WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors include family

  1. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  2. Family Factors in Small Family Business Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jim Cater; Marilyn Young

    2016-01-01

    .... We suggest that while all three patterns of small family business growth may lead to individual company success and sustainability, businesses with units in multiple trade areas may be most adept at managing the six family factors.

  3. Understanding type 2 diabetes: including the family member's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological and social factors and diabetes outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes and their family members. METHODS: A total of 153 patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed at a diabetes outpatient clinic and postal questionnaires were sent to nominated family members. The measures examined were diabetes knowledge, social support, well-being, and illness perceptions. RESULTS: When compared with those with diabetes, family members reported lower positive well-being and lower levels of satisfaction with support. They also perceived diabetes as a more cyclical illness, which was controlled more by treatment than by the individual. Family members also reported that the person with diabetes was more emotionally distressed and knew more about diabetes than the patient had actually reported himself or herself. There were no differences between the family members of those in good or poor glycaemic control. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the importance of understanding social context and illness beliefs in diabetes management. It also highlights the potential for including family members in discussions and education about diabetes management.

  4. Familial risk factors in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, Michael; Xue Ming; Parikh, Amisha

    2007-05-01

    Familial history risk factors in relation to autism were examined in a cohort of 164 autistic children referred to The Autism Center at New Jersey Medical School-University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, over a 2-year period (2001-2003). Information related to familial history was obtained from each family and reviewed by a clinician. It is shown that these families carry a higher overall burden of psychiatric and developmental illnesses compared to reported national levels. These families also carry a relatively high incidence of medical disorders, independently of developmental and psychiatric disorders. This work supports the underlying presence of genetic factors in the etiology of autism.

  5. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society.

  6. Analysis on Family Factor in Construction of New Socialist Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the family factor in the construction of new socialist countryside. It is believed that the family plays both the positive role and negative role in new socialist countryside construction. Based on this analysis,it puts forward corresponding countermeasures,including bringing into play the effect of family in promoting production and carrying forward excellent factors of family culture.

  7. Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y

    2001-12-01

    The Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors are multifunctional molecules that transduce diverse intracellular signals leading to the activation of Rho GTPases. The tandem Dbl-homology and pleckstrin-homology domains shared by all members of this family represent the structural module responsible for catalyzing the GDP-GTP exchange reaction of Rho proteins. Recent progress in genomic, genetic, structural and biochemical studies has implicated Dbl family members in diverse biological processes, including growth and development, skeletal muscle formation, neuronal axon guidance and tissue organization. The detailed pictures of their autoregulation, agonist-controlled activation and mechanism of interaction with Rho GTPase substrates, have begun to emerge.

  8. Pets: Your Plan Should Include All Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cross Month Latest News Health and Safety Training & Education Mission & Values History National Celebrity Cabinet National Celebrity Cabinet Red Cross Stories Governance Career Opportunities Military Families Disaster Relief ... Training & Education Lifesaving Blood Get Assistance Types of Emergencies Be ...

  9. Workplace Factors Associated with Family Dinner Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Poteat, Laura F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between workplace factors and family dinners. We examined two aspects of the family dinner, the frequency that the entire family typically has dinner together each week and the frequency that children eat fast food for dinner. Participants were 220 parents who worked at least 20 h a week and had at least one…

  10. Cognitive, Personality, and Family Factors in Patients with Migraine Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Johari-Fard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a disorder that has debilitating pain, and affects all aspects of life, including the academic, social, and family life of patients. In addition, studies show the effects of migraine on patient's relationships with family members such as spouse, children, and other family members. In addition to physical pain, migraines are tied to significant psychological and economic costs. Migraineurs tend to have high levels of depression and anxiety, and migraine headaches have a profoundly negative impact on sufferers’ quality of life. In the present research, we investigated the correlations and regressions of cognitive, personality, and family factors with migraine headache, to find predictor factors of migraine. In this study, the following questionnaires were used: For migraine: six-item Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, and Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 2.1.; for cognitive factors: Irrational Beliefs Test and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale; for personality factors: NEO Personality Inventory; and for family factors: Family Assessment Device. This project was on 58 women with migraine headaches, diagnosed by neurologist. The findings show that, there is a significant regression between cognitive, personality, and family factors and HIT-6. In cognitive factors, frustration reactivity and anxious overconcern, in personality factors, extraversion trait, and in family factors, affective involvement are significant. Moreover, there is a significant regression between cognitive, personality, and family factors and MSQ. In cognitive factors, frustration reactivity, anxious overconcern, and helplessness, in personality factors, agreeableness and consciousness, and in family factors, affective involvement and general functioning are significant. This project showed that cognitive, personality, and family factors have a correlation with migraine headache.

  11. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  12. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  13. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

  14. Familial psychological factors are associated with encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Devrim; Çengel Kültür, S Ebru; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Zeki, Ayşe; Şenses Dinç, Gülser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess maternal psychiatric symptoms, family functioning and parenting styles in children with encopresis. Forty-one children with encopresis were compared to 29 children without any psychiatric disorder. Higher maternal psychiatric symptoms were found in children with encopresis. The general family functioning and strictness/supervision in parenting were significant predictors of encopresis. Family functioning may be screened in children with encopresis, especially when standard interventions have had limited success. Identification and treatment of familial factors may enhance the treatment efficacy in encopresis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  16. 25 CFR 20.401 - What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly,...

  17. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  18. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  19. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  20. Adolescent Substance Use and Family-based Risk and Protective Factors: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalahi, Halaevalu F.

    2001-01-01

    Family influence has been established as one of the strongest sources of risk and protection when considering adolescent substance abuse. Theories used to view the family influence include family systems theory; social cognitive theory; social control theory; and strain theory. Specific family-based risk and protective factors include family…

  1. Happiness among Adolescent Students in Thailand: Family and Non-Family Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rossarin Soottipong; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Pattaravanich, Umaporn; Prasartkul, Pramote

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores family and non-family factors contributing to happiness among students aged 15-18 in Thailand. Data come from the Social and Cultural Situation and Mental Health Survey (n = 905). Based on regression analysis, family factors are more important than non- family factors in explaining the variations in adolescents' happiness.…

  2. Happiness among Adolescent Students in Thailand: Family and Non-Family Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rossarin Soottipong; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Pattaravanich, Umaporn; Prasartkul, Pramote

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores family and non-family factors contributing to happiness among students aged 15-18 in Thailand. Data come from the Social and Cultural Situation and Mental Health Survey (n = 905). Based on regression analysis, family factors are more important than non- family factors in explaining the variations in adolescents' happiness.…

  3. Questionnaires on Family Satisfaction in the Adult ICU: A Systematic Review Including Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Janneke M; Brunsveld-Reinders, Anja H; Zedlitz, Aglaia M E E; Girbes, Armand R J; de Jonge, Evert; Arbous, M Sesmu

    2015-08-01

    To perform a systematic review of the literature to determine which questionnaires are currently available to measure family satisfaction with care on the ICU and to provide an overview of their quality by evaluating their psychometric properties. We searched PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from inception to October 30, 2013. Experimental and observational research articles reporting on questionnaires on family satisfaction and/or needs in the ICU were included. Two reviewers determined eligibility. Design, application mode, language, and the number of studies of the tools were registered. With this information, the tools were globally categorized according to validity and reliability: level I (well-established quality), II (approaching well-established quality), III (promising quality), or IV (unconfirmed quality). The quality of the highest level (I) tools was assessed by further examination of the psychometric properties and sample size of the studies. The search detected 3,655 references, from which 135 articles were included. We found 27 different tools that assessed overall or circumscribed aspects of family satisfaction with ICU care. Only four questionnaires were categorized as level I: the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory, the Society of Critical Care Medicine Family Needs Assessment, the Critical Care Family Satisfaction Survey, and the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit. Studies on these questionnaires were of good sample size (n ≥ 100) and showed adequate data on face/content validity and internal consistency. Studies on the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory, the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit also contained sufficient data on inter-rater/test-retest reliability, responsiveness, and feasibility. In general, data on measures of central tendency and sensitivity to change were scarce. Of all the questionnaires found, the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory and the Family

  4. 45 CFR 286.75 - What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... to specific populations, including teen parents and individuals who are transitioning off TANF... towards those goals; (6) Assurance that a 45-day public comment period on the Tribal TANF plan...

  5. Demographic Correlates and Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boake, Corwin; Salmon, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Factor analyzed the Family Environment Scale (FES) subscale scores of 204 families and correlated them with family demographic characteristics. The obtained factor structure showed two major factors similar to "control" and "acceptance-rejection" dimensions in previous research. Results support the FES as part of multimethod…

  6. Perinatal risk factors including malformation; Perinatale Risikofaktoren einschliesslich Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project `Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria` is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG). [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die haeufigsten in der Literatur beschriebenen Faktoren, die einen unguenstigen Einfluss auf den Schwangerschaftsverlauf ausueben koennen, gegeben. Ein Hauptgewicht liegt dabei auf der Beschreibung von solchen Faktoren, die mit der Induktion von Fehlbildungen in Zusammenhang gebracht werden koennen, so unter anderem auch der praenatalen Strahlenexposition. Diese Arbeit, die im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens `Strahlenbiologisches Umweltmonitoring Bayern` angefertigt wurde, bildet die Grundlage einer im Sinne einer umweltbezogenen Gesundheitsberichterstattung retro- bzw. prospektiv angelegten Auswertung der Saeuglingssterblichkeit, des Perinatalgeschehens und der Fehlbildungshaeufigkeit in Bayern, wobei neben der ionisierenden Strahlung als Risikofaktor auch andere im Rahmen einer oekologischen Studie erfassbare Risiken, wie beispielsweise Industrieansiedlungen, Muellverbrennungsanlagen und -deponien oder Urbanitaet beruecksichtigt werden sollen. (orig./MG).

  7. Familial TAB2 microdeletion and congenital heart defects including unusual valve dysplasia and tetralogy of fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Karin; Applegate, Carolyn; Wang, Tao; Batista, Denise A S

    2015-11-01

    Haploinsufficiency of TAB2 was recently implicated as a cause for a variety of congenital heart defects. Reported cases have genomic deletions of 2-10 Mbs including TAB2 at 6q24-25 are almost always de novo and show variable cardiac and extra cardiac phenotype. We report on an inherited, 281 kb deletion in a three generation family. This is the smallest reported deletion involving TAB2 that segregates with congenital heart defects. Three affected individuals in this family present with myxomatous cardiac valves in addition to structural heart defects commonly associated with TAB2 deletions. Findings from this family support a key role of TAB2 haploinsufficiency in congenital heart defects and expand the phenotypic spectrum of TAB2-microdeletion syndrome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Familial PRRT2 mutation with heterogeneous paroxysmal disorders including paroxysmal torticollis and hemiplegic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Russell C; Gardiner, Alice; Antony, Jayne; Houlden, Henry

    2012-10-01

    PRRT2 is the gene recently associated with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), benign familial infantile epilepsy, and choreoathetosis infantile convulsions. We report four family members with PRRT2 mutations who had heterogeneous paroxysmal disorders. The index patient had transient infantile paroxysmal torticollis, then benign infantile epilepsy that responded to carbamazepine. The index patient's father had PKD and migraine with aphasia, and his two brothers had hemiplegic migraine with onset in childhood. All four family members had the same PRRT2 c.649dupC mutation. We conclude that heterogeneous paroxysmal disorders are associated with PRRT2 mutations and include paroxysmal torticollis and hemiplegic migraine. We propose that PRRT2 is a new gene for hemiplegic migraine. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  9. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Prateek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. Results We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86 becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3% do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors

  10. Validating the 5Fs mnemonic for cholelithiasis: time to include family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Gary; Gilani, S Nadia S; Walsh, Thomas N

    2013-11-01

    The time-honoured mnemonic of '5Fs' is a reminder to students that patients with upper abdominal pain and who conform to a profile of 'fair, fat, female, fertile and forty' are likely to have cholelithiasis. We feel, however, that a most important 'F'-that for 'family history'-is overlooked and should be introduced to enhance the value of a useful aide memoire. To assess the usefulness of each of the existing factors of a popular mnemonic, 398 patients admitted with upper abdominal pain between March 2009 and April 2010 were studied. The clinical features expressed in the cholelithiasis mnemonic in patients with sonographic evidence of cholelithiasis were compared with those of patients without. In the cholelithiasis group, significantly more patients were women (150/198 (75.8%) vs 111/200 (55.5%), p30 (56/198 (28.3%) vs 19/200 (9.5%) (pcholelithiasis (82/198 (41.4%) vs 79/200 (39.5%) (p=0.697)). In the cholelithiasis group, 78/198 (39.4%) had a family history in at least one first-degree relative, compared with 27/200 (13.5%) of controls, (pcholelithiasis. Our study found that the validated 'students' 5Fs' mnemonic retains a role in clinical diagnosis of patients suspected of cholelithiasis but the factor 'familial' should be substituted for 'forty' in recognition of the role of inheritance and the changing demographics of gallstone incidence.

  11. Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaborative Group on Hormona, l Factors; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: Women with a family history of breast cancer are

  12. Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaborative Group on Hormona, l Factors; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: Women with a family history of breast cancer are

  13. What do families want from well-child care? Including parents in the rethinking discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki, Linda; Olson, Lynn M; Frintner, Mary Pat; Tanner, J Lane; Stein, Martin T

    2009-09-01

    The content and systems surrounding well-child care have received increasing attention, and some propose that it is time to rethink both the delivery structure and central themes of well-child visits. A key, but largely missing perspective in these discussions has been that of parents, whose experiences and expectations are central to developing approaches responsive to family needs. In this study, we asked parents to address several core issues: why they attend well-child visits; aspects of well-child care that they find most valuable; and changes that could enhance the well-child care experience. Twenty focus groups with parents (n = 131 [91% mothers]) were conducted by using a semistructured interview guide. Verbatim transcripts were coded for key words, concepts, and recurrent themes. Primary reasons for visit attendance included reassurance (child and parent) and an opportunity to discuss parent priorities. Families valued an ongoing relationship with 1 clinician who was child-focused and respected parental expertise, but continuity of provider was not an option for all participants. Suggestions for enhancement included improved promotion of well-child care, greater emphasis on development and behavior, and expanded options for information exchange. As the consumers of care, it is critical to understand parents' needs and desires as changes to the content and process of well-child care are considered. Taking into account the multifaceted perspectives of families suggests both challenges and opportunities for the rethinking discussion.

  14. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed.

  15. Genome mining expands the chemical diversity of the cyanobactin family to include highly modified linear peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikoski, Niina; Liu, Liwei; Jokela, Jouni; Wahlsten, Matti; Gugger, Muriel; Calteau, Alexandra; Permi, Perttu; Kerfeld, Cheryl A; Sivonen, Kaarina; Fewer, David P

    2013-08-22

    Ribosomal peptides are produced through the posttranslational modification of short precursor peptides. Cyanobactins are a growing family of cyclic ribosomal peptides produced by cyanobacteria. However, a broad systematic survey of the genetic capacity to produce cyanobactins is lacking. Here we report the identification of 31 cyanobactin gene clusters from 126 genomes of cyanobacteria. Genome mining suggested a complex evolutionary history defined by horizontal gene transfer and rapid diversification of precursor genes. Extensive chemical analyses demonstrated that some cyanobacteria produce short linear cyanobactins with a chain length ranging from three to five amino acids. The linear peptides were N-prenylated and O-methylated on the N and C termini, respectively, and named aeruginosamide and viridisamide. These findings broaden the structural diversity of the cyanobactin family to include highly modified linear peptides with rare posttranslational modifications.

  16. Influence of Child and Family Factors on Judicial Decisions in Contested Custody Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sara R.; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2003-01-01

    Explores how child and family factors influence judicial decision making in contested custody cases through interviews with 18 family court judges. Judges cited a variety of factors as being influential, including the child's age and developmental status, the child's wishes regarding the custody arrangement, the child's stability, parental…

  17. Family Factors in the Development and Management of Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    Family variables are thought to play a key role in a wide variety of psychopathology according to many theories. Yet, specific models of the development of anxiety disorders place little emphasis on general family factors despite clear evidence that anxiety runs in families. The current review examines evidence for the involvement of a number of…

  18. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  19. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  20. Dock-family exchange factors in cell migration and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Gilles; Blangy, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Dock family proteins are evolutionary conserved exchange factors for the Rho GTPases Rac and Cdc42. There are 11 Dock proteins in mammals, named Dock1 (or Dock180) to Dock11 that play different cellular functions. In particular, Dock proteins regulate actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and migration. Not surprisingly, members of the Dock family have been involved in various pathologies, including cancer and defects in the central nervous and immune systems. This review proposes an update of the recent findings regarding the function of Dock proteins, focusing on their role in the control of cell migration and invasion and the consequences in human diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The ETS family of oncogenic transcription factors in solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Gina M; Pitarresi, Jason R; Balakrishnan, Subhasree; Ostrowski, Michael C

    2017-06-01

    Findings over the past decade have identified aberrant activation of the ETS transcription factor family throughout all stages of tumorigenesis. Specifically in solid tumours, gene rearrangement and amplification, feed-forward growth factor signalling loops, formation of gain-of-function co-regulatory complexes and novel cis-acting mutations in ETS target gene promoters can result in increased ETS activity. In turn, pro-oncogenic ETS signalling enhances tumorigenesis through a broad mechanistic toolbox that includes lineage specification and self-renewal, DNA damage and genome instability, epigenetics and metabolism. This Review discusses these different mechanisms of ETS activation and subsequent oncogenic implications, as well as the clinical utility of ETS factors.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of moth-specialized spider sub-family Cyrtarachninae, which includes bolas spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Akio; Shinkai, Akira; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    The evolutionary process of the unique web architectures of spiders of the sub-family Cyrtarachninae, which includes the triangular web weaver, bolas spider, and webless spider, is thought to be derived from reduction of orbicular 'spanning-thread webs' resembling ordinal orb webs. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted to explore this hypothesis using orbicular web spiders Cyrtarachne, Paraplectana, Poecilopachys, triangular web spider Pasilobus, bolas spiders Ordgarius and Mastophora, and webless spider Celaenia. The phylogeny inferred from partial sequences of mt-COI, nuclear 18S-rRNA and 28S-rRNA showed that the common ancestor of these spiders diverged into two clades: a spanning-thread web clade and a bolas or webless clade. This finding suggests that the triangular web evolved by reduction of an orbicular spanning web, but that bolas spiders evolved in the early stage, which does not support the gradual web reduction hypothesis.

  3. Postnatal roles of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family members in nociceptors plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sacha A. Malin; Brian M. Davis

    2008-01-01

    The neurotrophin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of growth factors have been extensively studied because of their proven ability to regulate development of the peripheral nervous system. The neurotrophin family,which includes nerve growth factor (NGF), NT-3, NT4/5 and BDNF, is also known for its ability to regulate the function of adult sensory neurons. Until recently, little was known concerning the role of the GNDF-family (that includes GDNF, artemin, neurturin and persephin) in adult sensory neuron function. Here we describe recent data that indicates that the GDNF family can regulate sensory neuron function, that some of its members are elevated in inflammatory pain models and that application of these growth factors produces pain in vivo. Finally we discuss how these two families of growth factors may converge on a single membrane receptor, TRPV 1, to produce long-lasting hyperalgesia.

  4. Early evolution of the T-box transcription factor family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Ariza-Cosano, Ana; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Leininger, Sven; Yang, Ally; Torruella, Guifré; Adamski, Marcin; Adamska, Maja; Hughes, Timothy R.; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2013-01-01

    Developmental transcription factors are key players in animal multicellularity, being members of the T-box family that are among the most important. Until recently, T-box transcription factors were thought to be exclusively present in metazoans. Here, we report the presence of T-box genes in several nonmetazoan lineages, including ichthyosporeans, filastereans, and fungi. Our data confirm that Brachyury is the most ancient member of the T-box family and establish that the T-box family diversified at the onset of Metazoa. Moreover, we demonstrate functional conservation of a homolog of Brachyury of the protist Capsaspora owczarzaki in Xenopus laevis. By comparing the molecular phenotype of C. owczarzaki Brachyury with that of homologs of early branching metazoans, we define a clear difference between unicellular holozoan and metazoan Brachyury homologs, suggesting that the specificity of Brachyury emerged at the origin of Metazoa. Experimental determination of the binding preferences of the C. owczarzaki Brachyury results in a similar motif to that of metazoan Brachyury and other T-box classes. This finding suggests that functional specificity between different T-box classes is likely achieved by interaction with alternative cofactors, as opposed to differences in binding specificity. PMID:24043797

  5. Family factors for child meal skipping in low-income families in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok; Kim, Meesook; Hong, Soon-Myung

    2010-04-01

    The present study proposed to examine whether family factors are associated with child meal skipping in Korea. Family factors were divided into risk factors and protective factors on conceptual and theoretical bases. The sample was obtained from the Survey of Meal Service for Poor Children conducted by the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs in 2007. A final sample was composed of 944 children in low-income families who are served by the public meal program. Child meal skipping was positively associated with risk factors and negatively associated with protective factors, as hypothesized. Single-father family, middle or small urban area, presence of caretaker after school, health level of caretaker, caretaker's concern about child's diet, and degree of family cohesion significantly predicted child meal skipping. The authors suggest a few implications for practice based on the study findings.

  6. Psychological, Cultural and Family Factors in Incest and Family Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews clinical experience and research evidence about father-daughter incest and family sexual abuse, and suggests six factors important in its etiology: the personal characteristics of the offender; the role of the mother; a milieu of abandonment; subcultural isolation; poor family sexual boundaries; and opportunity factors. (Author)

  7. Detection of eight BRCA1 mutations in 10 breast/ovarian cancer families, including 1 family with male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sruewing, J.P.; Brody, L.C.; Erdos, M.R. [National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Genetic epidemiological evidence suggests that mutations in BRCA1 may be responsible for approximately one half of early onset familial breast cancer and the majority of familial breast/ovarian cancer. The recent cloning of BRCA1 allows for the direct detection of mutations, but the feasibility of presymptomatic screening for cancer susceptibility is unknown. We analyzed genomic DNA from one affected individual from each of 24 families with at least three cases of ovarian or breast cancer, using SSCP assays. Variant SSCP bands were subcloned and sequenced. Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization was used to verify sequence changes and to screen DNA from control individuals. Six frameshift and two missense mutations were detected in 10 different families. A frameshift mutation was detected in a male proband affected with both breast and prostate cancer. A 40-bp deletion was detected in a patient who developed intra-abdominal carcinomatosis 1 year after prophylactic oophorectomy. Mutations were detected throughout the gene, and only one was detected in more than a single family. These results provide further evidence that inherited breast and ovarian cancer can occur as a consequence of a wide array of BRCA1 mutations. These results suggests that development of a screening test for BRCA1 mutations will be technically challenging. The finding of a mutation in a family with male breast cancer, not previously thought to be related to BRCA1, also illustrates the potential difficulties of genetic counseling for individuals known to carry mutations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Family factors of internet addiction and substance use experience in Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the differences in the diversity of family factors between adolescents with and without Internet addiction and substance use experience. A total of 3662 students (2328 boys and 1334 girls) were recruited from seven junior high schools, six senior high schools, and four vocational high schools in southern Taiwan. Internet addiction and substance experience were classified according to the score of Chen Internet Addiction Scale Questionnaires for Experience of Substance use. The family factors assessed included perceived family satisfaction, family economic status, parents' marriage status, care-givers, the frequency of intra-family conflict, families' habitual alcohol use, and perceived parents' or care givers' attitude toward adolescents' substance use. This study demonstrated that the characteristics of higher parent-adolescent conflict, habitual alcohol use of siblings, perceived parents' positive attitude to adolescent substance use, and lower family function could be used develop a predictive model for Internet addiction in the multiple logistic regression analysis. The former three family factors were also sufficient in themselves to develop a predictive model for substance use experience. The results revealed that adolescent Internet addiction and substance use experience shared similar family factors, which indicate that Internet addiction and substance use should be considered in the group of behavioral problem syndromes. A family-based preventive approach for Internet addiction and substance use should be introduced for adolescents with negative family factors.

  9. The Medicago truncatula lysin [corrected] motif-receptor-like kinase gene family includes NFP and new nodule-expressed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Barre, Annick; Ben Amor, Besma; Bersoult, Anne; Soriano, Lidia Campos; Mirabella, Rossana; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Ghérardi, Michèle; Huguet, Thierry; Geurts, René; Dénarié, Jean; Rougé, Pierre; Gough, Clare

    2006-09-01

    Rhizobial Nod factors are key symbiotic signals responsible for starting the nodulation process in host legume plants. Of the six Medicago truncatula genes controlling a Nod factor signaling pathway, Nod Factor Perception (NFP) was reported as a candidate Nod factor receptor gene. Here, we provide further evidence for this by showing that NFP is a lysin [corrected] motif (LysM)-receptor-like kinase (RLK). NFP was shown both to be expressed in association with infection thread development and to be involved in the infection process. Consistent with deviations from conserved kinase domain sequences, NFP did not show autophosphorylation activity, suggesting that NFP needs to associate with an active kinase or has unusual functional characteristics different from classical kinases. Identification of nine new M. truncatula LysM-RLK genes revealed a larger family than in the nonlegumes Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) or rice (Oryza sativa) of at least 17 members that can be divided into three subfamilies. Three LysM domains could be structurally predicted for all M. truncatula LysM-RLK proteins, whereas one subfamily, which includes NFP, was characterized by deviations from conserved kinase sequences. Most of the newly identified genes were found to be expressed in roots and nodules, suggesting this class of receptors may be more extensively involved in nodulation than was previously known.

  10. Novel mutations including deletions of the entire OFD1 gene in 30 families with type 1 orofaciodigital syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisschoff, Izak J; Zeschnigk, Christine; Horn, Denise

    2013-01-01

    have studied 55 sporadic and six familial cases of suspected OFD1. Comprehensive mutation analysis in OFD1 revealed mutations in 37 female patients from 30 families; 22 mutations have not been previously described including two heterozygous deletions spanning OFD1 and neighbouring genes. Analysis...

  11. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  12. Maximum Likelihood Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents the maximum likelihood factor structure of the Family Environment Scale. The first bipolar dimension, "cohesion v conflict," measures relationship-centered concerns, while the second unipolar dimension is an index of "organizational and control" activities. (Author)

  13. Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among Child Bearing Women in Chilonga ... Medical Journal of Zambia ... The literature review was mainly obtained from studies conducted globally, regionally and Zambia inclusively.

  14. Comparação dos fatores de risco para amputações maiores e menores em pacientes diabéticos de um Programa de Saúde da Família Comparison of risk factors for major and minor amputation in diabetic patients included in a Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Cancio Assumpção

    2009-06-01

    sequelae, such as lower limb amputation. Peripheral vascular insufficiency is a common early occurrence in these patients. The coexistence of neuropathy, ischemia, and immunodeficiency favors the development of infections in the lower limbs, which if not treated properly can lead to amputation and even death. OBJECTIVE: Compare risk factors for major and minor amputations in diabetic patients in the Family Health Program of the health care facility CAIC Virgem dos Pobres III, in Maceió, state of Alagoas, Brazil. METHODS: We examined 93 patients diagnosed with diabetes, assessing whether or not lower limb amputation was performed. The variables analyzed were: sex, age, type of diabetes, blood pressure, previous amputation (whether major or minor, skin changes, changes in arterial pedal and posterior tibial pulses, deformities, and neuropathy. Variables were classified according to the Wagner and Texas wound classification. RESULTS: All patients were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. We found that 4.30% of the patients progressed to lower limb amputation. There was no significant variation in hypertension, deformities and neuropathy in relation to the amputee group. However, absence of distal pulses in the lower limb proved to be quite significant in relation to amputation outcome. CONCLUSION: Diabetic patients should receive appropriate outpatient medical care in order to prevent or minimize diabetes-related complications.

  15. Genetic liability, prenatal health, stress and family environment: risk factors in the Harvard Adolescent Family High Risk for schizophrenia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Deborah J; Faraone, Stephen V; Glatt, Stephen J; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-08-01

    The familial ("genetic") high-risk (FHR) paradigm enables assessment of individuals at risk for schizophrenia based on a positive family history of schizophrenia in first-degree, biological relatives. This strategy presumes genetic transmission of abnormal traits given high heritability of the illness. It is plausible, however, that adverse environmental factors are also transmitted in these families. Few studies have evaluated both biological and environmental factors within a FHR study of adolescents. We conceptualize four precursors to psychosis pathogenesis: two biological (genetic predisposition, prenatal health issues (PHIs)) and two environmental (family environment, stressful life events (SLEs)). Participants assessed between 1998 and 2007 (ages 13-25) included 40 (20F/20M) adolescents at FHR for schizophrenia (FHRs) and 55 (31F/24M) community controls. 'Genetic load' indexed number of affected family members relative to pedigree size. PHI was significantly greater among FHRs, and family cohesion and expressiveness were less (and family conflict was higher) among FHRs; however, groups did not significantly differ in SLE indices. Among FHRs, genetic liability was significantly associated with PHI and family expressiveness. Prenatal and family environmental disruptions are elevated in families with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia. Findings support our proposed 'polygenic neurodevelopmental diathesis-stress model' whereby psychosis susceptibility (and resilience) involves the independent and synergistic confluence of (temporally-sensitive) biological and environmental factors across development. Recognition of biological and social environmental influences across critical developmental periods points to key issues relevant for enhanced identification of psychosis susceptibility, facilitation of more precise models of illness risk, and development of novel prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    A broad range of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychological riskfactors for psychosis have been reported. However most research studies have tended to focus on one explanatory factor. The aim of this study wasto use data from a large Danish birth cohort to examine the associationsbetween...... psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis....

  17. A familial factor in the development of colour agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; de Haan, Edward H F

    2007-04-09

    An important aspect of research into the link between genes and behaviour concerns the identification of familial determination. There is evidence for familial factors in selective deficits, such as developmental dyslexia and developmental prosopagnosia. Colour agnosia concerns a selective neuropsychological condition in which colour perception is intact, while the identification and naming of colour is disrupted. We recently demonstrated that this deficit can occur as a developmental deficit. Here, we show that there is a familial factor in the development of colour agnosia by reporting the colour processing abilities of the mother and the daughters of a man with developmental colour agnosia.

  18. Cross-Family Transcription Factor Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, Marian; Dijk, van Aalt-Jan; Immink, Richard G.H.; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2017-01-01

    Specific and dynamic gene expression strongly depends on transcription factor (TF) activity and most plant TFs function in a combinatorial fashion. They can bind to DNA and control the expression of the corresponding gene in an additive fashion or cooperate by physical interactions, forming larger p

  19. Family functioning and risk factors for disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, Jennifer; Matsen, Julie

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether any of seven factors of family dysfunction predicted five risk factors for developing eating disorders in young adult women. Participants completed demographic questions, the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale (Slade & Dewey, 1986) online. Five stepwise multiple regressions evaluated whether FAD scores predicted any of the eating disorder risk factors. Unhealthy affective responsiveness predicted general dissatisfaction and social and personal anxiety, and unhealthy general functioning predicted adolescent problems. No FAD factors predicted perfectionism or weight control. These results confirm the importance of families' affective responsiveness and general functioning to the risk of developing eating disorders. However, the lack of relationship among problem-solving, communication, roles, affective involvement, or behavior control with any of the risk factors for eating disorders warrants further investigation.

  20. 45 CFR 400.208 - Claims involving family units which include both refugees and nonrefugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... refugees and nonrefugees. 400.208 Section 400.208 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Federal Funding Federal Funding for Expenditures for...

  1. [Critical perspective of the family and acquaintances on family and community risk factors in illicit drug use in São Jose, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Hernández, Mabell; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a quantitative study. The purpose was to describe the perspective of family members and acquaintances of illicit drug users about family and community risk factors that can contribute to addiction to illicit drugs. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The population consisted of 100 individuals, 18 years of age or older, who reported being affected by their relationship with an illicit drug user (relative or acquaintance). Most users (82%) were men, with an average age of 27.3 years. Family risk factors included: family rejection (99%), not feeling loved (98%), lack of communication (95%), family conflicts and violence (95%). Social or community factors included: 99% having friends who use drugs, 99% peer pressure, 93% living in an unsafe area, and 99% experienced a stressful event. The critical perspective proposes to use more prevention strategies to avoid risk factors in the family and community.

  2. Transcription Factor Families Regulate the Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway in Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthocyanin structural gene transcription requires the expression of at least one member of each of three transcription factor families - MYC, MYB and WD40. These transcription factors form a complex that binds to structural gene promoters, thereby modulating gene expression. Capsicum annuum display...

  3. Validating the 5Fs mnemonic for cholelithiasis: time to include family history.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bass, Gary

    2013-11-01

    The time-honoured mnemonic of \\'5Fs\\' is a reminder to students that patients with upper abdominal pain and who conform to a profile of \\'fair, fat, female, fertile and forty\\' are likely to have cholelithiasis. We feel, however, that a most important \\'F\\'-that for \\'family history\\'-is overlooked and should be introduced to enhance the value of a useful aide memoire.

  4. Linkage analyses of chromosome 6 loci, including HLA, in familial aggregations of Crohn disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugot, J.P.; Laurent-Puig, P.; Gower-Rousseau, C.; Caillat-Zueman, S.; Beaugerie, L.; Dupas, J.L.; Van Gossum, A.; Bonaiti-Pellie, C.; Cortot, A.

    1994-08-15

    Segregation analyses of familial aggregations of Crohn disease have provided consistent results pointing to the involvement of a predisposing gene with a recessive mode of inheritance. Although extensively investigated, the role played by human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes in this inflammatory bowel disease remains elusive and the major histocompatibility complex is a candidate region for the mapping of the Crohn disease susceptibility gene. A total of 25 families with multiple cases of Crohn disease was genotyped for HLA DRB1 and for 16 highly polymorphic loci evenly distributed on chromosome 6. The data were subjected to linkage analysis using the lod score method. Neither individual nor combined lod scores for any family and for any locus tested reached values suggesting linkage or genetic heterogeneity. The Crohn disease predisposing locus was excluded from the whole chromosome 6 with lod scores less than -2. It was excluded from the major histocompatibility complex and from 91% of the chromosome 6 genetic map with lod scores less than -4. The major recessive gene involved in genetic predisposition to Crohn disease does not reside on the major histocompatibility complex nor on any locus mapping to chromosome 6. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Personality factors in the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stacy L; Sun, Jenny X; Sebastiani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    within average population values. No significant differences were found between long-lived family members and their spouses.Discussion. Personality factors and more specifically low neuroticism and high extraversion may be important for achieving extreme old age. In addition, personality scores of family......Objectives. To evaluate personality profiles of Long Life Family Study participants relative to population norms and offspring of centenarians from the New England Centenarian Study.Method. Personality domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness were...... assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory in 4,937 participants from the Long Life Family Study (mean age 70 years). A linear mixed model of age and gender was implemented adjusting for other covariates. RESULTS: A significant age trend was found in all five personality domains. On average, the offspring...

  6. Correlations for perceived family environmental factors with substance use among adolescents in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, S N; Matla, M P

    2003-04-01

    Perceived family environmental factors were used to predict self-reported use of substances (drugs or alcohol) among adolescents in South Africa. 435 high school students (ages 15 to 19 years, M=17.2 yr., SD=1.34) answered a questionnaire which included questions on demographic variables, the Family Environmental Scale, and questions on substances used (drugs or alcohol). Logistic regression analysis indicated that scores on family conflict and low family moral-religious emphasis were significantly associated with drug use (57.9% of the variance was accounted for) and use of alcohol (62.3% of the variance was accounted for). Programmes for the reduction of substance use among adolescents should include activities designed to reduce family conflict and strengthen family moral-religious emphasis.

  7. Family - protective factor to prevent suicidal behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana R. Rusu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of our research was to establish a possible correlation between suicide risk in adolescents and a series ofintra-familial protective factors such as family harmony, intact families, increased family involvement in child education, empathy, ability toexpress emotions. Materials and Methods The study comprised the 1143 pupils, aged between 14 and 16 years from Cluj and Maramures counties,that participated in the SEYLE baseline evaluation. Results: Adolescents who have no problems with parents (p<0.001, being understoodby them (p<0.001 and having the belief that family is very important to them (p<0.001, are protected from the risk of committing suicide. Atthe same time, parents’ ability to listen children opinion (p<0.001 and help them take important decisions (p<0.001, the time spent discussingwith teens the problems they’re going through (p<0.001, and the fact that parents know what they do in their spare time (p=0.003 showsprotective factors of suicidal behavior with a statistically significant value in this study.Conclusion: The family is a psychosocial system witha major impact on adolescents’ personality formation. The attitude towards children, the parents availability to important moments for teens,the ability to be both subjective and objective towards their children initiatives, are factors of protection against adolescents’ suicidal behavior.

  8. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

    OpenAIRE

    Golovey L.A.; Vasilenko V.E.; Savenysheva S.S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling) and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction). The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from sing...

  9. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  10. Prevention of childhood obesity: sociocultural and familial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B; Morris, Joseph; Dannison, Linda

    2003-08-01

    This study examined sociocultural and familial factors related to the prevention of childhood obesity. Primary caregivers of 6- to 10-year-old children representing several ethnic populations in Saipan participated in 4 focus groups (N=32). Trained moderators used semi-structured interviews and qualitative methods were used in data analysis. A central theme with several related factors emerged. The theme was a conflict expressed by the primary caregiver between sociocultural values, family expectations, traditional dietary beliefs and attitudes, and knowledge about food and disease. These findings have important implications for designing culturally sensitive interventions for prevention of childhood obesity.

  11. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  12. Factors associated with family-centered involvement in family practice--a cross-sectional multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Tobias; Frese, Thomas; Sandholzer, Hagen

    2014-01-01

    The importance of a family-centered approach in family practice has been emphasized. Knowledge about factors associated with higher family-centered involvement seems beneficial to stimulate its realization. German office-based family physicians completed a questionnaire addressing several aspects of family-centered care. Logistic regression was used to identify associations with the involvement overall and in different domains: routine inquiry and documentation of family-related information, family orientation regarding diagnosis and treatment, family-oriented dialogues, family conferences, and case-related collaboration with marriage and family therapists. We found significant associations between physicians' family-centered involvement and expected patient receptiveness, perceived impact of the family's influence on health, self-perceived psychosocial family-care competences (overall and concerning concepts for family orientation, psychosocial intervention in family conferences, and the communication of the idea of family counseling), advanced training in psychosocial primary care (PPC), personal acquaintance with family therapists (regarding case-related collaboration), and rural office environment. Increased emphasis on the family's influence on health in medical education and training, the provision of concepts for a family-centered perspective, and versatile skills for psychosocial intervention and inquiry of patient preferences, as well as the strengthening of networking between family physicians and family therapists, might promote the family-centered approach in family practice.

  13. The role of family and maternal factors in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lisa Y; Byrne, Susan M; Davis, Elizabeth A; Blair, Eve; Jacoby, Peter; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2007-06-04

    To investigate the relationship between a child's weight and a broad range of family and maternal factors. Cross-sectional data from a population-based prospective study, collected between January 2004 and December 2005, for 329 children aged 6-13 years (192 healthy weight, 97 overweight and 40 obese) and their mothers (n=265) recruited from a paediatric hospital endocrinology department and eight randomly selected primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children and mothers; demographic information; maternal depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem; general family functioning; parenting style; and negative life events. In a multilevel model, maternal BMI and family structure (single-parent v two-parent families) were the only significant predictors of child BMI z scores. Childhood obesity is not associated with adverse maternal or family characteristics such as maternal depression, negative life events, poor general family functioning or ineffective parenting style. However, having an overweight mother and a single-parent (single-mother) family increases the likelihood of a child being overweight or obese.

  14. Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Chrenková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.

  15. A spotlight on preschool: the influence of family factors on children's early literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Steve M; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Bloor, Kimberley E; Boyle, Gemma L; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John H; Wigley, Charles A; Yeong, Stephanie H M

    2014-01-01

    Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, oral language (including sentence recall) and rapid automatised naming are acknowledged within-child predictors of literacy development. Separate research has identified family factors including socio-economic status, parents' level of education and family history. However, both approaches have left unexplained significant amounts of variance in literacy outcomes. This longitudinal study sought to improve prospective classification accuracy for young children at risk of literacy failure by adding two new family measures (parents' phonological awareness and parents' perceived self-efficacy), and then combining the within-child and family factors. Pre-literacy skills were measured in 102 four year olds (46 girls and 56 boys) at the beginning of Preschool, and then at the beginning and end of Kindergarten, when rapid automatised naming was also measured. Family factors data were collected at the beginning of Preschool, and children's literacy outcomes were measured at the end of Year 1 (age 6-7 years). Children from high-risk backgrounds showed poorer literacy outcomes than low-risk students, though three family factors (school socio-economic status, parents' phonological awareness, and family history) typically accounted for less Year 1 variance than the within-child factors. Combining these family factors with the end of Kindergarten within-child factors provided the most accurate classification (i.e., sensitivity = .85; specificity = .90; overall correct = .88). Our approach would identify at-risk children for intervention before they began to fail. Moreover, it would be cost-effective because although few at-risk children would be missed, allocation of unnecessary educational resources would be minimised.

  16. A spotlight on preschool: the influence of family factors on children's early literacy skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Heath

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, oral language (including sentence recall and rapid automatised naming are acknowledged within-child predictors of literacy development. Separate research has identified family factors including socio-economic status, parents' level of education and family history. However, both approaches have left unexplained significant amounts of variance in literacy outcomes. This longitudinal study sought to improve prospective classification accuracy for young children at risk of literacy failure by adding two new family measures (parents' phonological awareness and parents' perceived self-efficacy, and then combining the within-child and family factors. METHOD: Pre-literacy skills were measured in 102 four year olds (46 girls and 56 boys at the beginning of Preschool, and then at the beginning and end of Kindergarten, when rapid automatised naming was also measured. Family factors data were collected at the beginning of Preschool, and children's literacy outcomes were measured at the end of Year 1 (age 6-7 years. RESULTS: Children from high-risk backgrounds showed poorer literacy outcomes than low-risk students, though three family factors (school socio-economic status, parents' phonological awareness, and family history typically accounted for less Year 1 variance than the within-child factors. Combining these family factors with the end of Kindergarten within-child factors provided the most accurate classification (i.e., sensitivity = .85; specificity = .90; overall correct = .88. IMPLICATIONS: Our approach would identify at-risk children for intervention before they began to fail. Moreover, it would be cost-effective because although few at-risk children would be missed, allocation of unnecessary educational resources would be minimised.

  17. The AP2/EREBP family of plant transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechmann, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    AP2 (APETALA2) and EREBPs (ethylene-responsive element binding proteins) are the prototypic members of a family of transcription factors unique to plants, whose distinguishing characteristic is that they contain the so-called AP2 DNA-binding domain. AP2/ REBP genes form a large multigene family, and they play a variety of roles throughout the plant life cycle: from being key regulators of several developmental processes, like floral organ identity determination or control of leaf epidermal cell identity, to forming part of the mechanisms used by plants to respond to various types of biotic and environmental stress. The molecular and biochemical characteristics of the AP2/EREBP transcription factors and their diverse functions are reviewed here, and this multigene family is analyzed within the context of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence project.

  18. Is Nonsuicidal Self Injury Associated With Parenting and Family Factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Martin, Graham; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the association of parenting and family factors with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in preadolescents. A sample of 1,439 preadolescents and their parents were assessed by means of (a) adolescent-reported parenting behaviors (support and behavioral/psychological control

  19. Religious beliefs, coping skills and responsibility to family as factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control groups were compared using psychosocial tests that ... Methods. The study was conducted in Kota Kinabalu, capital of Sabah, .... variables affects DSH individuals and is a substantial risk factor ... Don't know ... Comparison of scores for religious beliefs and responsibility to family between DSH patients and controls.

  20. Is Nonsuicidal Self Injury Associated With Parenting and Family Factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Martin, Graham; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the association of parenting and family factors with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in preadolescents. A sample of 1,439 preadolescents and their parents were assessed by means of (a) adolescent-reported parenting behaviors (support and behavioral/psychological control

  1. Familial and Institutional Factors: Job Satisfaction for Female Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Albritton, Carrie; Hill, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    Job satisfaction based on familial and institutional factors was explored for 157 female counselor educators. Results indicate that female associate professors had lower levels of intrinsic rewards domain after controlling for institutional type. Parental responsibility and partnership status were equivocal, with significant interaction effects…

  2. Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

  3. Familial and Institutional Factors: Job Satisfaction for Female Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Albritton, Carrie; Hill, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    Job satisfaction based on familial and institutional factors was explored for 157 female counselor educators. Results indicate that female associate professors had lower levels of intrinsic rewards domain after controlling for institutional type. Parental responsibility and partnership status were equivocal, with significant interaction effects…

  4. Adolescent toothbrushing and the home environment: sociodemographic factors, family relationships and mealtime routines and disorganisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A; Currie, Candace

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that sociodemographic factors are associated with adolescent toothbrushing. While there has been some investigation of parental modelling of oral health behaviour and the association between parental support and oral health, there has been no investigation of the home environment and its effect on oral health behaviour. The current study examines variables related to the family, including mealtime routines and family relationships to determine the best predictors of adolescent toothbrushing. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey were modelled using logistic univariate and multivariable modelling with outcome variable twice-a-day toothbrushing. Higher family socioeconomic and affluence were significantly associated with greater odds of toothbrushing twice a day or more. Family structure was also significantly associated with girls' toothbrushing. However, under the multivariable model, eating breakfast was found to be the best predictor of twice-a-day toothbrushing among boys and girls. The next best predictor of boys' toothbrushing was eating family meals and of girls' toothbrushing, never going to bed hungry, followed by family affluence for both boys and girls. Under the multivariable model, family structure was no longer significantly associated with girls' toothbrushing. The study shows that the family and home environment should play a central role in the promotion of oral health, through mealtime routines, incorporating a fair parenting style and developing open and positive family relationships. Not only are these strongly associated with twice a day toothbrushing but, unlike sociodemographic factors, they may be relatively easy to adopt.

  5. Association between family risk of stroke and myocardial infarction with prevalent risk factors and coexisting diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard E; Howard, George; Go, Rodney C; Rothwell, Peter M; Tiwari, Hemant K; Feng, Rui; McClure, Leslie A; Prineas, Ronald J; Banerjee, Amitava; Arnett, Donna K

    2012-04-01

    Familial transmission of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) is partially mediated by transmission of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular risk factors. We examined relationships between family risk of stroke and MI with risk factors for these phenotypes. A cross-sectional association between the stratified log-rank family score for stroke and MI with prevalent risk factors was assessed in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Individuals in the fourth quartile of stratified log-rank family scores for stroke were more likely to have prevalent risk factors including hypertension (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.30-1.58), left ventricular hypertrophy (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.16-1.42), diabetes (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12-1.43), and atrial fibrillation (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.45) compared with individuals in the first quartile. Likewise, individuals in the fourth quartile of stratified log-rank family scores for MI were more likely to have prevalent risk factors including hypertension (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.27-1.94) and diabetes (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12-1.43) than the first quartile. In contrast to stroke, the family risk score for MI was associated with dyslipidemia (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.23-1.55) and overweight/obesity (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10-1.37). Family risk of stroke and MI is strongly associated with the majority of risk factors associated with each disease. Family history and genetic studies separating nonspecific contributions of intermediate phenotypes from specific contributions to the disease phenotype may lead to a more thorough understanding of transmission for these complex disorders.

  6. Common familial risk factors for schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Debra L; Mackinnon, Andrew; Morgan, Vera A; Watts, Gerald F; Castle, David J; Waterreus, Anna; Galletly, Cherrie A

    2016-05-01

    The co-occurrence of type 2 diabetes and psychosis is an important form of medical comorbidity within individuals, but no large-scale study has evaluated comorbidity within families. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence for familial comorbidity between type 2 diabetes and psychosis. Data were analysed from an observational study of a nationally representative sample of 1642 people with psychosis who were in contact with psychiatric services at the time of survey (The 2010 Australian National Survey of Psychosis). Participants were aged 18-64 years and met World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision diagnostic criteria for a psychotic disorder (857 with schizophrenia, 319 with bipolar disorder with psychotic features, 293 with schizoaffective disorder, 81 with depressive psychosis and 92 with delusional disorder or other non-organic psychoses). Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between a family history of diabetes and a family history of schizophrenia. A positive family history of diabetes was associated with a positive family history of schizophrenia in those with a psychotic disorder (odds ratio = 1.35, p = 0.01, adjusted for age and gender). The association was different in those with an affective versus non-affective psychosis (odds ratio = 0.613, p = 0.019, adjusted for age and gender) and was significant only in those with a non-affective psychosis, specifically schizophrenia (odds ratio = 1.58, p = 0.005, adjusted for age and sex). Adjustment for demographic factors in those with schizophrenia slightly strengthened the association (odds ratio = 1.74, p = 0.001, adjusted for age, gender, diagnosis, ethnicity, education, employment, income and marital status). Elevated risk for type 2 diabetes in people with schizophrenia is not simply a consequence of antipsychotic medication; type 2 diabetes and schizophrenia share familial risk factors. © The Royal Australian and New

  7. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...... a population-based cohort of 2,486,646million persons born in Denmark between 1 January 1955 and 31 December 1993 using Danish registers. We found that PAR associated with urban birth was 11.73%; PAR associated with one, respectively 2, parent(s) with schizophrenia was 2.67% and 0.12%. PAR associated...

