposures; and occupational group. Data on national socio-economic risk factors were obtained from eurostat and were available for 29 countries. We fitted Poisson regression models with random intercept on country. Results 35,550 workers entered the main analysis. Among personal risk factors, somatising tendency was the strongest predictor of the symptoms. Major differences were observed by country with back pain more than twice as common in Portugal (63.8%) as Ireland (25.7%), and prevalence rates of neck/upper limb pain ranging from 26.6% in Ireland to 67.7% in Finland. Adjustment by personal risk factors slightly reduced the large variation of prevalence between countries. For back pain, the rates were more homogenous after adjustment for social risk factors. Conclusions Our analysis indicates substantial variation between European countries in the prevalence of back and neck/upper limb pain. This variation is unexplained by established individual risk factors. It may be attributable in part to socio-economic differences between countries, with higher prevalence where there is less poverty and more social support. PMID:24009006

  17. Genetic structure of personality factors and bipolar disorder in families segregating bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Elizabeth; Contreras, Javier; Raventos, Henriette; Flores, Deborah; Jerez, Alvaro; Nicolini, Humberto; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Almasy, Laura; Escamilla, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) has been associated with variations in personality dimensions, but the nature of this relationship has been unclear. In this study, the heritabilities of BPD and the Big Five personality factors and the genetic correlations between BPD and personality factors are reported. The participants in this study were 1073 individuals from 172 families of Mexican or Central American ancestry. Heritabilities and genetic correlations were calculated under a polygenic model using the maximum-likelihood method of obtaining variance components implemented in the SOLAR software package. Heritabilities of 0.49, 0.43, and 0.43 were found for the narrowest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar and bipolar I), the intermediate phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, and bipolar II), and the broadest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, bipolar II, and recurrent depression), respectively. For the Big Five personality factors, heritabilities were 0.25 for agreeableness, 0.24 for conscientiousness, 0.24 for extraversion, 0.23 for neuroticism, and 0.32 for openness to experience. For the narrowest phenotype, a significant negative correlation (-0.32) with extraversion was found. For the broadest phenotype, negative correlations were found for agreeableness (-0.35), conscientiousness (-0.39), and extraversion (-0.44). A positive correlation (0.37) was found with neuroticism. It is not possible to determine whether aspects of personality are factors in the development of bipolar disorder or vice versa. The short form of the NEO does not provide the ability to examine in detail which facets of extraversion are most closely related to bipolar disorder or to compare our results with studies that have used the long version of the scale. This study establishes a partial genetic basis for the Big Five personality factors in this set of families, while the environmental variances demonstrate that non-genetic factors are also important in their influence on

  18. Personal, Familial, and Social Factors Contributing to Addiction Relapse, Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug addiction is deemed one of the gravest threats to society. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine what factors (personal, familial, or social are correlated with addiction relapse. Patients and Methods In this descriptive study, 146 addicts referring to addiction treatment centers in the Iranian city of Ahvaz were selected via purposive and non-randomized sampling. The study tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and SPSS software were used for data analysis. Results The results showed that 46.1% of the participants aged between 20 and 30 years. All the subjects had at least one attempt at quitting drug abuse. Single individuals comprised 52.9% of the study population. The most significant physical factors were lack of appetite (23.9%, numbness and pins and needles (23.3%, and bone pain (22.4%, while the most significant mental factor was loneliness (44%. Concerning the social factors, association with addicted and misleading friends (35.2% had the utmost importance. Furthermore, lack of a permanent job (43% and absence of appropriate family relationships (32%, respectively, constituted the most important factors among the career and familial factors. Conclusions Our results showed that many personal, familial, and social factors play a role in addiction relapse. The high prevalence of return to addiction necessitates further strategies for the more optimal control of these factors.

  19. Exploratory factor analysis of borderline personality disorder criteria in monolingual Hispanic outpatients with substance use disorders†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F.; Añez, Luis Miguel; Paris, Manuel; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) in Hispanic patients. Subjects were 130 monolingual Hispanic adults who had been admitted to a specialty outpatient clinic that provides psychiatric and substance abuse services to Spanish-speaking individuals. All were reliably assessed with the Spanish-Language Version of the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. After evaluating internal consistency of the BPD criterion set, an exploratory factor analysis was performed using principal axis factoring. Results suggested a unidimensional structure, and were consistent with similar studies of the DSM-IV criteria for BPD in non-Hispanic samples. These findings have implications for understanding borderline psychopathology in this population, and for the overall validity of the DSM-IV BPD construct. PMID:20472296

  20. Tracing a Route and Finding a Shortcut: The Working Memory, Motivational, and Personality Factors Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pazzaglia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wayfinding (WF is the ability to move around efficiently and find the way from a starting point to a destination. It is a component of spatial navigation, a coordinate and goal-directed movement of one’s self through the environment. In the present study, the relationship between WF tasks (route tracing and shortcut finding and individual factors were explored with the hypothesis that WF tasks would be predicted by different types of cognitive, affective, motivational variables, and personality factors. A group of 116 university students (88 F. were conducted along a route in a virtual environment and then asked first to trace the same route again, and then to find a shortcut between the start and end points. Several instruments assessing visuospatial working memory, mental rotation ability, self-efficacy, spatial anxiety, positive attitude to exploring, and personality traits were administered. The results showed that a latent spatial ability factor (measured with the visuospatial working memory and mental rotations tests – controlled for gender – predicted route-tracing performance, while self-report measures of anxiety, efficacy, and pleasure in exploring, and some personality traits were more likely to predict shortcut-finding performance. We concluded that both personality and cognitive abilities affect WF performance, but differently, depending on the requirements of the task.

  1. Big Five Personality Factors and Facets as Predictors of Openness to Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Pistole, M Carole

    2017-11-17

    Openness to diversity is a crucial component of cultural competence needed in the increasingly diversified modern society and a necessary condition for benefitting from diversity contacts and interventions (e.g., diversity training, cultural courses). Responding to the recent call for more research on personality and its relation to diversity outcomes, we examined the associations between Big Five personality (i.e., Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness) higher order factors and lower order facets and universal-diverse orientation (i.e., open attitude of appreciating human universality and diversity; Miville et al., 1999 ). In the Study 1 (N = 338) web survey on Big Five factors, Openness to Experience and Agreeableness were associated with universal-diverse orientation significantly. In the Study 2 (N = 176) paper survey on both Big Five factors and facets, Openness to Experience, low Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness, and various lower-order facets of all the Big Five personality were associated with universal-diverse orientation significantly. Practical implications were suggested on how personality facets could be incorporated into current diversity interventions to enhance their effectiveness of promoting openness to diversity.

  2. Impact of personality traits and demographic factors on relationship to deal sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing body of research about deal sites. But there is still exists a gap when it comes to factors influencing potential or existing users of deal sites. The aim of this paper is to investigate impact of gender, city of origin, and personality traits on relationship to deal sites....... Big Five Inventory framework is used for personality traits. The research was conducted in the Czech Republic. With regards to the findings, city of origin has a significant effect, and openness to experience a borderline significant effect on the relationship to deal sites....

  3. Factors associated with self-esteem in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Fagermoen, May Solveig; Lerdal, Anners

    2014-01-01

    Living with chronic illnesses can be stressful and may negatively impact persons’ self-esteem. Personal factors, like self-efficacy and illness perceptions, and also factors related to the environment, activity, and participation may be associated with self-esteem in chronic illness populations. This cross-sectional comparative study explored sociodemographic variables, work, physical activity, illness perceptions, and general self-efficacy in relation to self-esteem in persons with morbid ob...

  4. Work-organisational and personal factors associated with upper body musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P-C; Rempel, D M; Harrison, R J; Chan, J; Ritz, B R

    2007-12-01

    To assess the contribution of work-organisational and personal factors to the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among garment workers in Los Angeles. This is a cross-sectional study of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms among 520 sewing machine operators from 13 garment industry sewing shops. Detailed information on work-organisational factors, personal factors, and musculoskeletal symptoms were obtained in face-to-face interviews. The outcome of interest, upper body WMSD, was defined as a worker experiencing moderate or severe musculoskeletal pain. Unconditional logistic regression models were adopted to assess the association between both work-organisational factors and personal factors and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain. The prevalence of moderate or severe musculoskeletal pain in the neck/shoulder region was 24% and for distal upper extremity it was 16%. Elevated prevalence of upper body pain was associated with age less than 30 years, female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, being single, having a diagnosis of a MSD or a systemic illness, working more than 10 years as a sewing machine operator, using a single sewing machine, work in large shops, higher work-rest ratios, high physical exertion, high physical isometric loads, high job demand, and low job satisfaction. Work-organisational and personal factors were associated with increased prevalence of moderate or severe upper body musculoskeletal pain among garment workers. Owners of sewing companies may be able to reduce or prevent WMSDs among employees by adopting rotations between different types of workstations thus increasing task variety; by either shortening work periods or increasing rest periods to reduce the work-rest ratio; and by improving the work-organisation to control psychosocial stressors. The findings may guide prevention efforts in the garment sector and have important public health implications for this workforce of largely immigrant labourers.

  5. Clinical Symptoms as a Function of Client Personality in College Students: Incorporating the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Marie S.; Lockman, Jennifer D.; Temple, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between personality characteristics and presenting clinical symptoms of individuals at a college counseling center was examined. Analysis of assessments of personality (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and mental health symptoms (Farrell & McCullough, 1989) suggests that the personality characteristics of individuals…

  6. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Haustermans, Karin; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011–0.013) clinical factor was “previous abdominal surgery.” As second significant (p = 0.012–0.016) factor, “cardiac history” was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including “diabetes” was significant (p = 0.039–0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003–0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D 50 . Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions

  7. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  8. Personal and social factors regarding medical non-compliance in cardiac failure patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujtaba, S.F.; Masood, T.; Khalid, D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and association of various personal and social factors with medical non-compliance in cardiac failure patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi from January to August 2010. Methodology: Patients admitted in the medical wards of NICVD, who were being treated for cardiac failure, were included. Information regarding basic demographics, education level, self engagement in therapy and status of compliance was obtained by questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out by using Fisher's exact test and chi-square. Level of significance was < 0.05. Data was analyzed using SPSS V-15. Out of 267 patients, 73 (27.3%) were compliant while 194 (72.7%) were non-compliant. Educated, self caring patient, and those who knew names of their medications were more compliant than the rest. Conclusion: Medical non-compliance is very common in heart failure patients. Illiteracy and no self engagement in therapy are associated with non-compliance. (author)

  9. The General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD): factor structure, incremental validity of self-pathology, and relations to DSM-IV personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Annett G; Livesley, W John

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the classification of personality disorder, especially moves toward more dimensional systems, create the need to assess general personality disorder apart from individual differences in personality pathology. The General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD) is a self-report questionnaire designed to evaluate general personality disorder. The measure evaluates 2 major components of disordered personality: self or identity problems and interpersonal dysfunction. This study explores whether there is a single factor reflecting general personality pathology as proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), whether self-pathology has incremental validity over interpersonal pathology as measured by GAPD, and whether GAPD scales relate significantly to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]) personality disorders. Based on responses from a German psychiatric sample of 149 participants, parallel analysis yielded a 1-factor model. Self Pathology scales of the GAPD increased the predictive validity of the Interpersonal Pathology scales of the GAPD. The GAPD scales showed a moderate to high correlation for 9 of 12 DSM-IV personality disorders.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF PERSONAL, SITUATIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS ON VOLUNTEERS COMMITTEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Sefora (SANA NEMTEANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Volunteerism as an activity in the context of non profit organizations aknowledged an increasing growth in Romania after the fall of comunism. Research in the nonprofit field is clustered around the identification ofinfluencial factors regarding volunteer involvement. Interest in academic research regarding non profit, third sector and non profit marketing gainedmore popularity in the last two decades. Theories of marketingapplicable in nonprofit sector are disscused, being adopted theorethical constructs from either sciences alsoas sociology, psychology, anthropology and organizational behavior schiences. General accepted conceptual and empirical constructs are not yet developed, which leads to the fact that study on influencial factors on volunteerism stillneeds to be developed and tested. The maininfluencial factors identified in the literature review cluster around personal, situational and organizational. Personal factors analysed were the socio-demographic, motivations, situational factors were cost and time oportunity, availability, experience in the field. On theother side organizational factors identified were charachteristics of the job, internal marketing and relationship with clients. Identified factors have influence on volunteer satisfaction regarding the activity in the organization and organizational commitement, increasing the retention of volunteers

  11. [Testing the significance of psychic factors in the etiology of alopecia areata. II. Examination of personality by means of Eysenck's Personality Inventory (MPI) adapted by Choynowski].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygledowska-Kania, M; Bogdanowski, T

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the role of psychic factors in the etiopathogenesis of alopecia areata on the basis of Eysenck's Personality Inventory adapted by Choynowski. 55 patients were tested (28 women and 27 men). The control group consisted of 50 volunteers. The analysis of the results showed that the neurotic type of personality was predominant in the group of patients (43.64%). Neurotic personality found in such a high percentage of the patients with alopecia areata may be an additional element in the group of psychic factors that possibly have some influence on the development of the disease.

  12. Emotional intelligence, personality, and gender as factors in disordered eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu

    2014-08-01

    We examined the hypotheses that proposing higher levels of emotional intelligence (ability test and self-report) and lower neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness associate with lower levels of disordered eating. In a correlational study, 126 Israeli college students completed two measures of emotional intelligence, a brief five-factor personality test, demographic data questionnaires, and questionnaires assessing food preoccupation, namely, the Body Weight, Image and Self-Esteem Scale and the Appearance Schema Inventory. Results suggested that ability emotional intelligence is associated with disordered eating beyond gender and personality. Self-reported emotional intelligence did not associate with any of the outcomes after controlling for personality. Implications and applications are briefly discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Regional analysis of big five personality factors and suicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Extending cross-national and intranational studies on possible aggregate-level associations between personality dimensions and suicide prevalence, this study examined the associations of the Big Five personality factors and suicide rates across 32 regions of the Russian Federation. Failing to replicate one key finding of similar geographic studies, namely, a correspondence of higher suicide rates with lower Agreeableness and Conscientiousness (i.e., higher Psychoticism) scores, higher suicide rates corresponded to higher Agreeableness scores. This effect was obtained with one available data source (regional-level Big Five ratings based on the National Character Survey), but not with another (based on the NEO-PI-R measure). All in all, regional suicide rates across Russia were dissociated from regional variation in personality dimensions.

  14. Epidemic genital retraction syndrome: environmental and personal risk factors in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S T

    1997-01-01

    Koro is the term used to define the fear that one's sex organ is retracting into the body and that the complete retraction of the organ will result in death. While koro is found mainly among the Chinese and other Asian societies near China, the condition is most prevalent in southern China, where repeated epidemics have occurred. In that region, koro is found only among the Hans, the dominant ethnic group, and is over-represented among people under age 24 years. Koro provokes considerable anxiety in the individual in question and his/her family and neighbors, and is more prevalent among males than females. Men try to pull the penis out from the body or to prevent it from shrinking further by tying a string around the penis or securing it with a clamping device. Some Asian women have reported shrinking breasts, nipples, or labia. Relatives and neighbors of the same sex often help to rescue the organ in question, especially in applying anchoring devices. Others may also believe a person has koro and attempt to rescue their organ without the individual's consent. Injury to the sex organ, including bruises, bleeding, and infection, is common and sometimes results in permanent damage. In general, however, koro attacks are acute, brief, and tend not to recur. The 1984-85 koro epidemic in Hainan Island and Leizhou Peninsula is reviewed to shed light upon prevailing cultural attitudes and beliefs, news and rumors about koro, and anxiety in neighborhoods which may be causative environmental risk factors for koro. Education, age, and marital status are considered as individual risk factors. Koro in China is best described as a social sickness supported by cultural myths which tend to affect young people who are deprived of proper sex information to explain their physical development.

  15. Reliability of the NEO Five Factor Inventory short form for assessing personality after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwan, Toni; Ownsworth, Tamara; Donovan, Caroline; Lo, Ada Ho Yan

    2017-07-01

    It is well recognized that an individual's personality characteristics influence their psychological adjustment after stroke. However, there is a lack of research on the reliability of personality inventories for stroke. This study primarily aimed to evaluate the reliability of the Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness to Experience (NEO)-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) for assessing pre-morbid personality and personality changes after stroke. Further aims were to investigate changes in personality during the hospital-to-home transition period and examine associations between personality and mood. Forty participants with stroke (52.5% male, M age=65.55 years) were recruited at time of hospital discharge and completed the NEO-FFI, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory. Significant others completed an informant version of the NEO-FFI. Stroke participants were re-assessed on the NEO-FFI at 1-month and 4-months post-discharge. Forty matched controls also completed the NEO-FFI. Internal consistency was adequate for the NEO-FFI (α=0.57-0.86), although low for agreeableness. There was fair to excellent concordance between self-rated and informant versions of the NEO-FFI (ICC=0.58-0.78). Significant positive associations were found between neuroticism and mood (r=0.50-0.68), and significant negative associations were found between extraversion and mood (r=-0.33-0.36) and agreeableness and anxiety (r=-0.43). Self-ratings of stroke participants on the NEO-FFI at discharge did not significantly differ from matched controls. Extraversion levels significantly decreased, and agreeableness levels significantly increased between discharge and 1- and 4-months post-discharge. Overall, the results support the reliability of the NEO-FFI for assessing personality characteristics in the context of stroke.

  16. College students with tattoos and piercings: motives, family experiences, personality factors, and perception by others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, G B

    2001-12-01

    The motives, family experiences, and personality characteristics of 341 college students with and without tattoos or piercings were studied. Participants completed Lippa's 1991 measures of the Big Five personality factors, a shortened version of the Body Cathexis Scale, a series of questions about their childhood experiences, and questions about risk-taking behaviors. In addition, reasons to have or not have body modifications and the perceptions of people with body modifications were investigated. Of the 116 men and 186 women, 25% and 33%, respectively, had at least one tattoo or body piercing. There were very few differences in the childhood experiences or personality characteristics of people with or without body modifications. Although people with body modifications did not differ from people without modifications on the Big Five personality measures, people without modifications perceived people with modifications as much different from themselves on these measures. These results indicate that tattoos and piercings in college students are associated with significantly more risk-taking behavior, greater use of alcohol and marijuana, and less social conformity. However, the traditional stereotype that body modifications are indicators of social or personal pathology does not describe contemporary college students.

  17. Personal, Familial, and Social Risk and Protective Factors of Tendency towards Substance Use among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Jahanshahloo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: University students are among vulnerable groups to tendency towards substance use. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the role of personal, familial, and social risk and protective factors in the prediction of tendency to this behavior among students.Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was carried out on 431 students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences who were selected by convenience sampling. Data were collected by Risk and Protective Factors Inventory (RPFI and Youth Risk Taking Scale (YRTS and then, were analyzed by Pearson correlation method and stepwise multivariate regression.Results: Data analysis using Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed significant relationships between personal (e.g. attitude towards substance use and tendency to drug use; r=0.6, P<0.01, familial (e.g. parent attitude towards substance and tendency towards smoking cigarettes; r=0.2, P<0.05, and social (e.g. perceived accessibility and tendency towards alcohol; r=0.4, P<0.01 factors with tendency to substance use. Moreover, the results of stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that personal factors (i.e. attitude towards substance use, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, social factors (i.e. friends’ substance use and perceived accessibility, and familial factors (i.e. family monitoring and parents’ attitude towards substance use were the best predictors of tendency towards substance use in students, respectively.Conclusion: In conclusion, current results indicated that a series of individual, familial, and social factors affect tendency towards substance use among students. Accordingly, identifying vulnerable students using suitable screening tests and providing them with primary prevention programs is of the utmost importance.

  18. The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Schiano di Cola, Armando; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to personality and anxiety factors even though such a comparison would help to clarify to what extent they share similar mechanisms and characteristics. The aim of the present paper was to investigate whether personality dimensions and anxiety levels are associated with reaching and comfort distances. Seventy university students (35 females) were administered the Big Five Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; afterwards, they had to provide reachability- and comfort-distance judgments towards human confederates while standing still (passive) or walking towards them (active). The correlation analyses showed that both spaces were positively related to anxiety and negatively correlated with the Dynamism in the active condition. Moreover, in the passive condition higher Emotional Stability was related to shorter comfort distance, while higher cognitive Openness was associated with shorter reachability distance. The implications of these results are discussed.

