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Sample records for factors efs based

  1. Protein synthesis alongation factors EF-Tu and eEF1A: biosynthesis, functions and application in the improvement of heat tolerance in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein synthesis elongation factors EF-Tu and eEF1A (EFs) represent a group of highly conserved and abundant GTPases with an important role in transporting the aminoacyl-tRNA complex to the A site of the ribosome during elongation phase of translation. EF-Tu proteins are located in bacteria and, du...

  2. Tomato EF-Ts(mt), a functional mitochondrial translation elongation factor from higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benichou, Mohamed; Li, Zhengguo; Tournier, Barthélémy; Chaves, Ana; Zegzouti, Hicham; Jauneau, Alain; Delalande, Corinne; Latché, Alain; Bouzayen, Mondher; Spremulli, Linda L; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2003-10-01

    Ethylene-induced ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) resulted in the accumulation of a transcript designated LeEF-Ts(mt) that encodes a protein with significant homology to bacterial Ts translational elongation factor (EF-Ts). Transient expression in tobacco and sunflower protoplasts of full-length and truncated LeEF-Ts(mt)-GFP fusion constructs and confocal microscopy observations clearly demonstrated the targeting of LeEF-Ts(mt) to mitochondria and not to chloroplasts and the requirement for a signal peptide for the proper sorting of the protein. Escherichia coli recombinant LeEF-Ts(mt) co-eluted from Ni-NTA resins with a protein corresponding to the molecular weight of the elongation factor EF-Tu of E. coli, indicating an interaction with bacterial EF-Tu. Increasing the GDP concentration in the extraction buffer reduced the amount of EF-Tu in the purified LeEF-Ts(mt) fraction. The purified LeEF-Ts(mt) stimulated the poly(U)-directed polymerization of phenylalanine 10-fold in the presence of EF-Tu. Furthermore, LeEF-Ts(mt) was capable of catalysing the nucleotide exchange reaction with E. coli EF-Tu. Altogether, these data demonstrate that LeEF-Ts(mt) encodes a functional mitochondrial EF-Ts. LeEF-Ts(mt) represents the first mitochondrial elongation factor to be isolated and functionally characterized in higher plants.

  3. Sordarin derivatives induce a novel conformation of the yeast ribosome translocation factor eEF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Rikke; Mosley, R.T.; Justice, M.

    2007-01-01

    The sordarins are fungal specific inhibitors of the translation factor eEF2, which catalyses the translocation of tRNA and mRNA after peptide bond formation. We have determined the crystal structures of eEF2 in complex with two novel sordarin derivatives. In both structures, the three domains of ......-ray structures of eEF2, EF-G and an EF-G homologue, we suggest that the conformation of EF-G stalled on the 70S ribosome by fusidic acid is similar to that of eEF2 trapped on the 80S ribosome by sordarin....

  4. Purification and crystallization of the yeast translation elongation factor eEF3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Folsted; Anand, Monika; Boesen, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing full-length histidine-tagged translation elongation factor 3 (eEF3) as the only form of the protein facilitated purification of the factor for both structural and functional studies. Additionally, an identical full-length form has been successfully...

  5. Elongation Factor-Tu (EF-Tu) proteins structural stability and bioinformatics in ancestral gene reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehipawala, Sunil; Nguyen, A.; Tremberger, G.; Cheung, E.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Holden, T.; Cheung, T.

    2013-09-01

    A paleo-experimental evolution report on elongation factor EF-Tu structural stability results has provided an opportunity to rewind the tape of life using the ancestral protein sequence reconstruction modeling approach; consistent with the book of life dogma in current biology and being an important component in the astrobiology community. Fractal dimension via the Higuchi fractal method and Shannon entropy of the DNA sequence classification could be used in a diagram that serves as a simple summary. Results from biomedical gene research provide examples on the diagram methodology. Comparisons between biomedical genes such as EEF2 (elongation factor 2 human, mouse, etc), WDR85 in epigenetics, HAR1 in human specificity, DLG1 in cognitive skill, and HLA-C in mosquito bite immunology with EF Tu DNA sequences have accounted for the reported circular dichroism thermo-stability data systematically; the results also infer a relatively less volatility geologic time period from 2 to 3 Gyr from adaptation viewpoint. Comparison to Thermotoga maritima MSB8 and Psychrobacter shows that Thermus thermophilus HB8 EF-Tu calibration sequence could be an outlier, consistent with free energy calculation by NUPACK. Diagram methodology allows computer simulation studies and HAR1 shows about 0.5% probability from chimp to human in terms of diagram location, and SNP simulation results such as amoebic meningoencephalitis NAF1 suggest correlation. Extensions to the studies of the translation and transcription elongation factor sequences in Megavirus Chiliensis, Megavirus Lba and Pandoravirus show that the studied Pandoravirus sequence could be an outlier with the highest fractal dimension and lowest entropy, as compared to chicken as a deviant in the DNMT3A DNA methylation gene sequences from zebrafish to human and to the less than one percent probability in computer simulation using the HAR1 0.5% probability as reference. The diagram methodology would be useful in ancestral gene

  6. Bacterial elongation factors EF-Tu, their mutants, chimeric forms, and domains: isolation and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonák, J

    2007-04-15

    Prokaryotic elongation factors EF-Tu form a family of homologous, three-domain molecular switches catalyzing the binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to ribosomes during the process of mRNA translation. They are GTP-binding proteins, or GTPases. Binding of GTP or GDP regulates their conformation and thus their activity. Because of their particular structure and regulation, various activities (also outside of the translation system) and a relative abundance they represent attractive tools for studies of many basic but still not fully understood mechanisms both of the translation process, the structure-function relationships in EF-Tu molecules themselves and proteins and energy transduction mechanisms in general. The review critically summarizes procedures for the isolation and purification of native and engineered eubacterial elongation factors EF-Tu and their mutants on a large as well as small scale. Current protocols for the purification of both native and polyHis-tagged or glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged EF-Tu proteins and their variants using conventional procedures and the Ni-NTA-Agarose or Glutathione Sepharose are presented.

  7. Isolation and characterization of three cassava elongation factor 1 alpha (MeEF1A promoters.

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    Sony Suhandono

    Full Text Available In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A gene family.Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A5 and MeEF1A6 were successfully isolated [corrected]. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5'UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum, tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum and banana fruits (Musa acuminata. We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants.

  8. Purification and characterization of tagless recombinant human elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczyk, Olga; Tavares, Clint D J; Devkota, Ashwini K; Ryazanov, Alexey G; Turk, Benjamin E; Riggs, Austen F; Ozpolat, Bulent; Dalby, Kevin N

    2011-10-01

    The eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) modulates the rate of protein synthesis by impeding the elongation phase of translation by inactivating the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) via phosphorylation. eEF-2K is known to be activated by calcium and calmodulin, whereas the mTOR and MAPK pathways are suggested to negatively regulate kinase activity. Despite its pivotal role in translation regulation and potential role in tumor survival, the structure, function, and regulation of eEF-2K have not been described in detail. This deficiency may result from the difficulty of obtaining the recombinant kinase in a form suitable for biochemical analysis. Here we report the purification and characterization of recombinant human eEF-2K expressed in the Escherichia coli strain Rosetta-gami 2(DE3). Successive chromatography steps utilizing Ni-NTA affinity, anion-exchange, and gel filtration columns accomplished purification. Cleavage of the thioredoxin-His(6)-tag from the N-terminus of the expressed kinase with TEV protease yielded 9 mg of recombinant (G-D-I)-eEF-2K per liter of culture. Light scattering shows that eEF-2K is a monomer of ∼85 kDa. In vitro kinetic analysis confirmed that recombinant human eEF-2K is able to phosphorylate wheat germ eEF-2 with kinetic parameters comparable to the mammalian enzyme.

  9. Targeting elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed A; Abdel-Aziz, Abdel-Aziz H; Mansour, Ahmed M; Alpay, S Neslihan; Huo, Longfei; Ozpolat, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) is one of the most aggressive, apoptosis-resistant and currently incurable cancers with a poor survival rate. Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) is an atypical kinase, whose role in PaCa survival is not yet known. Here, we show that eEF-2K is overexpressed in PaCa cells and its down-regulation induces apoptotic cell death. Rottlerin (ROT), a polyphenolic compound initially identified as a PKC-δ inhibitor, induces apoptosis and autophagy in a variety of cancer cells including PaCa cells. We demonstrated that ROT induces intrinsic apoptosis, with dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and stimulates extrinsic apoptosis with concomitant induction of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, DR4 and DR5, with caspase-8 activation, in PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 cells. Notably, while none of these effects were dependent on PKC-δ inhibition, ROT down-regulates eEF-2K at mRNA level, and induce eEF-2K protein degradation through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Down-regulation of eEF-2K recapitulates the events observed after ROT treatment, while its over-expression suppressed the ROT-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, eEF-2K regulates the expression of tissue transglutaminase (TG2), an enzyme previously implicated in proliferation, drug resistance and survival of cancer cells. Inhibition of eEF-2K/TG2 axis leads to caspase-independent apoptosis which is associated with induction of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Collectively, these results indicate, for the first time, that the down-regulation of eEF-2K leads to induction of intrinsic, extrinsic as well as AIF-dependent apoptosis in PaCa cells, suggesting that eEF-2K may represent an attractive therapeutic target for the future anticancer agents in PaCa.

  10. Roles of Protein Synthesis Elongation Factor EF-Tu in Heat Tolerance in Plants

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    Jianming Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available EF-Tu proteins of plastids, mitochondria, and the cytosolic counterpart EF-1α in plants, as well as EF-Tu proteins of bacteria, are highly conserved and multifunctional. The functions of EF-Tu include transporting the aminoacyl-tRNA complex to the A site of the ribosome during protein biosynthesis; chaperone activity in protecting other proteins from aggregation caused by environmental stresses, facilitating renaturation of proteins when conditions return to normal; displaying a protein disulfide isomerase activity; participating in the degradation of N-terminally blocked proteins by the proteasome; eliciting innate immunity and triggering resistance to pathogenic bacteria in plants; participating in transcription when an E. coli host is infected with phages. EF-Tu genes are upregulated by abiotic stresses in plants, and EF-Tu plays important role in stress responses. Expression of a plant EF-Tu gene confers heat tolerance in E. coli, maize knock-out EF-Tu null mutants are heat susceptible, and over-expression of an EF-Tu gene improves heat tolerance in crop plants. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge of EF-Tu proteins in stress responses in plants and progress on application of EF-Tu for developing crop varieties tolerant to abiotic stresses, such as high temperatures.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Elongation Factor 1-Alpha (TgEF-1α) Is a Novel Vaccine Candidate Antigen against Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhenchao; Wang, Yujian; Gadahi, Javaid A.; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Li, Xiangrui

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular parasite which can infect almost all warm-blood animals, leading to toxoplasmosis. Screening and discovery of an effective vaccine candidate or new drug target is crucial for the control of this disease. In this study, the recombinant T. gondii elongation factor 1-alpha (rTgEF-1α) was successfully expressed in in Escherichia coli. Passive immunization of mice with anti-rTgEF-1α polyclonal antibody following challenge with a lethal dose of tachyzoites significantly increased the survival time compared with PBS control group. The survival time of mice challenged with tachyzoites pretreated with anti-rTgEF-1α PcAb also was significantly increased. Invasion of tachyzoites into mouse macrophages was significantly inhibited in the anti-rTgEF-1α PcAb pretreated group. Mice vaccinated with rTgEF-1α induced a high level of specific anti-T. gondii antibodies and production of IFN-gamma, interleukin-4. The expression levels of MHC-I and MHC-II molecules as well as the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in mice vaccinated with rTgEF-1α was significantly increased, respectively (P < 0.05), compared with all the controls. Immunization with rTgEF-1α significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged survival time (14.53 ± 1.72 days) after challenge infection with the virulent T. gondii RH strain. These results indicate that T. gondii EF-1α plays an essential role in mediating host cell invasion by the parasite and, as such, could be a candidate vaccine antigen against toxoplasmosis.

  12. Decoding the biosynthesis and function of diphthamide, an enigmatic modification of translation elongation factor 2 (EF2

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    Raffael Schaffrath

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diphthamide is a highly conserved modification of archaeal and eukaryal translation elongation factor 2 (EF2 and yet why cells need EF2 to contain diphthamide is unclear. In yeast, the first steps of diphthamide synthesis and the genes (DPH1-DPH5 required to form the intermediate diphthine are well-documented. However, the last step, amidadation of diphthine to diphthamide, had largely been ill-defined. Remarkably, through mining genome-wide synthetic gene array (SGA and chemical genomics databases, recent studies by Uthman et al. [PLoS Genetics (2013 9, e1003334] and Su et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2012 109, 19983-19987] have identified two more diphthamide players, DPH6 and DPH7. Consistent with roles in the amidation step, dph6 and dph7 deletion strains fail to complete diphthamide synthesis and accumulate diphthine-modified EF2. In contrast to Dph6, the catalytically relevant amidase, Dph7 appears to be regulatory. As shown by Uthman et al., it promotes dissociation of diphthine synthase (Dph5 from EF2, allowing diphthine amidation by Dph6 to occur and thereby coupling diphthine synthesis to the terminal step in the pathway. Remarkably, the study by Uthman et al. suggests that Dph5 has a novel role as an EF2 inhibitor that affects cell growth when diphthamide synthesis is blocked or incomplete and, importantly, shows that diphthamide promotes the accuracy of EF2 performance during translation.

  13. 真核延长因子eEF1A功能研究进展%Advance in function of the eukaryotic elongation factor eEF1A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程君; 芮耀诚

    2012-01-01

    真核延长因子( eEFs)是一类在蛋白质合成过程中发挥肽链延伸作用的重要分子,在真核生物体内它有eEF1和eEF2两个亚型.其中在肽链延伸过程中起主要作用的eEF1A是eEF1的一个亚型,它不但能促进氨酰基-tRNA( aa-tRNA)与核糖体的A位点结合,发挥肽链延伸功能;而且近年来大量的研究表明它在细胞凋亡、肿瘤的发生、细胞内信号转导及心血管系统的调节方面均发挥了重要作用,而且这些作用与它在蛋白合成中的功能无关;这表明eEF1A是一个多功能蛋白,能够成为一个潜在的疾病防治的靶点.本文就国内外近几年来有关eEF1A的研究做一综述,介绍真核延长因子eEF1A功能研究的进展.%Eukaryotic elongation factors (eEFs) was a kind of important molecules that assist in elongating the polypeptide chain in the protein biosynthesis of the organisms. It had two subtypes in eukaryotic organism : eEF1 and eEF2. One subtype of eEF1 : eEF1 A played the main functions in elongating the peptide chain, which carried the aminoacyl-tRNA ( aa-tRNA ) on the A site of the ri-bosome.and many studies indicated that eEFIA played another roles range from cell apoptosis,tumorigenesis,signal transduction to the regulation of the cardiovascular system, and these functions were not related to the protein synthesis. All of this demonstrated eEF1 A was a multifunction protein, which could be a potential target of the disease prevention and cure. The advance in function of the eukaryotic elongation factor eEFIA in recently years were introduced in this article.

  14. Polymorphisms in the mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor EF-G2mt/MEF2 compromise cell respiratory function and increase atorvastatin toxicity.

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    Sylvie Callegari

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial translation, essential for synthesis of the electron transport chain complexes in the mitochondria, is governed by nuclear encoded genes. Polymorphisms within these genes are increasingly being implicated in disease and may also trigger adverse drug reactions. Statins, a class of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors used to treat hypercholesterolemia, are among the most widely prescribed drugs in the world. However, a significant proportion of users suffer side effects of varying severity that commonly affect skeletal muscle. The mitochondria are one of the molecular targets of statins, and these drugs have been known to uncover otherwise silent mitochondrial mutations. Based on yeast genetic studies, we identify the mitochondrial translation factor MEF2 as a mediator of atorvastatin toxicity. The human ortholog of MEF2 is the Elongation Factor Gene (EF-G 2, which has previously been shown to play a specific role in mitochondrial ribosome recycling. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA silencing of expression in human cell lines, we demonstrate that the EF-G2mt gene is required for cell growth on galactose medium, signifying an essential role for this gene in aerobic respiration. Furthermore, EF-G2mt silenced cell lines have increased susceptibility to cell death in the presence of atorvastatin. Using yeast as a model, conserved amino acid variants, which arise from non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the EF-G2mt gene, were generated in the yeast MEF2 gene. Although these mutations do not produce an obvious growth phenotype, three mutations reveal an atorvastatin-sensitive phenotype and further analysis uncovers a decreased respiratory capacity. These findings constitute the first reported phenotype associated with SNPs in the EF-G2mt gene and implicate the human EF-G2mt gene as a pharmacogenetic candidate gene for statin toxicity in humans.

  15. Mammalian translation elongation factor eEF1A2: X-ray structure and new features of GDP/GTP exchange mechanism in higher eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepin, Thibaut; Shalak, Vyacheslav F; Yaremchuk, Anna D; Vlasenko, Dmytro O; McCarthy, Andrew; Negrutskii, Boris S; Tukalo, Michail A; El'skaya, Anna V

    2014-11-10

    Eukaryotic elongation factor eEF1A transits between the GTP- and GDP-bound conformations during the ribosomal polypeptide chain elongation. eEF1A*GTP establishes a complex with the aminoacyl-tRNA in the A site of the 80S ribosome. Correct codon-anticodon recognition triggers GTP hydrolysis, with subsequent dissociation of eEF1A*GDP from the ribosome. The structures of both the 'GTP'- and 'GDP'-bound conformations of eEF1A are unknown. Thus, the eEF1A-related ribosomal mechanisms were anticipated only by analogy with the bacterial homolog EF-Tu. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the mammalian eEF1A2*GDP complex which indicates major differences in the organization of the nucleotide-binding domain and intramolecular movements of eEF1A compared to EF-Tu. Our results explain the nucleotide exchange mechanism in the mammalian eEF1A and suggest that the first step of eEF1A*GDP dissociation from the 80S ribosome is the rotation of the nucleotide-binding domain observed after GTP hydrolysis. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Neurite outgrowth mediated by translation elongation factor eEF1A1: a target for antiplatelet agent cilostazol.

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    Kenji Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Cilostazol, a type-3 phosphodiesterase (PDE3 inhibitor, has become widely used as an antiplatelet drug worldwide. A recent second Cilostazol Stroke Prevention Study demonstrated that cilostazol is superior to aspirin for prevention of stroke after an ischemic stroke. However, its precise mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Here, we report that cilostazol, but not the PDE3 inhibitors cilostamide and milrinone, significantly potentiated nerve growth factor (NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Furthermore, specific inhibitors for the endoplasmic reticulum protein inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3 receptors and several common signaling pathways (PLC-γ, PI3K, Akt, p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and the Ras/Raf/ERK/MAPK significantly blocked the potentiation of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth by cilostazol. Using a proteomics analysis, we identified that levels of eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A1 protein were significantly increased by treatment with cilostazol, but not cilostamide, in PC12 cells. Moreover, the potentiating effects of cilostazol on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth were significantly antagonized by treatment with eEF1A1 RNAi, but not the negative control of eEF1A1. These findings suggest that eEF1A1 and several common cellular signaling pathways might play a role in the mechanism of cilostazol-induced neurite outgrowth. Therefore, agents that can increase the eEF1A1 protein may have therapeutic relevance in diverse conditions with altered neurite outgrowth.

  17. The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A2 induces neoplastic properties and mediates tumorigenic effects of ZNF217 in precursor cells of human ovarian carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu; Wong, Nicholas; Guan, Yinghui; Salamanca, Clara M.; Cheng, Jung Chien; Lee, Jonathan M.; Gray, Joe W.; Auersperg, Nelly

    2008-04-25

    Ovarian epithelial carcinomas (OEC) frequently exhibit amplifications at the 20q13 locus which is the site of several oncogenes, including the eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A2 and the transcription factor ZNF217. We reported previously that overexpressed ZNF217 induces neoplastic characteristics in precursor cells of OEC. Unexpectedly, ZNF217, which is a transcriptional repressor, enhanced expression of eEF1A2. In this study, array comparative genomic hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism and Affymetrix analysis of ZNF217-overexpressing cell lines confirmed consistently increased expression of eEF1A2 but not of other oncogenes, and revealed early changes in EEF1A2 gene copy numbers and increased expression at crisis during immortalization. We defined the influence of eEF1A2 overexpression on immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells, and investigated interrelationships between effects of ZNF217 and eEF1A2 on cellular phenotypes. Lentivirally induced eEF1A2 overexpression caused delayed crisis, apoptosis resistance and increases in serum-independence, saturation densities, and anchorage independence. siRNA to eEF1A2 reversed apoptosis resistance and reduced anchorage independence in eEF1A2-overexpressing lines. Remarkably, siRNA to eEF1A2 was equally efficient in inhibiting both anchorage independence and resistance to apoptosis conferred by ZNF217 overexpression. Our data define neoplastic properties that are caused by eEF1A2 in nontumorigenic ovarian cancer precursor cells, and suggest that eEF1A2 plays a role in mediating ZNF217-induced neoplastic progression.

  18. The PseEF efflux system is a virulence factor of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

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    Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2012-02-01

    An ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, called the PseEF efflux system, was identified at the left border of the syr-syp genomic island of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain B301D. The PseEF efflux system was located within a 3.3-kb operon that encodes a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (PseE), and an ABC-type cytoplasmic membrane protein (PseF). The PseEF efflux system exhibited amino acid homology to a putative ABC efflux system (MacAB) of E. coli W3104 with identities of 47.2% (i.e., PseE to MacA) and 57.6% (i.e., PseF to MacB). A nonpolar mutation within the pseF gene was generated by nptII insertional mutagenesis. The resultant mutant strain showed significant reduction in secretion of syringomycin (74%) and syringopeptin (71%), as compared to parental strain B301D. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to determine transcript levels of the syringomycin (syrB1) and syringopeptin (sypA) synthetase genes in strain B301D-HK7 (a pseF mutant). Expression of the sypA gene by mutant strain B301D-HK7 was approximately 6.9% as compared to that of parental strain B301D, while the syrB1 gene expression by mutant strain B301D-HK7 was nearly 14.6%. In addition, mutant strain B301D-HK7 was less virulent by approximately 67% than parental strain B301D in immature cherry fruits. Mutant strain B301D-HK7 was not reduced in resistance to any antibiotics used in this study as compared to parental strain B301D. Expression (transcript levels) of the pseF gene was induced approximately six times by strain B301D grown on syringomycin minimum medium (SRM) supplemented with the plant signal molecules arbutin and D-fructose (SRMAF), as compared to that of strain B301D grown on SRM (in the absence of plant signal molecules). In addition, during infection of bean plants by P. syringae pv. syringae strain B728a, expression of the pseF gene increased at 3 days after inoculation (dai). More than 180-fold induction was observed in transcript levels of the pseF gene by parental

  19. Dual-Polarimetric Radar-Based Tornado Debris Paths Associated with EF-4 and EF-5 Tornadoes over Northern Alabama During the Historic Outbreak of 27 April 2011

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    Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chrstopher J.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Knupp, Kevin R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Darden, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    An historic tornado and severe weather outbreak devastated much of the southeastern United States between 25 and 28 April 2011. On 27 April 2011, northern Alabama was particularly hard hit by a large number of tornadoes, including several that reached EF-4 and EF-5 on the Enhanced Fujita damage scale. In northern Alabama alone, there were approximately 100 fatalities and hundreds of more people who were injured or lost their homes during the havoc caused by these violent tornadic storms. Two long-track and violent (EF-4 and EF-5) tornadoes occurred within range of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR, C-band dual-polarimetric). A unique capability of dual-polarimetric radar is the near-real time identification of lofted debris associated with ongoing tornadoes on the ground. The focus of this paper is to analyze the dual-polarimetric radar-inferred tornado debris signatures and identify the associated debris paths of the long-track EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes near ARMOR. The relative locations of the debris and damage paths for each tornado will be ascertained by careful comparison of the ARMOR analysis with NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery of the tornado damage scenes and the National Weather Service tornado damage surveys. With the ongoing upgrade of the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler) operational network to dual-polarimetry and a similar process having already taken place or ongoing for many private sector radars, dual-polarimetric radar signatures of tornado debris promise the potential to assist in the situational awareness of government and private sector forecasters and emergency managers during tornadic events. As such, a companion abstract (Schultz et al.) also submitted to this conference explores The use of dual-polarimetric tornadic debris

  20. Selenium-based S-adenosylmethionine analog reveals the mammalian seven-beta-strand methyltransferase METTL10 to be an EF1A1 lysine methyltransferase.

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    Tadahiro Shimazu

    Full Text Available Lysine methylation has been extensively studied in histones, where it has been shown to provide specific epigenetic marks for the regulation of gene expression; however, the molecular mechanism and physiological function of lysine methylation in proteins other than histones remains to be fully addressed. To better understand the substrate diversity of lysine methylation, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM derivatives with alkyne-moieties have been synthesized. A selenium-based SAM analog, propargylic Se-adenosyl-l-selenomethionine (ProSeAM, has a wide spectrum of reactivity against various lysine methyltransferases (KMTs with sufficient stability to support enzymatic reactions in vitro. By using ProSeAM as a chemical probe for lysine methylation, we identified substrates for two seven-beta-strand KMTs, METTL21A and METTL10, on a proteomic scale in mammalian cells. METTL21A has been characterized as a heat shock protein (HSP-70 methyltransferase. Mammalian METTL10 remains functionally uncharacterized, although its ortholog in yeast, See1, has been shown to methylate the translation elongation factor eEF1A. By using ProSeAM-mediated alkylation followed by purification and quantitative MS analysis, we confirmed that METTL21A labels HSP70 family proteins. Furthermore, we demonstrated that METTL10 also methylates the eukaryotic elongation factor EF1A1 in mammalian cells. Subsequent biochemical characterization revealed that METTL10 specifically trimethylates EF1A1 at lysine 318 and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of METTL10 decreases EF1A1 methylation levels in vivo. Thus, our study emphasizes the utility of the synthetic cofactor ProSeAM as a chemical probe for the identification of non-histone substrates of KMTs.

  1. Characterization of novel peptide-specific antibodies against the translation elongation factor eEF1A2 and their application for cancer research

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    Shalak V. F.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We intend to characterize the new peptide-specific antibodies against the isoform 2 of translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A2 and determine its presence in the postoperative samples of human breast, lung and stomach tumor tissues. Methods. The analysis of antibody specificity was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry were used for the determination of the eEF1A2 in the human tumor samples, as well as in the samples of normal tissues surrounding tumors. Results. The antibodies obtained against the eEF1A2 specifically recognized this protein in the cell extracts and histological sections and did not cross-react with the elongation factor 1A isoform 1. eEF1A2 was revealed in the postoperative samples of breast, lung and stomach tumors as well as in the putative normal tissues surrounding tumors. Conclusions. The antibodies obtained against eEF1A2 are highly specific for the antigen and can be used for the immunological studies of tumors.

  2. Enrichment Factors (EF) on Superficial Sediments of Santos Estuarine System, Southeasthern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. S. M.; Salaroli, A. B.; Mahiques, M.; Figueira, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Baixada Santista, located at southeastern Brazilian coast, hosts the largest harbor of South America, it is also the third most heavily populated region in São Paulo state. Many industries and domestic sewage have been contaminating the environment with heavy metals and arsenic since industrial revolution. This has been a major concern worldwide due to its toxicity and persistence. Levels of metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Sc, V) and As were determinated on 180 samples of surface sediments, by acid digestion and quantified by ICP-OES to assess enrichment factors in order to know the anthropogenic contribution of the investigated elements. The levels of metals indicated absence of contamination, but a higher enrichment of As (approximately 9.5) near Bertioga city. Ni and Cr had values between 0.5 - 2.0, Cu and Zn between 0.6 - 4.0 and 0.9 - 7.5 for Pb. Despite As, all others metals showed higher enrichment in Santos - São Vicente Estuary, especially near Cubatão. The analysis of the enrichment factor of As indicate that these values could be due to natural processes of weathering and sedimentation, meanwhile the other metals could be from antropogenic sources, since thoses values were found near industrial area.

  3. Isoforms of elongation factor eEF1A may be differently regulated at post-transcriptional level in breast cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vislovukh A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A exists as two 98 % homologous isoforms: eEF1A1 (A1 and eEF1A2 (A2 which are tissue and development specific. Despite high homology in an open reading frame (ORF region, mRNAs coding for eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 are different in their untranslated regions (UTR, suggesting a possibility of their dissimilar post-transcriptional regulation. Aim. To analyze the existence of cis-acting motifs in the UTRs of EEF1A1/A2 mRNAs, to confirm the possibility of post-transcriptional control of eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 expression. Methods. An ensemble of bioinformatic methods was applied to predict regulatory motifs in the UTRs of EEF1A1/A2 mRNAs. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was employed to detect post-transcriptional regulation of eEF1A1/A2 expression. Results. Numerous regulatory motifs in the UTR of EEF1A1/A2 mRNAs were found bioinformatically. The experimental evidence was obtained for the existence of negative regulation of EEF1A1 and positive regulation of EEF1A2 mRNA in the model of breast cancer development. Conclusions. EEF1A1 and EEF1A2 mRNAs contain distinct motifs in the UTRs and are differently regulated in cancer suggesting the possibility of their control by different cellular signals.

  4. Distribution of capsular types and production of muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Smith, H.E.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Peperkamp, K.; Vecht, U.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus suis strains (n=411), isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries were serotyped using specific antisera against serotype 1 to 28, and were phenotyped on the basis of their muramidase-released-protein (MRP) and extracellular-factor protein (EF) production. Overall, S. suis

  5. Mapping the human translation elongation factor eEF1H complex using the yeast two-hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansilla, Francisco; Friis, Irene; Jadidi, Mandana;

    2002-01-01

    gamma. The first two subunits possess the nucleotide-exchange activity, whereas the role of the last remains poorly defined. In mammals, two active tissue-specific isoforms of eEF1A have been identified. The reason for this pattern of differential expression is unknown. Several models on the basis...

  6. Structural dissection of human translation elongation factor 1Bγ (eEF1Bγ: expression of full-length protein and its truncated forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trosiuk T. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To gain more insights into properties of the human translation elongation factor eEF1Bγ and its interaction with partners we intended to produce the full-length protein and its truncated forms. Methods. cDNAs encoding truncated forms of eEF1Bγ were generated by PCR amplification with respective primers and cloned into vectors providing polyhistidine, glutathione S-transferase or maltose binding protein tags. The recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. An aggregation state of the proteins was analyzed by analytical gel filtration. Results. The expression, purification and storage conditions for the full-length recombinant His-eEF1Bγ were optimized. Several truncated forms of eEF1Bγ were also expressed and purified to homogeneity. Two short variants of C-terminal domain comprising amino acids 263–437 or 228–437 were obtained in monomeric state. Two short variants of N-terminal domain comprising amino acids 1–33 or 1–230, fused with glutathione S-transferase, were obtained and estimated to be dimers by gel filtration. The mutants of N-terminal domain comprising amino acids 1–93 or 1–165, fused with maltose binding protein, were obtained as soluble high molecular weight aggregates only. Conclusions. The purified recombinant His-eEF1Bγ and several truncated forms of the protein were obtained and characterized. These protein variants will be used for further studies on the protein-protein interaction.

  7. Structural studies of EF-Tu complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jesper Sanderhoff

    2011-01-01

    elongation factor, EF-Ts, catalyse the dissociation of GDP from EF-Tu which in turn allows EF-Tu to bind another GTP molecule. The resulting EF-Tu:GTP complex is then cable of forming a ternary complex with a new aa-tRNA which can then associate with the ribosome. During my time as a Ph. D. student I have...... and in manuscript I. G. anatolicus is a hyperthermophilic bacteria isolated from a thermal vent. The structure of G. anatolicus EF-Ts has been determined in complex with E. coli EF-Tu by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.8 Å. The structure of G. anatolicus EF-Ts is more similar to the previously determined...... structures of E. coli and bovine mitochondrial EF-Ts rather than EF-Ts from the thermophilic bacteria T. thermophilus. The structure of G. anatolicus EF-Ts in complex with E. coli EF-Tu is presented in chapter 3 and in manuscript II. Mammalian mitochondria contain an independent genome which encodes 13...

  8. Structural rationale for the cross-resistance of tumor cells bearing the A399V variant of elongation factor eEF1A1 to the structurally unrelated didemnin B, ternatin, nannocystin A and ansatrienin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A.; Cortés-Cabrera, Álvaro; Gago, Federico

    2017-09-01

    At least four classes of structurally distinct natural products with potent antiproliferative activities target the translation elongation factor eEF1A1, which is best known as the G-protein that delivers amino acyl transfer RNAs (aa-tRNAs) to ribosomes during mRNA translation. We present molecular models in atomic detail that provide a common structural basis for the high-affinity binding of didemnin B, ternatin, ansatrienin B and nannocystin A to eEF1A1, as well as a rationale based on molecular dynamics results that accounts for the deleterious effect of replacing alanine 399 with valine. The proposed binding site, at the interface between domains I and III, is eminently hydrophobic and exists only in the GTP-bound conformation. Drug binding at this site is expected to disrupt neither loading of aa-tRNAs nor GTP hydrolysis but would give rise to stabilization of this particular conformational state, in consonance with reported experimental findings. The experimental solution of the three-dimensional structure of mammalian eEF1A1 has proved elusive so far and the highly homologous eEF1A2 from rabbit muscle has been crystallized and solved only as a homodimer in a GDP-bound conformation. Interestingly, in this dimeric structure the large interdomain cavity where the drugs studied are proposed to bind is occupied by a mostly hydrophobic α-helix from domain I of the same monomer. Since binding of this α-helix and any of these drugs to domain III of eEF1A(1/2) is, therefore, mutually exclusive and involves two distinct protein conformations, one intriguing possibility that emerges from our study is that the potent antiproliferative effect of these natural products may arise not only from inhibition of protein synthesis, which is the current dogma, but also from interference with some other non-canonical functions. From this standpoint, this type of drugs could be considered antagonists of eEF1A1/2 oligomerization, a hypothesis that opens up novel areas of research.

  9. Recent structural studies on Dom34/aPelota and Hbs1/aEF1α: important factors for solving general problems of ribosomal stall in translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kan; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    In the translation process, translating ribosomes usually move on an mRNA until they reach the stop codon. However, when ribosomes translate an aberrant mRNA, they stall. Then, ribosomes are rescued from the aberrant mRNA, and the aberrant mRNA is subsequently degraded. In eukaryotes, Pelota (Dom34 in yeast) and Hbs1 are responsible for solving general problems of ribosomal stall in translation. In archaea, aPelota and aEF1α, homologous to Pelota and Hbs1, respectively, are considered to be involved in that process. In recent years, great progress has been made in determining structures of Dom34/aPelota and Hbs1/aEF1α. In this review, we focus on the functional roles of Dom34/aPelota and Hbs1/aEF1α in ribosome rescue, based on recent structural studies of them. We will also present questions to be answered by future work.

  10. 中华绒螯蟹延伸因子EF-1δ基因全长cDNA克隆及表达%The full length cDNA cloning and expression of elongation factor 1δ from the Chinese mitten crab(Eriocheir sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭子好; 杨志刚; 刘志伟; 王瑶; 杨筱珍; 成永旭

    2012-01-01

    Elongation factor (EF) is a protein factor which plays roles in the peptide chain elongation in the process of protein synthesis, including elongation factor 1( EF-1) and elongation factor 2(EF-2). Elongation factor 1 consists of four subunits a, p, y and 8, and plays a key role in protein translation process. In this study, we cloned EF-1δ gene from Eriocheir sinensis using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and primers were designed according to the conserved sequence of elongation factor-1δ from Xenopus laevis. The full-length cDNA sequence of EF-1δ is 933 bp which codes 263 amino acid residues. And comparison results showed that the nucleotide homology of EF-1δ was 70% similar to Xenopus laevis and amino acid homology of EF-1δ was 54% similar to Danaus plexippus, using BLASTN and BLASTX software. The phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequence shows that EF-1δ has highest similarity with EF-1δ of Lepeophtheirus salmonis. The expression of the gene in different tissues and stages of E. sinensis was analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The result showed the EF-1δ mRNA was mainly detected in muscle and small amount in testis, hepatopancreas and trace in heart, ovary, stomach, intestine, gill. EF-1δ mRNA was detected with high level in muscles compared to hepatopancreas and gill in different developmental states of the crab, and displays significant difference at P<0.05. It also has significant difference at P<0.05 between muscles in different developmental states, and it was detected the highest expression in precocious crab, followed by mature crab and by a lower expression of crablet; And there is no significant expression difference between hepatopancreas and gill tissues in different developmental states.%根据非洲爪蟾延伸因子-1δ(elongation factor-1δ,EF-1δ)基因的保守序列设计引物,采用逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)以及cDNA末端

  11. Mitochondrial Respiration Inhibitors Suppress Protein Translation and Hypoxic Signaling via the Hyperphosphorylation and Inactivation of Translation Initiation Factor eIF2α and Elongation Factor eEF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Datta, Sandipan; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Over 20000 lipid extracts of plants and marine organisms were evaluated in a human breast tumor T47D cell-based reporter assay for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitory activity. Bioassay-guided isolation and dereplication-based structure elucidation of an active extract from the Bael tree (Aegle marmelos) afforded two protolimonoids, skimmiarepin A (1) and skimmiarepin C (2). In T47D cells, 1 and 2 inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 0.063 µM and 0.068 µM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also suppressed hypoxic induction of the HIF-1 target genes GLUT-1 and VEGF. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 and 2 inhibited HIF-1 activation by blocking the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1α protein. At the range of concentrations that inhibited HIF-1 activation, 1 and 2 suppressed cellular respiration by selectively inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I (NADH dehydrogenase). Further investigation indicated that mitochondrial respiration inhibitors such as 1 and rotenone induced the rapid hyperphosphorylation and inhibition of translation initiation factor eIF2α and elongation factor eEF2. The inhibition of protein translation may account for the short-term exposure effects exerted by mitochondrial inhibitors on cellular signaling, while the suppression of cellular ATP production may contribute to the inhibitory effects following extended treatment periods. PMID:21875114

  12. A Leader Intron of a Soybean Elongation Factor 1A (eEF1A) Gene Interacts with Proximal Promoter Elements to Regulate Gene Expression in Synthetic Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; McHale, Leah K; Finer, John J

    2016-01-01

    Introns, especially the first intron in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR), can significantly impact gene expression via intron-mediated enhancement (IME). In this study, we demonstrate the leader intron of a soybean elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) gene (GmScreamM8) was essential for the high activity of the native promoter. Furthermore, the interaction of the GmScreamM8 leader intron with regulatory element sequences from several soybean eEF1A promoters was studied using synthetic promoters, which consisted of element tetramers upstream of a core promoter used to regulate a green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter gene. Element tetramers, placed upstream of a GmScreamM8 core promoter, showed very high activity using both transient expression in lima bean cotyledons and stable expression in soybean hairy roots, only if the native leader intron was included, suggesting an interaction between intronic sequences and promoter elements. Partial deletions of the leader intron showed that a 222 bp intronic sequence significantly contributed to very high levels of GFP expression. Generation of synthetic intron variants with a monomeric or trimeric repeat of the 222 bp intronic sequence, yielded almost two-fold higher expression compared to the original intron, while partial deletion of the 222 bp intronic repeated sequence significantly decreased gene expression, indicating that this intronic sequence was essential for the intron-element interaction enhancement.

  13. The distribution of Elongation Factor-1 Alpha (EF-1alpha), Elongation Factor-Like (EFL), and a non-canonical genetic code in the ulvophyceae: discrete genetic characters support a consistent phylogenetic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gile, Gillian H; Novis, Philip M; Cragg, David S; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; Keeling, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    The systematics of the green algal class Ulvophyceae have been difficult to resolve with ultrastructural and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, we investigated relationships among ulvophycean orders by determining the distribution of two discrete genetic characters previously identified only in the order Dasycladales. First, Acetabularia acetabulum uses the core translation GTPase Elongation Factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) while most Chlorophyta instead possess the related GTPase Elongation Factor-Like (EFL). Second, the nuclear genomes of dasycladaleans A. acetabulum and Batophora oerstedii use a rare non-canonical genetic code in which the canonical termination codons TAA and TAG instead encode glutamine. Representatives of Ulvales and Ulotrichales were found to encode EFL, while Caulerpales, Dasycladales, Siphonocladales, and Ignatius tetrasporus were found to encode EF-1alpha, in congruence with the two major lineages previously proposed for the Ulvophyceae. The EF-1alpha of I. tetrasporus supports its relationship with Caulerpales/Dasycladales/Siphonocladales, in agreement with ultrastructural evidence, but contrary to certain small subunit rRNA analyses that place it with Ulvales/Ulotrichales. The same non-canonical genetic code previously described in A. acetabulum was observed in EF-1alpha sequences from Parvocaulis pusillus (Dasycladales), Chaetomorpha coliformis, and Cladophora cf. crinalis (Siphonocladales), whereas Caulerpales use the universal code. This supports a sister relationship between Siphonocladales and Dasycladales and further refines our understanding of ulvophycean phylogeny.

  14. Cloning and Characterization of EF-Tu and EF-Ts from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie O. Palmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have cloned genes encoding elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-Ts from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and expressed and purified the proteins to greater than 95% homogeneity. Sequence analysis indicated that P. aeruginosa EF-Tu and EF-Ts are 84% and 55% identical to E. coli counterparts, respectively. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active when assayed in GDP exchange assays. Kinetic parameters for the interaction of EF-Tu with GDP in the absence of EF-Ts were observed to be = 33 μM, = 0.003 s−1, and the specificity constant was  s−1 μM−1. In the presence of EF-Ts, these values were shifted to = 2 μM, = 0.005 s−1, and the specificity constant was  s−1 μM−1. The equilibrium dissociation constants governing the binding of EF-Tu to GDP ( were 30–75 nM and to GTP ( were 125–200 nM. EF-Ts stimulated the exchange of GDP by EF-Tu 10-fold. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active in forming a ternary complex with GTP and aminoacylated tRNA and was functional in poly(U-dependent binding of Phe-tRNAPhe at the A-site of P. aeruginosa ribosomes. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active in poly(U-programmed polyphenylalanine protein synthesis system composed of all P. aeruginosa components.