  8. Family history of venous thromboembolism and identifying factor V Leiden carriers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Amanda L; Momirova, Valerija; Dizon-Townson, Donna; Wenstrom, Katharine; Wendel, George; Samuels, Philip; Sibai, Baha; Spong, Catherine Y; Cotroneo, Margaret; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Conway, Deborah; Wapner, Ronald J

    2010-03-01

    To estimate whether there is a correlation between family history of venous thromboembolism and factor V Leiden mutation carriage in gravid women without a personal history of venous thromboembolism. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study of the frequency of pregnancy-related thromboembolic events among carriers of the factor V Leiden mutation. Family history of venous thromboembolism in either first- or second-degree relatives was self-reported. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of family history to predict factor V Leiden mutation carrier status were calculated. Women without a personal venous thromboembolism history and with available DNA were included (n=5,168). One hundred forty women (2.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-3.2%]) were factor V Leiden mutation-positive. Four hundred twelve women (8.0% [95% CI 7.3-8.7%]) reported a family history of venous thromboembolism. Women with a positive family history were twofold more likely to be factor V Leiden mutation carriers than those with a negative family history (23 of 412 [5.6%] compared with 117 of 4,756 [2.5%], Pfactor V Leiden carriers were 16.4% (95% CI 10.7-23.6%), 92.3% (95% CI 91.5-93.0%), and 5.6% (95% CI 3.6-8.3%), respectively. Although a family history of venous thromboembolism is associated with factor V Leiden mutation in thrombosis-free gravid women, the sensitivity and positive predictive values are too low to recommend screening women for the factor V Leiden mutation based solely on a family history.

  9. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  10. Work-Family Enrichment: It’s Mediating Role in the Relationships between Dispositional Factors and Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Swee Fung

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in understanding the interface of work and family roles, in particular work-family enrichment, and its antecedents and outcomes, has stimulated the development of a mediation model. The mediation model developed includes dispositional factors (optimism, self-efficacy as antecedents, job satisfaction as the outcome, and work-family enrichment as the mediator. This present model is developed based on the conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989, the model of work-family enrichment (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006 and the social exchange theory (Blau, 1964. This model presents the mechanism of how dispositional factors could influence job satisfaction among employees through work-family enrichment.

  11. Genetic factors in familial aggregation of blood pressure of Portuguese nuclear families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermino, Rogério César; Seabra, André; Garganta, Rui; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2009-03-01

    Despite of the increase in the prevalence of hypertension in Portugal, the importance of genetic factors in blood pressure (BP) has not been studied extensively in our country. To verify the indirect presence of vertical transmission of genetic factors between parents and children in BP values, and to estimate the magnitude of genetic factors contributing for variation in BP values in the population. Sample size comprises 367 individuals (164 parents and 203 children) pertaining the 107 nuclear families participating in 'Familias Activas' project, proceeding from different regions of North Portugal. The BP was measured with Omron model M6 (HEM-7001-E) digital device. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis; PEDSTATS was used to verify the structure of each family data. Familial correlations and heritability estimates were computed in FCOR and ASSOC modules of S.A.G.E. version 5.3. For systolic BP (SBP), correlation values were low to moderate (0.21< or = r < or =0.35); for diastolic BP (DBP) values were found to be moderate (0.24< or = r < or =0. 50). Genetic factors explain 43 and 49% of the total variation in SBP and DBP, respectively. A moderate amount of the SBP and the DBP is accounted for by genetic factors.

  12. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurina Carme

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010 and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010. Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7% and the pill (28.0% being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood. With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to

  13. Familial and social factors of involving teenagers into alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many authors discuss factors which influence involving adolescence into alcohol use. This study was aimed to assess contribution of factors related to alcohol use in the family, getting into situations of alcohol use as well as preventive work in teenage establishments.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of 373 adolescents attending teenage clubs was conducted in Kazan, Russia, with questions related to alcohol use in the family and among peers, age and circumstances of first alcohol use. The outcome measure was whether respondents were current alcohol users. Associations were explored through logistic regression models.RESULTS: Alcohol use by teenagers did not differ by gender. Odds of using alcohol increased with age (OR=1.46 95%CI 1.19-1.80 per year. Risk of alcohol use was lower if no family members used alcohol (OR=0.3 95%CI 0.2-0.5 compared to those teenagers who have any family members who used alcohol. After adding to the model variables related to the first alcohol use, most significant was association with the response that no one has ever proposed to drink alcohol (OR=0.014 95%CI 0.005-0.041 compared to any situations of alcohol use, while the association with familial factors was attenuated. This shows that impact of familial factors could be mediated through the occasions of alcohol use. Teenagers whose parents do not use alcohol less likely get into situations where they are proposed to drink in a peer group (12% vs. 24% or at a party (18% vs. 25%.Adolescents who expressed negative attitude to alcohol-related work in youth clubs more likely were alcohol users themselves (OR=21.1 95%CI 2.6-170.3, which is better applicable for diagnostics than for program evaluation.CONCLUSION: Absence of alcohol in the family predetermines alcohol use by adolescents. Teenagers whose parents do not use alcohol less likely get into situations where they are suggested to drink alcohol.

  14. The effective family and personality factors on felony in adolescent felons of Khorramabad house of correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mandana Saki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social damage is one of the problems which destroys the active manpower and young population in the country and also prevents social development. Family is the first environment in which social ground for the child is provided.Any dispute, controversy or inferiority complex in the family may lead to wrong doings The present study aims at the effective family and personality factors on felony in felon adolescents kept in Khorramabad bouse of correction. Materials and Methods: This descriptive- analytic study was carried out on all of the adolescents in Khorramabad house of correction as case group selected using census random sampling and high school students as control group selected by cluster random sampling. Data gathering tool was a 2-part questionnaire including demographic information and standard SCL 90 questionnaire. Results: Results showed that there is a significant relationship between the place of residence, failure in school program, economic status of the family, parents presence, fathers job and education, mothers job and education, parents inter personal relationship and family conflicting. The results also showed that aggression, anxiety, depression, somatic complain, obsessive compulsive, inter personality sensitivity, Psychotic, paranoid and phobia had a significant difference in the case and control groups. Conclusion: Regarding the fact that family environment is considered as the most important educative factor and no social damage has not occurred out of family influence, so no society can claim to be healthy unless to have healthy families.

  15. [Analysis of family influence factors of quality of life about vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yirong; Wang, Hong; Cao, Xingyuan; Yuan, Baocheng; Chen, Jiaxu

    2015-09-01

    To explore the QOL About Vision of students and its family influence factors. 4096 students and 3740 parents were chosen from 8 primary and middle schools by stratified cluster random sampling in the suburbs and the urban area of Chongqing, surveyed with questionnaire by a QOL about vision for primary and middle school students, Family factors questionnaire (including parents' education, occupation, be myopia or not,family economic status etc.). The total score of QOL about vision among boys (92. 13 ± 12. 50) were more than girls > (90. 08 ± 12. 82), more and more as grade-grouping (96. 39 ± 9. 72 >90. 35 ±12. 07 >83. 45 ± 13. 46). The total score of rural students (91. 46 ± 12. 87) were more than that of urban students > (90. 84 ± 12. 54). The results for single factor analysis indicated that there were significant difference between different parents' degree of education,distance between eye and TV set, whether or not encouraging movement. The results of general linear regression analysis indicated that parents' degree of education and distance between eye and TV set were main factors which influence the students' QOL about vision. Family factors were main factors of QOL about vision.family should be one of the key intervention place.

  16. Protective factors for adolescents among divorced single-parent families from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Mei-O; Leung, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    There has been growing research interest in relation to problems of divorced single-parent families and their children. This study investigates predictors of life adaptation problems among adolescents from divorced single-parent families. The participants included 291 youths, 39.9% of whom were living with single fathers and 46.4% of whom were living with single mothers. All measures were tested using split-half reliabilities and Cronbach's Alpha reliabilities. Factor analyses were employed repeatedly until the factor loadings of all items in each scale were larger than 0.5. Regression analysis determined the influence of these factors on the adolescents' adaptation. Results showed that adolescents had multidimensional adaptation problems. Resilience, family functioning, and social support had their relative effects on each aspect of adaptation. Among these factors, family functioning played such an important role that it appeared to enter into almost every multiple regression equation. Specifically, "family are cohesive and harmonious" and "family render affirmative behaviors" protected youth from many adaptation problems. It also revealed that "confidence in handling interpersonal relationship" in personal resilience was important. Finally, implications for social work practice are provided.

  17. Review: Burden on Family Caregivers Caring for Patients with Schizophrenia and Its Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Rafiyah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family caregiver is the most important person who cares for patient with schizophrenia. However when care is provided for long time, he/she may experiences the burden.Purpose: The purpose was to review concept and factors related to burden on family caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia.Method: A literatures were searched from databases: Pubmed, CINAHL, and Science Direct. Key words used to retrieve literature include caregiver burden and schizophrenia. Searching was limited in English language, full text, and the year of publication from 2000 to 2009 was used.Results: Twenty two studies were reviewed in this paper. The result showed that the caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia experience burden. Burden was defined as a negative impact of caring for the impaired person experienced by caregiver on their activity (objective burden or feeling (subjective burden that involves emotional, physical health, social life, and financial status. Factors related to burden on family caregiver were grouped into: 1 caregiver‟s factors included age, gender, educational level, income, health status, and spent time per day, knowledge of schizophrenia, culture, and coping; 2 patient‟s factors included age, clinical symptoms, and disability in daily life; 3 environmental factors included mental health service and social support.Conclusion: Definition of burden have quite same meaning and mostly factors focus on the patient‟s symptoms, demographic factors of caregiver, and time spent per day. Most of studies cannot be generalized due to small sample used in the study and that too conducted in western countries. For further research, the correlation between burden and resources of family caregiver should be investigated particularly in eastern country.Key words: burden on family caregiver, caring, schizophrenia.

  18. Cephamycins, a New Family of β-Lactam Antibiotics I. Production by Actinomycetes, Including Streptomyces lactamdurans sp. n1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapley, E. O.; Jackson, M.; Hernandez, S.; Zimmerman, S. B.; Currie, S. A.; Mochales, S.; Mata, J. M.; Woodruff, H. B.; Hendlin, D.

    1972-01-01

    A number of actinomycetes isolated from soil were found to produce one or more members of a new family of antibiotics, the cephamycins, which are structurally related to cephalosporin C. The cephamycins were produced in submerged fermentation in a wide variety of media by one or more of eight different species of Streptomyces, including a newly described species, S. lactamdurans. These antibiotics exhibit antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria which includes many that are resistant to the cephalosporins and penicillins. PMID:4790552

  19. Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

  20. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction. The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from single parent families had higher indicators of anxiety, insecurity, depressiveness, self-distrust, hostility, feeling of inferiority, conflicts and difficulties in communication. In families with pronounced overprotection and characteristics of an authoritarian style children had lower self- esteem and higher indicators of anxiety and hostility. Children's aggressiveness was more pronounced in the case of permissive style and instability of parenting style. It was shown that emotional well-being in the parent-child relationships can be regarded as a resource for personal development of the child: understanding the causes of child s state, empathy. However we revealed that one third part of mothers had difficulties in emotional interaction with children. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №13-06-00480 «The family as a resource of child´s mental development in stable and critical ontogenetic periods».

  1. Quarrelsome family environment as an enhanced factor on child suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fu-Gong; Lin, Jing-Ding; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Chien-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death in adolescents, and develops through a process leading from depression to suicidal ideation and self-injury. In this study, we analyzed and compared suicidal ideation among elementary school children from distinct families and school-related backgrounds. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate suicidal ideation in elementary school children in Miaoli County of Western Taiwan. Our study included 979 eligible participants and collected data, including suicidal ideation, depression scores, demographic characteristics, and family and school variables. The results revealed that 175 students (17.9%) exhibited depression, and 146 students (14.9%) had contemplated suicide. A quarrelsome family environment was found to be an important independent factor in child suicidal ideation after controlling for depression status. Children living in quarrelsome families showed a 3.7-fold risk of suicidal ideation compared with children in a harmonious family. Among boys living in quarrelsome family environments, suicidal ideation risk was 7.4-fold higher than for girls living in harmonious families. A 27-fold high increased suicidal ideation risk was also observed among the depressed children who living in the quarrelsome family environment, compared with the non-depressed in the harmonious family environment. This study provides novel evidence indicating the enhanced effects of a quarrelsome family environment combined with depression symptoms and among boys on suicidal ideation. These findings suggest of quarrels in a family environment playing an important role on elementary school children's psychological development, and may help parents in improving their mental health.

  2. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  3. Comorbidity and Family Factors Associated with Selective Mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Buzzella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that Selective Mutism (SM is best conceptualized as a childhood anxiety disorder and that oppositional behavior may or may not be a significant part of the clinical picture. Twenty-nine mothers of children with SM and 28 mothers of children who did not meet diagnostic criteria for any Axis I disorder (a community comparison group completed parental self-report questionnaires and clinician-rated interviews assessing anxiety and oppositional behavior, parental psychopathology, and family factors with hypothesized relationships with childhood anxiety. Findings suggested that children with SM experienced more anxiety than those in the community comparison group, with significantly higher levels of social anxiety, rumination, and physical symptoms reported. Mothers of children with SM reported greater monitoring of their children's activities, but they did not significantly differ from community comparison group mothers on reports of other parenting behaviors. Such findings may have important implications for guiding family involvement in psychosocial interventions.

  4. Family factors associated with children's handwashing hygiene behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In Han; Kim, Sang-A; Park, Woong-Sub

    2013-06-01

    Despite the importance of children's hand hygiene and family influence on children's behaviors, few studies have been dedicated to identifying family factors affecting handwashing practice. This study investigated the entire group of sixth-grade students (N = 2323) and their parents (N = 2089) at 11 elementary schools randomly selected from the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea. The results show that parents' handwashing practice, parent and child bonding, and shared time have a significant correlation with children's hand hygiene practice. The thoroughness of hand cleansing is more likely to be associated with health education, parents' practice of proper handwashing, greater parent-child bonding, and a greater amount of shared time with parents. Parent-child bonding and shared time are crucial in promoting children's hand hygiene. These results imply that public health policies need to be targeted at not only providing health education but at increasing parent-child bonding and shared time in order to promote children's health more effectively.

  5. Expression analysis of TALE family transcription factors during avian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Sarah E; Borycki, Anne-Gaëlle

    2010-04-01

    The TALE family of homeodomain containing transcription factors consists of the Meis, Prep and Tgif, and the Pbx subfamily of proteins. Several TALE orthologues have been identified in amniotes, but no comprehensive analysis of their expression pattern during embryogenesis has been performed. Here, we report on TALE gene expression in the avian embryo. During embryonic development, Pbx genes are predominantly expressed in the neural ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm, although Pbx3 is restricted to the intermediate and lateral mesoderm, and anterior central nervous system. Members of the Meis, Prep, and Tgif subfamilies are expressed at high levels in the paraxial mesoderm, and display differential expression along the anterior-posterior and dorsoventral axes of the developing neural tube. Overall the expression patterns reported in this study are consistent with the known function of the TALE gene family in controlling early patterning of limb, neural tube and paraxial mesoderm tissues during embryogenesis.

  6. Family Engagement in Education in Uttar Pradesh, India: Factors Associated with the Involvement of Families in Their Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Amanda Joy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which families within the Shravasti district of Uttar Pradesh, India are engaged in their children's education, as well as to examine the child, family, school, and community factors that are potentially associated with families' involvement in their children's education. Additionally,…

  7. Opening Doors: Understanding School and Family Influences on Family Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Erin; Stanley, Lindsey; Kemple, Kristen Mary

    2005-01-01

    Family involvement in schooling can benefit young children, teachers, and families. Family involvement in schools can be influenced by both school-related and family-related factors. School-related factors include teachers' attitudes toward families, and school and teacher expectations. Family-related factors include ethnicity, prior school…

  8. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdel Aziem A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3 and 3.4 (1.8 respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812 and 26.2% (213/812 were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13% and 130 (16% respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education P=0.00, husband education P = 0.00 and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00 were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.

  9. Maternal and family factors and child eating pathology: risk and protective relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body mass index z-scores and levels of general psychological distress. Methods Participants were 221 mother-child dyads from the Childhood Growth and Development Study, a prospective cohort study in Western Australia. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up and 2-year follow-up using interview and self-report measures. Children had a mean age of 10 years at baseline and 46% were male. Linear mixed models and generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of children’s eating disorder symptoms, with outcome variables including a global index of eating disorder psychopathology, levels of dietary restraint, levels of emotional eating, and the presence of loss of control (‘binge’) eating. Results Children of mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly higher levels of global eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than other children, and mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly more concern about their children’s weight than other mothers. Maternal concern about child weight, rather than maternal eating disorder symptoms, was significant in predicting child eating disorder symptoms over time. Family exposure to stress and low maternal education were additional risk factors for eating disorder symptoms, whilst child-reported family satisfaction was a protective factor. Conclusions After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, maternal concern about child weight, children

  10. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS IN THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lapshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides guidelines for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α  (TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis  (axSpA, including ankylosing spondylitis. It gives data on the efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with non-radiographic axSpA. By using international and Russian guidelines, the authors lay down indications for this therapy and criteria for evaluation of its efficiency and safety.

  11. Quantitative measurements of trefoil factor family peptides: possibilities and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund

    2013-01-01

    as well as in the circulation. They have been linked to both inflammatory diseases and to various types of cancer, and serum concentrations of TFF3 show a more than 47-fold increase during pregnancy. Several both commercial and in-house immunoassays exist, but a number of methodological issues remain......The trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 are produced and secreted by mucous membranes throughout the body. Their importance for the protection and repair of epithelial surfaces is well established, and the three peptides are present in various amounts in mucosal secretions...

  12. Are the educational differences in incidence of cardiovascular disease explained by underlying familial factors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    To isolate the effect of education from the influence of potential underlying factors, we investigated the association of education with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) using twin data to adjust for familial factors shared within twins, including genetic...... make-up and childhood environment. The study was based on data from the Danish Twin Registry linked to administrative and heath registers in Statistics Denmark. A total of 11,968 monozygotic and 20,464 dizygotic same sexed twins were followed from 1980 to 2009, including more than 8000 events of CVD....... Unpaired and intra-pair analyses were compared. In the unpaired analyses, an inverse educational gradient in CVD- and IHD risk was observed. This association was not replicated in the intra-pair analyses that control for shared familial factors exploiting that twins share their intrauterine- and childhood...

  13. Isolation of an additional member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, FGFR-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keegan, K.; Hayman, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (United States)); Johnson, D.E.; Williams, L.T. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1991-02-15

    The fibroblast growth factors are a family of polypeptide growth factors involved in a variety of activities including mitogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) have previously been identified in chicken, mouse, and human and have been shown to contain an extracellular domain with either two or three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The authors have isolated a human cDNA for another tyrosine kinase receptor that is highly homologous to the previously described FGFR. Expression of this receptor cDNA in COS cells directs the expression of a 125-kDa glycoprotein. They demonstrate that this cDNA encodes a biologically active receptor by showing that human acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors activate this receptor as measured by {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} efflux assays. These data establish the existence of an additional member of the FGFR family that they have named FGFR-3.

  14. Family history in breast cancer is not a prognostic factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobsen, J J; Meerwaldt, J H; van der Palen, J

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if breast conservative treatment is justified for patients with a positive family history of breast cancer and to investigate whether they have a worse prognosis. We performed a prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients, treated with breast conservative treatment with radiotherapy at the Radiotherapy Department of the Medisch Spectrum Twente. Between 1984 and 1996, 1204 patients with T1 and T2 or =2 FDRs. The local recurrence rate was 4.1%, with similar rates for all groups. In young patients, or =2 FDRs. Patients with a positive FH had significantly more contralateral tumours. The 5-year corrected survival was 91.3%. Among patients with a positive FH, a 5-year corrected survival of 91% was observed and the survival 100% among patients with one and > or =2 FDR. Family history is not a contraindication for breast conservative treatment and is not associated with a worse prognosis. Family history is not a prognostic factor for local recurrence rate in patients older than 40 years.

  15. Family aggregation and risk factors in substance use disorders over three generations in a nation-wide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2017-01-01

    Abstract View references (39) Objective This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often substance use disorders (SUD) and co-morbid disorders occurred in affected families compared to control families. Method A total of N = 2504 child and adolescent psychiatric participants who were...... for age, sex, and residential region were included. Psychiatric diagnoses of the first-degree relatives were also obtained. A family load component was assessed. Results SUD occurred significantly more often in case families than in control families. SUD risk factors included SUD, depression, anxiety...... disorders, personality disorders, or conduct disorders in the family. Furthermore, male sex, more recent year of birth, and living in the capital city of Copenhagen were also significantly associated with having SUD. The family load explained 30% of the SUD manifestation in the case-probands. The findings...

  16. Work-Family Enrichment: It’s Mediating Role in the Relationships between Dispositional Factors and Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ng Swee Fung; Aminah Ahmad; Zoharah Omar

    2012-01-01

    The growing interest in understanding the interface of work and family roles, in particular work-family enrichment, and its antecedents and outcomes, has stimulated the development of a mediation model. The mediation model developed includes dispositional factors (optimism, self-efficacy) as antecedents, job satisfaction as the outcome, and work-family enrichment as the mediator. This present model is developed based on the conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989), the model of work-f...

  17. Z' factor including siRNA design quality parameter in RNAi screening experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sławomir; Kozak, Karol

    2012-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) high-content screening (HCS) enables massive parallel gene silencing and is increasingly being used to reveal novel connections between genes and disease-relevant phenotypes. The application of genome-scale RNAi relies on the development of high quality HCS assays. The Z' factor statistic provides a way to evaluate whether or not screening run conditions (reagents, protocols, instrumentation, kinetics, and other conditions not directly related to the test compounds) are optimized. Z' factor, introduced by Zhang et al., ( 1) is a dimensionless value that represents both the variability and the dynamic range between two sets of sample control data. This paper describe a new extension of the Z' factor, which integrates bioinformatics RNAi non-target compounds for screening quality assessment. Currently presented Z' factor is based on positive and negative control, which may not be sufficient for RNAi experiments including oligonucleotides (oligo) with lack of knock-down. This paper proposes an algorithm which extends existing algorithm by using additional controls generetaed from on-target analysis.

  18. Clinical characterization and identification of duplication breakpoints in a Japanese family with Xq28 duplication syndrome including MECP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Daisuke; Yamada, Kenichiro; Nomura, Noriko; Naiki, Misako; Kimura, Reiko; Yamada, Yasukazu; Kumagai, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Kumiko; Miyake, Yoshishige; Wakamatsu, Nobuaki

    2014-04-01

    Xq28 duplication syndrome including MECP2 is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by axial hypotonia at infancy, severe intellectual disability, developmental delay, mild characteristic facial appearance, epilepsy, regression, and recurrent infections in males. We identified a Japanese family of Xq28 duplications, in which the patients presented with cerebellar ataxia, severe constipation, and small feet, in addition to the common clinical features. The 488-kb duplication spanned from L1CAM to EMD and contained 17 genes, two pseudo genes, and three microRNA-coding genes. FISH and nucleotide sequence analyses demonstrated that the duplication was tandem and in a forward orientation, and the duplication breakpoints were located in AluSc at the EMD side, with a 32-bp deletion, and LTR50 at the L1CAM side, with "tc" and "gc" microhomologies at the duplication breakpoints, respectively. The duplicated segment was completely segregated from the grandmother to the patients. These results suggest that the duplication was generated by fork-stalling and template-switching at the AluSc and LTR50 sites. This is the first report to determine the size and nucleotide sequences of the duplicated segments at Xq28 of three generations of a family and provides the genotype-phenotype correlation of the patients harboring the specific duplicated segment.

  19. Mutation of KREMEN1, a modulator of Wnt signaling, is responsible for ectodermal dysplasia including oligodontia in Palestinian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Yasmin A; Kamal, Lara; Rayyan, Amal Abu; Dweik, Dima; Pierce, Sarah; Lee, Ming K; King, Mary-Claire; Walsh, Tom; Kanaan, Moien

    2016-10-01

    Tooth development is controlled by the same processes that regulate formation of other ectodermal structures. Mutations in the genes underlying these processes may cause ectodermal dysplasia, including severe absence of primary or permanent teeth. Four consanguineous Palestinian families presented with oligodontia and hair and skin features of ectodermal dysplasia. Appearance of ectodermal dysplasia was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Exome sequencing followed by genotyping of 56 informative relatives in the 4 families suggests that the phenotype is due to homozygosity for KREMEN1 p.F209S (c.626 T>C) on chromosome 22 at g.29,521,399 (hg19). The variant occurs in the highly conserved extracellular WSC domain of KREMEN1, which is known to be a high affinity receptor of Dickkopf-1, a component of the Dickkopf-Kremen-LRP6 complex, and a potent regulator of Wnt signaling. The Wnt signaling pathway is critical to development of ectodermal structures. Mutations in WNT10A, LRP6, EDA, and other genes in this pathway lead to tooth agenesis with or without other ectodermal anomalies. Our results implicate KREMEN1 for the first time in a human disorder and provide additional details on the role of the Wnt signaling in ectodermal and dental development.

  20. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  1. Relationship of Marital Satisfaction, Family Support and Family-Work Conflict Factors Among Malaysian Fathers with Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahayudin, A.A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study on contextual factors in Malaysian family is more concentrated among mothers compared to the fathers. Malaysian fathers are often influenced by these factors embedded in the family. This study examines the level of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The survey was conducted using a simple sampling method, on a group of 413 fathers with adolescent children from all districts in the state of Selangor, West Peninsular of Malaysia. A set of questionnaires was used to derive data from the fathers̕ contextual factors which are marriage satisfaction, family support and work-family conflict among fathers of adolescents. Analysis on frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the Pearson correlations were used to investigate the level and correlation of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The Pearson correlation shows that there is a significant correlation between work-family conflict and marriage satisfaction and between family support and marriage satisfaction. However, there is no significant correlation between family support and work-family conflict. The study proficiently contributes towards the exploration of influencing factors for the involvement of fathers in parenting.

  2. School, neighborhood, and family factors are associated with children's bullying involvement: a nationally representative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2009-05-01

    To test whether school, neighborhood, and family factors are independently associated with children's involvement in bullying, over and above their own behaviors that may increase their risk for becoming involved in bullying. We examined bullying in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort of 2,232 children. We used mother and teacher reports to identify children who experienced bullying between the ages of 5 and 7 years either as victims, bullies, or bully-victims. We collected information about school characteristics from the Department for Children, Schools and Families. We collected reports from mothers about children's neighborhood and home environments and reports from mothers and teachers about children's internalizing and externalizing problems when they were 5 years old. Multinomial logistic regressions showed that over and above other socioenvironmental factors and children's behavior problems, school size was associated with an increased risk for being a victim of bullying, problems with neighbors was associated with an increased risk for being a bully-victim, and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment, domestic violence) were associated with all groups of children involved in bullying. Socioenvironmental factors are associated with children's risk for becoming involved in bullying over and above their own behaviors. Intervention programs aimed at reducing bullying should extend their focus beyond schools to include local communities and families.

  3. Social and Cultural Factors Influencing Family Violence in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Bashiri Khatibi

    2013-07-01

    In the present research which is of correlation one with quantitative method, the Survey method has Utilized in order to determine family violence rate and collection of necessary data to test hypothesizes that is cross-sectional and blind as well as to the domain, Small and of operational type. Statistical society and sampling method: The statistical society of the present research, is persons above 15 years old resident in Tabriz that based on latest statihstic of Iran statistical center were 733.208 persons in midyear 1384. The Sample selection method based on mass i.e pps was Used to Sampling which is multistep cluster sompling as called sampling with probability according mass. (Beby, 1384: 460. Sample mass determination : The Cocran formula with estimation accuracy d=0.05 and variance maximum has Used to Calclate Sample mass and about 384 persons was selected as sample. (Rafie poor, 1377, 383 Data collection method: In the present research, the documental studies (taking card has used to review resume problem nature and related descriptions as well as the necessary data has collector on utilized theory frames and hypothesizes test by questionnaire. Discussion of Result & Conclution The main aim was demonstration of family violence and review of effective social factors role on it. Thus, in the findings of the present research which was conducted as survey was determind that the violenve rate among foregoing persons oquals to 27.74 with standard deviation of 20.90 that was obtained of data which were minimum zero to maximum 96.06 from 100. While such violence rate is so lower than moderate on, it could be said that, violence is in optimum level within Tabriz families. Also, the resultant findings indicate that, the highest violence within Tabriz families was related to economical violence at 34.04 with standard deviation 27.41 (from minimum zero to maximum 100 and it’s lowest related to regional Violence at 15.53 with standard deviation (from minimum zero to

  4. Family-based factors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Shahid, Ubeera; Shafique, Mahar Muhammad; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Siddiqui, Arif Mahmood

    2011-12-16

    Childhood obesity epidemic is now penetrating the developing countries including Pakistan, especially in the affluent urban population. There is no data on association of family-based factors with overweight and obesity among school-aged children in Pakistan. The study aimed to explore the family-based factors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> +1SD BMI-for-age z-score) and obesity (> +2SD BMI-for-age z-score) were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to BMI. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of overweight and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. All regression analyses were controlled for age and gender and statistical significance was considered at P family-based correlates of overweight and obesity included higher parental education (P obesity. Higher parental education (P Family-based factors were significantly associated with overweight and obesity among school-aged children in Pakistan. Higher parental education, living in high-income neighborhoods and fewer siblings were independent predictors of overweight. These findings support the need to design evidence-based child health policy and implement targeted interventions, considering the impact of family-based factors and involving communities.

  5. Genome-wide Analysis of Plant-specific Dof Transcription Factor Family in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Cai; Yuyang Zhang; Chanjuan Zhang; Tingyan Zhang; Tixu Hu; Jie Ye; Junhong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The Dof (DNA binding with One Finger) family encoding single zinc finger proteins has been known as a family of plant-specific transcription factors.These transcription factors are involved in a variety of functions of importance for different biological processes in plants.In the current study,we identified 34 Dof family genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.),distributed on 11 chromosomes.A complete overview of SIDof genes in tomato is presented,including the gene structures,chromosome locations,phylogeny,protein motifs and evolution pattern.Phylogenetic analysis of 34 SlDof proteins resulted in four classes constituting six clusters.In addition,a comparative analysis between these genes in tomato,Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) was also performed.The tomato Dof family expansion has been dated to recent duplication events,and segmental duplication is predominant for the SlDof genes.Furthermore,the SlDof genes displayed differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under normal growth conditions.This is the first step towards genome-wide analyses of the Dof genes in tomato.Our study provides a very useful reference for cloning and functional analysis of the members of this gene family in tomato and other species.

  6. Protective factors within the family, and their role in fostering resiliency in African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, W J

    1997-01-01

    Violence has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with African American males residing in urban areas bearing the brunt of this epidemic. The violence permeating our society emanates from a variety of societal ills, including poverty, racism, substance abuse and exposure to violence. Traditionally, methods of research on adolescent violence have focused on an identification of associated risk factors. The majority of African American adolescents living in communities with widespread and chronic violence grow up to be law-abiding citizens. The reason for this may be due to resiliency within these adolescents. Resiliency has been defined as the ability to experience adverse circumstances and successfully overcome them. Resiliency is enhanced through three mechanisms identified as protective factors: individual characteristics/traits; familial traits; and extrafamilial relationships. The risks faced may be altered, and even ameliorated, through the presence of these protective factors. The purpose of this paper is to identify protective factors within the family that foster resiliency. Protective factors within the family may be categorized as having three broad characteristics: caring and support, high expectations, and encouragement of participation and involvement for the adolescent.

  7. Prognostic factors of infantile spasms: role of treatment options including a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Yu, Hee Jun; Lee, Munhyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide additional evidences on prognostic factors for infantile spasms and the possible role of a ketogenic diet. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with infantile spasms who had been followed up for more than 6months between January 2000 and July 2012 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). We analyzed the association between possible prognostic factors and seizure/developmental outcomes. Sixty-nine patients were included in this study and their mean follow-up duration was 52.5 (9-147) months. In the patients who had been followed up for more than 2years, 53.6% (n=30/57) remained seizure-free at the last visit. Sixty patients (86.9%) showed developmental delay at last follow-up. Forty-two patients (60.9%) became spasm-free with one or two antiepileptic drugs, one patient with epilepsy surgery for a tumor, and seven patients with a ketogenic diet after the failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. The etiology and age of seizure onset were the significant prognostic factors. In this study, about 60% of the patients became spasm-free with vigabatrin and topiramate. Ketogenic diet increased the rate by 10% in the remaining antiepileptic drug resistant patients. However, 86.9% of the patients showed developmental delay, mostly a severe degree. Early diagnosis and prompt application of treatment options such as antiepileptic drugs, a ketogenic diet or epilepsy surgery can improve outcomes in patients with infantile spasms. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  9. Cultural Factors in Collegiate Eating Disorder Pathology: When Family Culture Clashes with Individual Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)…

  10. Functional conservation between members of an ancient duplicated transcription factor family, LSF/Grainyhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Kavitha; McManus, Heather R; Mello, Craig C; Smith, Temple F; Hansen, Ulla

    2003-08-01

    The LSF/Grainyhead transcription factor family is involved in many important biological processes, including cell cycle, cell growth and development. In order to investigate the evolutionary conservation of these biological roles, we have characterized two new family members in Caenorhabditis elegans and Xenopus laevis. The C.elegans member, Ce-GRH-1, groups with the Grainyhead subfamily, while the X.laevis member, Xl-LSF, groups with the LSF subfamily. Ce-GRH-1 binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner identical to that of Drosophila melanogaster Grainyhead. In addition, Ce-GRH-1 binds to sequences upstream of the C.elegans gene encoding aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase and genes involved in post-embryonic development, mab-5 and dbl-1. All three C.elegans genes are homologs of D.melanogaster Grainyhead-regulated genes. RNA-mediated interference of Ce-grh-1 results in embryonic lethality in worms, accompanied by soft, defective cuticles. These phenotypes are strikingly similar to those observed previously in D.melanogaster grainyhead mutants, suggesting conservation of the developmental role of these family members over the course of evolution. Our phylogenetic analysis of the expanded LSF/GRH family (including other previously unrecognized proteins/ESTs) suggests that the structural and functional dichotomy of this family dates back more than 700 million years, i.e. to the time when the first multicellular organisms are thought to have arisen.

  11. The family Histriobdellidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) including descriptions of two new species from Brazil and a new genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menchini Steiner, Tatiana; Amaral, A. Cecilia Z.

    1999-01-01

    We review the family Histriobdellidae and provide species descriptions and notes on geographical distribution based on data from the literature. The morphological structures used in the systematics of this family are defined. A new genus, Dayus, is proposed and two new species from Brazil,

  12. Adverse childhood experiences, health perception, and the role of shared familial factors in adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostoufi, Sheeva M; Strachan, Eric; Chopko, Laura; Succop, Annemarie; Martinez, Beatrice; Ahumada, Sandra M; Afari, Niloofar

    2013-11-01

    To examine the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and health perception in adulthood, and to explore the contribution of shared familial factors to these associations. Data were collected from 180 female twins (90 pairs) from the community-based University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants completed questionnaires including the modified ACE Questionnaire, Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form, and the SF-36. Mixed effects linear regression modeling investigated the effects of ACE on indices of health perception controlling for correlated twin data. Additional models examined the associations while controlling for the experience of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood; within-twin pair models that inherently adjust for familial factors explored shared familial influences. After controlling for relevant demographic variables, more ACE was associated with worse perceptions of general health (p=.01) and vitality (p=.05) on the SF-36. After controlling for childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, the relationship between ACE and general health remained significant (p=.01) while vitality was no longer significant. None of the associations remained significant after accounting for the influence of familial factors. These results support previous findings on the negative link between ACE and perceived health in adulthood. The detrimental effects of ACE on vitality may be accounted for by the experience of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse. Shared familial factors might play a partial role in the relationship between ACE and health perception. Future research should further investigate the genetic and environmental mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  14. Dissecting the catatonia phenotype in psychotic and mood disorders on the basis of familial-genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Victor; Fañanás, Lourdes; Martín-Reyes, Migdyrai; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2017-09-14

    This study examines the familial aggregation (familiality) of different phenotypic definitions of catatonia in a sample of multiplex families with psychotic and mood disorders. Participants were probands with a lifetime diagnosis of a DSM-IV functional psychotic disorder, their parents and at least one first-degree relative with a psychotic disorder. The study sample included 441 families comprising 2703 subjects, of whom 1094 were affected and 1609 unaffected. Familiality (h(2)) was estimated by linear mixed models using family membership as a random effect, with h(2) indicating the portion of phenotypic variance accounted for by family membership. Familiality estimates highly varied for individual catatonia signs (h(2)=0.17-0.65), principal component analysis-derived factors (h(2)=0.29-0.49), number of catatonia signs present (h(2)=0.03-0.43) and severity of the catatonia syndrome (h(2)=0.25-0.59). Phenotypes maximizing familiality estimates included individual signs (mutism and rigidity, both h(2)=0.65), presence of ≥5 catatonia signs (h(2)=0.43), a classical catatonia factor (h(2)=0.49), a DSM-IV catatonia syndrome at a severity level of moderate or higher (h(2)=0.59) and the diagnostic construct of psychosis with prominent catatonia features (h(2)=0.56). Familiality estimates of a DSM-IV catatonia syndrome did not significantly differ across the diagnostic categories of psychotic and mood disorders (h(2)=0.40-0.47). The way in which catatonia is defined has a strong impact on familiality estimates with some catatonia phenotypes exhibiting substantial familial aggregation, which may inform about the most adequate phenotypes for molecular studies. From a familial-genetic perspective, the catatonia phenotype in psychotic and mood disorders has a transdiagnostic character. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders in childhood and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    history of any anxiety and mood disorder, parental history of self-harming behaviour, advanced paternal age, gender, urban dwelling, economic deprivation, family dissolution, and childhood adversity were used to predict diagnosis of both anxiety and mood disorders from ages 10 to 21 years. Results: Binary...... by simultaneously testing a range of established psychosocial risk factors. Method: A national birth cohort of the Danish population born in 1984 and tracked over the course of the first 21 years of their life was used in the current study (n = 54,458). Psychosocial risk factors including paternal and maternal...... logistic regression analysis showed that being female and a parental history of a mood or anxiety disorder are the strongest predictors of both disorders. Economic deprivation, and family dissolution also increase likelihood of both disorders. Urban dwelling and childhood adversity are predictors...

  16. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Clinical spectrum in three families with familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 including a novel mutation in the ATP1A2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christian; Freilinger, Tobias; Kirovski, Georgi; Dunkel, Juliane; Shah, Yogesh; Wilken, Bernd; Rautenstrauß, Bernd; Ferbert, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare subtype of migraine with transient hemiplegic aura. We describe three unrelated families with familial hemiplegic migraine type II (FHM2). Retrospectively, information on 47 family members could be obtained, 15 by personal examination and 32 by indirect anamnesis from relatives. Genetic analyses were performed in 13 patients. One family had a novel missense mutation in the ATP1A2 gene (c.659C>T, p.Ser220Leu) that segregated with the phenotype in three generations. Two further unrelated families with different ethnic backgrounds (one from Germany and one from Russia) had a missense mutation that has not been described as yet in FHM, but occurred in only a single patient with sporadic hemiplegic migraine (c.2723G>A, p.Arg908Gln). Clinically the patients had severe attacks lasting up to several weeks as well as epileptic seizures. Three patients with a proven mutation in the ATP1A2 gene clinically presented without hemiparesis. Furthermore, there was a possible relation of FHM2 to mental retardation in another two patients. Clinical symptoms may last for several weeks in some patients. Patients with FHM2 may also present without hemiplegia. Therefore, the full family history has to be taken into account to establish the diagnosis of FHM.

  18. Assessment of family functioning in Caucasian and Hispanic Americans: reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Family Assessment Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; McDonald, Elizabeth J; Connelly, Cynthia D; Newton, Rae R

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) among a national sample of Caucasian and Hispanic American families receiving public sector mental health services. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted to test model fit yielded equivocal findings. With few exceptions, indices of model fit, reliability, and validity were poorer for Hispanic Americans compared with Caucasian Americans. Contrary to our expectation, an exploratory factor analysis did not result in a better fitting model of family functioning. Without stronger evidence supporting a reformulation of the FAD, we recommend against such a course of action. Findings highlight the need for additional research on the role of culture in measurement of family functioning.

  19. Factors influencing student selection of marriage and family therapy graduate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertlein, Katherine M; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To understand which factors students consider most important in choosing a marriage and family therapy (MFT) graduate program and how programs met or did not meet these expectations of students over the course of graduate study, we conducted an online mixed-method investigation. One hundred twelve graduate students in Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education-accredited programs responded to an online survey assessing what factors led them to select a specific graduate program in MFT. In the quantitative portion, students ranked each factor (personal fit, faculty, funding, research, clinical work, and teaching) as well as characteristics of each factor in relation to its importance in their selection of an MFT program. Additionally, students indicated to what level their programs meet their expectations. In the qualitative portion, students described how they believed their chosen program was or was not meeting their expectations. Both doctoral and master's students ranked personal fit as the top factor affecting their choice of graduate program in MFT, but they differed on the characteristics of each of these factors and their importance in selecting an MFT program. Implications for this research include program evaluation and program advertising, and are consistent with the scientist-practitioner model.

  20. Individual and familial factors associated with teenage pregnancy: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldre, Kai; Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Karro, Helle

    2009-06-01

    The determinants of teenage sexual health, including pregnancies, can be addressed from social, familial and individual level perspectives. The main objective of this study was to examine whether pregnancy among 18 years old and younger girls were associated with selected individual (age at coitarche, score of sexual health knowledge, dislike of school) and family (mother's education) and family functioning (alcohol abuse in the family, parents' acceptance of sexual relationship) characteristics. An interview survey in two medical institutions in Estonia among 279 18 year old and younger girls, who: (i) used contraception, had been sexually active for at least 6 months and had not pregnancies--(148 girls); (ii) came for termination of pregnancy--abortion group; (iii) planned to deliver and came for prenatal care--delivery group. The last two groups were analysed together as the 'pregnancy group'--131 girls. Multivariate analysis, by means of logistic regression models, was used to explore whether the associations were sustained after adjusting for other variables. Crude odds ratios (ORs), adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, with girls having no pregnancies as the reference group. Risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy were low score of sexual health knowledge (adjusted ORs 3.07; 95% CIs 1.73-5.46), dislike of school (adjusted ORs 1.96; 95% CIs 1.08-3.54), alcohol abuse by family members (adjusted ORs 2.03; 95% CIs 1.16-3.54). Sexual knowledge of teenagers, their attitude towards school, alcohol abuse in the family are factors associated with teenage pregnancies.

  1. Factors influencing decision-making around family presence during resuscitation: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Tracey; de Lacey, Sheryl; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine factors impacting family presence during resuscitation practices in the acute care setting. Family presence during resuscitation was introduced in the 1980s, so family members/significant others could be with their loved ones during life-threatening events. Evidence demonstrates important benefits; yet despite growing support from the public and endorsement from professional groups, family presence is practiced inconsistently and rationales for poor uptake are unclear. Constructivist grounded theory design. Twenty-five health professionals, family members and patients informed the study. In-depth interviews were undertaken between October 2013-November 2014 to interpret and explain their meanings and actions when deciding whether to practice or participate in FPDR. The Social Construction of Conditional Permission explains the social processes at work when deciding to adopt or reject family presence during resuscitation. These processes included claiming ownership, prioritizing preferences and rights, assessing suitability, setting boundaries and protecting others/self. In the absence of formal policies, decision-making was influenced primarily by peoples' values, preferences and pre-existing expectations around societal roles and associated status between health professionals and consumers. As a result, practices were sporadic, inconsistent and often paternalistic rather than collaborative. An increased awareness of the important benefits of family presence and the implementation of clinical protocols are recommended as an important starting point to address current variations and inconsistencies in practice. These measures would ensure future practice is guided by evidence and standards for health consumer safety and welfare rather than personal values and preferences of the individuals 'in charge' of permissions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Comparison of the factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to compare factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families. The participants were 692 children aged 11 to 13 yr (388 in two parent families and 304 in single parent families) recruited from 20 community agencies and 5 elementary schools in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul City, South Korea. Data were collected from May to July, 2007 using a survey questionnaire containing items on self-esteem, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, family hardiness, parent-child communication and social support. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 program and factors affecting children's self-esteem were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression. Scores for the study variables were significantly different between the two groups. The factors influencing children's self-esteem were also different according to family type. For two parent families, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.505, pchild communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.444, pself-esteem.

  3. The Medicago truncatula lysine motif-receptor-like kinase gene family includes NFP and new nodule-expressed genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrighi, J.F.; Barre, A.; Amor, Ben B.; Bersoult, A.; Campos Soriano, L.; Mirabella, R.; Carvalho-Niebel, de F.; Journet, E.P.; Ghérardi, M.; Huguet, T.; Geurts, R.; Dénarié, J.; Rougé, P.; Gough, C.

    2006-01-01

    Rhizobial Nod factors are key symbiotic signals responsible for starting the nodulation process in host legume plants. Of the six Medicago truncatula genes controlling a Nod factor signaling pathway, Nod Factor Perception (NFP) was reported as a candidate Nod factor receptor gene. Here, we provide

  4. The Medicago truncatula lysine motif-receptor-like kinase gene family includes NFP and new nodule-expressed genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrighi, J.F.; Barre, A.; Amor, Ben B.; Bersoult, A.; Campos Soriano, L.; Mirabella, R.; Carvalho-Niebel, de F.; Journet, E.P.; Ghérardi, M.; Huguet, T.; Geurts, R.; Dénarié, J.; Rougé, P.; Gough, C.

    2006-01-01

    Rhizobial Nod factors are key symbiotic signals responsible for starting the nodulation process in host legume plants. Of the six Medicago truncatula genes controlling a Nod factor signaling pathway, Nod Factor Perception (NFP) was reported as a candidate Nod factor receptor gene. Here, we provide f

  5. Can positive family factors be protective against the development of psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pinto, Ana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Ibáñez, Berta; Otero-Cuesta, Soraya; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Graell-Berna, Montserrat; Ugarte, Amaia; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Soutullo, Cesar; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso

    2011-03-30

    Genetic and environmental factors are both involved in the aetiology of psychotic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess if positive and negative environmental factors, together with psychotic family antecedents, are associated with the recent development of psychosis. We also investigated the interactions between family history of psychosis and positive and negative family environment. The sample comprised 110 children and adolescents, who had suffered a first psychotic episode and 98 healthy controls. All subjects were interviewed about their socioeconomic status, family history of psychosis and family environment (Family Environment Scale, FES). Early onset psychosis was significantly associated with a family history of psychosis. Family environment was perceived as more negative and less positive among patients than among controls. A negative family environment increased the risk of psychosis independently of the family history of psychosis. However, there was a significant protective effect of a positive family environment for persons with a family history of psychosis. This effect was not seen in subjects without a family history of psychosis. Therefore, our results support the importance of considering both family history of psychosis and family environment in the early stages of psychosis.

  6. The smoking behaviors of indigenous Taiwanese: individual and family/community factors of influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Wen; Chu, Nain-Feng; Chen, Hsing-Hsia; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Smoking, a self-selected behavior, is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Factors related to smoking in Taiwan's indigenous Malayo-Polynesian population should be elicited and addressed. This study examined the relationship between smoking behavior and individual and family/community factors in indigenous Taiwanese. This study was a secondary analysis of data obtained from household visits in central Taiwan that included a population of 562 indigenous adults aged 20-50 years. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression to determine individual and family/community relevant factors of smoking behaviors. The smoking rate in the population studied was 57.48% (39.15% men, 18.33% women). The odds ratio for smoking was markedly higher in men than in women. Smokers were 0.45 times more likely to have fixed sexual partners. The OR for smoking was 2.68 times in households with smokers and 7.03 times in people living in mountainous areas. The issue of smoking in indigenous Taiwanese deserves further attention and concern. Further interventions for the harmful effects of tobacco can focus on younger indigenous people living in mountain regions and on smokers' sexual partners. In addition, male adults, female adults, and heads of households should take a greater role in changing the smoking behaviors of smokers and their family members.

  7. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context

  8. Role of the GATA family of transcription factors in endocrine development, function, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viger, Robert S; Guittot, Séverine Mazaud; Anttonen, Mikko; Wilson, David B; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2008-04-01

    The WGATAR motif is a common nucleotide sequence found in the transcriptional regulatory regions of numerous genes. In vertebrates, these motifs are bound by one of six factors (GATA1 to GATA6) that constitute the GATA family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. Although originally considered for their roles in hematopoietic cells and the heart, GATA factors are now known to be expressed in a wide variety of tissues where they act as critical regulators of cell-specific gene expression. This includes multiple endocrine organs such as the pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, and especially the gonads. Insights into the functional roles played by GATA factors in adult organ systems have been hampered by the early embryonic lethality associated with the different Gata-null mice. This is now being overcome with the generation of tissue-specific knockout models and other knockdown strategies. These approaches, together with the increasing number of human GATA-related pathologies have greatly broadened the scope of GATA-dependent genes and, importantly, have shown that GATA action is not necessarily limited to early development. This has been particularly evident in endocrine organs where GATA factors appear to contribute to the transcription of multiple hormone-encoding genes. This review provides an overview of the GATA family of transcription factors as they relate to endocrine function and disease.

  9. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  10. 45 CFR 286.135 - What information on penalties against individuals must be included in a Tribal Family Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the economic conditions and resources of the Tribe, and how they relate to the requirements of section... Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN... levels of adults in the service area; availability of and/or accessibility to resources...