  19. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of nurses less than 30 years with high to very high neuroticism were more likely to experience high EE, high DP, and low PA. Conclusion. Younger nurses in Singapore are at increased risk of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout. PMID:27478835

  20. Big five personality factors and cigarette smoking: a 10-year study among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Taha, Farah; Bono, Amanda; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between the big five personality traits and any lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence among adults in the United States (US) over a ten-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) I and II (N = 2101). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between continuously measured personality factors and any lifetime cigarette use, smoking progression, and smoking persistence at baseline (1995-1996) and at follow-up (2004-2006). The results revealed that higher levels of openness to experience and neuroticism were each significantly associated with increased risk of any lifetime cigarette use. Neuroticism also was associated with increased risk of progression from ever smoking to daily smoking and persistent daily smoking over a ten-year period. In contrast, conscientiousness was associated with decreased risk of lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence. Most, but not all, associations between smoking and personality persisted after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems. The findings suggest that openness to experience and neuroticism may be involved in any lifetime cigarette use and smoking progression, and that conscientiousness appears to protect against smoking progression and persistence. These data add to a growing literature suggesting that certain personality factors--most consistently neuroticism--are important to assess and perhaps target during intervention programs for smoking behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neighborhood Disorder and the Sense of Personal Control: Which Factors Moderate the Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongbaeck; Conley, Meghan E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether and how select individual characteristics moderate the relationship between neighborhood disorder and a sense of personal control. Our findings show that neighborhood disorder is associated with a decreased sense of control. However, regression analyses including interaction terms of neighborhood disorder and some…

  2. Factors affecting the local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Yamashita, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors. Between June 2006 and June 2009, 159 lung tumors in 144 patients (primary lung cancer, 128; metastatic lung tumor, 31) were treated with SBRT with 48-60 Gy (mean 50.1 Gy) in 4-5 fractions. Higher doses were given to larger tumors and metastatic tumors in principle. Assessed factors were age, gender, tumor origin (primary vs. metastatic), histological subtype, tumor size, tumor appearance (solid vs. ground glass opacity), maximum standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography using 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and SBRT doses. Follow-up time was 1-60 months (median 18 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year local failure-free rates of all lesions were 90, 80, and 77%, respectively. On univariate analysis, metastatic tumors (p<0.0001), solid tumors (p=0.0246), and higher SBRT doses (p=0.0334) were the statistically significant unfavorable factors for local control. On multivariate analysis, only tumor origin was statistically significant (p=0.0027). The 2-year local failure-free rates of primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors were 87 and 50%, respectively. A metastatic tumor was the only independently significant unfavorable factor for local control after SBRT. (author)

  3. Emotional Awareness Moderates the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John; Berenbaum, Howard

    2017-07-01

    To examine pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD), focusing on childhood abuse and emotional attention and clarity. Among 293 community residents (mean age = 43.1; 53.9% female), measured associations between the BPD symptom factors of disturbed relatedness, affective dysregulation, and behavioral dysregulation and (a) childhood abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual); (b) emotional attention and clarity; and (c) negative affect, using structured interviews, the Schedule for Non-Adaptive and Adaptive Personality-2, the Trait Meta Mood Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, respectively. All forms of childhood abuse were associated with BPD symptom factors. Emotional attention and clarity moderated the effects of childhood physical and emotional abuse on behavioral dysregulation and disturbed relatedness. All results held when controlling for negative affect. The relations between childhood abuse and BPD are robust. Emotional attention and clarity may help elucidate the links between childhood abuse and BPD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A five-factor measure of obsessive-compulsive personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Riddell, Ashley D B; Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D; Widiger, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    This study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for the Five-Factor Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FFOCI), a newly developed measure of traits relevant to obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) from the perspective of the Five-factor model (FFM). Twelve scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of specific FFM facets (e.g., Perfectionism as a maladaptive variant of FFM competence). On the basis of data from 407 undergraduates (oversampled for OCPD symptoms) these 12 scales demonstrated convergent correlations with established measures of OCPD and the FFM. Further, they obtained strong discriminant validity with respect to facets from other FFM domains. Most important, the individual scales and total score of the FFOCI obtained incremental validity beyond existing measures of the FFM and OCPD for predicting a composite measure of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology. The findings support the validity of the FFOCI as a measure of obsessive-compulsive personality traits, as well as of maladaptive variants of the FFM.

  5. THE CORRELATION AMONG ATTITUDE, MOTIVATION AND SPEAKING ACHIEVEMENT OF COLLEGE STUDENTS ACROSS PERSONALITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Lailatul Khoiriyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the important of understanding about the attitude, motivation and the personality of the students in the English learning process, this research is aimed at finding the relationship between attitude and motivation which are acknowledged as influential factors in speaking achievement across their personality factors. Sixty Non-EFL students of Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University of Malang who take English as their compulsory subject were participated as the research sample. They were the fourth semester undergraduate taking TOEFL and Speaking Course. Attitude and Motivation Test Battery (AMTB, The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, speaking test and TOEFL-like test were administered. The results of this research revealed that there was significant correlation among attitude, motivation and speaking achievement of extrovert and Introvert students.

  6. Five-Factor Model personality disorder prototypes: a review of their development, validity, and comparison to alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    In this article, the development of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality disorder (PD) prototypes for the assessment of DSM-IV PDs are reviewed, as well as subsequent procedures for scoring individuals' FFM data with regard to these PD prototypes, including similarity scores and simple additive counts that are based on a quantitative prototype matching methodology. Both techniques, which result in very strongly correlated scores, demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity, and provide clinically useful information with regard to various forms of functioning. The techniques described here for use with FFM data are quite different from the prototype matching methods used elsewhere. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Relationship between Five Main Factors of Personality and Addiction to SMS in High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Beydokhti; Ramazan Hassanzadeh; Bahram Mirzaian

    2012-01-01

    Today, mobile phones compared with computers and Internet technology, have a greater impact on social life, people's lifestyle and their consumer behavior, because mobile phones are cheap and easy to use. This paper aims to examine the relationship between 5 main personality factors, neuroticism, extroversion and addiction of students to SMS. The statistical population consisted of all high school students studying in the academic year (2011-2012) which totally are 7520 people of which 364 st...

  8. Subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale differentially relate to the Big Five factors of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Wagner, Adina; Müller, Astrid; Eggert, Frank

    2017-06-01

    The place of impulsiveness in multidimensional personality frameworks is still unclear. In particular, no consensus has yet been reached with regard to the relation of impulsiveness to Neuroticism and Extraversion. We aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of these relationships by accounting for the multidimensional structure of impulsiveness. In three independent studies, we related the subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) to the Big Five factors of personality. Study 1 investigated the associations between the BIS subscales and the Big Five factors as measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a student sample (N = 113). Selective positive correlations emerged between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion and between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism. This pattern of results was replicated in Study 2 (N = 132) using a 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory. In Study 3, we analyzed BIS and NEO-FFI data obtained from a sample of patients with pathological buying (N = 68). In these patients, the relationship between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion was significantly weakened when compared to the non-clinical samples. At the same time, the relationship between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism was substantially stronger in the clinical sample. Our studies highlight the utility of the BIS subscales for clarifying the relationship between impulsiveness and the Big Five personality factors. We conclude that impulsiveness might occupy multiple places in multidimensional personality frameworks, which need to be specified to improve the interpretability of impulsiveness scales. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

    OpenAIRE

    Golovey L.A.; Vasilenko V.E.; Savenysheva S.S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling) and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction). The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from sing...

  10. Correlation Analysis of Personality Characteristics of Children with TIC Disorder with Family Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; WANG Liqun; MA Chunxia; MA Lixian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the personality characteristics of children with tic disorders and their relationship with family factors.Methods Sixty cases of children with tic disorders diagnosed in our hospital were selected as the case group and 65 cases of normal children were selected as the control group.The children of two groups were assessed using Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ),Family Environment Scale (FES-CV) and general situation questionnaire of family (GSQ),respectively.The scores of EPQ personality characteristics,FES-CV and GSQ scores were compared for the children in the two groups.The Person correlation analysis method was used to analyze the correlation between personality scores of children in case group and family environment factors.Results The general situation questionnaire results showed that there was significant statistically difference in parenting style,parental education level and family types of the children between case group and control group (P < 0.05);EPQ results showed that the neuroticism and psychoticism scores of children in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P< 0.05) and the lying degree scores in the control group were significantly higher than those in the case group (P< 0.05);FES-CV results showed that the family cohesion scores of the case group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05),and the family conflict scores in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05).The Person correlation analysis results indicated that the psychoticism score was negatively correlated with the score of family cohesion (P<0.05),and positively correlated with family conflict (P<0.05),while the neuroticism score was positively correlated with family conflict score (P<0.05).Conclusion The children with tic disorders have significant personality deviation compared to the normal children,and the personality deviation degree is

  11. The Interplay of "Big Five" Personality Factors and Metaphorical Schemas: A Pilot Study with 20 Lung Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzmann, Lutz; Moser, Karin S.; Vetsch, Esther; Grieder, Erhard; Klaghofer, Richard; Naef, Rahel; Russi, Erich W.; Boehler, Annette; Buddeberg, Claus

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interplay between personality factors and metaphorical schemas. The "Big Five" personality factors of 20 patients after lung transplantation were examined with the NEO-FFI. Patients were questioned about their social network, and self- and body-image. The interviews were assessed with metaphor…

  12. The Norwegian Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder-Static Form (CAT-PD-SF): Reliability, Factor Structure, and Relationships With Personality Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimm, Jens C

    2017-12-01

    The Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder-Static Form (CAT-PD-SF) is a self-report inventory developed to assess pathological personality traits. The current study explored the reliability and higher order factor structure of the Norwegian version of the CAT-PD-SF and the relationships between the CAT-PD traits and domains of personality functioning in an undergraduate student sample ( N = 375). In addition to the CAT-PD-SF, the short form of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems and the Brief Symptom Inventory were administered. The results showed that the Norwegian CAT-PD-SF has good score reliability. Factor analysis of the CAT-PD-SF scales indicated five superordinate factors that correspond to the trait domains of the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders. The CAT-PD traits were highly predictive of impaired personality functioning after controlling for psychological distress. It is concluded that the CAT-PD-SF is a promising tool for the assessment of personality disorder traits.

  13. The Effect of Moral Disengagement on Bullying: Testing the Moderating Role of Personal and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travlos, Antonios K; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Douma, Irene

    2018-03-01

    Bullying is a subset of aggressive behavior that has severe consequences in children's psychosocial development. Bullying behaviors can be influenced by personal and social factors, such as gender, age, school type, and sport participation, as well as psychological constructs, such as moral disengagement. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of moral disengagement on bullying behaviors and the moderating role of personal and social factors. In this study, 2,252 students ( M = 13.57, SD = 1.17; 1,125 girls, and 1,127 boys) attending the sixth grade of primary school and secondary education have participated. Participants completed the revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and Bandura's Moral Disengagement Questionnaire along with general questions about their demographic characteristics. The results of the analyses demonstrated moderation effects of gender on the moral disengagement-physical bullying relationship and of age on the moral disengagement-verbal bullying relationship. No significant moderating effect emerged for school type and sport participation. The findings of the present study provide valuable information about the role of personal and social factors on bullying behavior.

  14. Factors perceived as being related to accidental falls by persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsagård, Ylva; Denison, Eva; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Boström, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    This study explores and describes factors that persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) perceive as being related to accidental falls. A qualitative content analysis with primarily deductive approach was conducted using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Twelve persons with MS, and identified as fallers, were interviewed. Factors perceived to cause accidental falls that had not previously been targeted in MS populations in relation to falls were identified as divided attention, reduced muscular endurance, fatigue and heat sensitivity. Previously reported risk factors such as changed gait pattern, limited walking ability, impaired proprioception, vision and spasticity were supported. Activities involving walking, recreation and leisure, maintaining and changing body position, lifting or carrying, taking care of the home, washing the body, moving around, preparing meals and housekeeping were limited and considered to be risk activities. Supportive persons and assistive device reduced falls, and unsuitable physical environments and climate conditions induced falls. Several preventative strategies were described as partially compensating for the impairments, limitations and restrictions. Investigating accidental falls using the perspective of the patient gave important information about variables not earlier targeted in MS research.

  15. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in persons with paraplegia: the Stockholm spinal cord injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahman, Kerstin; Nash, Mark S; Westgren, Ninni; Lewis, John E; Seiger, Ake; Levi, Richard

    2010-03-01

    To examine cardiovascular disease risk factors and risk clusters in Swedish persons with traumatic wheelchair-dependent paraplegia. Prospective examination. A total of 135 individuals aged 18-79 years with chronic (>or= 1 year) post-traumatic paraplegia. Cardiovascular disease risk factors; dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, overweight, smoking, and medication usage for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, were analyzed according to authoritative guidelines. Stepwise regression tested the effects of age, gender, and injury characteristics on cardiovascular disease risks. High-prevalence risk factors were dyslipidemia (83.1%), hypertension (39.3%), and overweight (42.2%) with pervasive clustering of these risks. Being older was related to increased cardiovascular disease risk, except for dyslipidemia. Hypertension was more common in low-level paraplegia. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was lower than previously reported after paraplegia. A high percentage of persons being prescribed drug treatment for dyslipidemia and hypertension failed to reach authoritative targets for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Swedish persons with paraplegia are at high risk for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and overweight. Impaired fasting glucose was not as common as reported in some previous studies. Pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemia and hypertension often failed to achieve recommended targets. Population-based screening and therapeutic countermeasures to these cardiovascular disease risks are indicated.

  16. Trait-based assessment of borderline personality disorder using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Phenotypic and genetic support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Grant, Julia D.; Maples, Jessica; Trull, Timothy J.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the reliability and validity of a trait-based assessment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Correlations between the Five-Factor Inventory-BPD composite (FFI-BPD) and explicit measures of BPD were examined across six samples, including undergraduate, community, and clinical samples. The median correlation was .60, which was nearly identical to the correlation between measures of BPD and a BPD composite generated from the full Revised NEO Personality Inventory (i.e., NEO-BPD; r =.61). Correlations between FFI-BPD and relevant measures of psychiatric symptomatology and etiology (e.g., childhood abuse, drug use, depression, and personality disorders) were also examined and compared to those generated using explicit measures of BPD and NEO-BPD. As expected, the FFI-BPD composite correlated most strongly with measures associated with high levels of Neuroticism, such as depression, anxiety, and emotion dysregulation, and the pattern of correlations generated using the FFI-BPD was highly similar to those generated using explicit measures of BPD and NEO-BPD. Finally, genetic analyses estimated that FFI-BPD is 44% heritable, which is comparable to meta-analytic research examining genetics associated with BPD, and revealed that 71% of the genetic influences are shared between FFI-BPD and a self-report measure assessing BPD (Personality Assessment Inventory – Borderline subscale; Morey, 1991). Generally, these results support the use of FFI-BPD as a reasonable proxy for BPD, which has considerable implications, particularly for potential gene-finding efforts in large, epidemiological datasets that include the NEO FFI. PMID:25984635

  17. The Microbiome and Metabolome of Preterm Infant Stool Are Personalized and Not Driven by Health Outcomes, Including Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Late-Onset Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandro, Stephen; Osborne, Stephanie; Enriquez, Claudia; Bixby, Christine; Arrieta, Antonio; Whiteson, Katrine

    2018-06-27

    The assembly and development of the gut microbiome in infants have important consequences for immediate and long-term health. Preterm infants represent an abnormal case for bacterial colonization because of early exposure to bacteria and frequent use of antibiotics. To better understand the assembly of the gut microbiota in preterm infants, fecal samples were collected from 32 very low birth weight preterm infants over the first 6 weeks of life. Infant health outcomes included health, late-onset sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We characterized bacterial compositions by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomes by untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Preterm infant fecal samples lacked beneficial Bifidobacterium spp. and were dominated by Enterobacteriaceae , Enterococcus , and Staphylococcus organisms due to nearly uniform antibiotic administration. Most of the variance between the microbial community compositions could be attributed to the baby from which the sample derived (permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA] R 2 = 0.48, P PERMANOVA R 2 = 0.43, P < 0.001) and weakly associated with bacterial composition (Mantel statistic r = 0.23 ± 0.05, P < 0.05). No measured metabolites were found to be associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, or a healthy outcome. Overall, preterm infant gut microbial communities were personalized and reflected antibiotic usage. IMPORTANCE Preterm infants face health problems likely related to microbial exposures, including sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the role of the gut microbiome in preterm infant health is poorly understood. Microbial colonization differs from that of healthy term babies because it occurs in the NICU and is often perturbed by antibiotics. We measured bacterial compositions and metabolomic profiles of 77 fecal samples from 32 preterm infants to investigate the differences between microbiomes in health and disease. Rather than finding

  18. [Sudden Cardiac Death of Young Persons: Risk Factors, Causes, Morphological Equivalents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, M A; Mamedov, M N

    2015-01-01

    The article contains literature review on the problem of causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among young people as well as results of author's own retrospective study of deaths of persons before 39 years based on forensic autopsies performed during 10 year period. The study of structure and dynamics of causes of death, its risk factors and the role of connective tissue dysplasia in development of terminal symptomocomlexes allowed to establish that main mechanism of SCD in young people was arrhythmogenic developing as a response to provoking factors--physical effort, psychoemotional stress, consumption of light alcoholic beverages.

  19. Testing all six person-oriented principles in dynamic factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C M

    2010-05-01

    All six person-oriented principles identified by Sterba and Bauer's Keynote Article can be tested by means of dynamic factor analysis in its current form. In particular, it is shown how complex interactions and interindividual differences/intraindividual change can be tested in this way. In addition, the necessity to use single-subject methods in the analysis of developmental processes is emphasized, and attention is drawn to the possibility to optimally treat developmental psychopathology by means of new computational techniques that can be integrated with dynamic factor analysis.

  20. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  1. A general factor of personality in a sample of inmates: Associations with indicators of life-history strategy and covitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study looked for a General Factor of Personality (GFP in a sample of male convicts (N=226; mean age 32 years. The GFP was extracted from seven broad personality traits: FFM factors, Amoralism (the negative pole of the lexical Honesty-Humility factor and Disintegration (operationalization of Schizotypy. Three first-order factors were extracted, labeled Dysfunctionality, Antisociality and Openness, and GFP was found through the hierarchical factor analysis. The nature of the GFP was explored through analysis of its relations with markers of fast Life-History strategy and covitality. The results demonstrated that the GFP is associated with unrestricted sexual behavior, medical problems, mental problems, early involvement in criminal activity and stability of criminal behavior. The evidence shows that the GFP is a meaningful construct on the highest level of personality structure. It may represent a personality indicator of fitness-related characteristics and could be useful in research of personality in an evolutionary context.

  2. Examination of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Towell, Tony; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture.

  3. [The development of clinical reasoning skills and leadership: personal factors and organizational factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Caroline; Dubois, Sylvie; Girard, Francine; Goudreau, Johanne; Dumont, Katia

    2013-03-01

    Continuing education of newly graduated nurses (NGN) depends on several factors related to the characteristics of skills to be developed, the target population and the organizational context. Few studies describe both how nurses develop their skills and how institutions promote this development. The objectives of this manuscript are to (1) describe the behaviors that the NGN use to develop their reasoning skills and leadership and (2) document the organizational elements that facilitate this development. Method. Individual interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 34) using a grid of semistructured interviews and two group interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 7) and managers (n = 19) in two teaching hospitals in eastern Canada. The results show that nurses develop mainly by reflecting on their professional practice in their workplace. However, the lack of time for reflection in the workspace is a considerable obstacle while managerial leadership is an important asset.

  4. Using the Karolinska Scales of Personality on male juvenile delinquents: relationships between scales and factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dåderman, Anna M; Hellström, Ake; Wennberg, Peter; Törestad, Bertil

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate relationships between scales from the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and the factor structure of the KSP in a sample of male juvenile delinquents. The KSP was administered to a group of male juvenile delinquents (n=55, mean age 17 years; standard deviation=1.2) from four Swedish national correctional institutions for serious offenders. As expected, the KSP showed appropriate correlations between the scales. Factor analysis (maximum likelihood) arrived at a four-factor solution in this sample, which is in line with previous research performed in a non-clinical sample of Swedish males. More research is needed in a somewhat larger sample of juvenile delinquents in order to confirm the present results regarding the factor solution.

  5. Dimensions Underlying Measures of Disability, Personal Factors, and Health Status in Cervical Radiculopathy: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Marie; Kierkegaard, Marie; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin; Peolsson, Anneli; Dedering, Åsa

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study sought to identify dimensions underlying measures of impairment, disability, personal factors, and health status in patients with cervical radiculopathy. One hundred twenty-four patients with magnetic resonance imaging-verified cervical radiculopathy, attending a neurosurgery clinic in Sweden, participated. Data from clinical tests and questionnaires on disability, personal factors, and health status were used in a principal-component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation. The PCA supported a 3-component model including 14 variables from clinical tests and questionnaires, accounting for 73% of the cumulative percentage. The first component, pain and disability, explained 56%. The second component, health, fear-avoidance beliefs, kinesiophobia, and self-efficacy, explained 9.2%. The third component including anxiety, depression, and catastrophizing explained 7.6%. The strongest-loading variables of each dimension were "present neck pain intensity," "fear avoidance," and "anxiety." The three underlying dimensions identified and labeled Pain and functioning, Health, beliefs, and kinesiophobia, and Mood state and catastrophizing captured aspects of importance for cervical radiculopathy. Since the variables "present neck pain intensity," "fear avoidance," and "anxiety" had the strongest loading in each of the three dimensions; it may be important to include them in a reduced multidimensional measurement set in cervical radiculopathy.