  15. Cercozoa comprises both EF-1α-containing and EFL-containing members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Yabuki, Akinori; Nakayama, Takuro; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Inagaki, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and elongation factor-like protein (EFL) are considered to be functionally equivalent proteins involved in peptide synthesis. Eukaryotes can be fundamentally divided into 'EF-1α-containing' and 'EFL-containing' types. Recently, EF-1α and EFL genes have been surveyed across the diversity of eukaryotes to explore the origin and evolution of EFL genes. Although the phylum Cercozoa is a diverse group, gene data for either EFL or EF-1α are absent from all cercozoans except chlorarachniophytes which were previously defined as EFL-containing members. Our survey revealed that two members of the cercozoan subphylum Filosa (Thaumatomastix sp. and strain YPF610) are EFL-containing members. Importantly, we identified EF-1α genes from two members of Filosa (Paracercomonas marina and Paulinella chromatophora) and a member of the other subphylum Endomyxa (Filoreta japonica). All cercozoan EFL homologues could not be recovered as a monophyletic group in maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses, suggesting that lateral gene transfer was involved in the EFL evolution in this protist assemblage. In contrast, EF-1α analysis successfully recovered a monophyly of three homologues sampled from the two cercozoan subphyla. Based on the results, we postulate that cercozoan EF-1α genes have been vertically inherited, and the current EFL-containing species may have secondarily lost their EF-1α genes.

  16. Expression of the mucus adhesion genes Mub and MapA, adhesion-like factor EF-Tu and bacteriocin gene plaA of Lactobacillus plantarum 423, monitored with real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiah, K; van Reenen, C A; Dicks, L M T

    2007-05-30

    Expression of the mucus adhesion genes Mub and MapA, adhesion-like factor EF-Tu and bacteriocin gene plaA by Lactobacillus plantarum 423, grown in the presence of bile, pancreatin and at low pH, was studied by real-time PCR. Mub, MapA and EF-Tu were up-regulated in the presence of mucus, proportional to increasing concentrations. Expression of MapA was up-regulated in the presence of 3.0 g/l bile and 3.0 g/l pancreatin at pH 6.5. Similar results were recorded in the presence of 10.0 g/l bile and 10.0 g/l pancreatin at pH 6.5. Expression of Mub was down-regulated in the presence of bile and pancreatin, whilst the expression of EF-Tu and plaA remained unchanged. Expression of Mub and MapA remained unchanged at pH 4.0, whilst expression of EF-Tu and plaA were up-regulated. Expression of MapA was down-regulated in the presence of 1.0 g/l l-cysteine HCl, suggesting that the gene is regulated by transcription attenuation that involves cysteine.

  17. Education for Sustainability (EfS): Practice and Practice Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmis, Stephen; Mutton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports some findings from an investigation of educational practice in ten (formal and informal) education for sustainability (EfS) initiatives, to characterise exemplary practice in school and community education for sustainability, considered crucial to Australia's future. The study focused on rural/regional Australia, specifically…

  18. Heat-Killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis in a Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Ju Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have shown the immunomodulatory effect of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria. Atopic dermatitis (AD is an allergic skin disease, caused by immune dysregulation among other factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 (EF-2001 on AD. We established an in vivo AD model by repeated local exposure of Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE; house dust mite extract and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB to the ears of mice. After oral administration of EF-2001 for four weeks, the epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured. In addition, the gene expression levels of pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes were assayed. EF-2001 attenuated AD symptoms based on the ear thickness, histopathological analysis, and serum immunoglobulin levels. Moreover, EF-2001 decreased the DFE/DNCB-induced expression of various pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes. These results suggest that EF-2001 has therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD owing to its immunomodulatory effects.

  19. Chloroplast EF-Tu and thermal aggregation of Rubisco activase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, has been implicated in heat tolerance in maize. The recombinant precursor of this protein, pre-EF-Tu, has been found to exhibit chaperone activity and protect heat-labile proteins, such as citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase, from therma...

  20. Specific interaction between EF-G and RRF and its implication for GTP-dependent ribosome splitting into subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ning; Zavialov, Andrey V.; Ehrenberg, Måns; Frank, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Summary After termination of protein synthesis, the bacterial ribosome is split into its 30S and 50S subunits by the action of ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G (EF-G) in a GTP-hydrolysis dependent manner. Based on a previous cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) study of ribosomal complexes, we have proposed that the binding of EF-G to an RRF containing post-termination ribosome triggers an inter-domain rotation of RRF, which destabilizes two strong intersubunit bridges (B2a and B3) and, ultimately, separates the two subunits. Here, we present a 9 Å (FSC at 0.5 cutoff) cryo-EM map of a 50S EFG GDPNP RRF complex and a quasi-atomic model derived from it, showing the interaction between EF-G and RRF on the 50S subunit in the presence of the non-cleavable GTP analogue GDPNP. The detailed information in this model and a comparative analysis of EF-G structures in various nucleotide- and ribosome-bound states show how rotation of the RRF head domain may be triggered by various domains of EF-G. For validation of our structural model, all known mutations in EF-G and RRF that relate to ribosome recycling have been taken into account. More importantly, our results indicate a substantial conformational change in the Switch I region of EF-G, suggesting that a conformational signal transduction mechanism, similar to that employed in tRNA translocation on the ribosome by EF-G, translates a large-scale movement of EF-G’s domain IV, induced by GTP hydrolysis, into the domain rotation of RRF that eventually splits the ribosome into subunits. PMID:17996252

  1. Structure of eEF3 and the mechanism of transfer RNA release from the E-site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Becker, T.; Blau, M.;

    2006-01-01

    Elongation factor eEF3 is an ATPase, which, in addition to the two canonical factors eEF1A and eEF2, serves an essential function in the translation cycle of fungi. eEF3 is required for the binding of the aatRNA-eEF1A-GTP ternary complex to the ribosomal A-site and has been suggested to facilitat...

  2. Application of Eukaryotic Elongation Factor-2 Kinase (eEF-2K) for Cancer Therapy: Expression, Purification, and High-Throughput Inhibitor Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Clint D J; Devkota, Ashwini K; Dalby, Kevin N; Cho, Eun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases have emerged as an important class of therapeutic targets, as they are known to be involved in pathological pathways linked to numerous human disorders. Major efforts to discover kinase inhibitors in both academia and pharmaceutical companies have centered on the development of robust assays and cost-effective approaches to isolate them. Drug discovery procedures often start with hit identification for lead development, by screening a library of chemicals using an appropriate assay in a high-throughput manner. Considering limitations unique to each assay technique and screening capability, intelligent integration of various assay schemes and level of throughput, in addition to the choice of chemical libraries, is the key to success of this initial step. Here, we describe the purification of the protein kinase, eEF-2K, and the utilization of three biochemical assays in the course of identifying small molecules that block its enzymatic reaction.

  3. Impaired Myocardial Bioenergetics in HFpEF and the Role of Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Hiebert, John B.; Shen, Qiuhua; Thimmesch, Amanda; Pierce, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a significant cardiovascular condition for more than 50% of patients with heart failure. Currently, there is no effective treatment to decrease morbidity and mortality rates associated with HFpEF because of its pathophysiological heterogeneity. Recent evidence shows that deficiency in myocardial bioenergetics is one of the key pathophysiological factors contributing to diastolic dysfunction in HFpEF. Another known mechanism for HFpEF i...

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Population-Based Study in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF has attracted increasing attention worldwide. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of HFpEF and analyze its correlates in a sample of residents of northeast China; Methods: A population-based study of 2230 participants ≥35 years old was conducted in rural areas of Liaoning Province from January 2012 through August 2013. Information about lifestyle and other potential risk factors was obtained. HFpEF was diagnosed according to the recommendations of European Society of Cardiology; Results: The overall prevalence of HFpEF was 3.5% (1.8% in men and 4.9% in women. The prevalence of HFpEF increased with age in both genders and was greater in women than in men for every age group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that female gender (OR, 3.575; 95% CI, 1.761–7.256, hypertension (OR, 3.711; 95% CI, 2.064–6.674, and history of heart disease (2.086; 95% CI, 1.243–3.498 were associated factors for prevalent HFpEF; Conclusions: In a general population from rural northeast China, we found that female gender, hypertension, and history of heart disease were risk factors for prevalent HFpEF.

  5. Synthesis of the EF-ring of ciguatoxin 3C based on the [2,3]-Wittig rearrangement and ring-closing olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akiyoshi; Fujiwara, Kenshu; Kawai, Ayako; Kawai, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Takanori

    2007-12-20

    The EF-ring segment of ciguatoxin 3C, a causative toxin of ciguatera fish poisoning, was synthesized in three major steps: 1,4-addition for the C20O-C27 bond connection, chirality transferring anti selective [2,3]-Wittig rearrangement for the construction of the anti-2-hydroxyalkyl ether part, and ring-closing olefin metathesis for the F-ring formation.

  6. Post-meal responses of elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to leucine and carbohydrate supplements for regulating protein synthesis duration and energy homeostasis in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gabriel J; Moulton, Christopher J; Garlick, Peter J; Anthony, Tracy G; Layman, Donald K

    2012-11-13

    Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu) and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g) male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0) or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270), 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80), 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6), 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0), or water (Sham control). Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0), but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to reduced

  7. Post-Meal Responses of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2 and Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK to Leucine and Carbohydrate Supplements for Regulating Protein Synthesis Duration and Energy Homeostasis in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald K. Layman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2. This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0 or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270, 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80, 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6, 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0, or water (Sham control. Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0, but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to

  8. Drivers and Blockers: Embedding Education for Sustainability (EfS) in Primary Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The growing emphasis on sustainability in school curricula in Australia reflects international trends in education. Teacher education is a vital strategy for the incorporation of Education for Sustainability (EfS) in school curricula. Research to identify drivers and barriers to embedding EfS across a primary teacher education program in an…

  9. Two programmed cell death systems in Escherichia coli: an apoptotic-like death is inhibited by the mazEF-mediated death pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Erental

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, the classical form of programmed cell death (PCD is apoptosis, which has as its specific characteristics DNA fragmentation and membrane depolarization. In Escherichia coli a different PCD system has been reported. It is mediated by the toxin-antitoxin system module mazEF. The E. coli mazEF module is one of the most thoroughly studied toxin-antitoxin systems. mazF encodes a stable toxin, MazF, and mazE encodes a labile antitoxin, MazE, which prevents the lethal effect of MazF. mazEF-mediated cell death is a population phenomenon requiring the quorum-sensing pentapeptide NNWNN designated Extracellular Death Factor (EDF. mazEF is triggered by several stressful conditions, including severe damage to the DNA. Here, using confocal microscopy and FACS analysis, we show that under conditions of severe DNA damage, the triggered mazEF-mediated cell death pathway leads to the inhibition of a second cell death pathway. The latter is an apoptotic-like death (ALD; ALD is mediated by recA and lexA. The mazEF-mediated pathway reduces recA mRNA levels. Based on these results, we offer a molecular model for the maintenance of an altruistic characteristic in cell populations. In our model, the ALD pathway is inhibited by the altruistic EDF-mazEF-mediated death pathway.

  10. The eEF1A proteins: at the crossroads of oncogenesis, apoptosis and viral infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eHerbein

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic translation elongation factors 1 alpha, eEF1A1 and eEF1A2, are not only translation factors, but also pleiotropic proteins that are highly expressed in human tumors, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer and lung cancer. eEF1A1 modulates cytoskeleton, exhibits chaperone-like activity and also controls cell proliferation and cell death. By contrast eEF1A2 protein favors oncogenesis as shown by the fact that overexpression of eEF1A2 leads to cellular transformation and gives rise to tumors in nude mice. The eEF1A2 protein stimulates the phospholipid signaling and activates the Akt-dependent cell migration and actin remodeling that ultimately favors tumorigenesis. By contrast, inactivation of eEF1A proteins leads to immunodeficiency, neural and muscular defects, and favors apoptosis. Finally, eEF1A proteins interact with several viral proteins resulting in enhanced viral replication, decreased apoptosis and increased cellular transformation. This review summarizes the recent findings on eEF1A proteins indicating that eEF1A proteins play a critical role in numerous human diseases through enhancement of oncogenesis, blockade of apoptosis and increased viral pathogenesis.

  11. Water Dischargers/IGD: EF_NPDES

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_NPL is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference EF_NPDES is a...

  12. Toxic Releases/IGD: EF_TRI

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_NPL is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference EF_TRI is a subset...

  13. Heart failure preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF): an integrated and strategic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekavich, Carolyn L; Barksdale, Debra J; Neelon, Virginia; Wu, Jia-Rong

    2015-11-01

    In the USA, 5.7 million Americans ≥20 years have heart failure (HF) and heart failure preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for at least 50 % of all hospital admissions for HF. HFpEF has no single guideline for diagnosis or treatment, the patient population is heterogeneously and inconsistently described, and longitudinal studies are lacking. The primary aims of this manuscript were to present an integrated review of the current state of the science on HFpEF, demonstrate gaps in the literature and provide the rationale for the design and implementation of future research to yield insights into the syndrome of HFpEF. The scientific literature was comprehensively reviewed on HFpEF pathophysiology, patient characteristics, diagnostic criteria, echocardiography biomarkers, treatment approaches and outcomes. Discrepancies in patient characteristics, diagnostic criteria, study methods and echocardiographic biomarkers were identified. This review indicates that no single test or guideline exists for diagnosis or treatment for HFpEF; heterogeneity of the population is complicated by multiple comorbidities that factor into etiology, race and age are likely important factors that define the phenotype, and limited information is available that designates early markers of impending HFpEF. Studies designed and adequately powered to study the impact of race and age along with consistent use of HFpEF diagnostic criteria are critically needed to further incident HFpEF research.

  14. Structure of eEF3 and the mechanism of transfer RNA release from the E-site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Becker, T.; Blau, M.

    2006-01-01

    Elongation factor eEF3 is an ATPase, which, in addition to the two canonical factors eEF1A and eEF2, serves an essential function in the translation cycle of fungi. eEF3 is required for the binding of the aatRNA-eEF1A-GTP ternary complex to the ribosomal A-site and has been suggested to facilitate......-bound form of eEF3 in complex with the post-translocational state 80S ribosome from yeast. eEF3 uses an entirely new factor binding site near the ribosomal E-site, with the chromodomain stabilizing the ribosomal L1 stalk in an open conformation, thus, allowing tRNA release....

  15. Labeled EF-Tus for rapid kinetic studies of pretranslocation complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Kavaliauskas, Darius; Schrader, Jared

    2014-01-01

    The universally conserved translation elongation factor EF-Tu delivers aminoacyl(aa)-tRNA in the form of an aa-tRNA·EF-Tu·GTP ternary complex (TC) to the ribosome where it binds to the cognate mRNA codon within the ribosomal A-site, leading to formation of a pretranslocation (PRE) complex. Here w...

  16. Biodistribution and dosimetry of 18F-EF5 in cancer patients with preliminary comparison of 18F-EF5 uptake versus EF5 binding in human glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Cameron J.; Scheuermann, Joshua S.; Divgi, Chaitanya; Judy, Kevin D.; Kachur, Alexander V.; Freifelder, Richard; Reddin, Janet S.; Karp, Joel; Stubbs, James B.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Driesbaugh, Jason; Smith, Deborah; Prendergast, Susan; Evans, Sydney M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to assess the biodistribution and radiation dose resulting from administration of 18F-EF5, a lipophilic 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker in ten cancer patients. For three of these patients (with glioblastoma) unlabeled EF5 was additionally administered to allow the comparative assessment of 18F-EF5 tumor uptake with EF5 binding, the latter measured in tumor biopsies by fluorescent anti-EF5 monoclonal antibodies. Methods 18F-EF5 was synthesized by electrophilic addition of 18F2 gas, made by deuteron bombardment of a neon/fluorine mixture in a high-pressure gas target, to an allyl precursor in trifluoroacetic acid at 0° then purified and administered by intravenous bolus. Three whole-body images were collected for each of ten patients using an Allegro (Philips) scanner. Gamma counts were determined in blood, drawn during each image, and urine, pooled as a single sample. PET images were analyzed to determine radiotracer uptake in several tissues and the resulting radiation dose calculated using OLINDA software and standard phantom. For three patients, 21 mg/kg unlabeled EF5 was administered after the PET scans, and tissue samples obtained the next day at surgery to determine EF5 binding using immunohistochemistry techniques (IHC). Results EF5 distributes evenly throughout soft tissue within minutes of injection. Its concentration in blood over the typical time frame of the study (~3.5 h) was nearly constant, consistent with a previously determined EF5 plasma half-life of ~13 h. Elimination was primarily via urine and bile. Radiation exposure from labeled EF5 is similar to other 18F-labeled imaging agents (e.g., FDG and FMISO). In a de novo glioblastoma multiforme patient, focal uptake of 18F-EF5 was confirmed by IHC. Conclusion These results confirm predictions of biodistribution and safety based on EF5's characteristics (high biological stability, high lipophilicity). EF5 is a novel hypoxia marker with unique

  17. Phylogeny of the bee genus Halictus (Hymenoptera: halictidae) based on parsimony and likelihood analyses of nuclear EF-1alpha sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, B N; Sauquet, H; Packer, L

    1999-12-01

    We investigated higher-level phylogenetic relationships within the genus Halictus based on parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) analysis of elongation factor-1alpha DNA sequence data. Our data set includes 41 OTUs representing 35 species of halictine bees from a diverse sample of outgroup genera and from the three widely recognized subgenera of Halictus (Halictus s.s., Seladonia, and Vestitohalictus). We analyzed 1513 total aligned nucleotide sites spanning three exons and two introns. Equal-weights parsimony analysis of the overall data set yielded 144 equally parsimonious trees. Major conclusions supported in this analysis (and in all subsequent analyses) included the following: (1) Thrincohalictus is the sister group to Halictus s.l., (2) Halictus s.l. is monophyletic, (3) Vestitohalictus renders Seladonia paraphyletic but together Seladonia + Vestitohalictus is monophyletic, (4) Michener's Groups 1 and 3 are monophyletic, and (5) Michener's Group 1 renders Group 2 paraphyletic. In order to resolve basal relationships within Halictus we applied various weighting schemes under parsimony (successive approximations character weighting and implied weights) and employed ML under 17 models of sequence evolution. Weighted parsimony yielded conflicting results but, in general, supported the hypothesis that Seladonia + Vestitohalictus is sister to Michener's Group 3 and renders Halictus s.s. paraphyletic. ML analyses using the GTR model with site-specific rates supported an alternative hypothesis: Seladonia + Vestitohalictus is sister to Halictus s.s. We mapped social behavior onto trees obtained under ML and parsimony in order to reconstruct the likely historical pattern of social evolution. Our results are unambiguous: the ancestral state for the genus Halictus is eusociality. Reversal to solitary behavior has occurred at least four times among the species included in our analysis. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Superfund/IGD: EF_NPL

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_NPL is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference Tables (LRT)...

  19. Air Emissions/IGD: EF_AFS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_AFS is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference Tables (LRT)...

  20. Brownfields/IGD: EF_ACRES

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_ACRES is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference Tables (LRT)...

  1. Hazardous Waste/IGD: EF_RCRA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_RCRA is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference Tables (LRT)...

  2. The Bright Symbiotic Mira EF Aquilae

    CERN Document Server

    Margon, Bruce; Tejos, Nicolas; Monroe, TalaWanda

    2016-01-01

    An incidental spectrum of the poorly studied long period variable EF Aquilae shows [O III] emission indicative of a symbiotic star. Strong GALEX detections in the UV reinforce this classification, providing overt evidence for the presence of the hot subluminous companion. Recent compilations of the photometric behavior strongly suggest that the cool component is a Mira variable. Thus EF Aql appears to be a member of the rare symbiotic Mira subgroup.

  3. Function and structure in phage Qbeta RNA replicase. Association of EF-Tu-Ts with the other enzyme subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumenthal, T; Young, R A; Brown, S

    1976-01-01

    Qbeta replicase is a complex of four nonidentical subunits readily dissociable into two subcomplexes: 30 S ribosomal protein S1 and the phage-coded polypeptide (Subunits I + II) and protein synthesis elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-Ts (Subunits III + IV). The affinity of the two subcomplexes...... of EF-Tu-Ts from the other enzyme subunits: whereas free EF-Tu-Ts binds GDP independently of salt concentration, this binding by Qbeta replicase is sensitive to high ionic strength and remains so in the presence of Qbeta RNA. Furthermore, RNA does not allow the release of EF-Ts from EF-Tu by GTP...... as measured by sensitivity of EF-Ts activity to N-ethylmaleimide....

  4. Impaired Myocardial Bioenergetics in HFpEF and the Role of Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, John B; Shen, Qiuhua; Thimmesch, Amanda; Pierce, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a significant cardiovascular condition for more than 50% of patients with heart failure. Currently, there is no effective treatment to decrease morbidity and mortality rates associated with HFpEF because of its pathophysiological heterogeneity. Recent evidence shows that deficiency in myocardial bioenergetics is one of the key pathophysiological factors contributing to diastolic dysfunction in HFpEF. Another known mechanism for HFpEF is an overproduction of free radicals, specifically reactive oxygen species. To reduce free radical formation, antioxidants are often used. This article is a summative review of the recent relevant literature that addresses cardiac bioenergetics, deficiency in myocardial bioenergetics, and increased reactive oxygen species associated with HFpEF and the promising potential use of antioxidants in managing this condition.

  5. Soothing the sleeping giant: improving skeletal muscle oxygen kinetics and exercise intolerance in HFpEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Satyam; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-09-15

    Patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have similar degrees of exercise intolerance and dyspnea as patients with heart failure with reduced EF (HFrEF). The underlying pathophysiology leading to impaired exertional ability in the HFpEF syndrome is not completely understood, and a growing body of evidence suggests "peripheral," i.e., noncardiac, factors may play an important role. Changes in skeletal muscle function (decreased muscle mass, capillary density, mitochondrial volume, and phosphorylative capacity) are common findings in HFrEF. While cardiac failure and decreased cardiac reserve account for a large proportion of the decline in oxygen consumption in HFrEF, impaired oxygen diffusion and decreased skeletal muscle oxidative capacity can also hinder aerobic performance, functional capacity and oxygen consumption (V̇o2) kinetics. The impact of skeletal muscle dysfunction and abnormal oxidative capacity may be even more pronounced in HFpEF, a disease predominantly affecting the elderly and women, two demographic groups with a high prevalence of sarcopenia. In this review, we 1) describe the basic concepts of skeletal muscle oxygen kinetics and 2) evaluate evidence suggesting limitations in aerobic performance and functional capacity in HFpEF subjects may, in part, be due to alterations in skeletal muscle oxygen delivery and utilization. Improving oxygen kinetics with specific training regimens may improve exercise efficiency and reduce the tremendous burden imposed by skeletal muscle upon the cardiovascular system.

  6. Association of Acinetobacter baumannii EF-Tu with Cell Surface, Outer Membrane Vesicles, and Fibronectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatha F. Dallo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A conundrum has long lingered over association of cytosol elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu with bacterial surface. Here we investigated it with Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. The gene for A. baumannii EF-Tu was sequenced, and recombinant EF-Tu was purified for antibody development. EF-Tu on the bacterial surface and the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs was revealed by immune electron microscopy, and its presence in the outer membrane (OM and the OMV subproteomes was verified by Western blotting with the EF-Tu antibodies and confirmed by proteomic analyses. EF-Tu in the OM and the OMV subproteomes bound to fibronectin as detected by Western blot and confirmed by a label-free real-time optical sensor. The sensor that originates from photonic crystal structure in a total-Internal-reflection (PC-TIR configuration was functionalized with fibronectin for characterizing EF-Tu binding. Altogether, with a novel combination of immunological, proteomical, and biophysical assays, these results suggest association of A. baumannii EF-Tu with the bacterial cell surface, OMVs, and fibronectin.

  7. Model of EF4-induced ribosomal state transitions and mRNA translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping

    2014-08-01

    EF4, a highly conserved protein present in bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts, can bind to both the posttranslocation and pretranslocation ribosomal complexes. When binding to the posttranslocation state, it catalyzes backward translocation to a pretranslocation state. When binding to the pretranslocation state, it catalyzes transition to another pretranslocation state that is similar and possibly identical to that resulting from the posttranslocation state bound by EF4, and competes with EF-G to regulate the elongation cycle. However, the molecular mechanism on how EF4 induces state transitions and mRNA translocation remains unclear. Here, we present both the model for state transitions induced by EF4 binding to the posttranslocation state and that by EF4 binding to the pretranslocation state, based on which we study the kinetics of EF4-induced state transitions and mRNA translocation, giving quantitative explanations of the available experimental data. Moreover, we present some predicted results on state transitions and mRNA translocation induced by EF4 binding to the pretranslocation state complexed with the mRNA containing a duplex region.

  8. Effect Evaluation of Amphibian Fleet Based on EF-AHP%基于EF—AHP算法的两栖编队作战效能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁松; 姜志刚; 王志邦

    2012-01-01

    This paper is founded on the battle capability of the amphibian fleet, and built the evaluating system of battle capability for the amphibian fleet. It used the method of EFAHP to evaluate the effect of the amphibian fleet's battle capability, and draw the conclusion from the calculated numerical value of the model. It found the factors that affect the amphibian fleet's battle capability by analyzing the nu merical value of the model. That is important for boosting the battle capability of the amphibian fleet, and providing the reference for the de velopment of the amphibian fleet.%文章从两柄编队的作战能力出发,建立了两栖编队作战效能评价指标体系,运用EF—AHP算法(效能函数层次分析法)对两栖编队作战效能进行评估,计算底层效能指标的效能值和模型的数值,得出评估结果。通过对模型各指标的分析,得出影响两栖编队作战效能的因素,对提高两栖编队作战能力,促进两栖编队合理科学建设具有参考价值。

  9. WE-EF-303-03: A New Aperture-Based Imaging System for Prompt-Gamma Range Verification of Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ready, J; Pak, R [UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mihailescu, L [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, K [UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and characterize a novel aperture-based imaging system for high-energy gamma-rays. This collimated system will provide 2-dimensional imaging capability for verification of proton beam range and Bragg peak dose via prompt-gamma detection. Methods: A multi-knife-edge slit collimator has been designed, constructed, and characterized via simulations and experimental measurements. The 20×20×7.5 cm{sup 3} tungsten collimator and accompanying LSO scintillation detector were simulated using the TOPAS Geant4 -based Monte Carlo package. Iterative reconstruction methods were combined with point response functions to characterize the imaging performance of the system. The response of the system has begun to be characterized experimentally as well, using 2.6 MeV gamma-rays from Th-228. Results: Both simulation and experimental results indicate that this collimated system provides 2-D imaging capability in the energy range of interest for prompt-gamma dose verification. In the current configuration, with collimator to source distance of 13 cm, image reconstruction of point sources resulted in spatial resolution (FWHM) of approximately 4 mm in both x-and y-directions in the imaging plane. The accuracy of positioning the point sources is less than 1 mm. Conclusion: This work has characterized, via simulation and measurements, a novel multi-knife-edge slit collimator in front of a more conventional position-sensitive LSO scintillator detector. The multi-slit pattern is designed to increase detection efficiency and provide spatial information in 2-dimensions -- an improvement over a single-slit collimator design. The thickness and density of the collimator will allow this detection system to perform well in an environment with high gamma flux, while ultimately providing peak determination accuracy on the order of 1 mm. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number: DE-NA0000979

  10. Effects of Exergame Play on EF in Children and Adolescents at a Summer Camp for Low Income Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Rachel M.; Richert, Rebekah A.; Staiano, Amanda E; Wartella, Ellen; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has suggested exergame play improves adolescents’ executive function (EF) skills. EF change in 70 African American and Hispanic/Latino 10- to 16-year-olds participating in an inner-city summer camp was assessed following five 30-minute exergame play sessions. Children’s EF scores improved from pre- to posttest, and factors related to this change were examined. The number of exergame sessions the participants attended predicted posttest scores. In addition, level of achievement d...

  11. eEF-2 Phosphorylation Down-Regulates P-Glycoprotein Over-Expression in Rat Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hua Tang

    Full Text Available We investigated whether glutamate, NMDA receptors, and eukaryote elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K/eEF-2 regulate P-glycoprotein expression, and the effects of the eEF-2K inhibitor NH125 on the expression of P-glycoprotein in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (RBMECs.Cortex was obtained from newborn Wistar rat brains. After surface vessels and meninges were removed, the pellet containing microvessels was resuspended and incubated at 37°C in culture medium. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay. RBMECs were identified by immunohistochemistry with anti-vWF. P-glycoprotein, phospho-eEF-2, and eEF-2 expression were determined by western blot analysis. Mdr1a gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR.Mdr1a mRNA, P-glycoprotein and phospho-eEF-2 expression increased in L-glutamate stimulated RBMECs. P-glycoprotein and phospho-eEF-2 expression were down-regulated after NH125 treatment in L-glutamate stimulated RBMECs.eEF-2K/eEF-2 should have played an important role in the regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in RBMECs. eEF-2K inhibitor NH125 could serve as an efficacious anti-multidrug resistant agent.

  12. Function Study on Conserved GTPase EF-G in Protein Synthesis%保守GTP酶EF-G在蛋白质合成中的功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志凯; 刘光桥; 关洪斌; 秦燕

    2013-01-01

    Elogation Factor G (EF-G), a regulatory factor in protein synthesis, is one of the conserved GTPase. Homology-modelling indicates that the structure of ribosome protection protein C. jejuni Tet(O) has a similarity to EF-G and both contain five domains. The two conserved loops of domain IV in both proteins are different via sequence alignment, so the authors cloned the mutant gene of EF-G, then expressed and purified proteins. Through GTP hydrolysis, Poly (U)-dependent poly(Phe) Synthesis, Polysome breakdown assay and in vivo experiments, it was concluded that EF-G mutants could affect the translocation of mRNA-tRNA complex, but had no influence on ribosome recycling.%延伸因子G (elongation factor G,EF-G)是一种保守的GTP水解酶,它是蛋白质翻译过程中一个重要的调控因子.同源模拟发现EF-G与核糖体保护蛋白Tet(O)具有相似的空间结构且都包含5个结构域,序列比对发现E.coli EF-G与Campylobacter jejuni Tet(O)结构域Ⅳ保守的两个环状区不同.通过分子克隆构建EF-G嵌合体,表达纯化后的蛋白突变体通过核糖体依赖的GTP水解酶(GTPase)活性检测、多聚尿嘧啶(polyU)为mRNA合成苯丙氨酸多肽链、多聚核糖体的解聚检测及相关的体内实验,检测EF-G在肽链合成中的作用,结果发现EF-G嵌合体能够影响肽链生成过程中tRNA-mRNA复合物的移位,但不影响核糖体的再循环过程.

  13. Structural Consequences of Calmodulin EF Hand Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Michael; Taiakina, Valentina; Dieckmann, Thorsten; Guillemette, J Guy

    2017-02-21

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a cytosolic Ca(2+)-binding protein that serves as a control element for many enzymes. It consists of two globular domains, each containing two EF hand pairs capable of binding Ca(2+), joined by a flexible central linker region. CaM is able to bind and activate its target proteins in the Ca(2+)-replete and Ca(2+)-deplete forms. To study the Ca(2+)-dependent/independent properties of binding and activation of target proteins by CaM, CaM constructs with Ca(2+)-binding disrupting mutations of Asp to Ala at position one of each EF hand have been used. These CaM mutant proteins are deficient in binding Ca(2+) in either the N-lobe EF hands (CaM12), C-lobe EF hands (CaM34), or all four EF hands (CaM1234). To investigate potential structural changes these mutations may cause, we performed detailed NMR studies of CaM12, CaM34, and CaM1234 including determining the solution structure of CaM1234. We then investigated if these CaM mutants affected the interaction of CaM with a target protein known to interact with apoCaM by determining the solution structure of CaM34 bound to the iNOS CaM binding domain peptide. The structures provide direct structural evidence of changes that are present in these Ca(2+)-deficient CaM mutants and show these mutations increase the hydrophobic exposed surface and decrease the electronegative surface potential throughout each lobe of CaM. These Ca(2+)-deficient CaM mutants may not be a true representation of apoCaM and may not allow for native-like interactions of apoCaM with its target proteins.

  14. La Arquitectura efímera: los componentes efímeros en la arquitectura.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfeliu Arboix, Ignacio

    1997-01-01

    La tesis doctoral "la arquitectura efímera. Los componentes efímeros en la arquitectura" intenta describir e unificar aquellos componentes que transforman la arquitectura, transformación en su sentido de percepción cambiante. Pero no percepción visual solamente, sino en aquella en la que intervienen todos los sentidos: vista, tacto, oído... Y también lógicamente percepciones intelectivas que hacen cambiar un espacio o un hecho arquitectónico. De ahí que la definición de efímero que propone, s...

  15. Effects of Exergame Play on EF in Children and Adolescents at a Summer Camp for Low Income Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Rachel M; Richert, Rebekah A; Staiano, Amanda E; Wartella, Ellen; Calvert, Sandra L

    2014-01-01

    Past research has suggested exergame play improves adolescents' executive function (EF) skills. EF change in 70 African American and Hispanic/Latino 10- to 16-year-olds participating in an inner-city summer camp was assessed following five 30-minute exergame play sessions. Children's EF scores improved from pre- to posttest, and factors related to this change were examined. The number of exergame sessions the participants attended predicted posttest scores. In addition, level of achievement during game play was related to EF scores. Finally, the children's level of enjoyment was not related to EF; however, frustration and boredom during game play were negatively related to EF. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the relationship between exergame play and cognitive benefits for adolescent players.

  16. Bidirectional regulation of eEF2 phosphorylation controls synaptic plasticity by decoding neuronal activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamphill, Patrick K; Farah, Carole A; Anadolu, Mina N; Hoque, Sanjida; Sossin, Wayne S

    2015-03-11

    At the sensory-motor neuron synapse of Aplysia, either spaced or continuous (massed) exposure to serotonin (5-HT) induces a form of intermediate-term facilitation (ITF) that requires new protein synthesis but not gene transcription. However, spaced and massed ITF use distinct molecular mechanisms to maintain increased synaptic strength. Synapses activated by spaced applications of 5-HT generate an ITF that depends on persistent protein kinase A (PKA) activity, whereas an ITF produced by massed 5-HT depends on persistent protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In this study, we demonstrate that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which catalyzes the GTP-dependent translocation of the ribosome during protein synthesis, acts as a biochemical sensor that is tuned to the pattern of neuronal stimulation. Specifically, we find that massed training leads to a PKC-dependent increase in phosphorylation of eEF2, whereas spaced training results in a PKA-dependent decrease in phosphorylation of eEF2. Importantly, by using either pharmacological or dominant-negative strategies to inhibit eEF2 kinase (eEF2K), we were able to block massed 5-HT-dependent increases in eEF2 phosphorylation and subsequent PKC-dependent ITF. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of eEF2K during the longer period of time required for spaced training was sufficient to reduce eEF2 phosphorylation and induce ITF. Finally, we find that the massed 5-HT-dependent increase in synaptic strength requires translation elongation, but not translation initiation, whereas the spaced 5-HT-dependent increase in synaptic strength is partially dependent on translation initiation. Thus, bidirectional regulation of eEF2 is critical for decoding distinct activity patterns at synapses by activating distinct modes of translation regulation. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354403-15$15.00/0.

  17. Structural models of human eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 reveal two distinct surface clusters of sequence variation and potential differences in phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh C Soares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite sharing 92% sequence identity, paralogous human translation elongation factor 1 alpha-1 (eEF1A1 and elongation factor 1 alpha-2 (eEF1A2 have different but overlapping functional profiles. This may reflect the differential requirements of the cell-types in which they are expressed and is consistent with complex roles for these proteins that extend beyond delivery of tRNA to the ribosome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the structural basis of these functional differences, we created and validated comparative three-dimensional (3-D models of eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 on the basis of the crystal structure of homologous eEF1A from yeast. The spatial location of amino acid residues that vary between the two proteins was thereby pinpointed, and their surface electrostatic and lipophilic properties were compared. None of the variations amongst buried amino acid residues are judged likely to have a major structural effect on the protein fold, or to affect domain-domain interactions. Nearly all the variant surface-exposed amino acid residues lie on one face of the protein, in two proximal but distinct sub-clusters. The result of previously performed mutagenesis in yeast may be interpreted as confirming the importance of one of these clusters in actin-bundling and filament disorganization. Interestingly, some variant residues lie in close proximity to, and in a few cases show differences in interactions with, residues previously inferred to be directly involved in binding GTP/GDP, eEF1Balpha and aminoacyl-tRNA. Additional sequence-based predictions, in conjunction with the 3-D models, reveal likely differences in phosphorylation sites that could reconcile some of the functional differences between the two proteins. CONCLUSIONS: The revelation and putative functional assignment of two distinct sub-clusters on the surface of the protein models should enable rational site-directed mutagenesis, including homologous reverse

  18. Understanding the EF-hand closing pathway using non-biased interatomic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, L.; Mousseau, Normand

    2012-01-01

    The EF-hand superfamily of proteins is characterized by the presence of calcium binding helix-loop-helix structures. Many of these proteins undergo considerable motion responsible for a wide range of properties upon binding but the exact mechanism at the root of this motion is not fully understood. Here, we use an unbiased accelerated multiscale simulation scheme, coupled with two force fields — CHARMM-EEF1 and the extended OPEP — to explore in details the closing pathway, from the unbound holo state to the closed apo state, of two EF-hand proteins, the Calmodulin and Troponin C N-terminal nodules. Based on a number of closing simulations for these two sequences, we show that the EF-hand β-scaffold, identified as crucial by Grabarek for the EF-hand opening driven by calcium binding, is also important in closing the EF-hand. We also show the crucial importance of the phenylalanine situated at the end of first EF-hand helix, and identify an intermediate state modulating its behavior, providing a detailed picture of the closing mechanism for these two representatives of EF-hand proteins.

  19. At the RF Lab, EF Division

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A four-cell superconducting RF cavity ready for installation in its cryostat, the first one at CERN. From bottom to top, on the right, Herbert Lengeler, Jean-François Malo, Enrico Chiaveri and François Grabowski, Albert Insomby. On the left, ..?, Ernst Ullrich Haebel, ..?, Jean-Marie Maugain, Artur Scharding, Hansuli Preis, R. Romjin. The place is the EF hall next to Bld. 13. (see Annual Report 1980 p. 71)

  20. The pretranslocation ribosome is targeted by GTP-bound EF-G in partially activated form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauryliuk, Vasili; Mitkevich, Vladimir A.; Eliseeva, Natalia A.; Petrushanko, Irina Yu.; Ehrenberg, Måns; Makarov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Translocation of the tRNA·mRNA complex through the bacterial ribosome is driven by the multidomain guanosine triphosphatase elongation factor G (EF-G). We have used isothermal titration calorimetry to characterize the binding of GDP and GTP to free EF-G at 4°C, 20°C, and 37°C. The binding affinity of EF-G is higher to GDP than to GTP at 4°C, but lower at 37°C. The binding enthalpy and entropy change little with temperature in the case of GDP binding but change greatly in the case of GTP binding. These observations are compatible with a large decrease in the solvent-accessible hydrophobic surface area of EF-G on GTP, but not GDP, binding. The explanation we propose is the locking of the switch 1 and switch 2 peptide loops in the G domain of EF-G to the γ-phosphate of GTP. From these data, in conjunction with previously reported structural data on guanine nucleotide-bound EF-G, we suggest that EF-G enters the pretranslocation ribosome as an “activity chimera,” with the G domain activated by the presence of GTP but the overall factor conformation in the inactive form typical of a GDP-bound multidomain guanosine triphosphatase. We propose that the active overall conformation of EF-G is attained only in complex with the ribosome in its “ratcheted state,” with hybrid tRNA binding sites. PMID:18836081

  1. Structure of eEF3 and the mechanism of transfer RNA release from the E-site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Christian B F; Becker, Thomas; Blau, Michael; Anand, Monika; Halic, Mario; Balar, Bharvi; Mielke, Thorsten; Boesen, Thomas; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Spahn, Christian M T; Kinzy, Terri Goss; Andersen, Gregers R; Beckmann, Roland

    2006-10-12

    Elongation factor eEF3 is an ATPase that, in addition to the two canonical factors eEF1A and eEF2, serves an essential function in the translation cycle of fungi. eEF3 is required for the binding of the aminoacyl-tRNA-eEF1A-GTP ternary complex to the ribosomal A-site and has been suggested to facilitate the clearance of deacyl-tRNA from the E-site. Here we present the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eEF3, showing that it consists of an amino-terminal HEAT repeat domain, followed by a four-helix bundle and two ABC-type ATPase domains, with a chromodomain inserted in ABC2. Moreover, we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the ATP-bound form of eEF3 in complex with the post-translocational-state 80S ribosome from yeast. eEF3 uses an entirely new factor binding site near the ribosomal E-site, with the chromodomain likely to stabilize the ribosomal L1 stalk in an open conformation, thus allowing tRNA release.