  11. Including All Families in Education: School District-Level Efforts to Promote Parent Engagement in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent engagement plays an essential role in student achievement and well-being, but not all families are able to participate in their children's education. This article focuses on strategies for reaching and supporting parents who face challenges to engagement such as poverty and cultural diversity. Five district-level parent engagement projects…

  12. Family planning as part of reproductive health, including the HIV / AIDS aspects, in Zimbabwe and Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyl, Douwe Arie Anne

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the demand for family planning (FP) in the region and demonstrates that just at the time that demand takes off the brain drain and economic situation make it unlikely that the required services will be provided. This, increasingly, results in unsafe abortions. FP in Zimbabwe is

  13. Factorization of Radiative Leptonic Decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ Mesons Including the Soft Photon Region

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ji-Chong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the radiative leptonic decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ mesons using factorization approach. Factorization is proved to be valid explicitly at 1-loop level at any order of $O(\\Lambda _{\\rm QCD}\\left/m_Q\\right.)$. We consider the contribution in the soft photon region that $E_{\\gamma} \\sim \\left. \\Lambda^2 _{\\rm QCD} /\\right. m_Q$. The numerical results shows that, the soft photon region is very important for both the $B$ and $D$ mesons. The branching ratios of $B\\to \\gamma e\

  14. Factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family. Participants included 267 adults age 65 and older who met eligibility criteria. Analyses showed that the prediction model of the life satisfaction of older adults who are living with their family was significant (F=24.429, plife satisfaction was depression (beta=0.090), monthly pocket money (beta=0.060), and age (beta=0.040). It is possible that older adults' life satisfaction increases when they are provided with nursing interventions and are able to effectively manage their health. Nursing interventions must strive to improve their self-esteem and address their depression.

  15. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of th

  16. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  17. GATA family of transcription factors of vertebrates: phylogenetics and chromosomal synteny

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chunjiang He; Hanhua Cheng; Rongjia Zhou

    2007-12-01

    GATA genes are an evolutionarily conserved family, which encode a group of important transcription factors involved in the regulation of diverse processes including the development of the heart, haematopoietic system and sex gonads. However, the evolutionary history of the GATA family has not been completely understood. We constructed a complete phylogenetic tree with functional domain information of the GATA genes of both vertebrates and several invertebrates, and mapped the GATA genes onto relevant chromosomes. Conserved synteny was observed around the GATA loci on the chromosomes. GATAs have a tendency to segregate onto different chromosomes during evolution. The phylogenetic tree is consistent with the relevant functions of GATA members. Analysis of the zinc finger domain showed that the domain tends to be duplicated during evolution from invertebrates to vertebrates. We propose that the balance between duplications of zinc finger domains and GATA members should be maintained to exert their physiological roles in each evolutionary stage. Therefore, evolutionary pressure on the GATAs must exist to maintain the balance during evolution from invertebrates to vertebrates. These results reveal the evolutionary characteristics of the GATA family and contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between evolution and biological functions of the gene family, which will help to uncover the GATAs’ biological roles, evolution and their relationship with associated diseases.

  18. Family history: impact on coronary heart disease risk assessment beyond guideline-defined factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanaj, Q; Wilson, B J; Little, J; Montazeri, Z; Carroll, J C

    2013-01-01

    Family history (FH) provides insights into the effects of shared genomic susceptibilities, environments and behaviors, making it a potentially valuable risk assessment tool for chronic diseases. We assessed whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk assessment is improved when FH information is added to other clinical information recommended in guidelines. We applied logistic regression analyses to cross-sectional data originally obtained from a UK study of women who delivered a live-born infant between 1951 and 1970. We developed 3 models: Model 1 included only the covariates in a guideline applicable to the population, Model 2 added FH to Model 1, and Model 3 included a fuller range of risk factors. For each model, its ability to discriminate between study subjects with and those without CHD was evaluated and its impact on risk classification examined using the net reclassification index. FH was an independent risk factor for CHD (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.26-2.47) and improved discrimination beyond guideline-defined clinical factors (p risk factor for CHD, it added little to risk factors typically included in guidelines. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Intensive Care Unit death and factors influencing family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit care

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit (FS-ICU) care is believed to be associated with ICU survival and ICU outcomes. A review of literature was done to determine factors influencing FS-ICU care in ICU deaths. Results: Factors that positively influenced FS-ICU care were (a) communication: Honesty, accuracy, active listening, emphatic statements, consistency, and clarity; (b) family support: Respect, compassion, courtesy, considering family needs and wishes, and emotional and...

  20. Family cohesion as a longevity factor of business with intergenerational transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Roca, Fco. Javier; López-Manjón, Jesús D.; Gutiérrez-Hidalgo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to a line of research in Business History that aims to determine the factors of family business longevity in the long term with the study of individual cases. The literature has identified family cohesion as one of the essential factors for survival. Cohesion may be reinforced or broken at the time of the intergenerational transfer. This study finds that a critical response on the part of the business family to the difficulties associated with intergenerational transf...

  1. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspe...

  2. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  3. The N(H2/I(CO Conversion Factor: A Treatment that Includes Radiative Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento que explica mejor el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO y que incluye la transferencia radiativa. A primera vista, incluir la transferencia radiativa parece superfluo para una línea óptimamente gruesa como CO J = 1 0. No obstante, dado que el medio interestelar es inhomogéneo, los fragmentos de gas (es decir, grumos todavía pueden ser óptimamente delgadas hacia sus bordes y en las alas de los pérfiles de la línea. El tratamiento estadístico de Martin et al. (1984 de la transferencia radiativa a través una nube molecular con grumos se usa para derivar una expresión para el factor de conversión que su- pera los defectos de las explicaciones más tradicionales basadas en Dickman et al. (1986. Por un lado, el tratamiento presentado aquí posiblemente representa un avance importante al entender el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO pero, por otro lado, tiene sus propios defectos, que son discutidos aquí brevemente.

  4. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  5. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  6. A novel fibroblast growth factor receptor family member promotes neuronal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity in aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Daniela D; Minh, Bui Quang; Cicvaric, Ana; Monje, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptors (FGFRs) regulate essential biological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cellular growth and memory-related long-term synaptic plasticity. Whereas canonical FGFRs depend exclusively on extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains for ligand binding, other receptor types, including members of the tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) family, use either Ig-like or Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) motifs, or both. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events leading to the differential incorporation of LRR domains into Ig-containing tyrosine kinase receptors. Moreover, although FGFRs have been identified in many vertebrate species, few reports describe their existence in invertebrates. Information about the biological relevance of invertebrate FGFRs and evolutionary divergences between them and their vertebrate counterparts is therefore limited. Here, we characterized ApLRRTK, a neuronal cell-surface protein recently identified in Aplysia. We unveiled ApLRRTK as the first member of the FGFRs family deprived of Ig-like domains that instead contains extracellular LRR domains. We describe that ApLRRTK exhibits properties typical of canonical vertebrate FGFRs, including promotion of FGF activity, enhancement of neuritic outgrowth and signaling via MAPK and the transcription factor CREB. ApLRRTK also enhanced the synaptic efficiency of neurons known to mediate in vivo memory-related defensive behaviors. These data reveal a novel molecular regulator of neuronal function in invertebrates, provide the first evolutionary linkage between LRR proteins and FGFRs and unveil an unprecedented mechanism of FGFR gene diversification in primeval central nervous systems.

  7. Family and individual factors associated with substance involvement and PTS symptoms among adolescents in greater New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Cynthia L; La Greca, Annette M; Alexandersson, Anders

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the influence of hurricane impact as well as family and individual risk factors on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and substance involvement among clinically referred adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. A total of 80 adolescents (87% male; 13-17 years old; mean age = 15.6 years; 38% minorities) and their parents were interviewed at the adolescent's intake into substance abuse treatment, 16 to 46 months postdisaster. Independent measures included hurricane impact variables (initial loss/disruption and perceived life threat); demographic and predisaster variables (family income, gender, predisaster adolescent substance use, predisaster trauma exposure, and parental substance abuse); postdisaster family factors (parental psychopathology, family cohesion, and parental monitoring); and postdisaster adolescent delinquency. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that adolescent substance involvement was associated with higher family income, lower parental monitoring (adolescent report), and more adolescent delinquency. Adolescent-reported PTS symptoms were associated with greater hurricane-related initial loss/disruption, lower family cohesion (adolescent report), and more adolescent delinquency, whereas parent-reported adolescent PTS symptoms were associated with greater parental psychopathology, lower parental monitoring (adolescent report), and lower family cohesion (parent report). The results suggest that hurricane impact was related only to adolescent-reported PTS. However, certain postdisaster family and individual risk factors (low family cohesion and parental monitoring, more adolescent delinquency) were associated both with adolescent substance involvement and with PTS symptoms. Identification of these factors suggests directions for future research as well as potential target areas for screening and intervention with substance-abusing adolescents after disasters. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  9. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  10. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  11. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  12. Family-based risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury: Considering influences of maltreatment, adverse family-life experiences, and parent-child relational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Fournier, Tania Renaud; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-06-01

    The current investigation addressed the potential for unique influences of perceived childhood maltreatment, adverse family-life events, and parent-child relational trauma on the lifetime occurrence and addictive features of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included 957 undergraduate students (747 females; M = 20.14 years, SD = 3.88) who completed online questionnaires regarding the key variables under study. Although self-injuring youth reported more experiences with each family-based risk factor, different patterns of association were found when lifetime engagement in NSSI or its addictive features were under study. Perceived parent-child relational trauma was uniquely linked with NSSI behavior after accounting for perceived childhood maltreatment; adverse family-life events had an additional unique association. In contrast, perceived paternal maltreatment was uniquely related with NSSI's addictive features. Findings underline the importance of studying inter-related family-based risk factors of NSSI simultaneously for a comprehensive understanding of familial correlates of NSSI behavior and its underlying features.

  13. Factors Associated With the Perception of Family Nursing Practice Among Mental Health Nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine factors that influenced the perceptions of mental health nurses about involving families in their nursing practice. A sample of 175 Taiwanese mental health nurses who are employed in both inpatient and community settings completed structured questionnaires designed to measure empathy, attitudes about involving families in care, and perceptions of family nursing practice. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, t test, one-way ANOVA, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Positive perceptions of family nursing practice were correlated with more years of clinical experience in mental health, empathy, supportive attitudes toward the importance of family nursing care, and personal experiences with family members with serious illness in need of professional care. These findings may assist in the development of effective educational programs designed to help nurses integrate family nursing knowledge and skills in the care of patients and families experiencing mental illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    explosion, and the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, such an approach may have helped to maintain the integrity of the designed provisions against major deviations resulting in these disasters. In order to make this paradigm operational, safety management and in particular risk assessment tools need to be refined....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...... Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...

  15. Families, nurses and organisations contributing factors to medication administration error in paediatrics: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albara Alomari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication error is the most common adverse event for hospitalised children and can lead to significant harm. Despite decades of research and implementation of a number of initiatives, the error rates continue to rise, particularly those associated with administration. Objectives: The objective of this literature review is to explore the factors involving nurses, families and healthcare systems that impact on medication administration errors in paediatric patients. Design: A review was undertaken of studies that reported on factors that contribute to a rise or fall in medication administration errors, from family, nurse and organisational perspectives. The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane library. The title, abstract and full article were reviewed for relevance. Articles were excluded if they were not research studies, they related to medications and not medication administration errors or they referred to medical errors rather than medication errors. Results: A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. The factors contributing to medication administration errors are communication failure between the parents and healthcare professionals, nurse workload, failure to adhere to policy and guidelines, interruptions, inexperience and insufficient nurse education from organisations. Strategies that were reported to reduce errors were doublechecking by two nurses, implementing educational sessions, use of computerised prescribing and barcoding administration systems. Yet despite such interventions, errors persist. The review highlighted families that have a central role in caring for the child and therefore are key to the administration process, but have largely been ignored in research studies relating to medication administration. Conclusions: While there is a consensus about the factors that contribute to errors, sustainable and effective solutions remain elusive. To date, families have not

  16. Factors associated with family reunification for children in foster care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, Mónica; del Valle, Jorge F.; Montserrat, Carme; Bravo, Amaia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse reunification processes from family foster care, both kinship and non-kinship, and the variables associated with them in a Spanish sample. Data collection was carried out after a review of child protection and foster care files, and those responsible for the cases were also

  17. Factors associated with family reunification for children in foster care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, Mónica; del Valle, Jorge F.; Montserrat, Carme; Bravo, Amaia

    In this paper, we analyse reunification processes from family foster care, both kinship and non-kinship, and the variables associated with them in a Spanish sample. Data collection was carried out after a review of child protection and foster care files, and those responsible for the cases were also

  18. Characterization of the Far Transcription Factor Family in Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingyu; Affeldt, Katharyn J.; Keller, Nancy P.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism of fatty acids is a critical requirement for the pathogenesis of oil seed pathogens including the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Previous studies have correlated decreased ability to grow on fatty acids with reduced virulence of this fungus on host seed. Two fatty acid metabolism regulatory transcription factors, FarA and FarB, have been described in other filamentous fungi. Unexpectedly, we find A. flavus possesses three Far homologs, FarA, FarB, and FarC, with FarA and FarC showing a greater protein similarity to each other than FarB. farA and farB are located in regions of colinearity in all Aspergillus spp. sequenced to date, whereas farC is limited to a subset of species where it is inserted in an otherwise colinear region in Aspergillus genomes. Deletion and overexpression (OE) of farA and farB, but not farC, yielded mutants with aberrant growth patterns on specific fatty acids as well as altered expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Marked differences included significant growth defects of both ∆farA and ∆farB on medium-chain fatty acids and decreased growth of OE::farA on unsaturated fatty acids. Loss of farA diminished expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation genes whereas OE::farA inhibited expression of genes involved in unsaturated fatty acid catabolism. FarA also positively regulated the desaturase genes required to generate polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aflatoxin production on toxin-inducing media was significantly decreased in the ∆farB mutant and increased in the OE::farB mutant, with gene expression data supporting a role for FarB in tying β-oxidation processes with aflatoxin accumulation. PMID:27534569

  19. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  20. Mediators of maternal depression and family structure on child BMI: parenting quality and risk factors for child overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConley, Regina L; Mrug, Sylvie; Gilliland, M Janice; Lowry, Richard; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Franzini, Luisa; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad L; Franklin, Frank A

    2011-02-01

    Risk factors for child obesity may be influenced by family environment, including maternal depression, family structure, and parenting quality. We tested a path model in which maternal depression and single parent status are associated with parenting quality, which relates to three risk factors for child obesity: diet, leisure, and sedentary behavior. Participants included 4,601 5th-grade children and their primary caregivers who participated in the Healthy Passages study. Results showed that associations of maternal depression and single parenthood with child BMI are mediated by parenting quality and its relation to children's leisure activity and sedentary behavior. Interventions for child obesity may be more successful if they target family environment, particularly parenting quality and its impact on children's active and sedentary behaviors.

  1. Family Resources as Protective Factors for Low-Income Youth Exposed to Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Larkby, Cynthia A; Cornelius, Marie D

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to community violence is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems; however, resources within the family can decrease the likelihood that adolescents will experience internalizing and externalizing problems as a result of such exposure. This study investigates the potential moderating effects of kinship support (i.e., emotional and tangible support from extended family) and parental involvement on the relation between exposure to community violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in low-income adolescents. The sample included 312 (50 % female; 71 % African American and 29 % White) low-income youth who participated in a longitudinal investigation when adolescents were age 14 (M age = 14.49 years) and again when they were 16 (M age = 16.49 years). Exposure to community violence at age 14 was related to more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 16. High levels of kinship support and parental involvement appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems. The results from this study suggest that both kinship support and parental involvement help buffer adolescents from externalizing problems that are associated with exposure to community violence.

  2. Can family risk-factors moderate the link between psychopathy and life-history strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life History Theory is an explanatory evolutionary framework which explains differences in fitness-relevant outcomes using the characteristics of the environment and individual organisms. Basically, individuals can be positioned somewhere on the r/K continuum of the Life History Strategy (LHS: a K or slow strategy represents later maturity and reproduction, a smaller number of offspring with higher investment in them, while the r (or fast strategy follows the opposite pattern. Previous research offered evidence that psychopathy can represent a trait associated with fast LHS. In the present research we examined the relations between the family risk-factors, a four-factor model of psychopathy and the LHS in a sample of male convicts (N=181. The results have shown that a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style is associated with slow LHS while shallow affect and antisocial tendencies are related to fast LHS. The interactions between psychopathy and family risk-factors revealed that parental criminal behaviour enhances the relation between fast LHS and psychopathic traits, including the manipulative interpersonal style. The findings are in accordance with the Life History Theory and provide a deeper understanding of the preservation of psychopathy in contemporary populations.

  3. Contribution of Environmental Risk Factors Including Lifestyle to Inequalities Noncommunicable (Chronic Diseases such as Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Grochowska Niedworok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health inequalities: differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Some health inequalities are attributable to biological variations or free choice and others are attributable to the external environment and conditions mainly outside the control of the individuals concerned. 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2012 an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a normal body weight can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Risk factors: 1. Age- the prevalence of diabetes rises steeply with age: *one in twenty people over the age of 65 have diabetes, *and this rises to one in five people over the age of 85 years. The diagnosis of diabetes may be delayed in older people, with symptoms of diabetes being wrongly attributed to ageing. 2. Ethnic: type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in people of South Asian descent and up to three times more common in those of African and African-Caribbean descent then in the white population. It is also more common in people of Chinese descent and other non-Caucasian groups. 3. Gender: the frequency of diabetes usually is higher in men than in women. This may be because gender compounds other aspects of inequality- women often bear the brunt of poverty, and socio-economic differences in the prevalence of diabetes are more marked for women, probably because of differences in smoking rates, food choices and the prevalence of obesity. 4. Overweight/Obesity: every 1 kg/m2 more causes increase risk: cardiovascular diseases 2%, coronary artery disease- 3% , myocardial infarction- 5% , heart failure- 5% , peripheral vascular disease- 5%. Health inqualities important in diabetes -- modifiable:  social

  4. Performance contracting for small fry -- Including individually owned multi-family buildings in a public/private sector partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, M.; Jensen, V.

    1998-07-01

    Performance contracting has worked well in large multi-family buildings markets, such as public housing authorities. As equally deserving a market are assisted housing developments, which tend to be smaller scale in terms of size and ownership. This scale discourages energy service companies (ESO's) from approaching these developments because marketing and other transaction costs may be considered prohibitive. One answer to this barrier is a partnership that may act as an umbrella and aggregator for this market. The Illinois Housing Development Authority, assisted by the US Department of Energy's Chicago Regional Support office, is piloting such a partnership for developments that has its mortgages. Working with ESCO Landis and Staefa, Inc., this ongoing initiative is expanding performance contracting into the assisted housing market.

  5. Two new species, including one representing a new genus, of the West African millipede family Campodesmidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier VandenSpiegel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus, Campodesmoides gen. nov., is described to only encompass C. corniger sp. nov., from Cameroon. This genus and species is distinguished from the few known species of the small western African family Campodesmidae, all currently in Campodesmus, by the much longer antennae and legs, the normal pore formula with ozopores borne on porosteles, and the suberect and distally twisted gonopod, coupled with peculiar horns on a few anterior postcollum segments. A new Campodesmus is also described, C. alobatus sp. nov., from Ivory Coast, which differs from congeners primarily in the lack of a dorsal/lateral lobe on the otherwise usual and strongly subcircular gonopod telopodite, albeit the latter is not directed mesad, but held subparallel to the main body axis.

  6. Transcriptional Activity of Nuclear Factor κB Family Genes in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis-Święty, Anna; Gola, Joanna; Mazurek, Urszula; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2017-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease of unknown etiology and unclear pathogenesis. Evaluation of the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) family genes IκBα, p50, p52, p65, and c-Rel, potentially involved in the regulation of immunity, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling in SSc, was carried out. The study included 19 patients with limited SSc, 11 patients with early SSc, and 10 healthy persons constituting the control group. Real-time QRT-PCR was used to evaluate the mRNAs in peripheral blood samples. The patients with early SSc showed a decrease in transcriptional activity of IκBα inhibitor and c-Rel subunit. Transcriptional activity decrease in the other patients with limited SSc included genes encoding c-Rel and p50, subunits of NF-κB factor. Deregulation of intracellular signal transduction by NF-κB takes place at the beginning of SSc and in its fibrosis stage. Associations between clinical variables and NF-κB related gene expression as well as the activation of NF-κB family members in SSc patients should be addressed in future studies. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  7. Factors associated with family resilience during pregnancy among inner-city women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Suzanne L; Heaman, Maureen

    2015-10-01

    family resilience refers to the ability of a family group to adapt to challenging circumstances. For families residing in the inner-city, the concept of resilience is of particular salience as these families often encounter multiple stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with low family resilience during pregnancy among inner-city women. secondary analysis of data from a case-control study of factors related to inadequate antenatal care. participants consisted of 603 postpartum women who gave birth to a live infant and resided in one of eight inner-city neighbourhoods in Winnipeg, Manitoba. participants were designated as having low family resilience (n=155) or moderate to high family resilience (n=448) based on scores on the Family Hardiness Index. Univariate analyses were conducted to explore the association between a variety of factors during pregnancy and family resilience, and crude odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Factors significant at pfamily resilience among pregnant inner-city women in the final model: maternal age self-esteem (AOR 2.82), high perceived stress (AOR 3.01), alcohol use during pregnancy (AOR 3.20), and low interpersonal support (AOR 6.24). inner-city women who are young or have low self-esteem, high perceived stress, low interpersonal support, or who use alcohol during pregnancy are more likely to report lower levels of family resilience. midwives have the opportunity to develop ongoing relationships with their clients and families. As such, they are in an excellent position to understand the specific needs and strengths of individual families and foster the abilities of these families to strengthen and support resilience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for poor attendance in a family-based pediatric obesity intervention program for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie A; Coday, Mace; Somes, Grant; Tylavsky, Frances A; Richey, Phyllis A; Hare, Marion

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of demographic characteristics, psychological factors, and family functioning on attendance in a randomized controlled trial of a family-based pediatric obesity program. Participants included 155 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years (M age = 5.77, 57.4% female, 73.6% black, M body mass index = 25.5) and their primary caregivers who were randomized to the treatment group. Three groups of participants were created based on their patterns of attendance during the program: (1) noncompleters, (2) partial completers, and (3) completers. Results indicated no differences among the attendance groups in child gender, child body mass index, or child psychological functioning. Significant group differences were found with respect to race/ethnicity, parent marital status, and family income, such that noncompleters were more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities, to living in single parent households, and to have lower incomes than partial completers and completers. After controlling for the effects of these sociodemographic risk factors, noncompleters, and partial completers reported more family dysfunction characterized by high levels of disengagement than completers. Adapting existing weight management programs to include a focus on family engagement in the early stages of treatment may help to improve participation in family-based obesity interventions targeting high risk, socioeconomically disadvantaged youth.

  9. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.

  10. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.

  11. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  12. Interleukin-6 gene promoter polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk factors. A family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris Paola; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia Berenice; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine involved in inflammatory process, as well as in glucose and lipid metabolism. Several studies of the biological relevance of IL-6 gene polymorphisms have indicated a relationship with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the -174 G/C and -572 G/C of IL-6 gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. Ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case (proband) had obesity, were included in the study. We evaluated the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine biochemical and hematological parameters. High sensitivity C- reactive protein levels were measurement for nephelometric analysis. Screening for both polymorphisms studied was performed by PCR-RFLP. In the parents, both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. The genotypes -174 GC/CC were associated with T2D (OR=1.23, IC(95%) 1.01-1.5) and highest levels of hsCRP (p=0.02), whereas genotype -572 GG was associated with T2D (OR=1.24, IC(95%) 1.04-1.47) with an inflammatory state determined by the increase in the leukocyte count (OR=1.24, IC(95%) 1.02-1.51). The genotypes -174 GC/CC and -572 GG may confer susceptibility for the development of subclinical inflammation and type 2 diabetes in Mexican families.

  13. Moderation of genetic factors by parental divorce in adolescents' evaluations of family functioning and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Niels; Boomsma, Dorret I; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Bartels, Meike

    2010-04-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of family functioning may have a significant impact on their subjective well-being and adjustment. The aim of the study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life and the overlap between them. We assessed whether genetic and environmental influences are moderated by parental divorce by analyzing self-report data from 6,773 adolescent twins and their non-twin siblings. Genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in general family functioning and family conflict, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls than boys in general family functioning. Genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in quality of life, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls. Evidence was found for interaction between genetic factors and parental divorce: genetic influence on general family functioning was larger in participants from divorced families. The overlap between general family functioning and quality of life, and family conflict and quality of life was accounted for the largest part by genetic effects, with nonshared environmental effects accounting for the remaining part. By examining the data from monozygotic twins, we found evidence for interaction between genotype and nonshared, non-measured, environmental influences on evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life.

  14. Familial growth hormone releasing factor deficiency in pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, H F; Barr, D G; Kelnar, C J

    1991-01-01

    A mother with pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism and her short son showed poor spontaneous growth hormone secretion, and provocation tests suggested a deficiency of growth hormone releasing factor. This is the first report of growth hormone releasing factor deficiency in pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism. The boy has responded well to growth hormone treatment over a period of three years.

  15. Family-related risk factors of obesity among preschool children: results from a series of national epidemiological surveys in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Ya-Qin

    2015-09-19

    Family-based child obesity prevention and control strategy has not yet established in many countries or regions, including China, thus what it needs to do now is to continuously develop and improve the strategies. The purpose of this study were to describe a wider spectrum of risk factors of obesity among preschool children and add to the mounting evidence for further improving suggested intervention measures in future family-based programs. Data was collected as part of a series of national epidemiological surveys in childhood conducted in 9 Chinese cities. A population-based, 1:1 matched case-control design was employed to examine risk factors of obesity by means of conditional logistic regression. Obesity was defined as the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) BMI-for-age cut offs. Eligible subjects were 1234 boys and 610 girls aged 3-7 years in 1996 and 2290 boys and 1008 girls in 2006, including obese and non-obese. High birth weight, gestational hypertension and parents' BMI were closely associated with childhood obesity. Breast feeding in the first 4 months was a protective factor in univariate model in 2006 (OR = 0.834, P = 0.0234), but the association was not seen in multivariate. Appetite, eating speed, daily time and intensity for outdoor activities, night sleep time, and time for TV viewing were identified statistically by multivariate model. Those children brought up in extended family or mainly raised by their grandparents or lived in high income or low education families might have an increased risk of becoming obese. Parents' attitudes on weight control of their children significantly differed between obese and non-obese groups. A wider spectrum of risk factors and an empirical aggregation of family-related risk factors are discussed to further improve future family-based child obesity prevention and control strategies. Most of the risk factors identified by this study presented ranked or quantitative characteristics which might be

  16. Distribution of Familial Mediterranean Fever mutations in surgical emergencies including nonspecific abdominal pain: Surgical point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Yazici

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and serositis, resulting in pain in the abdomen, chest, joints and muscles. While patients diagnosed with FMF are under follow-up of the internal medicine doctors, surgeons are rarely responsible the initial diagnosis of FMF. We aimed to investigate the frequency of the FMF in the surgical emergency in those with acute nonspecific abdominal pain. Material and Methods: All patients admitted to emergency service due to acute abdominal pain were evaluated and those resulted with nonspecific pain were enrolled. During six months period, patients consistent with above criteria were examined with abdominal x-ray and ultrasound(US, hematological and biochemical test, and physical examinations. Nine type of FMF mutations were investigated in the patients. All results were comparatively evaluated considering MEFV (+ or MEFV(-. Results: There were 68 patients (35, 51.4% male and 33, 48.5% female with a mean age of 29.5+/-10.1 (range: 17-49 years. All patients displayed mild or severe abdominal pain. Genetic analysis revealed that 19 [MEFV(+] out of 68 patients (27,9% carry mutation either homozygote or heterozygote. The most frequent mutation seen in seven patients was M694V (36.8%. In MEFV(+ patients, fibrinogen, CRP and lactate dehydrogenase levels(LDH were significantly higher (p<0.05. On computed tomography, in six patients in whom US showed decompressed appendix, appendicitis was confirmed and appendectomy was performed. Conclusions: The patients with nonspecific abdominal pain should also be considered for FMF before decision of surgery. High levels of fibrinogen, CRP and LDH in addition to clinical history of similar attacks that arise strong clinical suspicion can help diagnose FMF with genetic analysis. Our results need confirmation in larger prospective studies to confirm these preliminary results. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 814-821

  17. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; Stormo, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    -dimensional structure of protein. Structural restraints on the evolution of the amino-acid sequence lead to identification of false SIRs. In this manuscript we extended three methods (direct information, PSICOVand adjusted mutual information) that have been used to disentangle spurious indirect protein residue......-residue contacts from direct contacts, to identify SIRs from joint alignments of amino-acids and specificity. We predicted SIRs for homeodomain (HD), helix-loop-helix, LacI and GntR families of TFs using these methods and compared to MI. Using various measures, we show that the performance of these three methods...

  18. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  19. Children in planned lesbian families: Stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families

  20. Risk Factors for Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior: Mental and Substance Abuse Disorders, Family Environmental Factors, and Life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews psychopathologic risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior, namely, affective, disruptive, substance abuse, psychotic, and personality disorders. Discusses interaction of psychopathology with age and gender. Reviews role of family environmental risk factors and stress events in suicide and suicidal behavior, both alone and…

  1. A Multidimensional Study of School-Family-Community Partnership Involvement: School, School Counselor, and Training Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Julia A.; Griffin, Dana

    2010-01-01

    A multidimensional study examines both the dimensions of school counselors' involvement in school-family-community partnerships and the factors related to their involvement in partnerships. The School Counselor Involvement in Partnerships Survey was revised and its factor structure examined. Principal factor analyses revealed three dimensions of…

  2. A general psychopathology factor (P factor) in children: Structural model analysis and external validation through familial risk and child global executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Maurício S; Gadelha, Ary; do Rosário, Maria C; Mari, Jair J; Manfro, Gisele G; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Paus, Tomás; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Rohde, Luis A; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF). A community sample of 8,012 families from Brazil with children ages 6-12 years completed structured interviews about the child and parental psychiatric syndromes, and a subsample of 2,395 children completed tasks assessing EF (i.e., working memory, inhibitory control, and time processing). Confirmatory factor analyses tested a series of structural models of psychopathology in both parents and children. The model with a general psychopathology factor ("P factor") with 3 specific factors (fear, distress, and externalizing) exhibited the best fit. The general P factor accounted for most of the variance in all models, with little residual variance explained by each of the 3 specific factors. In addition, associations between child and parental factors were mainly significant for the P factors and nonsignificant for the specific factors from the respective models. Likewise, the child P factor-but not the specific factors-was significantly associated with global child EF. Overall, our results provide support for a latent overarching P factor characterizing child psychopathology, supported by familial associations and child EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Impact of selected family socio-economic factors on coordinational predispositions of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Domaradzki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological growth of children is genetically determined but there are a lot of factors modifying trends of growth. Among them the most important seems to be parents’ education and number of children in family – socio-economical factors. Factors don’t affect organism individually. Interactions between them can increase or decrease. So the aim of the work was to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors like parents’ education and number of children in family on coordinational traits of children aged 10–11. Material and methods: 199 children aged 10-11 underwent medical examination in 2008 in Polkowice and data collected were used in this study.. Information on parents’ education and number of children was used to divide children into four groups: lower education and 3 or more children in family, lower education and less than 3 children in family, higher education and more than 3 children in family and higher education and less than 3 children in family. Three coordinational traits were measured: short time memory, precision of hand and speed movement of the hand. MANOVA test was used to estimate differences between groups and to check interactions between factors. Results: From among 4 groups of boys, these from the worst socio-economic status of family received the worst results in all three tests. Differences between them and the rest of the groups were statistically significant. Differences between the rest of the groups were not statistically significant. In the girls groups children from families with higher parents’ education received statistically significant better results in test of memory. There were not differences between all 4 groups in precision of the hand test. Girls from family with higher parents’ education and 3 or more children in family received the best results in speed of the hand test. Conclusions: Boys are the gender more eco-sensitive. The family with more than 2 children in family

  4. Genomewide analysis of TCP transcription factor gene family in Malus domestica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruirui Xu; Peng Sun; Fengjuan Jia; Longtao Lu; Yuanyuan Li; Shizhong Zhang; Jinguang Huang

    2014-12-01

    Teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor1 (TCP) proteins are a large family of transcriptional regulators in angiosperms. They are involved in various biological processes, including development and plant metabolism pathways. In this study, a total of 52 TCP genes were identified in apple (Malus domestica) genome. Bioinformatic methods were employed to predicate and analyse their relevant gene classification, gene structure, chromosome location, sequence alignment and conserved domains of MdTCP proteins. Expression analysis from microarray data showed that the expression levels of 28 and 51 MdTCP genes changed during the ripening and rootstock–scion interaction processes, respectively. The expression patterns of 12 selected MdTCP genes were analysed in different tissues and in response to abiotic stresses. All of the selected genes were detected in at least one of the tissues tested, and most of them were modulated by adverse treatments indicating that the MdTCPs were involved in various developmental and physiological processes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of a genomewide analysis of apple TCP gene family. These results provide valuable information for studies on functions of the TCP transcription factor genes in apple.

  5. Factoring in family freight forwarder company: case study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Each freight forwarder company must independently determine whether factoring is the right choice for them and if will pay off. If the factoring as a financial method would not be economically viable, it certainly would not exist. There are several different financing methods, which are more or less useful. However, not all of them are appropriate for every company, just like all buyers do not represent equal risks for the suppliers. The same buyer can pay one supplier within t...

  6. Are family factors universally related to metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, F.J.; Skinner, T.C.; Beaufort, C.E. de

    2008-01-01

    . Conclusions Family factors, particularly dynamic and communication factors such as parental over-involvement and adolescent-parent concordance on responsibility for diabetes care appear be important determinants of metabolic outcomes in adolescents with diabetes. However, family dynamic factors do not account......Aims To assess the importance of family factors in determining metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes in 19 countries. Methods Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes aged 11-18 years, from 21 paediatric diabetes care centres, in 19 countries, and their parents were invited to participate....... Questionnaires were administered recording demographic data, details of insulin regimens, severe hypoglycaemic events and number of episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Adolescents completed the parental involvement scale from the Diabetes Quality of Life for Youth-Short Form (DQOLY-SF) and the Diabetes Family...

  7. Targeted inactivation of Snail family EMT regulatory factors by a Co(III)-Ebox conjugate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harney, Allison S; Meade, Thomas J; LaBonne, Carole

    2012-01-01

    Snail family proteins are core EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) regulatory factors that play essential roles in both development and disease processes and have been associated with metastasis in carcinomas...

  8. A national study of factors influencing the career choice of osteopathic and allopathic family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Cummings, M; Veloski, J J; Brose, J

    1996-12-01

    This study examines the differences between osteopathic and allopathic physicians regarding those factors influencing their career choice of family practice. A total of 256 osteopathic physicians and 717 allopathic family physicians were surveyed. The surveyed physicians graduated in 1983 and 1984. Comparisons were made on 19 variables that influenced the physicians' decisions to enter family practice as well as on the six factor scores derived from these 19 variables. Osteopathic physicians' decisions to choose family practice was more influenced by financial obligations, medical school experiences, and family values, whereas the allopathic physicians were more influenced by personal social value. Overall, medical school experience and personal social value were two important factors that explained the largest variances of the 19 predictors influencing physicians' decisions to enter family practice. Those allopathic medical schools whose mission emphasizes the production of generalist physicians may be able to model some approaches already in place at osteopathic medical schools. Because of the influence of the personal social value factor in medical students' choosing family practice medicine, this factor warrants further study.

  9. Socioeconomic disparities in the quality of life in children with cancer or brain tumors: the mediating role of family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzelman, Kristin; Barker, Emily; Catrine, Kristine; Puccetti, Diane; Possin, Peggy; Witt, Whitney P

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to determine if and to what extent (i) socioeconomic disparities exist in the health-related quality of life (QOL) of children with cancer or brain tumors and healthy children; and (ii) family functioning and burden mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and children's QOL. In this cross-sectional study, parents of children ages 2-18 with (n = 71) and without (n = 135) cancer or brain tumors completed in-person interviewer-assisted surveys assessing sociodemographics (including income and parental education), child QOL (measure: PedsQL), family functioning (measure: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale IV) and burden (measure: Impact on the Family Scale). For children with cancer, clinical characteristics were captured through medical record abstraction. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between income and child QOL; the interaction between group status and income was assessed. Staged multivariate regression models were used to assess the role of family factors in this relationship among children with cancer. In multivariate analyses, the effect of income differed by cancer status; lower income was associated with worse QOL in children with cancer but not among healthy children. Among children with cancer, this relationship was significantly attenuated by family burden. Significant socioeconomic disparities exist in the QOL of children with cancer. Family factors partially explain the relationship between low income and poor QOL outcomes among these children. Lower-income families may have fewer resources to cope with their child's cancer. Increased support, monitoring, and referrals to reduce burden for these families may lead to improved QOL in children with cancer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Ecuador)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.

  11. Identifying relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for homeless families in transitional housing: Using parent input to inform adaptation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Kendal; Chaviano, Casey L; Scott, Jenna C; McNeil Smith, Shardé

    2015-11-01

    Homeless families in transitional housing face a number of distinct challenges, yet there is little research seeking to guide prevention and intervention work with homeless parents. Informed by the tenets of community-based participatory research, the purpose of this study was to identify relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for this population. Data were gathered from 40 homeless parents through semistructured individual interviews and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The resulting 15 categories suggest several topics, approach considerations, and activities that can inform parenting intervention work with homeless families in transitional housing. Study findings are discussed within the context of intervention fidelity versus adaptation, and implications for practice, research, and policy are suggested. This study provides important insights for informing parenting intervention adaptation and implementation efforts with homeless families in transitional housing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners’ Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children’s developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten. PMID:28804528

  13. Myosin II directly binds and inhibits Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors: a possible link to Rho family GTPases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chan-Soo; Choi, Chang-Ki; Shin, Eun-Young; Schwartz, Martin Alexander; Kim, Eung-Gook

    2010-01-01

    Cell migration requires the coordinated spatiotemporal regulation of actomyosin contraction and cell protrusion/adhesion. Nonmuscle myosin II (MII) controls Rac1 and Cdc42 activation, and cell protrusion and focal complex formation in migrating cells. However, these mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that MII interacts specifically with multiple Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Binding is mediated by the conserved tandem Dbl homology–pleckstrin homology modu...

  14. DMPD: The role of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17702640 The role of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic cel...b 2007 Aug 16. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The role of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family ...e interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function. Authors Gabriele L, O

  15. DMPD: The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of action. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17502370 The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of acti....html) (.csml) Show The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of action. PubmedID 1...7502370 Title The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism

  16. [The family dysfunction as a risk factor of obesity in Mexican school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rico, José Luis; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    it has been demonstrated that children obesity is a multifactorial disease and probably, the alteration of the family dynamic is another potential risk factor. The objective was to identify the association between obesity and family dysfunction in school children who attend to a family medicine unit. case and control study at Mexican Social Security Institute in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Sociodemographic factors and family dynamic of obese and non-obese subjects (n = 452) of six to nine years old from nuclear families were achieved. the association between family dysfunction and obesity was [OR = 1.63 (1.08-2.46), p = 0.01]. Area II, Identity formation, and area VI, Discipline and methods, showed a lower score in cases of children with obesity (p family dysfunction [RM 1.79 (1.19, 2.71), p = 0.005] and low literacy of mothers [RM 1.61 (1.06, 2.45), p = 0.02)] were risk factors for obesity in school children. the results showed an association between family dysfunction and obesity in school children. We suggest to consider it in the prevention of obesity in Mexican school children.

  17. Bidirectional associations between family factors and Internet addiction among adolescents in a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of family factors on the occurrence of Internet addiction and determining whether Internet addiction could make any difference in the family function. A total of 2293 adolescents in grade 7 participated in the study. We assessed their Internet addiction, family function, and family factors with a 1-year follow up. In the prospective investigation, inter-parental conflict predicted the incidence of Internet addiction 1 year later in forward regression analysis, followed by not living with mother and allowance to use Internet more than 2 h per day by parents or caregiver. The inter-parental conflict and allowance to use Internet more than 2 h per day also predicted the incidence in girls. Not cared for by parents and family APGAR score predicted the incidence of Internet addiction among boys. The prospective investigation demonstrated that the incidence group had more decreased scores on family APGAR than did the non-addiction group in the 1-year follow-up. This effect was significant only among girls. Inter-parental conflict and inadequate regulation of unessential Internet use predicted risk of Internet addiction, particularly among adolescent girls. Family intervention to prevent inter-parental conflict and promote family function and Internet regulation were necessary to prevent Internet addiction. Among adolescents with Internet addiction, it is necessary to pay attention to deterioration of family function, particularly among girls. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. [Family cohesion associated with oral health, socioeconomic factors and health behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luale Leão; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Garcia, Gustavo; Batista, Marília Jesus; Costa, Ludmila da Silva Tavares; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima

    2013-08-01

    Overall health surveys have related family cohesion to socio-economic status and behavioral factors. The scope of this study was to investigate the association between family cohesion and socio-economic, behavioral and oral health factors. This was a, cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling. The random sample consisted of 524 adolescents attending public schools in the city of Piracicaba-SP. Variables were evaluated by self-applied questionnaires and caries and periodontal disease were assessed by DMF-T and CPI indices. The adolescent's perception of family cohesion was assessed using the family adaptability and cohesion scale. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression shows that adolescents with low family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have low income (OR 2,28 95% CI 1,14- 4,55), presence of caries (OR 2,23 95% CI 1,21-4,09), less than two daily brushings (OR 1,91 95% CI 1,03-3,54). Adolescents with high family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have high income and protective behavior against the habit of smoking. Thus, the data shows that adolescent perception of family cohesion was associated with behavioral, socio-economic and oral health variables, indicating the importance of an integral approach to patient health.

  19. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  20. Predictive factors for familiality in a Danish clinical cohort of children with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette M M M; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a chronic, neurobiological disease, characterized by the presence of motor and vocal tics and it is often accompanied by associated symptoms. The two best-known co-morbidities are Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD......). The fact that TS aggregates strongly in families suggests that family members share either genetic and/or environmental risk factors contributing to TS. Numerous studies have been performed to examine the familiality in TS, but clear-cut factors to predict hereditability in TS have not been found yet. We...

  1. HSF transcription factor family, heat shock response, and protein intrinsic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerheide, Sandy D; Raynes, Rachel; Powell, Chase; Xue, Bin; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2012-02-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins are highly abundant in all kingdoms of life, and several protein functional classes, such as transcription factors, transcriptional regulators, hub and scaffold proteins, signaling proteins, and chaperones are especially enriched in intrinsic disorder. One of the unique cellular reactions to protein damaging stress is the so-called heat shock response that results in the upregulation of heat shock proteins including molecular chaperones. This molecular protective mechanism is conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes and allows an organism to respond to various proteotoxic stressors, such as heat shock, oxidative stress, exposure to heavy metals, and drugs. The heat shock response- related proteins can be expressed during normal conditions (e.g., during the cell growth and development) or can be induced by various pathological conditions, such as infection, inflammation, and protein conformation diseases. The initiation of the heat shock response is manifested by the activation of the heat shock transcription factors HSF 1, part of a family of related HSF transcription factors. This review analyzes the abundance and functional roles of intrinsic disorder in various heat shock transcription factors and clearly shows that the heat shock response requires HSF flexibility to be more efficient. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers

  2. The study of urban family physicians performance and its related factors in the south of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozra Nourafkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Family Physician Program is one of the most important plans for increasing the equitable access and affordable health services. This study aimed to examine the performance of Urban Family Physicians and associated factors in the third year of its implementation. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all Family Physicians (31 persons working in the private and public polyclinics and clinics in the Firoozabad, from October to December 2014. The population of the study consisted of all the physicians (31 persons who were involved in the Family Medicine Program. The main instrument for data gathering was a standard questionnaire developed by Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire have been confirmed by MOHME. The questionnaire had four parts including medical equipment, informing the patients, referral system rules, and protocols. The data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, version 16, through appropriate statistical tests including Independent T-test, Pearson Correlation, One sample T-test, in a significance level of<0.05. Results: Findings of the study showed that there was not a significant association between performance of physicians and equipment (77.20 ± 22.80. Their performance based on informing patients (81.59±16.69, protocols (82.42±12.05, and total performance (82.41±13.42 was good. Their performance in terms of referral system (69.35 ±16.15 was weak. There were not any association between the performance and marital status, age, career, and sex. In contrast, there was a significant relationship between nativity and performance so that the performance of native physicians was better. Conclusion: The Urban Family Physician is an outstanding step for improving the public health but its successful implementing needs to develop an appropriate solution for employing the native physicians. It seems that applying various incentives and

  3. Family and non-family businesses on internal factors of entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Nelson; Francisco DINIZ

    2012-01-01

    Small firms are a major player in development. Thus, entrepreneurship is frequently attached to these rms and it must be present in daily management of factors such as planning and cooperation. We intend to analyze these factors, comparing familiar and non-familiar businesses. This study was conducted in a Portuguese region in the north of Portugal - Vale do Sousa . The results allow us to conclude that even with some managerial di erences it was not possible to identif...

  4. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included…

  5. Fatores de risco na gagueira desenvolvimental familial e isolada Risk factors in the familial and sporadic developmental stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Moço Canhetti de Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar e comparar os achados dos fatores de risco para a cronicidade da gagueira em crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental familial e isolada. MÉTODOS: participaram 60 crianças de ambos os gêneros, divididas em dois grupos: GI - 30 crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental familial; GII - 30 crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental isolada. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio do Protocolo de Risco para a Gagueira do Desenvolvimento - PRGD (Andrade, 2006, que considera os seguintes fatores de risco: idade, gênero, tipo de surgimento e tempo de duração das disfluências, tipologia das disfluências, fatores comunicativos e qualitativos associados, histórico mórbido pré, peri e pós natal, fatores estressantes que ocorreram próximo ao surgimento do distúrbio, histórico familial, reação pessoal, familiar e social e atitudes familiares. RESULTADOS: quando o grupo I (GI foi comparado com o grupo II (GII, a única diferença estatisticamente significante foi com relação aos fatores estressantes que ocorreram próximo ao surgimento do distúrbio. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados confirmam a natureza complexa da gagueira, bem como a necessidade de se investigar os vários fatores considerados como de risco para o distúrbio, com intuito de melhorar a compreensão de suas possíveis etiologias.PURPOSE: to investigate and compare the risk factors for stuttering between children with familial developmental stuttering and children with sporadic developmental stuttering. METHODS: 60 children of both genders with stuttering took part, divided in two groups: GI - 30 children with familial developmental stuttering; GII - 30 children with sporadic developmental stuttering. Data were gathered through the Protocol of Risk for the Developmental Stuttering - PRGD (Andrade, 2006, which considers the following factors: age; gender; manner of onset and time of duration for the disfluencies; typology of the disfluencies; associated communicative

  6. Intensive Care Unit death and factors influencing family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Salins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit (FS-ICU care is believed to be associated with ICU survival and ICU outcomes. A review of literature was done to determine factors influencing FS-ICU care in ICU deaths. Results: Factors that positively influenced FS-ICU care were (a communication: Honesty, accuracy, active listening, emphatic statements, consistency, and clarity; (b family support: Respect, compassion, courtesy, considering family needs and wishes, and emotional and spiritual support; (c family meetings: Meaningful explanation and frequency of meetings; (d decision-making: Shared decision-making; (e end of life care support: Support during foregoing life-sustaining interventions and staggered withdrawal of life support; (f ICU environment: Flexibility of visiting hours and safe hospital environment; and (g other factors: Control of pain and physical symptoms, palliative care consultation, and family-centered care. Factors that negatively influenced FS-ICU care were (a communication: Incomplete information and unable to interpret information provided; (b family support: Lack of emotional and spiritual support; (c family meetings: Conflicts and short family meetings; (d end of life care support: Resuscitation at end of life, mechanical ventilation on day of death, ICU death of an elderly, prolonged use of life-sustaining treatment, and unfamiliar technology; and (e ICU environment: Restrictive visitation policies and families denied access to see the dying loved ones. Conclusion: Families of the patients admitted to ICU value respect, compassion, empathy, communication, involvement in decision-making, pain and symptom relief, avoiding futile medical interventions, and dignified end of life care.

  7. Intensive Care Unit death and factors influencing family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salins, Naveen; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit (FS-ICU) care is believed to be associated with ICU survival and ICU outcomes. A review of literature was done to determine factors influencing FS-ICU care in ICU deaths. Results: Factors that positively influenced FS-ICU care were (a) communication: Honesty, accuracy, active listening, emphatic statements, consistency, and clarity; (b) family support: Respect, compassion, courtesy, considering family needs and wishes, and emotional and spiritual support; (c) family meetings: Meaningful explanation and frequency of meetings; (d) decision-making: Shared decision-making; (e) end of life care support: Support during foregoing life-sustaining interventions and staggered withdrawal of life support; (f) ICU environment: Flexibility of visiting hours and safe hospital environment; and (g) other factors: Control of pain and physical symptoms, palliative care consultation, and family-centered care. Factors that negatively influenced FS-ICU care were (a) communication: Incomplete information and unable to interpret information provided; (b) family support: Lack of emotional and spiritual support; (c) family meetings: Conflicts and short family meetings; (d) end of life care support: Resuscitation at end of life, mechanical ventilation on day of death, ICU death of an elderly, prolonged use of life-sustaining treatment, and unfamiliar technology; and (e) ICU environment: Restrictive visitation policies and families denied access to see the dying loved ones. Conclusion: Families of the patients admitted to ICU value respect, compassion, empathy, communication, involvement in decision-making, pain and symptom relief, avoiding futile medical interventions, and dignified end of life care. PMID:27076710

  8. Family lifestyle factors related to children s congenital heart defects in China:a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the multiple risk factors for family lifestyle of children with congenital heart defects(CHDs)in Shaanxi Province,China.Methods A 1∶1 case-control study was carried out to investigate 60 pairs of children and their parents.The univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the influence of risk factors related to parents' lifestyle on CHDs.Results Several possible risk factors were found for CHDs,including fever(OR=4.465,P=0.017),pesticides contact(OR=2.234...