  6. Personal Risk and Resilience Factors in the Context of Daily Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Chui, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the role that personal risk and resilience factors play as adults of all ages cope with the stressors encountered in everyday life. Theorists have suggested that researchers should focus on the effects of daily stress and coping rather than focusing exclusively on major life events and chronic stress and have proposed that understanding how adults cope with daily stress is a key aspect of understanding long-term well-being and adaptation in adulthood. After presenting a conceptual model outlining the major components of the daily stress process, the chapter reviews the existing empirical literature on personal risk and resilience factors in the context of daily stress. This research clearly suggests that there is no universal generalization that can be made regarding whether chronological age, in and of itself, confers greater vulnerability or resilience onto adults. Instead, we argue that researchers should ask when and under what conditions is age associated with greater vulnerability to daily stress and when and under what conditions is age associated with greater resilience to daily stress. Age differences in reactivity to daily stress are clearly embedded within a complex system of factors—structural, individual, and situational—that influence stress reactivity and stress recovery in several ways. This complexity should not be taken to mean that stress reactivity and recovery cannot be charted or understood. Researchers, however, will need to approach this complexity with a great deal of theoretical, methodological, and statistical rigor to move our understanding of the importance of age in shaping risk and resilience to daily stress forward. The final section of the chapter outlines several directions for future research in the area of aging and resilience. In particular, we argue that a focus on personal risk and resilience factors in the context of daily stress, in combination with the application of sophisticated statistical

  7. Factors related to environmental barriers experienced by persons with and without disabilities in diverse African settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    Full Text Available This paper explores differences in experienced environmental barriers between individuals with and without disabilities and the impact of additional factors on experienced environmental barriers. Data was collected in 2011-2012 by means of a two-stage cluster sampling and comprised 400-500 households in different sites in South Africa, Sudan Malawi and Namibia. Data were collected through self-report survey questionnaires. In addition to descriptive statistics and simple statistical tests a structural equation model was developed and tested. The combined file comprised 9,307 participants. The Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors was used to assess the level of environmental barriers. Transportation, the natural environment and access to health care services created the biggest barriers. An exploratory factor analysis yielded support for a one component solution for environmental barriers. A scale was constructed by adding the items together and dividing by number of items, yielding a range from one to five with five representing the highest level of environmental barriers and one the lowest. An overall mean value of 1.51 was found. Persons with disabilities scored 1.66 and persons without disabilities 1.36 (F = 466.89, p < .001. Bivariate regression analyses revealed environmental barriers to be higher among rural respondents, increasing with age and severity of disability, and lower for those with a higher level of education and with better physical and mental health. Gender had an impact only among persons without disabilities, where women report more barriers than men. Structural equation model analysis showed that socioeconomic status was significantly and negatively associated with environmental barriers. Activity limitation is significantly associated with environmental barriers when controlling for a number of other individual characteristics. Reducing barriers for the general population would go some way to reduce the impact

  8. Prognostic factors for head and neck cancer of unknown primary including the impact of human papilloma virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Lars; Nyman, Jan; Haugen-Cange, Hedda; Bove, Mogens; Johansson, Leif; De Lara, Shahin; Kovács, Anikó; Hammerlid, Eva

    2017-06-10

    Head and neck cancer of unknown primary (HNCUP) is rare and prospective studies are lacking. The impact of different prognostic factors such as age and N stage is not completely known, the optimal treatment is not yet established, and the reported survival rates vary. In the last decade, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been identified as a common cause of and important prognostic factor in oropharyngeal cancer, and there is now growing interest in the importance of HPV for HNCUP. The aim of the present study on curatively treated HNCUP was to investigate the prognostic importance of different factors, including HPV status, treatment, and overall survival. A search for HNCUP was performed in the Swedish Cancer Registry, Western health district, between the years 1992-2009. The medical records were reviewed, and only patients with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma treated with curative intent were included. The tumor specimens were retrospectively analyzed for HPV with p16 immunostaining. Sixty-eight patients were included. The mean age was 59 years. The majority were males, and had N2 tumors. Sixty-nine percent of the tumors were HPV positive using p16 staining. Patients who were older than 70 years, patients with N3-stage tumors, and patients with tumors that were p16 negative had a significantly worse prognosis. The overall 5-year survival rate for patients with p16-positive tumors was 88% vs 61% for p16-negative tumors. Treatment with neck dissection and postoperative radiation or (chemo) radiation had 81 and 88% 5-year survival rates, respectively. The overall and disease-free 5-year survival rates for all patients in the study were 82 and 74%. Curatively treated HNCUP had good survival. HPV infection was common. Independent prognostic factors for survival were age over 70 years, HPV status and N3 stage. We recommend that HPV analysis should be performed routinely for HNCUP. Treatment with neck dissection and postoperative radiation or

  9. Examining How Media Literacy and Personality Factors Predict Skepticism Toward Alcohol Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Muldrow, Adrienne; Austin, Bruce W

    2016-05-01

    To examine the potential effectiveness of media literacy education in the context of well-established personality factors, a survey of 472 young adults, focused on the issue of alcohol marketing messages, examined how individual differences in personality associate with constructs representing aspects of media literacy. The results showed that need for cognition predicted social expectancies and wishful identification with media portrayals in alcohol advertising only through critical thinking about media sources and media content, which are foci of media literacy education. Need for affect did not associate with increased or diminished levels of critical thinking. Critical thinking about sources and messages affected skepticism, represented by expectancies through wishful identification, consistent with the message interpretation process model. The results support the view that critical thinking about media sources is an important precursor to critical thinking about media messages. The results also suggest that critical thinking about media (i.e., media literacy) reflects more than personality characteristics and can affect wishful identification with role models observed in media, which appears to be a key influence on decision making. This adds support to the view that media literacy education can improve decision making across personality types regarding alcohol use by decreasing the potential influence of alcohol marketing messages.

  10. Patient factors predicting early dropout from psychiatric outpatient care for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo; Cabrino, Chiara; Monici, Alberto; Politi, Virginia; Rossi, Matteo; Maggini, Carlo

    2012-12-30

    Despite obvious clinical need, factors underlying early treatment discontinuation among 'real world' borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients are still unknown. This study investigates individual characteristics that can predict early (Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) Personality. Sociodemographic, clinical and personality variables potentially relevant for dropout were assessed for all participants at baseline. Early dropouts (n=54) were compared to continuers (n=108) on all measures. Logistic regression was then used to identify independent predictors of early dropout. A history of suicide attempts predicted early discontinuation, whereas the presence of an eating disorder and of avoidant personality features protected from early dropout. If confirmed, these findings may help clinicians operating in general psychiatric settings with estimating the risk of premature treatment discontinuation, and stress the need to specifically address suicidal behaviours in order to improve treatment retention among borderline outpatients. In this regard, implementing general psychiatric care with specialised, evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions may be deemed necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical, psychophysiological and psychological aspects of risk factors of periodontal disease development in clinically healthy persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Nikulina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine risk factors of periodontal disease development, psychophysiological personal types and their interrelations in clinically healthy persons. 47 first-year cadets of St.-Petersburg Military School of radio electronics have been examined. This group of respondents has been chosen by presence of such social stressor as change of place of living (97,9% cadets have arrived in St.-Petersburg from other cities and republics of the Russian Federation and strict disciplinary conditions. The research has revealed a low level of oral hygiene, cases of mild gingivitis in most respondents. The general mental state of group under study is characterized by raised level of personal anxiety and low indices of reactive anxiety. The examined group has demonstrated anxiety, tension, indecision and lowered stress stability. Clinically healthy persons are more liable to develop inflammatory and inflammatory-destructive periodontal diseases. It was possible to determine psychophysiological features correlated with physiological parameters of risk degree of periodontal diseases. It may have a great significance in defining of periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis

  13. An investigation of the five-factor model of personality and coping behaviour in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Greenlees, Iain; Jones, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Coping strategies are important for performance in sport and individual differences may contribute to the coping strategies adopted by athletes. In this study, we explored the main and interactive effects of the big five personality dimensions on sport-related coping and compared personality profiles of discrete groups of athletes. Altogether, 253 athletes (mean age 21.1 years, s=3.7) completed the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and the Coping Function Questionnaire for Sport (Kowalski & Crocker, 2001). Results showed that extraverted athletes, who were also emotionally stable and open to new experiences (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of problem-focused coping strategies. Conscientious athletes (main effect), and athletes displaying high levels of extraversion, openness, and agreeableness (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and athletes with low levels of openness, or high levels of neuroticism (main effects), reported a greater use of avoidance coping strategies. Different personality characteristics were observed between higher-level and lower-level athletes, between men and women athletes, and between individual and team sport athletes. These findings suggest that the five-factor model of personality can help distinguish various levels of athletic involvement and can help identify the coping strategies athletes are likely to adopt during participation.

  14. Some See It, Some Don't: Exploring the Relation between Inattentional Blindness and Personality Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Kreitz

    Full Text Available Human awareness is highly limited, which is vividly demonstrated by the phenomenon that unexpected objects go unnoticed when attention is focused elsewhere (inattentional blindness. Typically, some people fail to notice unexpected objects while others detect them instantaneously. Whether this pattern reflects stable individual differences is unclear to date. In particular, hardly anything is known about the influence of personality on the likelihood of inattentional blindness. To fill this empirical gap, we examined the role of multiple personality factors, namely the Big Five, BIS/BAS, absorption, achievement motivation, and schizotypy, in these failures of awareness. In a large-scale sample (N = 554, susceptibility to inattentional blindness was associated with a low level of openness to experience and marginally with a low level of achievement motivation. However, in a multiple regression analysis, only openness emerged as an independent, negative predictor. This suggests that the general tendency to be open to experience extends to the domain of perception. Our results complement earlier work on the possible link between inattentional blindness and personality by demonstrating, for the first time, that failures to consciously perceive unexpected objects reflect individual differences on a fundamental dimension of personality.

  15. The relationship between five-factor model and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-fifth edition personality traits on patients with antisocial personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Amini; Abbas Pourshahbaz; Parvaneh Mohammadkhani; Mohammad-Reza Khodaie Ardakani; Mozhgan Lotfi; Mohammad Arash Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the fact that new criteria of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5) were resulted from five-factor model (FFM), there is a small amount of studies that investigate the relations between proposed personality traits and FFM. Also, cross-cultural study in this field continuously would be needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relation between the FFM and DSM-5 ASPD pathological t...

  16. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into 'pre-action' and 'action'. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1-12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. NCT01315756.

  17. Attitude Toward Ambiguity: Empirically Robust Factors in Self-Report Personality Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Marco; Foschi, Renato; Mosca, Oriana; Weller, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the factor structure of attitude toward ambiguity, a broad personality construct that refers to personal reactions to perceived ambiguous stimuli in a variety of context and situations. Using samples from two countries, Study 1 mapped the hierarchical structure of 133 items from seven tolerance-intolerance of ambiguity scales (N = 360, Italy; N = 306, United States). Three major factors-Discomfort with Ambiguity, Moral Absolutism/Splitting, and Need for Complexity and Novelty-were recovered in each country with high replicability coefficients across samples. In Study 2 (N = 405, Italian community sample; N =366, English native speakers sample), we carried out a confirmatory analysis on selected factor markers. A bifactor model had an acceptable fit for each sample and reached the construct-level invariance for general and group factors. Convergent validity with related traits was assessed in both studies. We conclude that attitude toward ambiguity can be best represented a multidimensional construct involving affective (Discomfort with Ambiguity), cognitive (Moral Absolutism/Splitting), and epistemic (Need for Complexity and Novelty) components. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Treatment decision-making by men with localized prostate cancer: the influence of personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donna L; Ellis, William J; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Schwien, Christina; Mullen, Kristin H; Yang, Claire

    2003-01-01

    For many men with localized prostate cancer, there is no definite answer or unequivocal choice regarding treatment modality. This high-stakes treatment decision is made in the context of great uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to systematically document meaningful and relevant aspects of treatment decision-making reported by men with localized prostate cancer. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 44 men who were within 6 months of a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer. Using content analysis and grounded theory analytic techniques, major aspects and processes of men's treatment decision making are identified and described. The participants reported their experiences beginning with influential personal history factors, followed by detailed descriptions of information gathering and the important influence of expected treatment outcomes and other individuals' cancer histories and/or shared opinions. Twenty of the 44 (45%) participants relied heavily on the influence of another's opinion or history to finalize a decision, yet only 10 of the 44 (22.7%) reported this individual to be their physician. A common process, "making the best choice for me" was explicated. Clinicians assume that men are making rational treatment decisions based on reliable information, yet this study documents a different reality. Patient education about medical therapies and the patients' own medical factors is not enough. A clinic visit dialogue that brings personal factors to the conversation along with medical factors can guide a man to making his "best choice" for localized prostate cancer.

  19. Psychological factors and personality traits associated with patients in chronic foot and ankle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivarathre, Deepak Gubbi; Howard, Nicholas; Krishna, Sowmya; Cowan, Chris; Platt, Simon R

    2014-11-01

    The impact of psychosocial factors and personality traits in chronic pain is well established. However, there has been limited literature analyzing the influence of psychological issues in chronic foot and ankle pain. The aim of our study was to identify the association of certain psychosocial factors and personality traits in individuals with chronic painful foot and ankle disorders. Patients with chronic foot and ankle pain were recruited from the specialist foot and ankle clinic. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R), Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), and Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) scale were administered in the form of questionnaires. An age- and sex-matched cohort of healthy volunteers served as the control group. Sample size was determined after power calculation, and a total of 90 participants were recruited with informed consent with 45 participants in each arm. Results were analyzed and statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Patients with chronic foot and ankle pain had significantly higher neuroticism scores than the control group (P pain (P pain. Clinicians should recognize the influence of these specific psychological issues to provide a more holistic approach to the clinical problem. Level III, case control study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. [The model of the big five personality factors and problematic Internet use in Colombian youth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Carbonell, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to relate the basic dimensions of personality formulated by the model of the big five factors with problematic Internet use in a sample of 411 Colombian youngsters, 18-28 years of age, attending three private universities. Online survey questionnaires were administered for: socio-demographics and Internet usage habits, the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue and Kentle, 1991), to assess personality, and the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998), to determine the degree of use of the Internet (controlled, problematic or addictive). The results revealed that 9.7% of the sample has a problematic Internet use. Among them, the majority were male (x2= 12.93, p= 0.01) and performing communication and leisure activities. The problematic use correlates positively with neuroticism and negatively with friendliness and responsibility. On the other hand, is not related to extraversion and openness to experience. Being female and the responsibility dimension are protective factors from problematic use, while neuroticism predicts it. In conclusion, the study data provides empirical evidence of the relationship between personality and problematic Internet use.

  1. Personal risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in female visual display unit workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Signorelli, Carlo

    2016-11-18

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years). Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction) for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.347-27.904), history (> 5 years) of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701-8.354) and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281-9.136). The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):927-936. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Personal risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in female visual display unit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Riccò

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Material and Methods: Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years. Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Results: Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.347–27.904, history (> 5 years of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701–8.354 and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281–9.136. Conclusions: The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:927–936

  3. Using exploratory factor analysis in personality research: Best-practice recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaya Laher

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: This article presents more objective methods to determine the number of factors, most notably parallel analysis and Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP. The benefits of rotation are also discussed. The article argues for more consistent use of Procrustes rotation and congruence coefficients in factor analytic studies. Motivation for the study: Exploratory factor analysis is often criticised for not being rigorous and objective enough in terms of the methods used to determine the number of factors, the rotations to be used and ultimately the validity of the factor structure. Research design, approach and method: The article adopts a theoretical stance to discuss the best-practice recommendations for factor analytic research in the field of psychology. Following this, an example located within personality assessment and using the NEO-PI-R specifically is presented. A total of 425 students at the University of the Witwatersrand completed the NEO-PI-R. These responses were subjected to a principal components analysis using varimax rotation. The rotated solution was subjected to a Procrustes rotation with Costa and McCrae’s (1992 matrix as the target matrix. Congruence coefficients were also computed. Main findings: The example indicates the use of the methods recommended in the article and demonstrates an objective way of determining the number of factors. It also provides an example of Procrustes rotation with coefficients of agreement as an indication of how factor analytic results may be presented more rigorously in local research. Practical/managerial implications: It is hoped that the recommendations in this article will have best-practice implications for both researchers and practitioners in the field who employ factor analysis regularly. Contribution/value-add: This article will prove useful to all researchers employing factor analysis and has the potential to set the trend for better use of factor analysis in the South African context.

  4. Personal Efficacy and Factors of Effective Learning Environment in Higher Education: Croatian and American Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Vidaček - Hainš

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful learning in higher education incorporates various factors related to knowledge, skills, habits, and motivation. Additionally, students’ personalities and self-efficacy may contribute to their adjustment, planning of activities, and achieving success. The objective of this paper is to analyze students’ needs for support services, which enhance the effectiveness of their learning environment at higher education institutions. Answers received from a sample of undergraduate freshmen at one American University and one Croatian University were analyzed and compared. The students from both countries agree that there is a need for developing self-reliance and personal responsibility in using support services, as well as for the timely and accurate information on availability of these services. Students’ suggestions and their desire to enhance effectiveness of their learning environment may be used in creating and improving support services in higher education institutions as well as training their staff.

  5. The Belief that Alcohol Use is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40 schools were analyzed using a structural equation model. Autonomy was negatively correlated with intention to use alcohol and subsequent alcohol use at a later wave, and intention to use fully mediated the effect of autonomy on subsequent alcohol use. These results are consistent with the proposition that when personal autonomy is perceived as inconsistent with alcohol use among younger adolescents, students indicate a lower intention to use alcohol and use less alcohol during the following school year. PMID:23519434

  6. Associations between the five-factor model of personality and health behaviors among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Douglas A; Levine, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    In fall 2006, the authors examined associations between the five-factor model of personality and several key health behaviors. College students (N = 583) completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment and the International Personality Item Pool Big Five short-form questionnaire. Highly conscientious individuals were more likely to wear seat belts, utilize alcohol-related harm reduction, exercise, get enough sleep, and consume fruits and vegetables. They were also less likely to smoke cigarettes, consume alcohol, and binge drink. Highly extraverted individuals were more likely to smoke cigarettes, consume alcohol, binge drink, and have multiple sexual partners, and they were less likely to engage in alcohol-related harm reduction, use condoms, and get enough sleep. These findings are supportive of a growing body of evidence indicating that conscientiousness and extraversion are robust concomitants of health behaviors among college students.

  7. A Reanalysis of Toomela (2003: Spurious measurement error as cause for common variance between personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHIAS ZIEGLER

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article reanalyzed data collected by Toomela (2003. The data contain personality self ratings and cognitive ability test results from n = 912 men with military background. In his original article Toomela showed that in the group with the highest cognitive ability, Big-Five-Neuroticism and -Conscientiousness were substantially correlated and could no longer be clearly separated using exploratory factor analysis. The present reanalysis was based on the hypothesis that a spurious measurement error caused by situational demand was responsible. This means, people distorted their answers. Furthermore it was hypothesized that this situational demand was felt due to a person’s military rank but not due to his intelligence. Using a multigroup structural equation model our hypothesis could be confirmed. Moreover, the results indicate that an uncorrelated trait model might represent personalities better when situational demand is partialized. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  8. The Belief that Alcohol Use is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G; Slater, Michael D

    2011-08-01

    This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40 schools were analyzed using a structural equation model. Autonomy was negatively correlated with intention to use alcohol and subsequent alcohol use at a later wave, and intention to use fully mediated the effect of autonomy on subsequent alcohol use. These results are consistent with the proposition that when personal autonomy is perceived as inconsistent with alcohol use among younger adolescents, students indicate a lower intention to use alcohol and use less alcohol during the following school year.

  9. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Suicide Re-attempts in Persons with Chronic Mental Disabilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Ko, Jung-A; Park, Jung-Suk; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lee, Myung-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Suicide re-attempters are clinically different from single-episode attempters and are at higher risk of completed suicide. This study explored psychosocial risk factors and modifiable factors related to suicide re-attempt in a representative sample of 441 chronic mentally disabled individuals in Seoul, Korea. The participants were listed on the public sector registry based on the Act for the Welfare of Disabled Persons. Individualized interviews were conducted, and the authors analyzed the data via multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed that physical illness (under treatment OR 1.7; left untreated OR 4.2) and no leisure activities (OR 1.9) were factors related to a higher risk of re-attempted suicide. Unmet and modifiable needs in addition to mental health services should be considered to prevent suicide re-attempts in the chronic mentally disabled.

  10. Association between psychosocial, organizational and personal factors and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piranveyseh, Peyman; Motamedzade, Majid; Osatuke, Katerine; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Heidar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between organizational and personal (individual) factors with the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in office workers of the Iranian Gas Transmission Company. The participants rated two questionnaires - the standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire to measure the prevalence of MSDs, and the Veterans Healthcare Administration All Employee Survey questionnaire (2004 version) - to measure psychosocial, organizational and individual aspects of job satisfaction and workplace climate. The highest prevalence of MSDs was found in the lower back (49.7%) and neck (49.0%) regions. Results of the logistic regression models showed that some psychosocial and organizational factors and also some individual factors were associated with prevalence of MSDs (p < 0.05).These findings illustrate the need to consider all elements of the work system as a whole in future studies and in organizational planning.

  11. Risk factors for acute care hospital readmission in older persons in Western countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Kyndi; Meyer, Gabriele; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    related to socio-demographics, health characteristics and clinical and organizational factors related to the care pathway. TYPES OF STUDIES: The current review considered analytical and descriptive epidemiological study designs that evaluated risk factors for acute care hospital readmission. OUTCOMES......: The outcome was readmission to an acute care hospital within one month of discharge. SEARCH STRATEGY: A three-step search was utilized to find published and unpublished studies in English, French, German, Norwegian, Swedish or Danish. Five electronic databases were searched from 2004 to 2013, followed...... summary and metasynthesis of the quantitative findings was conducted. RESULTS: Based on a review of nine studies from ten Western countries, we found several significant risk factors pertaining to readmission to an acute care hospital within one month of discharge in persons aged 65 years and over...

  12. The Fourth/Final-Year University Student Future Professional Career: Analysis of Factors and Personal Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lamanauskas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Career management as a lifelong lasting process becomes very actual in today's modern society because of many reasons. The environment becomes turbulent, in a general sense; therefore, it is natural that career environment, basically, is chaotic as well. Nevertheless, career for many people is, undoubtedly, very important, because it is directly related to life quality. Professional activity satisfies almost all human needs: physiological, safety, social, attainment, self-realisation, independence, autonomy and other. The efficiency of the mentioned activity and the ability of the personality to construct his career are closely related things. Individual's career process studies are especially popular recently, because deeper career perception helps to understand the most important relations between man and work, career management and constant learning, helps not only to know man's abilities, but also the abilities to give oneself to modern environment, to understand career projection possibilities, to plan one's professional future. Seeking to analyse final-year university student position regarding career questions, a written form survey was carried out. The research was carried out between September 2015 and March 2016. The research sample (185 was structured applying a consecutive 'bunch' system. The respondents from three Lithuanian universities Klaipėda, Vilnius and Šiauliai, were selected in the sample. Professional career parameters were evaluated: career conception, the importance of work values and abilities, study influence, promoting and limiting factors and personal qualities. The research is grounded on a mixed strategy, when quantitative and qualitative research approach is combined. The obtained results, based on qualitative analysis, about professional personal career promoting and limiting factors and personal qualities are presented in this research.