  2. eEF2K/eEF2 Pathway Controls the Excitation/Inhibition Balance and Susceptibility to Epileptic Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Christopher; Taha, Elham; Murru, Luca; Ponzoni, Luisa; Cattaneo, Angela; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C; Montani, Caterina; Mossa, Adele; Vezzoli, Elena; Ippolito, Giulio; Zapata, Jonathan; Barrera, Iliana; Ryazanov, Alexey G; Cook, James; Poe, Michael; Stephen, Michael Rajesh; Kopanitsa, Maksym; Benfante, Roberta; Rusconi, Francesco; Braida, Daniela; Francolini, Maura; Proud, Christopher G; Valtorta, Flavia; Passafaro, Maria; Sala, Mariaelvina; Bachi, Angela; Verpelli, Chiara; Rosenblum, Kobi; Sala, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    Alterations in the balance of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) is a highly regulated, ubiquitous kinase involved in the control of protein translation. Here, we show that eEF2K activity negatively regulates GABAergic synaptic transmission. Indeed, loss of eEF2K increases GABAergic synaptic transmission by upregulating the presynaptic protein Synapsin 2b and α5-containing GABAA receptors and thus interferes with the excitation/inhibition balance. This cellular phenotype is accompanied by an increased resistance to epilepsy and an impairment of only a specific hippocampal-dependent fear conditioning. From a clinical perspective, our results identify eEF2K as a potential novel target for antiepileptic drugs, since pharmacological and genetic inhibition of eEF2K can revert the epileptic phenotype in a mouse model of human epilepsy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. mazEF-mediated programmed cell death in bacteria: "what is this?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisetty, Bhaskar Chandra Mohan; Natarajan, Bhargavi; Santhosh, Ramachandran Sarojini

    2015-02-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems consist of a bicistronic operon, encoding a toxin and an antitoxin. They are widely distributed in the prokaryotic kingdom, often in multiple numbers. TAs are implicated in contradicting phenomena of persistence and programmed cell death (PCD) in bacteria. mazEF TA system, one of the widely distributed type II toxin-antitoxin systems, is particularly implicated in PCD of Escherichia coli. Nutrient starvation, antibiotic stress, heat shock, DNA damage and other kinds of stresses are shown to elicit mazEF-mediated-PCD. ppGpp and extracellular death factor play a central role in regulating mazEF-mediated PCD. The activation of mazEF system is achieved through inhibition of transcription or translation of mazEF loci. Upon activation, MazF cleaves RNA in a ribosome-independent fashion and subsequent processes result in cell death. It is hypothesized that PCD aids in perseverance of the population during stress; the surviving minority of the cells can scavenge the nutrients released by the dead cells, a kind of "nutritional-altruism." Issues regarding the strains, reproducibility of experimental results and ecological plausibility necessitate speculation. We review the molecular mechanisms of the activation of mazEF TA system, the consequences leading to cell death and the pros and cons of the altruism hypothesis from an ecological perspective.

  4. A complex distribution of elongation family GTPases EF1A and EFL in basal alveolate lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, Kirill V; Janouškovec, Jan; Tikhonenkov, Denis V; Mirzaeva, Gulnara S; Diakin, Andrei Yu; Simdyanov, Timur G; Mylnikov, Alexander P; Keeling, Patrick J; Aleoshin, Vladimir V

    2014-09-01

    Translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1A) and the related GTPase EF-like (EFL) are two proteins with a complex mutually exclusive distribution across the tree of eukaryotes. Recent surveys revealed that the distribution of the two GTPases in even closely related taxa is frequently at odds with their phylogenetic relationships. Here, we investigate the distribution of EF1A and EFL in the alveolate supergroup. Alveolates comprise three major lineages: ciliates and apicomplexans encode EF1A, whereas dinoflagellates encode EFL. We searched transcriptome databases for seven early-diverging alveolate taxa that do not belong to any of these groups: colpodellids, chromerids, and colponemids. Current data suggest all seven are expected to encode EF1A, but we find three genera encode EFL: Colpodella, Voromonas, and the photosynthetic Chromera. Comparing this distribution with the phylogeny of alveolates suggests that EF1A and EFL evolution in alveolates cannot be explained by a simple horizontal gene transfer event or lineage sorting.

  5. Truncation of the A,A(∗),A' helices segment impairs the actin bundling activity of mammalian eEF1A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasenko, Dmytro O; Novosylna, Oleksandra V; Negrutskii, Boris S; El'skaya, Anna V

    2015-05-08

    Translation elongation factor eEF1A is a G-protein which has a crucial role in the ribosomal polypeptide elongation and possesses a number of non-translational functions. Here, we show that the A,A(∗),A' helices segment of mammalian eEF1A is dispensable for the eEF1A*eEF1Bα complex formation. The A,A(∗),A' helices region did not interact with actin; however, its removal eliminates the actin bundling activity of eEF1A, probably due to the destruction of a dimeric structure of eEF1A. The translation function of monomers and the actin-bundling function of dimers of mammalian eEF1A is suggested.

  6. Structural studies of EF-Tu complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jesper Sanderhoff

    2011-01-01

    proteins and 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. The mammalian mitochondria have their own specialised translational system for maintaining the synthesis of the 13 proteins. The mammalian mitochondrial protein synthesis resembles the prokaryotic system more than the cytosolic system from eukaryotes. Some of the t...... and tRNASerGCU was produced by in vitro transcription. The ternary complex composed of EF-Tu:GDPNP:tRNASerGCU was reconstituted for crystallisation experiments. Unfortunately, we have not succeeding in crystallising neither the free components nor the ternary complex so far. The results of this project...

  7. Inflammation in HFpEF: Key or circumstantial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Empel, Vanessa; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) can be split into HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Currently the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in HFpEF remain largely unknown. The neurohumoral and sympathetic nervous systems seem not to play a crucial role in HFpEF, as treatments targeting these pathways do not show beneficial effects in HFpEF patients, in contrast to HFrEF patients. A better understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved in HFpEF is needed, as there is no proven treatment for this disease at the moment. Recent data have yielded growing attention to the role of inflammation in HFpEF. In this review we discuss increased inflammation in HFpEF as demonstrated in translational animal models and human studies. This review evaluates whether inflammation plays a key role in HFpEF or is just a by-product of various comorbidities. Additionally, we analyze the involvement of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction and lastly we outline potential therapeutic targets.

  8. Roles of eEF-2 kinase in cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-yuan; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Yi; YANG Jin-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide a summary of the relationship between the eEF-2/eEF-2 kinase pathway and each phase of malignant neoplasms.The specific importance of this relationship in understanding and treating cancer was also explored.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly obtained from the articles listed in HighWire and PubMed in English.The search terms were "eEF-2 kinase","oncogenesis",and "tumor progression".Study selection This review relates the observation that the overexpression of eEF-2 kinase is seen in cancer,and highlights that it has emerged as promoting the development of many malignant phenotypes when unregulated.This includes increasing the replicative potential of cells,angiogenesis,invasion and metastasis,and evasion of apoptosis.Results eEF-2 kinase is a structurally and functionally unique protein kinase.The increased activity of this protein in cancer cells is a protective mechanism to allow tumor growth and evolution,and resist cell death through the eEF-2/eEF-2 kinase pathway,but it also makes a potential target for therapy.Conclusion eEF-2 kinase fills critical niches in the life of a cancer cell and the eEF-2/eEF-2 kinase pathway is a key biochemical sensor.

  9. Up-regulation of eEF1A2 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yue [Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou (China); Du, Chengli [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Xiaoyan [Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou (China); Ren, Guoping, E-mail: renguoping12345@163.com [Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • The expression of eEF1A2 is up-regulated in prostate cancer tissues. • Suppression of eEF1A2 inhibits the proliferation and promotes apoptosis. • Inhibition of eEF1A2 enhances the expression of apoptotic relevant proteins. • The expressions of eEF1A2 and cleavage-caspase3 are inversely correlated. - Abstract: Background: eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis, which possesses important function roles in cancer development. This study aims at investigating the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer and its potential role in prostate cancer development. Methods: We examined the expression level of eEF1A2 in 30 pairs of prostate cancer tissues by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Then we applied siRNA specifically targeting eEF1A2 to down-regulate its expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Flow cytometer was used to explore apoptosis and Western-blot was used to detect the pathway proteins of apoptosis. Results: Our results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher compared to their corresponding normal tissues. Reduction of eEF1A2 expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells led to a dramatic inhibition of proliferation accompanied with enhanced apoptosis rate. Western blot revealed that apoptosis pathway proteins (caspase3, BAD, BAX, PUMA) were significantly up-regulated after suppression of eEF1A2. More importantly, the levels of eEF1A2 and caspase3 were inversely correlated in prostate cancer tissues. Conclusion: Our data suggests that eEF1A2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development, especially in inhibiting apoptosis. So eEF1A2 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

  10. [The EFS metrology: From the production to the reason].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberg, J-M; Riout, E; Leroy, A; Begue, S

    2014-06-01

    In order to answer statutory requirements and to anticipate the future needs and standards, the EFS is committed, since a few years, in a process of harmonization of its metrology function. In particular, the institution has opted for the skills development by internalizing the metrological traceability of the main critical quantities (temperature, volumetric) measurements. The development of metrology so resulted in a significant increase in calibration and testing activities. Methods are homogenized and improved through accreditations. The investment strategies are based on more and more demanding specifications. The performance of the equipments is better known and mastered. Technical expertise and maturity of the national metrology function today are assets to review in more informed ways the appropriateness of the applied periodicities. Analysis of numerous information and data in the calibration and testing reports could be pooled and operated on behalf of the unique establishment. The objective of this article is to illustrate these reflections with a few examples from of a feedback of the EFS Pyrénées Méditerranée. The analysis of some methods of qualification, the exploitation of the historical metrology in order to quantify the risk of non-compliance, and to adapt the control strategy, analysis of the criticality of an instrument in a measurement process, risk analyses are tools that deserve to be more widely exploited for that discipline wins in efficiency at the national level.

  11. Spatial Distribution and Ribosome-Binding Dynamics of EF-P in Live Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sonisilpa; Choi, Heejun; Ge, Xueliang; Sanyal, Suparna; Weisshaar, James C

    2017-06-06

    In vitro assays find that ribosomes form peptide bonds to proline (Pro) residues more slowly than to other residues. Ribosome profiling shows that stalling at Pro-Pro-X triplets is especially severe but is largely alleviated in Escherichia coli by the action of elongation factor EF-P. EF-P and its eukaryotic/archaeal homolog IF5A enhance the peptidyl transfer step of elongation. Here, a superresolution fluorescence localization and tracking study of EF-P-mEos2 in live E. coli provides the first in vivo information about the spatial distribution and on-off binding kinetics of EF-P. Fast imaging at 2 ms/frame helps to distinguish ribosome-bound (slowly diffusing) EF-P from free (rapidly diffusing) EF-P. Wild-type EF-P exhibits a three-peaked axial spatial distribution similar to that of ribosomes, indicating substantial binding. The mutant EF-P(K34A) exhibits a homogeneous distribution, indicating little or no binding. Some 30% of EF-P copies are bound to ribosomes at a given time. Two-state modeling and copy number estimates indicate that EF-P binds to 70S ribosomes during 25 to 100% of translation cycles. The timescale of the typical diffusive search by free EF-P for a ribosome-binding site is τfree ≈ 16 ms. The typical residence time of an EF-P on the ribosome is very short, τbound ≈ 7 ms. Evidently, EF-P binds to ribosomes during many or most elongation cycles, much more often than the frequency of Pro-Pro motifs. Emptying of the E site during part of the cycle is consistent with recent in vitro experiments indicating dissociation of the deacylated tRNA upon translocation.IMPORTANCE Ribosomes translate the codon sequence within mRNA into the corresponding sequence of amino acids within the nascent polypeptide chain, which in turn ultimately folds into functional protein. At each codon, bacterial ribosomes are assisted by two well-known elongation factors: EF-Tu, which aids binding of the correct aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome, and EF-G, which promotes

  12. A conserved PUF-Ago-eEF1A complex attenuates translation elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Kyle; Campbell, Zachary T; Cooke, Amy; Kroll-Conner, Peggy; Wickens, Marvin P; Kimble, Judith

    2012-01-08

    PUF (Pumilio/FBF) RNA-binding proteins and Argonaute (Ago) miRNA-binding proteins regulate mRNAs post-transcriptionally, each acting through similar, yet distinct, mechanisms. Here, we report that PUF and Ago proteins can also function together in a complex with a core translation elongation factor, eEF1A, to repress translation elongation. Both nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) and mammalian PUF-Ago-eEF1A complexes were identified, using coimmunoprecipitation and recombinant protein assays. Nematode CSR-1 (Ago) promoted repression of FBF (PUF) target mRNAs in in vivo assays, and the FBF-1-CSR-1 heterodimer inhibited EFT-3 (eEF1A) GTPase activity in vitro. Mammalian PUM2-Ago-eEF1A inhibited translation of nonadenylated and polyadenylated reporter mRNAs in vitro. This repression occurred after translation initiation and led to ribosome accumulation within the open reading frame, roughly at the site where the nascent polypeptide emerged from the ribosomal exit tunnel. Together, these data suggest that a conserved PUF-Ago-eEF1A complex attenuates translation elongation.

  13. Cell- and molecular-level mechanisms contributing to diastolic dysfunction in HFpEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kenneth S; Sorrell, Vincent L

    2015-11-15

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the default diagnosis for patients who have symptoms of heart failure, an ejection fraction >0.5, and evidence of diastolic dysfunction. The clinical condition, which was largely unrecognized 30 years ago, is now a major health problem and currently accounts for 50% of all patients with heart failure. Clinical studies show that patients with HFpEF exhibit increased passive stiffness of the ventricles and a slower rate of pressure decline during diastole. This review discusses some of the cell- and molecular-level mechanisms that contribute to these effects and focuses on data obtained using human samples. Collagen cross linking, modulation of protein kinase G-related pathways, Ca(2+) handling, and strain-dependent detachment of cross bridges are highlighted as potential factors that could be modulated to improve ventricular function in patients with HFpEF.

  14. Expression of EF-Tumt and EF-Tsmt in brain tissues of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Lu; Qi-Chang Zeng; Qin Wang; Ya-Hui Huang; Qiong Peng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the expression of EF-Tumt and EF-Tsmt in brain tissue of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Methods:From January 2013 to January 2015, a total of 62 patients with MTLE who were treated with anterior temporal lobe resection in the Department of neurosurgery in Hunan Brain Hospital were selected and classified as the case group, at the same time, 48 patients with brain trauma were chosen and considered to be the control group. The expression of EF-Tumt and EF-Tsmt was detected and compared between the two groups. Results:EF-Tumt positive particles and EF-Tsmt positive particles were noticed in the mitochondria and cytoplasm of brain tissues of the medial temporal lobe in the two groups by election microscopic observation, and the number of the two types of positive particles in the case group was significantly more than that in the control group (P<0.05);similarly, EF-Tumt positive cells and EF-Tsmt positive cells were also observed in the neurons and astrocytes of brain tissues of the medial temporal lobe in the two groups by election microscopic observation, and the number of the above-mentioned positive cells in the case group was also significantly larger than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:The expression intensities of EF-Tsmt and EF-Tumt in patients with MTLE are higher than these in patients without epilepsy. Therefore, EF-Tsmt and EF-Tumt play important roles in MTLE.

  15. EFL GTPase in cryptomonads and the distribution of EFL and EF-1alpha in chromalveolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gile, Gillian H; Patron, Nicola J; Keeling, Patrick J

    2006-10-01

    EFL (EF-like protein) is a member of the GTPase superfamily that includes several translation factors. Because it has only been found in a few eukaryotic lineages and its presence correlates with the absence of the related core translation factor EF-1alpha, its distribution is hypothesized to be the result of lateral gene transfer and replacement of EF-1alpha. In one supergroup of eukaryotes, the chromalveolates, two major lineages were found to contain EFL (dinoflagellates and haptophytes), while the others encode EF-1alpha (apicomplexans, ciliates, heterokonts and cryptomonads). For each of these groups, this distribution was deduced from whole genome sequence or expressed sequence tag (EST) data from several species, with the exception of cryptomonads from which only a single EF-1alpha PCR product from one species was known. By sequencing ESTs from two cryptomonads, Guillardia theta and Rhodomonas salina, and searching for all GTPase translation factors, we revealed that EFL is present in both species, but, contrary to expectations, we found EF-1alpha in neither. On balance, we suggest the previously reported EF-1alpha from Rhodomonas salina is likely an artefact of contamination. We also identified EFL in EST data from two members of the dinoflagellate lineage, Karlodinium micrum and Oxyrrhis marina, and from an ongoing genomic sequence project from a third, Perkinsus marinus. Karlodinium micrum is a symbiotic pairing of two lineages that would have both had EFL (a dinoflagellate and a haptophyte), but only the dinoflagellate gene remains. Oxyrrhis marina and Perkinsus marinus are early diverging sister-groups to dinoflagellates, and together show that EFL originated early in this lineage. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these genes are all EFL homologues, and showed that cryptomonad genes are not detectably related to EFL from other chromalveolates, which collectively form several distinct groups. The known distribution of EFL now includes a third group

  16. The more basic isoform of eEF1A relates to tumour cell phenotype and is modulated by hyper-proliferative/differentiating stimuli in normal lymphocytes and CCRF-CEM T-lymphoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaggiante, Bruna; Dapas, Barbara; Pozzato, Gabriele; Grassi, Gabriele

    2013-06-01

    The elongation factor 1A proteins (eEF1A1/A2) are known to play a role in tumours. We previously found that a more basic isoform of eEF1A (MBI-eEF1A) is present in the cytoskeletal/nuclear-enriched extracts of CCRF-CEM T-lymphoblasts but not in those of normal lymphocytes. To obtain deeper knowledge about MBI-eEF1A biology, we investigate from which of the eEF1A proteins, eEF1A1 or eEF1A2, MBI-eEF1A originates and the possibility that its appearance can be modulated by the differentiated or proliferative cell status. CCRF-CEM T-lymphoblasts and normal lymphocytes were cultured with or without differentiation/pro-proliferative stimuli (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA) alone or the combination of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) with PMA, respectively), and the presence of MBI-eEF1A evaluated together with that of the eEF1A1/A2 mRNAs. Our data indicate that the MBI-eEF1A may derive from eEF1A1 as eEF1A2 is not expressed in CCRF-CEM and normal lymphocytes. Moreover, MBI-eEF1A is inducible in normal lymphocytes upon hyper-proliferative stimuli application; in CCRF-CEM, its presence can be abrogated by PMA-induced differentiation. Finally, MBI-eEF1A may have a functional role in hyper-proliferating/tumour cells as its disappearance reduces the growth of CCRF-CEM and that of PHA/PMA-stimulated lymphocytes. The presented data suggest that MBI-eEF1A may be related to oncogenic cell phenotype, rising the possibility to use MBI-eEF1A as target for novel therapeutic strategies.

  17. Pneumonia cases following an EF-5 tornado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshee-Hakala, Beth A

    2015-07-01

    Infections following a natural disaster such as an EF-5 tornado can be atypical and difficult to treat. Studies have looked at illness following several natural disasters, but few have studied respiratory illness following a tornado. A review of patients with pneumonia admitted during the period from May 22, 2009, through May 21, 2012, was completed. The Tornado Zone Group included adult patients who lived or worked in the tornado zone during the year following the tornado. Data were isolated by number of pneumonia cases within and outside the tornado zone per month per year. An analysis of variance comparing the number of pneumonia cases from the tornado zone per month per year was significant at F2,38 = 12.93 and P Tornado Zone Group (P Tornado Zone patients to be younger than controls (t390 = 5.14; P Tornado Zone Group included uncommon pathogens not isolated during the 2 years prior. The number of pneumonia cases may increase following tornadoes. Although current guidelines recommend narrow-spectrum antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia, results of this study suggest the possible need for broader antimicrobial coverage after tornadoes. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. EF-Tu from the enacyloxin producing Frateuria W-315 strain: Structure/activity relationship and antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Malosse, Christian; Hountondji, Codjo

    2016-08-01

    In this report, we have demonstrated that the poly(U)-dependent poly(Phe) synthesis activity of elongator factor Tu (EF-Tu) from the enacyloxin producing strain Frateuria sp. W-315 is inhibited by the antibiotic similarly to that of Escherichia coli EF-Tu. The inhibitory effect of enacyloxin observed in a purified system was the same as that obtained with an S30 extract from E. coli or Frateuria sp. W-315, respectively, suggesting that antibiotic resistance of enacyloxin producing Frateuria sp. W-315 is not due neither to EF-Tu nor to other components of the translation machinery but to a still unknown mechanism. The EF-Tu gene, as PCR amplified from Frateuria W-315 genomic DNA and sequenced represented an ORF of 1191 nucleotides corresponding to 396 amino acids. This protein is larger than the product of tufA from E. coli by only two amino acid residues. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of EF-Tu from E. coli with those of Frateuria and Ralstonia solanacearum indicates on average 80% identical amino acid residues and 9.7% conservative replacements between EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu E. coli, on one hand, and 97% identity and 1.7% conservative replacement between EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu Ralstonia solanacearum, on the other hand. These strong primary structure similarities between EF-Tu from different origins are consistent with the fact that this factor is essential for the translation process in all kingdoms of life. Comparison of the effects of antibiotics on EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu E. coli revealed that enacyloxin, kirromycin and pulvomycin exert a stronger stimulation of the GDP dissociation rate on EF-Tu Frateuria, while the effects of the antibiotics on the GDP association rate were comparable for the two EF-Tu species. Different mutants of EF-Tu E. coli were constructed with the help of site directed mutagenesis by changing one or several residues of EF-Tu E. coli by the corresponding residues of EF-Tu Frateuria. The single A45K substitution did

  19. Phylogenetic position of the mitochondrion-lacking protozoan Trichomonas tenax, based on amino acid sequences of elongation factors 1alpha and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Hashimoto, T; Asaga, E; Hasegawa, M; Goto, N

    1997-01-01

    Major parts of amino-acid-coding regions of elongation factor (EF)-1alpha and EF-2 in Trichomonas tenax were amplified by PCR from total genomic DNA and the products were cloned into a plasmid vector, pGEM-T. The three clones from each of the products of the EF-1alpha and EF-2 were isolated and sequenced. The insert DNAs of the clones containing EF-1alpha coding regions were each 1,185 bp long with the same nucleotide sequence and contained 53.1% of G + C nucleotides. Those of the clones containing EF-2 coding regions had two different sequences; one was 2,283 bp long and the other was 2,286 bp long, and their G + C contents were 52.5 and 52.9%, respectively. The copy numbers of the EF-1alpha and EF-2 gene per chromosome were estimated as four and two, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences obtained by the conceptual translation were 395 residues from EF-1alpha and 761 and 762 residues from the EF-2s. The sequences were aligned with the other eukaryotic and archaebacterial EF-1alphas and EF-2s, respectively. The phylogenetic position of T. tenax was inferred by the maximum likelihood (ML) method using the EF-1alpha and EF-2 data sets. The EF-1alpha analysis suggested that three mitochondrion-lacking protozoa, Glugea plecoglossi, Giardia lamblia, and T. tenax, respectively, diverge in this order in the very early phase of eukaryotic evolution. The EF-2 analysis also supported the divergence of T. tenax to be immediately next to G. lamblia.

  20. A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’ayan Israeli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Edema Factor (EF, the toxic sub-unit of the Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase whose detrimental activity in the infected host results in severe edema. EF is therefore a major virulence factor of B. anthracis. We describe a simple, rapid and reliable functional adenylate-cyclase assay based on inhibition of a luciferase-mediated luminescence reaction. The assay exploits the efficient adenylate cyclase-mediated depletion of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, and the strict dependence on ATP of the light-emitting luciferase-catalyzed luciferin-conversion to oxyluciferin, which can be easily visualized. The assay exhibits a robust EF-dose response decrease in luminescence, which may be specifically reverted by anti-EF antibodies. The application of the assay is exemplified in: (a determining the presence of EF in B. anthracis cultures, or its absence in cultures of EF-defective strains; (b evaluating the anti-EF humoral response in experimental animals infected/vaccinated with B. anthracis; and (c rapid discrimination between EF producing and non-producing bacterial colonies. Furthermore, the assay may be amenable with high-throughput screening for EF inhibitory molecules.

  1. Visualization of the eEF2-80S ribosome transition-state complex by cryo-electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob; Sengupta, Jayati; Gursky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to understand ribosome-induced GTP hydrolysis on eEF2, we determined a 12.6-A cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the eEF2-bound 80S ribosome in the presence of aluminum tetrafluoride and GDP, with aluminum tetrafluoride mimicking the gamma-phosphate during hydrolysis....... This is the first visualization of a structure representing a transition-state complex on the ribosome. Tight interactions are observed between the factor's G domain and the large ribosomal subunit, as well as between domain IV and an intersubunit bridge. In contrast, some of the domains of eEF2 implicated in small...... and 14. This complex is structurally distinct from the eEF2-bound 80S ribosome complexes previously reported, and analysis of this map sheds light on the GTPase-coupled translocation mechanism....

  2. Heterozygous mutation of eEF1A1b resulted in spermatogenesis arrest and infertility in male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinlin; Jiang, Dongneng; Tan, Dejie; Fan, Zheng; Wei, Yingying; Li, Minghui; Wang, Deshou

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) is an essential component of the translational apparatus. In the present study, eEF1A1b was isolated from the Nile tilapia. Real-time PCR and Western blot revealed that eEF1A1b was expressed highly in the testis from 90 dah (days after hatching) onwards. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that eEF1A1b was highly expressed in the spermatogonia of the testis. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated mutation of eEF1A1b resulted in spermatogenesis arrest and infertility in the F0 XY fish. Consistently, heterozygous mutation of eEF1A1b (eEF1A1b+/−) resulted in an absence of spermatocytes at 90 dah, very few spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa at 180 dah, and decreased Cyp11b2 and serum 11-ketotestosterone level at both stages. Further examination of the fertilization capacity of the sperm indicated that the eEF1A1b+/− XY fish were infertile due to abnormal spermiogenesis. Transcriptomic analyses of the eEF1A1b+/− testis from 180 dah XY fish revealed that key elements involved in spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis and sperm motility were significantly down-regulated compared with the control XY. Transgenic overexpression of eEF1A1b rescued the spermatogenesis arrest phenotype of the eEF1A1b+/− testis. Taken together, our data suggested that eEF1A1b is crucial for spermatogenesis and male fertility in the Nile tilapia. PMID:28266557

  3. eEF1A Interacts with the NS5A Protein and Inhibits the Growth of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The NS5A protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV is involved in the RNA synthesis and viral replication. However, the NS5A-interacting cellular proteins engaged in the CSFV replication are poorly defined. Using yeast two-hybrid screen, the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A was identified to be an NS5A-binding partner. The NS5A–eEF1A interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase (GST pulldown and laser confocal microscopy assays. The domain I of eEF1A was shown to be critical for the NS5A–eEF1A interaction. Overexpression of eEF1A suppressed the CSFV growth markedly, and conversely, knockdown of eEF1A enhanced the CSFV replication significantly. Furthermore, eEF1A, as well as NS5A, was found to reduce the translation efficiency of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES of CSFV in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by luciferase reporter assay. Streptavidin pulldown assay revealed that eEF1A could bind to the CSFV IRES. Collectively, our results suggest that eEF1A interacts with NS5A and negatively regulates the growth of CSFV.

  4. The EF loop in green proteorhodopsin affects conformation and photocycle dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, Michaela; Scholz, Frank; Ullrich, Sandra J; Mao, Jiafei; Braun, Markus; Brown, Lynda J; Brown, Richard C D; Fiedler, Sarah A; Becker-Baldus, Johanna; Wachtveitl, Josef; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2013-07-16

    The proteorhodopsin family consists of retinal proteins of marine bacterial origin with optical properties adjusted to their local environments. For green proteorhodopsin, a highly specific mutation in the EF loop, A178R, has been found to cause a surprisingly large redshift of 20 nm despite its distance from the chromophore. Here, we analyze structural and functional consequences of this EF loop mutation by time-resolved optical spectroscopy and solid-state NMR. We found that the primary photoreaction and the formation of the K-like photo intermediate is almost pH-independent and slower compared to the wild-type, whereas the decay of the K-intermediate is accelerated, suggesting structural changes within the counterion complex upon mutation. The photocycle is significantly elongated mainly due to an enlarged lifetime of late photo intermediates. Multidimensional MAS-NMR reveals mutation-induced chemical shift changes propagating from the EF loop to the chromophore binding pocket, whereas dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced (13)C-double quantum MAS-NMR has been used to probe directly the retinylidene conformation. Our data show a modified interaction network between chromophore, Schiff base, and counterion complex explaining the altered optical and kinetic properties. In particular, the mutation-induced distorted structure in the EF loop weakens interactions, which help reorienting helix F during the reprotonation step explaining the slower photocycle. These data lead to the conclusion that the EF loop plays an important role in proton uptake from the cytoplasm but our data also reveal a clear interaction pathway between the EF loop and retinal binding pocket, which might be an evolutionary conserved communication pathway in retinal proteins.

  5. When Policy and Infrastructure Provisions Are Exemplary but Still Insufficient: Paradoxes Affecting Education for Sustainability (EfS) in a Custom-Designed Sustainability School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzich, Sonja; Taylor, Elisabeth; Taylor, Peter Charles

    2015-01-01

    Schools willing to implement education for sustainability (EfS) commonly find themselves confronted with curricula, school grounds and buildings and teaching practices that do not lend themselves easily to best practice EfS. In this article, we present what we learned about some of the challenges confronted daily by the staff of a purpose-built…

  6. Duplication of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial EF-Tu: pre-adaptation to T-arm truncation and exclusion of bulky aminoacyl residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Aya; Suematsu, Takuma; Aihara, Koh-Ki; Kita, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Kimitsuna; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoh-Ichi

    2017-03-07

    Translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) delivers aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) to ribosomes in protein synthesis. EF-Tu generally recognizes aminoacyl moieties and acceptor- and T-stems of aa-tRNAs. However, nematode mitochondrial (mt) tRNAs frequently lack all or part of the T-arm that is recognized by canonical EF-Tu. We previously reported that two distinct EF-Tu species, EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu2, respectively, recognize mt tRNAs lacking T-arms and D-arms in the mitochondria of the chromadorean nematode Caenorhabditis elegansC. elegans EF-Tu2 specifically recognizes the seryl moiety of serylated D-armless tRNAs. Mitochondria of the enoplean nematode Trichinella possess three structural types of tRNAs: T-armless tRNAs, D-armless tRNAs, and cloverleaf tRNAs with a short T-arm. Trichinella mt EF-Tu1 binds to all three types and EF-Tu2 binds only to D-armless Ser-tRNAs, showing an evolutionary intermediate state from canonical EF-Tu to chromadorean nematode (e.g. C. elegans) EF-Tu species. We report here that two EF-Tu species also participate in Drosophila melanogaster mitochondria. Both D. melanogaster EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu2 bound to cloverleaf and D-armless tRNAs. D. melanogaster EF-Tu1 has the ability to recognize T-armless tRNAs that do not evidently exist in D. melanogaster mitochondria, but do exist in related arthropod species. In addition, D. melanogaster EF-Tu2 preferentially bound to aa-tRNAs carrying small amino acids, but not to aa-tRNAs carrying bulky amino acids. These results suggest that the Drosophila mt translation system could be another intermediate state between the canonical and nematode mitochondria-type translation systems. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. The Antibiotics Dityromycin and GE82832 Bind Protein S12 and Block EF-G-Catalyzed Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bulkley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The translocation of mRNA and tRNA through the ribosome is catalyzed by elongation factor G (EF-G, a universally conserved guanosine triphosphate hydrolase (GTPase. The mechanism by which the closely related decapeptide antibiotics dityromycin and GE82832 inhibit EF-G-catalyzed translocation is elucidated in this study. Using crystallographic and biochemical experiments, we demonstrate that these antibiotics bind to ribosomal protein S12 in solution alone as well as within the small ribosomal subunit, inducing long-range effects on the ribosomal head. The crystal structure of the antibiotic in complex with the 70S ribosome reveals that the binding involves conserved amino acid residues of S12 whose mutations result in in vitro and in vivo antibiotic resistance and loss of antibiotic binding. The data also suggest that GE82832/dityromycin inhibits EF-G-catalyzed translocation by disrupting a critical contact between EF-G and S12 that is required to stabilize the posttranslocational conformation of EF-G, thereby preventing the ribosome-EF-G complex from entering a conformation productive for translocation.

  8. EST Table: EF440440 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EF440440 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0009399(nitrogen fixation)|GO:0016163(nitrogenase activ...ity) 10/09/29 low homology 10/09/03 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h EF440440 ...

  9. Electrostatics effects on Ca(2+) binding and conformational changes in EF-hand domains: Functional implications for EF-hand proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababou, Abdessamad; Zaleska, Mariola

    2015-12-01

    Mutations of Gln41 and Lys75 with nonpolar residues in the N-terminal domain of calmodulin (N-Cam) revealed the importance of solvation energetics in conformational change of Ca(2+) sensor EF-hand domains. While in general these domains have polar residues at these corresponding positions yet the extent of their conformational response to Ca(2+) binding and their Ca(2+) binding affinity can be different from N-Cam. Consequently, here we address the charge state of the polar residues at these positions. The results show that the charge state of these polar residues can affect substantially the conformational change and the Ca(2+) binding affinity of our N-Cam variants. Since all the variants kept their conformational activity in the presence of Ca(2+) suggests that the differences observed among them mainly originate from the difference in their molecular dynamics. Hence we propose that the molecular dynamics of Ca(2+) sensor EF-hand domains is a key factor in the multifunctional aspect of EF-hand proteins.

  10. Improved adsorption of an Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage ΦEF24C with a spontaneous point mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Uchiyama

    Full Text Available Some bacterial strains of the multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis can significantly reduce the efficacy of conventional antimicrobial chemotherapy. Thus, the introduction of bacteriophage (phage therapy is expected, where a phage is used as a bioagent to destroy bacteria. E. faecalis phage ΦEF24C is known to be a good candidate for a therapeutic phage against E. faecalis. However, this therapeutic phage still produces nonuniform antimicrobial effects with different bacterial strains of the same species and this might prove detrimental to its therapeutic effects. One solution to this problem is the preparation of mutant phages with higher activity, based on a scientific rationale. This study isolated and analyzed a spontaneous mutant phage, ΦEF24C-P2, which exhibited higher infectivity against various bacterial strains when compared with phage ΦEF24C. First, the improved bactericidal effects of phage ΦEF24C-P2 were attributable to its increased adsorption rate. Moreover, genomic sequence scanning revealed that phage ΦEF24C-P2 had a point mutation in orf31. Proteomic analysis showed that ORF31 (mw, 203 kDa was present in structural components, and immunological analysis using rabbit-derived antibodies showed that it was a component of a long, flexible fine tail fiber extending from the tail end. Finally, phage ΦEF24C-P2 also showed higher bactericidal activity in human blood compared with phage ΦEF24C using the in vitro assay system. In conclusion, the therapeutic effects of phage ΦEF24C-P2 were improved by a point mutation in gene orf31, which encoded a tail fiber component.

  11. A tRNA body with high affinity for EF-Tu hastens ribosomal incorporation of unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieong, Ka-Weng; Pavlov, Michael Y; Kwiatkowski, Marek; Ehrenberg, Måns; Forster, Anthony C

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence that tRNA bodies have evolved to reduce differences between aminoacyl-tRNAs in their affinity to EF-Tu. Here, we study the kinetics of incorporation of L-amino acids (AAs) Phe, Ala allyl-glycine (aG), methyl-serine (mS), and biotinyl-lysine (bK) using a tRNA(Ala)-based body (tRNA(AlaB)) with a high affinity for EF-Tu. Results are compared with previous data on the kinetics of incorporation of the same AAs using a tRNA(PheB) body with a comparatively low affinity for EF-Tu. All incorporations exhibited fast and slow phases, reflecting the equilibrium fraction of AA-tRNA in active ternary complex with EF-Tu:GTP before the incorporation reaction. Increasing the concentration of EF-Tu increased the amplitude of the fast phase and left its rate unaltered. This allowed estimation of the affinity of each AA-tRNA to EF-Tu:GTP during translation, showing about a 10-fold higher EF-Tu affinity for AA-tRNAs formed from the tRNA(AlaB) body than from the tRNA(PheB) body. At ∼1 µM EF-Tu, tRNA(AlaB) conferred considerably faster incorporation kinetics than tRNA(PheB), especially in the case of the bulky bK. In contrast, the swap to the tRNA(AlaB) body did not increase the fast phase fraction of N-methyl-Phe incorporation, suggesting that the slow incorporation of N-methyl-Phe had a different cause than low EF-Tu:GTP affinity. The total time for AA-tRNA release from EF-Tu:GDP, accommodation, and peptidyl transfer on the ribosome was similar for the tRNA(AlaB) and tRNA(PheB) bodies. We conclude that a tRNA body with high EF-Tu affinity can greatly improve incorporation of unnatural AAs in a potentially generalizable manner.

  12. LDH is an adverse prognostic factor independent of ISS in transplant-eligible myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chim, Chor Sang; Sim, Joycelyn; Tam, Sidney; Tse, Eric; Lie, Albert Kwok Wai; Kwong, Yok Lam

    2015-04-01

    Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been an adverse prognostic factor for myeloma but does not feature in the International Staging System (ISS). We examined whether elevated serum LDH at diagnosis remains an adverse risk factor independent of ISS for survivals transplant-eligible myeloma patients receiving early/frontline bortezomib-based induction, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Seventy-seven transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens [staged approach (N = 25), PAD (N = 19), VTD (N = 33)], followed by ASCT and thalidomide maintenance. Five-year overall (OS) and event-free (EFS) survivals were 66.4% and 36.2%. There was no difference in demographics, complete remission/near complete remission (CR/nCR rates postinduction or ASCT, and survivals among patients induced by the three induction regimens. Elevated LDH was associated with male gender (P = 0.006), ISS III (P = 0.042) and serum β2-microglobulin (P = 0.040). Univariate analysis showed that elevated LDH, ISS III, high β2-microglobulin, and failure to attain CR/nCR post-ACST were risk factors adversely impacting both OS and EFS. Multivariate analysis showed that elevated LDH was the only factor impacting both OS (P = 0.007) and EFS (P = 0.008). In this uniformly treated cohort of transplant-eligible myeloma patients, elevated serum LDH is an adverse risk factor independent of ISS for both OS and EFS. Bortezomib-based induction/ASCT regimen had not abolished the adverse impact of elevated LDH. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Detection of trace elements in DI water and comparison of several water solutions by using EF-FLRD chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, M.; Wang, C.

    2017-02-01

    Detection of trace elements in DI water and comparison of several types of water respons such as DI water, tap water, and ocean water were studied by using EF-FLRD chemical sensors. Solutions of Mg, Fe, P, and Cd elements with a concentration of 1000 µg/ml (1 mg/ml) which corresponds to 1000 ppm by weight were tested. DI water, tap water, and real ocean water were utilized as medium to observe refractive index difference of solutions. The EF sensing technique which is based on the EF scattering effect was employed for the detection of trace chemicals and recording of solution responses. Due to the refractive index differences between solutions, optical loss of the sensor was different when the sensor head was immersed into solutions of approximately 10 ml each. The differences of the refractive indices are presented by recording ringdown times when the sensor head was immersed into the solutions. Fast response (˜1s), high sensitive, and reproducible EF-FLRD chemical sensors were fabricated and tested in laboratory conditions. High sensitivity of the sensors due to being capability of detecting smaller differences between measurands without any additional components or treatment makes the EF-FLRD sensors more attractive. Enhanced sensitivity of the EF-FLRD chemical sensors as a result of the multi-pass nature of the FLRD technique has potential application in detecting of trace elements in monitoring of water quality.

  14. Using Naarva EF28 for integrated and delimbed energy wood harvesting; Naarva EF28 integroidussa ja energiarankapuun hakkuussa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieppo, K.; Mutikainen, A.

    2011-07-01

    Naarva EF28, manufactured by Pentin Paja Oy, is a harvesting device equipped with roller feed, multi-stemming and quillotine cutting. Naarva EF28 can be connected to a harvester, 14-20 tonne excavator or a harvester, 14-20 tonne excavator or a harwarder. TTS examined the productivity and practicality of the harvesting device in the first thinning of a 30-year-old pine forest. The base machine was a 13-ton ProSilva 910 harvester that was first taken into service in January 2010, and that was equipped with a Kesla 1611H crane with a range of 11 metres. The driver had 1,5 years of experience on the operation of a harvester. The device was tested using two methods: 1) The integrated method involved one 5-metre pulpwood log being cut from trees that were 10-15 cm at breast height (DBH), and two 5-metre pulpwood logs being cut from trees that were more than 15 cm at breast height (DBH); the minimum top diameter was 6 cm. The driver visually estimated the diameter of the trees at breast height. The tops of the trees were cut as energy and piled separately; delimbing of these was carried out with the delimbing knives slightly opened. 2) The delimbed energy wood method involved all trees being cut only as energy wood and piled together and delimbed with the delimbing knives slightly opened. The wood was cut to approximately 5 metres when necessary. The original stand density was 2,130 trees per hectare for the integrated method and 2,070 trees per hectare for the delimbed energy wood method. Stem sizes of the original trees were 81 dm3 for the integrated method and 75 dm3 for the delimbed energy wood method. Only the trees that were at least 4 cm at breast height were included in the stand density. The width of the cutting sector was 22,4 metres for the integrated harvesting and 20.1 metres for the delimbed energy wood harvesting. The width of the logging road was 4,1 metres for the integrated method and 4,2 metres for the delimbed energy wood method. Productivity per

  15. Transcription factor-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jeffrey A; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides for a system comprising a BmoR transcription factor, a .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase, and a pBMO promoter operatively linked to a reporter gene, wherein the pBMO promoter is capable of expression of the reporter gene with an activated form of the BmoR and the .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase.

  16. eEF1A Mediates the Nuclear Export of SNAG-Containing Proteins via the Exportin5-Aminoacyl-tRNA Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Mingot

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Exportin5 mediates the nuclear export of double-stranded RNAs, including pre-microRNAs, adenoviral RNAs, and tRNAs. When tRNAs are aminoacylated, the Exportin5-aminoacyl (aa-tRNA complex recruits and coexports the translation elongation factor eEF1A. Here, we show that eEF1A binds to Snail transcription factors when bound to their main target, the E-cadherin promoter, facilitating their export to the cytoplasm in association with the aa-tRNA-Exportin5 complex. Snail binds to eEF1A through the SNAG domain, a protein nuclear export signal present in several transcription factor families, and this binding is regulated by phosphorylation. Thus, we describe a nuclear role for eEF1A and provide a mechanism for protein nuclear export that attenuates the activity of SNAG-containing transcription factors.