  9. [Factors affecting subjective satisfaction with verbal communication among the disabled elderly and their family caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hiroko; Arai, Yumiko; Yamasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate satisfaction with verbal communication among the disabled elderly and their family caregivers; and to find the significantly influential factors of satisfaction with verbal communication. The subjects were 85 disabled elderly and 85 family caregivers. For the disabled elderly, satisfaction with verbal communication, demographic, and physical factors were examined using an interview survey. For the caregivers, satisfaction with verbal communication, demographic factors, and some factors related caregiving were examined using a self-administered questionnaire. In the disabled elderly, 82.4% were satisfied with their verbal communication while 55.3% of family caregivers were satisfied. Satisfaction with verbal communication between the disabled elderly and their caregivers showed low agreement (kappa = 0.17). Bivariate analysis revealed that satisfaction with verbal communication of the disabled elderly was significantly related to ADL (p verbal communication of caregivers was significantly related to the gender of the disabled elderly and caregivers' burden. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that the factor most related to satisfaction with verbal communication for the disabled elderly was ability of comprehension (p value = 0.032, odds ratio = 2.960), and the most related factor for their caregivers was the burden evaluated by J-ZBI_8 (p value = 0.004, odds ratio = 0.842). These results suggest that satisfaction with verbal communication of the disabled elderly disagrees with that of the family caregivers, and that some related factors for the disabled elderly are different from those in their family caregivers.

  10. Relevant Factors in the Process of Socialization, Involvement and Belonging of Descendants in Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melquicedec Lozano-Posso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research works toward the identification of the factors that comprise the process of socialization, involvement and initial belonging of descendants in family businesses and the key relationships between them. By means of a qualitative detailed study of four cases, complemented by a quantitative survey of 274 Colombian family businesses, the authors generate a new model that takes into account both factors explored in previous research as well as others identified in this study. Findings confirm the specific dependency of each stage on the subsequent ones; socialization influences involvement, which in turn influences the belonging of the descendants to the family business, with a strong presence of factors such as knowledge, leadership, mode, timing, and motivation. Those responsible for the orientation of potential successors may examine these findings in order to optimize their preparation efforts and support of family human resources for the continuity of the business.

  11. Intimate partner violence against women in Nepal: an analysis through individual, empowerment, family and societal level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Koustuv; Wang, Shumei; Svanström, Leif

    2014-01-01

    The current study estimated the national prevalence rate of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) in Nepal. Besides, the individual level, empowerment level, family and societal level factors were assessed to relate with the victims of IPAVW in Nepal. Nationally representative sample of 4210 women of reproductive age (15-49 yr) were included in the study. Household surveys using two stage sampling procedures, face to face interview with pre-tested questionnaires were performed. Emotional, physical and sexual violence were target variables. A violence variable was constructed from these three types of violence. Individual level factors were measured by age, residency, education, religion and husband's education. Empowerment factors included employment status and various decision making elements. Family and societal factors included economic status, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage index, history of family violence, husband's controlling behavior and other issues. Cross tabulation with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were employed. Prevalence of emotional IPVAW was 17.5%, physical IPAVW 23.4% and sexual IPAVW 14.7%. Overall the prevalence of IPVAW in Nepal was 32.4%. Joint decision making for contraception, husband's non-controlling behavior to wives and friendly feelings were emerged as less likely to be IPVAW perpetration. The findings have immense policy importance as a nationally representative study and indicating necessity of more gender equality.

  12. Family Risk Factors Among Women With Addiction-Related Problems: An Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Context Recent years have produced many articles about women’s addiction and its risk factors and the consequences of substance use and misuse in the emotional, social, psychological, and economic domains of life. Family vulnerabilities are one of the most important variables contributing to addiction among women. Thus, the purpose of this article is to investigate areas of family life that lead to women’s taking up and maintaining drug and alcohol abuse. Evidence Acquisition A database search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Google Scholar was conducted using the following keywords: “women and addiction”, “women addiction and family”, “addiction”, “substance abuse” and “family”. For the first step, we chose studies that were conducted between 2000 and 2015, and for the second step, studies conducted before 2000. We categorized all search results into three main groups: processes related to family disturbances, factors related to parenting styles, and variables related to partners. Results Partners, parenting styles, and family disturbances are three main factors affecting children growing up in a family and their inclination toward addiction. Some of these pathways are complicated and indirect, and some are straightforward. Conclusions Future research should pay more attention to the mechanisms and pathways mediating or moderating the relationship between family risk factors and addiction in women. Clinicians and researchers should keep in mind these vulnerabilities and take into consideration factors special to processes related to addiction in women.

  13. Family Aggregation and Risk Factors in Phobic Disorders over Three-Generations in a Nation-Wide Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Steinhausen

    Full Text Available This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often phobic disorders (PHO and co-morbid disorders occur in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, year of birth, and degree of urbanization in terms of risk factors.A total of N = 746 child and adolescent psychiatric participants born between 1969 and 1986 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR with a diagnosis of a mental disorder before the age of 18, and developed PHO at some point during their life-time until a maximum age of 40 years were included. In addition, N = 2229 controls without any diagnosis of mental disorders before age 18 and that were matched for age, sex, and residential region were included. Diagnoses of mental disorders were also obtained from the first- degree relatives as a part of the Danish Three Generation Study (3GS. A family load component was obtained by using various mixed regression models.PHO occurred significantly more often in case than in control families, in particular, in mothers and siblings. Substance use disorders (SUD, Depressive disorders (DEP, anxiety disorders (ANX and personality disorders (PERS in the family were significantly associated with specific phobia in the case-probands. After controlling for various mental disorders comorbid to PHO it was found that some of the family transmission could be caused by various other mental disorders in family members rather than the PHO itself. Female sex and more recent year of birth were further risk factors while region of residence was not related to the manifestation of PHO. Case-relatives did not develop PHO earlier than control relatives. After adjusting for various additional explanatory variables, the family load explained only 0.0013% of the variance in the manifestation of PHO in the case-probands.These findings, based on a very large and representative dataset, provide evidence for the family

  14. Organizational Factors and the Implementation of Family to Family: Contextual Elements of Systems Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Thomas M.; Crampton, David S.; Knight, Nelson; Paine-Wells, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In efforts to reform the child welfare system, agency leaders must involve staff at all levels; yet, little research has been done to determine which organizational factors encourage or inhibit staff engagement. Employees from an urban child welfare agency were invited to complete a survey regarding organizational effectiveness and its influence…

  15. The FIRO model of family therapy: implications of factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, R J; Ross, M W

    1989-11-01

    Schutz's FIRO model contains three main elements: inclusion, control, and affection. It is used widely in mental health research and practice, but has received little empirical validation. The present study is based on factor analysis of the resources to FIRO questionnaire of 120 normal couples and 191 couples who were attending a clinic for marital/psychiatric problems. Results confirmed the validity of the FIRO model for women only. The differences between the sexes reflected a considerable degree of sex-role stereotyping, the clinical implications of which are discussed.

  16. Factors Affecting Utilization of Family Planning Services in a Post-Conflict Setting, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waled Amen Mohammed Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore and examine the conjectures surrounding the utilization of family planning services among currently married couples of childbearing age in Renk County.This study has adopted a qualitative method to collect data on factors affecting the utilization of family planning services through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, in rural and urban areas of Renk County. It targeted married women, men as well as unmarried men and women. The researchers conducted nine focus group discussions and nine interviews at both Jelhak (rural setting and Renk (urban setting. The results suggested that the people of Renk County prefer to have large families and therefore choose not to use family planning methods. The data collected was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. This included the construction of a thematic framework, coding, editing and categorization of available data as well as the creation of sub-themes.The result also suggested that perception is a main factor that affects utilization of family planning services with a majority of the people in Renk and Jelhak preferring to have many children in order to increase the family size for some reasons. These are linked to religion, social stigma and taboo that are attached to childless people or users of family planning methods for birth control purposes.The responses revealed some variation in perception between rural (Jelhak and urban (Renk areas. Respondents from Renk area reported that some people use family planning services for economic reasons that involve alleviation of financial difficulties and provision of better education when the family size is small. On the other hand, rural people from Jelhak perceive family planning to be socially un-acceptable. Furthermore, men and women of Jelhak reported that after each birth of a child, married couples avoid sexual relationship for a period of two years as means of family planning. Women of both Urban and Rural

  17. Factors impacting the mental health of the caregivers of children with asthma in china: effects of family socioeconomic status, symptoms control, proneness to shame, and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin

    2014-12-01

    Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  18. Family factors that characterize adolescents with severe obesity and their role in weight loss surgery outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Meg H; Hunsaker, Sanita; Mikhail, Carmen; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; McCullough, Mary Beth; Garland, Beth; Austin, Heather; Washington, Gia; Baughcum, Amy; Rofey, Dana; Smith, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    To comprehensively assess family characteristics of adolescents with severe obesity and whether family factors impact weight loss outcomes following weight loss surgery (WLS). Multisite prospective data from 138 adolescents undergoing WLS and primary caregivers (adolescent: Mage  = 16.9; MBMI = 51.5 kg/m(2) ; caregiver: Mage  = 44.5; 93% female) and 83 nonsurgical comparators (NSComp: adolescent: Mage  = 16.1; MBMI = 46.9 kg/m(2) ; caregiver: Mage  = 43.9; 94% female) were collected using standardized measures at presurgery/baseline and at 1 and 2 years. The majority (77.3%) of caregivers had obesity, with rates of caregiver WLS significantly higher in the WLS (23.8%) versus NSComp group (3.7%, P Family dysfunction was prevalent (≈1 in every two to three families), with rates higher for NSComp than the WLS group. For the WLS group, preoperative family factors (i.e., caregiver BMI or WLS history, dysfunction, social support) were not significant predictors of adolescent weight loss at 1 and 2 years postoperatively, although change in family functioning over time emerged as a significant correlate of percent weight loss. Rates of severe obesity in caregivers as well as family dysfunction were clinically noteworthy, although not related to adolescent weight loss success following WLS. However, change in family communication and emotional climate over time emerged as potential targets to optimize weight loss outcomes. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  19. The Impact of Familial, Behavioural and Psychosocial Factors on the SES Gradient for Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, Karin; Gwozdz, Wencke; Pischke, Claudia;

    2017-01-01

    Background: In highly developed countries, childhood overweight and many overweight-related risk factors are negatively associated with socioeconomic status (SES). Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the longitudinal association between parental SES and childhood overweight...... with a lower SES. For children who were initially overweight, a lower parental SES carries a lower probability for a non-overweight weight status at follow-up. The effect of parental SES is only moderately attenuated by single familial, psychosocial or behavioural factors; however, it can be fully explained...... association between SES, familial, psychosocial and behavioural factors, and the prevalence of childhood overweight. A total of 5819 children (50.5% boys and 49.5% girls) were included. Results: The risk for being overweight after 2 years at follow-up in children who were non-overweight at baseline increases...

  20. Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale: Effects of Social Desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick C.

    1982-01-01

    Presented for 64 subjects a replication of the Family Environment Scale's maximum likelihood factor structure for which the two-factor, Varimax-rotated solution was found to be stable when the correlations among the subscales were corrected for the effects of social desirability response bias. (Author)

  1. Personal, Familial, and Social Factors Contributing to Addiction Relapse, Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug addiction is deemed one of the gravest threats to society. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine what factors (personal, familial, or social are correlated with addiction relapse. Patients and Methods In this descriptive study, 146 addicts referring to addiction treatment centers in the Iranian city of Ahvaz were selected via purposive and non-randomized sampling. The study tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and SPSS software were used for data analysis. Results The results showed that 46.1% of the participants aged between 20 and 30 years. All the subjects had at least one attempt at quitting drug abuse. Single individuals comprised 52.9% of the study population. The most significant physical factors were lack of appetite (23.9%, numbness and pins and needles (23.3%, and bone pain (22.4%, while the most significant mental factor was loneliness (44%. Concerning the social factors, association with addicted and misleading friends (35.2% had the utmost importance. Furthermore, lack of a permanent job (43% and absence of appropriate family relationships (32%, respectively, constituted the most important factors among the career and familial factors. Conclusions Our results showed that many personal, familial, and social factors play a role in addiction relapse. The high prevalence of return to addiction necessitates further strategies for the more optimal control of these factors.

  2. The Role of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Stroke in Familial Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosto, Giuseppe; Bird, Thomas D; Bennett, David A; Boeve, Bradley F; Brickman, Adam M; Cruchaga, Carlos; Faber, Kelley; Foroud, Tatiana M; Farlow, Martin; Goate, Alison M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Lantigua, Rafael; Manly, Jennifer; Ottman, Ruth; Rosenberg, Roger; Schaid, Daniel J; Schupf, Nicole; Stern, Yaakov; Sweet, Robert A; Mayeux, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The contribution of cardiovascular disease (CV) and cerebrovascular disease to the risk for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been long debated. Investigations have shown that antecedent CV risk factors increase the risk for LOAD, although other investigations have failed to validate this association. To study the contribution of CV risk factors (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease) and the history of stroke to LOAD in a data set of large families multiply affected by LOAD. The National Institute on Aging Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease/National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease family study (hereinafter referred to as NIA-LOAD study) is a longitudinal study of families with multiple members affected with LOAD. A multiethnic community-based longitudinal study (Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project [WHICAP]) was used to replicate findings. The 6553 participants in the NIA-LOAD study were recruited from 23 US Alzheimer disease centers with ongoing data collection since 2003; the 5972 WHICAP participants were recruited at Columbia University with ongoing data collection since 1992. Data analysis was performed from 2003 to 2015. Generalized mixed logistic regression models tested the association of CV risk factors (primary association) with LOAD. History of stroke was used for the secondary association. A secondary model adjusted for the presence of an apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. A genetic risk score, based on common variants associated with LOAD, was used to account for LOAD genetic risk beyond the APOE ε4 effect. Mediation analyses evaluated stroke as a mediating factor between the primary association and LOAD. A total of 6553 NIA-LOAD participants were included in the analyses (4044 women [61.7%]; 2509 men [38.3%]; mean [SD] age, 77.0 [9] years), with 5972 individuals from the WHICAP study included in the replication sample (4072 women [68.2%]; 1900 men [31.8%]; mean [SD] age, 76.5 [7.0] years). Hypertension was associated

  3. Family History, Diabetes, and Other Demographic and Risk Factors Among Participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Duquette, MS, CGC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Family history of diabetes has been recognized as an important risk factor of the disease. Family medical history represents valuable genomic information because it characterizes the combined interactions between environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors. This study examined the strength and effect of having a family history of diabetes on the prevalence of self-reported, previously diagnosed diabetes among adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. Methods The study population included data from 10,283 participants aged 20 years and older. Gender, age, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio, education level, body mass index, and family history of diabetes were examined in relation to diabetes status. Diabetes prevalence estimates and odds ratios of diabetes were calculated based on family history and other factors. Results The prevalence of diabetes among individuals who have a first-degree relative with diabetes (14.3% was significantly higher than that of individuals without a family history (3.2%, corresponding to a crude odds ratio of five. Both prevalence and odds ratio estimates significantly increased with the number of relatives affected with diabetes. Family history was also associated with several demographic and risk factors. Conclusion Family history of diabetes was shown to be a significant predictor of diabetes prevalence in the adult U.S. population. We advocate the inclusion of family history assessment in public health prevention and screening programs as an inexpensive and valuable source of genomic information and measure of diabetes risk.

  4. Risk factors in familial forms of celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh; James; Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Celiac disease has been reported in up to 2% of some European populations. A similar risk has been identified in the America and Australia where immigration of Eu-ropeans has occurred. Moreover, an increasing number of celiac disease patients are being identified in many Asian countries, including China and India. Finally, celiac disease has also been detected in Asian immigrants and their descendants to other countries, such as Canada. Within these so-called "general" celiac populations, however, there are...

  5. [Family factors influence active commuting to school in Spanish children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Carlos; Villa-González, Emilio; Pérez-López, Isaac J; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Chillón, Palma

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El desplazamiento activo al colegio contribuye a aumentar los niveles de actividad física en niños. Los factores familiares pueden determinar dicho comportamiento. Objetivo: El objetivo fue analizar la asociación de la actividad laboral y el desplazamiento al trabajo de los padres con el modo de desplazamiento de sus hijos. Método: Participaron 721 familias de 4 colegios de la provincia de Granada. Las familias completaron un cuestionario sobre el modo de desplazamiento de sus hijos, la actividad laboral y el modo de desplazamiento de los padres, y la distancia y tiempo del trayecto al colegio de sus hijos. Las asociaciones entre la actividad laboral de las familias y modo de desplazamiento al trabajo con el desplazamiento activo al colegio de sus hijos se estudiaron con regresión logística binaria ajustando por distancia al colegio y edad de los hijos. Resultados: Los niños cuyos padres y madres no trabajaban eran más propensos a ir de forma activa al colegio que aquellos donde ambos trabajaban (p = 0,023; OR: 2,67; 95% IC: 1,14-6,23). Los niños cuyos padres y madres se desplazaban de forma activa al trabajo eran más propensos a ir de forma activa al colegio que aquellos donde ambos padres se desplazaban de forma pasiva al trabajo (p = 0,014; OR: 6,30; 95% IC: 1,45-27,26). Conclusión: Los factores familiares estaban relacionados con el modo de desplazamiento de los niños al colegio: en familias con desempleo y en familias con empleo donde los padres se desplazan al trabajo de forma activa, los hijos parecen ser más activos.

  6. Expression of insulin-like growth factor family genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Braczkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : Despite significant progress in the pathology of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC, diagnostic and predictive factors of major importance have not been discovered. Some hopes are associated with insulin-like growth factors. The aim of the study was to compare the expression of genes for insulin-like growth factor family in tumours and in tissue of kidneys without cancer. Material and methods : Fifty-two patients years with clear cell renal cell cancer were qualified to the study group; patients nephrectomised because of hydronephrosis were included in the control group. Expression of genes were evaluated by RT-PCR. Results : Expression of IGFR-1 gene in tumour accounts for about 60% of cases. The incidence is higher than in corresponding adjacent non-cancerous kidney tissues and higher (but with no statistical significance than in kidney without cancer. Expression of IGFR-2 gene in tumours has not been established. The incidence of the expression in corresponding adjacent non-cancerous kidney tissues is small. Expression of this gene has been present in all specimens from kidneys without cancer. Expression of IGFBP-3 gene ascertained in all (except four cases of ccRCC and in the majority of clippings from adjacent tissue. It was not found in kidneys from the control group. IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGFR-1 mRNA copy numbers in ccRCC were higher than in the material from the control group

  7. The relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors to phenotypic variation in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Brandt, Benny; Berkun, Yackov; Lidar, Merav; Livneh, Avi

    2012-01-10

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations in the FMF gene MEFV (MEditerranean FeVer). It has a large phenotypic diversity even in patients with similar genotypes. Despite evidence that environmental factors (EFs) and genetic factors, including MEFV mutations (such as M694V, E148Q) and background modifier genes (MGs), affect the clinical manifestations of FMF, the relative contribution of each remains unknown. To investigate the relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the phenotype of FMF, we compared the intra-pair clinical concordance of 10 mono and 7 dizygotic twins with FMF. The part played by EFs was determined by the phenotypic discordance of the monozygous twins, and the MGs effect was determined by deducing the environmental effect, computed for MZ twins, from the phenotypic discordance of the dizygous twins. The mean±SD of intra-pair concordance was higher in the MZ than in DZ twin group (88.1±13.2 vs. 70.7±14.1 respectively, P valueFMF is estimated as 11.9%±6.6% and the MGs effect as 17.4%±15.5% in average. In FMF the phenotype is affected by MEFV mutations, MGs and EFs in an estimated ratio of about 6:1.5:1 respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Family history of schizophrenia as a risk factor for axis I psychiatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Lukens, Ellen P

    2013-02-01

    People with first-degree relatives with schizophrenia are at an elevated risk of developing the disorder themselves. High rates of psychotic symptoms in non-psychotic disorders, high rates of comorbidity in psychotic disorders, and diversity of outcomes following psychosis-risk states together suggest that this vulnerability may be for psychiatric conditions in general, not limited to schizophrenia. In this study, data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) were used to examine the association between having a first-degree relative with schizophrenia and the lifetime development of a range of non-psychotic axis I psychiatric disorders using adjusted odds ratios. Having a relative with schizophrenia was associated with increased risk for most non-psychotic psychiatric conditions examined, including those expected to be associated with schizophrenia (affective, anxiety, and substance use disorders) and those not expected (bulimia, disorders of childhood onset), excluding respondents with lifetime psychotic symptoms and controlling for demographic factors. Family history of schizophrenia among this predominantly African-American and Afro-Caribbean sample appears to be a risk factor for a range of axis I diagnoses, supporting a continuous rather than categorical nature of psychiatric vulnerability. Future studies should examine whether these associations are due to genetic or environmental factors, or both. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Come and get it! A discussion of family mealtime literature and factors affecting obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Spaccarotella, Kim; Berhaupt-Glickstein, Amanda; Hongu, Nobuko; Worobey, John; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-05-01

    The L.E.A.D. (Locate, Evaluate, and Assemble Evidence to Inform Decisions) framework of the Institute of Medicine guided the assembly of transdisciplinary evidence for this comprehensive, updated review of family meal research, conducted with the goal of informing continued work in this area. More frequent family meals are associated with greater consumption of healthy foods in children, adolescents, and adults. Adolescents and children who consume fewer family meals consume more unhealthy food. School-aged children and adolescents who consume more family meals have greater intakes of typically underconsumed nutrients. Increased family meal frequency may decrease risk of overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. Frequent family meals also may protect against eating disorders and negative health behaviors in adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial benefits include improved perceptions of family relationships. However, the benefits of having a family meal can be undermined if the family consumes fast food, watches television at the meal, or has a more chaotic atmosphere. Although these findings are intriguing, inconsistent research methodology and instrumentation and limited use of validation studies make comparisons between studies difficult. Future research should use consistent methodology, examine these associations across a wide range of ages, clarify the effects of the mealtime environment and feeding styles, and develop strategies to help families promote healthful mealtime habits. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Protective Factors for Youth Exposed to Violence in Their Communities: A Review of Family, School, and Community Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Lavi, Iris; Douglas, Laura; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2017-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive investigation of the pattern and strength of findings in the literature regarding the environmental moderators of the relationship between exposure to community violence and mental health among children and adolescents. Twenty-nine studies met criteria for inclusion in our analysis of family, school, and community variables as moderators. Dependent variables included internalizing (e.g., anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder) and externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression, substance use). Effect sizes for the interactions of exposure to violence and potential moderators were summarized by their patterns of protective processes. The majority of studies in the literature examined family characteristics as moderators of the exposure to violence-symptom relationship, rather than school- or community-level factors. Our results indicated more consistent patterns for (a) close family relationships and social support for internalizing symptoms and (b) close family relationships for externalizing symptoms. Overall, the most common type of protective pattern was protective-stabilizing, in which youth with higher levels of the environmental attribute demonstrate relative stability in mental health despite exposure to violence. We found no consistent evidence that parental monitoring-a dimension inversely associated with exposure to violence in prior studies-moderated the relationship between exposure to violence and symptoms. The study emphasizes the importance of strengthening family support for young people's exposure to community violence; more research is needed to provide a solid evidence base for the role of school and community-level protective factors for youth exposed to violence.

  11. Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. A family study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a cytokine involved in inflammatory process, as well as in glucose and lipid metabolism. Several studies of the biological relevance of IL-6 gene polymorphisms have indicated a relationship with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the –174 G/C and –572 G/C of IL-6 gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. Ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case (proband had obesity, were included in the study. We evaluated the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine biochemical and hematological parameters. High sensitivity C- reactive protein levels were measurement for nephelometric analysis. Screening for both polymorphisms studied was performed by PCR-RFLP. In the parents, both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. The genotypes –174 GC/CC were associated with T2D (OR = 1.23, IC95% 1.01–1.5 and highest levels of hsCRP (p = 0.02, whereas genotype –572 GG was associated with T2D (OR = 1.24, IC95% 1.04–1.47 with an inflammatory state determined by the increase in the leukocyte count (OR = 1.24, IC95% 1.02–1.51. The genotypes –174 GC/CC and –572 GG may confer susceptibility for the development of subclinical inflammation and type 2 diabetes in Mexican families.

  12. The educational gradient in cardiovascular risk factors: impact of shared family factors in 228,346 Norwegian siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariansen, Inger; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Various indicators of childhood socioeconomic position have been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. We investigated the impact of shared family factors on the educational gradient in midlife CVD risk factors by assessing within sibling similarities in the gradi......Background: Various indicators of childhood socioeconomic position have been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. We investigated the impact of shared family factors on the educational gradient in midlife CVD risk factors by assessing within sibling similarities...... category lower educational level was associated with 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.6 to 0.8) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (27% attenuation), 0.4 (0.4 to 0.5) mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure (30%), 1.0 (1.0 to 1.1) more beats per minute higher heart rate (21%), 0.07 (0.06 to 0.07) mmol...

  13. Structural and evolutionary adaptation of rhoptry kinases and pseudokinases, a family of coccidian virulence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The widespread protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii interferes with host cell functions by exporting the contents of a unique apical organelle, the rhoptry. Among the mix of secreted proteins are an expanded, lineage-specific family of protein kinases termed rhoptry kinases (ROPKs), several of which have been shown to be key virulence factors, including the pseudokinase ROP5. The extent and details of the diversification of this protein family are poorly understood. Results In this study, we comprehensively catalogued the ROPK family in the genomes of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Eimeria tenella, as well as portions of the unfinished genome of Sarcocystis neurona, and classified the identified genes into 42 distinct subfamilies. We systematically compared the rhoptry kinase protein sequences and structures to each other and to the broader superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases to study the patterns of diversification and neofunctionalization in the ROPK family and its subfamilies. We identified three ROPK sub-clades of particular interest: those bearing a structurally conserved N-terminal extension to the kinase domain (NTE), an E. tenella-specific expansion, and a basal cluster including ROP35 and BPK1 that we term ROPKL. Structural analysis in light of the solved structures ROP2, ROP5, ROP8 and in comparison to typical eukaryotic protein kinases revealed ROPK-specific conservation patterns in two key regions of the kinase domain, surrounding a ROPK-conserved insert in the kinase hinge region and a disulfide bridge in the kinase substrate-binding lobe. We also examined conservation patterns specific to the NTE-bearing clade. We discuss the possible functional consequences of each. Conclusions Our work sheds light on several important but previously unrecognized features shared among rhoptry kinases, as well as the essential differences between active and degenerate protein kinases. We identify the most distinctive ROPK-specific features

  14. Factores de riesgo para la salud familiar: acontecimientos significativos Risk factors for family health: significative events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia María Herrera Santi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda el estudio de aquellos acontecimientos que pueden generar crisis familiares. Se define el concepto de acontecimiento significativo de la vida familiar y se establece una diferenciación de estos con las crisis familiares. Se realiza un recorrido por las diferentes etapas que atraviesa el ciclo de vida familiar y de los acontecimientos significativos que constituyen momentos de riesgo en éste.This work deals with the study of those events that can generate family crises. The concept of significative event of the family life is defined, and it is established a difference between them and the family crises. The different stages through which the family life passes by and the significative events that constitute risk peaks within this cycle are analyzed.

  15. Hearing children's voices? Including children's perspectives on their experiences of domestic violence in welfare reports prepared for the English courts in private family law proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2017-03-01

    This research examined Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (Cafcass) reports prepared for private family court proceedings in domestic violence cases in England. The research found that in cases where children's accounts identified them as victims of violence, these disclosures regularly disappeared from report recommendations. Particular discourses regarding 'child welfare' and 'contact' were identified, which routinely impacted on the ways in which children's voices were taken into account. Whilst culturally there has undoubtedly been an influential move towards including children's perspectives in decision-making that affects them, how these views are interpreted and represented is subject to adult 'gate-keeping' and powerful cultural and professional ideologies regarding 'child welfare' and 'post-separation family relationships'. This research found that the unrelenting influence of deeply embedded beliefs regarding the preservation or promotion of relationships with fathers continues to have the effect of marginalising issues of safeguarding, including children's voiced experiences of violence, in all but the most exceptional of cases. Rather, safeguarding concerns in respect of domestic violence and child abuse were persistently overshadowed by a dominant presumption of the overall benefits of contact with fathers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of familial and psychological factors in groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çengel-Kültür, S Ebru; Akdemir, Devrim; Saltık-Temizel, İnci N

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the differences between groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation. The Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised, the COPE Questionnaire, the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Parenting Style Scale were used to evaluate, respectively, maternal psychiatric symptoms, coping abilities, attachment style, family functioning and children's perceptions of parenting behaviors. Psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the K-SADS. A higher level of maternal psychiatric symptoms, impaired role and affective involvement functioning of the family and less psychological autonomy were observed in the group of encopresis patients with constipation than in the group of encopresis patients without constipation. No significant differences were found between the groups in psychiatric comorbidities, maternal coping abilities and attachment style. The two groups had a similar pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders and maternal psychological factors, although some familial factors-related mainly to parental authority-were differentiated in the encopresis with constipation group.

  17. [Factors family background of mothers involved in having a premature baby].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamburova, M; Hristova, I

    2014-01-01

    Level of prematurity is an objective criterion for determining the health welfare of the population. Several family background factors of the mother increases the risk of preterm birth child - family status, unwanted pregnancy, etc. Pregnancy among unmarried women and unwanted pregnancy are associated with a higher risk of giving premature baby. Aim of this study is a survey and analysis of factors of family background of the mother (family status and unplanned pregnancy) and their influence on the birth of a premature baby. The survey found nearly three times higher risk OR = 2,83 95 % CI (1,7-4,7) for the birth of a premature baby among unmarried mothers compared to married women, and twice as high proportion of unplanned pregnancy mothers of preterm infants - 20.7% compared to terminfants-10.4%.

  18. [Social and family factors associated with quality of life in children in schools from Piura, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Fiorela E; Vilela-Estrada, Martin A; Meza-Liviapoma, Jessica; Araujo-Chumacero, Mary M; Vilela-Estrada, Ana L; Mejia, Christian R

    2017-04-01

    To determine the socio-familial factors associated with quality of life within the family in children of schools in Piura, Peru. A cross-sectional study in a convenience sample of children between 3 to 6 years in schools in the city of Piura, Perú. The quality of life was measured by the HOME test, with data adjusted to the Machover and Koppitz test, and were also associated with other social and family variables. P values were obtained by generalised linear models, adjusting for the residence of each subject. Of the 431 respondents, 64% (275) were male. The median age was 4 years old. A poor quality of life was observed in 50% of children. Traits of violence (p social and family protective factors were to live with both parents, and the demonstration of affection between both parents and play with both.

  19. The structure of risk factors and outcomes for family caregivers: implications for assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarit, Steven H; Femia, Elia E; Kim, Kyungmin; Whitlatch, Carol J

    2010-03-01

    We examined the associations among risk factors (e.g., behavioral problems, family conflict) and outcomes (e.g., overload, depression) commonly used in the research literature in order to inform the design of caregiver assessment and interventions. A sample of 67 caregivers caring for a family member in the middle stages of dementia were assessed on 15 risk factors and six outcome measures. Risk factors were at best only moderately correlated with one another, suggesting their relative independence. Outcome measures showed somewhat higher correlations with one another, but participants varied in terms of the number and type of outcomes that were elevated. Multivariate results showed that risk factors differed in their contribution to models, predicting various outcomes. Caregivers possess unique combinations of risk factors and outcomes that suggest the need for individualized or tailored interventions. Designing an effective caregiver assessment and corresponding targeted intervention requires careful planning and selection of appropriate risk factors and outcomes.

  20. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  1. Depression and its association with self-esteem, family, peer and school factors in a population of 9586 adolescents in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huang-Chi; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chin-Hung; Huang, Chi-Fen; Liu, Shu-Chun; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the prevalence of depression and its association with self-esteem, family, peer and school factors in a large-scale representative Taiwanese adolescent population. A total of 12,210 adolescent students were recruited into the present study. Subjects with a score >28 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale were defined as having significant depression; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Adolescent Family and Social Life Questionnaire and Family C-APGAR Index were applied to assess subjects' self-esteem, family, peer and school factors. The association between depression and correlates were examined on t-test and chi(2) test. The significant factors were further included in logistic regression analysis. Among 9586 participants (response rate: 86.3%), the prevalence of depression was 12.3%. The risk factors associated with depression in univariate analysis included female gender, older age, residency in urban areas, lower self-esteem, disruptive parental marriage, low family income, family conflict, poorer family function, less satisfaction with peer relationships, less connectedness to school, and poor academic performance. After adjusting the effects of sex, age and location, only subjects with lower self-esteem, higher family conflict, poorer family function, lower rank and decreased satisfaction in their peer group, and less connectedness to school were prone to depression on logistic regression. The prevalence of depression is high in Taiwanese adolescents, and the multiple factors of family, peer, school and individuals are associated with adolescent depression. The factors identified in the present study may be helpful when designing and implementing preventive intervention programs.

  2. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  3. Psychological and Family Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation in Pre-Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas i Poch, Ferran; Canals Sans, Josepa; Gras Pérez, María Eugenia; Ros, Claudia; Domènech, Edelmira

    2002-01-01

    To assess the psychological and family factors associated with suicidal ideation in preadolescent children, we studied a sample of 361 students, average age 9 years old. Two groups were formed, on the basis of the presence (n = 34) or absence (n = 44) of suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the Children’s Depression Inventory and the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, and perceived family environment were compared in both th...

  4. Self-Reported Internalization Symptoms and Family Factors in Indigenous Sami and Non-Sami Adolescents in North Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bals, Margrethe; Turi, Anne Lene; Vitterso, Joar; Skre, Ingunn; Kvernmo, Siv

    2011-01-01

    Through differences in family socialization between indigenous and non-indigenous youth, there may be cultural differences in the impact of family factors on mental health outcome. Using structural equation modelling, this population-based study explored the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and family factors in indigenous…

  5. Factors that Affect Suicide Attempts of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2016-11-28

    We examined the factors that affect suicide attempts adolescents multicultural families in South Korea. The participants were 727 adolescents whose mothers and/or fathers were born outside of South Korea (376 males and 351 females). Among them, 41 (weighted prevalence 6.2%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. Female gender, residence in large cities (compared with in rural areas), living with relatives/alone/with friends/in a dormitory or living in a facility (compared with living with family), high and low socio-economic status (compared with a middle level), high and low academic performance (compared with a middle level), severe perceived stress (compared with non-severe stress), conflicts with a teacher (compared with conflicts with parent), and foreign-father/-parent families (compared with foreign-mother family) were associated with increased odds of suicide attempt. The results indicate that greater awareness of the possibility of suicidal behavior is prudent for adolescents in multicultural families with certain risk factors, such as being from a foreign-parents family, living separately from the family, and having conflicts with a teacher.

  6. Factors that Affect Suicide Attempts of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the factors that affect suicide attempts adolescents multicultural families in South Korea. The participants were 727 adolescents whose mothers and/or fathers were born outside of South Korea (376 males and 351 females. Among them, 41 (weighted prevalence 6.2% had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. Female gender, residence in large cities (compared with in rural areas, living with relatives/alone/with friends/in a dormitory or living in a facility (compared with living with family, high and low socio-economic status (compared with a middle level, high and low academic performance (compared with a middle level, severe perceived stress (compared with non-severe stress, conflicts with a teacher (compared with conflicts with parent, and foreign-father/-parent families (compared with foreign-mother family were associated with increased odds of suicide attempt. The results indicate that greater awareness of the possibility of suicidal behavior is prudent for adolescents in multicultural families with certain risk factors, such as being from a foreign-parents family, living separately from the family, and having conflicts with a teacher.

  7. Lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors in 2001 child-parent pairs: the PEP Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Peter; Haas, Gerda-Maria; Liepold, Evelyn

    2010-12-01

    Genes and environment are the main determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor clustering in families. Since individual risk factor profiles are easily predicted within families, we examined whether CVD risk factors are affected by lifestyle factors in these families. Nutrition, physical activity, and smoking habits were assessed in 2001 biological child-parent pairs from 852 families participating in the Prevention Education Program (PEP). Height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting lipid levels were measured. Within-family associations were calculated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Fathers possessed the most adverse risk profile. Daily energy consumption above the recommended levels was higher in children (daughters +35.4%, sons +26.7%) than in parents (fathers +15.7%, mothers +10.6%). Higher energy consumption was significantly associated with hypertension in mothers (OR 2.5) and in fathers (OR 1.7). Hyper-caloric nutrition of the parents predicted the energy intake of the children in: mother-daughter (OR 7.5), mother-son (OR 3.0), and father-son (OR 2.8) pairs. Low mono-unsaturated fatty acid intake was significantly associated with a high LDL/HDL-C ratio (OR 3.4) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR 2.2) in fathers. Approximately 25% of parents and children reported at least two physical activities twice a week. The 23% of children who were passive smokers presented a far more adverse risk profile than children without exposure to second-hand smoke. Intergenerational lifestyle habits affect cardiovascular risk factors within biological families. As lifestyle habits are predictable, they may be used for implementation of family-based CVD prevention strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Family and social environmental factors associated with aggression among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chunxia; Wei, Zhen; Jin, Ke; Wang, He; Wang, Xiulan; Peng, Ziwen

    2015-09-01

    Family and school environments are assumed to be associated with and influence aggressive behaviors. However, which specific risk factors within these environments that are associated with aggressive behavior are unclear. The goal of this study is to identify family and social environmental qualities that are related to aggression among Chinese adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 3,213 randomly selected urban high school students ages 10 through 18 in southern China. Lower parental attachment, higher family income, mother's higher education levels, father's parenting goals, rough or changeable parenting styles, unsuitable peer relationships, and inadequate social atmospheres at school serve as risk factors for aggression among Chinese adolescents. Our findings provide some implications for understanding aggression among adolescents and suggests possible interventions to help overcome potential environmental risk factors and thus to prevent aggressive behavior in school.

  9. Level and Intensity of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities: The Impact of Child, Family, System, and Community-Level Factors on Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Rena A.; Rous, Beth; Grove, Jaime; LoBianco, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Data from a statewide billing and information system for early intervention are used to examine the influence of multiple factors on the level and intensity of services provided in a state early intervention system. Results indicate that child and family factors including entry age, gestational age, Medicaid eligibility, access to third party…

  10. Integration and diversity of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hozumi; O'Connor, Tania; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2002-07-10

    Recent progress in the analysis of transcriptional regulation has revealed the presence of an exquisite functional network comprising the Maf and Cap 'n' collar (CNC) families of regulatory proteins, many of which have been isolated. Among Maf factors, large Maf proteins are important in the regulation of embryonic development and cell differentiation, whereas small Maf proteins serve as obligatory heterodimeric partner molecules for members of the CNC family. Both Maf homodimers and CNC-small Maf heterodimers bind to the Maf recognition element (MARE). Since the MARE contains a consensus TRE sequence recognized by AP-1, Jun and Fos family members may act to compete or interfere with the function of CNC-small Maf heterodimers. Overall then, the quantitative balance of transcription factors interacting with the MARE determines its transcriptional activity. Many putative MARE-dependent target genes such as those induced by antioxidants and oxidative stress are under concerted regulation by the CNC family member Nrf2, as clearly proven by mouse germline mutagenesis. Since these genes represent a vital aspect of the cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress, Nrf2-null mutant mice are highly sensitive to xenobiotic and oxidative insults. Deciphering the molecular basis of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors will undoubtedly lead to a new paradigm for the cooperative function of transcription factors.

  11. Quality of Life among Family Caregivers of Patients on Hemodialysis and its Relevant Factors: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Azam Sajadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family caregivers are considered as hidden patients experiencing physical and mental disorders. This affects the quality of not only their lives but also the health care provided to patients.This study aimed to investigate the quality of life (QOL and its related factors among the caregivers of patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: This systematic review was conducted based on the eight-step guidelines presented by the York University. The databases relevant to the medical field including Nursing and Allied Health, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO and Psychology Library were used. Finally, 12 articles observing the inclusion criteria and with regard to the research questions were found. The data obtained from these articles were summarized, classified, and analyzed. Results: QOL among Family Caregivers of Patients on Hemodialysis is low, compared to the general population; however, their QOL is higher than the patients under their care. Factors relevant to the QOL for caregivers including age, gender, perceived social support, perceived burden of care, affliction with other diseases (lupus, hypertension, hypothyroidism and depression, intellectual understanding of the limitations of the patient’s disease in their daily life, employment of adaptation strategies, better marital relationships, accepting self and family relationship with the patient (mother and wife. Furthermore, the factors associated with care takers affecting the quality of caregivers’ lives were age, QOL and the type of treatment. Conclusions: Caregivers of patients undergoing hemodialysis enjoyed low QOL. Since there is a direct relationship between family caregivers’ quality and patients’ QOL, health care system and health policy makers should pay more attention to family caregivers.

  12. [Factors influencing general practitioners and specialists of general practice to declare in favor of accepting the role of family doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapcević, Mirjana; Dimitrijević, Ivan; Ristić, Jelena; Vuković, Mira; Nikolić, Radivoje; Stanojević, Petar

    2006-10-01

    Protection and promotion of health of an individual, family and society as the whole depends on the organization and efficiency of the public health service. Modern health service is focused on the health prevention and improvement of the family which is the basic unit of society. The life cycle of the family indicates crisis related to development and underdevelopment as well as some expected and unexpected life situations and this is very important when discussing about many somatic and mental diseases. The objective of our project which included 473 specialists of general practice and 355 general practitioners was to determine the factors which influence the positive attitude of the general practitioners about becoming a family doctor. A total of 828 doctors in Serbia were required to answer the set of eight questions. Statistical analysis included Pearson chi square test with contingency tables and logistic regression, while dependent variable was doctor's attitude about becoming a family doctor in a certain situation. The answer 'no' or 'I don't know' was scored 1 point and the 'yes' answer was graded 2 points. Eight questions mentioned above were independent variables. Logistic model accounting for 79.3% of dependent variable was obtained. Positive attitude of doctors was very much affected by family problems and great majority of these doctors were specialists of general practice. Other questions were not so important for our results. Specialists of general practice, regardless of their working experience and years of practice, gave significantly more positive answers, and the situation was quite opposite with general practitioners. Family medicine supported by modern information systems provides ideal model of comprehensive and complete health prevention with high level of rationalism, quality, efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  14. Factors affecting family satisfaction with inpatient end-of-life care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Sadler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little data exists addressing satisfaction with end-of-life care among hospitalized patients, as they and their family members are systematically excluded from routine satisfaction surveys. It is imperative that we closely examine patient and institution factors associated with quality end-of-life care and determine high-priority target areas for quality improvement. METHODS: Between September 1, 2010 and January 1, 2012 the Canadian Health care Evaluation Project (CANHELP Bereavement Questionnaire was mailed to the next-of-kin of recently deceased inpatients to seek factors associated with satisfaction with end-of-life care. The primary outcome was the global rating of satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included rates of actual versus preferred location of death, associations between demographic factors and global satisfaction, and identification of targets for quality improvement. RESULTS: Response rate was 33% among 275 valid addresses. Overall, 67.4% of respondents were very or completely satisfied with the overall quality of care their relative received. However, 71.4% of respondents who thought their relative did not die in their preferred location favoured an out-of-hospital location of death. A common location of death was the intensive care unit (45.7%; however, this was not the preferred location of death for 47.6% of such patients. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed respondents who believed their relative died in their preferred location were 1.7 times more likely to be satisfied with the end-of-life care that was provided (p = 0.001. Items identified as high-priority targets for improvement included: relationships with, and characteristics of health care professionals; illness management; communication; and end-of-life decision-making. INTERPRETATION: Nearly three-quarters of recently deceased inpatients would have preferred an out-of-hospital death. Intensive care units were a common, but not preferred

  15. A Model for Dimerization of the SOX Group E Transcription Factor Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsook, Sarah N; Ni, Joyce; Shahangian, Shokofeh; Vakiloroayaei, Ana; Khan, Naveen; Kwan, Jamie J; Donaldson, Logan W

    2016-01-01

    Group E members of the SOX transcription factor family include SOX8, SOX9, and SOX10. Preceding the high mobility group (HMG) domain in each of these proteins is a thirty-eight amino acid region that supports the formation of dimers on promoters containing tandemly inverted sites. The purpose of this study was to obtain new structural insights into how the dimerization region functions with the HMG domain. From a mutagenic scan of the dimerization region, the most essential amino acids of the dimerization region were clustered on the hydrophobic face of a single, predicted amphipathic helix. Consistent with our hypothesis that the dimerization region directly contacts the HMG domain, a peptide corresponding to the dimerization region bound a preassembled HMG-DNA complex. Sequence conservation among Group E members served as a basis to identify two surface exposed amino acids in the HMG domain of SOX9 that were necessary for dimerization. These data were combined to make a molecular model that places the dimerization region of one SOX9 protein onto the HMG domain of another SOX9 protein situated at the opposing site of a tandem promoter. The model provides a detailed foundation for assessing the impact of mutations on SOX Group E transcription factors.

  16. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of child maltreatment among migrant families in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunjiao; Atkinson-Sheppard, Sally; Liu, Xing

    2017-03-01

    Although cases of child abuse among migrant families are often reported by social media, the issue of child maltreatment among migrant families in China has received little empirical attention. This study investigated both the prevalence of child maltreatment by parents among migrant families, and the individual, family and community-level risk factors associated with child abuse in this context. A survey was conducted with 667 migrant and 496 local adolescents in Shenzhen, South China, with a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare the prevalence of maltreatment between migrant and local adolescents, and also to explore risk factors associated with the psychological and physical maltreatment in both groups. The results showed that parent-to-child abuse was more prevalent among migrant than local adolescents, with migrant adolescents 1.490 and 1.425 times more likely to be psychologically and physically abused by their parents than their local counterparts. Low academic performance, delinquent behavior, family economic adversity and low parent attachment put migrant adolescents at increased risk of both psychological and physical maltreatment, and neighborhood disorganization was significantly related to psychological aggression among migrant adolescents. The findings confirm that child abuse perpetuated by parents is a serious problem in Mainland China, especially among migrant families, and implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  18. Biodemographic and sociocultural factors in two generations of families from six Polish rural and urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolański, N

    1994-01-01

    There were investigated 6967 families from 6 rural regions, under industrialization, and industrialized urban regions. In the grandparents generation there were taken into account 10 traits (an education level, a mating radius, and a stature) and in parents generation 17 traits (the mentioned-above ones and a number of family members, a flat size, incomes, an employees No., a life mode, smoking etc. Numerical characteristics of traits have been calculated jointly and separately in six populations, matrices of correlation have been constructed and moreover factorial analysis have been carried out, as a result of which 8 rotated factors have been obtained. The highest cultural mobility (increase in the level of education) from generation to generation occurs in the population of textile industry town Lódź. The highest improvement of biological status, the increase in mating radius and high incomes are characteristic for this regions, too. On the other side are villages with low culture mobility (not large increase in education level), slight improvement of biological status, almost no migrations, overcrowded flats and low income per family member. The relations between pairs of traits appear to vary largely in several populations. Generally is a high correlation between the education level of the same family members in both generations. The has been stated negative correlation between grandfather stature both of the mother and the father lines, with occurring of positive assortative mating in the couples of two generations. In both investigated generations there is the positive assortative mating, but the negative correlation in the stature between grandfathers of the mother and the father lines. The grandparents education level is correlated with their and their offsprings stature. The duration of holidays is one of the best (closely correlated with others) indicators of life mode, and partially of a given family living conditions, too. 8 hidden factors have been

  19. [Influence of selected family environment factors on the child's speech development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemień, Grazyna; Wolanin, Grazyna; Stemplewska, Bozena

    2004-01-01

    All environment strata, natural, cultural and social environment affect the individual in typical way and create his specific reactions as well as mental experiences. A speech, as one of elements enabling adaptation to life in community is formed individually with particular children. The basis of such process is always the possibility of the intercourse with speech. The aim of undertaken subject was the analysis of influence of selected family environment factors on the child's speech development. The study was conducted with children of six and seven year old, where speech should be mastered with fixed pronunciation and proper speech technique. The following research problems have been assumed: 1) how does the speech competences' development with children of six and seven proceed, 2) in which level do the following factors of family environment (parents' age, parents' education, family's financial conditions) influence the child's speech development, 3) does the family's structure influence the proper child's speech development. The following research methods were applied: observation, interview and questionnaire. Applied research tools may be described as follows: inquiry sheet of questionnaire, child's speech card, pictorial test, test chi2. The presented work is a trial of analysis how the selected family environment factors influence the child's speech development.