  13. Environmental and personal factors that support early return-to-work: a qualitative study using the ICF as a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefsmit, Nicole; Houkes, Inge; Nijhuis, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Occupational health professionals such as occupational physicians (OPs) increasingly understand that in addition to health improvement, environmental factors (such as work adaptations) and personal factors (such as an employee's attitude towards return-to-work (RTW)) may stimulate employees on sick leave to return to work early. To target their professional interventions more specifically according to these factors, occupational health professionals need further insight into environmental and personal factors that stimulate RTW. The objectives of this study are (1) to identify which and how environmental and personal factors support RTW, and (2) to examine whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used to describe these factors. We performed interviews with 14 employees, 15 employers and 4 OPs from multiple organisations with varying organisational sizes and types of industry such as healthcare and education. We used a qualitative data analysis partially based on the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven. The following environmental factors were found to support early RTW: 'social support from relatives', 'belief that work stimulates health', 'adequate cooperation between stakeholders in RTW' (e.g., employees, employers and OPs) and 'the employers' communicative skills'. One personal factor stimulated RTW: 'positive perception of the working situation' (e.g. enjoyment of work). Most factors stimulated RTW directly. In addition, adequate treatment and social support stimulated medical recovery. Environmental factors can either fully (social support, belief that RTW stimulates health), partially (effective cooperation), or not (employers' communicative skills) be described using ICF codes. The personal factor could not be classified because the ICF does not contain codes for personal factors. RTW interventions should aim at the environmental and personal factors mentioned above. Professionals can use the ICF to

  14. Changing the personality of a face: Perceived Big Two and Big Five personality factors modeled in real photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mirella; Vetter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    General, spontaneous evaluations of strangers based on their faces have been shown to reflect judgments of these persons' intention and ability to harm. These evaluations can be mapped onto a 2D space defined by the dimensions trustworthiness (intention) and dominance (ability). Here we go beyond general evaluations and focus on more specific personality judgments derived from the Big Two and Big Five personality concepts. In particular, we investigate whether Big Two/Big Five personality judgments can be mapped onto the 2D space defined by the dimensions trustworthiness and dominance. Results indicate that judgments of the Big Two personality dimensions almost perfectly map onto the 2D space. In contrast, at least 3 of the Big Five dimensions (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness) go beyond the 2D space, indicating that additional dimensions are necessary to describe more specific face-based personality judgments accurately. Building on this evidence, we model the Big Two/Big Five personality dimensions in real facial photographs. Results from 2 validation studies show that the Big Two/Big Five are perceived reliably across different samples of faces and participants. Moreover, results reveal that participants differentiate reliably between the different Big Two/Big Five dimensions. Importantly, this high level of agreement and differentiation in personality judgments from faces likely creates a subjective reality which may have serious consequences for those being perceived-notably, these consequences ensue because the subjective reality is socially shared, irrespective of the judgments' validity. The methodological approach introduced here might prove useful in various psychological disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Factors that contribute to biomarker responses in humans including a study in individuals taking Vitamin C supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D

    2001-09-01

    It is possible in many situations to identify humans exposed to potentially toxic materials in the workplace and in the environment. As in most human studies, there tends to be a high degree of interindividual variability in response to chemical insults. Some non-exposed control individuals exhibit as high a level of damage as some exposed individuals and some of these have levels of damage as low as many of the controls. Thus, it is only the mean values of the groups that can substantiate an exposure-related problem; the data on an individual basis are still of limited use. While human lymphocytes remain the most popular cell type for monitoring purposes, sperm, buccal, nasal, epithelial and placental cells are also used. However, for interpretation of responses, the issue of confounding factors must be addressed. There are endogenous confounding factors, such as age, gender, and genetic make-up and exogenous ones, including lifestyle habits (smoking, drinking, etc.) There are biomarkers of exposure, effect/response and susceptibility and the last may be influenced by the genotype and polymorphism genes existing in a population. From our own studies, confounding effects on cytogenetic damage and ras oncoproteins will be considered in relation to workers exposed to vinyl chloride and petroleum emissions and to volunteers taking Vitamin C supplementation. Smoking history, exposure and duration of employment affected the worker studies. For petroleum emissions, so did gender and season of exposure. For the non-smoking volunteer Vitamin C supplementation study, cholesterol levels, plasma Vitamin C levels, lipid peroxidation products and DNA damage in the Comet assay were also measured. Gender affected differences in Vitamin C levels, antioxidant capacity and the number of chromosome aberrations induced by bleomycin challenge in vitro. The results were the same for both high and low cholesterol subjects. The relationship between biomarkers and the various factors which

  16. Risk factors for exposure to influenza a viruses, including subtype H5 viruses, in Thai free-grazing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A L; Kitikoon, P; Schreiner, P J; Singer, R S; Sasipreeyajan, J; Amonsin, A; Gramer, M R; Pakinsee, S; Bender, J B

    2014-08-01

    Free-grazing ducks (FGD) have been associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks and may be a viral reservoir. In July-August 2010, we assessed influenza exposure of Thai FGD and risk factors thereof. Serum from 6254 ducks was analysed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to influenza A nucleoprotein (NP), and haemagglutinin H5 protein. Eighty-five per cent (5305 ducks) were seropositive for influenza A. Of the NP-seropositive sera tested with H5 assays (n = 1423), 553 (39%) were H5 ELISA positive and 57 (4%) suspect. Twelve per cent (74 of 610) of H5 ELISA-positive/suspect ducks had H5 titres ≥ 1 : 20 by haemagglutination inhibition. Risk factors for influenza A seropositivity include older age, poultry contact, flock visitors and older purchase age. Study flocks had H5 virus exposure as recently as March 2010, but no HPAI H5N1 outbreaks have been identified in Thailand since 2008, highlighting a need for rigorous FGD surveillance. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors affecting children's exposure to VOCs in urban areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyaejeong; Ryu, Kyongnam; Jang, Kyungjo; Bae, Hyunjoo; Kim, Dongjin; Shin, Hosung; Chu, Jangmin; Yoon, Chungsik

    2010-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to cause adverse health effects. We investigated the relationships between children's VOC exposure and socioeconomic and human activity factors with passive personal samplers, questionnaires, and time-activity diaries (TAD). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.1, and the results were organized using SigmaPlot 8.0 software. Chemicals such as benzene, toluene, 2-butanone, ethylbenzene, xylene, chloroform, n-hexane, heptane, and some kinds of decanes, which are known to adversely affect public health, were identified in measured samples. These were mainly emitted from outdoor sources (e.g., vehicular traffic) or indoor sources (e.g., household activities such as cooking and cleaning) or both. We concluded that region was the most important socioeconomic factor affecting children's VOC exposure, and the significant compounds were n-hexane (p = 0.006), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (p = 0.001), benzene (p = 0.003), toluene (p = 0.002), ethylbenzene (p = 0.020), m-, p-xylene (p = 0.014), dodecane (p = 0.003), and hexadecane (p = 0.001). Parental education, year of home construction and type of housing were also slightly correlated with personal VOC exposure. Only the concentration of o-xylene (p = 0.027) was significantly affected by the parental education, and the concentrations of benzene (p = 0.030) and 2-butanone (p = 0.049) by the type of housing. Also, tridecane (p = 0.049) and n-hexane (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with the year of home construction. When household activities such as cooking were performed indoors, children's VOC concentrations tended to be higher, especially for n-hexane, chloroform, heptane, toluene (p factors simultaneously, socioeconomic factors such as region had a greater effect on children's VOC exposures than indoor activities. From this study, we can suggest that socioeconomic factors as well as environmental factors should be considered when formulating environmental policy to

  18. Personal, social, and environmental factors associated with lifejacket wear in adults and children: A systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Peden

    Full Text Available Drowning claims 7% of the global burden of injury-related deaths. Lifejackets are routinely recommended as a drowning prevention strategy; however, a review of related factors regarding lifejacket wear has not previously been investigated.This systematic review examined literature published from inception to December 2016 in English and German languages. The personal, social, and environmental factors associated with lifejacket wear among adults and children were investigated, a quantitative evaluation of the results undertaken, and gaps in the literature identified.Twenty studies, with sample sizes of studies ranging between 20 and 482,331, were identified. Fifty-five percent were cross-sectional studies. All studies were scored IV or V on the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC grading system indicating mostly descriptive and cross-sectional levels of evidence. Factors associated with increased wear included age (mostly children, gender (mostly female, boat type (non-motorised, boat size (small boats, role modelling (children influenced by adult lifejacket wear, and activity (water-skiing, fishing. Factors not associated or inconsistent with lifejacket wear included education, household income, ethnicity, boating ability, confidence in lifejackets, waterway type, and weather and water conditions. Factors associated with reduced lifejacket wear included adults, males, discomfort, cost and accessibility, consumption of alcohol, and swimming ability. Three studies evaluated the impact of interventions.This review identified factors associated with both increased and decreased lifejacket wear. Future research should address the motivational factors associated with individuals' decisions to wear or not wear lifejackets. This, combined with further research on the evaluation of interventions designed to increase lifejacket wear, will enhance the evidence base to support future drowning prevention interventions.

  19. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  20. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E.; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression. PMID:27120051

  1. Adolescent personality factors in self-ratings and peer nominations and their prediction of peer acceptance and peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, R H; van Aken, M A; van Lieshout, C F

    1997-12-01

    In this study, the robustness of the Big Five personality factors in adolescents' self-ratings and peer nominations was investigated. Data were obtained on 2,001 adolescents attending secondary school (885 girls; 1,116 boys; M age = 14.5 years). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the self-ratings confirmed the Big Five personality factors. In contrast, exploratory analysis on the peer nominations revealed five different factors: Aggression-Inattentiveness, Achievement-Withdrawal, Self-Confidence, Sociability, and Emotionality-Nervousness. It is suggested that peers evaluate group members not in terms of their personality but in terms of their group reputation. Peer evaluations contributed substantially to the prediction of peer acceptance and rejection; the Big Five personality factors based on self-ratings did not.

  2. More inflammation but less brain-derived neurotrophic factor in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Hu, Ming-Chuan; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Li, Chia-Ling; Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Po See; Chen, Shih-Heng; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2017-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is highly comorbid with substance use disorders (SUDs). We hypothesize that chronic neuroinflammation and the loss of neurotrophic factors prompts the pathogenesis of both disorders. We used ELISA to measure plasma levels of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], C-reactive protein [CRP]) and anti-inflammatory factors (transforming growth factor-β1 [TGF-β1] and interleukin-10 [IL-10]), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in male patients with ASPD (n=74), SUDs (n=168), ASPD comorbid with SUDs (ASPD+SUDs) (n=438), and Healthy Controls (HCs) (n=81). A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) controlled for possible confounders was used to compare cytokines and BDNF levels between groups. The results of MANCOVA adjusted for age showed a significant (pdisorder (OUD) and other SUDs groups showed that the IL-10 levels were specifically higher in OUD and ASPD±OUD groups than other SUDs (P≤0.001). We conclude that uncontrolled inflammation and losing neurotrophic factors, with or without comorbid SUDs, underlies ASPD. IL-10 expression might be more specifically associated with OUD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors contributing to work related low back pain among personal care workers in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to preliminary explore the work related and individual factors that contributed to the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) that affected work activities of Personal Care Workers (PCWs). A cross-sectional study was conducted to 36 PCWs in an old age home of Hong Kong. The study is divided into three parts: 1) a questionnaire to document the workload exposure factors and the musculoskeletal symptoms survey of the PCWs, 2) work posture evaluation; and 3) an evaluation of the physical fitness and lifting capacity of the PCWs. Univariate analyses were used to explore the risk factors associated with LBP that affected work activities. The results indicated that individual physical profile and lifting capacities did not contribute to occurrence of low back pain at work. For the work demand factors, the perceived physical demands in lifting and lowering heavy objects, awkward sustain neck and back postures, loading on the back, and perceived effort of cleaning task contributed to the occurrence of LBP. For the physical environment factors, thermal stress and improper ventilation were associated with the occurrence of LBP cases. For the individual factor, LBP cases were associated with workers' self perceived muscular effort, and perceived risk of mental illness in response to work requirements.

  4. Iatrogenic effects of psychosocial interventions: treatment, life context, and personal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H

    2012-01-01

    Between 7% and 15% of individuals who participate in psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders may be worse off after treatment than before. Intervention-related predictors of iatrogenic effects include lack of bonding; lack of goal direction and monitoring; confrontation, criticism, and high emotional arousal; models and norms for substance use; and stigma and inaccurate expectations. Life context and personal predictors include lack of support, criticism, and more severe substance use and psychological problems. Ongoing monitoring and safety standards are needed to identify and counteract adverse consequences of intervention programs.

  5. Personality factors and weight preoccupation: a continuum approach to the association between eating disorders and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C; Claridge, G; Cerullo, D

    1997-01-01

    Evidence shows a high comorbidity of eating disorders and some forms of personality disorder. Adopting a dimensional approach to both, our study explored their connection among a non-clinical sample. 191 young women completed personality scales of general neuroticism, and of borderline, schizotypal, obsessive-compulsive, and narcissistic (both adjustive and maladaptive) traits. Weight preoccupation (WP), as a normal analogue of eating disorders, was assessed with scales from the Eating Disorder Inventory, and height and weight measured. The data were analysed with multiple regression techniques, with WP as the dependent variable. In low to normal weight subjects, after controlling for the significant influence of body mass, the specific predictors of WP in the regression model were borderline personality and maladaptive narcissism, in the positive direction, and adjustive narcissism and obsessive-compulsiveness in the negative direction. In heavier women, narcissism made no contribution--nor, more significantly, did body mass. Patterns of association between eating pathology and personality disorder, especially borderline and narcissism, can be clearly mapped across to personality traits in the currently non-clinical population. This finding has important implications for understanding dynamics of, and identifying individuals at risk for, eating disorders.

  6. Individual and community level risk-factors for alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Chikovani, Ivdity; Makhashvili, Nino; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i) having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥ 8); (ii) episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week). Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only). Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386), 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use). The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in Georgia, as well as the need for stronger

  7. Individual and community level risk-factors for alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in Georgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayard Roberts

    Full Text Available The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia.A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥ 8; (ii episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week. Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only.Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386, 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use.The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in Georgia, as well as the need for

  8. Risk factors for poor work functioning of persons with schizophrenia in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Chen, Sheying; Chen, Elaina Y; Ran, Bo-Yu; Tang, Cui-Ping; Lin, Fu-Rong; Li, Li; Li, Si-Gan; Mao, Wen-Jun; Hu, Shi-Hui

    2011-11-01

    The long-term work performance of persons with schizophrenia in the community is unclear. This study examined the status of long-term work functioning and the predictors of poor work status among patients with schizophrenia in a Chinese rural area. A 10-year follow-up investigation (1994-2004) of a cohort (n = 510) of persons with schizophrenia was conducted in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. Compared with baseline data, work functioning of patients with schizophrenia deteriorated after 10 years. The rates of not working increased significantly from 12.0% in 1994 to 23.0% in 2004. Bivariate analyses showed that the poor work functioning in 2004 was significantly associated with male gender, older age, older age of first onset, higher level of education, longer duration of illness, lower family economic status, lack of caregivers, poor work status in 1994, living in shabby or unstable house, marked symptoms, and higher score on the Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS). In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher score of SDSS and poor work status in 1994 were identified as unique predictors of poor work status in 2004. The status of work functioning of persons with schizophrenia decreased over the course of the illness. The risk factors for poor work functioning and specific socio-cultural environment should be considered in planning community mental health services and rehabilitation for these patients.

  9. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  10. Morningness-eveningness, sex, and the Alternative Five Factor Model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana

    2009-08-01

    Recent research on personality and circadian typology indicates that evening-type subjects are more extraverted, impulsive, and novelty-seeking, while morning ones tend to be more introverted, conscientious, agreeable, and emotionally stable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between circadian typologies on the Zuckerman's Alternative Five Factor Model of personality (AFFM), which has a strong biological basis, controlling for sex and age. A sample of 533 university students (168 men) participated in the study. Results showed that morning-type subjects had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type subjects in Activity, and in its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. A significant interaction between circadian typology and sex was found for Neuroticism-Anxiety: morning-type men showed higher scores than evening-type and neither-type, who had the lowest scores. Women presented the opposite pattern: neither-type obtained the highest scores, while morning-type showed the lowest. This is the first time the AFFM has been used in the context of circadian rhythms research. The results suggest that activity is the only trait related to extraversion associated with morningness, while Neuroticism-Anxiety was modulated by sex. These results might help highlight previous results on the association between morningness-eveningness and other models of personality assessment, and they offer new data that calls for further research.

  11. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors in the development of personality disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depue, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    A dimensional model of personality disturbance is presented that is defined by extreme values on interacting subsets of seven major personality traits. Being at the extreme has marked effects on the threshold for eliciting those traits under stimulus conditions: that is, the extent to which the environment affects the neurobiological functioning underlying the traits. To explore the nature of development of extreme values on these traits, each trait is discussed in terms of three major issues: (a) the neurobiological variables associated with the trait, (b) individual variation in this neurobiology as a function of genetic polymorphisms, and (c) the effects of environmental adversity on these neurobiological variables through the action of epigenetic processes. It is noted that gene-environment interaction appears to be dependent on two main factors: (a) both genetic and environmental variables appear to have the most profound and enduring effects when they exert their effects during early postnatal periods, times when the forebrain is undergoing exuberant experience-expectant dendritic and axonal growth; and (b) environmental effects on neurobiology are strongly modified by individual differences in "traitlike" functioning of neurobiological variables. A model of the nature of the interaction between environmental and neurobiological variables in the development of personality disturbance is presented.

  12. Factor structure of self-reported clinical disorders and personality disorders : A review of the existing literature and a factor analytical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachrach, N.; Croon, M.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this research is to add to the current understanding of the latent factor structure of personality disorders by performing a review of the existing literature (Study 1) and a factor analytical study on the factor structure and the relationship between self-reported Axis I and

  13. Effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention program targeting personality risk factors: Results of interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jeroen; Goossens, Ferry; Conrod, Patricia; Engels, Rutger; Wiers, Reinout W; Kleinjan, Marloes

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether specific groups of adolescents (i.e., scoring high on personality risk traits, having a lower education level, or being male) benefit more from the Preventure intervention with regard to curbing their drinking behaviour. A clustered randomized controlled trial, with participants randomly assigned to a 2-session coping skills intervention or a control no-intervention condition. Fifteen secondary schools throughout The Netherlands; 7 schools in the intervention and 8 schools in the control condition. 699 adolescents aged 13-15; 343 allocated to the intervention and 356 to the control condition; with drinking experience and elevated scores in either negative thinking, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity or sensation seeking. Differential effectiveness of the Preventure program was examined for the personality traits group, education level and gender on past-month binge drinking (main outcome), binge frequency, alcohol use, alcohol frequency and problem drinking, at 12months post-intervention. Preventure is a selective school-based alcohol prevention programme targeting personality risk factors. The comparator was a no-intervention control. Intervention effects were moderated by the personality traits group and by education level. More specifically, significant intervention effects were found on reducing alcohol use within the anxiety sensitivity group (OR=2.14, CI=1.40, 3.29) and reducing binge drinking (OR=1.76, CI=1.38, 2.24) and binge drinking frequency (β=0.24, p=0.04) within the sensation seeking group at 12months post-intervention. Also, lower educated young adolescents reduced binge drinking (OR=1.47, CI=1.14, 1.88), binge drinking frequency (β=0.25, p=0.04), alcohol use (OR=1.32, CI=1.06, 1.65) and alcohol use frequency (β=0.47, p=0.01), but not those in the higher education group. Post hoc latent-growth analyses revealed significant effects on the development of binge drinking (β=-0.19, p=0.02) and binge drinking frequency (β=-0.10, p=0

  14. The five factor model of personality and intelligence: A twin study on the relationship between the two constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, M.; van Weegen, F.I.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Carlier, M.; Polderman, T.J.C.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association and underlying genetic and environmental influences among intelligence (IQ) and personality in adolescent and young adult twins. Data on intelligence were obtained from psychometric IQ tests and personality was assessed with the short form of the NEO five factor inventory

  15. The "Ocean" and the Night-Sky: Relations Between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Noctcaelador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between noctcaelador, psychological attachment to the night-sky, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. University students (N = 108) were administered the Noctcaelador Inventory and Saucier's Big-Five Mini-Markers of Personality. Noctcaelador was significantly positively related to Openness to Experience…

  16. "DSM IV," "DSM-5," and the Five-Factor Model: the Diagnosis of Personality Disorder with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, William R.; Steptoe, Lesley; McVicker, Ronnie; Haut, Fabian; Robertson, Colette

    2018-01-01

    In "DSM-5" there has been a move to dimensional personality disorder (PD) diagnosis, incorporating personality theory in the form of the five-factor model (FFM). It proposes an alternative assessment system based on diagnostic indicators and the FFM, while retaining "DSM-IV" categorical criteria. Four individuals with…

  17. School Variables as Mediators of Personal and Family Factors on School Violence in Taiwanese Junior High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2012-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 3,058 junior high school students in Taiwan, this study examines a model of how personal traits, family factors, and school dynamics influence school violence committed by students against students and teachers. This model proposed that school violence is directly influenced by personal traits,…

  18. Exposure to suicidal behaviors: A common suicide risk factor or a personal negative life event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Bettiol, Silvana

    2017-02-01

    Numerous suicide risk factors have been proposed but not adequately validated for epidemiology, treatment and prevention efforts. Exposures to suicidal behaviors (ESB), from family and friend suicide attempts and completions, were tested for validity as a suicidal risk factor and also for measurement and construct adequacy. An anonymous online survey yielded 713 participants (aged 18-71), who reported ESB, completed the Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale (SABCS), and comprised a broad spectrum on those variables. Tests of dimensionality and internal consistency showed the four ESB variables (attempts/completions through family/friends) were independent and did not form a common factor or an identifiable ESB latent trait. ESB variables were, however, associated with demographic and psychiatric histories. A battery of tests revealed no meaningful associations between ESB and total suicidality or suicide risk factors (social support, depression, anxiety, stress, satisfaction with life and emotional stability). In addition, in contrast to previous reports, young adults ( n = 200; aged 18-20) showed no increased suicidality due to ESB. Results showed no validity for ESB as a common risk factor for suicidality or other psychopathology, or as a latent trait. ESB showed evidence as a personal negative life event with individual effects and interpretations.