  17. eEF1A mediates the nuclear export of SNAG-containing proteins via the Exportin5-aminoacyl-tRNA complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingot, José Manuel; Vega, Sonia; Cano, Amparo; Portillo, Francisco; Nieto, M Angela

    2013-11-14

    Exportin5 mediates the nuclear export of double-stranded RNAs, including pre-microRNAs, adenoviral RNAs, and tRNAs. When tRNAs are aminoacylated, the Exportin5-aminoacyl (aa)-tRNA complex recruits and coexports the translation elongation factor eEF1A. Here, we show that eEF1A binds to Snail transcription factors when bound to their main target, the E-cadherin promoter, facilitating their export to the cytoplasm in association with the aa-tRNA-Exportin5 complex. Snail binds to eEF1A through the SNAG domain, a protein nuclear export signal present in several transcription factor families, and this binding is regulated by phosphorylation. Thus, we describe a nuclear role for eEF1A and provide a mechanism for protein nuclear export that attenuates the activity of SNAG-containing transcription factors.

  18. Calculation of Ecological Footprint Based on Modified Method and Quantitative Analysis of Its Impact Factors——A Case Study of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chengkang; JIANG Dahe; WANG Dan; YAN Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Ecological footprint (EF) has attracted much attention internationally as a potential indicator for sustainable development. In China, EF has also gained recognition in related fields and disciplines. Moreover, some scholars in these fields have proposed alternative methods to calculate EF and have made some progress. This paper, therefore, begins with the introduction and development of EF in China. However, the established methods of EF calculation hold some limitations, such as indicator variance and result abnormality. In order to resolve those problems, the authors make a further modification considering the demand of EF as a comprehensive indicator: 1) More accurate analysis has been done to divide EF into several parts: imported EF, exported EF, and producible EF, which is the solution to the problem of abnormality in original EF results and can explain abnormal phenomena reasonably. 2) Considering the actual situation of Shanghai, amended equivalence factor is brought forward and a matrix is formed with equivalence factors. The measure can reduce the deviation between the fact and the results. 3) The calculation compares local yield with global average yield to analyze the effects of yields. And based on local yields in different years, the results are more accurate.Finally, the calculation method is applied to calculating EF of Shanghai from 1980 to 2003, and the subsequent detailed analysis is presented. Available data and results suggest a statistically significant correlation coefficient between EF and GDP, population density and urbanization level. Through analyzing the process of calculating EF and its results, it can be seen that EF, as a macro-indicator, can not exactly indicate whether development within a region can meet the requests of sustainable development, which can be explained by the fact that the result of EF is impacted greatly by subjective factors including national policy,available technology, population, etc. Nevertheless, EF can

  19. Protein kinase Darkener of apricot and its substrate EF1γ regulate organelle transport along microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpinskaya, Anna S; Tuphile, Karine; Rabinow, Leonard; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of organelle transport along microtubules is important for proper distribution of membrane organelles and protein complexes in the cytoplasm. RNAi-mediated knockdown in cultured Drosophila S2 cells demonstrates that two microtubule-binding proteins, a unique isoform of Darkener of apricot (DOA) protein kinase, and its substrate, translational elongation factor EF1γ, negatively regulate transport of several classes of membrane organelles along microtubules. Inhibition of transport by EF1γ requires its phosphorylation by DOA on serine 294. Together, our results indicate a new role for two proteins that have not previously been implicated in regulation of the cytoskeleton. These results further suggest that the biological role of some of the proteins binding to the microtubule track is to regulate cargo transport along these tracks.

  20. 75 FR 27986 - Electronic Filing System-Web (EFS-Web) Contingency Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... inventors and other small entity applicants who file their applications electronically via EFS-Web receive a... Internet page ( http://www.uspto.gov/patents/process/file/efs/index.jsp ). The EFS-Web Contingency Option... see http://www.uspto.gov/ebc/portal/efs/sb130_instructions.doc ); 9. Petitions to accept an...

  1. Fluctuations between multiple EF-G-induced chimeric tRNA states during translocation on the ribosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adio, Sarah; Senyushkina, Tamara; Peske, Frank; Fischer, Niels; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V.

    2015-06-01

    The coupled translocation of transfer RNA and messenger RNA through the ribosome entails large-scale structural rearrangements, including step-wise movements of the tRNAs. Recent structural work has visualized intermediates of translocation induced by elongation factor G (EF-G) with tRNAs trapped in chimeric states with respect to 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. The functional role of the chimeric states is not known. Here we follow the formation of translocation intermediates by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Using EF-G mutants, a non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, and fusidic acid, we interfere with either translocation or EF-G release from the ribosome and identify several rapidly interconverting chimeric tRNA states on the reaction pathway. EF-G engagement prevents backward transitions early in translocation and increases the fraction of ribosomes that rapidly fluctuate between hybrid, chimeric and posttranslocation states. Thus, the engagement of EF-G alters the energetics of translocation towards a flat energy landscape, thereby promoting forward tRNA movement.

  2. Formation of the First Peptide Bond: The Structure of EF-P Bound to the 70S Ribosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, Gregor; Stanley, Robin E.; Steitz, Thomas A.; Yale

    2009-10-21

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) is an essential protein that stimulates the formation of the first peptide bond in protein synthesis. Here we report the crystal structure of EF-P bound to the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome along with the initiator transfer RNA N-formyl-methionyl-tRNAi (fMet-tRNA{sub i}{sup fMet}) and a short piece of messenger RNA (mRNA) at a resolution of 3.5 angstroms. EF-P binds to a site located between the binding site for the peptidyl tRNA (P site) and the exiting tRNA (E site). It spans both ribosomal subunits with its amino-terminal domain positioned adjacent to the aminoacyl acceptor stem and its carboxyl-terminal domain positioned next to the anticodon stem-loop of the P site-bound initiator tRNA. Domain II of EF-P interacts with the ribosomal protein L1, which results in the largest movement of the L1 stalk that has been observed in the absence of ratcheting of the ribosomal subunits. EF-P facilitates the proper positioning of the fMet-tRNA{sub i}{sup fMet} for the formation of the first peptide bond during translation initiation.

  3. Field Measurements of Gasoline Direct Injection Emission Factors: Spatial and Seasonal Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Wang, Jonathan M; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Ramos, Manuel; Hilker, Nathan; Healy, Robert M; Sabaliauskas, Kelly; Wallace, James S; Evans, Greg J

    2016-02-16

    Four field campaigns were conducted between February 2014 and January 2015 to measure emissions from light-duty gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles (2013 Ford Focus) in an urban near-road environment in Toronto, Canada. Measurements of CO2, CO, NOx, black carbon (BC), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene-xylenes (BTEX), and size-resolved particle number (PN) were recorded 15 m from the roadway and converted to fuel-based emission factors (EFs). Other than for NOx and CO, the GDI engine had elevated emissions compared to the Toronto fleet, with BC EFs in the 73rd percentile, BTEX EFs in the 80-90th percentile, and PN EFs in the 75th percentile during wintertime measurements. Additionally, for three campaigns, a second platform for measuring PN and CO2 was placed 1.5-3 m from the roadway to quantify changes in PN with distance from point of emission. GDI vehicle PN EFs were found to increase by up to 240% with increasing distance from the roadway, predominantly due to an increasing fraction of sub-40 nm particles. PN and BC EFs from the same engine technology were also measured in the laboratory. BC EFs agreed within 20% between the laboratory and real-world measurements; however, laboratory PN EFs were an order of magnitude lower due to exhaust conditioning.

  4. A neutron scattering study of the ternary complex EF-Tu.GTP-valyl-tRNAVal1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österberg, R.; Elias, P.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    matched by the solvents. The results indicate that EF-Tu undergoes a conformational change and contracts as a result of the complex formation, since the radius of gyration decreases by 15% from 2.82 to 2.39 nm. tRNAVal1A, on the other hand, seems to mainly retain its conformation within the complex, since......The complex formation between elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), GTP, and valyl-tRNAVal1A has been investigated in a hepes buffer of "pH" 7.4 and 0.2 M ionic strength using the small-angle neutron scattering method at concentrations of D2O where EF-Tu (42% D2O) and tRNA (71% D2O) are successively...

  5. 9 CFR 205.103 - EFS-minimum information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false EFS-minimum information. 205.103 Section 205.103 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION... debtor (see § 205.102); (5) Social security number or other approved unique identifier or, if other...

  6. Risk factors for executive function difficulties in preschool and early school-age preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meagher, Sari; Kemp, Nenagh; Norris, Kimberley; Anderson, Peter; Skilbeck, Clive

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between executive functioning and social and perinatal risk factors in four- to five-year-old preterm children. Using standardised measures of general intelligence and performance-based executive function (EF) tests prior to starting kindergarten, 141 children born preterm (preterm and the term comparison groups were compared on measures of intelligence and EFs using independent-groups t-tests, and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of intelligence and executive functioning in the preterm group. The preterm group performed significantly more poorly than the comparison group on all intelligence and EF tests. The parental reports of the preterm and term comparison children's EF did not differ significantly, but the teachers reported elevated EF difficulties for the preterm group. Higher social risk, in particular lower educational level of the main caregiver, was the strongest predictor for the preterm children's intelligence and EF results. Social risk factors are strongly associated with impaired early EF outcomes in preterm children. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. EF-Tu dynamics during pre-translocation complex formation: EF-Tu·GDP exits the ribosome via two different pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Chunlai; Kavaliauskas, Darius; Knudsen, Charlotte R; Goldman, Yale E; Cooperman, Barry S

    2015-10-30

    The G-protein EF-Tu, which undergoes a major conformational change when EF-Tu·GTP is converted to EF-Tu·GDP, forms part of an aminoacyl(aa)-tRNA·EF-Tu·GTP ternary complex (TC) that accelerates the binding of aa-tRNA to the ribosome during peptide elongation. Such binding, placing a portion of EF-Tu in contact with the GTPase Associated Center (GAC), is followed by GTP hydrolysis and Pi release, and results in formation of a pretranslocation (PRE) complex. Although tRNA movement through the ribosome during PRE complex formation has been extensively studied, comparatively little is known about the dynamics of EF-Tu interaction with either the ribosome or aa-tRNA. Here we examine these dynamics, utilizing ensemble and single molecule assays employing fluorescent labeled derivatives of EF-Tu, tRNA, and the ribosome to measure changes in either FRET efficiency or fluorescence intensity during PRE complex formation. Our results indicate that ribosome-bound EF-Tu separates from the GAC prior to its full separation from aa-tRNA, and suggest that EF-Tu·GDP dissociates from the ribosome by two different pathways. These pathways correspond to either reversible EF-Tu·GDP dissociation from the ribosome prior to the major conformational change in EF-Tu that follows GTP hydrolysis, or irreversible dissociation after or concomitant with this conformational change.

  9. Noninvasive imaging of tumor hypoxia in rats using the 2-nitroimidazole {sup 18}F-EF5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemer, L.S. [University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Section of Radiology, 3850 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Evans, S.M.; Kachur, A.V.; Shuman, A.L.; Cardi, C.A.; Jenkins, W.T.; Karp, J.S.; Alavi, A.; Koch, C.J. [School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Dolbier Jr., W.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Tumor hypoxia is an important prognostic indicator for cancer therapy outcome. EF5 2-(2-nitro-1[H]-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)-acetamide has been employed to measure tumor hypoxia in animals and humans using immunohistochemical methods. EF5 is a lipophilic molecule designed to have a very uniform biodistribution, a feature of obvious benefit for use in PET imaging. The present study represents the first demonstration of noninvasive PET imaging of rat tumors using fluorine-18 labeled EF5. Because of the small tumor size, partial volume effects may result in underestimation of concentration of the compound. Therefore, validation of the PET data was performed by gamma counting of the imaged tissue. The tumor models studied were the Morris 7777 (Q7) hepatoma (n=5) and the 9L glioma (n=2) grown subcutaneously in rats. Our previous studies have demonstrated that early passage 9L tumors are not severely hypoxic and that Q7 tumors are characterized by heterogeneous regions of tumor hypoxia (i.e., Q7 tumors are usually more hypoxic than early passage 9L tumors). The seven rats were imaged in the HEAD Penn-PET scanner at various time points after administration of 50-100 {mu}Ci {sup 18}F-EF5 in 30 mg/kg carrier nonradioactive EF5. The carrier was used to ensure drug biodistribution comparable to prior studies using immunohistochemical methods. {sup 18}F-EF5 was excreted primarily via the urinary system. Images obtained 10 min following drug administration demonstrated that the EF5 distributed evenly to all organ systems, including brain. Later images showed increased uptake in most Q7 tumors compared with muscle. Liver uptake remained relatively constant over the same time periods. Tumor to muscle ratios ranged from 0.82 to 1.73 (based on PET images at 120 min post injection) and 1.47 to 2.95 (based on gamma counts at 180 min post injection). Tumors were easily visible by 60 min post injection when the final tumor to muscle ratios (based on gamma counts

  10. Mechanism of fusidic acid inhibition of RRF- and EF-G-dependent splitting of the bacterial post-termination ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Anneli; Pavlov, Michael; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2016-04-20

    The antibiotic drug fusidic acid (FA) is commonly used in the clinic against gram-positive bacterial infections. FA targets ribosome-bound elongation factor G (EF-G), a translational GTPase that accelerates both messenger RNA (mRNA) translocation and ribosome recycling. How FA inhibits translocation was recently clarified, but FA inhibition of ribosome recycling by EF-G and ribosome recycling factor (RRF) has remained obscure. Here we use fast kinetics techniques to estimate mean times of ribosome splitting and the stoichiometry of GTP hydrolysis by EF-G at varying concentrations of FA, EF-G and RRF. These mean times together with previous data on uninhibited ribosome recycling were used to clarify the mechanism of FA inhibition of ribosome splitting. The biochemical data on FA inhibition of translocation and recycling were used to model the growth inhibitory effect of FA on bacterial populations. We conclude that FA inhibition of translocation provides the dominant cause of bacterial growth reduction, but that FA inhibition of ribosome recycling may contribute significantly to FA-induced expression of short regulatory open reading frames, like those involved in FA resistance.

  11. After the storm: personal experiences following an EF4 tornado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Olivia W; Bigham, Amy B

    2012-08-01

    In April of 2011, an EF4 tornado ripped through the city of Tuscaloosa, AL, leaving in its wake thousands of destroyed homes and businesses. In the hours and days that followed, the health care community of this city, as well as the entire state of Alabama and the southeastern United States, came together to provide care to hundreds of victims, recovery workers, and volunteers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HDAC inhibitors, MS-275 and salermide, potentiates the anticancer effect of EF24 in human pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar Saglam, Atiye Seda; Yilmaz, Akin; Onen, Hacer Ilke; Alp, Ebru; Kayhan, Handan; Ekmekci, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a major role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression by changing acetylation status of histone and non-histone proteins. MS-275 (entinostat, MS) is a well-known benzamide-based HDACI and Salermide (SAL), a reverse amide compound HDACI, have antiproliferative effects on several human cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of HDACIs (MS and SAL) alone and/or combined use with EF24 (EF), a novel synthetic curcumin analog, on human pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). In vitro, BxPC-3 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of MS, SAL with or without EF, and their effects on cell viability, acetylated Histone H3 and H4 levels, cytotoxicity, and cleaved caspase 3 levels, and cell cycle distribution were measured. The viability of BxPC-3 cells decreased significantly after treatment with EF, MS and SAL treatments. MS and SAL treatment increased the acetylation of histone H3 and H4 in a dose dependent manner. MS and SAL alone or combined with EF were increased the number of cells in G1 phase. In addition, treatment with agents significantly decreased the ratio of cell in G2/M phase. There were significant dose-dependent increases at cleaved Caspase 3 levels after MS treatment but not after SAL treatment. Our results showed that HDAC inhibitors (MS and SAL), when combined with EF, may effectively reduce pancreatic cancer cell (BxPC-3) progression and stop the cell cycle at G1 phase. Further molecular analyses are needed to understand the fundamental molecular consequences of HDAC inhibition in pancreas cancer cells. PMID:27330528

  13. Factor investing based on Musharakah principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Shahril; Omar, Mohd; Lazam, Norazliani Md; Amin, Mohd Nazrul Mohd

    2015-10-01

    Shariah stock investing has become a widely discussed topic in financial industry as part of today's investment strategy. The strategy primarily applies market capitalization allocations. However, some researchers have argued that market capitalization weighting is inherently flawed and have advocated replacing market capitalization allocations with factor allocations. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for factor investing based on Musharakah principle. The essential elements or factors of Musharakah principle such as business sector, management capability, profitability growth and capital efficiency are embedded in the Shariah-compliant stock. We then transform these factors into indexation for better analysis and performance measurement. Investment universe for this research covers Malaysian stocks for the period of January 2009 to December 2013. We found out that these factor indexes have historically earned excess returns over market capitalization weighted indexes and experienced higher Sharpe Ratios.

  14. Trends in black carbon and size-resolved particle number concentrations and vehicle emission factors under real-world conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecl, Patricia; Johansson, Christer; Targino, Admir Créso; Ström, Johan; Burman, Lars

    2017-09-01

    Kerbside concentrations of NOx, black carbon (BC), total number of particles (diameter > 4 nm) and number size distribution (28-410 nm) were measured at a busy street canyon in Stockholm in 2006 and 2013. Over this period, there was an important change in the vehicle fleet due to a strong dieselisation process of light-duty vehicles and technological improvement of vehicle engines. This study assesses the impact of these changes on ambient concentrations and particle emission factors (EF). EF were calculated by using a novel approach which combines the NOx tracer method with positive matrix factorisation (PMF) applied to particle number size distributions. NOx concentrations remained rather constant between these two years, whereas a large decrease in particle concentrations was observed, being on average 60% for BC, 50% for total particle number, and 53% for particles in the range 28-100 nm. The PMF analysis yielded three factors that were identified as contributions from gasoline vehicles, diesel fleet, and urban background. This separation allowed the calculation of the average vehicle EF for each particle metric per fuel type. In general, gasoline EF were lower than diesel EF, and EF for 2013 were lower than the ones derived for 2006. The EFBC decreased 77% for both gasoline and diesel fleets, whereas the particle number EF reduction was higher for the gasoline (79%) than for the diesel (37%) fleet. Our EF are consistent with results from other on-road studies, which reinforces that the proposed methodology is suitable for EF determination and to assess the effectiveness of policies implemented to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions. However, our EF are much higher than EF simulated with traffic emission models (HBEFA and COPERT) that are based on dynamometer measurements, except for EFBC for diesel vehicles. This finding suggests that the EF from the two leading models in Europe should be revised for BC (gasoline vehicles) and particle number (all vehicles

  15. Elongation Factor P Interactions with the Ribosome Are Independent of Pausing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerson, Rodney; Witzky, Anne; Ibba, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) plays a pivotal role in the translation of polyproline motifs. To stimulate peptide bond formation, EF-P must enter the ribosome via an empty E-site. Using fluorescence-based single-molecule tracking, Mohapatra et al. (S. Mohapatra, H. Choi, X. Ge, S. Sanyal, and J. C. Weisshaar, mBio 8:e00300-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00300-17) monitored the cellular distribution of EF-P and quantified the frequency of association between EF-P and the ribosome under various conditions. Findings from the study showed that EF-P has a localization pattern that is strikingly similar to that of ribosomes. Intriguingly, EF-P was seen to bind ribosomes more frequently than the estimated number of pausing events, indicating that E-site vacancies occur even when ribosomes are not paused. The study provides new insights into the mechanism of EF-P-dependent peptide bond formation and the intricacies of translation elongation. Copyright © 2017 Tollerson et al.

  16. Dynamics and energetics: a consensus analysis of the impact of calcium on EF-CaM protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Elodie; Blondel, Arnaud; Malliavin, Thérèse E

    2009-02-18

    We have studied the relationship between dynamical correlations and energetic contributions in an attempt to model the transmission of information inside protein-protein complexes. The complex formed between the edema factor (EF) of Bacillus anthracis and calmodulin (CaM) was taken as an example, as the formation and stability of the complex depend on the calcium complexation level. The effect of calcium through EF-CaM residue network has been investigated with various approaches: 1), the elastic network model; 2), the local feature analysis; 3), the generalized correlations; and 4), the energetic dependency maps (EDMs), on 15-ns molecular dynamics simulations of the complex loaded with 0, 2, or 4 Ca2+ ions. The elastic network model correctly describes the basic architecture of the complex but is poorly sensitive to the level of calcium compared to the other methods. The local feature analysis allows us to characterize the local dynamics of the complex and the propagation of the calcium signal through CaM. The analyses of global dynamics and energetics--through generalized correlations and EDMs--provide a comprehensive picture of EF-CaM architecture and can be unified by using the concept of residue network connectedness. A medium connectedness, defined as the ability of each residue to communicate with all remaining parts of the complex, is observed for the 2Ca2+ level, which was experimentally identified as the most stable form of EF-CaM. The hierarchy of relative stabilities given by the EDMs sheds a new light on the EF-CaM interaction mechanism described experimentally and supports an organization of the complex architecture centered around nucleation points.

  17. Including the spatial variability of metal speciation in the effect factor in life cycle impact assessment: Limits of the equilibrium partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, Clara; Bulle, Cécile; Deschênes, Louise

    2017-03-01

    In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach. Alternatively, the TBLM (Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model) has been used to determine an EF that accounts for speciation, but is not available for metals; hence it cannot be consistently applied to metals in an LCA context. This paper proposes an approach to include metal speciation by regionalizing the EqP method for Cu, Ni and Zn with a geochemical speciation model (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model 7.0), for 5213 soils selected from the Harmonized World Soil Database. Results obtained by this approach (EF(EqP)regionalized) are compared to the EFs calculated with the conventional EqP method, to the EFs based on available terrestrial data and to the EFs calculated with the TBLM (EF(TBLM)regionalized) when available. The spatial variability contribution of the EF to the overall spatial variability of the characterization factor (CF) has been analyzed. It was found that the EFs(EqP)regionalized show a significant spatial variability. The EFs calculated with the two non-regionalized methods (EqP and terrestrial data) fall within the range of the EFs(EqP)regionalized. The EFs(TBLM)regionalized cover a larger range of values than the EFs(EqP)regionalized but the two methods are not correlated. This paper highlights the importance of including speciation into the terrestrial EF and shows that using the regionalized EqP approach is not an

  18. Reprogramming EF-hands for design of catalytically amplified lanthanide sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Korrie L; Moroz, Olesia V; Moroz, Yurii S; Olsen, Alissa B; McLaughlin, Jaclyn M; Korendovych, Ivan V

    2013-04-01

    We recently reported that a computationally designed catalyst nicknamed AlleyCat facilitates C-H proton abstraction in Kemp elimination at neutral pH in a selective and calcium-dependent fashion by a factor of approximately 100,000 (Korendovych et al. in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:6823, 2011). Kemp elimination produced a colored product that can be easily read out, thus making AlleyCat a catalytically amplified metal sensor for calcium. Here we report that metal-binding EF-hand motifs in AlleyCat could be redesigned to incorporate trivalent metal ions without significant loss of catalytic activity. Mutation of a single neutral residue at position 9 of each of the EF-hands to glutamate results in almost a two orders of magnitude improvement of selectivity for trivalent metal ions over calcium. Development of this new lanthanide-dependent switchable Kemp eliminase, named CuSeCat EE, provides the foundation for further selectivity improvement and broadening the scope of the repertoire of metals for sensing. A concerted effort in the design of switchable enzymes has many environmental, sensing, and metal ion tracking applications.

  19. Clinical efficacy of gamma knife and surgery treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and their effects on EF-Tumt and EF-Tsmt expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-Q; Zhang, X-D; Han, Y-M; Shi, X-F; Lan, Z-B; Men, X-X; Pan, Y-W

    2017-04-01

    To study the clinical efficacy of gamma knife and surgery treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and their effects on EF-Tumt and EF-Tsmt expression. The data of 78 cases of MTLE patients treated in our hospital from April 2011 to March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment methods: the surgery group (including 41 cases) and the gamma knife group (including 37 cases). The clinical efficacy, the occurrence and recurrence of complications were evaluated, respectively; meanwhile, the expression of the EF-Tumt protein and EF-Tsmt protein in brain tissue were analyzed. The difference between the efficacy rate of the two groups showed no statistical significance (χ2=0.960, p>0.05). The complication rate of the gamma knife group was significantly lower than that of the control group (χ2=6.430, pgamma knife group was significantly lower than that of the patients in the surgery group (p>0.05). Within the two groups, the positive expression granum of EF-Tsmt protein and EF-Tumt protein of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than that before treatment (pgamma knife group was obviously more than that of the patients in the surgery group (p0.05). Before and after treatment within the group, the positive cell of EF-Tsmt protein and EF-Tumt protein of the two groups of patients after treatment were significantly lower than that before treatment (p0.05). Both surgery and gamma knife could treat MTLE effectively, and the efficacy may be related to the ability to reduce the expression of EF-Tsmt protein and EF-Tumt protein in brain tissue.

  20. MexEF-OprN efflux pump exports the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) precursor HHQ (4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Martin G; Déziel, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial cells have evolved the capacity to communicate between each other via small diffusible chemical signals termed autoinducers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen involved, among others, in cystic fibrosis complications. Virulence of P. aeruginosa relies on its ability to produce a number of autoinducers, including 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQ). In a cell density-dependent manner, accumulated signals induce the expression of multiple targets, especially virulence factors. This phenomenon, called quorum sensing, promotes bacterial capacity to cause disease. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa possesses many multidrug efflux pumps conferring adaptive resistance to antibiotics. Activity of some of these efflux pumps also influences quorum sensing. The present study demonstrates that the MexEF-OprN efflux pump modulates quorum sensing through secretion of a signalling molecule belonging to the HAQ family. Moreover, activation of MexEF-OprN reduces virulence factor expression and swarming motility. Since MexEF-OprN can be activated in infected hosts even in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure, it could promote establishment of chronic infections in the lungs of people suffering from cystic fibrosis, thus diminishing the immune response to virulence factors. Therapeutic drugs that affect multidrug efflux pumps and HAQ-mediated quorum sensing would be valuable tools to shut down bacterial virulence.

  1. LU factorization for accelerator-based systems

    KAUST Repository

    Agullo, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Multicore architectures enhanced with multiple GPUs are likely to become mainstream High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms in a near future. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of an LU factorization using tile algorithm that can fully exploit the potential of such platforms in spite of their complexity. We use a methodology derived from previous work on Cholesky and QR factorizations. Our contributions essentially consist of providing new CPU/GPU hybrid LU kernels, studying the impact on performance of the looking variants as well as the storage layout in presence of pivoting, tuning the kernels for two different machines composed of multiple recent NVIDIA Tesla S1070 (four GPUs total) and Fermi-based S2050 GPUs (three GPUs total), respectively. The hybrid tile LU asymptotically achieves 1 Tflop/s in single precision on both hardwares. The performance in double precision arithmetic reaches 500 Gflop/s on the Fermi-based system, twice faster than the old GPU generation of Tesla S1070. We also discuss the impact of the number of tiles on the numerical stability. We show that the numerical results of the tile LU factorization will be accurate enough for most applications as long as the computations are performed in double precision arithmetic. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Investment innovation trends: Factor-based investing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Centineo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that it can take a long period of time until research knowledge finds its application in practice and get disseminated as innovation trend. Factor-based investing is such an example. Having its developing roots in the nineties, it took more than two decades until this approach was detected by the by investment community. The goal of this article is to recall the definition of factor investing, present its historical evolvement and motivate its recent break-through and current trend among investment practitioners (known also under the notion smart beta. It aims at familiarizing with this investment approach from a practical perspective and highlighting its diversifying benefits in a portfolio context with the potential to outperform the market on risk-adjusted basis.

  3. State based factors affecting inward FDI employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kornecki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research investigates state based factors affecting the inward FDI employment among fifty states of the United States, uses annual data for the period of time from 1997 to 2007 and identifies several state-specific determinants of FDI employment. The results indicate that the major factors exerting positive impact on inward US FDI employment are: real wages, infrastructure, unionization level, educational attainment, FDI stock and manufacturing density.  In addition, the results show that gross state product growth rate, real per capita taxes and share of scientists and engineers have negative impact on FDI employment. Our findings indicate the importance of selected variables in evaluating the effects of FDI flow.Keywords: FDI, Growth, Employment, State, Economy

  4. Differential Responses of Post-Exercise Recovery of Leg Blood Flow and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in HFpEF versus HFrEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard B; Pagano, Joseph J; Mathewson, Kory W; Paterson, Ian; Dyck, Jason R; Kitzman, Dalane W; Haykowsky, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to compare leg blood flow, oxygen extraction and oxygen uptake (VO2) after constant load sub-maximal unilateral knee extension (ULKE) exercise in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) compared to those with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Previously, it has been shown that prolonged whole body VO2 recovery kinetics are directly related to disease severity and all-cause mortality in HFrEF patients. To date, no study has simultaneously measured muscle-specific blood flow and oxygen extraction post exercise recovery kinetics in HFrEF or HFpEF patients; therefore it is unknown if muscle VO2 recovery kinetics, and more specifically, the recovery kinetics of blood flow and oxygen extraction at the level of the muscle, differ between HF phenotypes. Ten older (68±10yrs) HFrEF (n = 5) and HFpEF (n = 5) patients performed sub-maximal (85% of maximal weight lifted during an incremental test) ULKE exercise for 4 minutes. Femoral venous blood flow and venous O2 saturation were measured continuously from the onset of end-exercise, using a novel MRI method, to determine off-kinetics (mean response times, MRT) for leg VO2 and its determinants. HFpEF and HFrEF patients had similar end-exercise leg blood flow (1.1±0.6 vs. 1.2±0.6 L/min, p>0.05), venous saturation (42±12 vs. 41±11%, p>0.05) and VO2 (0.13±0.08 vs. 0.11±0.05 L/min, p>0.05); however HFrEF had significantly delayed recovery MRT for flow (292±135sec. vs 105±63sec., p = 0.004) and VO2 (95±37sec. vs. 47±15sec., p = 0.005) compared to HFpEF. Impaired muscle VO2 recovery kinetics following ULKE exercise differentiated HFrEF from HFpEF patients and suggests distinct underlying pathology and potential therapeutic approaches in these populations.

  5. Plant Translation Elongation Factor 1Bβ Facilitates Potato Virus X (PVX) Infection and Interacts with PVX Triple Gene Block Protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, JeeNa; Lee, Seonhee; Lee, Joung-Ho; Kang, Won-Hee; Kang, Jin-Ho; Kang, Min-Young; Oh, Chang-Sik; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 (eEF1) has two components: the G-protein eEF1A and the nucleotide exchange factor eEF1B. In plants, eEF1B is itself composed of a structural protein (eEF1Bγ) and two nucleotide exchange subunits (eEF1Bα and eEF1Bβ). To test the effects of elongation factors on virus infection, we isolated eEF1A and eEF1B genes from pepper (Capsicum annuum) and suppressed their homologs in Nicotiana benthamiana using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). The accumulation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Potato virus X (PVX) was significantly reduced in the eEF1Bβ- or eEF1Bɣ-silenced plants as well as in eEF1A-silenced plants. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that eEF1Bα and eEF1Bβ interacted with eEF1A and that eEF1A and eEF1Bβ interacted with triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1) of PVX. These results suggest that both eEF1A and eEF1Bβ play essential roles in the multiplication of PVX by physically interacting with TGBp1. Furthermore, using eEF1Bβ deletion constructs, we found that both N- (1-64 amino acids) and C-terminal (150-195 amino acids) domains of eEF1Bβ are important for the interaction with PVX TGBp1 and that the C-terminal domain of eEF1Bβ is involved in the interaction with eEF1A. These results suggest that eEF1Bβ could be a potential target for engineering virus-resistant plants.

  6. Tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) inhibits cancer cell growth by downregulating eEF1A2 through a direct interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mee-Hyun; Choi, Bu Young; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Young; Huang, Zunnan; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Kim, Myoung Ok; Kim, Dong Joon; Bode, Ann M; Surh, Young-Joon; Dong, Zigang

    2013-04-15

    The tumor suppressor protein p16(INK4a) is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors, which are involved in the regulation of the eukaryotic cell cycle. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of p16(INK4a) have not been fully elucidated. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified the eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF)1A2 as a novel interacting partner of p16(INK4a). eEF1A2 is thought to function as an oncogene in cancers. The p16(INK4a) protein interacted with all but the D2 (250-327 aa) domain of eEF1A2. Ectopic expression of p16(INK4a) decreased the expression of eEF1A2 and inhibited cancer cell growth. Furthermore, suppression of protein synthesis by expression of p16(INK4a) ex vivo was verified by luciferase reporter activity. Microinjection of p16(INK4a) mRNA into the cytoplasm of Xenopus embryos suppressed the luciferase mRNA translation, whereas the combination of p16(INK4a) and morpholino-eEF1A2 resulted in a further reduction in translational activity. We conclude that the interaction of p16(INK4a) with eEF1A2, and subsequent downregulation of the expression and function of eEF1A2 is a novel mechanism explaining the anti-proliferative effects of p16(INK4a).

  7. Comparative mRNA Expression of eEF1A Isoforms and a PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway in a Cellular Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawinthra Khwanraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is one of dysregulated pathways in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Previous studies in nonneuronal cells showed that Akt regulation can be increased by eukaryotic protein elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (eEF1A2. eEF1A2 is proposed to contribute protection against apoptotic death, likely through activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Whether eEF1A2 plays a role in the prevention of cell death in PD has not been investigated. Recently, gene profiling on dopaminergic neurons from postmortem PD patients showed both upregulation and downregulation of some PI3K and mTOR genes. In this paper, the expression of all gene members of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in relation to those of the eEF1A isoforms in a cellular model of PD was investigated at the mRNA level. The results showed a similar trend of upregulation of genes of the eEF1A isoforms (eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 and of the PI3K (classes I–III/Akt (Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3/mTOR (mTORC1 and mTORC2 pathway in both nondifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells treated with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+. Upregulation of eEF1A2, Akt1, and mTORC1 was consistent with the relative increase of eEF1A2, Akt, phospho-Akt, and mTORC1 proteins. The possible role of eEF1A isoforms in the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in PD is discussed.

  8. TOPCAT misses its primary endpoint: Should spironolactone be abandoned in HFpEF?

    OpenAIRE

    ElGuindy, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) continues to be a challenging form of heart failure – one in which no therapy has yet been proven to improve outcome. Aldosterone antagonists have previously been shown to improve survival in a wide spectrum of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and more recently, small trials suggested that they might have role in HFpEF patients. The effect of spironolactone on clinical outcomes in HFpEF was tested in the...

  9. Crystal Structures of EF-G-Ribosome Complexes Trapped in Intermediate States of Translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jie; Lancaster, Laura; Donohue, John Paul; Noller, Harry F. [UCSC

    2013-11-12

    Translocation of messenger and transfer RNA (mRNA and tRNA) through the ribosome is a crucial step in protein synthesis, whose mechanism is not yet understood. The crystal structures of three Thermus ribosome-tRNA-mRNA–EF-G complexes trapped with β,γ-imidoguanosine 5'-triphosphate (GDPNP) or fusidic acid reveal conformational changes occurring during intermediate states of translocation, including large-scale rotation of the 30S subunit head and body. In all complexes, the tRNA acceptor ends occupy the 50S subunit E site, while their anticodon stem loops move with the head of the 30S subunit to positions between the P and E sites, forming chimeric intermediate states. Two universally conserved bases of 16S ribosomal RNA that intercalate between bases of the mRNA may act as “pawls” of a translocational ratchet. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of ribosomal translocation.

  10. A conserved P-loop anchor limits the structural dynamics that mediate nucleotide dissociation in EF-Tu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Evan; Girodat, Dylan; Wieden, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) is a conserved sequence motif found in mononucleotide-binding proteins. Little is known about the structural dynamics of this region and its contribution to the observed nucleotide binding properties. Understanding the underlying design principles is of great interest for biomolecular engineering applications. We have used rapid-kinetics measurements in vitro and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in silico to investigate the relationship between GTP-binding properties and P-loop structural dynamics in the universally conserved Elongation Factor (EF) Tu. Analysis of wild type EF-Tu and variants with substitutions at positions in or adjacent to the P-loop revealed a correlation between P-loop flexibility and the entropy of activation for GTP dissociation. The same variants demonstrate more backbone flexibility in two N-terminal amino acids of the P-loop during force-induced EF-Tu·GTP dissociation in Steered Molecular Dynamics simulations. Amino acids Gly18 and His19 are involved in stabilizing the P-loop backbone via interactions with the adjacent helix C. We propose that these P-loop/helix C interactions function as a conserved P-loop anchoring module and identify the presence of P-loop anchors within several GTPases and ATPases suggesting their evolutionary conservation. PMID:25566871

  11. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of asymmetric EF24 analogues as potential anti-cancer agents for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianzhang; Wu, Shoubiao; Shi, Lingyi; Zhang, Shanshan; Ren, Jiye; Yao, Song; Yun, Di; Huang, Lili; Wang, Jiabing; Li, Wulan; Wu, Xiaoping; Qiu, Peihong; Liang, Guang

    2017-01-05

    The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway has been targeted for the therapy of various cancers, including lung cancer. EF24 was considered as a potent inhibitor of NF-κB signaling pathway. In this study, a series of asymmetric EF24 analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against three lung cancer cell lines (A549, LLC, H1650). Most of the compounds exhibited good anti-tumor activity. Among them, compound 81 showed greater cytotoxicity than EF24. Compound 81 also possessed a potent anti-migration and anti-proliferative ability against A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, compound 81 induced lung cancer cells death by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway, and activated the JNK-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting in apoptosis. In summary, compound 81 is a valuable candidate for anti-lung cancer therapy.

  12. A conserved P-loop anchor limits the structural dynamics that mediate nucleotide dissociation in EF-Tu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Evan; Girodat, Dylan; Wieden, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) is a conserved sequence motif found in mononucleotide-binding proteins. Little is known about the structural dynamics of this region and its contribution to the observed nucleotide binding properties. Understanding the underlying design principles is of great interest for biomolecular engineering applications. We have used rapid-kinetics measurements in vitro and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in silico to investigate the relationship between GTP-binding properties and P-loop structural dynamics in the universally conserved Elongation Factor (EF) Tu. Analysis of wild type EF-Tu and variants with substitutions at positions in or adjacent to the P-loop revealed a correlation between P-loop flexibility and the entropy of activation for GTP dissociation. The same variants demonstrate more backbone flexibility in two N-terminal amino acids of the P-loop during force-induced EF-Tu.GTP dissociation in Steered Molecular Dynamics simulations. Amino acids Gly18 and His19 are involved in stabilizing the P-loop backbone via interactions with the adjacent helix C. We propose that these P-loop/helix C interactions function as a conserved P-loop anchoring module and identify the presence of P-loop anchors within several GTPases and ATPases suggesting their evolutionary conservation.

  13. Papel de EF-Tu en la interacción de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con los queratinocitos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ramos, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Pseudomonas aeruginosa es un patógeno oportunista que causa una gran variedad de infecciones, entre las que destacan las infecciones respiratorias agudas y crónicas y las infecciones de heridas por quemaduras. En un trabajo previo, usamos anticuerpos específicos para detectar la presencia del epítopo de fosforilcolina en la superficie bacteriana asociado al factor de elongación Tu (EF-Tu). Identificamos que el gen eftM (Elongation Factor Tu Modifying enzime) es el...

  14. Tensor Factorization for Precision Medicine in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Ahmad, Faraz S; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2017-01-23

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that may benefit from improved subtyping in order to better characterize its pathophysiology and to develop novel targeted therapies. The United States Precision Medicine Initiative comes amid the rapid growth in quantity and modality of clinical data for HFpEF patients ranging from deep phenotypic to trans-omic data. Tensor factorization, a form of machine learning, allows for the integration of multiple data modalities to derive clinically relevant HFpEF subtypes that may have significant differences in underlying pathophysiology and differential response to therapies. Tensor factorization also allows for better interpretability by supporting dimensionality reduction and identifying latent groups of data for meaningful summarization of both features and disease outcomes. In this narrative review, we analyze the modest literature on the application of tensor factorization to related biomedical fields including genotyping and phenotyping. Based on the cited work including work of our own, we suggest multiple tensor factorization formulations capable of integrating the deep phenotypic and trans-omic modalities of data for HFpEF, or accounting for interactions between genetic variants at different omic hierarchies. We encourage extensive experimental studies to tackle challenges in applying tensor factorization for precision medicine in HFpEF, including effectively incorporating existing medical knowledge, properly accounting for uncertainty, and efficiently enforcing sparsity for better interpretability.

  15. Labeled EF-Tus for rapid kinetic studies of pretranslocation complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Kavaliauskas, Darius; Schrader, Jared

    2014-01-01

    describe preparation of QSY9 and Cy5 derivatives of the variant E348C-EF-Tu that are functional in translation elongation. Together with fluorophore derivatives of aa-tRNA and of ribosomal protein L11, located within the GTPase associated center (GAC), these labeled EF-Tus allow development of two new FRET...

  16. Complementary and Overlapping Selectivity of the Two-Peptide Bacteriocins Plantaricin EF and JK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Gert N.; Akker, Emile van den; Hauge, Håvard H.; Nissen-Meyer, Jon; Nes, Ingolf F.; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Plantaricin EF and JK are both two-peptide bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum C11. The mechanism of plantaricin EF and JK action was studied on L. plantarum 965 cells. Both plantaricins form pores in the membranes of target cells and dissipate the transmembrane electrical potential (Δψ

  17. Complementary and Overlapping Selectivity of the Two-Peptide Bacteriocins Plantaricin EF and JK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Gert N.; Akker, Emile van den; Hauge, Håvard H.; Nissen-Meyer, Jon; Nes, Ingolf F.; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Plantaricin EF and JK are both two-peptide bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum C11. The mechanism of plantaricin EF and JK action was studied on L. plantarum 965 cells. Both plantaricins form pores in the membranes of target cells and dissipate the transmembrane electrical potential

  18. I/O Module Variants in the DAQ-Unit of DAQ/EF Prototype -1

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H; Joos, M; Petersen, J

    2000-01-01

    The models of the Read-Out Crate, the Sub-Farm Crate and the DAQ-Unitin the DAQ/EF prototype -1 are reviewed. Implementations of theRead-Out Crate and the Sub-Farm Crate on different configurationsof Single Board Computers (SBC) are discussed and the software analysed with emphasis on the task structure of the I/O Module instances.For each implementation, measurements of the event rate in the Read-Out Crate and the Sub-Farm Crate were performed with event fragments generated either locally (by the SBC) or via ROB-INs(Read-Out Crate only). The hardware consisted of PowerPC basedVMEbus SBCs (CES RIO8062) equipped with up to four ROB-INs(CES MFCC8441).