  20. Family factors associated with auto-aggressiveness in adolescents in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripković, Mara; Francisković, Tanja; Grgić, Neda; Ercegović, Nela; Graovac, Mirjana; Zecević, Iva

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research is to look into the roles of families' social situation and cohesion in adolescent auto-aggressiveness in Croatia. The research was conducted on a sample of Zagreb high school students which encompassed 701 pupils of both genders aged 14-19. The basic demographic data were obtained using the Structured Demographic and Family Data Questionnaire. Auto-aggressiveness was tested using a section of the Report on Youth Aged 11-18 and the Scale of Auto-destructiveness--SAD, whereas the family cohesion was tested with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales FACES III. The obtained results show differences according to the gender: girls are more prone to auto-aggressiveness than boys (t = -3.385, df = 565, p = 0.001) and girls more often show symptoms of destructiveness (t = -3.809, df = 637, p aggressiveness (t = 2.655, df = 653, p = 0.008). Significant family factors associated with auto-aggressiveness are parents' marital status (chi2 = 18.039, df = 4, p = 0.001), their financial situation (F(2.548) = 4.604, p = 0.010), alcoholic father (chi2 = 9.270, df = 2, p = 0.010), mentally ill mother (t = 5.264, df = 541, p aggressiveness. Family cohesion appears to be considerably associated with auto-aggressiveness and the adolescents that see their families as less cohesive have more mental problems (chi2 = 29.98, df = 2, p aggressiveness in adolescents.

  1. Family factors as moderators of link between reinforcement sensitivity and child and adolescent problem behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valeriya B

    2015-02-01

    Moderating effects of family factors on the association between children's reinforcement sensitivity and problem behaviour have been examined in a community sample of 533 children aged from 3 to 17 years. Family type and living in urban areas exacerbated the effect of sensitivity to reward on externalizing, internalizing and impact of problems on everyday life; a high level of the father's education exacerbated the effect of sensitivity to reward on externalizing; family aggression and harsh parenting were found to strengthen the link between sensitivity to reward and the impact of problems on everyday life, whereas family cohesion buffered the negative effect of sensitivity to reward on externalizing and the impact of problems in everyday life.

  2. Analysis of Factors That Affects the Capital Structure within Companies Included In the Index of LQ45 During 2011 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominica Rufina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors of ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size affecting Capital Structure. The population in this study is the companies included in the Index LQ45 Indonesia Stock Exchange from the period 2011 to 2013, the data of a total of 270 listed companies in LQ45 during that period, only 90 corporate data that successively included in the index LQ45. The data used in this study uses secondary data from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website www.idx.co.id. In the process of data analysis and testing the assumptions of classical hypothesis testing using multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS v20.00. The results showed that partially variable ROA, Asset Structure, and Firm Size has a significant influence on the Capital Structure, Growth Sales whereas variable has no influence on the Capital Structure. Simultaneously ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size effect on Capital Structure.

  3. Correlation Analysis of Personality Characteristics of Children with TIC Disorder with Family Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; WANG Liqun; MA Chunxia; MA Lixian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the personality characteristics of children with tic disorders and their relationship with family factors.Methods Sixty cases of children with tic disorders diagnosed in our hospital were selected as the case group and 65 cases of normal children were selected as the control group.The children of two groups were assessed using Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ),Family Environment Scale (FES-CV) and general situation questionnaire of family (GSQ),respectively.The scores of EPQ personality characteristics,FES-CV and GSQ scores were compared for the children in the two groups.The Person correlation analysis method was used to analyze the correlation between personality scores of children in case group and family environment factors.Results The general situation questionnaire results showed that there was significant statistically difference in parenting style,parental education level and family types of the children between case group and control group (P < 0.05);EPQ results showed that the neuroticism and psychoticism scores of children in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P< 0.05) and the lying degree scores in the control group were significantly higher than those in the case group (P< 0.05);FES-CV results showed that the family cohesion scores of the case group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05),and the family conflict scores in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05).The Person correlation analysis results indicated that the psychoticism score was negatively correlated with the score of family cohesion (P<0.05),and positively correlated with family conflict (P<0.05),while the neuroticism score was positively correlated with family conflict score (P<0.05).Conclusion The children with tic disorders have significant personality deviation compared to the normal children,and the personality deviation degree is

  4. Family factors and social support in the developmental outcomes of very low-birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, D P; Park, J M

    2000-06-01

    This study used data that were representative of the normative population of all infants born in 1988 and were followed during the first 3 years of life. Large developmental delays and limitations in function were common among children weighing less than 1500 g at birth. Among very low-birth weight infants, minority status and living in a household headed by a single mother further worsen the disadvantages associated with a very low birth weight. Nor could the disadvantages associated with very low birth weight be accounted for by controls for other risk factors or buffering statuses and behaviors. Among all children (including those of very low birth weight) poverty, reliance on Medicaid and other government sources for health insurance, a history of risky behaviors, and inadequate prenatal care are the major risk factors for developmental delays, limitations in function, and impairment at birth. State program benefit levels have no obvious effects on child outcomes, taking into account participation in individual programs. An important finding in light of TANF is that maternal work, the use of child care, and the form and cost of child care did not influence developmental delay, limitation in function, or impairment, the outcomes that we were able to measure during the first 3 years of life. TANF eligibility requirements, however, may increase difficulty in obtaining prenatal and other medical services for mothers and children in need--factors shown here to be related strongly to increased risk of low birth weight and developmental delays, limitations, and impairments. Race and ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure are fundamental factors in early child development and function. Minority status, poverty, and single-parent households greatly increase the likelihood that a mother will engage in risky behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, illegal drug use) during pregnancy and receive inadequate prenatal care. Risky behaviors and inadequate prenatal care are

  5. Nuclear functions and subcellular trafficking mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that various diseases, including many types of cancer, result from alteration of subcellular protein localization and compartmentalization. Therefore, it is worthwhile to expand our knowledge in subcellular trafficking of proteins, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB-2 of the receptor tyrosine kinases, which are highly expressed and activated in human malignancies and frequently correlated with poor prognosis. The well-characterized trafficking of cell surface EGFR is routed, via endocytosis and endosomal sorting, to either the lysosomes for degradation or back to the plasma membrane for recycling. A novel nuclear mode of EGFR signaling pathway has been gradually deciphered in which EGFR is shuttled from the cell surface to the nucleus after endocytosis, and there, it acts as a transcriptional regulator, transmits signals, and is involved in multiple biological functions, including cell proliferation, tumor progression, DNA repair and replication, and chemo- and radio-resistance. Internalized EGFR can also be transported from the cell surface to several intracellular compartments, such as the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the mitochondria, in addition to the nucleus. In this review, we will summarize the functions of nuclear EGFR family and the potential pathways by which EGFR is trafficked from the cell surface to a variety of cellular organelles. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of EGFR trafficking will shed light on both the receptor biology and potential therapeutic targets of anti-EGFR therapies for clinical application. PMID:22520625

  6. Nuclear functions and subcellular trafficking mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ying-Nai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that various diseases, including many types of cancer, result from alteration of subcellular protein localization and compartmentalization. Therefore, it is worthwhile to expand our knowledge in subcellular trafficking of proteins, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and ErbB-2 of the receptor tyrosine kinases, which are highly expressed and activated in human malignancies and frequently correlated with poor prognosis. The well-characterized trafficking of cell surface EGFR is routed, via endocytosis and endosomal sorting, to either the lysosomes for degradation or back to the plasma membrane for recycling. A novel nuclear mode of EGFR signaling pathway has been gradually deciphered in which EGFR is shuttled from the cell surface to the nucleus after endocytosis, and there, it acts as a transcriptional regulator, transmits signals, and is involved in multiple biological functions, including cell proliferation, tumor progression, DNA repair and replication, and chemo- and radio-resistance. Internalized EGFR can also be transported from the cell surface to several intracellular compartments, such as the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the mitochondria, in addition to the nucleus. In this review, we will summarize the functions of nuclear EGFR family and the potential pathways by which EGFR is trafficked from the cell surface to a variety of cellular organelles. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of EGFR trafficking will shed light on both the receptor biology and potential therapeutic targets of anti-EGFR therapies for clinical application.

  7. The Clinical Spectrum of Missense Mutations of the First Aspartic Acid of cbEGF-like Domains in Fibrillin-1 Including a Recessive Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne; Rijlaarsdam, Marry EB; Scholte, Arthur JHA; Swart-van den Berg, Marietta; Versteegh, Michel IM; van der Schoot-van Velzen, Iris; Schäbitz, Hans-Joachim; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Baars, Marieke J; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S; Giltay, Jacques C; Hamel, Ben C; Breuning, Martijn H; Pals, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a dominant disorder with a recognizable phenotype. In most patients with the classical phenotype mutations are found in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1) on chromosome 15q21. It is thought that most mutations act in a dominant negative way or through haploinsufficiency. In 9 index cases referred for MFS we detected heterozygous missense mutations in FBN1 predicted to substitute the first aspartic acid of different calcium-binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like (cbEGF) fibrillin-1 domains. A similar mutation was found in homozygous state in 3 cases in a large consanguineous family. Heterozygous carriers of this mutation had no major skeletal, cardiovascular or ophthalmological features of MFS. In the literature 14 other heterozygous missense mutations are described leading to the substitution of the first aspartic acid of a cbEGF domain and resulting in a Marfan phenotype. Our data show that the phenotypic effect of aspartic acid substitutions in the first position of a cbEGF domain can range from asymptomatic to a severe neonatal phenotype. The recessive nature with reduced expression of FBN1 in one of the families suggests a threshold model combined with a mild functional defect of this specific mutation. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20886638

  8. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Work-Family Balance Scale in an Urban Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Yip, Paul S. F.; Chi, Peilian; Chan, Kinsun; Cheung, Yee Tak; Zhang, Xiulan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factor structure of the Work-Family Balance Scale (WFBS) and examine its reliability and validity in use in the urban Chinese population. The scale was validated using a sample of 605 urban Chinese residents from 7 cities. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors: work-family conflict and…

  9. Childhood Nonspecific Abdominal Pain in Family Practice: Incidence, Associated Factors, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieteling, Marieke J.; Leeuwen, Yvonne Lisman-van; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Schellevis, Francois G.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is a common complaint in childhood. In specialist care, childhood NSAP is considered to be a complex and time-consuming problem, and parents are hard to reassure. Little is known about NSAP in family practice, but the impression is that family physicians consider it to be a benign syndrome needing little more than reassurance. This discrepancy calls for a better understanding of NSAP in family practice. METHODS Data were obtained from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2001). Using registration data of 91 family practices, we identified children aged 4 to 17 years with NSAP. We calculated the incidence, and we studied factors associated with childhood NSAP, referrals, and prescriptions. RESULTS The incidence of NSAP was 25.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.7–26.3) per 1,000 person years. Most children (92.7%) with newly diagnosed NSAP (N = 1,480) consulted their doctor for this condition once or twice. Factors independently associated with NSAP were female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3–1.5), nongastrointestinal-nonspecific somatic symptoms (OR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1–1.5), and health care use (OR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03–1.05). When NSAP was diagnosed at the first visit, 3% of the patients were referred to specialist care, and 1% received additional testing. Family physicians prescribed medication in 21.3% of the visits for NSAP. CONCLUSIONS Childhood NSAP is a common problem in family practice. Most patients visit their doctor once or twice for this problem. Family physicians use little additional testing and make few referrals in their management of childhood NSAP. Despite the lack of evidence for effectiveness, family physicians commonly prescribe medication for NSAP. PMID:21747105

  10. Factor of Awareness in Searching and Sharing of Halal Food Product among Muslim Families in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusoff Siti Zanariah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information search activities are fundamental in information sharing, especially for the context of information confusion in the market for halal products. This research paper will focus on awareness factor in information searching and sharing of halal products in the Muslim families. Recently, the halal issue has become the hot topic as it involves community religious tenets. This study aims to enrich communications literature in terms of information seeking in halal food products. The sample of the research consisted of 340 Muslim families in Bangi, Selangor. The data are collected through questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive analysis and inferential analysis such as correlation. The result of the study revealed that awareness factor is significantly correlated with information seeking behavior among Muslim family.

  11. Factors associated with stroke survivor behaviors as identified by family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Carmanny; Bakas, Tamilyn

    2013-01-01

    Stroke survivor behaviors that caregivers identify as bothersome can lead to family caregiver stress, which can result in premature institutionalization of the survivor. The purpose of this study was to explore demographic and theory-based factors associated with survivor bothersome behaviors as identified by family caregivers. A secondary analysis of a combined sample of 96 family caregivers of stroke survivors was conducted using baseline data from two existing studies. Bothersome behaviors were measured using the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (RMBPC). Theory-based factors were measured using well-validated scales. Male stroke survivors exhibited more bothersome behaviors (t = 3.53, p caregiver depressive symptoms, task difficulty, life changes, and threat appraisal (F[5, 88] = 10.82, p caregivers. © 2013 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  12. Prevention of diabetes in overweight/obese children through a family based intervention program including supervised exercise (PREDIKID project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenaza, Lide; Medrano, María; Amasene, María; Rodríguez-Vigil, Beatriz; Díez, Ignacio; Graña, Manuel; Tobalina, Ignacio; Maiz, Edurne; Arteche, Edurne; Larrarte, Eider; Huybrechts, Inge; Davis, Catherine L; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2017-08-10

    The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise. A total of 84 children, aged 8-12 years, with a high risk of T2D will be included and randomly assigned to control (N = 42) or intervention (N = 42) groups. The control group will receive a family based lifestyle education and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week, 90 min per session including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises). The following measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention: fasting insulin, glucose and hemoglobin A1c; body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); ectopic fat (magnetic resonance imaging); microRNA expression in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MiSeq; Illumina); cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing); dietary habits and physical activity (accelerometry). Prevention and identification of children with a high risk of developing T2D could help to improve their cardiovascular health and to reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03027726 . Registered on 16 January 2017.

  13. TCPs, WUSs, and WINDs: families of transcription factors that regulate shoot meristem formation, stem cell maintenance, and somatic cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Miho; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to somatic mammalian cells, which cannot alter their fate, plant cells can dedifferentiate to form totipotent callus cells and regenerate a whole plant, following treatment with specific phytohormones. However, the regulatory mechanisms and key factors that control differentiation-dedifferentiation and cell totipotency have not been completely clarified in plants. Recently, several plant transcription factors that regulate meristem formation and dedifferentiation have been identified and include members of the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR (TCP), WUSCHEL (WUS), and WOUND INDUCED DEDIFFERENTIATION (WIND1) families. WUS and WIND positively control plant cell totipotency, while TCP negatively controls it. Interestingly, TCP is a transcriptional activator that acts as a negative regulator of shoot meristem formation, and WUS is a transcriptional repressor that positively maintains totipotency of the stem cells of the shoot meristem. We describe here the functions of TCP, WUS, and WIND transcription factors in the regulation of differentiation-dedifferentiation by positive and negative transcriptional regulators.

  14. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  15. Are family factors universally related to metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, F. J.; Skinner, T. C.; de Beaufort, C. E.; Hoey, H.; Swift, P. G. F.; Aanstoot, H.; Aman, J.; Martul, P.; Chiarelli, F.; Daneman, D.; Danne, T.; Dorchy, H.; Kaprio, E. A.; Kaufman, F.; Kocova, M.; Mortensen, H. B.; Njolstad, P. R.; Phillip, M.; Robertson, K. J.; Schoenle, E. J.; Urakami, T.; Vanelli, M.; Ackermann, R. W.; Skovlund, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    Aims To assess the importance of family factors in determining metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes in 19 countries. Methods Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes aged 11-18 years, from 21 paediatric diabetes care centres, in 19 countries, and their parents were invited to participate.

  16. The Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI): Hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Factorial Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the dimensionality and factorial invariance of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MCFAs). Method: A total of 3,649 students responded to the C-FAI in a community survey. Results: Results showed that there are five dimensions of the C-FAI (communication,…

  17. Factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Melo Ramos Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of stroke. Method: an analytical transversal study, with 579 young adults from state schools, with collection of sociodemographic, clinical and risk factor-related variables, analyzed using logistic regression (backward elimination. Results: a statistical association was detected between age, civil status, and classification of arterial blood pressure and abdominal circumference with knowledge of family history of stroke. In the final logistic regression model, a statistical association was observed between knowledge regarding family history of stroke and the civil status of having a partner (ORa=1.61[1.07-2.42]; p=0.023, abdominal circumference (ORa=0.98[0.96-0.99]; p=0.012 and normal arterial blood pressure (ORa=2.56[1.19-5.52]; p=0.016. Conclusion: an association was observed between socioeconomic factors and risk factors for stroke and knowledge of family history of stroke, suggesting the need for health education or even educational programs on this topic for the clientele in question.

  18. Family Factors in the Early Development of Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooste, Ann Van; Maes, Bea

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview of important family and environmental factors that affect early development of infants and children with Down syndrome. It concludes that a moderately directive parenting style combined with sensitive, responsive, and reciprocal interactions, embedded in a general stimulating environment, are favorable to the…

  19. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  20. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  1. Family and Home Literacy Practices: Mediating Factors for Preliterate English Learners at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Maria K.; English, Judith P.; Gerber, Michael M.; Leafstedt, Jill; Ruz, Monica L.

    This paper reports the initial findings of a survey of family and home literacy factors that may influence the development of phonological awareness skills for preliterate English learners during the acquisition phase of reading development in a second language (L2). Preliminary findings are from the first year of a 3-year longitudinal study of…

  2. Effects of Cumulative Family Risk Factors on American Students' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between cumulative family risk factors and American students' academic performance were examined in all 50 States and the District of Columbia. Data from the 2007 "American Community Survey" were used to ascertain the percent of birth to 18 year old children in the United States who experienced three or more risk…

  3. Connecting Vulnerable Children and Families to Community-Based Programs Strengthens Parents' Perceptions of Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Marcia; Joslyn, Allison; Wojton, Morella; O'Reilly, Mairead; Dworkin, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    We employed principles from a nationally recognized prevention model on family support to investigate whether connecting vulnerable children to community-based programs and services through a statewide intervention system, the "Help Me Grow" program, strengthens parents' perceptions of protective factors. We used a parent survey modeled…

  4. Adolescent School Performance Following Parental Divorce: Are There Family Factors that Can Enhance Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, Amanda; Forehand, Rex

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between adolescent school achievement and family factors which may mediate negative influence of divorce. Findings from 71 early adolescents and their recently divorced mothers revealed that adolescents with high grade point averages had mothers with lower depression, higher education, less conflict with ex-spouse, and less…

  5. Individual and Familial Factors Influencing the Educational and Career Plans of Chinese Immigrant Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore how individual and familial factors predict educational and career aspirations, plans, and vocational outcome expectations of urban, Chinese immigrant youths. Participants were 265 Chinese immigrant high school students in New York City. The results indicated that higher self-reported English language fluency and career-related…

  6. Family- and Classroom-Related Factors and Mother-Kindergarten Teacher Trust in Estonia and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of family-related (mother's education, depressive symptoms and child's gender) and kindergarten-related (teacher's experience, teaching practices and class size) factors in mothers' and teachers' mutual trust in Estonia and Finland. Six hundred eighteen (206 Estonian and 412 Finnish) mothers of kindergarten children…

  7. Individual and Familial Factors Influencing the Educational and Career Plans of Chinese Immigrant Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore how individual and familial factors predict educational and career aspirations, plans, and vocational outcome expectations of urban, Chinese immigrant youths. Participants were 265 Chinese immigrant high school students in New York City. The results indicated that higher self-reported English language fluency and career-related…

  8. Understanding Mathematics Achievement: An Analysis of the Effects of Student and Family Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Kate; Noltemeyer, Amity; Patton, Jon; Bush, Kevin R.; Bergen, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Educators are increasingly recognising the importance of improving students' mathematics achievement. Much of the current research focuses on the impact of instructional variables on mathematics achievement. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of less researched variables--family and student factors. Participants were 747…

  9. Targeting Family Risk Factors in the Context of Treating Youth Depression: A Survey of Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gilbert R.; Buckholdt, Kelly E.; Olsen, James P.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Davis, Genevieve L.; Gamble, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the practices and perceptions of psychologists related to targeting family risk factors when treating youth depression. Participants were practicing psychologists recruited through the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology (N = 279). Psychologists completed a brief anonymous survey about addressing…

  10. The Relation Between Parental Mental Illness and Adolescent Mental Health: The Role of Family Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Witteman, C.L.M.; Hosman, C.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness are often found to be at high risk of developing psychological problems themselves. Little is known about the role of family factors in the relation between parental and adolescent mental health. The current study focused on parent-child interaction and

  11. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Hope and College Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…

  12. Family-Level Factors and African American Children's Behavioral Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Colombo, Gia; Hong, Jun Sung; Coard, Stephanie Irby

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable prior research targeting African American children has focused on the pervasiveness of problematic behavior and negative risk factors associated with their development, however the influence of family on better behavioral health outcomes has largely been ignored. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine…

  13. Patterns of Positive Selection of the Myogenic Regulatory Factor Gene Family in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao; Yu, Qi; Huang, Ling; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2014-01-01

    The functional divergence of transcriptional factors is critical in the evolution of transcriptional regulation. However, the mechanism of functional divergence among these factors remains unclear. Here, we performed an evolutionary analysis for positive selection in members of the myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) gene family of vertebrates. We selected 153 complete vertebrate MRF nucleotide sequences from our analyses, which revealed substantial evidence of positive selection. Here, we show that sites under positive selection were more frequently detected and identified from the genes encoding the myogenic differentiation factors (MyoG and Myf6) than the genes encoding myogenic determination factors (Myf5 and MyoD). Additionally, the functional divergence within the myogenic determination factors or differentiation factors was also under positive selection pressure. The positive selection sites were more frequently detected from MyoG and MyoD than Myf6 and Myf5, respectively. Amino acid residues under positive selection were identified mainly in their transcription activation domains and on the surface of protein three-dimensional structures. These data suggest that the functional gain and divergence of myogenic regulatory factors were driven by distinct positive selection of their transcription activation domains, whereas the function of the DNA binding domains was conserved in evolution. Our study evaluated the mechanism of functional divergence of the transcriptional regulation factors within a family, whereby the functions of their transcription activation domains diverged under positive selection during evolution. PMID:24651579

  14. Factors associated with constructive staff-family relationships in the care of older adults in the institutional setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesler, Emily; Bauer, Michael; Nay, Rhonda

    2006-12-01

    was conducted through review of reference lists of studies retrieved during the first search stage. The search was limited to published and unpublished material in English language. Selection criteria  The review was limited to studies involving residents and patients within acute, subacute, rehabilitation and residential settings, aged over 65 years, their family and healthcare staff. Papers addressing family members and healthcare staff perceptions of their relationships with each other were considered for this review. Studies in this review also included those relating to interventions to promote constructive staff-family relationships including organisational strategies, staff-family meetings, case conferencing, environmental approaches, etc. The review considered both quantitative and qualitative research and opinion papers for inclusion. Data collection and analysis  All retrieved papers were critically appraised for eligibility for inclusion and methodological quality independently by two reviewers, and the same reviewers collected details of eligible research. Appraisal forms and data extraction forms designed by the Joanna Briggs Institute as part of the QARI and NOTARI systematic review software packages were used for this review. Findings  Family members' perceptions of their relationships with staff showed that a strong focus was placed on opportunities for the family to be involved in the patient's care. Staff members also expressed a theoretical support for the collaborative process, however, this belief often did not translate to the staff members' clinical practice. In the studies included in the review staff were frequently found to rely on traditional medical models of care in their clinical practice and maintaining control over the environment, rather than fully collaborating with families. Four factors were found to be essential to interventions designed to support a collaborative partnership between family members and healthcare staff

  15. Schizophrenia in Malaysian families: A study on factors associated with quality of life of primary family caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Eng J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a chronic illness which brings detrimental effects in the caregivers' health. This study was aimed at highlighting the socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with the subjective Quality of Life (QOL of Malaysian of primary family caregivers of subjects with schizophrenia attending an urban tertiary care outpatient clinic in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to study patient, caregiver and illness factors associated with the QOL among 117 individuals involved with caregiving for schizophrenia patients. The study used WHOQOL-BREF to assess caregivers' QOL and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS to assess the severity of patients' symptoms. Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS assessed the stress level due to life events. Results The mean scores of WHOQOL-BREF in physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were 66.62 (14.36, 61.32 (15.52, 62.77 (17.33, 64.02 (14.86 consecutively. From multiple regression analysis, factors found to be significantly associated with higher QOL were higher educational level among caregivers in social and environmental domains; caregivers not having medical problem/s in physical and psychological domains; later onset and longer illness duration of illness in social domains; patients not attending day care program in environmental domain; lower BPRS score in physical and environmental domains. SRRS score of caregivers was also found to have a significant negative correlation with QOL in environmental and psychological domains. Other factors were not significantly associated with QOL. Conclusion Caregivers with more social advantages such as higher educational level and physically healthier and dealing with less severe illness had significantly higher QOL in various aspects. Supporting the caregivers in some of these modifiable factors in clinical practice is important to achieve their higher level QOL.

  16. Ikaros family transcription factors expression in rat thymus: detection of impaired development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradzik, M; Novak, S; Mokrovic, G; Bordukalo Niksic, T; Heckel, D; Stipic, J; Pavicic Baldani, D; Cicin-Sain, L; Antica, M

    2012-01-01

    The expression of Ikaros family transcription factors and consequently their signalling pathway is limiting for hematopoietic and lymphocyte development in mice and human. Due to their importance, these transcription factors are highly homologous between species. As an initial approach to examining the possible involvement of Ikaros transcription factors in pathogenesis of rat lymphoid development, we analyzed the expression of all known Ikaros family members, Ikaros, Aiolos, Helios, Eos and Pegasus in the rat thymus. We established a semi-quantitative RT-PCR to detect mRNA of each transcription factor. For the first time we give evidence of the expression of Ikaros family transcription factors in the rat thymus. Further, we evaluated whether their mRNA expression was succumbed to changes when the rats were exposed to ethanol, as a known debilitating agent during development. Therefore we analyzed the thymus of adult rats whose mothers were forced to drink ethanol during gestation, to detect possible changes in thymus mRNA expression levels of Ikaros, Aiolos, Helios, Eos and Pegasus. We found that rats prenatally exposed to ethanol show a slightly higher expression of Ikaros family transcription factors in the adult thymus when compared to control rats, but these differences were not statistically significant. We further studied the distribution of the major lymphocyte subpopulations in the rat thymus according to CD3, CD4 and CD8 expression by four color flow cytometry. We found a higher incidence of CD3 positive cells in the double positive, CD4+CD8+ thymic subpopulation of rats prenatally exposed to ethanol when compared to non-exposed animals. Our findings indicate that ethanol exposure of pregnant rats might influence the development of CD3 positive cells in the thymus of the offspring but this result should be further tackled at the level of transcription factor expression.

  17. Family Structure, Psychosocial Factors, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the NHLBI CARDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    24) found that for men, having preschool aged children negatively impacted health while having a preschool aged child had protective functions for...2   Psychosocial Factors in the Development of CAD and...177 billion in 2011 (1). Therefore, the study of the contributing factors involved in the development of CAD may ultimately lead to development of

  18. Family structure and upbringing as factors of intellectual development of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of the family structure and family attitudes, child-parent relationship, styles of family upbringing on the intellectual develop- ment of pre-school-age children. Attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of parents and children gender. The sample included 150 children, 150 mothers and 75 fathers, all the families live in St. Petersburg. Results of the study reveal a significantly greater influence of the child's parent-child relationship and family atmosphere on the intellectual develop- ment in comparison with its structure. Negative impact of attitudes on the severity, harsh- ness, acceleration the development of the child on the intellectual development is revealed. Influence of parents’ gender on intellectual development of children manifests in the lead- ing role of the father’s relationship in girls IQ results, and mother’s parental attitudes in boys IQ results. The authors of the article reveal the importance of the adequacy of the system of regulation and control, severity of requirements for the development of girls; lack of parental custody and adequacy to meet the needs — for the development of boys. The authors outline the significant role of preschool children perception, especially girls, of the emotional atmosphere in the family in their intellectual development. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №13-06-008480 «Family as a resource for mental development of children in stable and critical periods of ontogeny»

  19. Influence of residency training on personal stress and impairment in family life: analysis of related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; Sánchez Gascón, F; Martínez Lage, J F; Guerrero, M

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to assess the level of stress among residents and stress-related impairment of family life. A 41-item anonymous questionnaire was designed to determine the level of stress and its effects on the residents' family as well as factors associated with stress during residency training in a tertiary-care hospital accredited with official resident training 'Medicos Internos Residentes' in Murcia, Spain. Questionnaires were distributed in sealed nominal envelopes during February and March 2002 to 227 eligible residents. Of the 227 residents, 175 (77%) completed and returned the questionnaires. Forty-two percent of residents recognized that residency training caused an important level of stress and 21% felt that stress interfered with family relationships. Both factors were significantly associated. Feelings of being unsatisfied with supervision of care and achievement of training objectives as well as low satisfaction with residency training and poor assessment of the hospital were significant stressors. Impairment in family life was significantly dependent on degree of satisfaction with residency training and evaluation of the hospital. The data showed that residency training generated stress and impaired family life. These were closely associated with perception of being unsatisfied with the residency training and evaluation. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A novel BH3 mimetic efficiently induces apoptosis in melanoma cells through direct binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, including phosphorylated Mcl-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yubo; Xie, Mingzhou; Song, Ting; Sheng, Hongkun; Yu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhichao

    2015-03-01

    The Bcl-2 family modulates sensitivity to chemotherapy in many cancers, including melanoma, in which the RAS/BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway is constitutively activated. Mcl-1, a major anti-apoptotic protein in the Bcl-2 family, is extensively expressed in melanoma and contributes to melanoma's well-documented chemoresistance. Here, we provide the first evidence that Mcl-1 phosphorylation at T163 by ERK1/2 and JNK is associated with the resistance of melanoma cell lines to the existing BH3 mimetics gossypol, S1 and ABT-737, and a novel anti-apoptotic mechanism of phosphorylated Mcl-1 (pMcl-1) is revealed. pMcl-1 antagonized the known BH3 mimetics by sequestering pro-apoptotic proteins that were released from Bcl-2/Mcl-1. Furthermore, an anthraquinone BH3 mimetic, compound 6, was identified to be the first small molecule to that induces endogenous apoptosis in melanoma cells by directly binding Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and pMcl-1 and disrupting the heterodimers of these proteins. Although compound 6 induced upregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Noxa, its apoptotic induction was independent of Noxa. These data reveal the promising therapeutic potential of targeting pMcl-1 to treat melanoma. Compound 6 is therefore a potent drug that targets pMcl-1 in melanoma.

  1. Is family sense of coherence a protective factor against the obesogenic environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Katherine E; Hayes, Jenna T; Musaad, Salma; VanBrackle, Angela; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2016-04-01

    Despite greater risk for poor nutrition, inactivity, and overweight, some low-income children are able to maintain a healthy weight. We explore if a strong family sense of coherence (FSOC) acts as a protective factor against childhood obesity for low-income preschool children. Families with a strong FSOC view challenges as predictable, understandable, worthy of engaging, and surmountable. Data were collected from 321 low-income mothers and their preschool children in five states between March 2011 and May 2013. FSOC was assessed using the Family Sense of Coherence Scale. A 16-item checklist was used to assess practicing healthy child behaviors (fruit and vegetable consumption and availability, physical activity, and family meals) and limiting unhealthy child behaviors (sweetened beverage and fast food consumption, energy dense snack availability, and screen time). Child body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from measured height and weight. FSOC was significantly associated with practicing healthy child behaviors (β = 0.32, p family functioning in predicting health behaviors around food consumption and availability, physical activity, and family meals.

  2. Environmental risk factors and perinatal outcomes in preterm newborns, according to family recurrence of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupitzki, Hugo B.; Gadow, Enrique C.; Gili, Juan A.; Comas, Belén; Cosentino, Viviana R.; Saleme, César; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Lopez Camelo, Jorge S.

    2014-01-01

    Objetive We analyzed the role of environmental risk factors, socio-demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and reproductive history in preterm births and their associated perinatal outcomes in families classified according to their histories of preterm recurrence among siblings. Study Design A retrospective study was conducted at “Nuestra Señora de la Merced” Maternity Hospital in the city of Tucumán, Argentina. A total of 348 preterm, non-malformed, singleton children born to multipara women were reviewed. The family history score described by Khoury was applied, and families were classified as having no, medium or high genetic aggregation. Results Families with no familial aggregation showed a higher rate of short length of cohabitation, maternal urinary tract infections during the current pregnancy and maternal history of miscarriage during the previous pregnancy. Families with a high level of aggregation had a significantly higher incidence of pregnancy complications, such as diabetes, hypertension and immunological disorders. Conclusion Reproductive histories clearly differed between the groups, suggesting both a different response to environmental challenges based on genetic susceptibility, and the activation of different pathophysiological pathways to determine the duration of pregnancy in each woman. PMID:23132119

  3. Matrushka Immigration Abuse Lack of Education Negative Familial Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın Tütüncüler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The past history of immigration and exposition to abuse has negative effects on childhood crime. Especially immigration due to economical reasons may lead to familial anger and violence and abused child by the other members of the family. In this study a face to face questionnaire was performed to 1163 children who were claimed to commit or participate in a crime and were sent to Antalya Forensic Medicine Office for examination. The questionnaire included questions about age, gender, education, attributed and previous crimes they committed, immigration, physical abuse history, work, family size, number of brother/sister, room number of house in which they are living and size of family member they are sharing the bedroom. The data obtained from results were evaluated in the light of related references. Key words: Immigration, childhood delinquency, child abuse

  4. Family load estimates and risk factors of anxiety disorders in a nationwide three generation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helenius, Dorte; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated how often anxiety disorders with different ages of onset occurred in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, region of residence, year and month of birth, and parental age at birth. The sample included N=1373...... child and adolescent psychiatric participants born between 1952 and 2000 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR) who developed an anxiety disorder before the age of 18. N =4019 controls without any psychiatric diagnosis before age 18, were matched for age, sex, and residential...... region. Psychiatric diagnoses were also obtained for parents, siblings, and offspring. A family load component was obtained by using various mixed regression models. Anxiety disorders occurred significantly more often in case than in control families. Having a mother, father, or a sibling...

  5. Risk Factors for Anticipatory Grief in Family Members of Terminally Ill Veterans Receiving Palliative Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laurie A; Clark, Karen A; Ali, Khatidja S; Gibson, Benjamin W; Smigelsky, Melissa A; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory grief is the process associated with grieving the loss of loved ones in advance of their inevitable death. Because anticipatory grief has been associated with a variety of outcomes, risk factors for this condition deserve closer consideration. Fifty-seven family members of terminally ill, hospice-eligible veterans receiving palliative care services completed measures assessing psychosocial factors and conditions. Elevated anticipatory grief was found in families characterized by relational dependency, lower education, and poor grief-specific support, who also experienced discomfort with closeness and intimacy, neuroticism, spiritual crisis, and an inability to make sense of the loss. Thus, in this sample, anticipatory grief appears to be part of a cluster of factors and associated distress that call for early monitoring and possible intervention.

  6. Are familial factors underlying the association between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although well established, the association between socioeconomic position and health and health behaviour is not clearly understood, and it has been speculated that familial factors, for example, dispositional factors or exposures in the rearing environment, may be underlying...... analyses were compared. RESULTS: An inverse social gradient in filling of prescriptions for all-purpose and system-specific drugs was observed in the unpaired analyses. In the intrapair analyses, associations were attenuated some in DZSS and more in MZ twins. Filling of drugs targeting the nervous system...... was still strongly associated with income in the intrapair analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Familial factors seem to account for part of the observed social inequality in filling of prescription medicine....

  7. Is the Association Between Education and Fertility Postponement Causal? The Role of Family Background Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, Felix C; Mandemakers, Jornt J

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and age at first birth. However, this relationship may be partly spurious because of family background factors that cannot be controlled for in most research designs. We investigate the extent to which education is causally related to later age at first birth in a large sample of female twins from the United Kingdom (N = 2,752). We present novel estimates using within-identical twin and biometric models. Our findings show that one year of additional schooling is associated with about one-half year later age at first birth in ordinary least squares (OLS) models. This estimate reduced to only a 1.5-month later age at first birth for the within-identical twin model controlling for all shared family background factors (genetic and family environmental). Biometric analyses reveal that it is mainly influences of the family environment-not genetic factors-that cause spurious associations between education and age at first birth. Last, using data from the Office for National Statistics, we demonstrate that only 1.9 months of the 2.74 years of fertility postponement for birth cohorts 1944-1967 could be attributed to educational expansion based on these estimates. We conclude that the rise in educational attainment alone cannot explain differences in fertility timing between cohorts.

  8. Academic failure and child-to-parent violence: Family protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun Ibabe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioural problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision and penalty show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  9. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  10. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  11. Regulation of the MEF2 Family of Transcription Factors by p38†

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ming; New, Liguo; Kravchenko, Vladimir V.; KATO, Yutaka; Gram, Hermann; Di Padova, Franco; Olson, Eric N.; Ulevitch, Richard J.; Han, Jiahuai

    1999-01-01

    Members of the MEF2 family of transcription factors bind as homo- and heterodimers to the MEF2 site found in the promoter regions of numerous muscle-specific, growth- or stress-induced genes. We showed previously that the transactivation activity of MEF2C is stimulated by p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. In this study, we examined the potential role of the p38 MAP kinase pathway in regulating the other MEF2 family members. We found that MEF2A, but not MEF2B or MEF2D, is a substrate...

  12. Genome-Wide Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of the Animal Specific ETS Transcription Factor Family

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Qin

    2009-01-01

    The ETS proteins are a family of transcription factors (TFs) that regulate a variety of biological processes. We made genome-wide analyses to explore the classification of the ETS gene family. We identified 207 ETS genes which encode 321 ETS TFs from ten animal species. Of the 321 ETS TFs, 155 contain only an ETS domain, about 50% contain a ETS_PEA3_N or a SAM_PNT domain in addition to an ETS domain, the rest (only four) contain a second ETS domain or a second ETS_PEA3_N domain or an another ...

  13. Insights into the biological functions of Dock family guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Mélanie; Côté, Jean-François

    2014-03-15

    Rho GTPases play key regulatory roles in many aspects of embryonic development, regulating processes such as differentiation, proliferation, morphogenesis, and migration. Two families of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) found in metazoans, Dbl and Dock, are responsible for the spatiotemporal activation of Rac and Cdc42 proteins and their downstream signaling pathways. This review focuses on the emerging roles of the mammalian DOCK family in development and disease. We also discuss, when possible, how recent discoveries concerning the biological functions of these GEFs might be exploited for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  14. The effects of a prenatal course including PREP for effective family living on self-esteem and parenting attitudes of adolescents: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, R D; Nystul, M S

    1994-01-01

    Nine adolescent females were enrolled in a prenatal course that included the PREP for Effective Family Living Program (the treatment group). Two comparison groups were utilized in this study; one attended the prenatal group without the PREP program, and the second did not attend either the prenatal course or the PREP program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Attitude Toward the Freedom of Children Scale (a parental attitude scale) was administered to all participants. No significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of self-concept. A significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of parental attitudes, with the treatment group scoring higher on democratic parenting attitudes than did the two comparison groups.

  15. Characterization of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein family in Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Oshima, Tomomi; Takahashi, Shuji; Ito, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein (Igfbp) family consists of six members designated Igfbp1-6. Igfbps are involved in many vital biological functions. They physically interact with IGFs (IGF1 and IGF2) and act as carriers, thereby protecting IGFs from proteolytic degradation. Thus, they function as modulators of IGF activity. Furthermore, Igfbps have been reported to have IGF-independent activities. They interact with other proteins, including cell surface proteins, extra-cellular matrix proteins, and potentially intracellular molecules. In Xenopus tropicalis (X. tropicalis), only four igfbp genes (igfbp1, igfbp2, igfbp4, and igfbp5) have been identified, and their expression is not well characterized. We report that X. tropicalis genome lacks the igfbp3 and igfbp6 genes based on synteny analyses. We also examined the spatio-temporal expression patterns of igfbp genes in early X. tropicalis development. Expression analyses indicated that they are differentially expressed during early development. Each igfbp gene showed a characteristic spatial expression pattern. Except for igfbp5, they demonstrated overlapping expression in the pronephros. The Xenopus pronephros is composed of four domains (i.e., the proximal tubule, intermediate tubule, distal tubule, and connecting tubule). Our results showed that at least two igfbp genes are co-expressed in all pronephric domains, suggesting that redundant functions of igfbp genes are required in early pronephric kidney development.

  16. The WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Citrus: Valuable and Useful Candidate Genes for Citrus Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M; Hanana, M; Kharrat, N; Merchaoui, H; Marzoug, R Ben; Lauvergeat, V; Rebaï, A; Mzid, R

    2016-10-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to a large family of plant transcriptional regulators whose members have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological roles including plant development, adaptation to environmental constraints and response to several diseases. However, little or poor information is available about WRKY's in Citrus. The recent release of completely assembled genomes sequences of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina and the availability of ESTs sequences from other citrus species allowed us to perform a genome survey for Citrus WRKY proteins. In the present study, we identified 100 WRKY members from C. sinensis (51), C. clementina (48) and Citrus unshiu (1), and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication, syntenic relation and phylogenetic analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 100 Citrus WRKY sequences with their orthologs from Arabidopsis has distinguished seven groups. The CsWRKY genes were distributed across all ten sweet orange chromosomes. A comprehensive approach and an integrative analysis of Citrus WRKY gene expression revealed variable profiles of expression within tissues and stress conditions indicating functional diversification. Thus, candidate Citrus WRKY genes have been proposed as potentially involved in fruit acidification, essential oil biosynthesis and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Our results provided essential prerequisites for further WRKY genes cloning and functional analysis with an aim of citrus crop improvement.

  17. Sports participation of children with or without developmental delay: prediction from child and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Willa A; Baker, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Sports participation is beneficial to health and socioemotional adjustment in youth across development. While there is some evidence indicating lower sports participation for children with developmental delays (DD) as compared with their typically developing (TD) peers, little is known as to the predictors of this differential participation. Given the increased risk of physical and mental health difficulties for children with DD, understanding more about this disparity is important. We examined sports participation in elementary school-aged children with or without DD and examined child and family predictors of three indices of sports participation: number of sports and highest relational sport at ages 6 and 8, and consistent sports from 6 to 8. Children with TD were significantly higher on all three indicators. Mother and child factors related significantly to sports participation indices. The number of sports related positively to mother education and positive perceptions and negatively to mother employment. Relational sports were higher in boys, children with higher social skills, and lower behavior problems. In regression analyses at child age 8 that included these other variables, delay status (DD or TD) did not have a significant effect. Perspectives on varying influences on sports participation and implications for intervention are discussed.

  18. A new prognostic model for cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy including pretreatment thrombocytosis and standard pathological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Renninger, Markus; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

    2012-12-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (cohort series) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Preoperative thrombocytosis has been identified as a predictor of poor outcome in various cancer types. However, the prognostic role of platelet count in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy is unknown. The present study demonstrates that preoperative thrombocytosis is an independent risk factor for decreased cancer-specific survival after radical treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We developed a new prognostic scoring model for cancer-specific outcomes after radical cystectomy including platelet count and established pathological risk factors. Consideration of platelet count in the final model increased its predictive accuracy significantly. Thrombocytosis may be a useful parameter to include within established international bladder cancer nomograms. •  To investigate the oncological significance of preoperative thrombocytosis in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, as it has been reported as a marker for aggressive tumour biology in a variety of solid tumours. •  The series comprised 258 patients undergoing radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2010 in whom different clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed. •  Elevated platelet count was defined as >450 × 10(9) /L. •  Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariable analysis a new weighted scoring model was developed to predict cancer-specific outcomes. •  The median follow-up was 30 months (6-116). •  Of the 258 patients, 26 (10.1%) had elevated and 232 (89.9%) had normal platelet count. The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with normal and elevated platelet count was 61.5% and 32.7%, respectively (P thrombocytosis (2.68, 1.26-5.14; P= 0.011). •  The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with a score 0 (low risk), 1-2 (intermediate risk) and 3

  19. Associations between family-related factors, breakfast consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-year-old European children: the cross-sectional ENERGY-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Van Lippevelde

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations of family-related factors with children's breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether children's breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and children's BMI-z-score. SUBJECTS: Ten- to twelve-year-old children (n = 6374; mean age = 11.6 ± 0.7 years, 53.2% girls, mean BMI-z-score = 0.4 ± 1.2 and one of their parents (n = 6374; mean age = 41.4 ± 5.3 years, 82.7% female, mean BMI = 24.5 ± 4.2 kg/m(2 were recruited from schools in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland. The children self-reported their breakfast frequency per week. The body weight and height of the children were objectively measured. The parents responded to items on family factors related to breakfast (automaticity, availability, encouragement, paying attention, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, parental self-efficacy to address children's nagging, praising, and family breakfast frequency. Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country. RESULTS: Three of the eleven family-related variables were significantly associated with children's BMI-z-score. The family breakfast frequency was negatively associated with the BMI-z-score; permissiveness concerning skipping breakfast and negotiating about breakfast were positively associated with the BMI-z-score. Children's breakfast consumption was found to be a mediator of the two associations. All family-related variables except for negotiating, praising and communicating health beliefs, were significantly associated with children's breakfast consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Future breakfast promotion and obesity prevention interventions should focus on family-related factors including the physical home environment and parenting practices. Nevertheless, more longitudinal research and intervention studies to support

  20. comparative study on effective factors on consent to organ donation among families of brain death victims in Isfahan, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshte Zamani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the previous studies, several social, cultural, and organizational factors are involved in the decision of families of brain death victims for organ donation. The present study was performed to determine the effective factors in the decision of organ donation among families of brain death victims. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study data were gathered through a self-made questionnaire. The reliability of questionnaire was determined by calculating Cronbach’s alpha (0.81 and the face and content validity were studied and approved by a number of experts. Statistical population included all family members of brain death victims in Isfahan/Iran during 2012-2013. They were divided into two groups of with and without consent to organ donation. The whole population was considered as the study sample. Data analysis were done through SPSS using independent T-test, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests. Results: According to the present study, age and marital status of the victims have no effect on their families’ consent to organ donation (P> 0.05; but sex, duration of hospitalization in the emergency department, having organ donation card ,and personal opinion of the brain death victim showed significant relationship with consent to organ donation (P< 0.05. Conclusion: Since the rate of awareness, knowledge, and attitude of family members are effective in their decision for organ donation, improving cultural backgrounds required for this decision and increasing awareness and knowledge of people can improve the attitude of people in this regard and facilitate the acceptance of family members

  1. Overrepresentation of transcription factor families in the genesets underlying breast cancer subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Himanshu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human genome contains a large amount of cis-regulatory DNA elements responsible for directing both spatial and temporal gene-expression patterns. Previous studies have shown that based on their mRNA expression breast tumors could be divided into five subgroups (Luminal A, Luminal B, Basal, ErbB2+ and Normal-like, each with a distinct molecular portrait. Whole genome gene expression analysis of independent sets of breast tumors reveals repeatedly the robustness of this classification. Furthermore, breast tumors carrying a TP53 mutation show a distinct gene expression profile, which is in strong association to the distinct molecular portraits. The mRNA expression of 552 genes, which varied considerably among the different tumors, but little between two samples of the same tumor, has been shown to be sufficient to separate these tumor subgroups. Results We analyzed in silico the transcriptional regulation of genes defining the subgroups at 3 different levels: 1. We studied the pathways in which the genes distinguishing the subgroups of breast cancer may be jointly involved including upstream regulators (1st and 2nd level of regulation as well as downstream targets of these genes. 2. Then we analyzed the promoter areas of these genes (−500 bp tp +100 bp relative to the transcription start site for canonical transcription binding sites using Genomatix. 3. We looked for the actual expression levels of the identified TF and how they correlate with the overrepresentation of their TF binding sites in the separate groups. We report that promoter composition of the genes that most strongly predict the patient subgroups is distinct. The class-predictive genes showed a clearly different degree of overrepresentation of transcription factor families in their promoter sequences. Conclusion The study suggests that transcription factors responsible for the observed expression pattern in breast cancers may lead us to important biological

  2. Decision-making factors affecting different family members regarding the placement of relatives in long-term care facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying-Chia; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Ho, Ching-Sung; Lan, Shou-Jen; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Hsieh, Yen-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to investigate factors affecting different family members’ decisions regarding the placement of relatives in long-term car (LTC) facilities in Taiwan. The objective was to investigate the correlations between family members’ personal traits, the living conditions of residents in the LTC facilities, and family members’ experiences with LTC facilities. Methods This study selected family members visiting residents in LTC facilities as research subjects and...

  3. Phylogenetic analysis and positive-selection site detecting of vascular endothelial growth factor family in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenwu; Tang, Yanyan; Qi, Bin; Lu, Chuansen; Qin, Chao; Wei, Yunfei; Yi, Jiachao; Chen, Mingwu

    2014-02-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), known to play an important role in vascular homeostasis, vascular integrity and angiogenesis, is little known about the evolutionary relationship of its five members especially the role of gene duplication and natural selection in the evolution of the VEGF family. In this study, seventy-five full-length cDNA sequences from 33 vertebrate species were extracted from the NCBI's GenBank, UniProt protein database and the Ensembl database. By phylogenetic analyses, we investigated the origin, conservation, and evolution of the VEGFs. Five VEGF family members in vertebrates might be formed by gene duplication. The inferred evolutionary transitions that separate members which belong to different gene clusters correlated with changes in functional properties. Selection analysis and protein structure analysis were combined to explain the relationship of the site-specific evolution in the vertebrate VEGF family. Eleven positive selection sites, one transmembrane region and the active sites were detected in this process.

  4. Perceived family support of women with breast cancer and affecting factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardahan, Melek; Yesilbalkan, Oznur Usta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the percieved family support of the women with breast cancer and the affecting factors. The subjects were breast cancer cases undergoing treatment (n=240). The sample for this study was formed by women who accepted participation, were in the facility between the dates and hours when the study was applied, and who were selected with a nonprobability sampling technique (n=120). Two thirds of the women with breast cancer were in the 40-59 age group. The lowest score women with breast cancer for perceived family support scale was 0.00 and the highest was 40.0, with a mean of 30.1±8.85. In this study, it was determined that perceived family support of Turkish women with breast cancer was reasonable.