  19. The Network Structure of Human Personality According to the NEO-PI-R: Matching Network Community Structure to Factor Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goekoop, R.; Goekoop, J.G.; Scholte, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. Aim: To directly compare the ability of network

  20. Environmental and Personal Factors Related to Asthma Severity among Children: Hospital Based Study, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaima Ibrahim AboElkheir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood asthma is a complex disorder in which many environmental and personal factors play a role. However, the contribution of these factors to asthma severity is poorly understood. This study aims to determine the relationship between environmental exposures, personal factors and asthma severity among asthmatic children. Methods: This cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted on 180 asthmatic children; they were divided into mild, moderate and severe asthma according to forced expiratory volume in first second. Environmental factors (indoor and outdoor, food allergy, history of other allergic diseases, family history of allergic disorders, time trend of attacks as well as asthma outcome were reported. Results: Children with severe asthma were younger than those with mild or moderate asthma. Severe asthma was significantly linked to family history of allergy, presence of co-morbid allergic diseases, fish, egg and milk allergy, as well as exposure to passive smoking (73.7% and poor housing conditions. Also, it was significantly linked to presence of unauthorized factories in residential area (31.6 %, p=0.001. As well as, contact with pets (42.1%. Children with severe asthma had more limitations of physical activities (73.7%, missed school days (81.5%, with poor school performance (p=0.04 than those with mild moderate or asthma. Conclusion: Severe asthma was linked to female gender and younger age, co-morbid allergic diseases, family history of atopy and food allergy. It was higher among children residing in places with unauthorized factories and living in substandard housing condition. Children with severe asthma had poor asthma outcome.

  1. It's "Supposed" to Be Personal: Personal and Educational Factors Associated with Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, Comfort and Skill in Health Profession Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lindsey M.; Stepleman, Lara M.; Wilson, Christina K.; Campbell, Jeff; Villarosa, Margo; Bodie, Brittany; Decker, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The health professional and the patient are cultural beings with beliefs and attitudes that are shaped by family traditions, social development, and exposure to novel experiences. As such, it is especially important for health profession students to gain awareness about the personal and educational factors that likely inform their practice and…

  2. Improvements in scaling of counter-current imbibition recovery curves using a shape factor including permeability anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Jassem; Sarafrazi, Shiva; Riazi, Masoud; Ghaedi, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous imbibition is the main oil production mechanism in the water invaded zone of a naturally fractured reservoir (NFR). Different scaling equations have been presented in the literature for upscaling of core scale imbibition recovery curves to field scale matrix blocks. Various scale dependent parameters such as gravity effects and boundary influences are required to be considered in the upscaling process. Fluid flow from matrix blocks to the fracture system is highly dependent on the permeability value in the horizontal and vertical directions. The purpose of this study is to include permeability anisotropy in the available scaling equations to improve the prediction of imbibition assisted oil production in NFRs. In this paper, a commercial reservoir simulator was used to obtain imbibition recovery curves for different scenarios. Then, the effect of permeability anisotropy on imbibition recovery curves was investigated, and the weakness of the existing scaling equations for anisotropic rocks was demonstrated. Consequently, an analytical shape factor was introduced that can better scale all the curves related to anisotropic matrix blocks.

  3. Relationships between Adaptive Behaviours, Personal Factors, and Participation of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Hazel; Shiel, Agnes; Law, Mary; O'Donovan, Donough J; Segurado, Ricardo; Anaby, Dana

    2017-12-19

    To examine the extent to which personal factors (age, socioeconomic grouping, and preterm birth) and adaptive behaviour explain the participation patterns of young children. 65 Children 2-5 years old with and without a history of preterm birth and no physical or intellectual disability were selected by convenience sampling from Galway University Hospital, Ireland. Interviews with parents were conducted using the Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II) and the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP). Linear regression models were used to identify associations between the ABAS-II scores, personal factors, and APCP scores for intensity and diversity of participation. Adaptive behaviour explained 21% of variance in intensity of play, 18% in intensity of Skill Development, 7% in intensity of Active Physical Recreation, and 6% in intensity of Social Activities controlling for age, preterm birth, and socioeconomic grouping. Age explained between 1% and 11% of variance in intensity of participation scores. Adapted behaviour (13%), Age (17%), and socioeconomic grouping (5%) explained a significant percentage of variance in diversity of participation controlling for the other variables.  Adaptive behaviour had a unique contribution to children's intensity and diversity of participation, suggesting its importance.

  4. [Burnout-engagement and personality factors in medical students at a public university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gladys V; D'Urso Villar, Marcela; Fracchia, Liliana N

    2016-09-01

    Medical students can develop burnout syndrome, characterized by exhaustion, cynical attitude towards study and negative consequences on wellbeing and academic performance. Engagement, theoretically syndrome "opposite" to burnout, shows a positive influence on personal and academic performance. To study the association of syndromes burnout and engagement with personality factors in medical students, a longitudinal observational, descriptive study of a cohort follow-up was performed. Three questionnaires were used: reduced inventory NEO Five-Factor (NEO FFI) administered at the beginning of the sixth year; the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, applied at the end of the seventh year. 120 students participated. The chance of presenting burnout was 3 times higher when the student had 0.26 times higher neuroticism and high extraversion lower when presented. The chance to present engagement was 10 times higher in students who had high extraversion (Multilevel logistic regression model, pburnout and engagement syndromes, and carry out strategies to prevent the consequences of academic stress on the most vulnerable students.

  5. Individual and Social Competence, Personality Factors and Cognitive Abilities of Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorov A.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors studied the connections between individual and social competence, personality factors and cognitive abilities of preschool children with typical development, attending kindergarten (N = 54; age 73, 4  6 months, 31 boys and 23 girls. The following method have been used: "Preschool children's educational competence scale», M5-PS, computer cognitive tests. K-means clustering of cases and Mann-Whitney U Test were used. Revealed that children with a high level of individual social competence development were more open to experience minded (p <0,0001, agreeable (p <0,05, conscientious (p <0,01, with higher level of Extraversion (0,001 and also more successful with the cognitive tests for stimulus sequences understanding (p <0,05, logical multiplication usage (p <0,05, emotional expression and situations of social interaction recognition (p <0,05 and p < 0,01. The obtained results may indicate the possible involvement of both personality and cognitive factors in the formation of individual and social competences.

  6. Desgaste profesional en el personal sanitario y su relación con los factores personales y ambientales Burnout syndrome in health workers and relationship with personal and environmental factors

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    Armand Grau

    2005-12-01

    workers and to determine its relationship with personal and environmental factors. Methods: A total of 2290 health workers from five hospitals in the province of Girona (Spain were invited to participate. Interviewees were given a specifically designed questionnaire, a questionnaire on organizational climate, and the Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, which includes three scales: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Results: Responses were received from 1095 health workers (a response rate of 47.8%. A high level of emotional exhaustion was found in 41.6% of staff members, especially among doctors and nurses; a high level of depersonalization was found in 23%, mainly among doctors, and reduced personal accomplishment was found in 27.9%, mainly among technicians and doctors. Multiple logistic regression revealed that a high level of emotional exhaustion was associated with frequent consumption of tranquilizers or antidepressants, whereas optimism and job satisfaction showed an inverse association. The variables that were inversely associated with a high level of depersonalization were the number of years in the profession, optimism, evaluation of work as being useful and the perception of being valued by others. Reduced personal accomplishment was also inversely associated with optimism, satisfaction with the usefulness of one's work, and satisfaction with teamwork. Conclusions: In view of the results obtained, to reduce professional burnout in hospitals, optimism and a sense of self-worth among individuals should be encouraged and the organizational environment should be improved.

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors among patients with schizophrenia, bipolar, depressive, anxiety, and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Piñar, M; Mathur, R; Foguet, Q; Ayis, S; Robson, J; Ayerbe, L

    2016-05-01

    The evidence informing the management of cardiovascular risk in patients with psychiatric disorders is weak. This cohort study used data from all patients, aged≥30, registered in 140 primary care practices (n=524,952) in London to estimate the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, tobacco consumption, obesity, and physical inactivity, between 2005 and 2015, for patients with a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, bipolar or personality disorder. The role of antidepressants, antipsychotics and social deprivation in these associations was also investigated. The age at detection of cardiovascular risk factor was compared between patients with and without psychiatric disorders. Variables, for exposures and outcomes, defined from general practitioners records, were analysed using multivariate regression. Patients with psychiatric disorders had an increased risk for cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes, with hazard ratios: 2.42 (2.20-2.67) to 1.31 (1.25-1.37), hyperlipidemia, with hazard ratios: 1.78 (1.60-1.97) to 1.25 (1.23-1.28), and obesity. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and social deprivation did not change these associations, except for smoking and physical inactivity. Antidepressants were associated with higher risk of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Antipsychotics were associated with a higher risk of diabetes. Antidepressants and antipsychotics were associated with lower risk of other risk factors. Patients with psychiatric conditions have later detection of cardiovascular risk factors. The interpretation of these results should acknowledge the lower rates of detection of risk factors in mentally ill patients. Cardiovascular risk factors require special clinical attention among patients with psychiatric disorders. Further research could study the effect of antidepressants and antipsychotics on cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Associated with Review Board Dispositions following Re-hospitalization among Discharged Persons found Not Criminally Responsible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Catherine M; Nicholls, Tonia L; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C; Crocker, Anne G

    2016-03-01

    In the Canadian forensic mental health system, a person found Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) and given a conditional discharge returns to the community while remaining under the jurisdiction of a provincial/territorial Review Board. However, the individual can be re-hospitalized while on conditional discharge, for reasons such as substance use, violation of conditions, or violence. We investigated whether being re-hospitalized has an impact on the factors associated with the subsequent Review Board disposition. Persons found NCRMD from the three largest Canadian provinces who were conditionally discharged at least once during the observation period were included in the sample (N = 1,367). These individuals were involved in 2,920 disposition hearings; nearly one-third of patients (30%) were re-hospitalized after having been conditionally discharged by the Review Board. The factors examined included the scales of the Historical Clinical Risk Management-20 and salient behavior that occurred since the previous hearing, such as substance use or violence. The greater presence of clinical items resulted in a greater likelihood of a hospital detention decision at the next hearing. The effect was larger for the re-hospitalized group than for the group who successfully remained in the community since the last hearing. The results suggest that dynamic factors, specifically indicators of mental health, are heavily weighted by the Review Boards, consistent with the literature on imminent risk and in line with the NCRMD legislation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Personal and other factors affecting acceptance of smartphone technology by older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi; Chan, Alan H S; Chen, Ke

    2016-05-01

    It has been well documented that in the 21st century, there will be relatively more older people around the world than in the past. Also, it seems that technology will expand in this era at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of technology by older people. The positive impact that the use of mobile applications can have for older people was confirmed by a previous study (Plaza et al., 2011). The study reported here aimed to explore and confirm, for older adults in China, the key influential factors of smartphone acceptance, and to describe the personal circumstances of Chinese older adults who use smartphone. A structured questionnaire and face to face individual interviews were used with 120 Chinese older adults (over 55). Structural Equation Modeling was used to confirm a proposed smartphone acceptance model based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The results showed that those who were younger, with higher education, non-widowed, with better economic condition related to salary or family support were more likely to use smartphone. Also, cost was found to be a critical factor influencing behavior intention. Self-satisfaction and facilitating conditions were proved to be important factors influencing perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors associated with self-esteem in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Fagermoen, May Solveig; Lerdal, Anners

    2015-01-01

    Living with chronic illnesses can be stressful and may negatively impact persons' self-esteem. Personal factors, like self-efficacy and illness perceptions, and also factors related to the environment, activity, and participation may be associated with self-esteem in chronic illness populations. This cross-sectional comparative study explored sociodemographic variables, work, physical activity, illness perceptions, and general self-efficacy in relation to self-esteem in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study had a cross-sectional design. A total of 223 eligible participants were recruited from patient education courses, and data were collected at baseline. Self-esteem was measured with The Rosenberg self-esteem scale; the general self-efficacy scale was used to measure self-efficacy, and brief illness perception questionnaire was also used. This is an instrument assessing cognitions about the illness and emotional responses towards it. Multivariate linear regression was used in the statistical analyses. In obese participants (n = 134), higher self-esteem was associated with lower emotional response, a shorter timeline, and higher general self-efficacy. In COPD participants (n = 89), higher self-esteem was associated with higher general self-efficacy. The independent variables accounted for 42.9% (morbid obesity) and 49.4% (COPD) of the self-esteem variance. In participants in both illness groups, higher self-efficacy was associated with increased self-esteem. A shorter timeline and lower emotional response to illness was related to higher self-esteem only for the obese participants. The results indicate that believing in one's capacity to cope with everyday challenges is important for self-esteem in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with COPD, whereas illness perceptions related to the duration of illness and the coping with emotions also is important for self-esteem in persons with morbid

  11. Personality factors in recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients: a preliminary investigation with the NEO-FFI scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Braz de Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes some prevalent personality dimensions of recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients. A sample of 33 female recently diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS was assessed with the NEO-FFI personality scale. Beck depression (BDI and anxiety (BAI scales were also used. No significant levels of anxiety or depression were identified in this group. As for personality factors, conscientiousness was the most common factor found, whereas openness to experience was the least observed. Literature on the relationship between personality and MS is scarce and there are no Brazilian studies on this subject. Some personality traits might complicate or facilitate the experience of living with a chronic, disabling and uncertain neurological condition such as MS.

  12. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, Mk; Jiloha, Rc; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, Gk

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.

  13. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case–control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, MK; Jiloha, RC; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, GK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case–control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients. PMID:22090670

  14. Emotions and personality traits as high-level factors in visual attention: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eKaspar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The visual sense has outstanding significance for human perception and behavior, and visual attention plays a central role in the processing of the sensory input. Thereby, multiple low- and high-level factors contribute to the guidance of attention. The present review focuses on two neglected high-level factors: emotion and personality. The review starts with an overview of different models of attention, providing a conceptual framework and illustrating the nature of low- and high-level factors in visual attention. Then, the ambiguous concept of emotion is described, and recommendations are made for the experimental practice. In the following, we present several studies showing the influence of emotion on overt attention, whereby the distinction between internally and externally located emotional impacts is emphasized. We also provide evidence showing that emotional stimuli influence perceptual processing outside of the focus of attention, whereby results in this field are mixed. Then, we present some detached studies showing the reversed causal effect: attention can also affect emotional responses. The final section on emotion–attention interactions addresses the interplay on the neuronal level, which has been neglected for a long time in neuroscience. In this context, several conceptual recommendations for future research are made. Finally, based on findings showing inter-individual differences in human sensitivity to emotional items, we introduce the wide range of time-independent personality traits that also influence attention, and in this context we try to raise awareness of the consideration of inter-individual differences in the field of neuroscience.

  15. Personality Factors Predicting Smartphone Addiction Predisposition: Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems, Impulsivity, and Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yejin; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong-Jin; Kwak, Minjung; Rho, Mi Jung; Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP). Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854) aged 20-49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52); participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS) for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS), the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII), and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS). In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use). We analyzed the data in three steps: (1) identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2) deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN), and (3) computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female), weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors.

  16. Personality Factors Predicting Smartphone Addiction Predisposition: Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems, Impulsivity, and Self-Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yejin Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP. Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854 aged 20-49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52; participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS, the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII, and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS. In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use. We analyzed the data in three steps: (1 identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2 deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN, and (3 computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female, weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors.

  17. Factors Affecting Usage of a Personal Health Record (PHR) to Manage Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Jessica; Czaja, Sara J.; Sharit, Joseph; Morrow, Daniel G.

    2018-01-01

    As the health care industry shifts into the digital age, patients are increasingly being provided with access to electronic personal health records (PHRs) that are tethered to their provider-maintained electronic health records. This unprecedented access to personal health information can enable patients to more effectively manage their health, but little is actually known about patients’ ability to successfully use a PHR to perform health management tasks or the individual factors that influence task performance. This study evaluated the ability of 56 middle-aged adults (40–59 years) and 51 older adults (60–85 years) to use a simulated PHR to perform 15 common health management tasks encompassing medication management, review/interpretation of lab/test results, and health maintenance activities. Results indicated that participants in both age groups experienced significant difficulties in using the PHR to complete routine health management tasks. Data also showed that older adults, particularly those with lower numeracy and technology experience, encountered greater problems using the system. Furthermore, data revealed that the cognitive abilities predicting one’s task performance varied according to the complexity of the task. Results from this study identify important factors to consider in the design of PHRs so that they meet the needs of middle-aged and older adults. As deployment of PHRs is on the rise, knowledge of the individual factors that impact effective PHR use is critical to preventing an increase in health care disparities between those who are able to use a PHR and those who are not. PMID:24364414

  18. Toward a periodic table of personality: Mapping personality scales between the five-factor model and the circumplex model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen A; Anderson, Neil R

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we examine the structures of 10 personality inventories (PIs) widely used for personnel assessment by mapping the scales of PIs to the lexical Big Five circumplex model resulting in a Periodic Table of Personality. Correlations between 273 scales from 10 internationally popular PIs with independent markers of the lexical Big Five are reported, based on data from samples in 2 countries (United Kingdom, N = 286; United States, N = 1,046), permitting us to map these scales onto the Abridged Big Five Dimensional Circumplex model (Hofstee, de Raad, & Goldberg, 1992). Emerging from our findings we propose a common facet framework derived from the scales of the PIs in our study. These results provide important insights into the literature on criterion-related validity of personality traits, and enable researchers and practitioners to understand how different PI scales converge and diverge and how compound PI scales may be constructed or replicated. Implications for research and practice are considered. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. What factors influence healthy aging? A person-centered approach among older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Su, Pei-Fang

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to identify the health profiles of older adults by using latent class analysis to investigate health heterogeneity and to determine what factors predicted healthy aging among an oldest-old sample cohort that was followed up for 14 years in Taiwan. Data were drawn from five waves (carried out in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003 and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to examine the changes in health heterogeneity in a nationally representative oldest-old cohort of Taiwanese. Overall, data from a total of 11 145 observations of 3155 older adults were considered. The influential factors predicting health changes were analyzed by using a generalized estimating equation. The results showed that four health profiles were identified among the aging population observed in the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. With increasing age, the combined effects of the physical functioning, cognitive and emotional health, and comorbidities of older adults significantly impact their health changes. Apart from health deteriorating with age and sex disparities, educational and economic status, health behaviors, and social participation at the individual level were found to be the robust factors in predicting healthy aging. In considering what factors impact healthy aging, we suggest that a person-centered approach would be useful and critical for policy makers to understand the compositions of health profiles and the influencing factors in view of a life-course perspective. Based on the factors identified as influencing healthy aging at the individual level, it is imperative from a policy-making perspective to maximize opportunities for healthy aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 697-707. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Personality disorders in substance abusers: Validation of the DIP-Q through principal components factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorders are common in substance abusers. Self-report questionnaires that can aid in the assessment of personality disorders are commonly used in assessment, but are rarely validated. Methods The Danish DIP-Q as a measure of co-morbid personality disorders in substance abusers was validated through principal components factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis. A 4 components structure was constructed based on 238 protocols, representing antagonism, neuroticism, introversion and conscientiousness. The structure was compared with (a a 4-factor solution from the DIP-Q in a sample of Swedish drug and alcohol abusers (N = 133, and (b a consensus 4-components solution based on a meta-analysis of published correlation matrices of dimensional personality disorder scales. Results It was found that the 4-factor model of personality was congruent across the Danish and Swedish samples, and showed good congruence with the consensus model. A canonical correlation analysis was conducted on a subset of the Danish sample with staff ratings of pathology. Three factors that correlated highly between the two variable sets were found. These variables were highly similar to the three first factors from the principal components analysis, antagonism, neuroticism and introversion. Conclusion The findings support the validity of the DIP-Q as a measure of DSM-IV personality disorders in substance abusers.