  19. The NIMH Child Emotional Faces Picture Set (NIMH-ChEFS): a new set of children's facial emotion stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen Link; Pine, Daniel S; Nelson, Eric; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ernst, Monique; Towbin, Kenneth E; Angold, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    With the emergence of new technologies, there has been an explosion of basic and clinical research on the affective and cognitive neuroscience of face processing and emotion perception. Adult emotional face stimuli are commonly used in these studies. For developmental research, there is a need for a validated set of child emotional faces. This paper describes the development of the National Institute of Mental Health Child Emotional Faces Picture Set (NIMH-ChEFS), a relatively large stimulus set with high quality, color images of the emotional faces of children. The set includes 482 photographs of fearful, angry, happy, sad and neutral child faces with two gaze conditions: direct and averted gaze. In this paper we describe the development of the NIMH-ChEFS and data on the set's validity based on ratings by 20 healthy adult raters. Agreement between the a priori emotion designation and the raters' labels was high and comparable with values reported for commonly used adult picture sets. Intensity, representativeness, and composite "goodness" ratings are also presented to guide researchers in their choice of specific stimuli for their studies. These data should give researchers confidence in the NIMH-ChEFS's validity for use in affective and social neuroscience research.

  20. The Bacteriophage EF-P29 Efficiently Protects against Lethal Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Alleviates Gut Microbiota Imbalance in a Murine Bacteremia Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjun Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is becoming an increasingly important opportunistic pathogen worldwide, especially because it can cause life-threatening nosocomial infections. Treating E. faecalis infections has become increasingly difficult because of the prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. faecalis strains. Because bacteriophages show specificity for their bacterial hosts, there has been a growth in interest in using phage therapies to combat the rising incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. In this study, we isolated a new lytic phage, EF-P29, which showed high efficiency and a broad host range against E. faecalis strains, including vancomycin-resistant strains. The EF-P29 genome contains 58,984 bp (39.97% G+C, including 101 open reading frames, and lacks known putative virulence factors, integration-related proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. In murine experiments, the administration of a single intraperitoneal injection of EF-P29 (4 × 105 PFU at 1 h after challenge was sufficient to protect all mice against bacteremia caused by infection with a vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis strain (2 × 109 CFU/mouse. E. faecalis colony counts were more quickly eliminated in the blood of EF-P29-protected mice than in unprotected mice. We also found that exogenous E. faecalis challenge resulted in enrichment of members of the genus Enterococcus (family Enterococcaceae in the guts of the mice, suggesting that it can enter the gut and colonize there. The phage EF-P29 reduced the number of colonies of genus Enterococcus and alleviated the gut microbiota imbalance that was caused by E. faecalis challenge. These data indicate that the phage EF-P29 shows great potential as a therapeutic treatment for systemic VREF infection. Thus, phage therapies that are aimed at treating opportunistic pathogens are also feasible. The dose of phage should be controlled and used at the appropriate level to avoid causing imbalance in the gut microbiota.

  1. Time trend of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission factors from motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shu; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Rong; Sun, Kang

    2010-05-01

    Motor vehicle is an important emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and this is particularly true in urban areas. Motor vehicle emission factors (EFs) for individual PAH compound reported in the literature varied for 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission estimation. In this study, the major factors affecting EFs were investigated and characterized by regression models. Based on the model developed, a motor vehicle PAH emission inventory at country level was developed. It was found that country and model year are the most important factors affecting EFs for PAHs. The influence of the two factors can be quantified by a single parameter of per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity), which was used as the independent variables of the regression models. The models developed using randomly selected 80% of measurements and tested with the remained data accounted for 28 to 48% of the variations in EFs for PAHs measured in 16 countries over 50 years. The regression coefficients of the EF prediction models were molecular weight dependent. Motor vehicle emission of PAHs from individual countries in the world in 1985, 1995, 2005, 2015, and 2025 were calculated and the global emission of total PAHs were 470, 390, and 430 Gg in 1985, 1995, and 2005 and will be 290 and 130 Gg in 2015 and 2025, respectively. The emission is currently passing its peak and will decrease due to significant decrease in China and other developing countries.

  2. Predicting the pathway involved in post-translational modification of Elongation factor P in a subset of bacterial species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Crécy-Lagard Valérie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P is strictly conserved in bacteria and essential for protein synthesis. It is homologous to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A. A highly conserved eIF5A lysine is modified into an unusual amino acid derived from spermidine, hypusine. Hypusine is absolutely required for eIF5A's role in translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The homologous lysine of EF-P is also modified to a spermidine derivative in Escherichia coli. However, the biosynthesis pathway of this modification in the bacterial EF-P is yet to be elucidated. Presentation of the Hypothesis Here we propose a potential mechanism for the post-translational modification of EF-P. By using comparative genomic methods based on physical clustering and phylogenetic pattern analysis, we identified two protein families of unknown function, encoded by yjeA and yjeK genes in E. coli, as candidates for this missing pathway. Based on the analysis of the structural and biochemical properties of both protein families, we propose two potential mechanisms for the modification of EF-P. Testing the hypothesis This hypothesis could be tested genetically by constructing a bacterial strain with a tagged efp gene. The tag would allow the purification of EF-P by affinity chromatography and the analysis of the purified protein by mass spectrometry. yjeA or yjeK could then be deleted in the efp tagged strain and the EF-P protein purified from each mutant analyzed by mass spectrometry for the presence or the absence of the modification. This hypothesis can also be tested by purifying the different components (YjeK, YjeA and EF-P and reconstituting the pathway in vitro. Implication of the hypothesis The requirement for a fully modified EF-P for protein synthesis in certain bacteria implies the presence of specific post-translational modification mechanism in these organisms. All of the 725 bacterial genomes analyzed, possess an efp gene

  3. Disaggregated N2O emission factors in China based on cropping parameters create a robust approach to the IPCC Tier 2 methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Anita; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Nayak, Dali; Newbold, Jamie; Moran, Dominic; Dhanoa, Mewa Singh; Goulding, Keith; Smith, Pete; Cardenas, Laura M

    2015-12-01

    China accounts for a third of global nitrogen fertilizer consumption. Under an International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 assessment, emission factors (EFs) are developed for the major crop types using country-specific data. IPCC advises a separate calculation for the direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of rice cultivation from that of cropland and the consideration of the water regime used for irrigation. In this paper we combine these requirements in two independent analyses, using different data quality acceptance thresholds, to determine the influential parameters on emissions with which to disaggregate and create N2O EFs. Across China, the N2O EF for lowland horticulture was slightly higher (between 0.74% and 1.26% of fertilizer applied) than that for upland crops (values ranging between 0.40% and 1.54%), and significantly higher than for rice (values ranging between 0.29% and 0.66% on temporarily drained soils, and between 0.15% and 0.37% on un-drained soils). Higher EFs for rice were associated with longer periods of drained soil and the use of compound fertilizer; lower emissions were associated with the use of urea or acid soils. Higher EFs for upland crops were associated with clay soil, compound fertilizer or maize crops; lower EFs were associated with sandy soil and the use of urea. Variation in emissions for lowland vegetable crops was closely associated with crop type. The two independent analyses in this study produced consistent disaggregated N2O EFs for rice and mixed crops, showing that the use of influential cropping parameters can produce robust EFs for China.

  4. [Expression of elongation factor-1 alpha-A and beta-actin promoters in embryos of transgenic Medaka (Oryzias latipes)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hua

    2003-06-01

    Two expression vectors with the promoter of either Medaka (Oryzias latipes) elongation factor gene or beta-actin gene were constructed based on pBluescript SK+. Both of them are linked with green-fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. And they are named as pB-EF and pB-BA, respectively. The microinjection experiments were conducted with fertilized Medaka eggs at one-cell stage. The expression of two vectors, pB-EF and pB-BA, was observed under stereo-fluorescence microscope. The detection results showed that both EF-1 alpha-A promoter and beta-actin promoter are strong. In the process of embryo development, the activity of beta-actin promoter became stronger while that of EF-1 alpha-A promoter weaker gradually. beta-actin promoter was but EF-1 alpha-A promoter distributed throughout fish body uniformly. The expression rate of two vectors, pB-EF and pB-BA, are 8.23% and 6.10%, respectively.

  5. The enhancemeny of anti-tumor effects, immuno-activity and radiation protection after injection of EF2001(Lactic bacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Morkkazu; Hasegawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Tohru [Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    EF2001 was made from Enterococcus Faecalis, and it has radiation protection effects by protection of the intestinal mucosa in the absorption function of the carcinogenesis materials. We used animals were C3H mice bearing SCC-VIII tumor. The results of this study confirmed, EF2001 has effect of radiation protection and EF2001 can absorption of carcinogenesis materials selectively.

  6. Combined deletion of Pten and p53 in mammary epithelium accelerates triple-negative breast cancer with dependency on eEF2K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jeff C; Voisin, Veronique; Wang, Sharon; Wang, Dong-Yu; Jones, Robert A; Datti, Alessandro; Uehling, David; Al-awar, Rima; Egan, Sean E; Bader, Gary D; Tsao, Ming; Mak, Tak W; Zacksenhaus, Eldad

    2014-12-01

    The tumor suppressors Pten and p53 are frequently lost in breast cancer, yet the consequences of their combined inactivation are poorly understood. Here, we show that mammary-specific deletion of Pten via WAP-Cre, which targets alveolar progenitors, induced tumors with shortened latency compared to those induced by MMTV-Cre, which targets basal/luminal progenitors. Combined Pten-p53 mutations accelerated formation of claudin-low, triple-negative-like breast cancer (TNBC) that exhibited hyper-activated AKT signaling and more mesenchymal features relative to Pten or p53 single-mutant tumors. Twenty-four genes that were significantly and differentially expressed between WAP-Cre:Pten/p53 and MMTV-Cre:Pten/p53 tumors predicted poor survival for claudin-low patients. Kinome screens identified eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K) inhibitors as more potent than PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors on both mouse and human Pten/p53-deficient TNBC cells. Sensitivity to eEF2K inhibition correlated with AKT pathway activity. eEF2K monotherapy suppressed growth of Pten/p53-deficient TNBC xenografts in vivo and cooperated with doxorubicin to efficiently kill tumor cells in vitro. Our results identify a prognostic signature for claudin-low patients and provide a rationale for using eEF2K inhibitors for treatment of TNBC with elevated AKT signaling.

  7. Pharmacophore Selection and Redesign of Non-nucleotide Inhibitors of Anthrax Edema Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estrella Jimenez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic treatment may fail to protect individuals, if not started early enough, after infection with Bacillus anthracis, due to the continuing activity of toxins that the bacterium produces. Stable and easily stored inhibitors of the edema factor toxin (EF, an adenylyl cyclase, could save lives in the event of an outbreak, due to natural causes or a bioweapon attack. The toxin’s basic activity is to convert ATP to cAMP, and it is thus in principle a simple phosphatase, which means that many mammalian enzymes, including intracellular adenylcyclases, may have a similar activity. While nucleotide based inhibitors, similar to its natural substrate, ATP, were identified early, these compounds had low activity and specificity for EF. We used a combined structural and computational approach to choose small organic molecules in large, web-based compound libraries that would, based on docking scores, bind to residues within the substrate binding pocket of EF. A family of fluorenone-based inhibitors was identified that inhibited the release of cAMP from cells treated with EF. The lead inhibitor was also shown to inhibit the diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC in a murine model, perhaps by serving as a quorum sensor. These inhibitors are now being tested for their ability to inhibit Anthrax infection in animal models and may have use against other pathogens that produce toxins similar to EF, such as Bordetella pertussis or Vibrio cholera.

  8. Isolation, Identification and Earliness Effect Analysis of Rice Dominant Earliness Gene Ef-cd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiao-jian; WANG Ping-rong; LI Xiu-lan; DONG Chun-lin; YANG Zhi-rong

    2005-01-01

    Ef-cd gene is a dominant earliness gene located on the short arm of rice chromosome 3. In this paper, through continuous backcross, self-pollination and molecular marker assisted selection, individual Ef-cd gene was isolated and its nearly isogenic lines were constructed by using early-maturing indica line 6442S-7 as the donor parent, and by using latematuring indica line Minghui 63 (MH63), Shuhui 881 (SH881) and Shuhui 527 (SH527) as the recurrent parents (genetic background), respectively. Further, it was found out that Ef-cd gene could generally advance rice to head 11-14 d earlier.So, it was considered that Ef-cd gene played an important role in rapid developing early-maturing and super high-yielding rice varieties.

  9. 肠球菌溶血素cyl基因原始株、变异株在小鼠腹膜炎中的毒力差异%Virulence Changes between EF A7 and EF A7 cyl Mutant in the Mouse Peritonitis Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋燕成; 张志珊; 强华

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of enterococcal hemolysin and establish the foundation to diagnose and control relevant diseases.Methods Take 30 clean grade ICR mice were randomly divided into ten groups,each 6,1 to 4 groups according to 10-fold gradient amount per 1 ml intraperitoneal injection of 5× 107 cfu/ml~5×1010 cfu/ml of EF A7,group 5 as a control group injected 0.5 ml saline,take another 30 clean grade ICR mice,intraperitoneal injection of 5×107 cfu/ml~5×1010 cfu/ml of EF A7 cyl mutant by the same measures,compared to the original strains of mice infected with mutant strain LD50,and a week after infection mortality was observed in mice daily. Another seven groups of mice with the same bacterial concentration (5×109 cfu/ml)were injected intraperitoneally EF A7 and EF A7 cyl mutant,after infection 6 h,12 h and 24 h comparing the number of leukocytes in peripheral blood of mice,re-spectively,the concentration of TNF-αin the acute phase of cytokines.Results In the mouse peritonitis models the 50% le-thal dose (LD50)of EF A7 cyl mutant was 100 times lower than enterococcus faecalis EF A7.The differences of the survival percentage of EF A7 cyl mutant groups and EF A7 groups have significance (P<0.05).As the changes in boold leukocytes numbers and the TNF-αlevel.Conclusion Cyl gene is probably a major virulence factor of Enterococcus and plays an impor-tant role in the mouse peritonitis model.%目的:通过研究肠球菌溶血素的毒力,为肠球菌的致病机制及其临床感染的诊断防治奠定基础。方法取30只清洁级 ICR小鼠,随机分为5组,每组6只,其中1~4组按10倍梯度以每只1 ml的量腹腔注射5×107 cfu/ml~5×1010 cfu/ml的 EF A7,第5组为对照组腹腔注射0.5 ml生理盐水。同样方法另取30只小鼠腹腔注射5×107 cfu/ml~5×1010 cfu/ml的 EF A7 cyl mutant,比较原始株、变异株感染小鼠的 LD50,并在感染后连续一

  10. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis phage IME-EF1 and its endolysin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Zhang

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is increasingly becoming an important nosocomial infection opportunistic pathogen. E. faecalis can easily obtain drug resistance, making it difficult to be controlled in clinical settings. Using bacteriophage as an alternative treatment to drug-resistant bacteria has been revitalized recently, especially for fighting drug-resistant bacteria. In this research, an E. faecalis bacteriophage named IME-EF1 was isolated from hospital sewage. Whole genomic sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolated IME-EF1 belong to the Siphoviridae family, and has a linear double-stranded DNA genome consisting of 57,081 nucleotides. The IME-EF1 genome has a 40.04% G+C content and contains 98 putative coding sequences. In addition, IME-EF1 has an isometric head with a width of 35 nm to 60 nm and length of 75 nm to 90 nm, as well as morphology resembling a tadpole. IME-EF1 can adsorb to its host cells within 9 min, with an absorbance rate more than 99% and a latent period time of 25 min. The endolysin of IME-EF1 contains a CHAP domain in its N-terminal and has a wider bactericidal spectrum than its parental bacteriophage, including 2 strains of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. When administrated intraperitoneally, one dose of IME-EF1 or its endolysin can reduce bacterial count in the blood and protected the mice from a lethal challenge of E. faecalis, with a survival rate of 60% or 80%, respectively. Although bacteriophage could rescue mice from bacterial challenge, to the best of our knowledge, this study further supports the potential function of bacteriophage in dealing with E. faecalis infection in vivo. The results also indicated that the newly isolated bacteriophage IME-EF1 enriched the arsenal library of lytic E. faecalis bacteriophages and presented another choice for phage therapy in the future.

  11. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis phage IME-EF1 and its endolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhui; Mi, Zhiqiang; Yin, Xiuyun; Fan, Hang; An, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhiyi; Chen, Jiankui; Tong, Yigang

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is increasingly becoming an important nosocomial infection opportunistic pathogen. E. faecalis can easily obtain drug resistance, making it difficult to be controlled in clinical settings. Using bacteriophage as an alternative treatment to drug-resistant bacteria has been revitalized recently, especially for fighting drug-resistant bacteria. In this research, an E. faecalis bacteriophage named IME-EF1 was isolated from hospital sewage. Whole genomic sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolated IME-EF1 belong to the Siphoviridae family, and has a linear double-stranded DNA genome consisting of 57,081 nucleotides. The IME-EF1 genome has a 40.04% G+C content and contains 98 putative coding sequences. In addition, IME-EF1 has an isometric head with a width of 35 nm to 60 nm and length of 75 nm to 90 nm, as well as morphology resembling a tadpole. IME-EF1 can adsorb to its host cells within 9 min, with an absorbance rate more than 99% and a latent period time of 25 min. The endolysin of IME-EF1 contains a CHAP domain in its N-terminal and has a wider bactericidal spectrum than its parental bacteriophage, including 2 strains of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. When administrated intraperitoneally, one dose of IME-EF1 or its endolysin can reduce bacterial count in the blood and protected the mice from a lethal challenge of E. faecalis, with a survival rate of 60% or 80%, respectively. Although bacteriophage could rescue mice from bacterial challenge, to the best of our knowledge, this study further supports the potential function of bacteriophage in dealing with E. faecalis infection in vivo. The results also indicated that the newly isolated bacteriophage IME-EF1 enriched the arsenal library of lytic E. faecalis bacteriophages and presented another choice for phage therapy in the future.

  12. Contribution of effluent organic matter (EfOM) to ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling: Isolation, characterization, and fouling effect of EfOM fractions

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing

    2014-11-01

    EfOM has been regarded as a major organic foulant resulting in UF membrane fouling in wastewater reclamation. To investigate fouling potential of different EfOM fractions, the present study isolated EfOM into hydrophobic neutrals (HPO-N), colloids, hydrophobic acids (HPO-A), transphilic neutrals and acids (TPI), and hydrophilics (HPI), and tested their fouling effect in both salt solution and pure water during ultrafiltration (UF). Major functional groups and chemical structure of the isolates were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) analysis. The influence of the isolation process on the properties of EfOM fractions was minor because the raw and reconstituted secondary effluents were found similar with respect to UV absorbance, molecular size distribution, and fluorescence character. In membrane filtration tests, unified membrane fouling index (UMFI) and hydraulic resistance were used to quantify irreversible fouling potential of different water samples. Results show that under similar DOC level in feed water, colloids present much more irreversible fouling than other fractions. The fouling effect of the isolates is related to their size, chemical properties, and solution chemistry. Further investigations have identified that the interaction between colloids and other fractions also influences the performance of colloids in fouling phenomena. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Molecular Approaches in HFpEF: MicroRNAs and iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Alison J; Gartz, Melanie; Afzal, Muhammad Z; de Lange, Willem J; Ralphe, J Carter; Strande, Jennifer L

    2016-12-28

    Heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) has emerged as one of the largest unmet needs in cardiovascular medicine. HFpEF is increasing in prevalence and causes significant morbidity, mortality, and health care resource utilization. Patients have multiple co-morbidities which contribute to the disease complexity. To date, no effective treatment for HFpEF has been identified. The paucity of cardiac biopsies from this patient population and the absence of well-accepted animal models limit our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of HFpEF. In this review, we discuss combining state-of-the-art technologies of microRNA profiling and human induced pluripotent cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) in order to uncover novel molecular pathways that may contribute to the development of HFpEF. Here, we focus the advantages and limitations of microRNA profiling and iPSC-CMs as a disease model system to discover molecular mechanisms in HFpEF.

  14. EF8108系列新型草甘膦水剂助剂的研究%Study on EF8108 Series as New Aids for Glyphosate Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小兵; 谢明安; 徐水英; 周立红

    2001-01-01

    制得以葡萄糖烷基多苷(APG)为主要成分的一种新型、高效EF8108系列新型草甘膦水剂助剂。将EF8108系列助剂配成草甘膦水剂,根据正交试验结果,得出EF8108系列助剂的最佳配方,测试EF8108系列助剂及由其配成41%草甘膦水剂的性能,并将EF8108系列助剂的性能与其它国内外同类产品进行比较。其结果表明,EF8108系列助剂的润湿性能优于美国Monsanto公司的Mon0818助剂。%The EF8108 series as new aids for glyphosate aqueous solution are prepared,whose main component is alkyl polyglucoside. The EF8108 series were added to glyphosate aqueous solution,the optimum formula was obtained from orthogonal test.The properties of EF8108 series and 41% glyphosate aqueous solution containing the above aids were tested.The properties of EF8108 series were compared with that of similar products.The result showed that EF8108 series were superior to Man0818 aid of Monsanto Company in wettability.

  15. Factor Structure of the TOEFL Internet-Based Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Stricker, Lawrence J.; Oranje, Andreas H.

    2009-01-01

    This construct validation study investigated the factor structure of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT). An item-level confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for a test form completed by participants in a field study. A higher-order factor model was identified, with a higher-order general factor…

  16. A Factoring and Discrete Logarithm based Cryptosystem

    CERN Document Server

    Ciss, Abdoul Aziz; Sow, Djiby

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new public key cryptosystem based on two hard problems : the cube root extraction modulo a composite moduli (which is equivalent to the factorisation of the moduli) and the discrete logarithm problem. These two hard problems are combined dur- ing the key generation, encryption and decryption phases. By combining the IFP and the DLP we introduce a secure and efficient public key cryptosystem. To break the scheme, an adversary may solve the IFP and the DLP separately which is computationally infeasible. The key gen- eration is a simple operation based on the discrete logarithm modulo a composite moduli. The encryption phase is based both on the cube root computation and the DLP. These operations are computationally efficient.

  17. Regional Health System Response to the 2007 Greensburg, Kansas, EF5 Tornado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablah, Elizabeth; Tinius, Annie M; Konda, Kurt; Synovitz, Carolyn; Subbarao, Italo

    2007-11-01

    On May 4, 2007 an EF5 tornado hit the rural community of Greensburg, KS, destroying 95% of the town and resulting in 12 fatalities. Data was requested from the emergency medical services units that initially responded and the regional hospitals that received people injured in the tornado within 24 hours following the tornado. Requested data included patient age and sex, and injury severity score or ICD-9 codes. Critical mortality, or the number of deaths of critically injured patients, was also calculated. The extensive damage caused by the tornado effectively destroyed the infrastructure of the community and created enormous challenges for emergency medical services responders, who were unable to record any triage data. Area hospitals treated 90 patients, who had an average injury severity score of 6.4. Age was found to be related to injury severity, but no relationship between sex and injury severity was found. Critical mortality was found to be 18% for this event. Injury severity score has seldom been used to analyze natural disasters, especially tornadoes, although such analysis is helpful for understanding the magnitude of the disaster, comparing to other disasters, and preparing for future incidents. Advanced warning and personal preparedness are important factors in reducing tornado-related injuries and deaths.

  18. Classification of Gait Types Based on the Duty-factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with classification of human gait types based on the notion that different gait types are in fact different types of locomotion, i.e., running is not simply walking done faster. We present the duty-factor, which is a descriptor based on this notion. The duty-factor is independent...

  19. Characterization of the Deoxynucleotide Triphosphate Triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) Activity of the EF1143 Protein from Enterococcus faecalis and Crystal Structure of the Activator-Substrate Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorontsov, Ivan I.; Minasov, George; Kiryukhina, Olga; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Anderson, Wayne F. (NWU)

    2012-06-19

    The EF1143 protein from Enterococcus faecalis is a distant homolog of deoxynucleotide triphosphate triphosphohydrolases (dNTPases) from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus. These dNTPases are important components in the regulation of the dNTP pool in bacteria. Biochemical assays of the EF1143 dNTPase activity demonstrated nonspecific hydrolysis of all canonical dNTPs in the presence of Mn{sup 2+}. In contrast, with Mg{sup 2+} hydrolysis required the presence of dGTP as an effector, activating the degradation of dATP and dCTP with dGTP also being consumed in the reaction with dATP. The crystal structure of EF1143 and dynamic light scattering measurements in solution revealed a tetrameric oligomer as the most probable biologically active unit. The tetramer contains four dGTP specific allosteric regulatory sites and four active sites. Examination of the active site with the dATP substrate suggests an in-line nucleophilic attack on the {alpha}-phosphate center as a possible mechanism of the hydrolysis and two highly conserved residues, His-129 and Glu-122, as an acid-base catalytic dyad. Structural differences between EF1143 apo and holo forms revealed mobility of the {alpha}3 helix that can regulate the size of the active site binding pocket and could be stabilized in the open conformation upon formation of the tetramer and dGTP effector binding.

  20. Suggestion: Human Factor Based User Interface Design Tool

    OpenAIRE

    S.Q. Abbas,; Rizwan Beg; Shahnaz Fatima

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce HFBUIT, Human Factor based user interface tool that enables designers and engineers to create human factor based user interface. This tool will help the designer to utilize the knowledge about the user to configure the interface for different users, i.e. each user may have different skills, level of experience, or cognitive and physical disabilities. The tool makes it easy to knowhuman factors & to reduce the number of usability problems. HFBUIT can be used in real...

  1. Reconstitution of Qbeta RNA replicase from a covalently bonded elongation factor Tu-Ts complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, S; Blumenthal, T

    1976-01-01

    (C) and Qbeta RNA normally and had approximately the same specific activity as control enzyme. Denatured Qbeta replicase formed with crosslinked EF-Tu-Ts was found to renature much more rapidly than untreated enzyme and, in contrast to normal replicase, its renaturation was not inhibited by GDP. The results...... by its ability to replace EF-Tu and EF-Ts in the renaturation of denatured Qbeta replicase. A sample of Qbeta replicase with crosslinked EF-Tu-Ts replacing the individual elongation factors was prepared. Although it lacked EF-Tu and EF-Ts activities, it could initiate transcription of both poly...

  2. Skeletal muscle eEF2 and 4EBP1 phosphorylation during endurance exercise is dependent on intensity and muscle fiber type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Bisiani, Bruno; Vistisen, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle is known to decrease during exercise and it has been suggested that this may depend on the magnitude of the relative metabolic stress within the contracting muscle. To examine the mechanisms behind this, the effect of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle...... eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1) phosphorylation, key components in the mRNA translation machinery, were examined together with AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) in healthy young men. Skeletal muscle eEF2 phosphorylation at Thr(56......) increased during exercise but was not influenced by exercise intensity, and was lower than rest 30min after exercise. On the other hand, 4EBP1 phosphorylation at Thr(37/46) decreased during exercise and this decrease was greater at higher exercise intensities, and was similar to rest 30min after exercise...

  3. Phylogenetic analysis and differential expression of EF1α genes in soybean during development, stress and phytohormone treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Kátia Daniella da Cruz; Oliveira, Antonio Edson Rocha; Dos Santos, Clesivan Pereira; Lima, Karine Thiers Leitão; de Sousa, Janaina Martins; Fernandes de Melo, Dirce; Costa, José Hélio

    2016-08-01

    The EF1α is a multifunctional protein with additional unrelated activities to its primary function in translation. This protein is encoded by a multigene family and few studies are still available in plants. Expression of six EF1α genes in Glycine max was performed using RT-qPCR and RNA-seq data to advance in the function of each gene during plant development, stress conditions and phytohormone treatments. A phylogenetic classification in Phaseoleae tribe was used to identify the G. max EF1α genes (EF1α 1a1, 1a2, 1b, 2a, 2b and 3). Three EF1α types (1-3) were found in Phaseoleae revealing duplications in G. max types 1 and 2. EF1α genes were expressed in all studied tissues, however, specific amount of each transcript was detected. In plant development, all EF1α transcripts were generally more expressed in younger tissues, however, in unifoliolate leaves and cotyledons a higher expression occurred in older tissues. Five EF1α genes (except 2a) were up-regulated under stress in a response tissue/stress/cultivar-dependent. EF1α 3 was the most stress-induced gene linked to cultivar stress tolerance mainly in aerial tissues. Auxin, salicylate and ethylene induced differentially the EF1α expression. Overall, this study provides a consistent EF1α classification in Phaseoleae tribe to better understand their functional evolution. The RT-qPCR and RNA-seq EF1α expression profiles were consistent, both exhibiting expression diversification of each gene (spatio-temporal, stress and phytohormone stimuli). Our results point out the EF1α genes, especially EF1α 3, as candidate for developing a useful tool for future G. max breeding.

  4. EF-hand proteins and the regulation of actin-myosin interaction in the eutardigrade Hypsibius klebelsbergi (tardigrada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, Thiruketheeswaran; Greven, Hartmut; D'Haese, Jochen

    2012-06-01

    Many tardigrade species resist harsh environmental conditions by entering anhydrobiosis or cryobiosis. Desiccation as well as freeze resistance probably leads to changes of the ionic balance that includes the intracellular calcium concentration. In order to search for protein modifications affecting the calcium homoeostasis, we studied the regulatory system controlling actin-myosin interaction of the eutardigrade Hypsibius klebelsbergi and identified full-length cDNA clones for troponin C (TnC, 824 bp), calmodulin (CaM, 1,407 bp), essential myosin light chain (eMLC, 1,015 bp), and regulatory myosin light chain (rMLC, 984 bp) from a cDNA library. All four proteins belong to the EF-hand superfamily typified by a calcium coordinating helix-loop-helix motif. Further, we cloned and obtained recombinant TnC and both MLCs. CaM and TnC revealed four and two potential calcium-binding domains, respectively. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrated calcium-induced conformational transition of TnC. From both MLCs, only the rMLC showed one potential N-terminal EF-hand domain. Additionally, sequence properties suggest phosphorylation of this myosin light chain. Based on our results, we suggest a dual-regulated system at least in somatic muscles for tardigrades with a calcium-dependent tropomyosin-troponin complex bound to the actin filaments and a phosphorylation of the rMLC turning on and off both actin and myosin. Our results indicate no special modifications of the molecular structure and function of the EF-hand proteins in tardigrades. Phylogenetic trees of 131 TnCs, 96 rMLCs, and 62 eMLCs indicate affinities to Ecdysozoa, but also to some other taxa suggesting that our results reflect the complex evolution of these proteins rather than phylogenetic relationships.

  5. The MazEF Toxin-Antitoxin System Alters the β-Lactam Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Schuster

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are genetic elements of prokaryotes which encode a stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin that can counteract toxicity. TA systems residing on plasmids are often involved in episomal maintenance whereas those on chromosomes can have multiple functions. The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus possesses at least four different families of TA systems but their physiological roles are elusive. The chromosomal mazEF system encodes the RNase toxin MazF and the antitoxin MazE. In the light of ambiguity regarding the cleavage activity, we here verify that MazF specifically targets UACAU sequences in S. aureus in vivo. In a native strain background and under non-stress conditions, cleavage was observed in the absence or presence of mazE. Transcripts of spa (staphylococcal protein A and rsbW (anti-σB factor were cut, but translational reporter fusions indicated that protein levels of the encoded products were unaffected. Despite a comparable growth rate as the wild-type, an S. aureus mazEF deletion mutant was more susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics, which suggests that further genes, putatively involved in the antibiotic stress response or cell wall synthesis or turnover, are controlled by this TA system.

  6. The MazEF Toxin-Antitoxin System Alters the β-Lactam Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christopher F; Mechler, Lukas; Nolle, Nicoletta; Krismer, Bernhard; Zelder, Marc-Eric; Götz, Friedrich; Bertram, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are genetic elements of prokaryotes which encode a stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin that can counteract toxicity. TA systems residing on plasmids are often involved in episomal maintenance whereas those on chromosomes can have multiple functions. The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus possesses at least four different families of TA systems but their physiological roles are elusive. The chromosomal mazEF system encodes the RNase toxin MazF and the antitoxin MazE. In the light of ambiguity regarding the cleavage activity, we here verify that MazF specifically targets UACAU sequences in S. aureus in vivo. In a native strain background and under non-stress conditions, cleavage was observed in the absence or presence of mazE. Transcripts of spa (staphylococcal protein A) and rsbW (anti-σB factor) were cut, but translational reporter fusions indicated that protein levels of the encoded products were unaffected. Despite a comparable growth rate as the wild-type, an S. aureus mazEF deletion mutant was more susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics, which suggests that further genes, putatively involved in the antibiotic stress response or cell wall synthesis or turnover, are controlled by this TA system.

  7. LA FISCALIZACIÓN SUPERIOR A NIVEL SUBNACIONAL EN MÉXICO. UNA EVALUACIÓN DEL DESEMPEÑO DE LAS ENTIDADES DE FISCALIZACIÓN SUPERIOR (EFS) LOCALES

    OpenAIRE

    Anahí Gutiérrez Luna

    2015-01-01

    Actualmente, las Entidades de Fiscalización Superior (EFS) locales en México presentan diferencias importantes no sólo en su diseño institucional y en su evolución estructural, sino en el desempeño de sus capacidades, cobertura y efectividad. Por ello, el objetivo principal de este texto es explicar los factores que determinan las diferencias en el desempeño de las EFS a nivel subnacional. Se parte de la hipótesis de que esas diferencias se explican a partir de factores externos e internos a ...

  8. Development of welding emission factors for Cr and Cr(VI) with a confidence level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serageldin, Mohamed; Reeves, David W

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the emission rate and release characteristics is necessary for estimating pollutant fate and transport. Because emission measurements at a facility's fence line are generally not readily available, environmental agencies in many countries are using emission factors (EFs) to indicate the quantity of certain pollutants released into the atmosphere from operations such as welding. The amount of fumes and metals generated from a welding process is dependent on many parameters, such as electrode composition, voltage, and current. Because test reports on fume generation provide different levels of detail, a common approach was used to give a test report a quality rating on the basis of several highly subjective criteria; however, weighted average EFs generated in this way are not meant to reflect data precision or to be used for a refined risk analysis. The 95% upper confidence limit (UCL) of the unknown population mean was used in this study to account for the uncertainty in the EF test data. Several parametric UCLs were computed and compared for multiple welding EFs associated with several mild, stainless, and alloy steels. Also, several nonparametric statistical methods, including several bootstrap procedures, were used to compute 95% UCLs. For the nonparametric methods, a distribution for calculating the mean, standard deviation, and other statistical parameters for a dataset does not need to be assumed. There were instances when the sample size was small and instances when EFs for an electrode/process combination were not found. Those two points are addressed in this paper. Finally, this paper is an attempt to deal with the uncertainty in the value of a mean EF for an electrode/process combination that is based on test data from several laboratories. Welding EFs developed with a defined level of confidence may be used as input parameters for risk assessment.

  9. A Beauveria phylogeny inferred from nuclear ITS and EF1-alpha sequences: evidence for cryptic diversification and links to Cordyceps teleomorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehner, Stephen A; Buckley, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Beauveria is a globally distributed genus of soil-borne entomopathogenic hyphomycetes of interest as a model system for the study of entomopathogenesis and the biological control of pest insects. Species recognition in Beauveria is difficult due to a lack of taxonomically informative morphology. This has impeded assessment of species diversity in this genus and investigation of their natural history. A gene-genealogical approach was used to investigate molecular phylogenetic diversity of Beauveria and several presumptively related Cordyceps species. Analyses were based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-alpha) sequences for 86 exemplar isolates from diverse geographic origins, habitats and insect hosts. Phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum parsimony and Bayesian likelihood methods. Six well supported clades within Beauveria, provisionally designated A-F, were resolved in the EF1-alpha and combined gene phylogenies. Beauveria bassiana, a ubiquitous species that is characterized morphologically by globose to subglobose conidia, was determined to be non-monophyletic and consists of two unrelated lineages, clades A and C. Clade A is globally distributed and includes the Asian teleomorph Cordyceps staphylinidaecola and its probable synonym C. bassiana. All isolates contained in Clade C are anamorphic and originate from Europe and North America. Clade B includes isolates of B. brongniartii, a Eurasian species complex characterized by ellipsoidal conidia. Clade D includes B. caledonica and B. vermiconia, which produce cylindrical and comma-shaped conidia, respectively. Clade E, from Asia, includes Beauveria anamorphs and a Cordyceps teleomorph that both produce ellipsoidal conidia. Clade F, the basal branch in the Beauveria phylogeny includes the South American species B. amorpha, which produces cylindrical conidia. Lineage diversity detected within clades A, B and C suggests that prevailing morphological

  10. A coupled Bio-EF process for mineralization of the pharmaceuticals furosemide and ranitidine: Feasibility assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Vargas, Hugo; Oturan, Nihal; Buisson, Didier; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-07-01

    A coupled Bio-EF treatment has been applied as a reliable process for the degradation of the pharmaceuticals furosemide (FRSM) and ranitidine (RNTD) in aqueous medium, in order to reduce the high energy consumption related to electrochemical technology. In the first stage of this study, electrochemical degradation of the drugs was assessed by the electro-Fenton process (EF) using a BDD/carbon-felt cell. Biodegradability of the drugs solutions was enhanced reaching BOD5/COD ratios close to the biodegradability threshold of 0.4, evidencing the formation of bio-compatible by-products (mainly short-chain carboxylic acids) which are suitable for biological post-treatment. Moreover, toxicity evaluation by the Microtox(®) method revealed that EF pre-treatment was able of detoxifying both, FRSM and RNTD solutions, constituting another indicator of biodegradability of EF treated solutions. In the second stage, electrolyzed solutions were treated by means of an aerobic biological process. A significant part of the short-chain carboxylic acids formed during the electrochemical phase was satisfactorily removed by the used selected microorganisms. The results obtained demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of the integrated Bio-EF process.

  11. Deep Phenotyping of Systemic Arterial Hemodynamics in HFpEF (Part 1): Physiologic and Technical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Julio A

    2017-06-01

    A better understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) is important. Detailed phenotyping of pulsatile hemodynamics has provided important insights into the pathophysiology of left ventricular remodeling and fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, microvascular disease, and impaired oxygen delivery to peripheral skeletal muscle, all of which contribute to exercise intolerance, the cardinal feature of HFpEF. Furthermore, arterial pulsatile hemodynamic mechanisms likely contribute to the frequent presence of comorbidities, such as renal failure and dementia, in this population. Our therapeutic approach to HFpEF can be enhanced by clinical phenotyping tools with the potential to "segment" this population into relevant pathophysiologic categories or to identify individuals exhibiting prominent specific abnormalities that can be targeted by pharmacologic interventions. This review describes relevant technical and physiologic aspects regarding the deep phenotyping of arterial hemodynamics in HFpEF. In an accompanying review, the potential of this approach to enhance our clinical and therapeutic approach to HFpEF is discussed.

  12. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  13. Impact of EfOM size on competition in activated carbon adsorption of organic micro-pollutants from treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietzschmann, Frederik; Worch, Eckhard; Altmann, Johannes; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Sperlich, Alexander; Meinel, Felix; Jekel, Martin

    2014-11-15

    The competitive impacts of different fractions of wastewater treatment plant effluent organic matter (EfOM) on organic micro-pollutant (OMP) adsorption were investigated. The fractionation was accomplished using separation by nanofiltration (NF). The waters resulting from NF were additionally treated to obtain the same dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations as the initial water. Using size exclusion chromatography (LC-OCD) it could be shown that the NF treatment resulted in an EfOM separation by size. Adsorption tests showed different competitive effects of the EfOM fractions with the OMP. While large EfOM compounds that were retained in NF demonstrated a reduced competition as compared to the raw water, the NF-permeating EfOM compounds showed an increased competition with the majority of the measured OMP. The effects of small size EfOM are particularly negative for OMP which are weak/moderate adsorbates. Adsorption analysis was carried out for the differently fractionized waters. The small sized EfOM contain better adsorbable compounds than the raw water while the large EfOM are less adsorbable. This explains the observed differences in the EfOM competitiveness. The equivalent background compound (EBC) model was applied to model competitive adsorption between OMP and EfOM and showed that the negative impacts of EfOM on OMP adsorption increase with decreasing size of the EfOM fractions. The results suggest that direct competition for adsorption sites on the internal surface of the activated carbon is more substantial than indirect competition due to pore access restriction by blockage. Another explication for reduced competition by large EfOM compounds could be the inability to enter and block the pores due to size exclusion.

  14. Phylogeny of the Glomerales and Diversisporales (fungi: Glomeromycota) from actin and elongation factor 1-alpha sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, Thorunn; Watson, Irene J; Young, J Peter W

    2003-12-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been elevated to the phylum Glomeromycota based on a ribosomal gene phylogeny. In order to test this phylogeny, we amplified and sequenced small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA), actin and elongation factor 1 (EF1)-alpha gene fragments from single spores of Acaulospora laevis, Glomus caledonium, Gigaspora margarita, and Scutellospora dipurpurescens. Sequence variation within and among spores of an isolate was low except for SSUrRNA in S. dipurpurescens, and the actin amino acid sequence was more conserved than that of EF1-alpha. The AM fungal sequences were more similar to one another than to any other fungal group. Joint phylogenetic analysis of the actin and EF1-alpha sequences suggested that the sister group to the AM fungi was a Zygomycete order, the Mortierellales.