  5. Analysis of functional redundancies within the Arabidopsis TCP transcription factor family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Bimbo, Andrea; van der Wal, Froukje; Hennig, Lars; de Folter, Stefan; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of the functions of TEOSINTE-LIKE1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors have been hampered by functional redundancy between its individual members. In general, putative functionally redundant genes are predicted based on sequence similarity and confirmed by genetic analysis. In the TCP family, however, identification is impeded by relatively low overall sequence similarity. In a search for functionally redundant TCP pairs that control Arabidopsis leaf development, this work performed an integrative bioinformatics analysis, combining protein sequence similarities, gene expression data, and results of pair-wise protein-protein interaction studies for the 24 members of the Arabidopsis TCP transcription factor family. For this, the work completed any lacking gene expression and protein-protein interaction data experimentally and then performed a comprehensive prediction of potential functional redundant TCP pairs. Subsequently, redundant functions could be confirmed for selected predicted TCP pairs by genetic and molecular analyses. It is demonstrated that the previously uncharacterized class I TCP19 gene plays a role in the control of leaf senescence in a redundant fashion with TCP20. Altogether, this work shows the power of combining classical genetic and molecular approaches with bioinformatics predictions to unravel functional redundancies in the TCP transcription factor family.

  6. Dissolved families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...

  7. Dissolved families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...

  8. Genome-wide analysis of basic leucine zipper transcription factor families in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza saliva and Populus trichocarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Qian; ZHANG Liang-sheng; WANG Yi-fei; WANG Jian

    2009-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors form a large gene family that is important in pathogen defense, light and stress signaling, etc. The Completed whole genome sequences of model plants Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza saliva) and poplar (Populus trichocarpa) constitute a valuable resource for genome-wide analysis and genomic comparative analysis, as they are representatives of the two major evolutionary lineages within the angiosperms: the monocotyledons and the dicotyledons. In this study, bioinformatics analysis identified 74, 89 and 88 bZIP genes respectively in Arabidopsis, rice and poplar. Moreover, a comprehensive overview of this gene family is presented, including the gene structure, phylogeny, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs. As a result, the plant bZIPs were organized into 10 subfamilies on basis of phylogenetic relationship. Gene duplication events during the family evolution history were also investigated. And it was further concluded that chromosomal/segmental duplication might have played a key role in gene expansion of bZIP gene family.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoyang; Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    MYB transcription factor represents one of the largest gene families in plant genomes. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, and recently the genome has been sequenced. This provides an opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary characteristics of sweet orange MYB genes from whole genome view. In the present study, we identified 100 R2R3-MYB genes in the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive analysis of this gene family was performed, including the phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization and expression pattern analyses. The 100 genes were divided into 29 subfamilies based on the sequence similarity and phylogeny, and the classification was also well supported by the highly conserved exon/intron structures and motif composition. The phylogenomic comparison of MYB gene family among sweet orange and related plant species, Arabidopsis, cacao and papaya suggested the existence of functional divergence during evolution. Expression profiling indicated that sweet orange R2R3-MYB genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns. Our analysis suggested that the sweet orange MYB genes may play important roles in different plant biological processes, some of which may be potentially involved in citrus fruit quality. These results will be useful for future functional analysis of the MYB gene family in sweet orange.

  10. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Bei; OuYang, Wei-Zhi; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Xie, Liang-Liang; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologs of ARFs. A total of 19 nonredundant ARF genes (CiARF) were found and validated from the sweet orange. A comprehensive overview of the CiARFs was undertaken, including the gene structures, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome locations, conserved motifs of proteins, and cis-elements in promoters of CiARF. Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR revealed many CiARF genes, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under two hormone treatments using real-time PCR. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and N-1-napthylphthalamic acid (NPA) treatment experiments revealed differential up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the 19 citrus ARF genes in the callus of sweet orange. Our comprehensive analysis of ARF genes further elucidates the roles of CiARF family members during citrus growth and development process.

  11. Rural Latinos' mental wellbeing: a mixed-methods pilot study of family, environment and social isolation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Smith, Rebekah; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Wiens, Brenda; Cottler, Linda B

    2015-05-01

    Upon immigration to the rural areas in the US, Latino families may experience cultural, geographic, linguistic and social isolation, which can detrimentally affect their wellbeing by acting as chronic stressors. Using a community engagement approach, this is a pilot mixed-method study with an embedded design using concurrent qualitative and quantitative data. The purpose of this study is to evaluate family and social environments in terms of protective factors and modifiable risks associated with mental well-being in Latino immigrants living in rural areas of Florida. Latino immigrant mother and adolescent dyads were interviewed by using in-depth ethnographic semistructured interviews and subsequent quantitative assessments, including a demographic questionnaire and three structured instruments: the Family Environment Scale Real Form, the SF-12v2™ Health Survey and the short version (eight items) of PROMIS Health Organization Social Isolation. This mixed-method pilot study highlighted how family, rural, and social environments can protect or impair wellbeing in rural Latino immigrant mother and adolescent dyads.

  12. Patient and Family Member Factors Influencing Outcomes of Poststroke Inpatient Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yunhua; Tao, Qian; Zhou, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Shanjia; Huang, Jia; Jiang, Yingping; Wu, Yi; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Chan, Chetwyn C

    2017-02-01

    To investigate how family members' attitudes toward functional regain, and patients' knowledge and intention of independence influence poststroke rehabilitation. Cross-sectional study. Three rehabilitation inpatient settings. Younger (n=79) and older (n=84) poststroke patients, along with their family members (spouses, n=104; children, n=59). Not applicable. Custom-designed questionnaires were used to tap into the patients' knowledge about rehabilitation (Patient's Rehabilitation Questionnaire-Knowledge About Rehabilitation) and intention of independence (Patient's Rehabilitation Questionnaire-Intention of Independence), and family members' attitudes toward patients in performing basic activities of daily living (BADL) (Family Member Attitudes Questionnaire-BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (Family Member Attitudes Questionnaire-instrumental activities of daily living). The rehabilitation outcomes included gains in motor, cognitive, and emotional functions, and self-care independence, measured with common clinical instruments. The Family Member Attitudes Questionnaire-BADL predicted cognitive outcome and the Patient's Rehabilitation Questionnaire-Intention of Independence predicted motor outcome for both groups. Differential age-related effects were revealed for the Patient's Rehabilitation Questionnaire-Intention of Independence in predicting emotional outcome only for the younger group, and self-care independence only for the older group. Patients' intention of independence positively affected motor recovery, while family members' positive attitudes promoted cognitive regain. The findings suggested plausible age-related differences in how patients' intentions affect emotion versus self-care independence outcomes. Future studies should explore strategies for promoting positive attitudes toward independence among patients and family members during poststroke rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by

  13. Education and adult cause-specific mortality--examining the impact of family factors shared by 871 367 Norwegian siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Oyvind; Hoff, Dominic A; Lawlor, Debbie;

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact family factors shared by siblings has on the association between length of education and cause-specific mortality in adulthood.......To estimate the impact family factors shared by siblings has on the association between length of education and cause-specific mortality in adulthood....

  14. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  15. Evaluation of What Parents Know about Their Children's Drug Use and How They Perceive the Most Common Family Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Jose-Ramon Fernandez; Villa, Roberto Secades; Seco, Guillermo Vallejo; Perez, Jose-Manuel Errasti

    2003-01-01

    Research on family risk factors for addictive behaviors in young people has not paid a great deal of attention to parents' knowledge of their children's addictive behaviors and of the family risk factors that affect such behaviors. The aim of this work is to compare knowledge about these two aspects in two groups of parents that differ regarding…

  16. FAMILY HISTORY OF DISEASE AS A RISK FACTOR OF ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Velickovic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI is a complex disease that begins with a lifelong interaction between genetics and environmental factors. The aim of the study was to identify family history as a risk factor of myocardial infarction in examined population in the Municipality of Nis.We used a case-control study with 100 patients with a first MI (in the period 1998-2000 and 100 controls, matched with respect to sex and age (± 2 years from the Municipality of Nis.Data was obtained from the epidemiological questionnaire. The Yates c2 test, odds ratio-OR and their 99% interval of confident were used as statistical procedures.The results showed that statistical significance for MI was present among all three degrees of relatives of subjects who have had an acute MI, and for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and stroke among first and second - degree relatives. The subjects with family history of hypercholesterolemia had 12.43 times higher risk of disease (p = 0,000 and in the case of family history of MI before the age of 55, the risk was almost 10 times (p = 0,000 higher. Almost 4 times higher risk of disease was registered in subjects with family history of hypertension (p < 0,00001 and stroke (before 65 years of age - (p < 00005; a two-fold higher risk was registered in subjects with diagnoses of diabetes (p < 0,05 and other cardiovascular diseases (unless hypertension (p < 0,01 in the nearest relatives before the age of 55.We concluded that family history of diseases on the sample of the Municipality of Nis inhabitants was very important risk factor, mostly in the first-degree relatives. Genetic epidemiology is the future for all investigations between different population, and special attention should be paid to investigations and findings of different genes and loci which are very important for myocardial infarction occurrence, which would allow a new approach to preventive medicine.

  17. Analysis of inversions in the factor VIII gene in Spanish hemophilia A patients and families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, M.; Tizzano, E.; Baiget, M. [Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Altisent, C. [Hospital Vall d`Hebron, Barcelona (Spain)

    1994-09-01

    Intron 22 is the largest intron of the factor VIII gene and contains a CpG island from which two additional transcripts originate. One of these transcripts corresponds to the F8A gene which have telomeric extragenic copies in the X chromosome. An inversion involving homologous recombination between the intragenic and the distal or proximal copies of the F8A gene has been recently described as a common cause of severe hemophilia A (HA). We analyzed intron 22 rearrangements in 195 HA patients (123 familial and 72 sporadic cases). According to factor VIII levels, our sample was classified as severe in 114 cases, moderate in 29 cases and mild in 52 cases. An intron 22 (F8A) probe was hybridized to Southern blots of BcII digested DNA obtained from peripheral blood. A clear pattern of altered bands identifies distal or proximal inversions. We detected an abnormal pattern identifying an inversion in 49 (25%) of the analyzed cases. 43% of severe HA patients (49 cases) showed an inversion. As expected, no inversion was found in the moderate and mild group of patients. We found a high proportion (78%) of the distal rearrangement. From 49 identified inversions, 33 were found in familial cases (27%), while the remaining 15 were detected in sporadic patients (22%) in support that this mutational event occurs with a similar frequency in familial or sporadic cases. In addition, we detected a significant tendency of distal inversion to occur more frequently in familial cases than in sporadic cases. Inhibitor development to factor VIII was documented in approximately 1/3 of the patients with inversion. The identification of such a frequent molecular event in severe hemophilia A patients has been applied in our families to carrier and prenatal diagnosis, to determine the origin of the mutation in the sporadic cases and to detect the presence of germinal mosaicism.

  18. Autonomy and intimacy in the family as risk factors for sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Repič

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the level of two risk factors (autonomy and intimacy for healthy functional family among sexually abused and sexually non-abused individuals. Autonomy and intimacy were measured with Family-of-Origin Scale (FOS; Hovestadt, Anderson, Piercy, Cochran, & Fine, 1985. 261 participants (194 girls and 67 boys completed the FOS, average age was 25 years (SD = 7. Among all participants 18% were sexually abused (N = 46, approximately every fifth (5.7 girl and every seventh (6.7 boy. There were 78% girls and 22% boys among sexually abused participants. Families of sexually abused participants in comparison with the families of sexually non-abused showed many statistically significant differences in elements of autonomy (clarity of expressing emotions, responsibility, respect for others, openness to others, and acceptance of separation and loss and intimacy (encouraging expression of a range of feelings, creating a warm atmosphere in the home, dealing with conflict resolution without undue stress, promoting empathy among family members, trust and developing trust. In general the sexually abused group had a statistically significantly lower level of autonomy and intimacy in comparison with sexually non-abused group.

  19. Unique and interactive effects of empathy, family, and school factors on early adolescents' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanova, Milena; Loukas, Alexandra

    2014-11-01

    Although research indicates that empathy inhibits youth aggression, little is known about the prospective associations between different components of empathy and aggression, as well as whether family and school factors moderate the aforementioned associations in early adolescents. Based on prior research, the current study examined whether empathic concern and perspective taking would contribute to subsequent overt and relational aggression over a 1-year period in middle school. Guided by the social development model, we also examined if positive family relations and school connectedness would differentially moderate the associations between both components of empathy and aggression. Participants were 481 10- to 14-year old students (54 % female; 78 % European American) who completed the first wave of a survey in 6th and 7th grades. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that only for girls did lower levels of empathic concern, not perspective taking, contribute to increases in subsequent overt, not relational, aggression. Although neither positive family relations nor school connectedness played protective roles for girls, results indicated that boys' reports of positive family relations buffered the negative impact of low empathic concern on both forms of aggression 1 year later. Over and above the two components of empathy, school connectedness also contributed to a decline in boys' subsequent overt aggression. Recommendations are made to foster family and school relationships among boys, as well as to more heavily consider the role of emotion processes in the study and prevention of early adolescents' aggression.

  20. Factors Affecting Burden of South Koreans Providing Care to Disabled Older Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Yoon, Eunkyung; Kropf, Nancy P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of caregiving burden among South Koreans who care for their disabled older family members. A sample of 1,000 primary caregivers taken from the Comprehensive Study for Elderly Welfare Policy in Seoul, South Korea was analyzed. Independent variables included the demographic characteristics of caregivers and care…

  1. Where should family medicine papers be published - following the impact factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Roni; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2006-01-01

    Academic institutions weigh the research contribution of family physicians and take this factor into account when determining eligibility for the candidates' promotion. Among other parameters, these institutions consider the journals in which family physicians publish. In this respect, the impact factor (IF) has gained a foothold as one of the most accepted means to measure this contribution. The IF may be a measure of the main importance of a scientific journal. IF has a huge, but controversial, influence on the perception and evaluation of published scientific research. It is important for family physicians to understand and be aware of the importance of the IF and the way it is calculated. The IF is one consideration in the decision-making process of a researcher as to where to publish because the IF of most family medicine journals is less than 2.0. Thus publication in these journals might not yield the proper "score" for academic promotion in many institutions. On the other hand, publication in journals with higher IF that are not necessarily widely read by primary care physicians could result in a small impact of their findings on direct patient care.

  2. Analysis of factor VIII gene inversions in 164 unrelated hemophilia A families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vnencak-Jones, L.; Phillips, J.A. III; Janco, R.L. [Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive disease with variable phenotype and both heterogeneous and wide spread mutations in the factor VIII (F8) gene. As a result, diagnostic carrier or prenatal testing often relies upon laborious DNA linkage analysis. Recently, inversion mutations resulting from an intrachromosomal recombination between DNA sequences in one of two A genes {approximately}500 kb upstream from the F8 gene and a homologous A gene in intron 22 of the F8 gene were identified and found in 45% of severe hemophiliacs. We have analyzed banked DNA collected since 1986 from affected males or obligate carrier females representing 164 unrelated hemophilia A families. The disease was sporadic in 37%, familial in 54% and in 10% of families incomplete information was given. A unique deletion was identified in 1/164, a normal pattern was observed in 110/164 (67%), and 53/164 (32%) families had inversion mutations with 43/53 (81%) involving the distal A gene (R3 pattern) and 10/53 (19%) involving the proximal A gene (R2 pattern). While 19% of all rearrangements were R2, in 35 families with severe disease (< 1% VIII:C activity) all 16 rearrangements seen were R3. In 18 families with the R3 pattern and known activities, 16 (89%) had levels < 1%, with the remaining 2 families having {le} 2.4% activity. Further, 18 referrals specifically noted the production of inhibitors and 8/18 (45%) had the R3 pattern. Our findings demonstrate that the R3 inversion mutation patterns is (1) only seen with VIII:C activity levels of {le} 2.4%, (2) seen in 46% of families with severe hemophilia, (3) seen in 45% of hemophiliacs known to have inhibitors, (4) not correlated with sporadic or familial disease and (5) not in disequilibrium with the Bcl I or Taq I intron 18 or ST14 polymorphisms. Finally, in families positive for an inversion mutation, direct testing offers a highly accurate and less expensive alternative to DNA linkage analysis.

  3. The CELLULOSE-SYNTHASE LIKE C (CSLC) Family of Barley Includes Members that Are Integral Membrane Proteins Targeted to the Plasma Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenny M. Dwivany; Dina Yuli; Rachel A. Burton; Neil J. Shirley; Sarah M. Wilson; Geoffrey B. Fincher; Antony Bacic; Ed Newbigin; Monika S. Doblin

    2009-01-01

    The CELLULOSESYNTHASE-LIKE C(CSLC) family is an ancient lineage within the CELLULOSE SYNTHASE/CEL-LULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE (CESA/CSL) polysaccharide synthase superfamily that is thought to have arisen before the diver-gence of mosses and vascular plants. As studies in the flowering plant Arabidopsis have suggested synthesis of the (1,4)-β-glucan backbone of xyloglucan (XyG), a wall polysaccharide that tethers adjacent cellulose microfibrils to each other, as a probable function for the CSLCs, CSLC function was investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a species with low amounts of XyG in its walls. Four barley CSLC genes were identified (designated HvCSLC1-4). Phylogenetic analysis reveals three well supported clades of CSLCs in flowering plants, with barley having representatives in two of these clades. The four barley CSLCs were expressed in various tissues, with in situ PCR detecting transcripts in all cell types of the coleoptile and root, including cells with primary and secondary cell walls. Co-expression analysis showed that HvCSLC3 was coor-dinately expressed with putative XyG xylosyltransferase genes. Both immuno-EM and membrane fractionation showed that HvCSLC2 was located in the plasma membrane of barley suspension-cultured cells and was not in internal membranes such as endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus. Based on our current knowledge of the sub-cellular locations of poly-saccharide synthesis, we conclude that the CSLC family probably contains more than one type of polysaccharide synthase.

  4. [Exploration of social support available to mothers of children with cancer, their health status, and other factors related to their family function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ling; Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2008-12-01

    The mother is typically the primary caregiver for children suffering from cancer. The long-term care responsibilities involved with caring for a cancer-stricken child impacts upon the mother's family role and functions and causes lifestyle changes or imbalances. The aim of this study was to explore social support, health status, and related factors in families of children with cancer. This study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive design. Study subjects consisted of 120 mothers of children with cancer recruited from the outpatient and inpatient departments of two medical centers in southern Taiwan between January and April 2006. Research instruments included demographic characterizations of the children with cancer, their mothers, and families; the Social Support: Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ85) part 2, the Duke Health Profile (DUKE), and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Results showed a mean score of social support for mothers of children with cancer was 131.21 out of a total possible 175. The standard score for social support was 75.0. The standard score for health was 67.15. The mean score of family functioning was 128.48 out of a total possible 240. The standard score of family function was 53.53. Mother's age, marriage, family type, family socioeconomic stage, disease stage, and relapse of child's disease all had a statistically significant relationship to family function. Significant positive relationships were identified between the two variables social support and health status and family function. Mother's health, social support, disease relapse, and mother's age were significant predictors of mother's family function, explaining 42% of variance in family function for mothers of children with cancer. We hope findings will help clinical health professionals identify and implement nursing strategies to increase the health of mothers and their children as well as promote social support to strengthen family functions.

  5. Racial and familial factors in otitis media. A point prevalence study on Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goycoolea, H G; Goycoolea, M V; Farfan, C R

    1988-02-01

    Of the 249 children aged 5 to 9 years who live on Easter Island, 220 underwent complete otolaryngological evaluation. Twenty children were found to have otitis media (acute, chronic, or both). Three of these children were genetically impure natives, nine were of mixed parentage, and eight were "continentals" (with a birth origin other than the island). None of the genetically pure natives had otitis media. Our data show that, in a population with all factors in common except for familial and racial background, the point prevalence of otitis media is higher in children of mixed or continental origin than in genetically pure native children. The high prevalence of otitis media in children of mixed parentage and in one particular family of European ancestry suggests the presence of intrinsic or pronicity factors that are seemingly transmissible.

  6. [The profile of fragility and associated factors among the elderly registered in a Family Health Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrícia Honório Silva; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Carneiro, José Ailton Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    The scope of this study was to identify the profile of fragility and associated factors among the elderly registered in a Family Health Unit. It involved an observational, exploratory, household -based and cross-sectional study conducted with 139 elderly individuals. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire requesting the following information: personal history, family and self-reported diseases, socio-demographic information, level of physical activity, behavior variables, number of falls in the last year, depressive symptoms, unintentional weight loss and fatigue. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were also taken and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Descriptive analyses and Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were performed, with a significance level of p fragility among the elderly was: frail (16.9%), pre-frail (61.8%) and non-frail (21.3%), respectively. The fragility profile was associated with: age (p factors associated with this syndrome.

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Family Background Factors on Mathematics Achievements Using Quantile Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-zhi Wu; Mao-zai Tian

    2008-01-01

    Quantile regression is gradually emerging as a powerful tool for estimating models of conditional quantile functions, and therefore research in this area has vastly increased in the past two decades. This paper, with the quantile regression technique, is the first comprehensive longitudinal study on mathematics participation data collected in Alberta, Canada. The major advantage of longitudinal study is its capability to separate the so-called cohort and age effects in the context of population studies. One aim of this paper is to study whether the family background factors alter performance on the mathematical achievement of the strongest students in the same way as that of weaker students based on the large longitudinal sample of 2000,2001 and 2002 mathematics participation longitudinal data set. The interesting findings suggest that there may be differential family background factor effects at different points in the mathematical achievement conditional distribution.

  8. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma.

  9. Factors that Affect Suicide Attempts of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2016-01-01

    We examined the factors that affect suicide attempts adolescents multicultural families in South Korea. The participants were 727 adolescents whose mothers and/or fathers were born outside of South Korea (376 males and 351 females). Among them, 41 (weighted prevalence 6.2%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. Female gender, residence in large cities (compared with in rural areas), living with relatives/alone/with friends/in a dormitory or living in a facility (compared with livin...

  10. Andalusian Registry for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Analysis of patients included Registro Andaluz de la Poliposis Adenomatosa Familiar: Análisis de los pacientes incluidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garzón Benavides

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the phenotype and genotype characteristic of patients included in the Andalusian Registry for familial adenomatous polyposis, the genotype/phenotype correlation and the impact of Registry in the frequency of colorectal cancer of registered. Material and methods: A descriptive study of 77 patients with FAP belonging to 33 families, included in a centralized database visited by the physicians of the hospitals taking part in the present study, on prior signing of confidentiality letters. All genetic studies were carried out in the Immunology Service of our institution. Results: We have included in our study 77 patients of 33 families; 31 probands with a mean age of 32 years (13-51 and 46 relatives at risk with a mean age of 21.8 years (6-55. Genetic study informed in 68/77 with positive result in 92.6%. Ten probands showed colorectal cancer (CRC at the time of diagnosis (32.2%. Only two affected relatives showed CRC at diagnosis (4.3%, a statistically significant difference (p Objetivos: Valorar las características fenotípicas y genotípicas de los pacientes incluidos en el Registro Andaluz de la poliposis adenomatosa familiar, la relación genotipo/fenotipo y el impacto del Registro en la frecuencia de cáncer colorrectal de los familiares registrados. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de 77 pacientes con PAF, pertenecientes a 33 familias, incluidos en una base de datos centralizada a la que tienen acceso los responsables de los hospitales participantes, previa firma de cartas de confidencialidad. Todos los estudios genéticos se realizan en el Servicio de Inmunología de nuestro Hospital. Resultados: 77 pacientes registrados (50,6% varones: 31 probandos, edad media: 32 años (13-51 y 46 familiares afectos, edad media 21,8 años (6-55. Estudio genético informado en 68/77 con resultado positivo en 92,6%. Cáncer colorrectal al diagnóstico en diez probandos (32,2% y 2 familiares afectos (4,3%, diferencia estad

  11. Multi-Level Family Factors and Affective and Behavioral Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Tang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the important role of family environment in children's psychological development, the objective of this study was to examine the linkages between family factors at the whole, dyadic, and individual levels and two dimensions (affective and behavioral of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD symptoms in Chinese children. Participants comprised of 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads from families with ODD children. The results indicated that multilevel family factors were differently associated with children's affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. All the family factors at the dyadic and individual levels were significantly associated with child affective ODD symptoms. However, only the most proximal factors (parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation, which were directly related to child were significantly related to child behavioral ODD symptoms. The present study extends the current knowledge regarding the relationships between family factors and two dimensions of child ODD symptoms by testing the comprehensive multilevel family factors model. This study also recommends that future interventions for ODD children should consider the multi-level family factors to enhance intervention efficacy.

  12. bZIPs and WRKYs: two large transcription factor families executing two different functional strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles eMarco Llorca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available bZIPs and WRKYs are two important plant transcription factor families regulating diverse developmental and stress-related processes. Since a partial overlap in these biological processes is obvious, it can be speculated that they fulfill non-redundant functions in a complex regulatory network. Here, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms that are so far described for bZIPs and WRKYs. bZIP factors need to heterodimerize for DNA-binding and regulation of transcription, and based on a bioinformatics approach, bZIPs can build up more than the double of protein interactions than WRKYs. In contrast, an enrichment of the WRKY DNA-binding motifs can be found in WRKY promoters, a phenomenon which is not observed for the bZIP family. Thus, the two transcription factor families follow two different functional strategies in which WRKYs regulate each other’s transcription in a transcriptional network whereas bZIP action relies on intensive heterodimerization.

  13. Strengthening the systemic ties that bind: integrating common factors into marriage and family therapy curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Eli A; Blow, Adrian J; Sprenkle, Douglas H; Davis, Sean D

    2015-04-01

    Specific models guide the training of marriage and family therapists (MFTs) as they offer both structure and organization for both therapists and clients. Learning models may also benefit therapists-in-training by instilling confidence and preventing atheoretical eclecticism. The moderate common factors perspective argues that models are essential, but should not be taught as "the absolute truth," given there is no evidence for relative efficacy of one empirically validated model versus another, and no single model works in all instances. The following article provides a blueprint for infusing a common factors perspective into MFT programmes by reviewing innovations in course design, outlining specific teaching strategies, and highlighting potential implementation challenges.

  14. Colchicine treatment in children with familial Mediterranean fever: is it a risk factor for neuromyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işıkay, Sedat; Yılmaz, Kutluhan; Yiğiter, Remzi; Balat, Ayşe; Büyükçelik, Mithat

    2013-12-01

    We cared for a 17-year-old adolescent with familial Mediterranean fever under colchicine treatment. Because of the increased creatinine kinase level (3937 U/L) observed in this individual, we planned to assess all pediatric patients with familial Mediterranean fever under colchicine treatment to detect any resultant neuromyopathy. The study included 88 children with familial Mediterranean fever who were receiving colchicine. The patient with myopathy was not included in the study. Serum creatinine kinase levels were measured and nerve conduction studies were carried out in all patients. The study included 88 patients (47 female, 53.4%) with an average age of 10.1 ± 3.35 years. The average period of colchicine use was 28.25 ± 17.66 months. Side effects of colchicine were detected in 10 patients (11%)--as diarrhea in eight patients, leukopenia in one patient, and hair loss in one patient. Nerve conduction studies determined incidental carpal tunnel syndrome in only one patient. Our study did not suggest an elevated risk of neuromyopathy associated with the use of colchicine for familial Mediterranean fever. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Family Engagement in Literacy Activities: Revised Factor Structure for the Familia--An Instrument Examining Family Support for Early Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Eric S.; Welch, Greg; Burt, Jennifer; Knoche, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a data-set drawn using "The Familia"--a measure originally developed to evaluate shared-reading activities. A newly developed set of conceptual supports and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to a new factor structure/model. Data were drawn from 219 young children and their families (mean age = 43…

  16. Family Engagement in Literacy Activities: Revised Factor Structure for the Familia--An Instrument Examining Family Support for Early Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Eric S.; Welch, Greg; Burt, Jennifer; Knoche, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a data-set drawn using "The Familia"--a measure originally developed to evaluate shared-reading activities. A newly developed set of conceptual supports and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to a new factor structure/model. Data were drawn from 219 young children and their families (mean age = 43 months)…

  17. Family Engagement in Literacy Activities: Revised Factor Structure for the Familia--An Instrument Examining Family Support for Early Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Eric S.; Welch, Greg; Burt, Jennifer; Knoche, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a data-set drawn using "The Familia"--a measure originally developed to evaluate shared-reading activities. A newly developed set of conceptual supports and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to a new factor structure/model. Data were drawn from 219 young children and their families (mean age = 43…

  18. Nurses' views of factors affecting sleep for hospitalized children and their families: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremler, Robyn; Adams, Sherri; Dryden-Palmer, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Light, noise, and interruptions from hospital staff lead to frequent awakenings and detrimental changes to sleep quantity and quality for children who are hospitalized and their parents who stay with them overnight. An understanding of nurses' views on how care affects sleep for the hospitalized child and parent is crucial to the development of strategies to decrease sleep disturbance in hospital. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain an understanding of nurses' views on their role in and influence on sleep for families; perceived barriers and facilitators of patient and parent sleep at night; strategies nurses use to preserve sleep; the distribution, between parent and nurse, of care for the child at night; views of the parent as a recipient of nursing care at night; and the nature of interactions between nurses and families at night. Thirty registered nurses from general pediatric and critical care units participated in one of four semi-structured focus groups. Four main influences on sleep were identified: child factors; environmental factors; nurse-parent interaction factors; and nursing care factors. Some of these restricted nurses' ability to optimize sleep, but many factors were amenable to intervention. Balancing strategies to preserve sleep with the provision of nursing assessment and intervention was challenging and complicated by the difficult nature of work outside of usual waking hours. Nurses highlighted the need for formal policy and mentoring related to provision of nursing care at night in pediatric settings.

  19. MTHFR homozygous mutation and additional risk factors for cerebral infarction in a large Italian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Balzo, Francesca; Spalice, Alberto; Perla, Massimo; Properzi, Enrico; Iannetti, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Several cases with cerebral infarctions associated with the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been reported. Given the large number of asymptomatic individuals with the MTHFR mutation, additional risk factors for cerebral infarction should be considered. This study describes a large family with the MTHFR mutation and a combination of heterozygous factor V Leiden mutations and different additional exogenous and endogenous thrombogenic risk factors. Psychomotor retardation and a left fronto-insular infarct associated with the MTHFR mutation together with diminished factor VII and low level of protein C was documented in the first patient. In the second patient, generalized epilepsy and a malacic area in the right nucleus lenticularis was associated with the MTHFR mutation and a low level of protein C. In the third patient, right hemiparesis and a left fronto-temporal porencephalic cyst were documented, together with the MTHFR mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia. An extensive search of additional circumstantial and genetic thrombogenic risk factors should be useful for prophylaxis and prognosis of infants with cerebral infarctions associated with the MTHFR mutation and of their related family members.

  20. Factors Affecting Phenotype Variability in a Family with CMT2B: Gender and LRSAM1 Genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leema Reddy Peddareddygari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2 is an autosomal dominant axonal neuropathy caused by mutations in various genes. The subtype CMT2B results from missense mutations in RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family gene, whereas missense mutations in the Leucine-rich repeat and sterile alpha motif-containing protein 1 (LRSAM1 gene cause CMT2P. We describe the genotype/phenotype analysis of a family in which a previously described mutation in the RAB7A gene and a novel mutation in the LRSAM1 gene were identified. In this family, none of the individuals had ulceromutilating features, and there was a marked variability in the age of onset. We discuss the possible etiology of the observed phenotypic variability including the role of gender and possible RAB7A/LRSAM1 gene interactions.

  1. THE FAMILY AS A FACTOR IN THE INTEGRAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the idea of organic unity between mind and body, the interdependence of organism and environment, and the contribution of physical activity, social, emotional and physiological development today is more correct to speak of "education through the physical" than the "physical education". According to this understanding of physical education is turning into a rich activity that not only develop muscles and coordination of movements, but as a whole person - physical education is becoming the backbone of global development. On the other hand, the family is an important factor in physical education because it formed the first paragraph and the first knowledge of the importance and value of physical education. Here is a very important role of parents as well as socio-economic status of families and family circumstances which manifests as a braking or promotion of child development. It is known that children from families that have a negative attitude towards sport and physical culture in general, are usually not involved in any sport or recreational activity. Many parents do not realize the importance of physical education and physical activity for proper development of the child or at least not sufficiently aware of that importance. Therefore they are very poorly or not at all interested in the results that their children achieve in sport and physical education has a negative effect on their further development. The paper analyzes the external factors of physical development and motor skills, especially the influence of family circumstances. The aim of this paper is that analysis of previous research in this field point out the good results and pedagogical implications of established knowledge but also to the synthesis of these findings point to possible practical solutions to defined problems.

  2. Evolution of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Daniel Ocampo; Sundström, Görel; Bergqvist, Christina A; Duan, Cunming; Larhammar, Dan

    2011-06-01

    The evolution of the IGF binding protein (IGFBP) gene family has been difficult to resolve. Both chromosomal and serial duplications have been suggested as mechanisms for the expansion of this gene family. We have identified and annotated IGFBP sequences from a wide selection of vertebrate species as well as Branchiostoma floridae and Ciona intestinalis. By combining detailed sequence analysis with sequence-based phylogenies and chromosome information, we arrive at the following scenario: the ancestral chordate IGFBP gene underwent a local gene duplication, resulting in a gene pair adjacent to a HOX cluster. Subsequently, the gene family expanded in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidization (2R) resulting in the six IGFBP types that are presently found in placental mammals. The teleost fish ancestor underwent a third tetraploidization (3R) that further expanded the IGFBP repertoire. The five sequenced teleost fish genomes retain 9-11 of IGFBP genes. This scenario is supported by the phylogenies of three adjacent gene families in the HOX gene regions, namely the epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and the Ikaros and distal-less (DLX) transcription factors. Our sequence comparisons show that several important structural components in the IGFBPs are ancestral vertebrate features that have been maintained in all orthologs, for instance the integrin interaction motif Arg-Gly-Asp in IGFBP-2. In contrast, the Arg-Gly-Asp motif in IGFBP-1 has arisen independently in mammals. The large degree of retention of IGFBP genes after the ancient expansion of the gene family strongly suggests that each gene evolved distinct and important functions early in vertebrate evolution.

  3. Myosin II directly binds and inhibits Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors: a possible link to Rho family GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan-Soo; Choi, Chang-Ki; Shin, Eun-Young; Schwartz, Martin Alexander; Kim, Eung-Gook

    2010-08-23

    Cell migration requires the coordinated spatiotemporal regulation of actomyosin contraction and cell protrusion/adhesion. Nonmuscle myosin II (MII) controls Rac1 and Cdc42 activation, and cell protrusion and focal complex formation in migrating cells. However, these mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that MII interacts specifically with multiple Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Binding is mediated by the conserved tandem Dbl homology-pleckstrin homology module, the catalytic site of these GEFs, with dissociation constants of approximately 0.3 microM. Binding to the GEFs required assembly of the MII into filaments and actin-stimulated ATPase activity. Binding of MII suppressed GEF activity. Accordingly, inhibition of MII ATPase activity caused release of GEFs and activation of Rho GTPases. Depletion of betaPIX GEF in migrating NIH3T3 fibroblasts suppressed lamellipodial protrusions and focal complex formation induced by MII inhibition. The results elucidate a functional link between MII and Rac1/Cdc42 GTPases, which may regulate protrusion/adhesion dynamics in migrating cells.

  4. Effect of Socioeconomic Factors and Family History on the Incidence of Diabetes in an Adult Diabetic Population from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour El Houda FERDI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a serious public health problem worldwide and particularly in developing countries. In Algeria, this metabolic disorder occurs with a wide variety or atypical forms that linked to multiple risk factors including local habits and traditions. This study aimed to determine the impact of risk factors (metabolic syndrome, social, cultural, physical activity, family history and the treatment used on the incidence of diabetes.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 on a random sample from a resident population in Tebessa, Northeast Algeria, which underwent a significant expanding of diabetes prevalence conditioned by profound socio-economic changes. The survey included 200 subjects, randomly selected; with 100 controls and 100 diabetic patients, (26 diabetic subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus ‘T1DM’ and 74 subjects with type two diabetes mellitus ‘T2DM’.Results: Diabetic subjects were significantly affected by all these risk factors, including metabolic syndrome that was higher in women. The most common treatment among surveyed T1DM subjects was insulin, whereas T2DM patients used metformin. In addition, the duration from T1DM onset in the surveyed subjects is older than T2DM onset. The incidence of diabetes is significantly in close relationship between the majorities of these factors of risk.Conclusion: Subjects with a high socioeconomic status can afford a healthier way of life to avoid the risk of developing diabetes compared to subjects with lower social level. 

  5. Acculturation, Behavioral Factors, and Family History of Breast Cancer among Mexican and Mexican-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodora, Jesse N; Cooper, Renee; Talavera, Gregory A; Gallo, Linda; Meza Montenegro, María Mercedes; Komenaka, Ian; Natarajan, Loki; Gutiérrez Millán, Luis Enrique; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Bondy, Melissa; Brewster, Abenaa; Thompson, Patricia; Martinez, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer are higher among Mexican-American (MA) women in the United States than women living in Mexico. Studies have shown higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors in more acculturated than less acculturated Hispanic/Latinas in the United States. We compared the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Data were collected from 1,201 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients living in Mexico (n = 581) and MAs in the United States (n = 620). MA participants were categorized into three acculturation groups (Spanish dominant, bilingual, and English dominant); women living in Mexico were used as the referent group. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer were assessed according to acculturation level, adjusting for age at diagnosis and education. In the adjusted models, bilingual and English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or greater, consume more than one alcoholic beverage a week, and report having a family history of breast cancer than women living in Mexico. All three U.S. acculturation groups were significantly more likely to have lower total energy expenditure (≤533 kcal/d) than women in Mexico. English-dominant women were significantly less likely to ever smoke cigarettes than the Mexican group. Our findings add to the limited scientific literature on the relationships among acculturation, health behavior, and family history of breast cancer in Mexican and MA women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing the second-order factor structure of the Family Environment Scale across husbands' and wives' perceptions of their family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipuer, H M; Villegas, T

    2001-01-01

    The Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1986) is one of the most widely used environmental measures in clinical and family research. Clinicians and researchers often use the FES for comparing spouses' perceptions of their family environment, under the assumption that the underlying structure of the FES is the same for husbands and wives. However, no studies have actually compared the structure of the FES across spouse responses to the FES. Additionally, a review of the literature generally suggests a lack of consensus regarding the factor structure of the FES. Using confirmatory factor analyses, we examined whether the second-order factor structures of the FES, as identified in the literature, were consistent across spouses' perceptions of their family environment. Husbands and wives in 130 nonclinical families responded to Form R of the FES. The findings supported the two-factor solution presented by Fowler (1981) and by Boake and Salmon (1983), and did not differ across responses by husbands and wives. In contrast, responses by husbands and wives to the FES could not be modeled using the three-factor solutions presented by Moos and Moos (1986) and by others. The importance of using a measure that is structurally the same across different groups of respondents is discussed.

  7. Family and personal protective factors moderate the effects of adversity and negative disposition on smoking among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Chang, Megan Chia-Chen; Gallaher, Peggy; Pang, Zengchang; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    Tobacco use among Chinese adolescents is increasing at approximately 80,000 new smokers per day. Assessing the causes for initiating tobacco use in China will be important in developing effective interventions and policies to stem rising prevalence rates. This study tested predictors of Resilience Theory in a sample of 602 Chinese adolescents. Results revealed that prior adversity, measured through school and family-related events, was significantly associated with increased smoking in females. Family factors (i.e., family cohesion, family adaptability, parental monitoring) and one personal factor (i.e., academic score) were associated with lower odds for smoking due to prior adversity and negative disposition.

  8. Factors Impacting Transgender Patients' Discomfort with Their Family Physicians: A Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta R Bauer

    Full Text Available Representing approximately 0.5% of the population, transgender (trans persons in Canada depend on family physicians for both general and transition-related care. However, physicians receive little to no training on this patient population, and trans patients are often profoundly uncomfortable and may avoid health care. This study examined factors associated with patient discomfort discussing trans health issues with a family physician in Ontario, Canada.433 trans people age 16 and over were surveyed using respondent-driven sampling for the Trans PULSE Project; 356 had a family physician. Weighted logistic regression models were fit to produce prevalence risk ratios (PRRs via average marginal predictions, for transmasculine (n = 184 and transfeminine (n = 172 trans persons.Among the 83.1% (95% CI = 77.4, 88.9 of trans Ontarians who had a family physician, approximately half reported discomfort discussing trans health issues. 37.2% of transmasculine and 38.1% of transfeminine persons reported at least one trans-specific negative experience. In unadjusted analysis, sociodemographics did not predict discomfort, but those who planned to medically transition sex, but had not begun, were more likely to report discomfort (transmasculine: PRR = 2.62 (95% CI = 1.44, 4.77; transfeminine: PRR = 1.85 (95% CI = 1.08, 3.15. Adjusted for other factors, greater perceived physician knowledge about trans issues was associated with reduced likelihood of discomfort, and previous trans-specific negative experiences with a family physician with increased discomfort. Transfeminine persons who reported three or more types of negative experiences were 2.26 times as likely, and transmasculine persons 1.61 times as likely, to report discomfort. In adjusted analyses, sociodemographic associations differed by gender, with being previously married or having higher education associated with increased risk of discomfort among transfeminine persons, but decreased risk among

  9. Human brain factor 1, a new member of the fork head gene family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, D.B.; Wiese, S.; Burfeind, P. [Institut fuer Humangenetik, Goettingen (Germany)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Analysis of cDNA clones that cross-hybridized with the fork head domain of the rat HNF-3 gene family revealed 10 cDNAs from human fetal brain and human testis cDNA libraries containing this highly conserved DNA-binding domain. Three of these cDNAs (HFK1, HFK2, and HFK3) were further analyzed. The cDNA HFK1 has a length of 2557 nucleotides and shows strong homology at the nucleotide level (91.2%) to brain factor 1 (BF-1) from rat. The HFK1 cDNA codes for a putative 476 amino acid protein. The homology to BF-1 from rat in the coding region at the amino acid level is 87.5%. The fork head homologous region includes 111 amino acids starting at amino acid 160 and has a 97.5% homology to BF-1. Southern hybridization revealed that HFK1 is highly conserved among mammalian species and possibly birds. Northern analysis with total RNA from human tissues and poly(A)-rich RNA from mouse revealed a 3.2-kb transcript that is present in human and mouse fetal brain and in adult mouse brain. In situ hybridization with sections of mouse embryo and human fetal brain reveals that HFK1 expression is restricted to the neuronal cells in the telencepthalon, with strong expression being observed in the developing dentate gyrus and hippocampus. HFK1 was chromosomally localized by in situ hybridization to 14q12. The cDNA clones HFK2 and HFK3 were analyzed by restriction analysis and sequencing. HFK2 and HFK3 were found to be closely related but different from HFK1. Therefore, it would appear that HFK1, HFK2, HFK3, and BF-1 form a new fork head related subfamily. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Archaeal translation initiation revisited: the initiation factor 2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 2B alpha-beta-delta subunit families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Woese, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    As the amount of available sequence data increases, it becomes apparent that our understanding of translation initiation is far from comprehensive and that prior conclusions concerning the origin of the process are wrong. Contrary to earlier conclusions, key elements of translation initiation originated at the Universal Ancestor stage, for homologous counterparts exist in all three primary taxa. Herein, we explore the evolutionary relationships among the components of bacterial initiation factor 2 (IF-2) and eukaryotic IF-2 (eIF-2)/eIF-2B, i.e., the initiation factors involved in introducing the initiator tRNA into the translation mechanism and performing the first step in the peptide chain elongation cycle. All Archaea appear to posses a fully functional eIF-2 molecule, but they lack the associated GTP recycling function, eIF-2B (a five-subunit molecule). Yet, the Archaea do posses members of the gene family defined by the (related) eIF-2B subunits alpha, beta, and delta, although these are not specifically related to any of the three eukaryotic subunits. Additional members of this family also occur in some (but by no means all) Bacteria and even in some eukaryotes. The functional significance of the other members of this family is unclear and requires experimental resolution. Similarly, the occurrence of bacterial IF-2-like molecules in all Archaea and in some eukaryotes further complicates the picture of translation initiation. Overall, these data lend further support to the suggestion that the rudiments of translation initiation were present at the Universal Ancestor stage.

  11. Genome-wide identification, classification and analysis of heat shock transcription factor family in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Su-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock response in eukaryotes is transcriptionally regulated by conserved heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs. Hsf genes are represented by a large multigene family in plants and investigation of the Hsf gene family will serve to elucidate the mechanisms by which plants respond to stress. In recent years, reports of genome-wide structural and evolutionary analysis of the entire Hsf gene family have been generated in two model plant systems, Arabidopsis and rice. Maize, an important cereal crop, has represented a model plant for genetics and evolutionary research. Although some Hsf genes have been characterized in maize, analysis of the entire Hsf gene family were not completed following Maize (B73 Genome Sequencing Project. Results A genome-wide analysis was carried out in the present study to identify all Hsfs maize genes. Due to the availability of complete maize genome sequences, 25 nonredundant Hsf genes, named ZmHsfs were identified. Chromosomal location, protein domain and motif organization of ZmHsfs were analyzed in maize genome. The phylogenetic relationships, gene duplications and expression profiles of ZmHsf genes were also presented in this study. Twenty-five ZmHsfs were classified into three major classes (class A, B, and C according to their structural characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons, and class A was further subdivided into 10 subclasses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis indicated that the orthologs from the three species (maize, Arabidopsis and rice were distributed in all three classes, it also revealed diverse Hsf gene family expression patterns in classes and subclasses. Chromosomal/segmental duplications played a key role in Hsf gene family expansion in maize by investigation of gene duplication events. Furthermore, the transcripts of 25 ZmHsf genes were detected in the leaves by heat shock using quantitative real-time PCR. The result demonstrated that ZmHsf genes exhibit different

  12. The Association between Family and Parental Factors and Obesity among Children in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With rapid economic development in China, traditional patterns of health behaviors are changing, concurrent with a rise in childhood obesity. While the home environment and parenting behaviors are modifiable factors that could be targeted for intervention, little is known about their relationship with children’s health behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and home and parenting factors in Chinese children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nanchang, China in 2013 with caregivers (N = 470 of a child between the ages of 2-10 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine risk factors for childhood obesity. Results: Obesity prevalence (21.7% did not differ by demographic variables. Eight physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary variables had significant relationships to obesity status. Logistic regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of obesity: the number of days the family eats meals together (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 and parental home computer use time (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.96 were related to lower levels of obesity, while parental television time (odds ratio = 1.25 95% CI 1.07-1.47 was related to higher levels of obesity. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity among children is high in Nanchang. Family and environmental risk factors are significantly related to obesity.

  13. Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were

  14. hypoxia-inducible factors activate CD133 promoter through ETS family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Ohnishi

    Full Text Available CD133 is a cellular surface protein that has been reported to be a cancer stem cell marker, and thus it is considered to be a potential target for cancer treatment. However, the mechanism regulating CD133 expression is not yet understood. In this study, we analyzed the activity of five putative promoters (P1-P5 of CD133 in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells and colon cancer cell line WiDr, and found that the activity of promoters, particularly of P5, is elevated by overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Deletion and mutation analysis identified one of the two E-twenty six (ETS binding sites (EBSs in the P5 region as being essential for its promoter activity induced by HIF-1α and HIF-2α. In addition, a chromatin imunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that HIF-1α and HIF-2α bind to the proximal P5 promoter at the EBSs. The immunoprecipitation assay showed that HIF-1α physically interacts with Elk1; however, HIF-2α did not bind to Elk1 or ETS1. Furthermore, knockdown of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α resulted in a reduction of CD133 expression in WiDr. Taken together, our results revealed that HIF-1α and HIF-2α activate CD133 promoter through ETS proteins.

  15. Family history, comorbidity, smoking and other risk factors in microscopic colitis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickbom, Anna; Nyhlin, Nils; Montgomery, Scott M; Bohr, Johan; Tysk, Curt

    2017-05-01

    Data on heredity, risk factors and comorbidity in microscopic colitis, encompassing collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC), are limited. The aim was to carry out a case-control study of family history, childhood circumstances, educational level, marital status, smoking and comorbidity in microscopic colitis. A postal questionnaire was sent in 2008-2009 to microscopic colitis patients resident in Sweden and three population-based controls per patient, matched for age, sex and municipality. Some 212 patients and 627 controls participated in the study. There was an association with a family history of microscopic colitis in both CC [odds ratio (OR): 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-50.4, P=0.004] and LC (OR not estimated, P=0.008). Current smoking was associated with CC [OR: 4.7; 95% CI: 2.4-9.2, Pmicroscopic colitis indicates that familial factors may be important. The association with a history of UC should be studied further as it may present new insights into the pathogenesis of microscopic colitis and UC.

  16. Mediterranean diet and familial dysmetabolism as factors influencing the development of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skroza, Nevena; Tolino, Ersilia; Semyonov, Leda; Proietti, Ilaria; Bernardini, Nicoletta; Nicolucci, Francesca; La Viola, Giorgio; Del Prete, Giuseppe; Saulle, Rosella; Potenza, Concetta; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effects of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and familial dysmetabolisms on acne development. A community-based case-control study was carried out in Italy enrolling cases as acneic outpatients of a dermatological ambulatory service and controls as clinically healthy acne-free subjects. Food consumption were evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, exploring the consumption of pasta, meat, cheese, fish, fruit, vegetables, and olive oil. Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet was assessed by a 10-point Mediterranean diet scale that incorporated the main characteristics of this diet. A logistic regression analysis estimated the variables who predicted the odds of being case, using those variables that at the univariate analysis yielded a p-value diet score ≥6 revealed a protective effect towards acne (crude OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.64). Logistic regression analysis showed that familial hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, and hypertension are strong risk factors for acne (AOR 8.79, 95% CI 1.67-46.22; 3.32, 95% CI 1.27-8.63; and 2.73, 95% CI 1.07-6.96, respectively), while the Mediterranean diet represents a protective factor (score ≥6, AOR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.89). The odds for familial dysmetabolisms was higher in cases than in controls, confirming their role in determining or maintaining acne. Moreover, this is the first study demonstrating a protective role of the Mediterranean diet in the pathogenesis of acne.