  1. Stress generation in adolescence: Contributions from five-factor model (FFM) personality traits and childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Shauna C; Bagby, R Michael; Harkness, Kate L

    2017-04-01

    Youth with depression are theorized to generate stress in their lives because of a complex interaction between their personal characteristics and their chronic environmental context. Using a moderated regression approach, we provided a novel test of this hypothesis by examining whether adolescent 5-factor model personality traits moderate the associations between early emotional, physical, and sexual maltreatment and life events experienced in the past 6 months. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 110 adolescents (M = 16.24, SD = 1.53, age range = 13-17, 74.5% female) with major depressive disorder. The relation of physical maltreatment to dependent interpersonal life events was moderated by extraversion. Among physically maltreated youth, dependent interpersonal events were positively associated with extraversion. Further, the relation of sexual maltreatment to independent events were moderated by extraversion and agreeableness. Among sexually maltreated youth, independent events were negatively associated with extraversion and positively associated with agreeableness. The observed vulnerability-risk interactions are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the role of stress generation mechanisms in an integrated model of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

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    Golovey L.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction. The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from single parent families had higher indicators of anxiety, insecurity, depressiveness, self-distrust, hostility, feeling of inferiority, conflicts and difficulties in communication. In families with pronounced overprotection and characteristics of an authoritarian style children had lower self- esteem and higher indicators of anxiety and hostility. Children's aggressiveness was more pronounced in the case of permissive style and instability of parenting style. It was shown that emotional well-being in the parent-child relationships can be regarded as a resource for personal development of the child: understanding the causes of child s state, empathy. However we revealed that one third part of mothers had difficulties in emotional interaction with children. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №13-06-00480 «The family as a resource of child´s mental development in stable and critical ontogenetic periods».

  3. Importance of Motivational Factors among Future Business Persons: Further Evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kwame Kuutol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Businesses design motivation systems to persuade employees to perform in the most effective way but also to attract potential candidates. The key to create the efficient motivation system is an answer to the question what actually motivate employees. The rationale of this paper is to find which of the motivation factors are seen as the most important by students considered as future business persons either by gender or job possession as set out in the questionnaire. The study was based on the questionnaire distributed to the sample of 462 respondents from Presbyterian University college of Ghana. Respondents were asked to rank thirteen motivation factors in the order of their importance. The findings showed that Good wages and job security were the most important factors for all students as well as good working conditions.   The research recommended the creation of motivation systems for freshly graduated potential employees and freshly graduated employees to me their expectations as well as for planning recruitment strategies focused on future job seekers.

  4. Associations between occupational factors and occupational injury and the interplay of personal factors in Indian and French coal miners.

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    Bhattacherjee, A.; Kunar, BM.; Baumann, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    Research studies during the last decade have shown the roles of occupational and individual factors in occupational injury but a few information is available regarding their interplay. This study aimed at assessing the roles of occupational hazards and exploring their contributions to the occurrences of injuries among the Indian and French coal miners. In this study two surveys were conducted. The survey in India was a matched case-control study including 245 miners with an occupational injur...

  5. Personal Factors Underlying Resilience in Adolescence: Cross-Cultural Validity of the Prince-Embury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasana, Mercedes; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2017-09-25

    Resiliency personality factors are supposed to underlie resilience. To get evidence on this supposition, the Prince-Embury scales (PES) for adolescents were adapted to the Spanish population. Then, the relationship between the resiliency variables sense of mastery, sense of relatedness and emotional reactivity -assessed with the PES- with resilience -assessed with the Subjective Resilience Questionnaire (SRQ)- were analyzed, as well as the role of social integration within this relationship. Data from 1083 adolescents were analyzed using confirmatory techniques (CFA, PALV). CFA of PES displayed a good fit to the model (CFI: .95). Path-analysis showed that sense of mastery and emotional reactivity predict resilience as expected, but also that, contrary to expectations based on Prince-Embury's theory, sense of relatedness and resilience are not related, either directly, or through social integration. Being related and socially integrated probably favors well-being, but it may not favor resilience unless associated to Sense of Mastery, at least in adolescence.

  6. Interrelationships of Physical Activity and Sleep with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: a Person-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Associations of behaviorally modifiable factors like physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and sleep with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are complicated. We examined whether membership in latent classes (LCs) differentiated by PA and sleep profiles (real-life clustering of behaviors in population subgroups) associate with metabolic risk factors and CVD risk. The National FINRISK 2012 Study comprise a cross-sectional sample of 10,000 Finns aged 25 to 74 years. Analyses included participants with complete data on a health questionnaire, a health examination, who had no prevalent CVD (n = 4031). LCs with PA and sleep profiles were previously defined using latent class analysis. Ten metabolic risk factors and the Framingham 10-year CVD risk score were compared between the LCs. PA and sleep class profiles were substantially similar for genders. Compared to LC-1, with a profile including high PA and sufficient sleep, membership in LC-4, with a profile including sedentariness and insufficient sleep was associated with high metabolic risk factors in women but not in men. In women, also membership in LC-2, with a profile including light PA, sufficient sleep, and high sedentariness was associated with high metabolic risk factors. The Framingham 10-year CVD risk score was highest in LCs 2 and 4 in both genders. Membership in LCs differentiated by PA and sleep profiles was associated with metabolic risk factors merely in women, suggesting gender differences in the interrelationships of health behaviors and metabolic risk factors. Total CVD risk differed between the LCs despite of gender; however, the effect was small.

  7. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rahimian-Boogar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer .Method: A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R, the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ, the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18 .Results: Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (p<0.001. R2 was 0.73 for the final model (p<.001.Conclusion: The results revealed that two character dimensions (low cooperativeness and self-transcendence, high neurotic defense style and young age of the deceased person were involved in the psychopathological course of the complicated and prolonged grief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief.

  8. Analysis of personal data-sharing consent factors, with focus on loyalty programs in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Formanek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide structured, topical and representative analysis of personal data sharing preferences in the Czech Republic. Within the context of personal data sharing and protection, we focus on profiling individuals who voluntarily share their personal data with good-faith corporate entities. Loyalty program operators serve as a common and representative model of commercially driven collection and processing of personal data. We address different types of personal data and factors affecting individual data-sharing consent. Our original research is based on primary surveyed data (806 respondents surveyed during 2017. Multiple quantitative methods such as hierarchical clustering and logistic regression are employed in the analysis. Also, an important part of our research is based on evaluation of structured in-depth interviews, focused on personal data sharing and protection topics. We find pronounced socio-demographic differences in individual propensity to share one’s personal data with commercial data processors. Main findings and contrasting factors are pointed out and discussed within the paper. Our analysis reflects the needs of academic and corporate researches to whom it provides actionable and stratified results, especially in context of the new EU legislation: the GDPR directive on personal data protection.

  9. Five factor model personality traits relate to adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder but not to their distinct neurocognitive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Fiona E; Mostert, Jeannette; Glennon, Jeffrey; Onnink, Marten; Dammers, Janneke; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Kan, Cornelis; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Hoogman, Martine; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-12-01

    Deficits in multiple neuropsychological domains and specific personality profiles have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study we investigated whether personality traits are related to neurocognitive profiles in adults with ADHD. Neuropsychological performance and Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits were measured in adults with ADHD (n = 133) and healthy controls (n = 132). Three neuropsychological profiles, derived from previous community detection analyses, were investigated for personality trait differences. Irrespective of cognitive profile, participants with ADHD showed significantly higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness than healthy controls. Only the FFM personality factor Openness differed significantly between the three profiles. Higher Openness was more common in those with aberrant attention and inhibition than those with increased delay discounting and atypical working memory / verbal fluency. The results suggest that the personality trait Openness, but not any other FFM factor, is linked to neurocognitive profiles in ADHD. ADHD symptoms rather than profiles of cognitive impairment have associations with personality traits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying Trajectories of Borderline Personality Features in Adolescence: Antecedent and Interactive Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-03-01

    To examine trajectories of adolescent borderline personality (BP) features in a normative-risk cohort (n = 566) of Canadian children assessed at ages 13, 14, 15, and 16 and childhood predictors of trajectory group membership assessed at ages 8, 10, 11, and 12. Data were drawn from the McMaster Teen Study, an on-going study examining relations among bullying, mental health, and academic achievement. Participants and their parents completed a battery of mental health and peer relations questionnaires at each wave of the study. Academic competence was assessed at age 8 (Grade 3). Latent class growth analysis, analysis of variance, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Three distinct BP features trajectory groups were identified: elevated or rising, intermediate or stable, and low or stable. Parent- and child-reported mental health symptoms, peer relations risk factors, and intra-individual risk factors were significant predictors of elevated or rising and intermediate or stable trajectory groups. Child-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and somatization symptoms uniquely predicted elevated or rising trajectory group membership, whereas parent-reported anxiety and child-reported ADHD symptoms uniquely predicted intermediate or stable trajectory group membership. Child-reported somatization symptoms was the only predictor to differentiate the intermediate or stable and elevated or rising trajectory groups (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.28). Associations between child-reported reactive temperament and elevated BP features trajectory group membership were 10.23 times higher among children who were bullied, supporting a diathesis-stress pathway in the development of BP features for these youth. Findings demonstrate the heterogeneous course of BP features in early adolescence and shed light on the potential prodromal course of later borderline personality disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Personal satisfaction and mentorship are critical factors for today's resident surgeons to seek surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukish, Jeffrey; Cruess, David

    2005-11-01

    The specific aim of this study was to summarize the viewpoints of the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons (RAS-ACS) membership regarding current training and quality of life-related issues prior to implementation of the new duty-hour guidelines. The goal was to gain insight of the members that may be useful to recruit and guide the future training of surgical residents. An Internet-based survey was developed to evaluate the viewpoints of RAS-ACS. The survey was administered by Esurveymaker.com via the ACS Web page from 2000 to 2003. RAS-ACS member participation was voluntary and anonymous. Analyses were performed to determine the frequency of response for each survey item. Two hundred thirty-five members completed the survey representing 5 per cent of RAS-ACS. Eighty-four per cent were general surgery residents. Personal satisfaction (64%) and mentorship (49%) were top factors for respondents to pursue surgical training; discussion with colleagues and future income was less important. Forty-five per cent reported that job performance was their most important concern during residency. A rewarding surgical career and family life were ranked as the most important expectations. Eighty-six per cent reported that they were satisfied with their residency, and 66 per cent reported that work hours should be limited. Personal satisfaction and mentorship were critical factors for members of the RAS-ACS to seek surgical training. Although most of the members report that work hours should be limited, an overwhelming majority reports satisfaction with surgical training prior to institution of the new duty-hour guidelines. Further emphasis on mentorship and work-hour reform may be beneficial in recruiting medical students into surgical residencies.

  12. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the

  13. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R.; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.; Poloni, Estella S.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S.; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M.; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; de Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H.; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; de Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R.; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A.; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C.; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E.; Gras, A. Luuk; van Wout, Angelique B.; Arnedo-Valero, Mireia; Sierra, Mariana de Paz; Rodriguez, Ana Torrecilla; Garcia, Juan Gonzalez; Arribas, Jose R.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H. C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C. A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Haerry, D.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H. H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Prins, Yerly S. J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; Boer, K.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Schreij, G.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Pronk, M. J. H.; Bravenboer, B.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van de Ven-de Ruiter, E. D.; Slobbe, L.; Haag, Den; Kauffmann, R. H.; Schippers, E. F.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; de Boer, M. J. G.; Jolink, H.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; Bronsveld, W.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Polée, M. B.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Juttmann, J. R.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smit, P. M.; Weijer, S.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Stek, C. J.; Hoepelman, I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Peters, E. J. G.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L. J.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; van der Hilst, J. C. H.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Plankey, Michael; Crain, Barbara; Dobs, Adrian; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Gallant, Joel; Johnson-Hill, Lisette; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola; Shepard, James; Thio, Chloe; Phair, John P.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Badri, Sheila; Conover, Craig; O'Gorman, Maurice; Ostrow, David; Palella, Frank; Ragin, Ann; Detels, Roger; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Aronow, Aaron; Bolan, Robert; Breen, Elizabeth; Butch, Anthony; Fahey, John; Jamieson, Beth; Miller, Eric N.; Oishi, John; Vinters, Harry; Visscher, Barbara R.; Wiley, Dorothy; Witt, Mallory; Yang, Otto; Young, Stephen; Zhang, Zuo Feng; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Becker, James T.; Cranston, Ross D.; Martinson, Jeremy J.; Mellors, John W.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Stall, Ronald D.; Muñoz, Alvaro; Abraham, Alison; Althoff, Keri; Cox, Christopher; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Gange, Stephen J.; Golub, Elizabeth; Schollenberger, Janet; Seaberg, Eric C.; Su, Sol; Huebner, Robin E.; Dominguez, Geraldina; Moroni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Carosi, G.; Cauda, R.; Monforte, A. d'Arminio; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; Sagnelli, E.; Viale, P. L.; Von Schlosser, F.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Ammassari, A.; Andreoni, M.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; de Luca, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, Laura; Lorenzini, Patrizia; Montroni, M.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Riva, A.; Tirelli, U.; Martellotta, F.; Ladisa, N.; Lazzari, G.; Verucchi, G.; Castelli, F.; Scalzini, A.; Minardi, C.; Bertelli, D.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Carnevale, G.; Lorenzotti, S.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Leoncini, F.; Mazzotta, F.; Pozzi, M.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, G.; Viscoli, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Foschi, A.; Salpietro, S.; Galli, A.; Bigoloni, A.; Spagnuolo, V.; Merli, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Cicconi, P.; Bisio, L.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; de Marco, M.; Ferrari, C.; Borghi, R.; Baldelli, F.; Belfiori, B.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Narciso, P.; Tozzi, V.; Vullo, V.; d'Avino, A.; Zaccarelli, M.; Gallo, L.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Trotta, M. P.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A. M.; Mura, M. S.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Raise, N. N.; Ebo, F.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Law, M.; Petoumenos, K.; McManus, H.; Wright, S.; Bendall, C.; Moore, R.; Edwards, S.

    2013-01-01

    Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV

  14. Maladaptive Five Factor Model personality traits associated with Borderline Personality Disorder indirectly affect susceptibility to suicide ideation through increased anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Greg J; Smith, Caitlin E; Capron, Dan W; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N; Wingate, LaRicka R

    2016-12-30

    The current study investigated the relationship between maladaptive Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, and suicide ideation in a sample of 131 undergraduate students who were selected based on their scores on a screening questionnaire regarding Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms. Those who endorsed elevated BPD symptoms in a pre-screen analyses completed at the beginning of each semester were oversampled in comparison to those with low or moderate symptoms. Indirect effect (mediation) results indicated that the maladaptive personality traits of anxious/uncertainty, dysregulated anger, self-disturbance, behavioral dysregulation, dissociative tendencies, distrust, manipulativeness, oppositional, and rashness had indirect effects on suicide ideation through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. All of these personality traits correlated to suicide ideation as well. The maladaptive personality traits of despondence, affective dysregulation, and fragility were positive correlates of suicide ideation and predicted suicide ideation when all traits were entered in one linear regression model, but were not indirectly related through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The implication for targeting anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns in evidence-based practices for reducing suicide risk in those with BPD is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors influencing changes in health related quality of life of caregivers of persons with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Williams, Allison; Ghosh, Sunita; Moquin, Heather; Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Peacock, Shelley

    2016-05-27

    The majority of care for older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) is provided by family (including friends) caregivers. Although caregivers have reported positive benefits to caregiving they also experience decreases in their physical and mental health. As there is a critical need for supportive interventions for this population, it is important to know what influences the health of family caregivers of persons with MCC. This research examined relationships among the changes from baseline to 6 months in health related quality of life (SF12v2) of family caregivers caring for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and the following factors: a) demographic variables, b) gender identity [Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI)] c) changes in general self-efficacy [General Self Efficacy Scale (GSES) (baseline to 6 months) and d)) changes in caregiver burden [Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI)] baseline to 6 months. Specific hypothesis were based on a conceptual framework generated from a literature review. This is a secondary analysis of a study of 194 family caregivers who were recruited from two Canadian provinces Alberta and Ontario. Data were collected in-person, by telephone, by Skype or by mail at two time periods spaced 6 months apart. The sample size for this secondary analysis was n = 185, as 9 participants had dropped out of the study at 6 months. Changes in the scores between the two time periods were calculated for SF12v2 physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS) and the other main variables. Generalized Linear Modeling was then used to determine factors associated with changes in HRQL. Participants who had significantly positive increases in their MCS (baseline to 6 months) reported lower burden (ZBI, p gender identity (which incorporates assertive and instrumental approaches to caregiving), and confidence in the ability to deal with difficult situations was positively related to improvement in mental health for caregivers of

  16. Psychological factors and mental health in persons with spinal cord injury: : An exploration of change or stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Christel M. C.; Edelaar-Peeters, Yvette; Peter, Claudio; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Post, Marcel W. M.

    Objectives: To examine the course of mental health and psychological factors over time in persons with a recent spinal cord injury and to determine whether change in psychological factors is associated with change in mental health. Design: Prospective cohort study in the Netherlands with 3

  17. The moderating effects of sample type as evidence of the effects of faking on personality scale correlations and factor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEVIN M. BRADLEY

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivational differences as a function of sample type (applicants versus incumbents have frequently been suspected of causing meaningful differences in the psychometric properties of personality inventories due to the effects of faking. In this quantitative review, correlations among the Big Five personality constructs were estimated and sample type was examined as a potential moderator of the personality construct inter-correlations. The resulting subgroup meta-analytic correlation matrices were factor-analyzed, and the second order factor solutions for job incumbents and job applicants were compared. Results of the meta-analyses indicate frequent, but small moderating effects. The second order factor analyses indicated that the observed moderation had little effect on the congruence of factor loadings. Together, the results are consistent with the position that faking is of little practical consequence in selection settings.

  18. Representing and organizing information to describe the lived experience of health from a personal factors perspective in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, Szilvia; Schwegler, Urban; Peter, Claudio; Müller, Rachel

    2018-03-06

    and biography), (ii) subjective experience (i.e., feelings, thoughts and beliefs, motives), and (iii) recurrent patterns of experience (i.e., feelings, thoughts and beliefs) and behavior. With this study, we aim to stimulate further scientific discussion about the personal factors component in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, including its application and subsequent validation for potential implementation into clinical practice.

  19. Personal and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in meat processing industry workers in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccò, Matteo; Signorelli, Carlo

    2017-03-24

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a musculoskeletal condition that often impairs the fitness to work. Our aim is to retrospectively evaluate the association between physical exposures in meat processing industry in Northern Italy and the CTS, taking into account non-occupational factors. A cross-sectional study was performed to include 434 workers (236 males, 198 females, 37.0±10.6 years old, working age: 12.6±10.8 years) from meat processing industries. Signs and symptoms were collected at the compulsory occupational medical surveillance. Occupational risk factors were assessed through a questionnaire and direct assessment by investigators. Adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) for factors of interest were estimated through binary logistic regression. Diagnosis of the CTS was reported for 61 out of 434 subjects (14.1%) for an incidence of 11.3/1000 person- years. In general, signs and symptoms for the CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: smoking history (OR = 1.909, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.107-3.293), previous traumas of the upper limb (OR = 3.533, 95% CI: 1.743-7.165), hypothyroidism status (OR = 7.897, 95% CI: 2.917-21.38) and, in the case of female participants only, previous pregnancies (OR = 2.807, 95% CI: 1.200-6.566) as well as a personal history of oral contraceptive therapy and/or steroidal replacement therapy (OR = 11.57, 95% CI: 4.689-28.56). The carpal tunnel syndrome cases were associated with the following occupational factors (> 4 h/day): forceful hand exertion (ORadj = 3.548, 95% CI: 1.379-9.131), repeated trauma of the hand (ORadj = 3.602, 95% CI: 1.248- 10.395), repeated movements of the wrist (ORadj = 2.561, 95% CI: 1.100-5.960). Increasing levels of hand activity and force were associated with the increased CTS prevalence among participants. Recommendations have to be provided in order to reduce occupational exposure to these risk factors and improve medical surveillance. Med Pr 2017;68(2):199-209. This work is available

  20. Personal and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in meat processing industry workers in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Riccò

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a musculoskeletal condition that often impairs the fitness to work. Our aim is to retrospectively evaluate the association between physical exposures in meat processing industry in Northern Italy and the CTS, taking into account non-occupational factors. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to include 434 workers (236 males, 198 females, 37.0±10.6 years old, working age: 12.6±10.8 years from meat processing industries. Signs and symptoms were collected at the compulsory occupational medical surveillance. Occupational risk factors were assessed through a questionnaire and direct assessment by investigators. Adjusted odds ratios (ORadj for factors of interest were estimated through binary logistic regression. Results: Diagnosis of the CTS was reported for 61 out of 434 subjects (14.1% for an incidence of 11.3/1000 person- years. In general, signs and symptoms for the CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: smoking history (OR = 1.909, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.107–3.293, previous traumas of the upper limb (OR = 3.533, 95% CI: 1.743–7.165, hypothyroidism status (OR = 7.897, 95% CI: 2.917–21.38 and, in the case of female participants only, previous pregnancies (OR = 2.807, 95% CI: 1.200–6.566 as well as a personal history of oral contraceptive therapy and/or steroidal replacement therapy (OR = 11.57, 95% CI: 4.689–28.56. The carpal tunnel syndrome cases were associated with the following occupational factors (> 4 h/day: forceful hand exertion (ORadj = 3.548, 95% CI: 1.379–9.131, repeated trauma of the hand (ORadj = 3.602, 95% CI: 1.248– 10.395, repeated movements of the wrist (ORadj = 2.561, 95% CI: 1.100–5.960. Conclusions: Increasing levels of hand activity and force were associated with the increased CTS prevalence among participants. Recommendations have to be provided in order to reduce occupational exposure to these risk factors and

  1. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  2. Excitation and charge transfer in He+ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-01-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He + + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes

  3. Persons with dementia “are given a voice” when music and singing are included as part of their everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    During a post-doctoral project person with dementia and their relatives are involved in the research-process. The aim is to explore their experiences and what importance it has for them that singing and music are part of their everyday life and the rehabilitation effort. The research is carried out...... and their relatives, also have focus on an professional and interdisciplinary perspective and an organizational perspective aimed at the conditions for implementation of singing and music in practice. Following research question will be elucidated: a) What experiences does persons with dementia and their relatives...... have when singing and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in everyday life and in their interaction and relationship with caregivers and what impact does it have on their quality of life and well-being? b) What impact does it have, from a professional and an interdisciplinary...