  15. Structure-based designing of sordarin derivative as potential fungicide with pan-fungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Biprashekhar; Sejpal, Nikunjkumar Vinodray; Payghan, Pavan V; Ghoshal, Nanda; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-05-01

    Fungal infections have become a significant problem for immunosuppressed patients. Sordarin, a promising fungicidal agent, inhibits fungal protein synthesis by impairing elongation factor-2 (eEF2) function. Intriguingly, despite high sequence similarity among eEF2s from different species, sordarin has been shown to inhibit translation specifically in certain fungi while unable to do so in some other fungal species (e.g. Candida parapsilosis and Candida lusitaniae). The sordarin binding site on eEF2 as well as its mechanism of action is known. In a previous study, we have detailed the interactions between sordarin and eEF2 cavities from different fungal species at the molecular level and predicted the probable cause of sordarin sensitivity. Guided by our previous analysis, we aimed for computer-aided designing of sordarin derivatives as potential fungicidal agents that still remain ineffective against human eEF2. We have performed structural knowledge-based designing of several sordarin derivatives and evaluated predicted interactions of those derivatives with the sordarin-binding cavities of different eEF2s, against which sordarin shows no inhibitory action. Our analyses identify an amino-pyrrole derivative as a good template for further designing of promising broad-spectrum antifungal agents. The drug likeness and ADMET prediction on this derivative also supports its suitability as a drug candidate.

  16. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Annalisa; Scavone, Cristina; Vitale, Cristiana; Sportiello, Liberata; Rossi, Francesco; Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Coats, Andrew J Stewart

    2015-12-01

    The role of spironolactone and eplerenone in patients with Heart Failure with preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF) is not well defined. Since a growing medical literature has suggested that mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists may be beneficial for patients with HFpEF, this review gives an in-depth update on the role of spironolactone and eplerenone and their implications for therapy in the setting of HFpEF. Eleven clinical studies, including seven randomized trials, were reviewed. Two randomized controlled trials evaluated the effect of eplerenone on different end-points, including 6 minute walk distance (6 MWD), cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal reinfarction, hospitalization for unstable angina and congestive heart failure. Eplerenone did not affect either 6 MWD or event-free survival rates in the overall study population in these two reports. The effects of spironolactone on similar composite endpoints were evaluated in 7 studies in patients with HFpEF. Compared to placebo, hospitalization for heart failure was significantly lower in the spironolactone group and spironolactone was also shown to improve diastolic function and induced beneficial remodeling through a reduction in myocardial fibrosis. The safety profile of spironolactone and eplerenone has been assessed in two recent studies. Data showed that eplerenone and spironolactone are both associated with the occurrence of gynecomastia, mastodynia, and abnormal vaginal bleeding and in addition, they can increase natriuresis and cause renal retention of potassium; furthermore, eplerenone may cause hyperkalemia and promote the onset of metabolic acidosis or hyponatremia. In conclusion although the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists eplerenone and spironolactone improve clinical outcomes in patients with HFrEF, additional data will be necessary to better define their risk-benefit profile, especially for eplerenone, in the treatment of HFpEF.

  17. Single-molecule folding mechanism of an EF-hand neuronal calcium sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidarsson, P.O.; Otazo, M.R.; Bellucci, L.

    2013-01-01

    EF-hand calcium sensors respond structurally to changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, triggering diverse cellular responses and resulting in broad interactomes. Despite impressive advances in decoding their structure-function relationships, the folding mechanism of neuronal calcium sensors...... is still elusive. We used single-molecule optical tweezers to study the folding mechanism of the human neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS1). Two intermediate structures induced by Ca2+ binding to the EF-hands were observed during refolding. The complete folding of the C domain is obligatory for the folding...

  18. Remodeling of the AB site of rat parvalbumin and oncomodulin into a canonical EF-hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, J A; Durussel, I; Scott, D J;

    1999-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV) and the homologous protein oncomodulin (OM) contain three EF-hand motifs, but the first site (AB) cannot bind Ca2+. Here we aimed to recreate the putative ancestral proteins [D19-28E]PV and [D19-28E]OM by replacing the 10-residue-long nonfunctional loop in the AB site by a 12...... of the AB site from a canonical to an abortive EF-hand may have been dictated by the need for stronger interaction with Mg2+ and Ca2+, and a high conformational stability of the metal-free forms....

  19. Analysis of effect factors-based stochastic network planning model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Looking at all the indeterminate factors as a whole and regarding activity durations as independent random variables,the traditional stochastic network planning models ignore the inevitable relationship and dependence among activity durations when more than one activity is possibly affected by the same indeterminate factors.On this basis of analysis of indeterminate effect factors of durations,the effect factors-based stochastic network planning (EFBSNP) model is proposed,which emphasizes on the effects of not only logistic and organizational relationships,but also the dependent relationships,due to indeterminate factors among activity durations on the project period.By virtue of indeterminate factor analysis the model extracts and describes the quantitatively indeterminate effect factors,and then takes into account the indeterminate factors effect schedule by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique.The method is flexible enough to deal with effect factors and is coincident with practice.A software has been developed to simplify the model-based calculation,in VisualStudio.NET language.Finally,a case study is included to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and comparison is made with some advantages over the existing models.

  20. The Effect of dcEFs on migration behavior of A549 cells and Integrin beta1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie WANG

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The effect of direct-current electric fields (dcEFs on cells attracted extensive attention. Moreover the metastasis and its potential are considered to be related to dcEFs. The aim is to study the effect of dcEFs on migration behavior of A549 cells, Integrin ?1 and its signal pathways. Methods According to exposure to 5 V/cm dcEFs or not and the time of exposure, the A549 cells were divided into 4 groups. Images were taken per 5 min within 2 h to recode the migration of the cells. The data of results were analyzed statistically. Results Most of A549cells exposed to the dcEFs aligned and elongated perpendicularly to the electric field lines and migrated to the cathode continually during 2 h. On the contrary, cells unexposed to dcEFs showed slightly random movements. Immunofluorescence showed that Integrin ?1 on plasma membrane polarized to the cathode of the dcEFs. Western blot showed that Integrin beta1 downstream signal pathways p-FAK and p-ERK were overexpressed in the dcEFs. Conclusion A549 cells have a galvanotatic feature of cathodal directed migration while exposed to the dcEFs. The polarization of Integrin beta1 and the promotion of its downstream signal pathways may play an important roles in the galvanotaxis of A549 cells.

  1. Using docking and alchemical free energy approach to determine the binding mechanism of eEF2K inhibitors and prioritizing the compound synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiantao; Edupuganti, Ramakrishna; Tavares, Clint D J; Dalby, Kevin N; Ren, Pengyu

    2015-01-01

    A-484954 is a known eEF2K inhibitor with submicromolar IC50 potency. However, the binding mechanism and the crystal structure of the kinase remains unknown. Here, we employ a homology eEF2K model, docking and alchemical free energy simulations to probe the binding mechanism of eEF2K, and in turn, guide the optimization of potential lead compounds. The inhibitor was docked into the ATP-binding site of a homology model first. Three different binding poses, hypothesis 1, 2, and 3, were obtained and subsequently applied to molecular dynamics (MD) based alchemical free energy simulations. The calculated relative binding free energy of the analogs of A-484954 using the binding pose of hypothesis 1 show a good correlation with the experimental IC50 values, yielding an r (2) coefficient of 0.96 after removing an outlier (compound 5). Calculations using another two poses show little correlation with experimental data, (r (2) of less than 0.5 with or without removing any outliers). Based on hypothesis 1, the calculated relative free energy suggests that bigger cyclic groups, at R1 e.g., cyclobutyl and cyclopentyl promote more favorable binding than smaller groups, such as cyclopropyl and hydrogen. Moreover, this study also demonstrates the ability of the alchemical free energy approach in combination with docking and homology modeling to prioritize compound synthesis. This can be an effective means of facilitating structure-based drug design when crystal structures are not available.

  2. Cloning and Sequence Analysis EF-hand CaBP Gene from Haloxylon ammodendron%梭梭EF-hand CaBP基因克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓燕; 甘晓燕; 石磊; 陈虞超; 李苗; 宋玉霞

    2012-01-01

    采用RT-PCR、RACE等方法从超旱生、耐盐植物梭梭(Haloxylon ammodendron)中扩增出EF-handCaBP(EF-hand calcium-binding protein)基因的cDNA序列(GenBank登录号为JQ023165),其开放阅读框为732 bp,推测的氨基酸序列全长为243个氨基酸残基.运用SMART、GOR4、TMPred等生物信息学软件对梭梭EF-hand CaBP功能域、跨膜结构进行分析湿示,梭梭EF-hand CaBP含有26个氨基酸的信号肽序列及4个保守的钙结合位点(EF-hand),并且存在2种跨膜模型,推测梭梭EF hand CaBP基因可能定位于液泡膜或叶绿体膜上.%Through RT-PCR( reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction)and RACE(rapid amplification of cDNA ends), a 723bp fragment containing entire EF-hand CaBP gene coding region of 243 amino acids(aa) has been obtained from the extreme xerophyte and salt-tolerant plant Haloxylon am-modendron (GenBank accession No. JQ023165). Analysis of the EF-hand CaBP functional domains and transmembrane model with SMART, GOR4 and TMPred bioinformatics software shows that Haloxylon ammodendron EF-hand CaBP contains 26 amino acid signal peptide and four conserved calcium binding sites(EF-hand), and exists two transmembrane model, speculates EF-hand CaBP may be located in the vacuolar membrane or chloroplast membrane.

  3. DESARROLLO DE LAS FUNCIONES EJECUTIVAS EN NIÑOS PREESCOLARES: UNA REVISIÓN DE ALGUNOS DE SUS FACTORES MODULADORES/ DEVELOPMENT OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: A REVIEW OF SOME MODULATORS FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Stelzer*

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENDurante el transcurso de las últimas dos décadas, se ha generado un creciente interés científico en el estudio deldesarrollo de las funciones ejecutivas (EF durante el periodo preescolar. Dicho interés, ha nacido en parte del notoriodesarrollo que tales procesos experimentan durante este periodo. Asimismo, numerosas investigaciones han hallado unvínculo entre el rendimiento en tales procesos, y la presencia de diferentes trastornos psicopatológicos. El presenteartículo, constituye una revisión del desarrollo de las EF durante el periodo preescolar. El objetivo que se persigue en elmismo, es describir los cambios observados a nivel cognitivo-comportamental en el FE durante este periodo; vinculándolosa sus posibles bases anatómico-funcionales. Asimismo, se procurará analizar el impacto de algunos factores consideradosmoduladores de este proceso sobre el mismo. Se concluirá destacando la necesidad de profundizar en el estudio de losfactores moduladores de tal desarrollo, dada la importancia que las EF presentarían para la adaptación del individuo alambiente.ABSTRACTDuring the course of the last two decades, there has been a growing scientific intresting in the study of exectivefunctions development during preschool years. This interesting arise in part in these processes experience considerabledevelopment during this period. Also, numerous studies have found a link between performance in these processes and thepresence of different psychopathological disorders. This article is a review of EF development during preschool years. Theobjective pursued in it, is to describe the observed changes in EF in cognitive-behavioral level during this period, linkingthem to those potential anatomical -functional bases. Although, we will analyze the impact of some factors consideredmodulators of this process. We concluded emphasizing the need for further study of the factors modulating such development,given the importance of EF for

  4. 建鲤内参基因EF-1α的实时荧光定量PCR方法的建立%Establishment of a Real Time PCR Assay for Cyprinus carpio var.jian EF-1a As a Reference Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐永凯; 俞菊华; 徐跑; 李建林; 李红霞; 董在杰; 夏正龙

    2012-01-01

    真核生物延伸因子基因(EF-1α)在蛋白质翻译过程中起着重要的作用,其序列具有高度的保守性,常作为内参基因应用于real time PCR中.通过RT-PCR克隆出建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.jian)EF-1α的部分cDNA序列,其长度为425 bp,翻译成140个氨基酸,Blast结果显示与其它鱼类leptin的相似性为98%.同时也克隆出建鲤EF-1α相应的DNA序列,共506 bp.cDNA和DNA的序列比对显示克隆出的建鲤EF-1α含有1个相位为0的内含子,在此基础上设计一对跨越内含子的引物,采用SYBR Green I染料建立了real time PCR方法.以肝脏cDNA为标准品,建立了标准曲线,并进行了融解曲线分析.结果表明,所建立的方法具有特异性强、相关系数高、线性范围广等优点,可应用于建鲤的功能基因表达研究.%Eukaryotic elongation factor la (EF-lα) plays an important role in translation and its sequence is highly conservative as a housekeeping gene in real time PCR. The partial cDNA encoding EF-la in Cyprinus carpio var. jian was isolated using RT-PCR. The sequence of cDNA was 425 bp in length encoding 140 amino acids residues, and the homology was about 98% between C. carpio var. jian and other fish using the Blast program. The DNA sequence of C. carpio var. jian EF-1 a consisting of 506 bp was also cloned. Comparing the partial cDNA to its genomic sequence revealed that C. carpio var. jian EF-la gene consisted of a phase 0 intron. A pair of real time PCR primers cross intron was designed according to the intron sequence of EF-1 a and a real time PCR method by SYBR Green I was established. The standard curve was established with liver cDNA as the standard template and the melting analysis was also carried out. The results showed that the real time PCR method for EF-1 a had the advantages of high specificity, good correlation coefficients and wide linear range, which supplied useful information for studying function gene expression.

  5. The influence of environmental factors on the generalisability of public health research evidence: physical activity as a worked example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is rare that decisions about investing in public health interventions in a city, town or other location can be informed by research generated in that specific place. It is therefore necessary to base decisions on evidence generated elsewhere and to make inferences about the extent to which this evidence is generalisable to the place of interest. In this paper we discuss the issues involved in making such inferences, using physical activity as an example. We discuss the ways in which elements of the structural, physical, social and/or cultural environment (environmental factors [EFs] can shape physical activity (PA and also how EFs may influence the effectiveness of interventions that aim to promote PA. We then highlight the ways in which EFs may impact on the generalisability of different types of evidence. Discussion We present a framework for thinking about the influence of EFs when assessing the generalisability of evidence from the location in which the evidence was generated (place A to the location to which the evidence is to be applied (place B. The framework relates to similarities and differences between place A and place B with respect to: a the distributions of EFs; b the causal pathways through which EFs or interventions are thought to exert their effect on PA and c the ways in which EFs interact with each other. We suggest, using examples, how this scheme can be used by public health professionals who are designing, executing, reporting and synthesising research on PA; or designing/implementing interventions. Summary Our analysis and scheme, although developed for physical activity, may potentially be adapted and applied to other evidence and interventions which are likely to be sensitive to influence by elements of the structural, physical, social and/or cultural environment such as the epidemiology of obesity and healthy weight promotion.

  6. 75 FR 41894 - Wapakoneta Machine Company, Currently Known as EF Industrial Technologies, Inc., Wapakoneta, OH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... production of machine knives. New information shows that as of early 2010, Wapakoneta Machine Company is... Employment and Training Administration Wapakoneta Machine Company, Currently Known as EF Industrial..., 2010, applicable to workers of Wapakoneta Machine Company, Wapakoneta, Ohio. The notice was...

  7. Membrane Fouling Potential of Secondary Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) from Conventional Activated Sludge Process

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2012-01-01

    Secondary effluent organic matter (EfOM) from a conventional activated sludge process was filtered through constant-pressure dead-end filtration tests with a sequential ultrafiltration (UF, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 10k Dalton) and nanofiltration (NF, MWCO of 200 Dalton) array to investigate its membrane fouling potential. Advanced analytical methods including liquid chromatography with online carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescent excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) were employed for EfOM characterization. EfOM consisted of humic substances and building blocks, low molecular weight (LMW) neutrals, biopolymers (mainly proteins) and hydrophobic organics according to the sequence of their organic carbon fractions. The UF rejected only biopolymers and the NF rejected most humics and building blocks and a significant part of LMW neutrals. Simultaneous occurrence of cake layer and standard blocking during the filtration process of both UF and NF was identified according to constant-pressure filtration equations, which was possibly caused by the heterogeneous nature of EfOM with a wide MW distribution (several ten to several million Dalton). Thus the corresponding two fouling indices (kc for cake layer and ks for standard blocking) from UF and NF could characterize the fouling potential of macromolecular biopolymers and low to intermediate MW organics (including humics, building blocks, LMW neutrals), respectively. Compared with macromolecular biopolymers, low to intermediate MW organics exhibited a much higher fouling potential due to their lower molecular weight and higher concentration.

  8. Effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the removal of emerging contaminants by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ming-Jhih; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2016-05-01

    Removal of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment is essential to ensure the ecological health of the receiving water bodies. Ozonation is a promising technology to achieve this purpose but important wastewater characteristics affecting the optimal removal efficiency need to be elucidated. Secondary effluents contain effluent organic matter (EfOM), which can react directly with ozone as well as react as the initiator, promoter and inhibitor in the hydroxyl radical (.OH) chain reactions resulting from ozone decomposition. These different reaction modes of EfOM, coupled with alkalinity and pH value, collectively determine the ozone and .OH exposures and the degradation of pharmaceutical compounds by ozonation. In this study, we determined the rate constants of EfOM collected from two municipal wastewater treatment plants in terms of direct ozone reaction, initiation, promotion and inhibition at various pH values (pH 6.0-7.5) and temperatures (10-30 °C). The rate constants of direct reaction and initiation generally increased with the increasing pH value while the rate constants of promotion and inhibition did not vary significantly. All rate constants increased with the increasing temperature. The removal of ibuprofen, acetylsulfamethoxazole and metoprolol in diluted secondary effluent by ozonation can be fairly-well modeled by using the determined rate constants of EfOM.

  9. Biallelic mutations in the gene encoding eEF1A2 cause seizures and sudden death in F0 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Faith C. J.; Hope, Jilly E.; McLachlan, Fiona; Nunez, Francis; Doig, Jennifer; Bengani, Hemant; Smith, Colin; Abbott, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    De novo heterozygous missense mutations in the gene encoding translation elongation factor eEF1A2 have recently been found to give rise to neurodevelopmental disorders. Children with mutations in this gene have developmental delay, epilepsy, intellectual disability and often autism; the most frequently occurring mutation is G70S. It has been known for many years that complete loss of eEF1A2 in mice causes motor neuron degeneration and early death; on the other hand heterozygous null mice are apparently normal. We have used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in the mouse to mutate the gene encoding eEF1A2, obtaining a high frequency of biallelic mutations. Whilst many of the resulting founder (F0) mice developed motor neuron degeneration, others displayed phenotypes consistent with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, including sudden unexplained deaths and audiogenic seizures. The presence of G70S protein was not sufficient to protect mice from neurodegeneration in G70S/− mice, showing that the mutant protein is essentially non-functional. PMID:28378778

  10. The mazEF toxin-antitoxin system as an attractive target in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Sara; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sekawi, Zamberi; Neela, Vasantha Kumari; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat; Khosravi, Afra; Ramli, Ramliza; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2015-01-01

    The toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems are potent and sensitive targets in all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains.

  11. DNA barcoding of the leaf-mining moth subgenus Ectoedemia s. str. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) with COI and EF1-α: two are better than one in recognising cryptic species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, E.J.; Doorenweerd, C.; Stokvis, F.R.; Groenenberg, D.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced 665bp of the Cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) barcoding marker for 257 specimens and 482bp of Elongation Factor 1-α (EF1-α) for 237 specimens belonging to the leafmining subgenus Ectoedemia (Ectoedemia) in the basal Lepidopteran family Nepticulidae. The dataset includes 45 out of 48 West Pa

  12. Game Factors and Game-Based Learning Design Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ru Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to design useful digital game-based learning is a topic worthy of discussion. Past research focused on specific game genres design, but it is difficult to use when the target game genre differs from the default genres used in the research. This study presents macrodesign concepts that elucidates 11 crucial game-design factors, including game goals, game mechanism, game fantasy, game value, interaction, freedom, narrative, sensation, challenges, sociality, and mystery. We clearly define each factor and analyze the relationships among the 11 factors to construct a game-based learning design model. Two application examples are analyzed to verify the usability of the model and the performance of these factors. It can assist educational game designers in developing interesting games.

  13. A high brightness proton injector for the Tandetron accelerator at Jožef Stefan Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelicon, Primož, E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Association EURATOM-MHEST, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Podaru, Nicolae C., E-mail: info@highvolteng.com [High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V., P.O. Box 99, Amersfoort 3800AB (Netherlands); Vavpetič, Primož; Jeromel, Luka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Association EURATOM-MHEST, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogrinc Potocnik, Nina [Jožef Stefan Institute, Association EURATOM-MHEST, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); LOTRIČ Metrology ltd, Selca 163, SI-4227 Selca (Slovenia); Ondračka, Simon [Jožef Stefan Institute, Association EURATOM-MHEST, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gottdang, Andreas; Mous, Dirk J.M. [High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V., P.O. Box 99, Amersfoort 3800AB (Netherlands)

    2014-08-01

    Jožef Stefan Institute recently commissioned a high brightness H{sup −} ion beam injection system for its existing tandem accelerator facility. Custom developed by High Voltage Engineering Europa, the multicusp ion source has been tuned to deliver at the entrance of the Tandetron™ accelerator H{sup −} ion beams with a measured brightness of 17.1 A m{sup −2} rad{sup −2} eV{sup −1} at 170 μA, equivalent to an energy normalized beam emittance of 0.767 π mm mrad MeV{sup 1/2}. Upgrading the accelerator facility with the new injection system provides two main advantages. First, the high brightness of the new ion source enables the reduction of object slit aperture and the reduction of acceptance angle at the nuclear microprobe, resulting in a reduced beam size at selected beam intensity, which significantly improves the probe resolution for micro-PIXE applications. Secondly, the upgrade strongly enhances the accelerator up-time since H and He beams are produced by independent ion sources, introducing a constant availability of {sup 3}He beam for fusion-related research with NRA. The ion beam particle losses and ion beam emittance growth imply that the aforementioned beam brightness is reduced by transport through the ion optical system. To obtain quantitative information on the available brightness at the high-energy side of the accelerator, the proton beam brightness is determined in the nuclear microprobe beamline. Based on the experience obtained during the first months of operation for micro-PIXE applications, further necessary steps are indicated to obtain optimal coupling of the new ion source with the accelerator to increase the normalized high-energy proton beam brightness at the JSI microprobe, currently at 14 A m{sup −2} rad{sup −2} eV{sup −1}, with the output current at 18% of its available maximum.

  14. Crystal structure of calpain-3 penta-EF-hand (PEF) domain - a homodimerized PEF family member with calcium bound at the fifth EF-hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partha, Sarathy K.; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Allingham, John S.; Campbell, Robert L.; Davies, Peter L. [Queens

    2014-08-21

    Calpains are Ca2+dependent intracellular cysteine proteases that cleave a wide range of protein substrates to help implement Ca2+ signaling in the cell. The major isoforms of this enzyme family, calpain-1 and calpain-2, are heterodimers of a large and a small subunit, with the main dimer interface being formed through their C-terminal penta-EF hand (PEF) domains. Calpain-3, or p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific isoform that is genetically linked to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Biophysical and modeling studies with the PEF domain of calpain-3 support the suggestion that full-length calpain-3 exists as a homodimer. Here, we report the crystallization of calpain-3's PEF domain and its crystal structure in the presence of Ca2+, which provides evidence for the homodimer architecture of calpain-3 and supports the molecular model that places a protease core at either end of the elongated dimer. Unlike other calpain PEF domain structures, the calpain-3 PEF domain contains a Ca2+ bound at the EF5-hand used for homodimer association. Three of the four Ca2+-binding EF-hands of the PEF domains are concentrated near the protease core, and have the potential to radically change the local charge within the dimer during Ca2+ signaling. Examination of the homodimer interface shows that there would be steric clashes if the calpain-3 large subunit were to try to pair with a calpain small subunit.

  15. Modes of action of ADP-ribosylated elongation factor 2 in inhibiting the polypeptide elongation cycle: a modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Chen

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EF2 leads to inhibition of protein synthesis, the mechanism by which ADP-ribosylated EF2 (ADPR•EF2 causes this inhibition remains controversial. Here, we applied modeling approaches to investigate the consequences of various modes of ADPR•EF2 inhibitory actions on the two coupled processes, the polypeptide chain elongation and ADP-ribosylation of EF2. Modeling of experimental data indicates that ADPR•EF2 fully blocks the late-phase translocation of tRNAs; but the impairment in the translocation upstream process, mainly the GTP-dependent factor binding with the pretranslocation ribosome and/or the guanine nucleotide exchange in EF2, is responsible for the overall inhibition kinetics. The reduced ADPR•EF2-ribosome association spares the ribosome to bind and shield native EF2 against toxin attack, thereby deferring the inhibition of protein synthesis inhibition and inactivation of EF2. Minimum association with the ribosome also keeps ADPR•EF2 in an accessible state for toxins to catalyze the reverse reaction when nicotinamide becomes available. Our work underscores the importance of unveiling the interactions between ADPR•EF2 and the ribosome, and argues against that toxins inhibit protein synthesis through converting native EF2 to a competitive inhibitor to actively disable the ribosome.

  16. The tRNA synthetase paralog PoxA modifies elongation factor-P with (R)-ß-lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Hervé; Zou, S Betty; Bullwinkle, Tammy J

    2011-01-01

    The lysyl-tRNA synthetase paralog PoxA modifies elongation factor P (EF-P) with a-lysine at low efficiency. Cell-free extracts containing non-a-lysine substrates of PoxA modified EF-P with a change in mass consistent with addition of ß-lysine, a substrate also predicted by genomic analyses. EF-P ...

  17. The Role of Protein Elongation Factor eEF1A2 in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    serve as regulators of multiple signaling pathways (15-18). PIs are composed of an inositol ring covalently bound to a lipid phosphatidic acid ...mouse model of aristolochic acid nephropathy, and human kidney-proximal tubule cells. Satisfyingly, one of these targets is Dishevelled 2 (DVL2...cient mammary gland retained nor mal smooth muscle actin-staining myoepithelial cells. These cells lack P-cadherin, suggesting that Snail2 controls

  18. Rough K-means Outlier Factor Based on Entropy Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Budiyanto Setyohadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of outlier detection have been developed based on the cluster-based outlier detection approach, since it does not need any prior knowledge of the dataset. However, the previous studies only regard the outlier factor computation with respect to a single point or a small cluster, which reflects its deviates from a common cluster. Furthermore, all objects within outlier cluster are assumed to be similar. The outlier objects intuitively can be grouped into the outlier clusters and the outlier factors of each object within the outlier cluster should be different gradually. It is not natural if the outlierness of each object within outlier cluster is similar. This study proposes the new outlier detection method based on the hybrid of the Rough K-Means clustering algorithm and the entropy computation. We introduce the outlier degree measure namely the entropy outlier factor for the cluster based outlier detection. The proposed algorithm sequentially finds the outlier cluster and calculates the outlier factor degree of the objects within outlier cluster. Each object within outlier cluster is evaluated using entropy cluster-based to a whole cluster. The performance of the algorithm has been tested on four UCI benchmark data sets and show outperform especially in detection rate.

  19. Factor analysis and predictive validity of microcomputer-based tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Turnage, J. J.; Jones, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    11 tests were selected from two microcomputer-based performance test batteries because previously these tests exhibited rapid stability (less than 10 min, of practice) and high retest reliability efficiencies (r greater than 0.707 for each 3 min. of testing). The battery was administered three times to each of 108 college students (48 men and 60 women) and a factor analysis was performed. Two of the three identified factors appear to be related to information processing ("encoding" and "throughput/decoding"), and the third named an "output/speed" factor. The spatial, memory, and verbal tests loaded on the "encoding" factor and included Grammatical Reasoning, Pattern Comparison, Continuous Recall, and Matrix Rotation. The "throughput/decoding" tests included perceptual/numerical tests like Math Processing, Code Substitution, and Pattern Comparison. The output speed factor was identified by Tapping and Reaction Time tests. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was group administered before the first and after the last administration of the performance tests. The multiple Rs in the total sample between combined Wonderlic as a criterion and less than 5 min. of microcomputer testing on Grammatical Reasoning and Math Processing as predictors ranged between 0.41 and 0.52 on the three test administrations. Based on these results, the authors recommend a core battery which, if time permits, would consist of two tests from each factor. Such a battery is now known to permit stable, reliable, and efficient assessment.

  20. Single-stage unity power factor based electronic ballast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ASHISH SHRIVASTAVA; BHIM SINGH

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, modeling, analysis and implementation of unity power factor (UPF) based electronic ballast for a fluorescent lamp (FL). The proposed electronic ballast uses a boost AC–DC converter as a power factor corrector (PFC) to improve the power quality at the input ac mains. In this singlestage UPF based electronic ballast, boost PFC converter and a half bridge series resonant inverter (HBSRI) share a common power switch. Thus one power switch is reduced as compared to the conventional two-stage approach. The design, modeling, analysis and implementation of this topology were carried out in MATLAB-Simulink environment for a T8 36 W, 220 V, 50 Hz fluorescent lamp. The switching frequency was kept morethan the resonant frequency of the inverter, to ensure the zero voltage switching (ZVS) operation of both power switches. This resulted in reduction of high frequency switching losses. The power quality parameters such as displacement power factor (DPF), distortion factor (DF), power factor (PF), crest factor (CF) and total harmonicdistortion of ac mains current (THDi) were evaluated to analyze the performance of proposed electronic ballast. Test results on a developed prototype of PFC electronic ballast were included to validate the design and simulated results.

  1. Use of expansion factors to estimate the burden of dengue in Southeast Asia: a systematic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A Undurraga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus infection is the most common arthropod-borne disease of humans and its geographical range and infection rates are increasing. Health policy decisions require information about the disease burden, but surveillance systems usually underreport the total number of cases. These may be estimated by multiplying reported cases by an expansion factor (EF. METHODS AND FINDINGS: As a key step to estimate the economic and disease burden of dengue in Southeast Asia (SEA, we projected dengue cases from 2001 through 2010 using EFs. We conducted a systematic literature review (1995-2011 and identified 11 published articles reporting original, empirically derived EFs or the necessary data, and 11 additional relevant studies. To estimate EFs for total cases in countries where no empirical studies were available, we extrapolated data based on the statistically significant inverse relationship between an index of a country's health system quality and its observed reporting rate. We compiled an average 386,000 dengue episodes reported annually to surveillance systems in the region, and projected about 2.92 million dengue episodes. We conducted a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, simultaneously varying the most important parameters in 20,000 Monte Carlo simulations, and derived 95% certainty level of 2.73-3.38 million dengue episodes. We estimated an overall EF in SEA of 7.6 (95% certainty level: 7.0-8.8 dengue cases for every case reported, with an EF range of 3.8 for Malaysia to 19.0 in East Timor. CONCLUSION: Studies that make no adjustment for underreporting would seriously understate the burden and cost of dengue in SEA and elsewhere. As the sites of the empirical studies we identified were not randomly chosen, the exact extent of underreporting remains uncertain. Nevertheless, the results reported here, based on a systematic analysis of the available literature, show general consistency and provide a reasonable empirical basis to

  2. Factors that influence effective evidence-based medicine instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Misa

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) as a health care practice is being incorporated into education programs across the spectrum of medical education to develop lifelong learning skills and to enhance the practice of evidence-based health care. Since improving the quality of patient care is the ultimate goal of EBM, EBM learning must be integrated with clinical application, and resulted outcomes must be reflected in learning transfer (or EBM practice) within the context of solving patient problems. Different factors may constitute the context or environment in which EBM is learned, practiced, and sustained. However, these contextual factors are seldom considered and examined in the development, implementation, and evaluation of EBM instruction for learners at different levels. This article will introduce several contextual factors as tips and strategies that affect EBM learning and transfer. Also included in the article are recommended practices for designing effective EBM instruction that would contribute to a sustainable change in learner behavior.

  3. Population Distribution and Influencing Factors Based on ESDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Chen; Fan Jie; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) technique and geographic information system (GIS) platform, with statistic data of counties in 2005, this paper confirms that there is a large population density gap between counties in 2005 because the Gini coefficient is 0.55. Population distribution does not change a lot during the past decades, and the southeast China is still much more densely populated than the northwest China. The global spa- tial autoeorrelation of population distribution is obvious because Moran's I scores 0.42 and local spatial autocorrelation is partly significant. Climate and elevation are still the main natural influ- encing factors. Meanwhile industrial structure and transportation significantly influence population distribution. Different combinations of natural factors have different effects on population distribution. For a long term, climate and terrain factor stability affect population distribution. But its influence will be weakened by progress of technology. Economic development is the main factor that changes population distribution for a short term.

  4. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  5. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  6. F/EF-111 Basing at Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    forests, a wilderness area, and a state park. The route is over the southern section of the Camino Real Ranger District in the Carson National Forest...Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87103, (505) 766-3972, and Roderick Drewien, c/o Bosque del Apache National Wildlife

  7. Real-world automotive particulate matter and PAH emission factors and profile concentrations: Results from an urban tunnel experiment in Naples, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, A.; Chianese, E.; Monaco, D.; Costagliola, M. A.; Perretta, G.; Prati, M. V.; Agrillo, G.; Esposito, A.; Gasbarra, D.; Shindler, L.; Brusasca, G.; Nanni, A.; Pozzi, C.; Magliulo, V.

    2016-09-01

    On-road particulate matter (PM) mass was measured during a sampling campaign in March of 2015 in the '4 giornate' tunnel in Naples, Italy. Two sets of samples were collected at both sides of the tunnel, each set representing the daily cycle at a 1 h time resolution. Distance-based - mass per kilometer - and fuel-based - mass per burned fuel - emission factors (EFs) were calculated using mass concentrations, traffic flow rates and wind speed as a function of fleet composition. Also, chemical analyses were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Due to the high traffic volume, particle mass concentration at the tunnel exit was always significantly elevated relative to entrance concentration; depending on the hour of the day, PM10 concentration ranged between 300 μg/m3, during the early afternoon, and 600 μg/m3 during rush hours at the tunnel exit. Correspondingly, PAHs achieved concentrations as high as 1450 ng/m3, and benzo(a)pyrene, a surely carcinogenic compound, achieved concentrations as high as 69 ng/m3, raising serious concerns in relation to population exposure close to this urban tunnel. Distance-based and fuel-based emission factors for CO2, PM10 and PAHs were estimated, but while the EF for CO2 was within the range of expected values, the present study found much higher EFs for particulate matter and PAHs. According to the national official statistics from ISPRA (the Italian Institute for the Protection and Research on Environment), derived from the COPERT database, we expected an EF for particulate matter of about 55 mg/km, but the EF estimated from measurements taken at both sides of the tunnel was about four times higher than that expected; also, benzo(a)pyrene achieved an average EF of 2.7 μg/km, about three times higher than that expected from the ISPRA database.

  8. Modulating uranium binding affinity in engineered calmodulin EF-hand peptides: effect of phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Pardoux

    Full Text Available To improve our understanding of uranium toxicity, the determinants of uranyl affinity in proteins must be better characterized. In this work, we analyzed the contribution of a phosphoryl group on uranium binding affinity in a protein binding site, using the site 1 EF-hand motif of calmodulin. The recombinant domain 1 of calmodulin from A. thaliana was engineered to impair metal binding at site 2 and was used as a structured template. Threonine at position 9 of the loop was phosphorylated in vitro, using the recombinant catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2. Hence, the T(9TKE(12 sequence was substituted by the CK2 recognition sequence TAAE. A tyrosine was introduced at position 7, so that uranyl and calcium binding affinities could be determined by following tyrosine fluorescence. Phosphorylation was characterized by ESI-MS spectrometry, and the phosphorylated peptide was purified to homogeneity using ion-exchange chromatography. The binding constants for uranyl were determined by competition experiments with iminodiacetate. At pH 6, phosphorylation increased the affinity for uranyl by a factor of ∼5, from K(d = 25±6 nM to K(d = 5±1 nM. The phosphorylated peptide exhibited a much larger affinity at pH 7, with a dissociation constant in the subnanomolar range (K(d = 0.25±0.06 nM. FTIR analyses showed that the phosphothreonine side chain is partly protonated at pH 6, while it is fully deprotonated at pH 7. Moreover, formation of the uranyl-peptide complex at pH 7 resulted in significant frequency shifts of the ν(as(P-O and ν(s(P-O IR modes of phosphothreonine, supporting its direct interaction with uranyl. Accordingly, a bathochromic shift in ν(as(UO(2(2+ vibration (from 923 cm(-1 to 908 cm(-1 was observed upon uranyl coordination to the phosphorylated peptide. Together, our data demonstrate that the phosphoryl group plays a determining role in uranyl binding affinity to proteins at physiological pH.

  9. Modulating Uranium Binding Affinity in Engineered Calmodulin EF-Hand Peptides: Effect of Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardoux, Romain; Sauge-Merle, Sandrine; Lemaire, David; Delangle, Pascale; Guilloreau, Luc; Adriano, Jean-Marc; Berthomieu, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    To improve our understanding of uranium toxicity, the determinants of uranyl affinity in proteins must be better characterized. In this work, we analyzed the contribution of a phosphoryl group on uranium binding affinity in a protein binding site, using the site 1 EF-hand motif of calmodulin. The recombinant domain 1 of calmodulin from A. thaliana was engineered to impair metal binding at site 2 and was used as a structured template. Threonine at position 9 of the loop was phosphorylated in vitro, using the recombinant catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2. Hence, the T9TKE12 sequence was substituted by the CK2 recognition sequence TAAE. A tyrosine was introduced at position 7, so that uranyl and calcium binding affinities could be determined by following tyrosine fluorescence. Phosphorylation was characterized by ESI-MS spectrometry, and the phosphorylated peptide was purified to homogeneity using ion-exchange chromatography. The binding constants for uranyl were determined by competition experiments with iminodiacetate. At pH 6, phosphorylation increased the affinity for uranyl by a factor of ∼5, from Kd = 25±6 nM to Kd = 5±1 nM. The phosphorylated peptide exhibited a much larger affinity at pH 7, with a dissociation constant in the subnanomolar range (Kd = 0.25±0.06 nM). FTIR analyses showed that the phosphothreonine side chain is partly protonated at pH 6, while it is fully deprotonated at pH 7. Moreover, formation of the uranyl-peptide complex at pH 7 resulted in significant frequency shifts of the νas(P-O) and νs(P-O) IR modes of phosphothreonine, supporting its direct interaction with uranyl. Accordingly, a bathochromic shift in νas(UO2)2+ vibration (from 923 cm−1 to 908 cm−1) was observed upon uranyl coordination to the phosphorylated peptide. Together, our data demonstrate that the phosphoryl group plays a determining role in uranyl binding affinity to proteins at physiological pH. PMID:22870263

  10. DNA-based identification and phylogeny of North American Armillaria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; John W. Hanna; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2011-01-01

    Because Armillaria species display different ecological behaviors across diverse forest ecosystems, it is critical to identify Armillaria species accurately for any assessment of forest health. To further develop DNA-based identification methods, partial sequences of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene were used to examine the phylogenetic...

  11. Liposome-encapsulated EF24-HP{beta}CD inclusion complex: a preformulation study and biodistribution in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agashe, H.; Lagisetty, P.; Sahoo, K.; Bourne, D. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Grady, B. [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering (United States); Awasthi, V., E-mail: vawasthi@ouhsc.edu [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States)

    2011-06-15

    3,5-Bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) is an anti-proliferative diphenyldifluoroketone analog of curcumin with more potent activity. The authors describe a liposome preparation of EF24 using a 'drug-in-CD-in liposome' approach. An aqueous solution of EF24 and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HP{beta}CD) inclusion complex (IC) was used to prepare EF24 liposomes. The liposome size was reduced by a combination of multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Co-encapsulation of glutathione inside the liposomes conferred them with the capability of labeling with imageable radionuclide Tc-99m. Phase solubility analysis of EF24-HP{beta}CD mixture provided k{sub 1:1} value of 9.9 M{sup -1}. The enhanced aqueous solubility of EF24 (from 1.64 to 13.8 mg/mL) due to the presence of HP{beta}CD helped in the liposome preparation. About 19% of the EF24 IC was encapsulated inside the liposomes (320.5 {+-} 2.6 nm) by dehydration-rehydration technique. With extrusion technique, the size of 177 {+-} 6.5 nm was obtained without any effect on encapsulation efficiency. The EF24-liposomes were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity in lung adenocarcinoma H441 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The EF24-liposomes demonstrated anti-proliferative activity superior to that of plain EF24 at 10 {mu}M dose. When injected in rats, the Tc-99m-labeled EF24-liposomes cleared from blood with an {alpha}-t{sub 1/2} of 21.4 min and {beta}-t{sub 1/2} of 397 min. Tissue radioactivity counting upon necropsy showed that the majority of clearance was due to the uptake in liver and spleen. The results suggest that using 'drug-in-CD-in liposome' approach is a feasible strategy to formulate an effective parenteral preparation of EF24. In vitro studies show that the liposomal EF24 remains anti-proliferative, while presenting an opportunity to image its biodistribution.

  12. The Evaiuation of chalator therapy in reducing serum ferritin and improving Ejection fraction (EF% in thalassemic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeadh Firouzbakhtkh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemic syndroms are the most common genetic disease in the world that related to blood transfusion and iron overload in the body. Cardiac complications are the leading cause of death in patients with thalassemia. Cardiovascular complications in patients largely decreases with iron chelators medications. In this study effect, complications and acceptance of iron chelator therapy was evaluated in thalassemic patients. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study (cohort, all treated patients in thalassemia centers in Bushehr were divided into 5 groups based on their use of the drug chelators include: Deferral, Asvral, deferiprone, Exjad, Deferral+deferiprone. Serum ferritin levels at baseline and 6 months after treatment and the percentage of EF with echocardiography at baseline and after 2±8 months were measured. Symptoms were assessed by interview and physical examination. Data were analyzed with SPSS statistical software by using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Ferritin levels decreased in all groups except deferiprone group (from 1853 mg% to 2356 mg P=0.01.EF% was developed in all groups but was significant in defroperone group (from 62% to 71%, P=0.027.The highest incidence complication was in desferal +defrepiron group. 93.3% of patients were satisfied with their medication. Deferiprone had better effect in reducing cardiac hemocidrosis and improving cardiac function.Desferal more effective in reducing serume ferritin. Deferiprone improved heart function with better effect in reducing heart hemoicidrosis. Conclusion: Iron chelators are effective in reducing complications and mortality rate in thalassemic patients. Defrepirone had particular special effect on improving of the heart function. patients can use from these drugs are by support by insurance organization.