  17. FAMILY AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC RISK FACTORS FOR PSYCHOPATHY AMONG PRISON INMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Valdivia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted with prison inmates to explore to what extent family and socio-demographic characteristics represent risk factors for psychopathy and delinquent behavior. A psychopathy scale derived from Hare’s Revised Psychopathy Checklist and an instrument containing questions related to family and socio-demographic characteristics were administered to 178 prison inmates. The psychopathy scale’s reliability (α = .92 and construct validity were established. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a model showing a negative association between psychopathy and age at which the person stopped living with his family of origin, age of first incarceration, severity of delinquent acts, length of prison sentence, and length of time spent in prison. (χ2/df = 1.40, FD = 1.34, PNI = 0.38, RMSEA =.04, IFI = .94, CFI = .94 and TLI = .93. Furthermore, the model sustained a positive association of psychopathy with income and frequency of incarceration. Level of education and age were eliminated from the model given that no significant associations were found among these variables and psychopathy. The validation of this model enables to interpret research findings in relation with attachment theory.

  18. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  19. [Relations between aggressive behavior and family factors among preschool children in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shou-mei; Wang, Ling; Shi, Ying-juan; Li, Ping

    2011-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of aggressive behavior among preschool children and its related family factors. 1234 preschool children in ten kindergartens were rated on their aggressive behavior by their parents, using Child Behavior Checklist (CBCI), Parent Behavior Inventory (PBI) and a general questionnaire. The overall prevalence of aggressive behavior among preschool children was 12.9% (95%CI: 11.0 - 15.0) according to the CBCL assessment, with the rate being slight higher (13.7%, 93/680) in boys than in girls (11.9%, 66/554). Data from logistic regression analysis showed that parents' hostile/coercive parenting style (OR = 2.396, 95%CI: 1.636 - 3.510) and inconsistent parenting attitude between parents and grandparents (OR = 1.867, 95%CI: 1.287 - 2.710) would lead to more aggressive behaviors in preschool children. Compared with children without difficulty in falling asleep, those who often (OR = 3.415, 95%CI: 1.901 - 6.135) or sometimes (OR = 2.147, 95%CI: 1.256 - 3.671) had problem falling asleep at night had more aggressive behaviors. On the other hand, factors as: watching TV less than 1 hour each day (OR = 0.252, 95%CI: 0.136 - 0.467), father in older age (OR = 0.703, 95%CI: 0.503 - 0.983) and participating in regular outdoor activities (OR = 0.617, 95%CI: 0.399 - 0.955) were protective factors to the aggressive behaviors of the children. The prevalence of aggressive behavior in preschool children was high which called for more attention. Intervention programs targeting the family should consider the influencing factors as ways of parenting, consistent attitude on parenting in the family etc. to reduce the occurrence of aggressive behavior among preschool children.

  20. Homicide in the western family and background factors of a perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Anna Liisa; Remahl, Anni; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-07-01

    Familicide is a multiple-victim homicide incident in which the killer's spouse and one or more children are slain. A systematic review was conducted to reveal the background factors of western homicide perpetrators. The systematic search was performed in the Arto, Medic, Cinahl, Medline, EBSCOhost Academic Search Premier and Social Services abstracts databases. The keywords were familicide, family homicide, familicide-suicide, filicide-suicide, extended suicide, child, murder, family, filicide and infanticide. The searches revealed 4139 references from the databases. The references were filtered and 32 peer-reviewed research articles revealed in years 2004-2014 were selected as data. The articles were analysed using inductive content analysis, by finding all possible background factors related to homicide. The factors were described as percentages of the range. The background factors of familicide perpetrators were categorised as follows: perpetrators who had committed homicide of a child and intimate partner and possibly committed suicide; a father had who killed a child; a mother who had killed a child; a father who had committed a filicide-suicide; and a mother who had committed a filicide-suicide. Psychological instability, violence and crime were found in all these categories of familicides. Perpetrators who had committed a suicide in addition to the familicide had more often been diagnosed with depression, but they sought treatment for mental health problems less often and had violence and self-destructiveness less often in their background than in other familicide categories. Social and healthcare professionals should be more sensitive to emerging family problems and be prepared for intervention.

  1. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

  2. Family history, surgery, and APC mutation are risk factors for desmoid tumors in familial adenomatous polyposis: an international cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieuwenhuis, Marry H; Lefevre, Jérémie H; Bülow, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Ability to identify patients with familial adenomatous polyposis who have a high risk of developing desmoid tumors may affect decisions in clinical practice.......Ability to identify patients with familial adenomatous polyposis who have a high risk of developing desmoid tumors may affect decisions in clinical practice....

  3. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Gartrell, Nanette K; Peyser, Heidi; van Balen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by interviewing the children and having the mothers complete questionnaires. No significant differences were found in the psychological adjustment of children in the present study and their age-matched peers in a U.S.-population sample. Homophobia had a negative impact on the well-being of children who experienced it. Attending schools with LGBT curricula and their mothers' participation in the lesbian community were found to protect children against the negative influences of homophobia.

  4. Factors influencing the family consent rate for organ donation in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, W; Allen, J; Manara, A R; Murphy, P G; Gardiner, D; Poppitt, E

    2016-09-01

    The refusal rate for organ donation in the UK is 42%, among the highest in Europe. We extracted data on every family approach for donation in UK ICUs or Emergency Departments between 1st April 2012 and 30th September 2013, and performed multiple logistic regression to identify modifiable factors associated with consent. Complete data were available for 4703 of 4899 approaches during the study period. Consent for donation after brain death was 68.9%, and for donation after circulatory death 56.5% (p donation in the approach were strongly associated with consent (p donation after circulatory death than for donation after brain death, even after accounting for the impact of prior knowledge of patients' wishes. Involvement of the specialist nurse in the approach, encouraging family discussions about donation wishes and promotion of the organ donor register are key strategies to increase UK consent rates, and are supported by this study.

  5. A highly conserved novel family of mammalian developmental transcription factors related to Drosophila grainyhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilanowski, Tomasz; Tuckfield, Annabel; Cerruti, Loretta; O'Connell, Sinead; Saint, Robert; Parekh, Vishwas; Tao, Jianning; Cunningham, John M; Jane, Stephen M

    2002-06-01

    The Drosophila transcription factor Grainyhead regulates several key developmental processes. Three mammalian genes, CP2, LBP-1a and LBP-9 have been previously identified as homologues of grainyhead. We now report the cloning of two new mammalian genes (Mammalian grainyhead (MGR) and Brother-of-MGR (BOM)) and one new Drosophila gene (dCP2) that rewrite the phylogeny of this family. We demonstrate that MGR and BOM are more closely related to grh, whereas CP2, LBP-1a and LBP-9 are descendants of the dCP2 gene. MGR shares the greatest sequence homology with grh, is expressed in tissue-restricted patterns more comparable to grh and binds to and transactivates the promoter of the human Engrailed-1 gene, the mammalian homologue of the key grainyhead target gene, engrailed. This sequence and functional conservation indicates that the new mammalian members of this family play important developmental roles.

  6. Number of Family Members, a New Influencing Factor to Affect the Risk of Melamine-Associated Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Melamine is a new risk of urinary stones. Gansu province is a heavily affected area and has large population and underdeveloped economy. We hypothesized that number of family members and family income may play significant roles in the formation of urinary stones. A case-control study was performed among 190 infants. Results showed that the case group had less numbers of family members than the control (4.4 vs. 5.6, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that number of family members was an independent influencing factor associated with urinary stones (OR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.411-0.893; P = 0.011. Family income, however, did not exhibit a significant difference. Observed results suggested that number of family members was a new and significant influencing factor to affect the risk of melamine-associated urinary stones.

  7. [Prevalence and factors associated with frequent attendence in family medicine clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo Maestre, N; Lendínez-de la Cruz, J M; Bermúdez-Torres, F M; Gónzalez-Contero, L; Gutierrez-Espinosa de Los Monteros, M P; Espejo-Almazán María, T

    2016-01-01

    The use of health services has seen a steep rise. The frequent users are responsible for significant economic, human and social impact. The objective is to analyze the characteristics of frequent attenders in our Health Center, in order to evaluate the possibility of taking corrective measures to improve the quality of care and efficiency in the use of resources. Descriptive observational study of a sample of 379 patients over 18 years old. The dependent variables were attendance (number of visits to their family doctor during the previous year), frequent attendance (10 or more visits to the family doctor in the last year), and persistent frequent attenders (10 or more visits to the family doctor in each of the last two years). Data were collected from medical records and by telephone interview. The mean attendance was 6.83 (95%CI: 6.13-7.53), frequent attendance reached 25.4% (95%CI: 21.4-29.6), and persistent frequent attenders, 1.6% (95%CI: 0.5-2.9). Frequent attendance was associated with sex, age, marital status, educational level, family structure, existence of chronic disease, use of anxiolytic and antidepressants, request for additional tests, and referrals to other specialists, proximity to the health center, and level of satisfaction with their family doctor. The low persistent frequent attenders found suggests that frequent attendance could be largely due to factors related to professional and organization. Studies are required to address the high level of consumption of psychotropic drugs, and improving professional skills in dealing with mental problems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptome-wide identification and expression profiling of the DOF transcription factor gene family in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping eSong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The family of DNA binding with one finger (DOF transcription factors is plant specific, and these proteins contain a highly conserved domain (DOF domain of 50-52 amino acids that includes a C2C2-type zinc finger motif at the N-terminus that is known to function in a number of plant processes. Here, we characterized 20 DOF genes in the important ornamental species chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium based on transcriptomic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis identified one pair of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and six pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the DOF proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analysed using MEME. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 13 CmDOFs could be targeted by 16 miRNA families. Moreover, we used 5’ RLM-RACE to map the cleavage sites in CmDOF3, 15 and 21. The expression of these 20 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized, and the expression patterns of six pairs of paralogous CmDOF genes were found to completely differ from one another, except for CmDOF6 and CmDOF7. This work will promote our research of the various functions of DOF gene family members in plant hormone and stress responses.

  9. PcFKH1, a novel regulatory factor from the forkhead family, controls the biosynthesis of penicillin in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Santos, Rebeca; García-Estrada, Carlos; Kosalková, Katarina; Prieto, Carlos; Santamarta, Irene; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2015-08-01

    Penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum (re-identified as Penicillium rubens) is a good example of a biological process subjected to complex global regulatory networks and serves as a model to study fungal secondary metabolism. The winged-helix family of transcription factors recently described, which includes the forkhead type of proteins, is a key type of regulatory proteins involved in this process. In yeasts and humans, forkhead transcription factors are involved in different processes (cell cycle regulation, cell death control, pre-mRNA processing and morphogenesis); one member of this family of proteins has been identified in the P. chrysogenum genome (Pc18g00430). In this work, we have characterized this novel transcription factor (named PcFKH1) by generating knock-down mutants and overexpression strains. Results clearly indicate that PcFKH1 positively controls antibiotic biosynthesis through the specific interaction with the promoter region of the penDE gene, thus regulating penDE mRNA levels. PcFKH1 also binds to the pcbC promoter, but with low affinity. In addition, it also controls other ancillary genes of the penicillin biosynthetic process, such as phlA (encoding phenylacetyl CoA ligase) and ppt (encoding phosphopantetheinyl transferase). PcFKH1 also plays a role in conidiation and spore pigmentation, but it does not seem to be involved in hyphal morphology or cell division in the improved laboratory reference strain Wisconsin 54-1255. A genome-wide analysis of processes putatively coregulated by PcFKH1 and PcRFX1 (another winged-helix transcription factor) in P. chrysogenum provided evidence of the global effect of these transcription factors in P. chrysogenum metabolism.

  10. Qualitative investigation of factors contributing to effective nutrition education for Navajo families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Bauer, Mark; Pareo, Shirley; Phillips-Benally, Shirleen; Roanhorse, Julia; Garcia, Linda

    2008-07-01

    Obesity rates in American Indian and Alaskan Native children are a major health threat, yet effective ways to address this remain elusive. Building on an earlier dietary assessment of Navajo Head Start families which indicated a gap in parental nutrition awareness despite a strong program emphasis, the aim of this project was to identify culturally relevant nutrition education strategies for Navajo parents and educators of young children. Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 41 parents and early childhood education paraprofessionals to identify contributors to both healthful and unhealthy food ways of Navajo preschoolers. were presented in two community venues to verify the themes and discuss implications. Results Barriers to healthful eating included availability/cost, parenting/control, preferences/habits, time pressures, and knowledge/education. Enablers to healthful eating included the categories of schools/education, and support/modeling. Reactions to these findings during community forums suggested (1) the need for stronger parenting and parental control over the food environment; (2) community-level action to address these barriers; and (3) the need for knowledge and culturally relevant educational strategies for caregivers and children. Implications for interventions include building upon existing community resources to enhance culturally relevant and respectful parental, family, and community support for affordable and acceptable food experiences and choices for young children and their families.

  11. The alveolate translation initiation factor 4E family reveals a custom toolkit for translational control in core dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Grant D; Williams, Ernest P; Place, Allen R; Jagus, Rosemary; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R

    2015-02-10

    Dinoflagellates are eukaryotes with unusual cell biology and appear to rely on translational rather than transcriptional control of gene expression. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) plays an important role in regulating gene expression because eIF4E binding to the mRNA cap is a control point for translation. eIF4E is part of an extended, eukaryote-specific family with different members having specific functions, based on studies of model organisms. Dinoflagellate eIF4E diversity could provide a mechanism for dinoflagellates to regulate gene expression in a post-transcriptional manner. Accordingly, eIF4E family members from eleven core dinoflagellate transcriptomes were surveyed to determine the diversity and phylogeny of the eIF4E family in dinoflagellates and related lineages including apicomplexans, ciliates and heterokonts. The survey uncovered eight to fifteen (on average eleven) different eIF4E family members in each core dinoflagellate species. The eIF4E family members from heterokonts and dinoflagellates segregated into three clades, suggesting at least three eIF4E cognates were present in their common ancestor. However, these three clades are distinct from the three previously described eIF4E classes, reflecting diverse approaches to a central eukaryotic function. Heterokonts contain four clades, ciliates two and apicomplexans only a single recognizable eIF4E clade. In the core dinoflagellates, the three clades were further divided into nine sub-clades based on the phylogenetic analysis and species representation. Six of the sub-clades included at least one member from all eleven core dinoflagellate species, suggesting duplication in their shared ancestor. Conservation within sub-clades varied, suggesting different selection pressures. Phylogenetic analysis of eIF4E in core dinoflagellates revealed complex layering of duplication and conservation when compared to other eukaryotes. Our results suggest that the diverse eIF4E family in

  12. Familiality of factor analysis-derived YBOCS dimensions in OCD-affected sibling pairs from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Pinto, Anthony; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Samuels, Jack; Fyer, Abby J; Pauls, David; Knowles, James A; McCracken, James T; Piacentini, John; Riddle, Mark A; Rauch, Scott L; Rasmussen, Steven A; Willour, Virginia L; Grados, Marco A; Cullen, Bernadette; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Wang, Ying; Ronquillo, Jonne; Nestadt, Gerald; Murphy, Dennis L

    2007-03-01

    Identification of familial, more homogenous characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may help to define relevant subtypes and increase the power of genetic and neurobiological studies of OCD. While factor-analytic studies have found consistent, clinically meaningful OCD symptom dimensions, there have been only limited attempts to evaluate the familiality and potential genetic basis of such dimensions. Four hundred eighteen sibling pairs with OCD were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) Symptom Checklist and Severity scales. After controlling for sex, age, and age of onset, robust sib-sib intraclass correlations were found for two of the four YBOCS factors: Factor IV (hoarding obsessions and compulsions (p = .001) and Factor I (aggressive, sexual, and religious obsessions, and checking compulsions; p = .002). Smaller, but still significant, familiality was found for Factor III (contamination/cleaning; p = .02) and Factor II (symmetry/ordering/arranging; p = .04). Limiting the sample to female subjects more than doubled the familiality estimates for Factor II (p = .003). Among potentially relevant comorbid conditions for genetic studies, bipolar I/II and major depressive disorder were strongly associated with Factor I (p < .001), whereas ADHD, alcohol dependence, and bulimia were associated with Factor II (p < .01). Factor-analyzed OCD symptom dimensions in sibling pairs with OCD are familial with some gender-dependence, exhibit relatively specific relationships to comorbid psychiatric disorders and thus may be useful as refined phenotypes for molecular genetic studies of OCD.

  13. Exploration of Individual and Family Factors Related to Community Reintegration in Veterans With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Helene; Winter, Laraine; Robinson, Keith; True, Gala; Piersol, Catherine; Vause-Earland, Tracey; Iacovone, Dolores Blazer; Holbert, Laura; Newhart, Brian; Fishman, Deborah; Short, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Community reintegration (CR) poses a major problem for military veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Factors contributing to CR after TBI are poorly understood. To address the gap in knowledge, an ecological framework was used to explore individual and family factors related to CR. Baseline data from an intervention study with 83 veterans with primarily mild to moderate TBI were analyzed. Instruments measured CR, depressive symptoms, physical health, quality of the relationship with the family member, and sociodemographics. Posttraumatic stress disorder and TBI characteristics were determined through record review. Five variables that exhibited significant bivariate relationships with CR (veteran rating of quality of relationship, physical functioning, bodily pain, posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis, and depressive symptoms) were entered into hierarchical regression analysis. In the final analysis, the five variables together accounted for 35% of the variance, but only depression was a significant predictor of CR, with more depressed veterans exhibiting lower CR. Efforts to support CR of Veterans with TBI should carefully assess and target depression, a modifiable factor. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  15. Executive Function in Adolescence: Associations with Child and Family Risk Factors and Self-Regulation in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Berthelsen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children’s education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive function in adolescence. Analyses draw on data from the nationally representative study, Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Participants are 4819 children in the Kindergarten Cohort who were recruited at age 4–5 years. Path analyses were employed to examine contributions of early childhood factors, including family socio-economic position (SEP, parenting behaviors, maternal mental health, and a child behavioral risk index, to the development of executive function in adolescence. The influence of children’s early self-regulatory behaviors (attentional regulation at 4–5 years and approaches to learning at 6–7 years were also taken into account. A composite score for the outcome measure of executive function was constructed from scores on three Cogstate computerized tasks for assessing cognition and measured visual attention, visual working memory, and spatial problem-solving. Covariates included child gender, age at assessment of executive function, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, speaking a language other than English at home, and child’s receptive vocabulary skills. There were significant indirect effects involving child and family risk factors measured at 4–5 years on executive function at age 14–15 years, mediated by measures of self-regulatory behavior. Child behavioral risk, family SEP and parenting behaviors (anger, warmth, and consistency were associated with attentional regulation at 4–5 years which, in turn, was significantly associated with approaches

  16. Executive Function in Adolescence: Associations with Child and Family Risk Factors and Self-Regulation in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Donna; Hayes, Nicole; White, Sonia L J; Williams, Kate E

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children's education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive function in adolescence. Analyses draw on data from the nationally representative study, Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Participants are 4819 children in the Kindergarten Cohort who were recruited at age 4-5 years. Path analyses were employed to examine contributions of early childhood factors, including family socio-economic position (SEP), parenting behaviors, maternal mental health, and a child behavioral risk index, to the development of executive function in adolescence. The influence of children's early self-regulatory behaviors (attentional regulation at 4-5 years and approaches to learning at 6-7 years) were also taken into account. A composite score for the outcome measure of executive function was constructed from scores on three Cogstate computerized tasks for assessing cognition and measured visual attention, visual working memory, and spatial problem-solving. Covariates included child gender, age at assessment of executive function, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, speaking a language other than English at home, and child's receptive vocabulary skills. There were significant indirect effects involving child and family risk factors measured at 4-5 years on executive function at age 14-15 years, mediated by measures of self-regulatory behavior. Child behavioral risk, family SEP and parenting behaviors (anger, warmth, and consistency) were associated with attentional regulation at 4-5 years which, in turn, was significantly associated with approaches to learning at 6-7 years. Both

  17. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Home Environment and Home Social Behavior Data from the Elementary School Success Profile for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Kate M.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Bowen, Natasha K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the factor structure and scale quality of data provided by caregivers about the home environment and child behavior at home using the Elementary School Success Profile (ESSP) for Families. The ESSP for Families is one component of the ESSP, an online social-environmental assessment that also collects…

  18. A nation-wide study of the family aggregation and risk factors in anorexia nervosa over three generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Helenius, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often anorexia nervosa (AN) and co-morbid disorders occur in affected families compared with control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, year of birth, and degree of urbanization in terms of risk factors...

  19. Do Family and Parenting Factors in Adolescence Influence Condom Use in Early Adulthood in a Multiethnic Sample of Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Kopak, Albert M.; Robillard, Alyssa G.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental…

  20. Do Family and Parenting Factors in Adolescence Influence Condom Use in Early Adulthood in a Multiethnic Sample of Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Kopak, Albert M.; Robillard, Alyssa G.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental…

  1. Family aggregation and risk factors of obsessive-compulsive disorders in a nationwide three-generation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bisgaard, Charlotte; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2013-01-01

    This nationwide register-based study investigates how often obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) with different age at diagnosis occur in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addresses the impact of certain risk factors, that is, sex, degree of urbanization, year...

  2. The Role of the E2F Transcription Factor Family in UV-Induced Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Gannon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The E2F transcription factor family is traditionally associated with cell cycle control. However, recent data has shown that activating E2Fs (E2F1-3a are potent activators of apoptosis. In contrast, the recently cloned inhibitory E2Fs (E2F7 and 8 appear to antagonize E2F-induced cell death. In this review we will discuss (i the potential role of E2Fs in UV-induced cell death and (ii the implications of this to the development of UV-induced cutaneous malignancies.

  3. Comparison of MAPK specificity across the ETS transcription factor family identifies a high-affinity ERK interaction required for ERG function in prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Nagarathinam; Kedage, Vivekananda; Hollenhorst, Peter C

    2015-02-19

    The RAS/MAPK signaling pathway can regulate gene expression by phosphorylating and altering the function of some, but not all, ETS transcription factors. ETS family transcription factors bind similar DNA sequences and can compete for genomic binding sites. However, MAPK regulation varies across the ETS family. Therefore, changing the ETS factor bound to a cis-regulatory element can alter MAPK regulation of gene expression. To understand RAS/MAPK regulated gene expression programs, comprehensive knowledge of the ETS family members that are MAPK targets and relative MAPK targeting efficiency across the family is needed. An in vitro kinase assay was used to rank-order 27 human ETS family transcription factors based on phosphorylation by ERK2, JNK1, and p38α. Many novel MAPK targets and specificities were identified within the ETS family, including the identification of the prostate cancer oncoprotein ERG as a specific target of ERK2. ERK2 phosphorylation of ERG S215 required a DEF docking domain and was necessary for ERG to activate transcription of cell migration genes and promote prostate cell migration. The ability of ERK2 to bind ERG with higher affinity than ETS1 provided a potential molecular explanation for why ERG overexpression drives migration of prostate cells with low levels of RAS/ERK signaling, while ETS1 has a similar function only when RAS/ERK signaling is high. The rank ordering of ETS transcription factors as MAPK targets provides an important resource for understanding ETS proteins as mediators of MAPK signaling. This is emphasized by the difference in rank order of ERG and ETS1, which allows these factors to have distinct roles based on the level of RAS/ERK signaling present in the cell.

  4. Regulation of locomotion and motoneuron trajectory selection and targeting by the Drosophila homolog of Olig family transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyallon, Justine; Apitz, Holger; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Timofeev, Katarina; Ferreira, Lauren; Salecker, Iris

    2012-01-01

    During the development of locomotion circuits it is essential that motoneurons with distinct subtype identities select the correct trajectories and target muscles. In vertebrates, the generation of motoneurons and myelinating glia depends on Olig2, one of the five Olig family bHLH transcription factors. We investigated the so far unknown function of the single Drosophila homolog Oli. Combining behavioral and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that oli is not required for gliogenesis, but plays pivotal roles in regulating larval and adult locomotion, and axon pathfinding and targeting of embryonic motoneurons. In the embryonic nervous system, Oli is primarily expressed in postmitotic progeny, and in particular, in distinct ventral motoneuron subtypes. oli mediates axonal trajectory selection of these motoneurons within the ventral nerve cord and targeting to specific muscles. Genetic interaction assays suggest that oli acts as part of a conserved transcription factor ensemble including Lim3, Islet and Hb9. Moreover, oli is expressed in postembryonic leg-innervating motoneuron lineages and required in glutamatergic neurons for walking. Finally, over-expression of vertebrate Olig2 partially rescues the walking defects of oli-deficient flies. Thus, our findings reveal a remarkably conserved role of Drosophila Oli and vertebrate family members in regulating motoneuron development, while the steps that require their function differ in detail. PMID:22796650

  5. FBXO11 promotes ubiquitination of the Snail family of transcription factors in cancer progression and epidermal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Shenoy, Anitha K.; Doernberg, Samuel; Chen, Hao; Luo, Huacheng; Shen, Huangxuan; Lin, Tong; Tarrash, Miriam; Cai, Qingsong; Hu, Xin; Fiske, Ryan; Chen, Ting; Wu, Lizi; Mohammed, Kamal A.; Rottiers, Veerle; Lee, Siu Sylvia; Lu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The Snail family of transcription factors are core inducers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we show that the F-box protein FBXO11 recognizes and promotes ubiquitin-mediated degradation of multiple Snail family members including Scratch. The association between FBXO11 and Snai1 in vitro is independent of Snai1 phosphorylation. Overexpression of FBXO11 in mesenchymal cells reduces Snail protein abundance and cellular invasiveness. Conversely, depletion of endogenous FBXO11 in epithelial cancer cells causes Snail protein accumulation, EMT, and tumor invasion, as well as loss of estrogen receptor expression in breast cancer cells. Expression of FBXO11 is downregulated by EMT-inducing signals TGFβ and nickel. In human cancer, high FBXO11 levels correlate with expression of epithelial markers and favorable prognosis. The results suggest that FBXO11 sustains the epithelial state and inhibits cancer progression. Inactivation of FBXO11 in mice leads to neonatal lethality, epidermal thickening, and increased Snail protein levels in epidermis, validating that FBXO11 is a physiological ubiquitin ligase of Snail. Moreover, in C. elegans, the FBXO11 mutant phenotype is attributed to the Snail factors as it is suppressed by inactivation/depletion of Snail homologs. Collectively, these findings suggest that the FBXO11-Snail regulatory axis is evolutionarily conserved and critically governs carcinoma progression and mammalian epidermal development. PMID:25827072

  6. Regulation of locomotion and motoneuron trajectory selection and targeting by the Drosophila homolog of Olig family transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyallon, Justine; Apitz, Holger; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Timofeev, Katarina; Ferreira, Lauren; Salecker, Iris

    2012-09-15

    During the development of locomotion circuits it is essential that motoneurons with distinct subtype identities select the correct trajectories and target muscles. In vertebrates, the generation of motoneurons and myelinating glia depends on Olig2, one of the five Olig family bHLH transcription factors. We investigated the so far unknown function of the single Drosophila homolog Oli. Combining behavioral and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that oli is not required for gliogenesis, but plays pivotal roles in regulating larval and adult locomotion, and axon pathfinding and targeting of embryonic motoneurons. In the embryonic nervous system, Oli is primarily expressed in postmitotic progeny, and in particular, in distinct ventral motoneuron subtypes. oli mediates axonal trajectory selection of these motoneurons within the ventral nerve cord and targeting to specific muscles. Genetic interaction assays suggest that oli acts as part of a conserved transcription factor ensemble including Lim3, Islet and Hb9. Moreover, oli is expressed in postembryonic leg-innervating motoneuron lineages and required in glutamatergic neurons for walking. Finally, over-expression of vertebrate Olig2 partially rescues the walking defects of oli-deficient flies. Thus, our findings reveal a remarkably conserved role of Drosophila Oli and vertebrate family members in regulating motoneuron development, while the steps that require their function differ in detail.

  7. Sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors as predictors of psychological health problems in different age groups of children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuznetsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.

  8. Associations Between Anxiety Symptoms and Child and Family Factors in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Crystal S; Espil, Flint M; Viana, Andres G; Janicke, David M

    2015-01-01

    This study compared child weight status, social skills, body dissatisfaction, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), as well as parent distress and family functioning in youth who are overweight or obese (OV/OB) with versus without clinical anxiety symptoms. Participants included 199 children 7 to 12 years of age (mean age = 9.88 years) who were OV/OB, and their parents. Children completed social skills, body dissatisfaction, and HRQOL questionnaires. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and child HRQOL, parent distress, family functioning, and demographic questionnaires. Children were placed in 2 groups based on CBCL anxiety problems scale scores: the OV/OB + clinical anxiety group included children with T scores ≥65 (n = 23) and children with T scores ≤59 comprised the OV/OB group (n = 176). After controlling for covariates, children in the OV/OB + clinical anxiety group reported more body dissatisfaction (F[1,198] = 5.26, p = .023, partial η = .027) and lower total HRQOL (F[1,198] = 8.12, p = .005, η = .041) and had parents who reported higher psychological distress (F[1,198] = 5.48, p = .020, η = .028) and lower child total HRQOL (F[1,198] = 28.23, p family functioning. Clinically significant anxiety among children who are OV/OB is associated with increased body dissatisfaction and parent psychological distress, as well as decreased HRQOL. Findings have implications for the assessment and treatment of anxiety symptoms in pediatric obesity.

  9. Local gene regulation details a recognition code within the LacI transcriptional factor family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Camas

    Full Text Available The specific binding of regulatory proteins to DNA sequences exhibits no clear patterns of association between amino acids (AAs and nucleotides (NTs. This complexity of protein-DNA interactions raises the question of whether a simple set of wide-coverage recognition rules can ever be identified. Here, we analyzed this issue using the extensive LacI family of transcriptional factors (TFs. We searched for recognition patterns by introducing a new approach to phylogenetic footprinting, based on the pervasive presence of local regulation in prokaryotic transcriptional networks. We identified a set of specificity correlations--determined by two AAs of the TFs and two NTs in the binding sites--that is conserved throughout a dominant subgroup within the family regardless of the evolutionary distance, and that act as a relatively consistent recognition code. The proposed rules are confirmed with data of previous experimental studies and by events of convergent evolution in the phylogenetic tree. The presence of a code emphasizes the stable structural context of the LacI family, while defining a precise blueprint to reprogram TF specificity with many practical applications.

  10. CRTR-1, a developmentally regulated transcriptional repressor related to the CP2 family of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, S; Sharma, S; Scherer, M; Chapman, G; Rathjen, P

    2001-02-02

    CP2-related proteins comprise a family of DNA-binding transcription factors that are generally activators of transcription and expressed ubiquitously. We reported a differential display polymerase chain reaction fragment, Psc2, which was expressed in a regulated fashion in mouse pluripotent cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report further characterization of the Psc2 cDNA and function. The Psc2 cDNA contained an open reading frame homologous to CP2 family proteins. Regions implicated in DNA binding and oligomeric complex formation, but not transcription activation, were conserved. Psc2 expression in vivo during embryogenesis and in the adult mouse demonstrated tight spatial and temporal regulation, with the highest levels of expression in the epithelial lining of distal convoluted tubules in embryonic and adult kidneys. Functional analysis demonstrated that PSC2 repressed transcription 2.5-15-fold when bound to a heterologous promoter in ES, 293T, and COS-1 cells. The N-terminal 52 amino acids of PSC2 were shown to be necessary and sufficient for this activity and did not share obvious homology with reported repressor motifs. These results represent the first report of a CP2 family member that is expressed in a developmentally regulated fashion in vivo and that acts as a direct repressor of transcription. Accordingly, the protein has been named CP2-Related Transcriptional Repressor-1 (CRTR-1).

  11. Deduction of bond length changes of symmetric molecules from experimental vibrational progressions, including a topological mass factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wei, Fan; Schwarz, W H E; Li, Jun

    2012-12-20

    The change ΔR(x) of bond length R(x) for atom X in a molecule upon electronic transition can be derived from the intensities I(i) of the vibrational stretching progression v = 0 → i of the electronic absorption or emission spectrum. In many cases, a simple model is sufficient for a reasonable estimate of ΔR(x). For symmetric molecules, however, conceptual problems in the literature of many decades are evident. The breathing modes of various types of symmetric molecules X(n) and AX(n) (A at the center) are here discussed. In the simplest case of a harmonic vibration of the same mode in the initial and final electronic states, we obtain ΔR(x) ≈ [2S/(ωm(x))](1/2)/w(1/2) (all quantities in atomic units). ω and S are respectively the observed vibrational quanta and the Huang-Rhys factor (corresponding, e.g., to the vibrational intensity ratio I(1)/I(0) ≈ S), m(x) is the mass of vibrating atom X, and w is a topological factor for molecule X(n) or AX(n). The factor 1/w(1/2) in the expression for ΔR(x) must not be neglected. The spectra and bond length changes of several symmetric molecules AX(n) and X(n) are discussed. The experimental bond length changes correctly derived with factor 1/w(1/2) are verified by reliable quantum chemical calculations.

  12. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  13. Mental health of early adolescents from high-risk neighborhoods: the role of maternal HIV and other contextual, self-regulation, and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellins, Claude A; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Leu, Cheng Shiun; Valentin, Cidna; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of maternal HIV infection, as well as other individual, family, and contextual factors on the mental health of inner-city, ethnic minority early adolescents. Participants included 220 HIV-negative early adolescents (10-14 years) and their mothers, half of whom were HIV-infected. Individual interviews were conducted regarding youth depression, anxiety, externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems, as well as a range of correlates of youth mental health guided by a modified version of Social Action Theory, a theoretical model of behavioral health. Although the HIV status of mothers alone did not predict youth mental health, youth knowledge of mother's HIV infection and mother's overall health were associated with worse youth mental health outcomes, as were contextual, self-regulation, and family interaction factors from our theoretical model. There is a need for family-based mental health interventions for this population, particularly focusing on parent-child relationships, disclosure, and youth self-esteem.

  14. Psychosocial factors associated with patterns of smoking surrounding pregnancy in fragile families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robin L; Padilla, Yolanda C; Hamilton, Erin R

    2012-01-01

    Although research has documented factors associated with maternal smoking, we need a more in-depth understanding of the risk factors associated with changes in smoking behaviors during the postpartum period. We investigate smoking patterns during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum as a function of relevant psychosocial factors. We use data on 3,522 postpartum mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to analyze the predictors of smoking among mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy but smoked at 1 year postpartum, mothers who smoked both during pregnancy and postpartum, and mothers who did not smoke during either period. Our covariates are grouped into four categories of risk factors for smoking: socioeconomic status, health care, life course and health, and partner and social support. Postpartum mothers in our sample were more likely to smoke throughout or after their pregnancies if they had only a high school education or less, had a household income three or more times below the poverty line, had public or no health insurance, breastfed for less than 5 months, were not married to the infant's father, if the infant's father currently smoked, and if they attended religious services less than once a week. Mental health problems were consistently associated with an increased risk of constant and postpartum smoking relative to non-smoking. Psychosocial factors play a role in postpartum smoking, but they have a stronger effect in predicting smoking that persists throughout pregnancy and the first year postpartum.

  15. Targeted inactivation of Snail family EMT regulatory factors by a Co(III)-Ebox conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Allison S; Meade, Thomas J; LaBonne, Carole

    2012-01-01

    Snail family proteins are core EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) regulatory factors that play essential roles in both development and disease processes and have been associated with metastasis in carcinomas. Snail factors are required for the formation of neural crest stem cells in most vertebrate embryos, as well as for the migratory invasive behavior of these cells. Snail factors have recently been linked to the formation of cancer stem cells, and expression of Snail proteins may be associated with tumor recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We report that Co(III)-Ebox is a potent inhibitor of Snail-mediated transcriptional repression in breast cancer cells and in the neural crest of Xenopus. We further show that the activity of Co(III)-Ebox can be modulated by temperature, increasing the utility of this conjugate as a Snail inhibitor in model organisms. We exploit this feature to further delineate the requirements for Snail function during neural crest development, showing that in addition to the roles that Snail factors play in neural crest precursor formation and neural crest EMT/migration, inhibition of Snail function after the onset of neural crest migration leads to a loss of neural crest derived melanocytes. Co(III)-Ebox-mediated inhibition therefore provides a powerful tool for analysing the function of these core EMT factors with unparalleled temporal resolution. Moreover, the potency of Co(III)-Ebox as a Snail inhibitor in breast cancer cells suggests its potential as a therapeutic inhibitor of tumor progression and metastasis.

  16. Molecular analysis of a family with three cases of first cousins with free trisomy 21 excludes the existence of a familial predisposing factor for nondisjunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girginoudis, P.; Avramopoulos, D. [Diagnostic Genetic Center, Athens (Greece); Robert, E. [Institut Europeen des Genomutations, Lyon (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We have studied a French family with three individuals, paternally related first cousins, that presented free and complete trisomy 21. Using short sequence repeat polymorphisms from chromosome 21, we analyzed the DNA of two of the three affected individuals that were available. We determined the parental origin of the supernumerary chromosome in both cases. The trisomy in these cases was found to be due to maternal meiotic errors. Since the individuals were related through their paternal grandparents (their fathers were siblings) we conclude that the recurrence of trisomy 21 in this family is a result of chance and is not due to any possible genetic predisposing factors. This is in accordance with previous results on recurrent trisomy 21 families, where predisposing factors were also often excluded through the same kind of analysis.

  17. The Fos family of transcription factors and their role in tumourigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde-Langosch, Karin

    2005-11-01

    Members of the Fos family (c-Fos, FosB and its smaller splice variants, Fra-1 and Fra-2) dimerise with Jun proteins to form the AP-1 transcription factor complex. Based on the rapidly growing amount of data from experimental studies, animal models and investigations on clinical tumour samples, this review summarises the current knowledge about the role of these proteins in carcinogenesis. In addition to c-Fos, which has oncogenic activity and is frequently overexpressed in tumour cells, Fra-1 seems to play a role in the progression of many carcinomas. The results obtained from various studies show different implications for these transcription factors according to tumour type, i.e., Fra-1 overexpression enhances the motility and invasion of breast and colorectal cancer cells, but inhibits the tumourigenicity of cervical carcinoma cell lines. Knowledge about regulation of invasion and metastasis in different malignant tumours in vivo might open promising perspectives to targeted therapeutic approaches.

  18. Parental and Familial Factors Among Latino/a Youths’ Successful Matriculation into Postsecondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah P. Maxwell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extant research focuses on the “educational attainment gap,” documenting the lack of parity among Latino youth and other high school graduates in college matriculation. This study reversed that question, and asked instead, what factors, and specifically what parental or family-related factors, contribute to Latino/a youth enrolling in four-year post-secondary institutions where future earnings tend to be higher than two-year colleges. Data from the Texas Higher Education Opportunity Project (THEOP, 2004 were analyzed to identify parental contributors to successful matriculation into post-secondary education. Findings indicate that parents attending college was one of the most important indicators of Latino/a enrollment in either a two- or four-year college or university. Also significant, and potentially critical in social welfare policy, was rewarding students for grades. Parents helping with and checking homework were not helpful in youths’ progression to postsecondary education.

  19. The TEAD/TEF family of transcription factor Scalloped mediates Hippo signaling in organ size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Ren, Fangfang; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Yongbin; Wang, Bing; Jiang, Jin

    2008-03-01

    The Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway governs cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis by controlling key regulatory genes that execute these processes; however, the transcription factor of the pathway has remained elusive. Here we provide evidence that the TEAD/TEF family transcription factor Scalloped (Sd) acts together with the coactivator Yorkie (Yki) to regulate Hpo pathway-responsive genes. Sd and Yki form a transcriptional complex whose activity is inhibited by Hpo signaling. Sd overexpression enhances, whereas its inactivation suppresses, tissue overgrowth caused by Yki overexpression or tumor suppressor mutations in the Hpo pathway. Inactivation of Sd diminishes Hpo target gene expression and reduces organ size, whereas a constitutively active Sd promotes tissue overgrowth. Sd promotes Yki nuclear localization, whereas Hpo signaling retains Yki in the cytoplasm by phosphorylating Yki at S168. Finally, Sd recruits Yki to the enhancer of the pathway-responsive gene diap1, suggesting that diap1 is a direct transcriptional target of the Hpo pathway.

  20. Consumption pattern of lipids and the factors affecting their selection among families in Kermanshah (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Pasdar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing appropriate edible oils and right consumption amounts play an important role in the promotion of public health and prevention of chronic diseases. This study was aimed to evaluate the consumption level of various edible oils and factors affecting their selection among families in Kermanshah. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 500 families selected from six different areas using multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected through face to face interview using a demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire about consumption of different edible oils. Descriptive statistics and regression and chi-square tests were applied to analyze the data. Results: The mean of edible oil consumption was 69.75±3.8 g/day per capita, more than half of which (34.7±2.2 g/day was supplied by hydrogenated fat. 31.4% of total daily energy intake was supplied by lipids from which 15.6% was supplied by hydrogenated fat, that is higher than the recommended level, maximum 10% (P<0.05. There was a positive relationship between socioeconomic status and rising consumption of oils instead of fats (r=0.2, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that the daily consumption of hydrogenated fat was higher than half of the lipids consumed by families. Given the complications resulting from saturated fat consumption, decreasing the production of hydrogenated fat and increasing the nutritional knowledge of families through public media and educational programs are highly recommended.

  1. Differential expression of members of the E2F family of transcription factors in rodent testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppari Jorma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The E2F family of transcription factors is required for the activation or repression of differentially expressed gene programs during the cell cycle in normal and abnormal development of tissues. We previously determined that members of the retinoblastoma protein family that interacts with the E2F family are differentially expressed and localized in almost all the different cell types and tissues of the testis and in response to known endocrine disruptors. In this study, the cell-specific and stage-specific expression of members of the E2F proteins has been elucidated. Methods We used immunohistochemical (IHC analysis of tissue sections and Western blot analysis of proteins, from whole testis and microdissected stages of seminiferous tubules to study the differential expression of the E2F proteins. Results For most of the five E2F family members studied, the localizations appear conserved in the two most commonly studied rodent models, mice and rats, with some notable differences. Comparisons between wild type and E2F-1 knockout mice revealed that the level of E2F-1 protein is stage-specific and most abundant in leptotene to early pachytene spermatocytes of stages IX to XI of mouse while strong staining of E2F-1 in some cells close to the basal lamina of rat tubules suggest that it may also be expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia. The age-dependent development of a Sertoli-cell-only phenotype in seminiferous tubules of E2F-1 knockout males corroborates this, and indicates that E2F-1 is required for spermatogonial stem cell renewal. Interestingly, E2F-3 appears in both terminally differentiated Sertoli cells, as well as spermatogonial cells in the differentiative pathway, while the remaining member of the activating E2Fs, E2F-2 is most concentrated in spermatocytes of mid to late prophase of meiosis. Comparisons between wildtype and E2F-4 knockout mice demonstrated that the level of E2F-4 protein displays a distinct

  2. The Relation between Personal, Family, Social and Economic Factors With the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Gholizadeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present study aimed to investigate the relationship between personal, familial,social and economical factorswith the level of life satisfaction of aged people of Isfahan.To achieve this end ,from among 84912 elderlypeople above 65 living in the eleven districts of Isfahan in 1386 a sample of 384 was selected using clustersampeling method and Kurjesy-Morgan formula.The research procedure was a descriptive survey in which aresearcher,developed questionaire with 44 close ended questions was employed for data collection.Therespandants provided their answers based on Lickerts five-point scale.The reliability values for the first 29questions and subsequent 15questions on the questionaire were 0.84 and 0.88 respectively.The questionstargeted not only demographic factors such as age ,sex ,educational and so on,but also research variablesunder investigation ; namely, personal, familial,social and economical factors.The data was analayzed, at bothdescriptive and inferential statistical techniques.while the first accounted forpercentage,frequency,median and mean values, the second enlisted pearson and spearman correlations,F,Tand multiple regression tests .The finding revealed that the level of life satisfaction was positivelycorrelated with social(r=0.652,economical(r=0.656, family (r=0.618, physical health (r=0.183 andindividual independence (r=0.525.In addition there was no significant difference in life satisfaction of theelderly people in regard with marital status for the F-value of 4.516 at the confidence level of 0.001.

  3. Targeted disruption of the CP2 gene, a member of the NTF family of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, L; Barbour, V; Tuckfield, A; Clouston, D R; Topham, D; Cunningham, J M; Jane, S M

    2001-03-16

    The NTF-like family of transcription factors have been implicated in developmental regulation in organisms as diverse as Drosophila and man. The two mammalian members of this family, CP2 (LBP-1c/LSF) and LBP-1a (NF2d9), are highly related proteins sharing an overall amino acid identity of 72%. CP2, the best characterized of these factors, is a ubiquitously expressed 66-kDa protein that binds the regulatory regions of many diverse genes. Consequently, a role for CP2 has been proposed in globin gene expression, T-cell responses to mitogenic stimulation, and several other cellular processes. To elucidate the in vivo role of CP2, we have generated mice nullizygous for the CP2 allele. These animals were born in a normal Mendelian distribution and displayed no defects in growth, behavior, fertility, or development. Specifically, no perturbation of hematopoietic differentiation, globin gene expression, or immunological responses to T- and B-cell mitogenic stimulation was observed. RNA and protein analysis confirmed that the nullizygous mice expressed no full-length or truncated version of CP2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extracts from multiple tissues demonstrated loss of CP2 DNA binding activity in the -/- lines. However, a slower migrating complex that was ablated with antiserum to NF2d9, the murine homologue of LBP-1a, was observed with these extracts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that recombinant LBP-1a can bind to known CP2 consensus sites and form protein complexes with previously defined heteromeric partners of CP2. These results suggest that LBP-1a/NF2d9 may compensate for loss of CP2 expression in vivo and that further analysis of the role of the NTF family of proteins requires the targeting of the NF2d9 gene.

  4. Familial clustering of recurrent pericarditis may disclose tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarini, Luca; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana; Laghi Pasini, Franco; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Although several causes of recurrent pericarditis have been identified, the etiology remains obscure in most cases. The tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is the most common autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disorder and is caused by mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene encoding the 55-kD receptor for tumour necrosis factor-(TNF)-alpha. Serosal membrane inflammation is a common feature of TRAPS, usually in the form of polyserositis. In addition, patients affected with recurrent pericarditis as the only clinical manifestation of TRAPS have been recently described. Our aim was to investigate the possible involvement of mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene in a cohort of patients affected with idiopathic recurrent pericarditis. Twenty consecutive patients diagnosed with idiopathic recurrent pericarditis were enrolled. Each patient underwent detailed examinations in order to rule out underlying diseases such as infections, connective tissue disorders and malignancies, and mutations of the TNFRSF1A gene were searched for by amplifying, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), genomic DNA, and direct sequencing. TNFRSF1A mutations were found in 2 of the 20 patients. They were siblings, and they both carried a heterozygous low-penetrance R92Q mutation in the TNFRSF1A gene. Familial clustering has been recently reported in up to 10% of patients with recurrent pericarditis, thus suggesting in some cases a possible genetic predisposition. Our study suggests that familial clustering may represent a clue for investigating mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene in these patients and eventually disclose TRAPS.

  5. Study of cardiovascular risk factors among tertiary hospital employees and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Vatsa, Manju; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Narang, Rajiv; Bahl, Vinay Kumar; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among administrative employees working at a tertiary hospital (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi) and their families. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a total of 453 individuals aged 30 years and above. The mean age of the study group was 43.3 ± 9.5 years. There was a high prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors - current smoking 58 (12.8%), tobacco consumption 26 (5.7%), family history of coronary artery disease 79 (17.4%), diabetes mellitus 25 (5.8%), hypertension 94 (20.7%), hypercholesterolemia 110 (25.7%), hypertriglyceridemia 148 (34.5%), physical inactivity 180 (39.7%), body mass index ≥23 kg/m(2) 350 (77.3%), central obesity 201 (80.1%) of males and 163 (80.7%) of females, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption 387 (85.4%), heavy drinking 12 (2.6%), and stress 58 (12.7%). This indicates an urgent need to initiate a comprehensive health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention programme at workplace and community level. Copyright © 2012 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Natriuretic peptide family as a novel antimigration factor of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Kohno, M; Yasunari, K; Yokokawa, K; Horio, T; Ueda, M; Morisaki, N; Yoshikawa, J

    1997-04-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration is proposed to be an important process in the initiation and/or progression of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effects of the natriuretic peptide family (atrial, brain, and C-type natriuretic peptides; ANP, BNP, and CNP) on the migration of cultured rat SMCs, using Boyden's chamber methods. Fetal calf serum (FCS) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB potently stimulated SMC migration. Rat ANP(1-28), rat BNP-45, and rat CNP-22 clearly inhibited SMC migration stimulated with FCS or PDGF-BB in a concentration-dependent manner. CNP-22 had the most potent inhibitory effect compared with other natriuretic peptides. When PDGF-BB-induced migration was separated into chemotactic and chemokinetic activities, the chemotactic component was strongly inhibited by these natriuretic peptides. Such inhibition by these natriuretic peptides was paralleled by an increase in the cellular level of cyclic GMP. The addition of a cyclic GMP analogue, 8-bromo cyclic GMP, and an activator of the cytosolic guanylate cyclase, sodium nitroprusside, significantly inhibited FCS- and PDGF-BB-stimulated migration in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that natriuretic peptides, especially CNP-22, inhibit FCS- or PDGF-BB-stimulated SMC migration at least in part through a cyclic GMP-dependent process. Thus, the natriuretic peptide family may play a role as an antimigration factor of SMCs under certain circumstances.