  4. The Impact of Environmental Design on Doffing Personal Protective Equipment in a Healthcare Environment: A Formative Human Factors Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihey, Tracey A; Gelmi, Stefano; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Hall, Trevor N T

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the impact of environmental design on doffing personal protective equipment in a simulated healthcare environment. METHODS A mixed-methods approach was used that included human-factors usability testing and qualitative questionnaire responses. A patient room and connecting anteroom were constructed for testing purposes. This experimental doffing area was designed to overcome the environmental failures identified in a previous study and was not constructed based on any generalizable hospital standard. RESULTS In total, 72 healthcare workers from Ontario, Canada, took part in the study and tested the simulated doffing area. The following environmental design changes were tested and were deemed effective: increasing prominence of color-coded zones; securing disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer; outlining disposal bins locations; providing mirrors to detect possible contamination; providing hand rails to assist with doffing; and restricting the space to doff. Further experimentation and iterative design are required with regard to several important features: positioning the disposal bins for safety, decreasing the risk of contamination and user accessibility; optimal positioning of mirrors for safety; communication within the team; and positioning the secondary team member for optimal awareness. Additional design suggestions also emerged during this study, and they require future investigation. CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of the environment on doffing personal protective equipment in a healthcare setting. Iterative testing and modification of the design of the environment (doffing area) are important to enhancing healthcare worker safety. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:712-717.

  5. Body image and personality: associations between the Big Five Personality Factors, actual-ideal weight discrepancy, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tran, Ulrich S; Brooks, Louise Hoffmann; Kanaan, Laura; Luesse, Ellen-Marlene; Nader, Ingo W; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  6. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors Prospectively Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder: Taking Stock and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Lazarus, Sophie A.; Byrd, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify signs that harbinger onset of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Advancement in this area is required to refine developmental theories, discover etiological mechanisms, improve early detection, and achieve our ultimate goal of prevention. Though many studies have supported a wide range of factors that increase subsequent risk for BPD, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that examine and integrate these findings. To address this limitation, we conducted a systematic review to summarize and synthesize the current literature. Electronic databases were systematically searched for prospective, longitudinal studies that examined risk factors of subsequent BPD outcomes (features, symptoms, diagnosis) resulting in a total of 39 studies, reflecting 24 unique samples. Though increased risk for BPD was reliably attributed to multiple factors within social, family, maltreatment, and child domains, the most striking limitation of this research is its lack of disorder-specific findings Additional limitations, including notable heterogeneity in sampling methodology, symptom assessment methodology, and developmental timing of assessments, are discussed in terms of how close are we to pinpointing who is most at risk and why in an attempt to provide a roadmap for future research. PMID:27709988

  7. A systematic review of risk factors prospectively associated with borderline personality disorder: Taking stock and moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Lazarus, Sophie A; Byrd, Amy L

    2016-10-01

    There is an urgent need to identify signs that harbinger onset of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Advancement in this area is required to refine developmental theories, discover etiological mechanisms, improve early detection, and achieve our ultimate goal of prevention. Though many studies have supported a wide range of factors that increase subsequent risk for BPD, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that examine and integrate these findings. To address this limitation, we conducted a systematic review to summarize and synthesize the current literature. Electronic databases were systematically searched for prospective, longitudinal studies that examined risk factors of subsequent BPD outcomes (features, symptoms, diagnosis), resulting in a total of 39 studies, reflecting 24 unique samples. Though increased risk for BPD was reliably attributed to multiple factors within social, family, maltreatment, and child domains, the most striking limitation of this research is its lack of disorder-specific findings. Additional limitations, including notable heterogeneity in sampling methodology, symptom assessment methodology, and developmental timing of assessments, are discussed in terms of how close we are to pinpointing who is most at risk and why in an attempt to provide a roadmap for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Reduction of risk factors for nuclear power plants due to personnel psychological data, including attitude, morale and motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities of reduction of risk factors for personnel activity and performance due to attitudes, motivation and moral are presented. Methodology and experience in psychology, sociopsychology, psychophisiology and sociology mistake sources are discussed. Authorization to job, stages of estimating occupational fitness and modules system of personnel psychological and sociopsychological training probabilistic are explained. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  9. Five-factor model personality traits, spirituality/religiousness, and mental health among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Ironson, Gail H; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Costa, Paul T

    2009-10-01

    We examined the association between five-factor personality domains and facets and spirituality/religiousness as well as their joint association with mental health in a diverse sample of people living with HIV (n=112, age range 18-66). Spirituality/religiousness showed stronger associations with Conscientiousness, Openness, and Agreeableness than with Neuroticism and Extraversion. Both personality traits and spirituality/religiousness were significantly linked to mental health, even after controlling for individual differences in demographic measures and disease status. Personality traits explained unique variance in mental health above spirituality and religiousness. Further, aspects of spirituality and religiousness were found to mediate some of the links between personality and mental health in this patient sample. These findings suggest that underlying personality traits contribute to the beneficial effects of spirituality/religiousness among vulnerable populations.

  10. Personality, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers, and metabolic components as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Rossier, Jérôme; Preisig, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers and metabolic components as cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). A total of 2543 participants from the general population (CoLaus|PsyCoLaus) had provided complete information on physical health and unhealthy behaviors and completed the Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Our results show a strong cross-correlation between obesity markers and metabolic components suggesting that their combination could represent an important CVRF. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with both obesity markers and metabolic components latent traits. The conscientiousness personality trait was significantly associated with obesity markers, but played a modest role. Indeed, higher conscientiousness was associated with lower level of obesity indicators. However, no link between personality and metabolic components were found. In sum, our data suggest that health related behaviours have more effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases than personality traits.

  11. Five-Factor Personality Scale on Career Choice Regarding Accounting Profession: A Study About Business Department Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şuayyip Doğuş DEMİRCİ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting profession emerges as an important career choice for students of business administration department. By this study, the role of personality traits and some other factors on career choices regarding accountancy profession of 3rd and 4th degree undergraduate students of Business Department at the stage of discovering their careers was tried to be determined. For this purpose, survey as one of data collection techniques was applied and quantitative research methods have been utilized. In order to identify the personality traits of participants, five-factor personality scale was used. As a result of conducted statistical analysis, there were found significant differences in career choices regarding accountancy profession according to average monthly income of family, grade point average, whether having knowledge about profession, whether being interested in accounting courses of individual and responsibility dimension of personality.

  12. Attitudinal Factors and Personal Characteristics Influence Support for Shellfish Aquaculture in Rhode Island (US) Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Tracey M; Jin, Di

    2018-05-01

    This study explores public interests associated with shellfish aquaculture development in coastal waters of Rhode Island (US). Specifically, we examine (1) the levels of public support for (or opposition to) shellfish aquaculture development and (2) factors driving the levels of support, using survey data and ordinal logistic regressions. Results of the analysis identify several key attitudinal factors affecting individual's support for shellfish aquaculture in Rhode Island (RI). The level of support is positively associated with attitudes related to shellfish aquaculture's benefits to the local economy and its role as a nutritional food option, and negatively influenced by attitudes related to aquaculture farms' effects on aesthetic quality and their interference with other uses. Findings highlight that support for (or opposition to) aquaculture in RI is driven more by attitudes associated with social impacts than by those associated with environmental impacts. The level of support is also affected by personal characteristics related to an individual's participation in recreational activities. For instance, bicycle riders tend to be supportive of shellfish aquaculture while respondents who participate in sailing and birding are less supportive. By identifying the broader public's interests in shellfish aquaculture, findings from this study and others like it can be used to address public concerns, incorporate public perceptions and attitudes into permitting decisions, and develop outreach targeted at specific stakeholder groups.

  13. Person-related work and incident use of antidepressants: relations and mediating factors from the Danish work environment cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Diderichsen, Finn; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who "work with people" (i.e., do person-related work) are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. However, these studies were purely register-based and consequently unable to point to factors underlying this elevated...... risk. This paper examines whether person-related work is associated with incident use of antidepressants, and whether this association is mediated by several work environment exposures....

  14. PERSONAL SALES FACTORS AND THEIR QUANTIFICATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF A B-H LEASING COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Sasa Vujic; Slobodan Vujic; Mesud Ajanovic

    2013-01-01

    The paper is aimed at analyzing and quantifying personal sales elements in order to increase the volume of leasing service sales and achieve higher quality in satisfying customers’ needs. In their service sales, leasing companies typically use the personal sales method. Its basic characteristic is personal contact between the sales representative and the customer. Personal sales is to a lesser degree quantifi ed through quantitative elements of plan fulfi llment; however, all the other qualit...

  15. Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) and personality traits: the modifying effect of season of birth and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, A; Gaysina, D; Kutlumbetova, Yu; Kanzafarova, R; Malykh, S; Lobaskova, M; Khusnutdinova, E

    2015-01-02

    Personality traits are complex phenotypes influenced by interactions of multiple genetic variants of small effect and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is involved in personality traits. Season of birth (SOB) has also been shown to affect personality traits due to its influences on brain development during prenatal and early postnatal periods. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BDNF on personality traits; and the modifying effects of SOB and sex on associations between BDNF and personality traits. A sample of 1018 young adults (68% women; age range 17-25years) of Caucasian origin from the Russian Federation was assessed on personality traits (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-transcendence) with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). Associations between personality traits and 12 BDNF SNPs were tested using linear regression models. The present study demonstrated the effect of rs11030102 on Persistence in females only (PFDR=0.043; r(2)=1.3%). There were significant interaction effects between Val66Met (rs6265) and SOB (PFDR=0.048, r(2)=1.4%), and between rs2030323 and SOB (PFDR=0.042, r(2)=1.3%), on Harm Avoidance. Our findings provide evidence for the modifying effect of SOB on the association between BDNF and Harm Avoidance, and for the modifying effect of sex on the association between BDNF and Persistence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological and Social Determinants of Personality: "Nature Versus Nurture" In the Five-factor Model of Personality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřebíčková, Martina

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2004), s. 45-56 ISSN 1210-3055 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/01/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : Five-factor model * lexical approach * Questionnaire approach Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  17. Cohort Differences in Big Five Personality Factors Over a Period of 25 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Iris A. M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    The notion of personality traits implies a certain degree of stability in the life span of an individual. But what about generational effects? Are there generational changes in the distribution or structure of personality traits? This article examines cohort changes on the Big Five personality

  18. Gratitude, hope, mindfulness and personal-growth initiative: buffers or risk factors for problem gambling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine M Y Loo

    Full Text Available The majority of prevention and intervention research in problem gambling (PG has focused on identifying negative risk factors. However, not all at-risk individuals go on to develop anticipated disorders and many thrive in spite of them. In healthcare settings, PG and other disorders are typically conceptualized from the biomedical perspective that frame disorders as something negative residing within the individual and reduction in negativity is seen as success. Indeed, this problem-focused conceptualization may be adequate in many cases as reducing PG behaviour is undoubtedly an important outcome, but the focus on negativity alone is too narrow to capture the complexity of human behaviour. Hence, this study attempts to bridge the gap in literature by providing an evaluation of the predictive ability of the positive dispositions on problem gambling severity, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. The positive psychological dispositions examined were curiosity, gratitude, hope, personal growth initiative, and mindfulness. Participants consisted of 801 Taiwanese Chinese students and community individuals (Mean age = 25.36 years. Higher levels of gratitude and hope have been found to predict lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, or gambling urges. Meanwhile, higher mindfulness predicted lower PG, but only among Chinese males. However, lower personal growth initiative predicted lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. These analyses have small to medium effect sizes with significant predictions. Findings of this study have essential implications in understanding and treating Chinese problem gamblers. These positive dispositions should be addressed by mental health professionals in preventative and treatment programs among Chinese individuals. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  19. The nature of creativity: The roles of genetic factors, personality traits, cognitive abilities, and environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Spinath, Frank M; Borkenau, Peter; Penke, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This multitrait multimethod twin study examined the structure and sources of individual differences in creativity. According to different theoretical and metrological perspectives, as well as suggestions based on previous research, we expected 2 aspects of individual differences, which can be described as perceived creativity and creative test performance. We hypothesized that perceived creativity, reflecting typical creative thinking and behavior, should be linked to specific personality traits, whereas test creativity, reflecting maximum task-related creative performance, should show specific associations with cognitive abilities. Moreover, we tested whether genetic variance in intelligence and personality traits account for the genetic component of creativity. Multiple-rater and multimethod data (self- and peer reports, observer ratings, and test scores) from 2 German twin studies-the Bielefeld Longitudinal Study of Adult Twins and the German Observational Study of Adult Twins-were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded the expected 2 correlated aspects of creativity. Perceived creativity showed links to openness to experience and extraversion, whereas tested figural creativity was associated with intelligence and also with openness. Multivariate behavioral genetic analyses indicated that the heritability of tested figural creativity could be accounted for by the genetic component of intelligence and openness, whereas a substantial genetic component in perceived creativity could not be explained. A primary source of individual differences in creativity was due to environmental influences, even after controlling for random error and method variance. The findings are discussed in terms of the multifaceted nature and construct validity of creativity as an individual characteristic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The associations of vegetable consumption with food mavenism, personal values, food knowledge and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farragher, Tahlia; Wang, Wei C; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Poor dietary choices, in particular low consumption of fruits and vegetables are associated with the prevalence of diet related diseases. Ways to increase consumption are urgently required. This paper examines the associations of demographic, psychographic and food knowledge variables with reported vegetable consumption. An online questionnaire was administered in late 2012 to a national sample 2146 Australians who were selected to represent the Australian population in terms of age, sex, education and location of residence. It was divided into sections which assessed food knowledge, food involvement, food mavenism, personal values and personality factors, demographic characteristics and reported consumption of 13 vegetables and the total number of servings of vegetables per day. Principal components analyses of the individual vegetable consumption ratings derived three forms of vegetable consumption scores. These and total serving per day were used as dependent variables in a structural equation model to identify pathways between them and their likely antecedents. Three types of vegetable consumption were formed:Salad vegetables (onion, tomato and lettuce);Dinner vegetables (carrot, peas and beans); and'Green' vegetables (cabbage, spinach broccoli and cauliflower). Food mavenism, food knowledge, food involvement and equality-universalist values mediated the relationships between demographics and conscientiousness and the vegetable consumption variables. The three types of vegetable consumption and total servings per day were associated with different antecedent pathways. The mediating roles of food mavenism, food knowledge, food involvement and equality-universalist values may present opportunities for health promotion and the horticultural industry to increase population vegetable intake. Further research is required to test these associations via experimental and longitudinal studies and qualitative investigation of the meaning and place of the three forms of

  1. Anxiety and depression among Nigerian patients with asthma; Association with sociodemographic, clinical, and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O; Adeyeye, Olufunke O

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the rate of anxiety and depression in adult asthma patients and examine the possible association with sociodemographic, clinical and other significant variables. Adult asthmatics (n = 203) were recruited from the asthma outpatient clinic and assessed for sociodemographic and clinical profiles, their levels of disability, social support, asthma treatment stigma and personality traits. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) was used to assess for the diagnosis of Anxiety and Depression in comparison with matched healthy controls (n = 205). Seventy (34.5%) of the patients with asthma have a diagnosis of Anxiety or Depression compared with 15 (7.3%) of matched healthy controls and the difference was significant (OR 6.67, 95% CI 3.58-13.04). Although older age, lower income, use of oral corticosteroid, patients perceived severity of asthma, disability, social support and personality traits were initially significant in univariate analysis, a subsequent logistic regression analysis revealed that only disability scores above the group mean (OR 4.50, 95% CI 2.28-8.87) and not having a strong social support (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.443-5.78) were the only variables independently associated with diagnosis of Anxiety and Depression in the group of patients with asthma. Anxiety and depression are significantly more common in adult outpatients with asthma when compared with healthy control in Nigeria and was significantly associated with levels of disability and social support. These factors should be considered while formulating predictive models for management of psychosocial problems in asthma in this environment.

  2. Relationship of Personal- Social and Therapeutic Factors with Medication Compliance in TB Patients in Ahwaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the implementation of DOTS strategy, TB remains one of the ten leading causes of death in developing countries. Compliance with treatment is affected by social, cultural, and economic factors, and patients’ knowledge and attitude as well. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between compliance with treatment and personal, social and therapeutic factors in TB patients in Ahwaz. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 167 TB patients. Subjects were selected based on target. The data were collected using a questionnaire, and by observation, sputum analysis, and Kvzart Ponce urine test. The validity of the questionnaire was tested by the method of content validity, and its internal consistency and reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data analyzed by SpSS. Results: Among all subjects, 52.7% of patients showed complete compliance and 35.2% and 12% of them showed partial and poor compliance, respectively. There was a significant relationship between treatment compliance and gender(p=0.009, quality of monthly income(p=0.007, and addiction(p=0.001. The quality of treatment compliance was not significantly related to age, marital status, educational level, ethnicity, and medical complications. Conclusion: The findings showed that Incomplete treatment of TB is much worse than not treating it, because the lack of precision in the administration and consumption of anti-tuberculosis drugs, leads to the emergence of resistant TB. Paying attention to the factors decreasing treatment compliance and trying to eliminate them may lead to better treatment and lower incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in the community.

  3. Personality, Political Attitudes and Participation in Protests: The Direct and Mediated Effects of Psychological Factors on Political Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Aparecido Ribeiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies combining psychology and political science have shown that personality traits such as extroversion and openness to experiences are conditioning factors of political activism. However, the mechanisms through which this effect occurs are still poorly understood. Aiming to advance this topic, this article presents the results of an investigation that looked to analyse the mediated effects of personality traits in the Brazilian context, taking as mediating conditioning factors various attitudes and subjective dispositions commonly found in the literature, such as interest in politics and subjective political efficacy. Using the Latin American Public Opinion Project data, the hypothesis was tested that personality influences behaviour, since it favours the development of a number of attitudes that function as basic factors conditioning civic engagement. The results indicate the significant mediated effects of extroversion and openness to experience, especially with regard to political knowledge.

  4. An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Personality Traits and Transfer Climate Factors on Transfer of Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Imran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality has been considered an important factor influencing trainee efficiency & organizational productivity. Similarly, work climate factors have been recognized as primary influencers in post training context influencing productivity. But research concerning the impact of personality and work climate on trainees’ learning motivation has been very scant and mostly conducted in the western context. The present study was an attempt therefore, to extend this line of research in the Indian context involving educational sector of the State of Jammu & Kashmir. A sample of 517 teacher trainees was drawn for the present study using convenience sampling method. Results indicate that personality traits (i.e., conscientiousness, openness to experience, and internal locus of control do not influence training transfer directly or indirectly, while, transfer climate factors do affect training transfer both directly as well as indirectly via learning motivation. The implications of the results are discussed and the limitations of the study are noted, along with suggested avenues for future research.

  5. On the incremental validity of irrational beliefs to predict subjective well-being while controlling for personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörrle, Matthias; Strobel, Maria; Tumasjan, Andranik

    2010-11-01

    This research examines the incremental validity of irrational thinking as conceptualized by Albert Ellis to predict diverse aspects of subjective well-being while controlling for the influence of personality factors. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) argues that irrational beliefs result in maladaptive emotions leading to reduced well-being. Although there is some early scientific evidence for this relation, it has never been investigated whether this connection would still persist when statistically controlling for the Big Five personality factors, which were consistently found to be important determinants of well-being. Regression analyses revealed significant incremental validity of irrationality over personality factors when predicting life satisfaction, but not when predicting subjective happiness. Results are discussed with respect to conceptual differences between these two aspects of subjective well-being.

  6. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  7. Five-Factor Model of Personality, Work Behavior Self-Efficacy, and Length of Prior Employment for Individuals with Disabilities: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Strauser, David R.; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2012-01-01

    With the continued lower employment rate for persons with disabilities, researchers are focusing more on barriers to employment that reach beyond functional impairment. Personality and self-efficacy have consistently been important factors when considering employment outcomes for persons without disability; less is known about these factors as…

  8. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include... generic name to identify the waste category (e.g., batteries), the definition of universal waste in § 260..., and specific management standards proposed or referenced by the petitioner (e.g., waste management...

  9. ORGANIZATIONAL AND PERSONALITY FACTORS OF STRESS IN ACCOUNTING AND CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS ON HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Stager

    2017-01-01

    Stress in accounting is popular in the area of research for many researchers in the fields of Psychology, Organizational Behavior, Health and Medicine. A significant part of empirical research has been focused on the analysis of the relationships between different individual and organizational stress factors on the job, including the effects of stress on the job. In the paper, we are showing an overview of the key concepts in the field of stress in accounting, covering organizational and pers...

  10. Analyses of Digman's child-personality data: derivation of Big-Five factor scores from each of six samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, L R

    2001-10-01

    One of the world's richest collections of teacher descriptions of elementary-school children was obtained by John M. Digman from 1959 to 1967 in schools on two Hawaiian islands. In six phases of data collection, 88 teachers described 2,572 of their students, using one of five different sets of personality variables. The present report provides findings from new analyses of these important data, which have never before been analyzed in a comprehensive manner. When factors developed from carefully selected markers of the Big-Five factor structure were compared to those based on the total set of variables in each sample, the congruence between both types of factors was quite high. Attempts to extend the structure to 6 and 7 factors revealed no other broad factors beyond the Big Five in any of the 6 samples. These robust findings provide significant new evidence for the structure of teacher-based assessments of child personality attributes.