  13. Velocity ratio predicts outcomes in patients with low gradient severe aortic stenosis and preserved EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Hochholzer, Willibald; Kaufmann, Beat A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of velocity ratio (VR) in patients with low gradient severe aortic stenosis (LGSAS) and preserved EF. BACKGROUND: LGSAS despite preserved EF represents a clinically challenging entity. Reliance on mean pressure gradient (MPG) may underestimate stenosis severity...... as has been reported in the context of paradoxical low flow, LGSAS. On the other hand, grading of stenosis severity by aortic valve area (AVA) may overrate stenosis severity due to erroneous underestimation of LV outflow tract (LVOT) diameter, small body size or inconsistencies in cut-off values...... for severe stenosis. We hypothesised that VR may have conceptual advantages over MPG and AVA, predict clinical outcomes and thereby be useful in the management of patients with LGSAS. METHODS: Patients from the prospective Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study with an AVA

  14. CONDITIONAL FACTORIZATION BASED ON LATTICE THEORY FOR -INTEGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yonghui; Zhu Yuefei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the integer N = pkq is called a -integer, if p and q are odd primes with almost the same size and k is a positive integer. Such integers were previously proposed for various cryptographic applications. The conditional factorization based on lattice theory for n-bit -integers is considered, and there is an algorithm in time polynomial in n to factor these integers if the least significant |(2k-1)n/(3k-1)(k-1)| bits of p are given.

  15. A new photometric study of the triple star system EF Draconis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Gui Yang

    2012-01-01

    We present new charge-coupled device (CCD) photometry for the triple star EF Draconis,obtained in 2009 and 2011.Using the updated Wilson-Devinney program,the photometric solutions were deduced from two sets of light curves.The results indicate that EF Dra is an A-type W UMa binary with a contact degree of f =46.7%(±0.6%) and a third light of l3 (=) 1.5%.Through analyzing the O -C curve,it is found that the orbital period shows a long-time increase with a lighttime orbit.The period,semi-amplitude and eccentricity of the third body are Pmod =17.20(±0.18) yr,A =0.0039d(±0.0002d) and e =0.49(±0.02) respectively.This kind of tertiary companion may extract angular momentum from the central system.The orbital period of EF Dra secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt =+3.72(±0.07) ×10-7 d yr-1,which may be interpreted by mass transfer from the less massive to the more massive component.As period increases,the separation between components may increase,which will cause the contact degree to decrease.With mass transferring,the spin angular momentum will increase,while the orbital angular momentum will decrease.Only if the contact configuration would merge at Jspin > 1/3Jorb could this kind of deep-contact binary with period increasing,such as EF Dra,evolve into a rapidly-rotating single star.

  16. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis Phage IME-EF1 and Its Endolysin

    OpenAIRE

    Wenhui Zhang; Zhiqiang Mi; Xiuyun Yin; Hang Fan; Xiaoping An; Zhiyi Zhang; Jiankui Chen; Yigang Tong

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is increasingly becoming an important nosocomial infection opportunistic pathogen. E. faecalis can easily obtain drug resistance, making it difficult to be controlled in clinical settings. Using bacteriophage as an alternative treatment to drug-resistant bacteria has been revitalized recently, especially for fighting drug-resistant bacteria. In this research, an E. faecalis bacteriophage named IME-EF1 was isolated from hospital sewage. Whole genomic sequence analysis dem...

  17. Identification of a new EF-hand superfamily member from Trypanosoma brucei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S.; Kretsinger, R. H.; Campbell, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    We identified several open reading frames between the regions encoding calmodulin and ubiquitin-EP52/1 in the genome of Trypanosoma brucei. One of these, EFH5, encodes a protein 192 amino acids long. The EFH5 transcript is present in poly(A)+ mRNA and is present at similar levels in the mammalian bloodstream form and the insect procyclic form. EFH5 contains four EF-hand homolog domains, two of which are inferred to bind Ca2+ ions. We expressed EFH5 as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and demonstrated calcium-binding activity of the fusion protein using the 45Ca-overlay technique. The function of EFH5 remains unknown; however, as the fourth EF-hand homolog identified in trypanosomes, it attests to the broad range of functions assumed by calcium functioning as a second messenger. EFH5, which is most closely related to LAV1-2 from Physarum, represents a distinct subfamily among the EF-hand-containing proteins.

  18. Calciomics:prediction and analysis of EF-hand calcium binding proteins by protein engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Jenny; Jie

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ plays a pivotal role in the physiology and biochemistry of prokaryotic and mammalian organisms.Viruses also utilize the universal Ca2+ signal to create a specific cellular environment to achieve coexistence with the host,and to propagate.In this paper we first describe our development of a grafting approach to understand site-specific Ca2+ binding properties of EF-hand proteins with a helix-loop-helix Ca2+ binding motif,then summarize our prediction and identification of EF-hand Ca2+ binding sites on a genome-wide scale in bacteria and virus,and next report the application of the grafting approach to probe the metal binding capability of predicted EF-hand motifs within the streptococcal hemoprotein receptor(Shr) of Streptococcus pyrogenes and the nonstructural protein 1(nsP1) of Sindbis virus.When methods such as the grafting approach are developed in conjunction with prediction algorithms we are better able to probe continuous Ca2+-binding sites that have been previously underrepresented due to the limitation of conventional methodology.

  19. X-RAY STRUCTURE OF DANIO RERIO SECRETAGOGIN, A HEXA-EF-HAND CALCIUM SENSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitto, Eduard; Bingman, Craig A.; Bittova, Lenka; Frederick, Ronnie O.; Fox, Brian G.; Phillips, George N.

    2009-01-01

    Many essential physiological processes are regulated by the modulation of calcium concentration in the cell. The EF-hand proteins represent a superfamily of calcium-binding proteins involved in calcium signaling and homeostasis. Secretagogin is a hexa-EF-hand protein that is highly expressed in pancreatic islet of Langerhans and neuroendocrine cells and may play a role in the trafficking of secretory granules. We present the X-ray structure of Danio rerio secretagogin, which is 73% identical to human secretagogin, in calcium-free form at 2.1-Å resolution. Secretagogin consists of the three globular domains each of which contains a pair of EF-hand motifs. The domains are arranged into a V-shaped molecule with a distinct groove formed at the interface of the domains. Comparison of the secretagogin structure with the solution structure of calcium-loaded calbindin D28K revealed a striking difference in the spatial arrangement of their domains, which involves approximately a 180-degree rotation of the first globular domain with respect to the module formed by the remaining domains. PMID:19241471

  20. The Ski7 Antiviral Protein Is an EF1-α Homolog That Blocks Expression of Non-Poly(A) mRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Benard, Lionel; Carroll, Kathleen; Valle, Rosaura C. P.; Masison, Daniel C.; Wickner, Reed B.

    1999-01-01

    We mapped and cloned SKI7, a gene that negatively controls the copy number of L-A and M double-stranded RNA viruses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that it encodes a nonessential 747-residue protein with similarities to two translation factors, Hbs1p and EF1-α. The ski7 mutant was hypersensitive to hygromycin B, a result also suggesting a role in translation. The SKI7 product repressed the expression of nonpolyadenylated [non-poly(A)] mRNAs, whether capped or uncapped, thus explaining w...

  1. The stability safety factor calibration based on the reliability index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Xiaolong; Fang Zhi

    2014-01-01

    When the bridge structure stability safety factor of the first type is 4,the research that whether the structure reliability index will reach target reliability index under the more-likely-to-happen collapse situation of the second type is necessary. The stability calculations of the first and the second type are made respectively for single layer and single span rigid frame bridge. Based on the critical load obtained from the stability calculation of the first type,the stability safety factor of the first type is taken as 4,and the first order reliability method is used to program and calculate the reliability index. Then,the load effect under the stability reliability index cal-culation of the first type and the critical load of the second type are employed to calculate the reliability index of the second type. The evaluation of structure stability safety factor is discussed according to reliability index. Based on the discussion above,parameter analysis of the stable critical loads of two types is made,and the in-fluence of critical load change on reliability index is researched. The result shows that stability analysis should identify collapse state;when the stability safety factor of the first type is 4,but the structure has the collapse of the second type,the reliability index cannot be ensured to reach the target reliability index under certain condi-tions.

  2. Cosine Based Latent Factor Model for Precision Oriented Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems suggest a list of interesting items to users based on their prior purchase or browsing behaviour on e-commerce platforms. The continuing research in recommender systems have primarily focused on developing algorithms for rating prediction task. However, most e-commerce platforms provide ‘top-k’ list of interesting items for every user. In line with this idea, the paper proposes a novel machine learning algorithm to predict a list of ‘top-k’ items by optimizing the latent factors of users and items with the mapped scores from ratings. The basic idea is to learn latent factors based on the cosine similarity between the users and items latent features which is then used to predict the scores for unseen items for every user. Comprehensive empirical evaluations on publicly available benchmark datasets reveal that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in recommending good items to a user.

  3. Game Factors and Game-Based Learning Design Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Ru Shi; Ju-Ling Shih

    2015-01-01

    How to design useful digital game-based learning is a topic worthy of discussion. Past research focused on specific game genres design, but it is difficult to use when the target game genre differs from the default genres used in the research. This study presents macrodesign concepts that elucidates 11 crucial game-design factors, including game goals, game mechanism, game fantasy, game value, interaction, freedom, narrative, sensation, challenges, sociality, and mystery. We clearly define ea...

  4. Indexing natural images for retrieval based on Kansei factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, John A., Jr.; Kahol, Kanav; Tripathi, Priyamvada; Kuchi, Prem; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2004-06-01

    Current image indexing methods are based on measures of visual content. However, this approach provides only a partial solution to the image retrieval problem. For example, an artist might want to retrieve an image (for use in an advertising campaign) that evokes a particular "feeling" in the viewer. One technique for measuring evoked feelings, which originated in Japan, indexes images based on the inner impression (i.e. the kansei) experienced by a person while viewing an image or object-impressions such as busy, elegant, romantic, or lavish. The aspects of the image that evoke this inner impression in the viewer are called kansei factors. The challenge in kansei research is to enumerate those factors, with the ultimate goal of indexing images with the "inner impression" that viewers experience. Thus, the focus is on the viewer, rather than on the image, and similarity measures derived from kansei indexing represent similarities in inner experience, rather than visual similarity. This paper presents the results of research that indexes images based on a set of kansei impressions, and then looks for correlations between that indexing and traditional content-based indexing. The goal is to allow the indexing of images based on the inner impressions they evoke, using visual content.

  5. Lo permanente en lo efímero: Pabellones de Exposiciones Universales, hitos de la arquitectura de la segunda posguerra

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez-Navia García, Vega

    2016-01-01

    Los Pabellones de las Exposiciones Universales suelen considerarse dentro de las arquitecturas efímeras, pero habría que puntualizar que toda construcción tiene su tiempo y su periodo de extinción pudiendo ser éstos indefinidos, lo permanente en lo efímero. Muchas de las obras míticas del siglo XX existieron sólo durante unos meses, en escenarios efímeros, modificando el curso de la arquitectura con unas pocas imágenes, lo que llevaría a cuestionar si las circunstancias por las que no han sob...

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis implicates eEF2 as a novel target of PI3Kγ in the MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Meizhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer cell migration is fundamentally required for breast tumour invasion and metastasis. The insulin-like growth factor 1 tyrosine kinase receptor (IGF-1R and the chemokine G-protein coupled receptor, CXCR4 have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer metastasis. Our previous study has shown that IGF-1R can transactivate CXCR4 via a physical association in the human MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cell line and that this plays a key role in IGF-I-induced migration of these cells. In the present study we used pharmacological inhibition and RNAi to identify PI3Kγ as an important migration signalling molecule downstream of receptor transactivation in MDA-MB-231 cells. To identify PI3Kγ-regulated proteins upon transactivation of CXCR4 by IGF-I, we undertook a comparative proteomics approach using 2-D- Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE and identified the proteins by mass spectrometry. Results These experiments identified eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2 as a novel downstream target of PI3Kγ after activation of the IGF-1R-CXCR4 heterodimer by IGF-I. Further analysis demonstrated that eEF2 is phosphorylated in MDA-MB-231 cells in response to IGF-I and that this is dependent on PI3Kγ activity. Conclusions Our data imply a novel role for PI3Kγ in facilitating cell migration by regulating phosphorylation of eEF2.

  7. The tuf3 gene of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) encodes an inessential elongation factor Tu that is apparently subject to positive stringent control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, Gilles P. van; Takano, Eriko; Vijgenboom, Erik; Bosch, Leendert; Bibb, Mervyn J.

    1995-01-01

    In Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), two genes, tuf1 and tuf3, encode the apparent polypeptide chain elongation factors EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu3, respectively. While tuf1 appears to code for the major EF-Tu, the function of tuf3 is unknown. To assess the role of EF-Tu3, tuf3 was subjected to mutational and

  8. The tuf3 gene of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) encodes an inessential elongation factor Tu that is apparently subject to positive stringent control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, Gilles P. van; Takano, Eriko; Vijgenboom, Erik; Bosch, Leendert; Bibb, Mervyn J.

    1995-01-01

    In Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), two genes, tuf1 and tuf3, encode the apparent polypeptide chain elongation factors EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu3, respectively. While tuf1 appears to code for the major EF-Tu, the function of tuf3 is unknown. To assess the role of EF-Tu3, tuf3 was subjected to mutational and tr

  9. Italian risk factor-based screening for gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, F; Pintaudi, B; Di Vieste, G; Interdonato, M L; Magliarditi, M; Santamaria, A; D'Anna, R; Di Benedetto, A

    2014-09-01

    There is a debate about whether universal or risk factors-based screening is most appropriate for gestational diabetes diagnosis. The aim of our retrospective study was to compare in our population the universal screening test recommended by the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) panel and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) versus the selective screening proposed by the United Kingdom National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines (NICE) but modified by the Italian National Institute of Health. From May 2010 to October 2011 all consecutive pregnant women were screened for gestational diabetes according to the IADPSG's panel criteria, while all the risk factors for each patient were registered. Of the 1015 pregnant women included in the study, 113 (11%) were diagnosed with gestational diabetes and 26 (23%) of them would not have been identified by the selective screening proposed by the Italian National Institute of Health. However, all the risk factors considered by the selective screening revealed a good predictive role except for maternal age ≥ 35 years (OR: 0.98). In the group without the risk factors considered, it was reported the predictive role for gestational diabetes of prepregnancy BMI and nulliparity. The selective risk factors-based screening proposed by the Italian National Institute of Health has detected 77% of gestational diabetes cases in our population, sparing the oral glucose tolerance test for more than 40% of pregnant women at the same time. More information on the clinical impact of this choice could be obtained by a strict analysis of treatment, perinatal outcome and follow-up of an adequate sample size of "missed" gestational diabetes.

  10. A New Cryptosystem Based on Factoring and Discrete Logarithm Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A cryptosystem allows a sender to send any confidential or private message using a receiver’s public key and later the receiver confirms the integrity of the received message using his secret key. Currently the existing cryptosystems were developed based on a single hard problem like factoring, discrete logarithm, residuosity, knapsack or elliptic curve discrete logarithm. Although these schemes appear secure, one day in a near future they may be broken if one finds a solution of a single hard problem. Approach: To solve this problem, we developed a new cryptosystem based on two hard problems; factoring and discrete logarithm. We integrated the two problems in our encrypting and decrypting equations so that the former depends on two public keys whereas the latter depends on two corresponding secret keys. Results: The new cryptosystem is shown secure against the most three considering attacks. The efficiency performance of our scheme only requires 3Texp +Tmul + Thash time complexity for encryption and 2Texp + Tmul time complexity for decryption and this magnitude of complexity is considered minimal for multiple hard problems-like cryptosystems. Conclusion: The new cryptosystem based on multiple hard problems provides longer and higher security level than that schemes based on a single hard problem. The adversary has to solve the two problems simultaneously in order to recover a corresponding plaintext (message from the received ciphertext (encrypted message.

  11. Chameleon Hashes Without Key Exposure Based on Factoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gao; Xue-Li Wang; Dong-Qing Xie

    2007-01-01

    Chameleon hash is the main primitive to construct a chameleon signature scheme which provides non-repudiation and non-transferability simultaneously.However, the initial chameleon hash schemes suffer from the key exposure problem: non-transferability is based on an unsound assumption that the designated receiver is willing to abuse his private key regardless of its exposure.Recently, several key-exposure-free chameleon hashes have been constructed based on RSA assumption and SDH (strong Diffie-Hellman) assumption.In this paper, we propose a factoring-based chameleon hash scheme which is proven to enjoy all advantages of the previous schemes.In order to support it, we propose a variant Rabin signature scheme which is proven secure against a new type of attack in the random oracle model.

  12. Security information factor based airborne radar RF stealth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wang; Mathini Sellathurai; Weigang Liu; Jiangjiang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Radar radio frequency (RF) stealth is very important in electronic war (EW), and waveform design and selection. Existing evaluation rules of radar RF stealth include too many parameters of radar and interceptors, such as Schleher interception factor, which makes it difficult to evaluate radar RF stealth technologies if interceptor parameters are unknown. In communication, security capacity has been presented to describe the possible ability to communicate in complete security. Since the essential of the secu-rity capacity is to have the interceptor get none valued information from the emitter, this paper is proposed to study security infor-mation factors taking advantage of mutual information to evaluate radar RF stealth under some conditions. Through analyzing mutual information obtained by the radar and the interceptor, this paper defines the security information factor with and without cooperative jamming. Furthermore, this paper deduces the ratio of the match filter to the match incoherent filter and discuss mutual information received by the interceptor. Numerical simulations il ustrate radar RF stealth effects based on the security information factor concept under different conditions.

  13. [Языковые поездки EF

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline koolitusorganisatsioon EF Education First korraldab keeleõpet välismaal. Populaarsemad Eestis pakutavad kursused on 13-18-aastastele noortele mõeldud suvised 3-4 nädalased keelereisid

  14. [Языковые поездки EF

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline koolitusorganisatsioon EF Education First korraldab keeleõpet välismaal. Populaarsemad Eestis pakutavad kursused on 13-18-aastastele noortele mõeldud suvised 3-4 nädalased keelereisid

  15. Success Factors of Biotechnology Industry Based on Triangular Fuzzy Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; LEI

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of competitive advantage and value chain, this paper establishes the indicator system, and develop the strategic framework using the fuzzy Delphi method. Then the triangular fuzzy number model is established using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, and the key factors influencing biotechnology industry are extracted. The results show that in terms of weight, the key factors influencing the success of biotechnology industry are sequenced as follows: "open innovation capacity", "quality and cost control ability", "advanced customer-oriented product manufacturing capacity", "technology R & D personnel’s capacity", "brand image building capacity", "logistics and sales capacity", "grasping the market demand trends". The manufacturers and government decision-making body can use this as the basis, to promote the development of the biotechnology industry.

  16. Factor Analysis of Enterprise Internet+ Impetus Based on System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Haiwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet+ plays an important role in the transition and upgrading of enterprises in this era. To promote enterprise Internet+ implementation, this paper studies the influencing factors in enterprise Internet+ impetus. First, based on system dynamics, the influencing factors of enterprise Internet+ impetus are analyzed as well as their relationships. Then, a system dynamics model is established and Vensim PLE is utilized to simulate the model. Finally, some suggestions about the Internet+ implementation are given. The simulation results show that technological environment, government policy and information asymmetry all have different influence on the enterprise Internet+ impetus and different strategies can be taken to change their influence. This study is helpful for enterprises to understand the Internet+ impetus mechanism thus promote Internet+ implementation.

  17. Direct phylogenetic evidence for lateral transfer of elongation factor-like gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2008-05-13

    Genes encoding elongation factor-like (EFL) proteins, which show high similarity to elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha), have been found in phylogenetically distantly related eukaryotes. The sporadic distribution of "EFL-containing" lineages within "EF-1alpha-containing" lineages indirectly, but strongly, suggests lateral gene transfer as the principal driving force in EFL evolution. However, one of the most critical aspects in the above hypothesis, the donor lineages in any putative cases of lateral EFL gene transfer, remained unclear. In this study, we provide direct evidence for lateral transfer of an EFL gene through the analyses of 10 diatom EFL genes. All diatom EFL homologues tightly clustered in phylogenetic analyses, suggesting acquisition of the exogenous EFL gene early in diatom evolution. Our survey additionally identified Thalassiosira pseudonana as a eukaryote bearing EF-1alpha and EFL genes and secondary EFL gene loss in Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the complete genome of which encodes only the EF-1alpha gene. Most importantly, the EFL phylogeny recovered a robust grouping of homologues from diatoms, the cercozoan Bigelowiella natans, and the foraminifer Planoglabratella opecularis, with the diatoms nested within the Bigelowiella plus Planoglabratella (Rhizaria) grouping. The particular relationships recovered are further consistent with two characteristic sequence motifs. The best explanation of our data analyses is an EFL gene transfer from a foraminifer to a diatom, the first case in which the donor-recipient relationship was clarified. Finally, based on a reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR assay and the genome information of Thalassiosira and Phaeodactylum, we propose the loss of elongation factor function in Thalassiosira EF-1alpha.

  18. Remediation of hemorrhagic shock-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction by treatment with diphenyldihaloketones EF24 and CLEFMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vivek R; Hussain, Alamdar; Sahoo, Kaustuv; Awasthi, Vibhudutta

    2014-11-01

    Gut is very sensitive to hypoperfusion and hypoxia, and deranged gastrointestinal barrier is implicated in systemic failure of various organs. We recently demonstrated that diphenyldihaloketone EF24 [3,5-bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)piperidin-4-one] improves survival in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. In this study, we tested EF24 and its other analog CLEFMA (4-[3,5-bis(2-chlorobenzylidene)-4-oxo-piperidine-1-yl]-4-oxo-2-butenoic acid) for their effect on intestinal barrier dysfunction in hypovolemic shock. Hypovolemia was induced in rats by withdrawing 50% of blood. EF24 or CLEFMA (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) treatment was provided, without volume resuscitation, after 1 hour of hemorrhage. Ileum was collected 5 hours after the treatment to investigate the expression of tight junction proteins (zonula occludens, claudin, and occludin) and epithelial injury markers [myeloperoxidase, ileal lipid-binding protein (ILBP), CD163, and plasma citrulline]. The ileal permeability for dextran-fluoroisothiocyanate and Evan's blue dye was determined. EF24 and CLEFMA reduced the hypovolemia-induced plasma citrulline levels and the ileal expression of myeloperoxidase, ILBP, and CD163. The drugs also restored the basal expression levels of zonula occludens, claudin, and occludin, which were substantially deranged by hypovolemia. In ischemic ileum, the expression of phospho(tyrosine)-zonula occludens-1 was reduced, which was reinstated by EF24 and CLEFMA. In contrast, the drug treatments maintained the hypovolemia-induced expression of phospho(threonine)-occludin, but reduced that of phospho(tyrosine)-occludin. Both EF24 and CLEFMA treatments reduced the intestinal permeability enhanced by hypovolemia. EF24 and CLEFMA attenuate hypovolemic gut pathology and protect barrier function by restoring the status of tight junction proteins. These effects were observed in unresuscitated shock, implying the benefit of EF24 and CLEFMA in prehospital care of shock.

  19. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    (calcite and siderite directly contribute CO2 when they decompose during coal combustion. Variations in the maceral content can also influence CO2 emissions; high inertinite contents increase CO2 emissions. Sulphur in coal reduces EF(CO2. Fuel analysis is very important when estimating greenhouse gas emissions and emission factors. In this preliminary study, based on the results of the fuel analysis, CO2 emission factors for coals and peat from Livno, B&H have been calculated. EF(CO2 is defined as the amount of carbon dioxide emission per unit net calorific values of the fuel. Net calorific value (the lower heating value corresponds to the heat produced by combustion where total water in the combustion products exists as water vapour. The EF(CO2 obtained for sub-bituminous coal, lignite and peat were: 98.7, 109.5, and 147.9 t TJ−1, respectively, which correspond to the following net calorific values: 20.6, 11.5 and 3.6 MJ kg−1. The heating value is generally known to increase with the increase in carbon content (this parameter is connected with the degree of coalification, coal age. The other indispensable parameters are hydrogen, which has a positive effect on the net calorific value, and oxygen and water which impact the net calorific value negatively. The differences in net calorific values can be explained in part by the difference of total moisture content among the different fuel types. The CO2 emission factors calculated in this study were compared with those of IPCC. A significant difference was observed for peat (39.5 %, followed by lignite (8.2 % and sub-bituminous coal (4.3 %.

  20. AN EFFICIENT BIT COMMITMENT SCHEME BASED ON FACTORING ASSUMPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Ming; Yang Yixian

    2001-01-01

    Recently, many bit commitment schemes have been presented. This paper presents a new practical bit commitment scheme based on Schnorr's one-time knowledge proof scheme,where the use of cut-and-choose method and many random exam candidates in the protocols are replaced by a single challenge number. Therefore the proposed bit commitment scheme is more efficient and practical than the previous schemes In addition, the security of the proposed scheme under factoring assumption is proved, thus the cryptographic basis of the proposed scheme is clarified.

  1. Effect of Oral Administration of Enterococcus faecium Ef1 on Innate Immunity of Sucking Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-fen Li, Yi Huang§, Ya-li Li, Qin Huang, Zhi-wen Cui, Dong-you Yu, Imran R. Rajput and Cai-hong Hu*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of orally administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on innate immune responses of jejunal mucosa in newborn piglets. Twenty-four commercial crossbred healthy newborn piglets were randomly divided into two groups, control (T0 and treatment (T1 group. Each group consists of 12 piglets. T1 was administered sterilized skim milk 2 ml piglet-1 day-1 with addition of E. faecium EF1 (5~6×108 cfu/ml by oral gavage on alternative odd days (1st, 3rd and 5th after birth. T0 fed with the same volume of sterilized skim milk without probiotics. The merciful killing of piglets at the 25th day after birth was performed to collect the samples of jejunal mucosa to measure the innate cytokine responses and the Toll-like receptors gene expression by quantitative real time PCR. The results showed that TGF-β1 and TNF-α concentrations increased and mRNA expression levels also improved significantly in T1 as compared to T0. While, the production of IFN-γ and IL-8 decreased significantly in T1 and gene expression modification was not observed. In addition, TLR (Toll-like receptor 2 and TLR 9 transcription levels were up-regulated in treatment (T1 group. These findings revealed that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 was effective to activate innate immunity and could modulate the TLRs expression in jejunal mucosa of piglets.

  2. Simultaneous removal of phosphorus and EfOM using MIEX, coagulation, and low-pressure membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Timmes, Thomas C; Dempsey, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) treatment, in-line alum coagulation, and low-pressure membrane filtration was investigated for the simultaneous removal of total phosphorus (TP) and effluent organic matter (EfOM) from biologically treated wastewater. The focus was also placed on minimizing fouling of polyvinylidene fluoride and polyethersulfone membranes, which are the most commonly used low-pressure membranes in new and retrofit wastewater treatment plants. MIEX alone was effective for the removal of EfOM, and MIEX plus a small alum dose was very effective in removing both EfOM and TP. MIEX removed phosphorus, but organic acids in EfOM were preferentially removed, and the effects of competing anions on the removal of EfOM were insignificant. All the pretreatment strategies decreased the resistance to filtration. The greatest decrease in fouling was achieved by using MIEX (15 mL L⁻¹) plus a very low dose of alum (∼0.5 mg Al L⁻¹). Sweep floc coagulation using alum and without MIEX also significantly decreased fouling but did not effectively remove EfOM and produced high floc volume that could be problematic for inside-out hollow-fibre modules. The addition of these reagents into rapid mix followed by membrane filtration would provide operational simplicity and could be easily retrofitted at existing membrane filtration facilities.

  3. Mycofumigation with Oxyporus latemarginatus EF069 for control of postharvest apple decay and Rhizoctonia root rot on moth orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S O; Kim, H Y; Choi, G J; Lee, H B; Jang, K S; Choi, Y H; Kim, J-C

    2009-04-01

    To characterize the volatile antifungal compound produced by Oxyporus latemarginatus EF069 and to examine in vitro and in vivo fumigation activity of the fungus. An antifungal volatile-producing strain, O. latemarginatus EF069 inhibited the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and Rhizoctonia solani by mycofumigation. An antifungal volatile compound was isolated from the hexane extract of wheat bran-rice hull cultures of O. latemarginatus EF069 by repeated silica gel column chromatography and identified as 5-pentyl-2-furaldehyde (PTF). The purified PTF inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani in a dose-dependent manner. The mycofumigation with solid cultures of EF069 also reduced effectively the development of postharvest apple decay caused by B. cinerea and Rhizoctonia root rot of moth orchid caused by R. solani. Oxyporus latemarginatus EF069 showed in vitro and in vivo fumigation activity against plant pathogenic fungi by producing 5-pentyl-2-furaldehyde. Oxyporus latemarginatus EF069 producing an antifungal volatile compound may be used as a biofumigant for the control of fungal plant diseases.

  4. Role of four conserved aspartic acid residues of EF-loops in the metal ion binding and in the self-assembly of ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Duan, Lian; Sun, Tijian; Yang, Binsheng

    2016-12-01

    Ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (EoCen) is an EF-hand calcium-binding protein closely related to the prototypical calcium sensor protein calmodulin. Four mutants (D37K, D73K, D110K and D146K) were created firstly to elucidate the importance of the first aspartic acid residues (Asp37, Asp73, Asp110 and Asp146) in the beginning of the four EF-loops of EoCen. Aromatic-sensitized Tb(3+) fluorescence indicates that the aspartic acid residues are very important for the metal-binding of EoCen, except for Asp73 (in EF-loop II). Resonance light scattering (RLS) measurements for different metal ions (Ca(2+) and Tb(3+)) binding proteins suggest that the order of four conserved aspartic acid residues for contributing to the self-assembly of EoCen is Asp37 > Asp146 > Asp110 > Asp73. Cross-linking experiment also exhibits that Asp37 and Asp146 play critical role in the self-assembly of EoCen. Asp37, in site I, which is located in the N-terminal domain, plays the most important role in the metal ion-dependent self-assembly of EoCen, and there is cooperativity between N-terminal and C-terminal domain (especially the site IV). In addition, the dependence of Tb(3+) induced self-assembly of EoCen and the mutants on various factors, including ionic strength and pH, were characterized using RLS. Finally, 2-p-toluidinylnaphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS) binding, ionic strength and pH control experiments indicate that in the process of EoCen self-assembly, molecular interactions are mediated by both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces, and the hydrophobic interaction has the important status.

  5. HFNEF, HFpEF, HF-PEF, or DHF: what is in an acronym?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, John E

    2014-02-01

    It is well recognized that many patients presenting with heart failure have a normal left ventricular ejection fraction. There has been debate about the correct name for this condition including originally Diastolic Heart Failure (DHF), Heart Failure with a Normal Ejection Fraction (HFNEF), and more recently Heart Failure with a Preserved Ejection Fraction, usually abbreviated to HFpEF. In this viewpoint is it argued that 'Preserved' is the least appropriate word to use, as ejection fraction declines over time and furthermore it is never explained why the 'p' is small. The most honest acronym is HFNEF. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A safe potential juice clarifying pectinase from Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing Egyptian onion skins

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Mohsen S. Ismail; Heba I. Abo-Elmagd; Manal M. Housseiny

    2016-01-01

    The production of a notable, safe and highly active pectinase by the local fungal strain Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing the abundant pigmented Egyptian onion (Allium cepa L.) skins (6.5%, w/v) was achieved in 4 days submerged fermentation (SMF) cultures, at temperature and pH of 30 °C and 4.0, respectively. The indigenously produced pectinase was partially purified by 50% batch ethanol precipitation and its general properties were studied following the standard procedures. The lyophilized ...

  7. Vivienda efímera urbana: ¿arquitectura vernácula?

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Enrique Gómez M.

    2010-01-01

    El artículo se publica como etapa inicial de una investigación enfocada en el estudio de la vivienda efímera urbana, con el fin de encontrar en ésta principios aplicables a otras arquitecturas. Partiendo de la definición de este tipo de arquitectura, y con el fin de empezar a buscar metodologías adecuadas para su estudio, se plantea la pregunta sobre si ésta puede considerarse arquitectura vernácula. Para responder a la pregunta, se hace una revisión bibliográfica de algunos de los principale...

  8. Invariant Gait Continuum Based on the Duty-Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to describe the continuum of human gait in an invariant manner. The gait description is based on the duty-factor which is adopted from the biomechanics literature. We generate a database of artificial silhouettes representing the three main types of gait, i.......e. walking, jogging, and running. By generating silhouettes from different camera angles we make the method invariant to camera viewpoint and to changing directions of movement. Silhouettes are extracted using the Code-book method and represented in a scale- and translation-invariant manner by using shape...... contexts and tangent orientations. Input silhouettes are matched to the database using the Hungarian method. We define a classifier based on the dissimilarity between the input silhouettes and the gait actions of the database. This classification achieves an overall recognition rate of 87.1% on a diverse...

  9. Resources based factors of competitiveness of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyja Małgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Among many different definitions of competitiveness it is difficult to pinpoint the most appropriate one. In the paper it was defined as the ability to be profitable by effective use of available resources. The profitability ratios (ROS, ROA, ROE and value index were proposed as measures of competitiveness and resources were indicated as one of the group of factors that has an impact on it. Precisely, the purpose of the paper was to examine the relationship between selected resourced based factors and competitiveness of agricultural enterprises. The study was done with the use of correlation analysis on the basis of statistical data on selected Polish companies operating in agriculture. The main finding was that the analyzed resources (the level of labour, size and quality of agricultural land and size of assets were weakly correlated with competitiveness. This observation means that other factors have stronger impact on agricultural company’s competitiveness. They can refer to intangible resources (such as relational capital, know-how, managerial competencies, technological resources etc. and external conditions (such as climate, legal issues of agricultural enterprises.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of true butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) inferred from COI, 16S rRNA and EF-1α sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man Il; Wan, Xinlong; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Ahn, Neung-Ho; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2010-11-01

    The molecular phylogenetic relationships among true butterfly families (superfamily Papilionoidea) have been a matter of substantial controversy; this debate has led to several competing hypotheses. Two of the most compelling of those hypotheses involve the relationships of (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + (Pieridae + Papilionidae) and (((Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + Pieridae) + Papilionidae). In this study, approximately 3,500 nucleotide sequences from cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) were sequenced from 83 species belonging to four true butterfly families, along with those of three outgroup species belonging to three lepidopteran superfamilies. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic reconstruction via Bayesian Inference (BI), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum Parsimony (MP) algorithms. The monophyletic Pieridae and monophyletic Papilionidae evidenced good recovery in all analyses, but in some analyses, the monophylies of the Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae were hampered by the inclusion of single species of the lycaenid subfamily Miletinae and the nymphalid subfamily Danainae. Excluding those singletons, all phylogenetic analyses among the four true butterfly families clearly identified the Nymphalidae as the sister to the Lycaenidae and identified this group as a sister to the Pieridae, with the Papilionidae identified as the most basal linage to the true butterfly, thus supporting the hypothesis: (Papilionidae + (Pieridae + (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae))).

  11. Imputation for transcription factor binding predictions based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the cell-specific binding patterns of transcription factors (TFs) is fundamental to studying gene regulatory networks in biological systems, for which ChIP-seq not only provides valuable data but is also considered as the gold standard. Despite tremendous efforts from the scientific community to conduct TF ChIP-seq experiments, the available data represent only a limited percentage of ChIP-seq experiments, considering all possible combinations of TFs and cell lines. In this study, we demonstrate a method for accurately predicting cell-specific TF binding for TF-cell line combinations based on only a small fraction (4%) of the combinations using available ChIP-seq data. The proposed model, termed TFImpute, is based on a deep neural network with a multi-task learning setting to borrow information across transcription factors and cell lines. Compared with existing methods, TFImpute achieves comparable accuracy on TF-cell line combinations with ChIP-seq data; moreover, TFImpute achieves better accuracy on TF-cell line combinations without ChIP-seq data. This approach can predict cell line specific enhancer activities in K562 and HepG2 cell lines, as measured by massively parallel reporter assays, and predicts the impact of SNPs on TF binding. PMID:28234893

  12. Drought Risk Assessment based on Natural and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Huimin; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    In many parts of the world, drought hazard is becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change and human activities. It is crucial to monitor and assess drought conditions, especially for decision making support in agriculture sector. The vegetation index (VI) decreases, and the land surface temperature (LST) increases when the vegetation is under drought stress. Therefore both of these remotely sensed indices are widely used in drought monitoring and assessment. Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) is obtained by establishing the feature space of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST, which reflects agriculture dry situation by inverting soil moisture. However, these indices only concern the natural hazard-causing factors. Our society is a complex large-scale system with various natural and social elements. The drought risk is the joint consequence of hazard-causing factors and hazard-affected bodies. For example, as the population increases, the exposure of the hazard-affected bodies also tends to increase. The high GDP enhances the response ability of government, and the irrigation and water conservancy reduces the vulnerability. Such characteristics of hazard-affected bodies should be coupled with natural factors. In this study, the 16-day moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI and LST data are combined to establish NDVI-Ts space according to different land use types in Yunnan Province, China. And then, TVDIs are calculated through dry and wet edges modeled as a linear fit to data for each land cover type. Next, the efforts are turned to establish an integrated drought assessment index of social factors and TVDI through ascertaining attribute weight based on rough sets theory. Thus, the new CDI (comprehensive drought index) recorded during spring of 2010 and the spatial variations in drought are analyzed and compared with TVDI dataset. Moreover, actual drought risk situation in the study area is given to

  13. Publication Metrics of Dental Journals - What is the Role of Self Citations in Determining the Impact Factor of Journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Satheesh; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of the present study are to examine the publication metrics of dental journals and to delineate the role of self citations in determining the impact factor of journals. The Journal Citation Reports database was used. All dental journals that had an impact factor assigned for year 2013 were selected. The outcomes were Impact Factor (IF), Eigenfactor™ (EF), article influence score (AIS), and proportion of self-citations to total citations. Independent variables were geographic region of journal and ranking of journal (based on IF). Non-parametric tests were used to examine the associations between outcomes and independent variables. During the year 2013, 82 journals in dentistry had an IF. Mean IF was 1.489 and mean IF without including self-citations was 1.231. Mean EF scores and AIS were .00458 and .5141 respectively. Mean percentage of self cites to total citations for all dental journals was 12.24%. Higher ranking journals were associated with significantly higher EF and AIS. Journals published in USA/Canada or Europe were associated with higher IF and EF compared to those published in other regions. There were no differences in percentages of self citations to total citations either across journal rankings or geographic region. Top ranking journals tend to have higher IFs due to higher EF and AIS rather than by self-citations. Self-citations increase the impact factors of dental journals by 21%. There was no geographic influence in the percentage of self-citations to total citations thus indicating a healthy dental scientific publishing environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fertiliser-induced nitrous oxide emissions from vegetable production in the world and the regulating factors: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Rashti, Mehran; Wang, Weijin; Moody, Phil; Chen, Chengrong; Ghadiri, Hossein

    2015-07-01

    The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from vegetable fields contributes to the global greenhouse gases budget. However, reliable estimation of N2O emissions from vegetable production in the word has been lack. Vegetable cropping systems are characterised with high N application rates, irrigation, intensive production and multiple planting-harvest cycles during the year. Improved understanding of the key factors controlling N2O production is critical for developing effective mitigation strategies for vegetable cropping systems under different climate, soil type and management practices. Based on a comprehensive literature review and data analysis, we estimated the global N2O emission from vegetable production using seasonal fertiliser-induced emission factors (EFs) and examined the relationship of the seasonal emissions and EFs to possible controlling factors. The global average seasonal EF for vegetable fields is around 0.94% of applied N fertiliser, which is very similar to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) annual emission factor of 1.0% for all cropping systems. The total N2O emission from global vegetable production is estimated to be 9.5 × 107 kg N2O-N yr-1, accounting for 9.0% of the total N2O emissions from synthetic fertilisers. Stepwise multiple regression analysis on the relationships of soil properties, climatic factors and N application rates to seasonal N2O emissions and N2O EFs showed that N fertiliser application rate is the main regulator of seasonal N2O emission from vegetable fields but the seasonal EFs are negatively related to soil organic carbon (SOC) content. In fields receiving ≥250 kg ha-1 N fertiliser, 67% (n = 23, P ≤ 0.01) of the variation in seasonal emissions can be explained by the combined effects of N application rate, mean water-filled pore space (WFPS) and air temperature, while 59% (n = 23, P ≤ 0.01) of the variation in seasonal EFs relates to temperature, mean WFPS and soil pH. The result also shows that in

  15. Analysis of EF-Hand Proteins in Soybean Genome Suggests Their Potential Roles in Environmental and Nutritional Stress Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houqing Zeng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium ion (Ca2+ is a universal second messenger that plays a critical role in plant responses to diverse physiological and environmental stimuli. The stimulus-specific signals are perceived and decoded by a series of Ca2+ binding proteins serving as Ca2+ sensors. The majority of Ca2+ sensors possess the EF-hand motif, a helix-loop-helix structure which forms a turn-loop structure. Although EF-hand proteins in model plant such as Arabidopsis have been well described, the identification, classification, and the physiological functions of EF-hand-containing proteins from soybean are not systemically reported. In this study, a total of at least 262 genes possibly encoding proteins containing one to six EF-hand motifs were identified in soybean genome. These genes include 6 calmodulins (CaMs, 144 calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs, 15 calcineurin B-like proteins, 50 calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, 13 CDPK-related protein kinases, 2 Ca2+- and CaM-dependent protein kinases, 17 respiratory burst oxidase homologs, and 15 unclassified EF-hand proteins. Most of these genes (87.8% contain at least one kind of hormonal signaling- and/or stress response-related cis-elements in their -1500 bp promoter regions. Expression analyses by exploring the published microarray and Illumina transcriptome sequencing data revealed that the expression of these EF-hand genes were widely detected in different organs of soybean, and nearly half of the total EF-hand genes were responsive to various environmental or nutritional stresses. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to confirm their responsiveness to several stress treatments. To confirm the Ca2+-binding ability of these EF-hand proteins, four CMLs (CML1, CML13, CML39, and CML95 were randomly selected for SDS–PAGE mobility-shift assay in the presence and absence of Ca2+. Results showed that all of them have the ability to bind Ca2+. This study provided the first comprehensive analyses of genes encoding for EF

  16. Quantitative Population Epigenetics in Screening and Development of Regulator-Active Factors of the Farming System

    OpenAIRE

    Stauss, R.