  7. Ant-egg cataract. A study of a family with dominantly inherited congenital (ant-egg) cataract, including a histological examination of the formed elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Steffen; Schrøder, H D

    1979-01-01

    A family with "ant-egg" cataract in three generations is described. The cataract is congenital, probably of autosomal dominant inheritance. Light microscopy of the ant-eggs showed that they are made up of a peripheral zone of lens material and a large almost homogenous centre. Element analysis by X...

  8. 45 CFR 400.209 - Claims involving family units which include refugees who have been in the United States more than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... refugees who have been in the United States more than 36 months. 400.209 Section 400.209 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Federal Funding...

  9. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon . Part 11. Doridacea of the families Chromodorididae and Hexabranchidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia,Nudibranchia), including additional Moluccan material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yonow, N.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-one species belonging to the family Chromodorididae and one species of Hexabranchus (Hexabranchidae) are present in the 1990 Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition (RBE) collection. The 1996 Fauna Malesiana Marine Maluku Expedition (Mal) collected 43 lots of nudibranchs, mostly chromodorids: 17 sp

  10. Exploring factors and caregiver outcomes associated with feelings of preparedness for caregiving in family caregivers in palliative care: a correlational, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Anette; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2013-07-01

    Family caregivers in palliative care often report feeling insufficiently prepared to handle the caregiver role. Preparedness has been confirmed as a variable that may actually protect family caregiver well-being. Preparedness refers to how ready family caregivers perceive they are for the tasks and demands in the caregiving role. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with preparedness and to further investigate whether preparedness is associated with caregiver outcomes. This was a correlational study using a cross-sectional design. The study took place in three specialist palliative care units and one haematology unit. A total of 125 family caregivers of patients with life-threatening illness participated. Preparedness was significantly associated with higher levels of hope and reward and with a lower level of anxiety. In contrast, preparedness was not associated with depression or health. Being female and cohabiting with the patient were significantly associated with a higher level of preparedness. The relationship to the patient was significantly associated with preparedness, while social support, place of care, time since diagnosis and age of the patients showed no association. Feelings of preparedness seem to be important for how family caregivers experience the unique situation when caring for a patient who is severely ill and close to death. Our findings support the inclusion of preparedness in support models for family caregivers in palliative care. Psycho-educational interventions could preferably be designed aiming to increase family caregiver's preparedness to care, including practical care, communication and emotional support.

  11. Postnatal visual deprivation in rats regulates several retinal genes and proteins, including differentiation-associated fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Meyer zu Hoerste, Melissa; Mertsch, Sonja; Stupp, Tobias; Thanos, Solon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the retinal cellular basis of amblyopia, which is a developmental disease characterized by impaired visual acuity. This study examined the retinal transcripts associated with experimentally induced unilateral amblyopia in rats. Surgical tarsorrhaphy of the eyelids on one side was performed in pups prior to eye opening at postnatal day 14, thereby preventing any visual experience. This condition was maintained for over 2 months, after which electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded, the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) arrangement and number were determined using neuroanatomical tracing, the retinal transcripts were studied using microarray analysis, regulated mRNAs were confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, and proteins were stained using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. An attenuated ERG was found in eyes that were deprived of visual experience. Retrograde neuroanatomical staining disclosed a larger number of RGCs within the retina on the visually deprived side compared to the non-deprived, control side, and a multilayered distribution of RGCs. At the retinomic level, several transcripts associated with retinal differentiation, such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), were either up- or downregulated. Most of the transcripts could be verified at the mRNA level. To unravel the role of a differentiation-associated protein, we tested FGF-2 in dissociated postnatal retinal cell cultures and found that FGF-2 is a potent factor triggering ganglion cell differentiation. The data suggest that visual experience shapes the postnatal retinal differentiation, whereas visual deprivation induces changes at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within the retina.

  12. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  13. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  14. TCPs, WUSs, and WINDs: Families of transcription factors that regulate shoot meristem formation, stem cell maintenance, and somatic cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho eIkeda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to somatic mammalian cells, which cannot alter their fate, plant cells can dedifferentiate to form totipotent callus cells and regenerate a whole plant, following treatment with specific phytohormones. However, the regulatory mechanisms and key factors that control differentiation-dedifferentiation and cell totipotency have not been completely clarified in plants. Recently, several plant transcription factors that regulate meristem formation and dedifferentiation have been identified and include members of the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR (TCP, WUSCHEL (WUS, and WOUND INDUCED DEDIFFERENTIATION (WIND1 families. WUS and WIND positively control plant cell totipotency, while TCP negatively controls it. Interestingly, TCP is a transcriptional activator that acts as a negative regulator of shoot meristem formation, and WUS is a transcriptional repressor that positively maintains totipotency of the stem cells of the shoot meristem. We describe here the functions of TCP, WUS and WIND transcription factors in the regulation of differentiation-dedifferentiation by positive and negative transcriptional regulators.

  15. Comparison of environmental risk factors for esophageal atresia, anorectal malformations, and the combined phenotype in 263 German families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwink, N; Choinitzki, V; Baudisch, F; Hölscher, A; Boemers, T M; Turial, S; Kurz, R; Heydweiller, A; Keppler, K; Müller, A; Bagci, S; Pauly, M; Brokmeier, U; Leutner, A; Degenhardt, P; Schmiedeke, E; Märzheuser, S; Grasshoff-Derr, S; Holland-Cunz, S; Palta, M; Schäfer, M; Ure, B M; Lacher, M; Nöthen, M M; Schumacher, J; Jenetzky, E; Reutter, H

    2016-11-01

    Esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) and anorectal malformations (ARM) represent the severe ends of the fore- and hindgut malformation spectra. Previous research suggests that environmental factors are implicated in their etiology. These risk factors might indicate the influence of specific etiological mechanisms on distinct developmental processes (e.g. fore- vs. hindgut malformation). The present study compared environmental factors in patients with isolated EA/TEF, isolated ARM, and the combined phenotype during the periconceptional period and the first trimester of pregnancy in order to investigate the hypothesis that fore- and hindgut malformations involve differing environmental factors. Patients with isolated EA/TEF (n = 98), isolated ARM (n = 123), and the combined phenotype (n = 42) were included. Families were recruited within the context of two German multicenter studies of the genetic and environmental causes of EA/TEF (great consortium) and ARM (CURE-Net). Exposures of interest were ascertained using an epidemiological questionnaire. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to assess differences between the three phenotypes. Newborns with isolated EA/TEF and the combined phenotype had significantly lower birth weights than newborns with isolated ARM (P = 0.001 and P expectation, and warrants further analysis in large prospective epidemiological studies.

  16. Family structure and upbringing as factors of intellectual development of preschool children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golovey L.A; Savenysheva S.S; Engelgardt E.E

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of the family structure and family attitudes, child-parent relationship, styles of family upbringing on the intellectual develop- ment of pre-school-age children...

  17. Complex analysis of Askaryan radiation: A fully analytic treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jordan C.; Connolly, Amy L.

    2017-05-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from high-energy cascades in dense media with a collective charge. We present an analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the cascade, and quantum mechanical cascade elongation via the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect. These calculations, and the associated open-source code, allow the user to avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo cascade simulations. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan-based detectors benefit from computational speed, because scans of Askaryan parameter-space are required to match neutrino signals. The Askaryan field is derived from cascade equations verified with Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, instructive cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for correlations with event candidates.

  18. Complex Analysis of Askaryan Radiation: A Fully Analytic Treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Jordan C

    2016-01-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from the collective charge within high-energy cascades in dense media. We present the first fully analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the electromagnetic cascade and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect. Analytic calculations avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulations of the cascades. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan- based detectors benefit from computational speed, because neutrino event parameters affect the shape of the electromagnetic field, requiring scans of parameter space. The Askaryan field is derived and verified against Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, two special cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain, analytically. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for phase ...

  19. To use or not to use. A literature review of factors that influence family caregivers' use of support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Merle E

    2013-01-01

    Many family caregivers of frail older adults postpone or decline accessible and affordable services such as respite, despite their acknowledgement of unmet needs for support and time away from the burdens and stress of caregiving. How caregivers perceive their need for services, and the factors that influence their decisions to use or not to use services, remain poorly understood. This article reviews the literature on family caregiving and the complex interrelated factors that influence caregivers' choices regarding support services. It organizes these factors into four areas: (a) service characteristics, (b) personal predisposing factors that affect perceived need, (c) experiential coping and decision-making patterns, and (d) relational factors. It also examines the implications of this evidence for nursing assessments and interventions with frail older adults and their family caregivers.

  20. Psychosocial risk factors for obesity among women in a family planning clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohland Barbara M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of obesity in primary care populations has not been thoroughly explored. This study contributes to filling this gap by investigating the relationship between obesity and different sources of personal stress, mental health, exercise, and demographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 274 provided completed answers to all of the questions analyzed in this study. Exercise, self-rated mental health, stress, social support, and demographic variables were included in the survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Results After adjusting for mental health, exercise, and demographic characteristics of subjects, analysis of the data indicated that that being having a large family and receiving no support from parents were related to obesity in this relatively young low-income primary care sample, but self-reported stress and most types of social support were not significant. Conclusion Obesity control programs in primary care centers directed at low-income women should target women who have large families and who are not receiving support from their parents.

  1. Genome-wide classification and expression analysis of MYB transcription factor families in rice and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiyar Amit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MYB gene family comprises one of the richest groups of transcription factors in plants. Plant MYB proteins are characterized by a highly conserved MYB DNA-binding domain. MYB proteins are classified into four major groups namely, 1R-MYB, 2R-MYB, 3R-MYB and 4R-MYB based on the number and position of MYB repeats. MYB transcription factors are involved in plant development, secondary metabolism, hormone signal transduction, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. A comparative analysis of MYB family genes in rice and Arabidopsis will help reveal the evolution and function of MYB genes in plants. Results A genome-wide analysis identified at least 155 and 197 MYB genes in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Gene structure analysis revealed that MYB family genes possess relatively more number of introns in the middle as compared with C- and N-terminal regions of the predicted genes. Intronless MYB-genes are highly conserved both in rice and Arabidopsis. MYB genes encoding R2R3 repeat MYB proteins retained conserved gene structure with three exons and two introns, whereas genes encoding R1R2R3 repeat containing proteins consist of six exons and five introns. The splicing pattern is similar among R1R2R3 MYB genes in Arabidopsis. In contrast, variation in splicing pattern was observed among R1R2R3 MYB members of rice. Consensus motif analysis of 1kb upstream region (5′ to translation initiation codon of MYB gene ORFs led to the identification of conserved and over-represented cis-motifs in both rice and Arabidopsis. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that several members of MYBs are up-regulated by various abiotic stresses both in rice and Arabidopsis. Conclusion A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of chromosomal distribution, tandem repeats and phylogenetic relationship of MYB family genes in rice and Arabidopsis suggested their evolution via duplication. Genome-wide comparative analysis of MYB genes and

  2. Gestational and familial risk factors for childhood astrocytoma: results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, R R; Bunin, G R; Nass, C C; Meadows, A T

    1990-05-01

    Gestational and familial risk factors were investigated for their association with astrocytoma, the most frequently occurring brain tumor in children. A case-control study of 163 matched pairs was performed. Cases under 15 years of age at diagnosis in 1980-1986 were identified through the tumor registries of 8 hospitals in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were matched to cases for age, race, and telephone area code and exchange. Maternal antinausea medications increased the risk of childhood astrocytoma [OR (odds ratio) = 2.0, P = 0.04]. Cured meat consumption during pregnancy was more common among cases (OR = 1.9, P = 0.07), and a significant trend with increasing frequency of consumption was observed (P = 0.04). Results for gestational exposure to marijuana (OR = 2.8, P = 0.07) were of borderline significance. Gestational exposure to neurally active medications, alcohol, and tobacco were not risk factors. There was a significant trend for cases to be of higher birth weight (P = 0.03). Mental retardation (OR = 3.0, P = 0.04) and cancer (OR = 1.7, P = 0.02) in a relative of the child significantly increased the risk of astrocytoma. Significantly increased risks were observed for brain tumors in relatives of children 0-4 years of age at diagnosis (OR = 6/0, P = 0.04). A significant protective effect was observed for maternal history of miscarriage or stillbirth (OR = 0.5, P = 0.01). The results of this study suggest that some gestational and familial factors may increase the risk of childhood astrocytoma.

  3. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon (1990). Part 11. Doridacea of the families Chromodorididae and Hexabranchidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia,Nudibranchia), including additional Moluccan material

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-one species belonging to the family Chromodorididae and one species of Hexabranchus (Hexabranchidae) are present in the 1990 Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition (RBE) collection. The 1996 Fauna Malesiana Marine Maluku Expedition (Mal) collected 43 lots of nudibranchs, mostly chromodorids: 17 species were identified, six of which were not represented in the RBE collection. A total of 35 chromodorid species, belonging to nine genera, are described from Ambon and nearby localities. Four spe...

  4. Leukemia-associated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG) links heterotrimeric G proteins of the G(12) family to Rho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, S; Chikumi, H; Gutkind, J S

    2000-11-24

    A putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), termed leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG), was recently identified upon fusion to the coding sequence of the MLL gene in acute myeloid leukemia. Although the function of LARG is still unknown, it exhibits a number of structural domains suggestive of a role in signal transduction, including a PDZ domain, a LH/RGS domain, and a Dbl homology/pleckstrin homology domain. Here, we show that LARG can activate Rho in vivo. Furthermore, we present evidence that LARG is an integral component of a novel biochemical route whereby G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and heterotrimeric G proteins of the G alpha(12) family stimulate Rho-dependent signaling pathways.

  5. The effects of individual, family and environmental factors on physical activity levels in children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Sharon L; Keane, Eimear; Kearney, Patricia M

    2014-04-21

    Physical activity plays an important role in optimising physical and mental health during childhood, adolescence, and throughout adult life. This study aims to identify individual, family and environmental factors that determine physical activity levels in a population sample of children in Ireland. Cross-sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of the nationally representative Growing Up in Ireland study. A two-stage clustered sampling method was used where national schools served as the primary sampling unit (response rate: 82%) and age eligible children from participating schools were the secondary units (response rate: 57%). Parent reported child physical activity levels and potential covariates (parent and child reported) include favourite hobby, total screen time, sports participation and child body mass index (measured by trained researcher). Univariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression (forward block entry) examined the association between individual, family and environmental level factors and physical activity levels. The children (N = 8,568) were classified as achieving low (25%), moderate (20%) or high (55%) physical activity levels. In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 1.64 [95% CI: 1.34-2.01]), having an active favourite hobby (OR 1.65 [95% CI: 1.31-2.08]) and membership of sports or fitness team (OR 1.90 [95% CI: 1.48-2.45]) were significantly associated with being in the high physical activity group. Exceeding two hours total screen time (OR 0.66 [95% CI: 0.52-0.85]), being overweight (OR 0.41 [95%CI: 0.27-0.61]; or obese (OR 0.68 [95%CI: 0.54-0.86]) were significantly associated with decreased odds of being in the high physical activity group. Individual level factors appear to predict PA levels when considered in the multiple domains. Future research should aim to use more robust objective measures to explore the usefulness of the interconnect that exists across these domains. In particular how the family and environmental

  6. Genome-wide organization and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Pal, Awadhesh Kumar; Acharya, Vishal; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2013-08-01

    NAC [no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis thaliana transcription activation factor [ATAF1/2] and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC2)] proteins belong to one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signalling. Our genome-wide analysis identified 110 StNAC genes in potato encoding for 136 proteins, including 14 membrane-bound TFs. The physical map positions of StNAC genes on 12 potato chromosomes were non-random, and 40 genes were found to be distributed in 16 clusters. The StNAC proteins were phylogenetically clustered into 12 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of StNACs along with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts divided these proteins into 18 subgroups. Our comparative analysis has also identified 36 putative TNAC proteins, which appear to be restricted to Solanaceae family. In silico expression analysis, using Illumina RNA-seq transcriptome data, revealed tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of StNAC genes. Several StNAC genes, including StNAC072 and StNAC101that are orthologs of known stress-responsive Arabidopsis RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 26 (RD26) were identified as highly abiotic stress responsive. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis largely corroborated the expression profile of StNAC genes as revealed by the RNA-seq data. Taken together, this analysis indicates towards putative functions of several StNAC TFs, which will provide blue-print for their functional characterization and utilization in potato improvement.

  7. Psychological and Familial Factors of Depression in Relation to Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Omidi, Razieh; Alinia, Tahereh; Heidari, Kamal; Farshad, Marziyeh; Davari, Hossein; Abtin, Zahra; Shahriari, Ezat; Taslimi, Mahshid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several common factors have been identified for smoking and depression. The The present study explores the relation of psychological and familial factors with depression, by student smoking behavior. Materials and Methods: A total of 5500 middle- and high-school students were selected in Isfahan province in 2010. A self-administered questionnaire collected data on background characteristics, smoking status, depression, and risk factors. Univariate analysis multiple logistic regressions were conducted to compare between depressed and nondepressed people by adolescent smoking status. Odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Results: Fathers lower education attainment was accompanied adolescents higher depression prevalence. Parental smoking and sibling smoking increased the depression likelihood by 1.41 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.68) and 1.43 folds (95% CI: 1.04–1.94) for never-smokers. Positive attitude toward smoking increased the probability of depression by 1.18 among never-smokers. Never-smokers lacking refusal skill had 1.23 (1.03–1.47) higher chance of depression. A higher level of self-efficacy related to lower chance of depression. Taking risky behavior, increased the depression likelihood by 1.56 (95% CI: 1.29–1.89) in never-smokers, by 1.85 (95% CI: 1.37–2.44) in experimental smokers, and by 1.14 times (95% CI: 1.01–1.72) in current smokers. Family conflict increased depression chance by 2.25 times (95% CI: 1.89–2.66) in never-smokers, by 1.95 (95% CI: 1.46–2.61) in experimental smokers, and by 2.06 times (95% CI: 1.38–3.08) in current smokers. Conclusions: Targeting self-efficacy level, risky behavior, and family conflict can drop the comorbidity of smoking and depression simultaneously. This may help public health practitioners and policymakers to develop common strategies in reducing adolescents smoking and depression comorbidity. PMID:28217648

  8. Effects of area and family deprivation on risk factors for teenage pregnancy among 13-15-year-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Debbie M; Elander, James

    2006-11-01

    Information is needed about how the effects of socio-economic deprivation on teenage pregnancy are mediated by proximal risk factors, in order to target area-wide and family interventions more effectively. Using a 2x2 factorial design, we tested the separate and interacting effects of area deprivation and family deprivation on six specific proximal risk factors for teenage pregnancy: early sexual activity, life expectations, knowledge and beliefs about contraceptives, attitude to abortion, beliefs about love, and use of local sexual health services. Data were collected from 201 13-15-year-old girls in deprived and non-deprived families living in deprived and more affluent areas of the United Kingdom. Area deprivation significantly increased early sexual activity, and both area and family deprivation significantly reduced life expectations. Significant interactions between area and family deprivation showed that the impact of living in a deprived area depends to some extent on family circumstances, with implications for targeting different types of intervention. Living in a deprived area increased early sexual activity much more markedly among girls in deprived families, so interventions to reduce early sexual activity could target individually deprived girls living in deprived areas. Living in a more affluent area increased life expectations, but only among girls in non-deprived families, so both area-wide and individually targeted interventions would be needed to raise life expectations among girls most at risk of teenage pregnancy.

  9. Relationship between adolescents’ family function with socio-demographic characteristics and behaviour risk factors in a primary care facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu S. Muyibi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family as a unit of care has great effect in tackling adolescent problems and this could be influenced by family functioning.Objective: This study assesses the relationship between adolescents’ family functioning with socio-demographic characteristics and behavioural risk factors.Method: The research was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study carried out at the General Outpatients Department, University College Hospital (GOPD,UCH, Ibadan, over a period of three months. Four hundred subjects were recruited using a modified Guideline for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS questionnaire, with an incorporated family APGAR (Adaptation,Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve score table. The results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 11 and the findings on the family assessment and behavioural risk factors were relayed to the respondents.Results: The ages of the adolescents ranged from 10 to 19 years. Of the subjects, 8% were sexually active. Mean age for first coitus among the respondents was 15 ± 2.4 years. The rate of ingestion of alcohol and cigarette smoking was very low. The family APGAR scores obtained revealed that 84.5% subjects were rated as having a functional family (7–10 points and 15.5% of the subjects were rated as having a dysfunctional family (0–6 points. There was a significant association between perceived family function and subjects’ occupation (p = 0.01, parent social class (p = 0.00 and subjects’ sexual activities (p = 0.00.Conclusion: The majority of the adolescents were rated as having functional families. Dysfunctional families had significantly sexually active respondents.

  10. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pyoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  11. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  12. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  13. Aggressive, Delinquent, and Violent Outcomes of School Bullying: Do Family and Individual Factors Have a Protective Function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösel, Friedrich; Bender, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Bullying perpetration at school is a long-term predictor of aggression, delinquency, and violence. Most research concentrates on risk factors for such developments, whereas protective factors have been rarely addressed. Therefore, the present study investigates potentially protective effects of family and child characteristics in a prospective…

  14. Transcription factor families in Arabidopsis: major progress and outstanding issues for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Jia; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2006-10-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are a group of proteins that control cellular processes by regulating the expression of downstream target genes. Recent progress has been made in the cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis TFs on the genome scale, especially on the cloning of open reading frames (ORFs), sequence analysis and the expression profiling of different TF families. Huge difference in numbers of subfamily members were found for Arabidopsis MYB, C2H2 (Zn), C3H-type 1 (Zn), C3H-type 2 (Zn) TFs by independent research groups, mainly because of differences in bioinformatic search stringency. However, the Arabidopsis and rice genomes contain very different numbers of TFs in the WRKY, NAC, bZIP, MADS, ALFIN-like, GRAS and C2C2 (Zn)-dof families, indicating a possible divergence of biological functions from dicots to monocots. TFs have also been found to play key roles in the biosynthesis and signaling of plant hormones, in cell growth and differentiation, and in photomorphogenesis.

  15. Targeted inactivation of Snail family EMT regulatory factors by a Co(III-Ebox conjugate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison S Harney

    Full Text Available Snail family proteins are core EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulatory factors that play essential roles in both development and disease processes and have been associated with metastasis in carcinomas. Snail factors are required for the formation of neural crest stem cells in most vertebrate embryos, as well as for the migratory invasive behavior of these cells. Snail factors have recently been linked to the formation of cancer stem cells, and expression of Snail proteins may be associated with tumor recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We report that Co(III-Ebox is a potent inhibitor of Snail-mediated transcriptional repression in breast cancer cells and in the neural crest of Xenopus. We further show that the activity of Co(III-Ebox can be modulated by temperature, increasing the utility of this conjugate as a Snail inhibitor in model organisms. We exploit this feature to further delineate the requirements for Snail function during neural crest development, showing that in addition to the roles that Snail factors play in neural crest precursor formation and neural crest EMT/migration, inhibition of Snail function after the onset of neural crest migration leads to a loss of neural crest derived melanocytes. Co(III-Ebox-mediated inhibition therefore provides a powerful tool for analysing the function of these core EMT factors with unparalleled temporal resolution. Moreover, the potency of Co(III-Ebox as a Snail inhibitor in breast cancer cells suggests its potential as a therapeutic inhibitor of tumor progression and metastasis.

  16. Perinatal and family factors associated with preadolescence overweight/obesity in Greece: the GRECO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risvas, Grigoris; Papaioannou, Ivi; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Farajian, Paul; Bountziouka, Vasiliki; Zampelas, Antonis

    2012-09-01

    To explore associations of perinatal and family factors with preadolescence overweight and obesity in a sample of Greek schoolchildren. A nationwide cross-sectional study among 2093 students (10.9 ± 0.72 years, 44.9% boys) and their parents were conducted. Anthropometric (e.g., height, weight, mother's body mass index (BMI) at the time of the study and at conception), socio-demographic (e.g., age, education, socio-economic status), diet and other major lifestyle characteristics (e.g., smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and inactivity) and perinatal factors (e.g., breast- and formula-feeding) were collected with validated questionnaires. Height and weight of students were measured. Overweight/obesity was classified using IOTF cut-offs. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were used to identify major independent factors of overweight/obesity among preadolescents and factors related with the percentage change of mother's BMI, respectively. Increased age at pregnancy [odds ratios (OR)=0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.93-0.97], higher BMI at conception (OR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.12-1.22) and heavy smoking (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.23-3.33) were positively associated with child's overweight/obesity status. Moreover, mother's age and TV viewing, indicating inactivity, were the strongest factors of the percentage increase in mother's BMI (b ± se = 0.23 ± 0.07, p = 0.002; b ± se=0.32 ± 0.10, p = 0.002, respectively). Preadolescent obesity is associated with mother's pre-pregnancy weight, age and heavy smoking at conception and mother's BMI change after gestation. Copyright © 2012 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of FGF family growth factors concerning branching morphogenesis of mouse lung epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Asami; Yamazaki, Naohiro; Nogawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Mouse lung rudiments express eight members of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family genes from embryonic day 10 (E10) to E13. Some of these are expressed in either the epithelium or mesenchyme, while others are expressed in both. Incorporating the results of our previous study, we characterized the branch-inducing activities of all of FGFs expressed in the early lung rudiment. Of these, FGF1, FGF2, FGF7, FGF9 and FGF10 induced branching morphogenesis in Matrigel-embedded E11 epithelium, and their effective concentrations varied (10 nM, 10 nM, 3 nM, 1 nM, and 100 nM, respectively). Whereas shaking culture dishes containing medium supplemented with FGF7 or FGF10 showed reduced branching morphogenesis, those supplemented with FGF1, FGF2, or FGF9 did not, suggesting the involvement of autocrine growth factor(s) in branching morphogenesis induced by FGF7 or FGF10. In the presence of heparin, a well-known activator of FGF signaling, cystic morphology with lumen expansion was observed in cultures containing FGF1, FGF7, or FGF10, but growth arrest was observed in cultures containing FGF2 or FGF9. These results indicate that several paracrine and autocrine FGFs function during branching morphogenesis of lung epithelium.

  18. Risk factors for subclinical inflammation in children with Familial Mediterranean fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Meral Torun; Çankaya, Tufan; Bora, Elçin; Kavukçu, Salih; Ülgenalp, Ayfer; Soylu, Alper; Türkmen, Mehmet

    2015-08-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common autosomal recessive inherited inflammatory disease characterized by attacks of painful inflammation. Some patients with FMF have subclinical inflammation persisting between the attacks. We aimed to identify the demographic, clinical and genetic risk factors for subclinical inflammation in children with FMF. The medical records of the children with FMF were evaluated retrospectively for acute-phase response along with gender, age at the onset of symptoms and at the time of diagnosis, clinical signs and symptoms, the presence of amyloidosis and MEFV genotype. Patients with persistently elevated acute-phase response between the attacks were considered to have subclinical inflammation. Patients with or without subclinical inflammation (Group 1 and Group 2, respectively) were compared for the parameters defined above. Independent risk factors for subclinical inflammation were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis. There were 105 children (male/female: 52/53) who were compliant on colchicine treatment. Subclinical inflammation was detected in 22 (20 %) patients. Group 1 had significantly higher rate of myalgia, arthritis/arthralgia, erysipelas like erythema, amyloidosis, protracted febrile myalgia and M694V mutation compared with Group 2. However, only the presence of myalgia and erysipelas like erythema were found to be independent risk factors for subclinical inflammation (OR 9.8 and 5.9, respectively). Children with FMF who have myalgia and erysipelas like erythema during the attacks are particularly at risk of ongoing inflammation and should be closely monitored for subclinical inflammation even during attack-free periods.

  19. Identifying Military and Combat Specific Risk Factors for Child Adjustment: Comparing High and Low Risk Military Families and Civilian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    measure developmentally salient skills that are indicators of current adaptation among preschool and early childhood boys and girls of civilian intact and...single-parent families. This will allow for the identification of military-specific challenges, if any, of child adjustment and developmental ...n/a INTRODUCTION There is an emerging consensus that parental combat deployment may increase risk for child development ; but details on what the

  20. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motykova, Eva; Zlatohlavek, Lukáš; Prusikova, Martina; Lanska, Vera; Ceska, Richard; Vasickova, Ludmila; Vrablik, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased inflammation which represents a link to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent marker of inflammation and atherosclerosis risk. To assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic markers of atherosclerosis including Lp-PLA2 we examined a group of Czech non-diabetic obese/overweight children exposed to a lifestyle intervention. Fourty unrelated overweight/obese non-diabetic Czech children (13.7 ± 2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 29.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2) underwent 4 weeks of lifestyle modification (reduction of energy intake to age matched optimum and supervised physical activity). Anthropometrical and biochemical variables were determined at baseline and after the intervention. Lp-PLA2 mass concentration was assessed using the ELISA kit. Wilcocson's rank test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A significant decrease of BMI and waist circumference was associated with significant changes of plasma lipoprotein and glycaemia levels. Mass concentration of Lp-PLA2 at the baseline was 402 ± 94 μg/ml, after the intervention 368 ± 105 μg/ml (p=0.008). Change in Lp-PLA2 was associated with triglyceride level decrease (p=0.009). Intensive lifestyle modification leading to body weight decrease results in significant changes of plasma lipoprotein levels and, also, a drop of Lp-PLA2 levels in paediatric obese patients. However, even after the intervention Lp-PLA2 concentrations in this patient group remain elevated suggesting possible increased atherosclerosis risk in later life. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the DNA-binding with one zinc finger (Dof) transcription factor family in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-12-01

    DNA-binding with one finger (Dof) domain proteins are a multigene family of plant-specific transcription factors involved in numerous aspects of plant growth and development. In this study, we report a genome-wide search for Musa acuminata Dof (MaDof) genes and their expression profiles at different developmental stages and in response to various abiotic stresses. In addition, a complete overview of the Dof gene family in bananas is presented, including the gene structures, chromosomal locations, cis-regulatory elements, conserved protein domains, and phylogenetic inferences. Based on the genome-wide analysis, we identified 74 full-length protein-coding MaDof genes unevenly distributed on 11 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis with Dof members from diverse plant species showed that MaDof genes can be classified into four subgroups (StDof I, II, III, and IV). The detailed genomic information of the MaDof gene homologs in the present study provides opportunities for functional analyses to unravel the exact role of the genes in plant growth and development.

  2. Economic Deprivation and Its Effects on Childhood Conduct Problems: The Mediating Role of Family Stress and Investment Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Sosu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanisms by which experiences of poverty influence the trajectory of conduct problems among preschool children. Drawing on two theoretical perspectives, we focused on family stress (stress and harsh discipline and investment variables (educational investment, nutrition, and cognitive ability as key mediators. Structural equation modeling techniques with prospective longitudinal data from the Growing Up in Scotland survey (N = 3,375 were used. Economic deprivation measured around the first birthday of the sample children had both direct and indirect effects on conduct problems across time (ages 4, 5, and 6. In line with the family stress hypothesis, higher levels of childhood poverty predicted conduct problems across time through increased parental stress and punitive discipline. Consistent with the investment model, childhood deprivation was associated with higher levels of conduct problems via educational investment and cognitive ability. The study extends previous knowledge on the mechanisms of this effect by demonstrating that cognitive ability is a key mediator between poverty and the trajectory of childhood conduct problems. This suggests that interventions aimed at reducing child conduct problems should be expanded to include factors that compromise parenting as well as improve child cognitive ability.

  3. A Single Gene Target of an ETS-Family Transcription Factor Determines Neuronal CO2-Chemosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Julia P.; Martinez-Velazquez, Luis A.; Petersen, Jakob Gramstrup; Pocock, Roger; Ringstad, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Many animals possess neurons specialized for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2), which acts as a cue to elicit behavioral responses and is also an internally generated product of respiration that regulates animal physiology. In many organisms how such neurons detect CO2 is poorly understood. We report here a mechanism that endows C. elegans neurons with the ability to detect CO2. The ETS-5 transcription factor is necessary for the specification of CO2-sensing BAG neurons. Expression of a single ETS-5 target gene, gcy-9, which encodes a receptor-type guanylate cyclase, is sufficient to bypass a requirement for ets-5 in CO2-detection and transforms neurons into CO2-sensing neurons. Because ETS-5 and GCY-9 are members of gene families that are conserved between nematodes and vertebrates, a similar mechanism might act in the specification of CO2-sensing neurons in other phyla. PMID:22479504

  4. Functions and Application of the AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Family in Crop Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Shi Xu; Ming Chen; Lian-Cheng Li; You-Zhi Ma

    2011-01-01

    Plants have acquired sophisticated stress response systems to adapt to changing environments. It is important to understand plants' stress response mechanisms in the effort to improve crop productivity under stressful conditions. The AP2/ERF transcription factors are known to regulate diverse processes of plant development and stress responses.In this study, the molecular characteristics and biological functions of AP2/ERFs in a variety of plant species were analyzed. AP2/ERFs,especially those in DREB and ERF subfamilies, are ideal candidates for crop improvement because their overexpression enhances tolerances to drought, salt, freezing, as well as resistances to multiple diseases in the transgenic plants. The comprehensive analysis of physiological functions is useful in elucidating the biological roles of AP2/ERF family genes in gene interaction, pathway regulation, and defense response under stress environments, which should provide new opportunities for the crop tolerance engineering.

  5. [The effects of professional factors on the quality of life of family health team nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Janielle Silva; Miranzi, Sybelle de Souza Castro; Iwamoto, Helena Hemiko; Tavares, Darlene Mara dos Santos; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the professional factors affecting the quality of life of nurses working in the family health teams in the Macro Health Region, referred to as the South Triangle, in the State of Minas Gerais. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The participants were 90 nurses, who answered a questionnaire containing the professional variables and the Quality of Life assessment instrument - WHOQOL-100. The results showed a negative impact regarding the number of jobs, unstable jobs, excessive workload and job dissatisfaction in the nurses' Quality of Life domains. There is a need to (re)define the public policies that control the working conditions of these professionals. Actions that contribute towards improving nurses' Quality of Life are important, considering their strong influence on the quality of the healthcare that is delivered.

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Heat Shock Transcription Factor Family in Glycine max

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eunsook Chung; Kyoung-Mi Kim; Jai-Heon Lee

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play an essential role on the increased tolerance against heat stress by regulating the expression of heat-responsive genes.In this study,a genome-wide analysis was performed to identify all of the soybean (Glycine max) GmHsfgenes based on the latest soybean genome sequence.Chromosomal location,protein domain,motif organization,and phylogenetic relationships of 26 non-redundant GmHsf genes were analyzed compared with AtHsfs (Arabidopsis thaliana Hsfs).According to their structural features,the predicted members were divided into the previously defined classes A-C,as described for AtHsfs.Transcript levels and subcellular localization of five GmHsfs responsive to abiotic stresses were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR.These results provide a fundamental clue for understanding the complexity of the soybean GmHsfgene family and cloning the functional genes in future studies.

  7. Childhood roots of adulthood hostility: family factors as predictors of cognitive and affective hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Heinonen, Kati

    2003-01-01

    Childhood predictors of adulthood hostility was examined in a population-based sample of 1,004 children and their parents. Parents' Type A behavior, their life satisfaction, family's socioeconomic level, and maternal reports of children's Type A behavior were obtained for 6-, 9-, and 12-year-old participants. Hostility was self-evaluated by these participants 15 years later. Results revealed that childhood environment in terms of parental Type A behavior and life dissatisfaction as well as children's own Type A behavior predicted their adulthood hostility. The findings identified childhood environments that either promoted or protected against hostility. Results underline the need to consider the conjoint effects of various factors because the same characteristics play different roles in different contexts.

  8. Tescalcin is an essential factor in megakaryocytic differentiation associated with Ets family gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Konstantin; Slepak, Vladlen Z

    2007-09-01

    We show here that the process of megakaryocytic differentiation requires the presence of the recently discovered protein tescalcin. Tescalcin is dramatically upregulated during the differentiation and maturation of primary megakaryocytes or upon PMA-induced differentiation of K562 cells. This upregulation requires sustained signaling through the ERK pathway. Overexpression of tescalcin in K562 cells initiates events of spontaneous megakaryocytic differentiation, such as expression of specific cell surface antigens, inhibition of cell proliferation, and polyploidization. Conversely, knockdown of this protein in primary CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors and cell lines by RNA interference suppresses megakaryocytic differentiation. In cells lacking tescalcin, the expression of Fli-1, Ets-1, and Ets-2 transcription factors, but not GATA-1 or MafB, is blocked. Thus, tescalcin is essential for the coupling of ERK cascade activation with the expression of Ets family genes in megakaryocytic differentiation.

  9. A single gene target of an ETS-family transcription factor determines neuronal CO2-chemosensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia P Brandt

    Full Text Available Many animals possess neurons specialized for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO(2, which acts as a cue to elicit behavioral responses and is also an internally generated product of respiration that regulates animal physiology. In many organisms how such neurons detect CO(2 is poorly understood. We report here a mechanism that endows C. elegans neurons with the ability to detect CO(2. The ETS-5 transcription factor is necessary for the specification of CO(2-sensing BAG neurons. Expression of a single ETS-5 target gene, gcy-9, which encodes a receptor-type guanylate cyclase, is sufficient to bypass a requirement for ets-5 in CO(2-detection and transforms neurons into CO(2-sensing neurons. Because ETS-5 and GCY-9 are members of gene families that are conserved between nematodes and vertebrates, a similar mechanism might act in the specification of CO(2-sensing neurons in other phyla.

  10. The Impact of Degree of Exposure to Violent Video Games, Family Background, and Other Factors on Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Whitney; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    Despite decades of study, no scholarly consensus has emerged regarding whether violent video games contribute to youth violence. Some skeptics contend that small correlations between violent game play and violence-related outcomes may be due to other factors, which include a wide range of possible effects from gender, mental health, and social influences. The current study examines this issue with a large and diverse (49 % white, 21 % black, 18 % Hispanic, and 12 % other or mixed race/ethnicity; 51 % female) sample of youth in eighth (n = 5133) and eleventh grade (n = 3886). Models examining video game play and violence-related outcomes without any controls tended to return small, but statistically significant relationships between violent games and violence-related outcomes. However, once other predictors were included in the models and once propensity scores were used to control for an underlying propensity for choosing or being allowed to play violent video games, these relationships vanished, became inverse, or were reduced to trivial effect sizes. These results offer further support to the conclusion that video game violence is not a meaningful predictor of youth violence and, instead, support the conclusion that family and social variables are more influential factors.

  11. Genome-wide classification and evolutionary and expression analyses of citrus MYB transcription factor families in sweet orange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jin Hou

    Full Text Available MYB family genes are widely distributed in plants and comprise one of the largest transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and defense responses of plants. To date, few MYB genes and little expression profiling have been reported for citrus. Here, we describe and classify 177 members of the sweet orange MYB gene (CsMYB family in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. According to these analyses, these CsMYBs were categorized into four groups (4R-MYB, 3R-MYB, 2R-MYB and 1R-MYB. Gene structure analysis revealed that 1R-MYB genes possess relatively more introns as compared with 2R-MYB genes. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that these CsMYBs are distributed across nine chromosomes. Sweet orange includes a relatively small number of MYB genes compared with the 198 members in Arabidopsis, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative studies of CsMYBs and Arabidopsis showed that CsMYBs had fewer gene duplication events. Expression analysis revealed that the MYB gene family has a wide expression profile in sweet orange development and plays important roles in development and stress responses. In addition, 337 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were also identified from the 177 CsMYBs. These results provide a useful reference for the selection of candidate MYB genes for cloning and further functional analysis forcitrus.

  12. Genome-wide classification and evolutionary and expression analyses of citrus MYB transcription factor families in sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Jin; Li, Si-Bei; Liu, Sheng-Rui; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    MYB family genes are widely distributed in plants and comprise one of the largest transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and defense responses of plants. To date, few MYB genes and little expression profiling have been reported for citrus. Here, we describe and classify 177 members of the sweet orange MYB gene (CsMYB) family in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. According to these analyses, these CsMYBs were categorized into four groups (4R-MYB, 3R-MYB, 2R-MYB and 1R-MYB). Gene structure analysis revealed that 1R-MYB genes possess relatively more introns as compared with 2R-MYB genes. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that these CsMYBs are distributed across nine chromosomes. Sweet orange includes a relatively small number of MYB genes compared with the 198 members in Arabidopsis, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative studies of CsMYBs and Arabidopsis showed that CsMYBs had fewer gene duplication events. Expression analysis revealed that the MYB gene family has a wide expression profile in sweet orange development and plays important roles in development and stress responses. In addition, 337 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were also identified from the 177 CsMYBs. These results provide a useful reference for the selection of candidate MYB genes for cloning and further functional analysis forcitrus.

  13. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of auxin response factor (ARF gene family in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yirong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auxin signaling is vital for plant growth and development, and plays important role in apical dominance, tropic response, lateral root formation, vascular differentiation, embryo patterning and shoot elongation. Auxin Response Factors (ARFs are the transcription factors that regulate the expression of auxin responsive genes. The ARF genes are represented by a large multigene family in plants. The first draft of full maize genome assembly has recently been released, however, to our knowledge, the ARF gene family from maize (ZmARF genes has not been characterized in detail. Results In this study, 31 maize (Zea mays L. genes that encode ARF proteins were identified in maize genome. It was shown that maize ARF genes fall into related sister pairs and chromosomal mapping revealed that duplication of ZmARFs was associated with the chromosomal block duplications. As expected, duplication of some ZmARFs showed a conserved intron/exon structure, whereas some others were more divergent, suggesting the possibility of functional diversification for these genes. Out of these 31 ZmARF genes, 14 possess auxin-responsive element in their promoter region, among which 7 appear to show small or negligible response to exogenous auxin. The 18 ZmARF genes were predicted to be the potential targets of small RNAs. Transgenic analysis revealed that increased miR167 level could cause degradation of transcripts of six potential targets (ZmARF3, 9, 16, 18, 22 and 30. The expressions of maize ARF genes are responsive to exogenous auxin treatment. Dynamic expression patterns of ZmARF genes were observed in different stages of embryo development. Conclusions Maize ARF gene family is expanded (31 genes as compared to Arabidopsis (23 genes and rice (25 genes. The expression of these genes in maize is regulated by auxin and small RNAs. Dynamic expression patterns of ZmARF genes in embryo at different stages were detected which suggest that maize ARF genes may

  14. Association between intake of dairy products and short-term memory with and without adjustment for genetic and family environmental factors: A twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Soshiro; Tanaka, Haruka; Omura, Kayoko; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated associations between intake of dairy products and better cognitive function and reduced risk of dementia. However, these studies did not adjust for genetic and family environmental factors that may influence food intake, cognitive function, and metabolism of dairy product nutrients. In the present study, we investigated the association between intake of dairy products and short-term memory with and without adjustment for almost all genetic and family environmental factors using a genetically informative sample of twin pairs. A cross-sectional study was conducted among twin pairs aged between 20 and 74. Short-term memory was assessed as primary outcome variable, intake of dairy products was analyzed as the predictive variable, and sex, age, education level, marital status, current smoking status, body mass index, dietary alcohol intake, and medical history of hypertension or diabetes were included as possible covariates. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were performed by treating twins as individuals and regression analyses were used to identify within-pair differences of a twin pair to adjust for genetic and family environmental factors. Data are reported as standardized coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were performed on data from 78 men and 278 women. Among men, high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with better short-term memory after adjustment for the possible covariates (standardized coefficients = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.38) and almost all genetic and family environmental factors (standardized coefficients = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07-0.69). Among women, no significant associations were found between intake of dairy products and short-term memory. Subsequent sensitivity analyses were adjusted for small samples and showed similar results. Intake of dairy product may prevent cognitive declines regardless of genetic and family environmental factors in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  15. Mutations in the Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1β Gene Are Associated with Familial Hypoplastic Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Coralie; Bulman, Michael P.; Ellard, Sian; Allen, Lisa I. S.; Lipkin, Graham W.; Hoff, William G. van't; Woolf, Adrian S.; Rizzoni, Gianfranco; Novelli, Giuseppe; Nicholls, Anthony J.; Hattersley, Andrew T.

    2001-01-01

    Familial glomerulocystic kidney disease (GCKD) is a dominantly inherited condition characterized by glomerular cysts and variable renal size and function; the molecular genetic etiology is unknown. Mutations in the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)–1β have been associated with early-onset diabetes and nondiabetic renal disease—particularly renal cystic disease. We investigated a possible role for the HNF-1β gene in four unrelated GCKD families and identified mutations in two families: a nonsense mutation in exon 1 (E101X) and a frameshift mutation in exon 2 (P159fsdelT). The family members with HNF-1β gene mutations had hypoplastic GCKD and early-onset diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. We conclude that there is genetic heterogeneity in familial GCKD and that the hypoplastic subtype is a part of the clinical spectrum of the renal cysts and diabetes syndrome that is associated with HNF-1β mutations. PMID:11085914

  16. The association of family and peer factors with tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among Chilean adolescents in neighborhood context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context, access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles in substance use. The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex, whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents. PMID:22224067

  17. Resilience factors associated with adaptation in families with deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlert, Ingrid A; Greeff, Abraham P

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to identify and explore resilience qualities that help protect and support families facing the adversity associated with having a child with hearing loss. The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation (M. A. McCubbin & H. I. McCubbin, 1993, 1996) provided the study's theoretical framework. The 54 participating families resided in Western Cape Province, South Africa, and were identified according to the nature of the crisis (having a child with hearing loss) and the family's developmental phase. Quantitative and qualitative measures were used for data collection. The results showed that family time and routines, social support, affirming communication, family hardiness, problem-solving skills, religion, a search for meaning, and acceptance of the child's hearing status were associated with family resilience. Strengthening these elements helps families to grow, meet challenges, and reestablish balance and harmony within the family system.

  18. [Family factors associated with co-dependency in nurses at a hospital in Cancun, Quintana Roo, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Amaro, Margarita; Martínez-Torres, Jorge; Ureña Bogarín, Enrique Leobardo

    2014-05-01

    Identifying family factors associated with the presence of co-dependency in nurses of a regional hospital in Cancún, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Cross-sectional, comparative study. City of Cancun (México). A random sample of 200nurses who met the inclusion criteria (having a partner for over a year, to be at work on the day of the interview), and who gave informed consent, completed three questionnaires during different shifts. Age, educational level, socioeconomic status, type of family structure, life cycle stage, co-dependency and family functioning. A total of 200nurses, with mean age of 36±8years, took part. The most common socioeconomic status was high (48%), and 47.5% had graduate studies. A co-dependency level of 20.5% (95%CI: 15-26.5) was found. Family factors associated with the presence of co-dependency were; family dysfunction, prevalence ratio (PR)=9.62 (95%CI: 3.47-27.3), stage of independence, PR=3.41 (95%CI: 1.44-7.86), single parent, PR=6.35 (95%CI: 2.41-16.68), and time with partner less than 5 years, PR=3.41 (95%CI: 1.54-7.85). It was found that family dysfunction and being a single parent were significantly associated with co-dependency in hospital nurses, therefore, on being able to identify these factors, family physicians can improve their dynamics and functioning by family study, and improving effective communication with nursing staff and their families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Whole-genome phylogenies of the family Bacillaceae and expansion of the sigma factor gene family in the Bacillus cereus species-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyer David W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group consists of six species (B. anthracis, B. cereus, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. thuringiensis, and B. weihenstephanensis. While classical microbial taxonomy proposed these organisms as distinct species, newer molecular phylogenies and comparative genome sequencing suggests that these organisms should be classified as a single species (thus, we will refer to these organisms collectively as the Bc species-group. How do we account for the underlying similarity of these phenotypically diverse microbes? It has been established for some time that the most rapidly evolving and evolutionarily flexible portions of the bacterial genome are regulatory sequences and transcriptional networks. Other studies have suggested that the sigma factor gene family of these organisms has diverged and expanded significantly relative to their ancestors; sigma factors are those portions of the bacterial transcriptional apparatus that control RNA polymerase recognition for promoter selection. Thus, examining sigma factor divergence in these organisms would concurrently examine both regulatory sequences and transcriptional networks important for divergence. We began this examination by comparison to the sigma factor gene set of B. subtilis. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the Bc species-group utilizing 157 single-copy genes of the family Bacillaceae suggests that several taxonomic revisions of the genus Bacillus should be considered. Within the Bc species-group there is little indication that the currently recognized species form related sub-groupings, suggesting that they are members of the same species. The sigma factor gene family encoded by the Bc species-group appears to be the result of a dynamic gene-duplication and gene-loss process that in previous analyses underestimated the true heterogeneity of the sigma factor content in the Bc species-group. Conclusions Expansion of the sigma factor gene family

  20. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in migrants participating in the PEP family heart study, Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adults and their children from the 3 major groups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study [11] and to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants and German participants. Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children, 363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and German immigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were compared with age and gender adjusted German (GER resi-dents (3253 children, 2491 adults. Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regarding specificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was as follows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; in TUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men 48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women 25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men 13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women 28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46% and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%. About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were current smokers and one third of women and half of men from these two countries were over-weight. Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and it should consider the ethnic differences and the heterogene-ous risk profiles.