  11. Factors associated with a clinician's offer of screening HIV-positive patients for sexually transmitted infections, including syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R; Fernando, I; MacDougall, M

    2011-06-01

    This retrospective study assessed whether Quality Improvement Scotland national standards for the sexual health care offered to HIV-positive individuals are being met by the Edinburgh genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic; specifically whether HIV-positive patients are offered: (a) sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening annually and (b) syphilis testing six-monthly. The study also reviewed what factors were associated with a clinician's offer of STI screening and syphilis testing. Of the 509 patients seen within the study period, case notes documented that 64% were offered STI screens, and 69% were offered syphilis testing, results consistent with audits of services elsewhere. Sexual orientation (P offer of STI screening, while gender (P offer of syphilis testing. Our results suggest that one explanation for clinicians failing to offer STI screens and syphilis serology testing is their (implicit) risk assessment that STI testing is not required in individual patients.

  12. A review on early gut maturation and colonization in pigs, including biological and dietary factors affecting gut homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everaert, Nadia; Van Cruchten, Steven; Weström, Björn

    2017-01-01

    During the prenatal, neonatal and post-weaning periods, the mammalian gastrointestinal tract undergoes various morphological and physiological changes alongside with an expansion of the immune system and microbial ecosystem. This review focuses on the time period before weaning and summarizes...... in digestive function coincides with development in both the adaptive and innate immune system. This secures a balanced immune response to the ingested milk-derived macromolecules, and colonizing bacteria. Husbandry and dietary interventions in early life appear to affect the development of multiple components...... and immunological maturation, as influenced by early microbial colonization and ingestion of dietary factors, is of utmost importance to identify management and feeding strategies to optimize intestinal health. We discuss some possible implications related to intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm delivery...

  13. Contribution of Genetic Background, Traditional Risk Factors, and HIV-Related Factors to Coronary Artery Disease Events in HIV-Positive Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R.; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.; Poloni, Estella S.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S.; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M.; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H.; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R.; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A.; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C.; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV infection. Methods In the general population, 23 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were shown to be associated with CAD through genome-wide association analysis. Using the Metabochip, we genotyped 1875 HIV-positive, white individuals enrolled in 24 HIV observational studies, including 571 participants with a first CAD event during the 9-year study period and 1304 controls matched on sex and cohort. Results A genetic risk score built from 23 CAD-associated SNPs contributed significantly to CAD (P = 2.9×10−4). In the final multivariable model, participants with an unfavorable genetic background (top genetic score quartile) had a CAD odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–2.04). This effect was similar to hypertension (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06–1.73), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.16–1.96), diabetes (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10–2.49), ≥1 year lopinavir exposure (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06–1.73), and current abacavir treatment (OR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.17–2.07). The effect of the genetic risk score was additive to the effect of nongenetic CAD risk factors, and did not change after adjustment for family history of CAD. Conclusions In the setting of HIV infection, the effect of an unfavorable genetic background was similar to traditional CAD risk factors and certain adverse antiretroviral exposures. Genetic testing may provide prognostic information complementary to family history of CAD. PMID:23532479

  14. Cross-sectional associations between the five factor personality traits and leisure-time sitting-time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Aadahl, Mette; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2013-01-01

    Leisure-time sitting-time (LTST) is seen as a possible independent risk-factor for physical and mental health, but research on psychological determinants is sparse. Associations between sitting-time and the personality dimensions of neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscien......Leisure-time sitting-time (LTST) is seen as a possible independent risk-factor for physical and mental health, but research on psychological determinants is sparse. Associations between sitting-time and the personality dimensions of neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness...

  15. Characterizing adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and comorbid borderline personality disorder: ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, G K; McHugh, L; Mac Giollabhui, N; Bramham, J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize adults with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) with regard to ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors. A between-group design compared a group of individuals diagnosed with ADHD (n=40) with a group diagnosed with BPD and who also met the criteria for ADHD (ADHD+BPD) (n=20). Significant differences were observed for both childhood and current impulsivity symptoms, whereby ADHD+BPD exhibited increased impulsivity; no differences on self-report and cognitive measures of impulsivity were reported. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly higher on measures of depression, anxiety and numerous other axis I and II conditions. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly lower on most measures of intellectual functioning and attention, however largely not on those relating to response inhibition. Furthermore, group differences were observed for psychosocial factors, including education, substance use and criminal record. Comorbid ADHD and BPD is characterized by more symptoms of impulsivity, additional psychopathology, comparatively lower intellectual and attentional functioning and increased psychosocial difficulties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Factors influencing consumer adoption of USB-based Personal Health Records in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wen-Shan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Usually patients receive healthcare services from multiple hospitals, and consequently their healthcare data are dispersed over many facilities’ paper and electronic-based record systems. Therefore, many countries have encouraged the research on data interoperability, access, and patient authorization. This study is an important part of a national project to build an information exchange environment for cross-hospital digital medical records carried out by the Department of Health (DOH of Taiwan in May 2008. The key objective of the core project is to set up a portable data exchange environment in order to enable people to maintain and own their essential health information. This study is aimed at exploring the factors influencing behavior and adoption of USB-based Personal Health Records (PHR in Taiwan. Methods Quota sampling was used, and structured questionnaires were distributed to the outpatient department at ten medical centers which participated in the DOH project to establish the information exchange environment across hospitals. A total of 3000 questionnaires were distributed and 1549 responses were collected, out of those 1465 were valid, accumulating the response rate to 48.83%. Results 1025 out of 1465 respondents had expressed their willingness to apply for the USB-PHR. Detailed analysis of the data reflected that there was a remarkable difference in the “usage intention” between the PHR adopters and non-adopters (χ2 =182.4, p  Conclusions Higher Usage Intentions, Perceived Usefulness and Subjective Norm of patients were found to be the key factors influencing PHR adoption. Thus, we suggest that government and hospitals should promote the potential usefulness of PHR, and physicians should encourage patients' to adopt the PHR.

  17. [Effect of Environmental Factors on the Ecotoxicity of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Kazumi

    2018-01-01

     In recent years, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have emerged as significant pollutants of aquatic environments and have been detected at levels in the range of ng/L to μg/L. The source of PPCPs is humans and livestock that have been administered pharmaceuticals and subsequently excreted them via urine and feces. Unlike agricultural chemicals, the environmental dynamics of PPCPs is not examined and they would undergo structural transformation by environmental factors, e.g., sunlight, microorganisms and treatments in sewage treatment plants (STPs). Processing at STPs can remove various PPCPs; however, they are not removed completely and some persist in the effluents. In this study, we examined the degradation of 9 pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, amiodarone, dapsone, dexamethasone, indomethacin, raloxifene, phenytoin, naproxen, and sulindac) by sunlight or UV, and investigated the ecotoxicological variation of degradation products. Sunlight (UVA and UVB) degraded most pharmaceuticals, except acetaminophen and phenytoin. Similar results were obtained with UVB and UVA. All the pharmaceuticals were photodegraded by UVC, which is used for sterilization in STPs. Ecotoxicity assay using the luminescent bacteria test (ISO11348) indicated that UVC irradiation increased the toxicity of acetaminophen and phenytoin significantly. The photodegraded product of acetaminophen was identified as 1-(2-amino-5-hydroxyphenyl)ethanone and that of phenytoin as benzophenone, and the authentic compounds showed high toxicity. Photodegraded products of PPCPs are a concern in ecotoxicology.

  18. A general factor of personality from multitrait-multimethod data and cross-national twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J Philippe; Bons, Trudy Ann; Ando, Juko; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Irwing, Paul; Vernon, Philip A; Petrides, K V; Barbaranelli, Claudio

    2009-08-01

    In three studies, a General Factor of Personality (GFP) was found to occupy the apex of the hierarchical structure. In Study 1, a GFP emerged independent of method variance and accounted for 54% of the reliable variance in a multitrait-multimethod assessment of 391 Italian high school students that used self-, teacher-, and parent-ratings on the Big Five Questionnaire - Children. In Study 2, a GFP was found in the seven dimensions of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory as well as the Big Five of the NEO PI-R, with the GFPtci correlating r = .72 with the GFPneo. These results indicate that the GFP is practically the same in both test batteries, and its existence does not depend on being extracted using the Big Five model. The GFP accounted for 22% of the total variance in these trait measures, which were assessed in 651 pairs of 14- to 30-year-old Japanese twins. In Study 3, a GFP accounted for 32% of the total variance in nine scales derived from the NEO PI-R, the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire assessed in 386 pairs of 18- to 74-year-old Canadian and U.S. twins. The GFP was found to be 50% heritable with high scores indicating openness, conscientiousness, sociability, agreeableness, emotional stability, good humor and emotional intelligence. The possible evolutionary origins of the GFP are discussed.

  19. Avoidant personality disorder as a social anxiety phenotype: risk factors, associations and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies research trends and synthesizes information from recent studies of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). AVPD and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share genetic vulnerability, but may have distinct environmental risk factors that shape qualitative differences. Negative self-concept, shame proneness, and interpersonal hypersensitivity are characteristic of AVPD and may be predisposed to by heritable traits of high negative affectivity and low positive affectivity, and experiences of neglectful or emotionless parents. The interpersonal difficulties of AVPD may be associated with both anxious and avoidant attachment. Most individuals with AVPD do not also meet criteria for SAD. Integrative treatments incorporating cognitive behavioral strategies effective in SAD but also targeting shame aversion and avoidance may be most helpful for AVPD. Therapy adapted to both anxious attachment, associated with heightened interpersonal sensitivity and distress, and avoidant attachment, associated with experiential avoidance, may be optimal, though this is yet to be tested. Effective treatment of AVPD may enhance the outcome of comorbid conditions. More research is needed which compares three social anxiety groups (SAD alone, AVPD alone, and SAD plus AVPD) to further explore these disorders which are highly related, but which may have differences that are clinically relevant for individuals.

  20. Personal factors influencing agreement between expert and self-reported assessments of an occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Heather K; Sass-Kortsak, Andrea; Lou, W Y Wendy; Purdham, James T

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify personal factors associated with expert and respondent agreement on past occupational exposure. Epidemiologic data was collected from 1995 to 1998 in a community-based, case-control study of prostate cancer. Using longest jobs and excluding agreement on "never" exposure, self-reported and expert estimates of ever/ never exposure, by skin or ingestion, to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were compared. Agreement between respondents and the expert was 53.9 percent (N=1,038), with overreporting being more common than underreporting relative to the expert (31.8 percent versus 14.4 percent). In multiple logistic regression models, white-collar occupational status was significantly associated with overreporting (odds ratio [OR] = 0.142; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.095-0.211; blue-collar versus white-collar), while age was associated with underreporting (OR=1.077; 95 percent CI: 1.043-1.112; one-year increase). Neither job satisfaction nor risk perception appeared to confound other associations. In future studies, overreporting by white-collar workers might be avoided by providing clearer definitions of exposure, whereas elderly respondents may require aids to enhance exposure recall.

  1. Person factors and work environments of workers who use mobility devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David B; Morgan, Kerri A; Gottlieb, Meghan; Hollingsworth, Holly H

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25% of people with mobility impairments and limitations who are of working age are employed, yet few studies have examined their perspectives on their jobs or work environments required to complete job tasks. The purpose of this study was to describe the factors that contribute to successful employment for those who use mobility devices. A convenience sample of 132 workers who use power wheelchairs, manual wheelchairs, canes, crutches or walkers. Participants completed an online version of the Mobility Device User Work Survey (MWS). A multivariate analysis and a two-step multiple linear regression analysis were used. Study participants had few secondary health conditions that influenced their work. Employee satisfactoriness to their employers was high. Accessibility of worksites was high. Assistive technologies were inexpensive, and personal assistance was used infrequently and usually was unpaid. Co-worker communications were very positive. Flexible work rules and supportive managers were highly valued. Job satisfaction positively correlated with accessibility, work tasks, co-worker communication and work support. The description of work environments of successfully employed mobility device users can provide some useful guidance to employers, vocational rehabilitation (VR) counselors and unemployed mobility device users to balance employee abilities and preferences with the needs of employers.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF RECREATIVE SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING ON MUSIC AND INTELLECTUAL FACTORS AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Kocić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized swimming is way of acivitie connected with music. Emotional character in it could be very efficiency mean of childs` and youth` sport-recreative activities. The research was lead on 60 girls 7-15 years old, elementary schools pupils in Niš, members „Sirene“ Niš synchronized swimming clyb. Music abilities research was obtained using Seashore test for basic music abilities. For testing input procesors, perceptive reason, it was used IT-1 test. For testing efficiency parallel prosecor it was used S-1 test. For testing serial procesors, symbolic reason, it was used AL-4 test sinonime-atimime. For testing personal characteristics it was used instruments for testing dimensions of functional konnative regulatione mechanisms model. It was used bases statistics for every researcg area (music abilities, intellectual abilities, konnative characteristics and criteria variable; to estimate influence each predictor variable on criteria variable, it was used regression analysis. Results showed statistic efficiency in music and konnative factors. Synchronized swimming activities influence on growing spontaneous, independence developing, tense releases, and it is exellent area for emotional health and society desirable behaveour norm. These activities are reached by music, which in melodie and rithm diversity, gives complete enjoyment, and psychosisical relax and refreshment.

  3. Which are the risk factors in the pricing of Personal Pension Plans in Spain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza García Padrón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse if the Arbirtrage Pricing Theory or the model suggested by Chen et al. (1986 can efficiently explain the variability of the cross-sectional returns on the Personal Pension Plans in Spain between 1995-2003, as well as to find their sources of risks. To test both models we have followed the traditional two-step cross-sectional regressions by Fama and MacBeth (1973. The results of our analysis show two significant risk factors derived from the fixed-income market: nonanticipated changes in the interest rate term structure and the default risk premium.Este artigo analisa se o modelo APT ou o modelo sugerido por Chen et al. (1986 podem explicar de maneira eficiente a variabilidade dos rendimentos de seção cruzada dos Planos de Pensões do Sistema Individual em Espanha durante 1995-2003, bem como determina quais são seus fatores de risco. A metodologia de contraste utilizada foi a proposta por Fama and MacBeth (1973 na versão de múltiplas variáveis explicativas. Os resultados da análise mostram dois fatores de risco relevantes derivados do mercado de renda fixa: mudanças não antecipadas na estrutura temporária da taxa de juros e prima por risco de insolvência.

  4. Acute stress in residents during emergency care: a study of personal and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Roger Daglius; Scalabrini Neto, Augusto

    2017-05-01

    Providing care for simulated emergency patients may induce considerable acute stress in physicians. However, the acute stress provoked in a real-life emergency room (ER) is not well known. Our aim was to assess acute stress responses in residents during real emergency care and investigate the related personal and situational factors. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out at an emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital. All second-year internal medicine residents were invited to voluntarily participate in this study. Acute stress markers were assessed at baseline (T1), before residents started their ER shift, and immediately after an emergency situation (T2), using heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, salivary α-amylase activity, salivary interleukin-1 β, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s and STAI-t). Twenty-four residents were assessed during 40 emergency situations. All stress markers presented a statistically significant increase between T1 and T2. IL-1 β presented the highest percent increase (141.0%, p stress in residents. Resident experience, trait anxiety, and number of emergency procedures were independently associated with acute stress response.

  5. Measurement Invariance and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Asian International and Euro American Cultural Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollock, David; Lui, P Priscilla

    2016-10-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), assessing the five-factor model (FFM) of personality among Euro American (N = 290) and Asian international (N = 301) students (47.8% women, Mage = 19.69 years). The full 60-item NEO-FFI data fit the expected five-factor structure for both groups using exploratory structural equation modeling, and achieved configural invariance. Only 37 items significantly loaded onto the FFM-theorized factors for both groups and demonstrated metric invariance. Threshold invariance was not supported with this reduced item set. Groups differed the most in the item-factor relationships for Extraversion and Agreeableness, as well as in response styles. Asian internationals were more likely to use midpoint responses than Euro Americans. While the FFM can characterize broad nomothetic patterns of personality traits, metric invariance with only the subset of NEO-FFI items identified limits direct group comparisons of correlation coefficients among personality domains and with other constructs, and of mean differences on personality domains. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. The relationship of lifestyle factors, personal character, and mental health status of employees of a major Japanese electrical manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, K; Yamaguchi, K; Maruyama, S; Morimoto, K

    2001-01-01

    To examine the relationship lifestyle factors, personal character, mental health status, and job strain a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among employees of a leading electrical manufacturing company in Japan. A total of 2,327 workers (Male=1,668, Female=659) responded to the survey. We analyzed the relationships of health practices based on such factors as: Free child (FC) from the Egogram, the Working-life satisfaction, and the General Health Questionnaire-28 through Path-analysis techniques.The following results were obtained: The mental health status was significantly affected by such factors as health practices, Working-life satisfaction, personal character (FC), life satisfaction, and age. Health practices and personal character (FC) showed a direct relationship to the mental health status and an indirect relationship to the Working-life satisfaction and life satisfaction. The variances accounting for mental health status were 41.8% in male workers and 43.8% in female workers.Path-analysis data suggested that mental health status was affected about 40% by lifestyle, personal character, Working-life satisfaction, and life satisfaction. It was suggested that there might be important factors affecting mental health status but which are unknown to us by as much as 60% in the present day. These findings suggested the necessity of further investigation of the relationship among lifestyle factors, mental health status, and job strain among employees of a reputable company in the present day.

  7. Reserve, thin form-factor, hypochlorite-based cells for powering portable systems: Manufacture (including MEMS processes), performance and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas-Valencia, Andres M.; Langebrake, Larry [Center for Ocean Technology, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Biver, Carl J. [Center for Ocean Technology, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave. Tampa, FL (United States)

    2007-03-30

    This work focuses on fabrication routes and performance evaluation of thin form-factors, reserve cells, as a powering alternative for expendable and/or remotely operated systems. The catalytic decomposition of sodium hypochlorite solutions is revisited herein with two cost-effective anodes: zinc and aluminum. Aluminum, even though the most expensive of the utilized anodes, constituted cells with double the energy content (up to 55 Wh kg{sup -1}) than those fabricated with zinc. Even though the hypochlorite concentration in the solution limits the cells' operational life, attractive performances (1.0 V with a current of 10 mA) for the manufactured cells are obtained. It is shown that micro fabrication processes, allowing for close electrodes interspacing, provided high faradic and columbic efficiencies of up to 70 and 100%, respectively. Obtained specific energies (50-120 Wh kg{sup -1}) are in the same order of magnitude than batteries currently used for powering deployable systems. Experimental results show that a simple model that linearly relates over potentials and the electrical load, adequately describe all the cell designs. A mathematical model based on a kinetic-mechanistic scheme that relates the current output as a function of time agrees fairly well with results obtained activating cells with various concentrations of NaOCl solutions. (author)

  8. Positive attitudes and preserved high level of motor performance are important factors for return to work in younger persons after stroke: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Britta; Röding, Jenny; Sundelin, Gunnevi

    2009-09-01

    Significant numbers of younger persons with stroke should be given the opportunity to return to work. The aim of this study was to investigate factors of importance for return to work among persons after first ever stroke, in the age range 18-55 years. A questionnaire was sent to all persons who had experienced a first ever stroke, 18-55 years of age, registered in the Swedish national quality register for stroke care, Riks-Stroke. Of the 1068 who answered the questionnaire, 855 (539 men and 316 women) were in paid employment before their stroke, and were included in this study. Sixty-five percent returned to work and, of these, an equal proportion were men and women. Significant factors associated with return to work were the perceived importance of work (odds ratio (OR) 5.10), not perceiving themselves as a burden on others (OR 3.33), support from others for return to work (OR 3.66), retaining the ability to run a short distance (OR 2.77), and higher socioeconomic codes (OR 2.12). A negative association was found between those rehabilitated in wards intended for younger persons and return to work (OR 0.37). External support from others, and positive attitudes towards return to work, were factors associated with successful return to work after stroke. Contrary to what was expected, independence in personal activities of daily living and cognitive factors were not associated with return to work to the same extent as persistent higher level of physical functions, such as ability to run a short distance.

  9. Explaining the role of personal, social and physical environment factors on employed women's physical activity: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtari Aghdam, Fatemeh; Baghiani Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Dabagh Nikookheslat, Saed; Noorizadeh, Roghaieh

    2013-05-13

    PA is a multi-factorial behavior that is affected by interpersonal, intra personal, environmental and social factors. In this study we applied explanatory model to determine the total, indirect and direct impact of physical environment, personal factors and social support on PA among employed women. This study was a correlational cross-sectional study which was conducted to model total, indirect and direct impact of environmental, psychological and social factors on PA. A total of 200 women were chosen from Tabriz University by using convenience sampling method. Data about demographic characteristics, psychological variables, social and physical environment were gathered by using self-reported questionnaire and also the PA was measured by using the International PA Questionnaire and pedometer. personal factors, physical and social environment, showed direct effects on PA. Social factors could be seen to have indirect effects on PA through their influence on personal factors such as pros, cons and self-efficacy; also physical environment had indirect effects on PA through social environment. The total effects of physical and social environment on PA type were respectively 0.17, 0.16 on walking, 0.05, 0.07 on moderate activity and 0.15, 0.18 on vigorous activity. Findings from this study indicated that social factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate and vigorous activity, especially through the effects on these factors of self-efficacy, physical environment, pros and cons, and the interactive role of individual, environmental and social impacts on PA. The current study identifies that psychological, physical and social factors could be shown to have direct and indirect influences on all forms of activity. The barriers of PA were the most predictor of this behavior, and based on results, it can be concluded that decreasing the barriers along with improving social and physical environment can lead to increasing PA and health promotion.

  10. Educational environment of supplementary schools as a factor of formation of older preschooler`s creative-oriented personality