    2013-01-01

    Likewise, index selection based on statistical genetic theory in plant and animal breeding the methodology "Quantitative Population Epigenetics" can be appropriated to improve efficiency in screening and development of regulator-active factors of the farming system for potential to enhance quantitative characters such as yield, standability and resistance to unfavorable environmental influences (e.g., water stress, cold temperatures, disease resistance). For example, as was shown for an ef...

  17. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  18. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  19. Ultrasound harmonic enhanced imaging using eigenspace-based coherence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua

    2016-12-01

    Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) utilizes harmonic signals generating within the tissue as the result of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. With inadequate transmitting acoustic energy, THI is incapable to detect the small objects since poor harmonic signals have been generated. In most cases, high transmission energy cannot be guaranteed because of the imaging safety issue or specific imaging modality such as the plane wave imaging (PWI). Discrimination of small point targets such as calcification, however, is particularly important in the ultrasound diagnosis. Few efforts have been made to pursue the THI with high resolution and good small target visibility at the same time. In this paper, we proposed a new eigenspace-based coherence factor (ESBCF) beamformer to solve this problem. A new kind of coherence factor (CF), named as ESBCF, is firstly proposed to detect the point targets. The detected region-of-interest (ROI) is then enhanced adaptively by using a newly developed beamforming method. The ESBCF combines the information from signal eigenspace and coherence factor by expanding the CF to the covariance matrix of signal. Analogous to the image processing but in the radio frequency (RF) data domain, the proposed method fully utilizes the information from the fundamental and harmonic components. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation and phantom experiments. The improvement of the point contrast ratio (PCR) is 7.6dB in the simulated data, and 6.0dB in the phantom experiment. Thanks to the improved small point detection ability of the ESBCF, the proposed beamforming algorithm can enhance the PCR considerably and maintain the high resolution of the THI at the same time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. rDNA-ITS and EF-1a Gene Sequences of Fusarium species Causing Maize Top Rot and UP-PCR Analysis on Genetic Diversity%玉米顶腐镰孢菌rDNA-ITS和EF-1a基因序列及UP-PCR遗传多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐; 高增贵; 庄敬华; 张硕; 高金欣

    2011-01-01

    A total of 89 Fusarium isolates were obtained from 45 diseased plants of maize top rot collected from some regions of Liaoning Province. Using traditional morphological classification and rDNA-ITS and EF-1a gene sequence analysis methods, 4 Fusarium species, Fusarium. subglutinans, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum, were identified. Twenty-three isolates were clustered into 4 groups based on EF-1a gene sequence on phylogenetic tree. Additionally, genetic diversity of Fusarium species was analyzed using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). The result indicated that a total of 57 bands appeared after amplification by using 5 primers, 53 bands (93.0%) of which were polymorphic. Twenty-four isolates were clustered into 4 groups at the similarity of 0.626 by UP-PCR cluster analysis. Our results indicated that EF-1a gene sequence could reflect the genetic diversity and differences of Fusarium species.%对采自辽宁省部分地区的45份玉米顶腐病病株进行分离培养,共获得89株镰孢菌,采用传统形态学分类和现代分子生物学方法,共鉴定出4个种,分别为:亚粘团镰孢菌(Fusarium subglutinans)、轮枝镰孢菌(F.verticillioides)、层生镰孢菌(F.proliferatum)和尖孢镰孢菌(F.oxysporum).经EF-1a基因序列建立系统发育树,将顶腐镰孢菌分为4个组.用5条通用引物经UP-PCR扩增后,扩增出57条谱带,其中多态性条带53条,占总条带数的93.0%.遗传多样性分析表明,当相似系数0.626时,可将24个菌株划分为4个组,EF-1a基因序列与UP-PCR和ITS序列相比.更能体现镰孢菌种间和种内的亲缘关系及遗传差异性.

  1. Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

    2014-09-01

    The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3 kcal mol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0 kcal mol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72 h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization and Design of Wideband Antenna Based on Q Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wideband antenna is designed based on Q factor in this paper. Firstly, the volume-surface integral equations (VSIEs and self-adaptive differential evolution algorithm (DEA are introduced as the basic theories to optimize antennas. Secondly, we study the computation of Q of arbitrary shaped structures, aiming at designing an antenna with maximum bandwidth by minimizing the Q of the antenna. This method is much more efficient for only Q values at specific frequency points that are computed, which avoids optimizing bandwidth directly. Thirdly, an integrated method combining the above method with VSIEs and self-adaptive DEA is employed to optimize the wideband antenna, extending its bandwidth from 11.5~16.5 GHz to 7~20 GHz. Lastly, the optimized antenna is fabricated and measured. The measured results are consistent with the simulated results, demonstrating the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Urinary incontinence: hospital-based prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Nojomi

    2008-02-01

    trauma, constipation, chronic illnesses (specially diabetes, and gynecologic and other pelvic surgeries.

  4. KEY WORDS: Urinary incontinence, prevalence, risk factors, hospital-based.
  5. Movement of elongation factor G between compact and extended conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsi, Enea; Farah, Elie; Netter, Zoe; Dann, Jillian; Ermolenko, Dmitri N

    2015-01-30

    Previous structural studies suggested that ribosomal translocation is accompanied by large interdomain rearrangements of elongation factor G (EF-G). Here, we follow the movement of domain IV of EF-G relative to domain II of EF-G using ensemble and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer. Our results indicate that ribosome-free EF-G predominantly adopts a compact conformation that can also, albeit infrequently, transition into a more extended conformation in which domain IV moves away from domain II. By contrast, ribosome-bound EF-G predominantly adopts an extended conformation regardless of whether it is interacting with pretranslocation ribosomes or with posttranslocation ribosomes. Our data suggest that ribosome-bound EF-G may also occasionally sample at least one more compact conformation. GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by EF-G does not affect the relative stability of the observed conformations in ribosome-free and ribosome-bound EF-G. Our data support a model suggesting that, upon binding to a pretranslocation ribosome, EF-G moves from a compact to a more extended conformation. This transition is not coupled to but likely precedes both GTP hydrolysis and mRNA/tRNA translocation.

  6. The SOS response is permitted in Escherichia coli strains deficient in the expression of the mazEF pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalderon, Ziva; Kumar, Sathish; Engelberg-Kulka, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli (E. coli) SOS response is the largest, most complex, and best characterized bacterial network induced by DNA damage. It is controlled by a complex network involving the RecA and LexA proteins. We have previously shown that the SOS response to DNA damage is inhibited by various elements involved in the expression of the E. coli toxin-antitoxin mazEF pathway. Since the mazEF module is present on the chromosomes of most E. coli strains, here we asked: Why is the SOS response found in so many E. coli strains? Is the mazEF module present but inactive in those strains? We examined three E. coli strains used for studies of the SOS response, strains AB1932, BW25113, and MG1655. We found that each of these strains is either missing or inhibiting one of several elements involved in the expression of the mazEF-mediated death pathway. Thus, the SOS response only takes place in E. coli cells in which one or more elements of the E. coli toxin-antitoxin module mazEF or its downstream pathway is not functioning.

  7. Factors influencing protein tyrosine nitration--structure-based predictive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayden, Alexander S; Yakovlev, Vasily A; Graves, Paul R; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Kellogg, Glen E

    2011-03-15

    Models for exploring tyrosine nitration in proteins have been created based on 3D structural features of 20 proteins for which high-resolution X-ray crystallographic or NMR data are available and for which nitration of 35 total tyrosines has been experimentally proven under oxidative stress. Factors suggested in previous work to enhance nitration were examined with quantitative structural descriptors. The role of neighboring acidic and basic residues is complex: for the majority of tyrosines that are nitrated the distance to the heteroatom of the closest charged side chain corresponds to the distance needed for suspected nitrating species to form hydrogen bond bridges between the tyrosine and that charged amino acid. This suggests that such bridges play a very important role in tyrosine nitration. Nitration is generally hindered for tyrosines that are buried and for those tyrosines for which there is insufficient space for the nitro group. For in vitro nitration, closed environments with nearby heteroatoms or unsaturated centers that can stabilize radicals are somewhat favored. Four quantitative structure-based models, depending on the conditions of nitration, have been developed for predicting site-specific tyrosine nitration. The best model, relevant for both in vitro and in vivo cases, predicts 30 of 35 tyrosine nitrations (positive predictive value) and has a sensitivity of 60/71 (11 false positives). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. TU-EF-207-02: Spectral Mammography Based on Photon Counting Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloi, S. [University of California (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Breast imaging technology is advancing on several fronts. In digital mammography, the major technological trend has been on optimization of approaches for performing combined mammography and tomosynthesis using the same system. In parallel, photon-counting slot-scan mammography is now in clinical use and more efforts are directed towards further development of this approach for spectral imaging. Spectral imaging refers to simultaneous acquisition of two or more energy-windowed images. Depending on the detector and associated electronics, there are a number of ways this can be accomplished. Spectral mammography using photon-counting detectors can suppress electronic noise and importantly, it enables decomposition of the image into various material compositions of interest facilitating quantitative imaging. Spectral imaging can be particularly important in intravenously injected contrast mammography and eventually tomosynthesis. The various approaches and applications of spectral mammography are discussed. Digital breast tomosynthesis relies on the mechanical movement of the x-ray tube to acquire a number of projections in a predefined arc, typically from 9 to 25 projections over a scan angle of +/−7.5 to 25 degrees depending on the particular system. The mechanical x-ray tube motion requires relatively long acquisition time, typically between 3.7 to 25 seconds depending on the system. Moreover, mechanical scanning may have an effect on the spatial resolution due to internal x-ray filament or external mechanical vibrations. New x-ray source arrays have been developed and they are aimed at replacing the scanned x-ray tube for improved acquisition time and potentially for higher spatial resolution. The potential advantages and challenges of this approach are described. Combination of digital mammography and tomosynthesis in a single system places increased demands on certain functional aspects of the detector and overall performance, particularly in the tomosynthesis mode due to lower photon fluence per projection. This may require fast-frame acquisition and symmetric or asymmetric pixel binning in some systems. Recent studies investigated the performance of increased conversion layer thickness for contrast-enhanced imaging of the breast in dual-energy acquisition mode. In other direct conversion detectors operating in the avalanche mode, sensitivities close to the single photon response are also explored for mammography and breast tomosynthesis. The potential advantages and challenges of this approach are described. Dedicated breast CT brings x-ray imaging of the breast to true tomographic 3D imaging. It can eliminate the tissue superposition problem and does not require physical compression of the breast. Using cone beam geometry and a flat-panel detector, several hundred projections are acquired and reconstructed to near isotropic voxels. Multiplanar reconstruction facilitates viewing the breast volume in any desired orientation. Ongoing clinical studies, the current state-of-the art, and research to advance the technology are described. Learning Objectives: To understand the ongoing developments in x-ray imaging of the breast To understand the approaches and applications of spectral mammography To understand the potential advantages of distributed x-ray source arrays for digital breast tomosynthesis To understand the ongoing developments in detector technology for digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis To understand the current state-of-the-art for dedicated cone-beam breast CT and research to advance the technology. Research collaboration with Koning Corporation.

  9. Ribosome-induced changes in elongation factor Tu conformation control GTP hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Elizabeth; Sengupta, Jayati; Trabuco, Leonard G.

    2009-01-01

    In translation, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) molecules deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs to the mRNA-programmed ribosome. The GTPase activity of EF-Tu is triggered by ribosome-induced conformational changes of the factor that play a pivotal role in the selection of the cognate aminoacyl-tRNAs. We present a...

  10. Complementary roles of initiation factor 1 and ribosome recycling factor in 70S ribosome splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Michael Y; Antoun, Ayman; Lovmar, Martin; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that ribosomes containing a messenger RNA (mRNA) with a strong Shine–Dalgarno sequence are rapidly split into subunits by initiation factors 1 (IF1) and 3 (IF3), but slowly split by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G (EF-G). Post-termination-like (PTL) ribosomes containing mRNA and a P-site-bound deacylated transfer RNA (tRNA) are split very rapidly by RRF and EF-G, but extremely slowly by IF1 and IF3. Vacant ribosomes are split by RRF/EF-G much more slowly than PTL ribosomes and by IF1/IF3 much more slowly than mRNA-containing ribosomes. These observations reveal complementary splitting of different ribosomal complexes by IF1/IF3 and RRF/EF-G, and suggest the existence of two major pathways for ribosome splitting into subunits in the living cell. We show that the identity of the deacylated tRNA in the PTL ribosome strongly affects the rate by which it is split by RRF/EF-G and that IF3 is involved in the mechanism of ribosome splitting by IF1/IF3 but not by RRF/EF-G. With support from our experimental data, we discuss the principally different mechanisms of ribosome splitting by IF1/IF3 and by RRF/EF-G. PMID:18497739

  11. EF-hands at atomic resolution: The structure of human psoriasin (S100A7) solved by MAD phasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Ditlev Egeskov; Etzerodt, Michael; Madsen, Peder Søndergaard

    1998-01-01

    The S100 family consists of small acidic proteins, belonging to the EF-hand class of calcium-binding proteins. They are primarily regulatory proteins, involved in cell growth, cell structure regulation and signal transduction. Psoriasin (S100A7) is an 11.7 kDa protein that is highly upregulated i...... structures of apo forms of S100 proteins. The substitution of Ca2+ ions in EF-hands by lanthanide ions may provide a general vehicle for structure determination of S100 proteins by means of MAD phasing....

  12. A non-canonical function of eukaryotic elongation factor 1A1: regulation of interleukin-6 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ingo; Engel, Claudia; Niestroj, André J; Kehlen, Astrid; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Lehmann, Karola; Roßner, Steffen; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Interleukin-6 is one of the most prominent triggers of inflammatory processes. We have shown recently that heteroarylketones (HAKs) interfere with stimulated interleukin-6 expression in astrocytes by suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation at serine 727. Surprisingly, this effect is not based on the inhibition of STAT3-relevant kinases. Therefore, we here used the structurally modified HAK compound biotin-HAK-3 in a reverse chemical approach to identify the relevant molecular target in UV-mediated cross-linking experiments. Employing streptavidin-specific 2D-immunoblotting followed by mass spectrometry we identified nine proteins putatively interacting with biotin-HAK-3. After co-immunoprecipitation, co-immunofluorescence, surface plasmon resonance analyses and RNAi-mediated knock-down, the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A1 (eEF1A1) was verified as the relevant target of HAK bioactivity. eEF1A1 forms complexes with STAT3 and PKCδ, which are crucial for STAT3(S727) phosphorylation and for NF-κB/STAT3-enhanced interleukin-6 expression. Furthermore, the intracellular HAK accumulation is strongly dependent on eEF1A1 expression. Taken together, the results reveal a novel molecular mechanism for a non-canonical role of eEF1A1 in signal transduction via direct modulation of kinase-dependent phosphorylation events.

  13. Regulation of elongation factor-1 expression by vitamin E in diabetic rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maghrebi, May; Cojocel, Constantin; Thompson, Mary S

    2005-05-01

    Translation elongation factor-1 (EF-1) forms a primary site of regulation of protein synthesis and has been implicated amongst others in tumorigenesis, diabetes and cell death. To investigate whether diabetes-induced oxidative stress affects EF-1 gene expression, we used a free radical scavenger, vitamin E. The following groups of rats (5/group) were studied: control, vitamin E control, diabetic and diabetic treated with vitamin E. Markers of hyperglycemia, kidney function, oxidative stress, and kidney hypertrophy were elevated in diabetic rats. Increased urinary protein excretion indicated early signs of glomerular and tubular dysfunction. The mRNA and protein levels of the three EF-1 subunits (A, Balpha, and Bgamma) were determined in renal cortex extracts using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), northern blot analysis and western blotting. EF-1A mRNA expression in renal cortex extracts was significantly increased by at least 2-fold (p glycemic and oxidative stresses in renal cortex and kidney hypertrophy. EF-1A mRNA and protein levels were also reduced to control levels. In conclusion, EF-1A but not EF-1Balpha and EF-1Bgamma gene expression is significantly enhanced in the renal cortex of diabetic rats. Normalization of enhanced EF-1A expression by vitamin E treatment suggests a role for EF-1A during diabetes-induced oxidative stress.

  14. The life and death of translation elongation factor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene; Merrill, A.R.; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2006-01-01

    The eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) occupies an essential role in protein synthesis where it catalyses the translocation of the two tRNAs and the mRNA after peptidyl transfer on the 80S ribosome. Recent crystal structures of eEF2 and the cryo-EM reconstruction of its 80S complex now provide...... a substantial structural framework for dissecting the functional properties of this factor. The factor can be modified by either phosphorylation or ADP-ribosylation which results in cessation of translation. We review the structural and functional properties of eEF2 with particular emphasis on the unique...

  15. Evaluating risk factor assumptions: a simulation-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglioretti Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsimulation models are an important tool for estimating the comparative effectiveness of interventions through prediction of individual-level disease outcomes for a hypothetical population. To estimate the effectiveness of interventions targeted toward high risk groups, the mechanism by which risk factors influence the natural history of disease must be specified. We propose a method for evaluating these risk factor assumptions as part of model-building. Methods We used simulation studies to examine the impact of risk factor assumptions on the relative rate (RR of colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality for a cohort with a risk factor compared to a cohort without the risk factor using an extension of the CRC-SPIN model for colorectal cancer. We also compared the impact of changing age at initiation of screening colonoscopy for different risk mechanisms. Results Across CRC-specific risk factor mechanisms, the RR of CRC incidence and mortality decreased (towards one with increasing age. The rate of change in RRs across age groups depended on both the risk factor mechanism and the strength of the risk factor effect. Increased non-CRC mortality attenuated the effect of CRC-specific risk factors on the RR of CRC when both were present. For each risk factor mechanism, earlier initiation of screening resulted in more life years gained, though the magnitude of life years gained varied across risk mechanisms. Conclusions Simulation studies can provide insight into both the effect of risk factor assumptions on model predictions and the type of data needed to calibrate risk factor models.

  16. Expression,purification and immunologic identification of the recombinant EF-1 gene from Echinococcus granulosus%细粒棘球蚴重组延伸因子-1基因的表达、纯化及免疫学鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜阳; 李昭宇; 师志云; 马锐; 于晶晶; 于辛酉; 赵巍

    2008-01-01

    目的 对构建细粒棘球蚴(Echinococcus granulosus,Eg)延伸因子-1(Elongation factor 1,EF-1)基因的重组质粒,并原核表达、纯化及对其免疫特性进行鉴定.方法 从重组质粒EF-1/pGEM-T中酶切出EF-1目的片段,亚克隆入表达载体pET28a,转化入大肠杆菌E.coli BL21(DE3)plysS进行融合表达,经His-band树脂纯化试剂盒小量纯化,SDS-PAGE和Western blot方法鉴定表达产物.结果 成功构建Eg.EF-1/pET28a/E.coliBL21基因工程菌株,诱导表达重组蛋白和纯化分离得到31KDa Eg.EF-1均能被细粒棘球蚴天然抗原免疫的兔多克隆抗血清识别.结论 初步证实该重组蛋白具有较好的抗原性.

  17. Risk analysis-based food safety policy: scientific factors versus socio-cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Mauro; van Knapen, Frans; Brom, Frans W A

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the importance of socio-cultural factors in risk management and the need to incorporate these factors in a standard, internationally recognized (WTO) framework. This was achieved by analysing the relevance of these factors in three cases. It can be concluded that the pre-eminent role of science in food-related regulatory decisions is debatable. At a risk management level, other factors, such as cultural, social, or economic issues, are often more important than scientific advice in determining policy. There is a need for transparency at an international level as trade barriers are gradually being removed and these other factors are becoming more apparent. Therefore it is important that all the factors implicated in the food safety policy-making process are recognized in a standard framework.

  18. Three Success Factors for Simulation Based Construction Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moonseo; Chan, Swee Lean; Ingawale-Verma, Yashada

    2003-01-01

    Factors in successful implementation of simulation in construction education are as follows: (1) considering human factors and feedback effects; (2) focusing on tradeoffs between with managerial decisions and construction policies; and (3) developing a standalone tool that runs on any platform. Case studies demonstrated the effectiveness of these…

  19. Effect of Enterococcus faecium EF 55 on morphometry and proliferative activity of intestinal mucosa in broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševčíková Zuzana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Enterococcus faecium EF55 on chickens, as well as its influence on proliferative activity of epithelial intestinal cells after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4. Moreover, the length and area of duodenal and jejunal villi of the birds were examined.

  20. Functional role of EF-hands 3 and 4 in membrane-binding of KChIP1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan-Shun Liao; Ku-Chung Chen; Long-Sen Chang

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore whether membrane targeting of K+ channel-interacting protein 1 (KChIP1) is associated with its EF-hand motifs and varies with specific phospholipids. Truncated KChIP1, in which the EF-hands 3 and 4 were deleted, retained the -helix structure, indicating that the N-terminal half of KChIP1 could fold appropriately. Compared with wild-type KChIP1, truncated KChIP1 exhibited lower lipid-binding capability. Compared with wild-type KChIP1, increasing membrane permeability by the use of digitonin caused a marked loss of truncated KChIP1, suggesting that intact EF-hands 3 and 4 were crucial for the anchorage of KChIP1 on membrane. KChIP1 showed a higher binding capability with phosphatidylserine (PS) than truncated KChIP1. Unlike that of truncated KChIP1, the binding of wild-type KChIP1 with membrane was enhanced by increasing the PS content. Moreover, the binding of KChIP1 with phospholipid vesicles induced a change in the structure of KChIP1 in the presence of PS. Taken together, our data suggest that EF-hands 3 and 4 of KChIP1 are functionally involved in a specific association with PS on the membrane.

  21. “It Is Our Exercise Family”: Experiences of Ethnic Older Adults in a Group-Based Exercise Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chun Chiang, RN, MS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionEnhanceFitness (EF (formerly the Lifetime Fitness Program is an evidence-based community exercise program for older adults. From 1998 to 2005, participation of ethnic older adults increased significantly. However, little research is available about what ethnic older adults want or need to continue participation in exercise programs. The purpose of this study was to examine how physical environment, social environment, and individual biology and behavior influence adherence to exercise for ethnic older adults participating in EF.MethodsSix focus groups were conducted with 52 older adults participating in EF. Facilitators asked questions about factors that helped participants continue exercising in EF. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Transcripts were systematically reviewed using content analysis.ResultsFocus group participants were Chinese (n = 21, 40%, African American (n = 18, 35%, white (n = 10, 19%, and Japanese (n = 3, 6%. Mean (SD age was 76 years (7.4. Participants had, on average, participated in EF for 44 months (SD = 37.8. Results revealed four themes related to adherence. First, environmental factors that promoted adherence were location of the classes, transportation, weather, and the facility. Second, design of the exercise program that encouraged adherence included exercise content and type of delivery. Third, social support factors that encouraged adherence were the socializing and support between class participants and support from family, health care providers, and the class instructors. Finally, individual factors that encouraged adherence were personality traits and feelings, past physical activity experience, health benefits, and mental stimulation.ConclusionFindings from this study suggest strategies for developing community-based physical activity programs for older adults from ethnically diverse communities.

  1. (R)-β-lysine-modified elongation factor P functions in translation elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Zou, S Betty; Rajkovic, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modification of bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) with (R)-β-lysine at a conserved lysine residue activates the protein in vivo and increases puromycin reactivity of the ribosome in vitro. The additional hydroxylation of EF-P at the same lysine residue by the YfcM protein has......-(β)-lysyl-EF-P showed 30% increased puromycin reactivity but no differences in dipeptide synthesis rates when compared with the β-lysylated form. Unlike disruption of the other genes required for EF-P modification, deletion of yfcM had no phenotypic consequences in Salmonella. Taken together, our findings indicate...

  2. Space-based Observation for sensitive Factors of Global Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huadong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global change refers to anthropogenic changes in the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, pedosphere and lithosphere over the past century. It is a long process with large dimensions. Factors sensitive to these changes mainly include performance factors (such as temperature and precipitation), response factors (such as eco-system, natural disasters, water resources, variations in snow and ice), and driving factors (greenhouse gases and reflection rates). Global change has caught the attention of the world. China is one of the countries exerting a profound impact on this process. In addition, it has typical and unique zones vulnerable to global change: high-altitude regions (such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau), arid and semi-arid areas (such as farming-grazing transitional zones), long coastal zones and regions for intensive human activities.

  3. Maintenance of Transcription-Translation Coupling by Elongation Factor P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Elgamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of tight coupling between translation and transcription, the ribosome enables synthesis of full-length mRNAs by preventing both formation of intrinsic terminator hairpins and loading of the transcription termination factor Rho. While previous studies have focused on transcription factors, we investigated the role of Escherichia coli elongation factor P (EF-P, an elongation factor required for efficient translation of mRNAs containing consecutive proline codons, in maintaining coupled translation and transcription. In the absence of EF-P, the presence of Rho utilization (rut sites led to an ~30-fold decrease in translation of polyproline-encoding mRNAs. Coexpression of the Rho inhibitor Psu fully restored translation. EF-P was also shown to inhibit premature termination during synthesis and translation of mRNAs encoding intrinsic terminators. The effects of EF-P loss on expression of polyproline mRNAs were augmented by a substitution in RNA polymerase that accelerates transcription. Analyses of previously reported ribosome profiling and global proteomic data identified several candidate gene clusters where EF-P could act to prevent premature transcription termination. In vivo probing allowed detection of some predicted premature termination products in the absence of EF-P. Our findings support a model in which EF-P maintains coupling of translation and transcription by decreasing ribosome stalling at polyproline motifs. Other regulators that facilitate ribosome translocation through roadblocks to prevent premature transcription termination upon uncoupling remain to be identified.

  4. Maintenance of Transcription-Translation Coupling by Elongation Factor P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgamal, Sara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Under conditions of tight coupling between translation and transcription, the ribosome enables synthesis of full-length mRNAs by preventing both formation of intrinsic terminator hairpins and loading of the transcription termination factor Rho. While previous studies have focused on transcription factors, we investigated the role of Escherichia coli elongation factor P (EF-P), an elongation factor required for efficient translation of mRNAs containing consecutive proline codons, in maintaining coupled translation and transcription. In the absence of EF-P, the presence of Rho utilization (rut) sites led to an ~30-fold decrease in translation of polyproline-encoding mRNAs. Coexpression of the Rho inhibitor Psu fully restored translation. EF-P was also shown to inhibit premature termination during synthesis and translation of mRNAs encoding intrinsic terminators. The effects of EF-P loss on expression of polyproline mRNAs were augmented by a substitution in RNA polymerase that accelerates transcription. Analyses of previously reported ribosome profiling and global proteomic data identified several candidate gene clusters where EF-P could act to prevent premature transcription termination. In vivo probing allowed detection of some predicted premature termination products in the absence of EF-P. Our findings support a model in which EF-P maintains coupling of translation and transcription by decreasing ribosome stalling at polyproline motifs. Other regulators that facilitate ribosome translocation through roadblocks to prevent premature transcription termination upon uncoupling remain to be identified. PMID:27624127

  5. Application of BET_EF at Mount Etna: a retrospective analysis (years 2001-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Selva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in volcano monitoring and forecasting need a multidisciplinary collaborative framework. In light of this, a Bayesian Event Tree (BET approach was performed by the application of the BET for Eruption Forecasting (BET_EF code to analyze the space-time distribution of the volcanic activity of Mount Etna from 2001-2005. First, a reliable monitoring dataset was set up after some sessions to elicit geophysical, volcanological and geochemical ‘precursor’ parameters. A constant unrest probability of 100%, with a magma involvement usually greater than 95%, was computed throughout the time period analyzed. Eruption probabilities higher than 90% were estimated a few days before the onsets of the 2001 and 2002-2003 flank eruptions. Values slightly higher than 75% were observed during the lava fountaining period in June-July 2001. However, the probabilities flattened to around 30% for the 2004-2005 flank eruption. With suitable data, a good depiction of the actual location of the eruptive scenario for the 2001 and 2002-2003 events was provided. Conversely, the size of the eruptions was not indicated.

  6. A safe potential juice clarifying pectinase from Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing Egyptian onion skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Mohsen S. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of a notable, safe and highly active pectinase by the local fungal strain Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing the abundant pigmented Egyptian onion (Allium cepa L. skins (6.5%, w/v was achieved in 4 days submerged fermentation (SMF cultures, at temperature and pH of 30 °C and 4.0, respectively. The indigenously produced pectinase was partially purified by 50% batch ethanol precipitation and its general properties were studied following the standard procedures. The lyophilized enzyme preparation was free of any ochra or aflatoxins. The optimum conditions for the partially purified enzyme form were 2 mg/mL and 1% (w/v enzyme protein and substrate (citrus pectin concentrations, reaction pH and temperature of 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The results presented the low cost onion skins waste as the major substrate for the fungal pectinase production and its subsequent use in perfect fruit (apple, lemon and orange juices clarification with remarkable stability during and after this process, which certainly enhance fruit juices processing in the tropics.

  7. Hypoxia-inducible genes encoding small EF-hand proteins in rice and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Chie; Minami, Ikuko; Oda, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Rice has evolved metabolic and morphological adaptations to low-oxygen stress to grow in submerged paddy fields. To characterize the molecular components that mediate the response to hypoxia in rice, we identified low-oxygen stress early response genes by microarray analysis. Among the highly responsive genes, five genes, OsHREF1 to OsHREF5, shared strong homology. They encoded small proteins harboring two EF-hands, typical Ca(2+)-binding motifs. Homologous genes were found in many land plants, including SlHREF in tomato, which is also strongly induced by hypoxia. SlHREF induction was detected in both roots and shoots of tomato plants under hypoxia. With the exception of OsHREF5, OsHREF expression was unaffected by drought, salinity, cold, or osmotic stress. Fluorescent signals of green fluorescent protein-fused OsHREFs were detected in the cytosol and nucleus. Ruthenium red, an inhibitor of intracellular Ca(2+) release, repressed induction of OsHREF1-4 under hypoxia. The HREFs may be related to the Ca(2+) response to hypoxia.

  8. Functional analysis of schistosomes EF-hand domain-containing tegument proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU FuDong; KANG Bin; LI YuanYuan; LI YiXue

    2007-01-01

    Schistosomes cause schistosomiasis disease which severely threatens human health. Little is known about the functions of EF-hand domain containing schistosomes tegument proteins other than as antigens. More possible functions of these tegument proteins were investigated with in silico analyses including protein-protein functional interaction, site-specific variation and glycosylation modification. The analysis results suggested that schistosomes could actively modulate host immune responses for its own favor through functional interactions with host proteins with immunomodulatory function, and passively regulate host immune responses through sequence variation under positive selection and glycosylating the recognition sites of host immune attack. In addition, the analysis of the C-terminal domain of these tegument proteins indicated that they could assist schistosomes in escaping host immune attacks through inhibiting chemotaxis and non-complement fixing antibody (IgG4) responses. In summary, our results suggested that these tegument antigen proteins could assist schistosomes in escaping and modulating host immune responses for self-protection during the process of host-para- site interaction.

  9. Evolutionary and physical linkage between calpains and penta-EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Masatoshi; Maemoto, Yuki; Osako, Yohei; Shibata, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    The name calpain was historically given to a protease that is activated by Ca(2+) and whose primary structure contains a Ca(2+)-binding penta-EF-hand (PEF) as well as a calpain cysteine protease (CysPc) domain and a C2-domain-like (C2L) domain. In the human genome, CysPc domains are found in 15 genes, but only nine of them encode PEF domains. Fungi and budding yeasts have calpain-like sequences that lack the PEF domain, and each protein (designated PalB and Rim13, respectively) is orthologous to human calpain-7, indicating that the calpain-7 orthologs are evolutionarily more conserved than classical calpains possessing PEF domains. An N-terminal region of calpain-7 has a tandem repeat of microtubule-interacting and transport domains that interact with a subset of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) III proteins. In addition to calpains, PEF domains are found in other Ca(2+)-binding proteins including ALG-2 that associates with ALIX (an ESCRT-III accessory protein) and TSG101 (an ESCRT-I subunit). Phylogenetic comparison of dissected domain structures of calpains and experimentally confirmed protein-protein interaction networks imply that there is an evolutionary and physical linkage between mammalian calpains and PEF proteins involving the ESCRT system.

  10. Stochastic Lagrangian dynamics for charged flows in the E-F regions of ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenbo; Mahalov, Alex

    2013-03-01

    We develop a three-dimensional numerical model for the E-F region ionosphere and study the Lagrangian dynamics for plasma flows in this region. Our interest rests on the charge-neutral interactions and the statistics associated with stochastic Lagrangian motion. In particular, we examine the organizing mixing patterns for plasma flows due to polarized gravity wave excitations in the neutral field, using Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). LCS objectively depict the flow topology—the extracted attractors indicate generation of ionospheric density gradients, due to accumulation of plasma. Using Lagrangian measures such as the finite-time Lyapunov exponents, we locate the Lagrangian skeletons for mixing in plasma, hence where charged fronts are expected to appear. With polarized neutral wind, we find that the corresponding plasma velocity is also polarized. Moreover, the polarized velocity alone, coupled with stochastic Lagrangian motion, may give rise to polarized density fronts in plasma. Statistics of these trajectories indicate high level of non-Gaussianity. This includes clear signatures of variance, skewness, and kurtosis of displacements taking polarized structures aligned with the gravity waves, and being anisotropic.

  11. Analyzing the Low State of EF Eridani with Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Szkody, Paula; Gaensicke, Boris T; Campbell, Ryan K; Harrison, Thomas E; Howell, Steve B; Holtzman, Jon; Walter, Frederick M; Henden, Arne; Dillon, William; Boberg, Owen; Dealaman, Shannon; Perone, Christian S

    2010-01-01

    Time-resolved spectra throughout the orbit of EF Eri during its low accretion state were obtained with the Solar Blind Channel on the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The overall spectral distribution exhibits peaks at 1500 and 1700A, while the UV light curves display a quasi-sinusoidal modulation over the binary orbit. Models of white dwarfs with a hot spot and cyclotron emission were attempted to fit the spectral variations throughout the orbit. A non-magnetic white dwarf with a temperature of ~10,000K and a hot spot with central temperature of 15,000K generally matches the broad absorptions at 1400 and 1600A with those expected for the quasimolecular H features H2 and H+2 . However, the flux in the core of the Lyalpha absorption does not go to zero, implying an additional component, and the flux variations throughout the orbit are not well matched at long wavelengths. Alternatively, a 9500K white dwarf with a 100 MG cyclotron component can fit the lowest (phase 0.0) fluxes, b...

  12. Protein glutaminylation is a yeast-specific posttranslational modification of elongation factor 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Thomas; Belyi, Yury; Wirth, Christophe; Rospert, Sabine; Hu, Zehan; Dengjel, Jörn; Tzivelekidis, Tina; Andersen, Gregers Rom; Hunte, Carola; Schlosser, Andreas; Aktories, Klaus

    2017-08-11

    Ribosomal translation factors are fundamental for protein synthesis and highly conserved in all kingdoms of life. The essential eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), delivers aminoacyl tRNAs to the A-site of the translating 80S ribosome. Several studies have revealed that eEF1A is posttranslationally modified. Using MS analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and X-ray structural data analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eEF1A, we identified a posttranslational modification in which the alpha amino group of mono-L-glutamine is covalently linked to the side chain of glutamate 45 in eEF1A. The MS analysis suggested that all eEF1A molecules are modified by this glutaminylation and that this posttranslational modification occurs at all stages of yeast growth. The mutational studies revealed that this glutaminylation is not essential for the normal functions of eEF1A in S. cerevisiae However, eEF1A glutaminylation slightly reduced growth under antibiotic-induced translational stress conditions. Moreover, we identified the same posttranslational modification in eEF1A from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, but not in various other eukaryotic organisms tested despite strict conservation of the Glu-45 residue among these organisms. We therefore conclude that eEF1A glutaminylation is a yeast-specific posttranslational modification, which appears to influence protein translation. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Evolutionarily conserved binding of translationally controlled tumor protein to eukaryotic elongation factor 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiwen; Gong, Weibin; Yao, Xingzhe; Wang, Jinfeng; Perrett, Sarah; Feng, Yingang

    2015-04-03

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is an abundant protein that is highly conserved in eukaryotes. However, its primary function is still not clear. Human TCTP interacts with the metazoan-specific eukaryotic elongation factor 1Bδ (eEF1Bδ) and inhibits its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity, but the structural mechanism remains unknown. The interaction between TCTP and eEF1Bδ was investigated by NMR titration, structure determination, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, site-directed mutagenesis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and HADDOCK docking. We first demonstrated that the catalytic GEF domain of eEF1Bδ is not responsible for binding to TCTP but rather a previously unnoticed central acidic region (CAR) domain in eEF1Bδ. The mutagenesis data and the structural model of the TCTP-eEF1Bδ CAR domain complex revealed the key binding residues. These residues are highly conserved in eukaryotic TCTPs and in eEF1B GEFs, including the eukaryotically conserved eEF1Bα, implying the interaction may be conserved in all eukaryotes. Interactions were confirmed between TCTP and the eEF1Bα CAR domain for human, fission yeast, and unicellular photosynthetic microalgal proteins, suggesting that involvement in protein translation through the conserved interaction with eEF1B represents a primary function of TCTP. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Kinetics of the interactions between yeast elongation factors 1A and 1Balpha, guanine nucleotides, and aminoacyl-tRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromadski, Kirill B; Schümmer, Tobias; Strømgaard, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The interactions of elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with elongation factor 1Balpha (eEF1Balpha), guanine nucleotides, and aminoacyl-tRNA were studied kinetically by fluorescence stopped-flow. eEF1A has similar affinities for GDP and GTP, 0.4 and 1.1 microm, respectively....... Dissociation of nucleotides from eEF1A in the absence of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor is slow (about 0.1 s(-1)) and is accelerated by eEF1Balpha by 320-fold and 250-fold for GDP and GTP, respectively. The rate constant of eEF1Balpha binding to eEF1A (10(7)-10(8) M (-1) s(-1)) is independent...... of guanine nucleotides. At the concentrations of nucleotides and factors prevailing in the cell, the overall exchange rate is expected to be in the range of 6 s(-1), which is compatible with the rate of protein synthesis in the cell. eEF1A.GTP binds Phe-tRNA(Phe) with a K(d) of 3 nm, whereas eEF1A.GDP shows...

  15. Factor Structure and Reliability of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales' (CTS2) 10-Factor Model in a Community-Based Female Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the factor structure and reliability of the revised Conflict Tactics Scales' (CTS2) 10-factor model in a community-based female sample (N = 261). The underlying factor structure of the 10-factor model was tested by the confirmatory multiple group factor analysis, which demonstrated complex factor cross-loadings…

  16. DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF FUZZY- STOCHASTIC TRUSS STRUCTURES BASED ON FUZZY FACTOR METHOD AND RANDOM FACTOR METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Juan; CHEN Jian-jun; XU Ya-lan; JIANG Tao

    2006-01-01

    A new fuzzy stochastic finite element method based on the fuzzy factor method and random factor method is given and the analysis of structural dynamic characteristic for fuzzy stochastic truss structures is presented. Considering the fuzzy randomness of the structural physical parameters and geometric dimensions simultaneously, the structural stiffness and mass matrices are constructed based on the fuzzy factor method and random factor method; from the Rayleigh's quotient of structural vibration, the structural fuzzy random dynamic characteristic is obtained by means of the interval arithmetic;the fuzzy numeric characteristics of dynamic characteristic are then derived by using the random variable's moment function method and algebra synthesis method. Two examples are used to illustrate the validity and rationality of the method given. The advantage of this method is that the effect of the fuzzy randomness of one of the structural parameters on the fuzzy randomness of the dynamic characteristic can be reflected expediently and objectively.

  17. Emission factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lou, Diming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Matthias, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbour districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel-engine-powered offshore vessels in China (350, 600 and 1600 kW) were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emission factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emission factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low-engine-power vessel (HH) than for the two higher-engine-power vessels (XYH and DFH); for instance, HH had NOx EF (emission factor) of 25.8 g kWh-1 compared to 7.14 and 6.97 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH, and PM EF of 2.09 g kWh-1 compared to 0.14 and 0.04 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH. Average emission factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low-engine-power engineering vessel (HH) were significantly higher than that of the previous studies (such as 30.2 g kg-1 fuel of CO EF compared to 2.17 to 19.5 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies, 115 g kg-1 fuel of NOx EF compared to 22.3 to 87 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies and 9.40 g kg-1 fuel of PM EF compared to 1.2 to 7.6 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies), while for the two higher-engine-power vessels (DFH and XYH), most of the average emission factors for pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies, engine type was

  18. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, John S.; Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A.; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B.; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M.; Bowman, Lesley A. H.; Loik, Nikita D.; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J.; Tang, Christoph M.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; Preston, Gail M.; McDonough, Michael A.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins. PMID:25197067

  19. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, John S; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M; Bowman, Lesley A H; Loik, Nikita D; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J; Tang, Christoph M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Preston, Gail M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins.

  20. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  1. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  2. EF1α and RPL13a represent normalization genes suitable for RT-qPCR analysis of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Kevin M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RT-qPCR analysis is a widely used method for the analysis of mRNA expression throughout the field of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC research. Comparison between MSC studies, both in vitro and in vivo, are challenging due to the varied methods of RT-qPCR data normalization and analysis. Therefore, this study focuses on putative housekeeping genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data between heterogeneous commercially available human MSC, compared with more homogeneous populations of MSC such as MIAMI and RS-1 cells. Results Eight genes including; ACTB, B2M, EF1α, GAPDH, RPL13a, YWHAZ, UBC and HPRT1 were tested as possible housekeeping genes based on their expression level and variability. EF1α and RPL13a were validated for RT-qPCR analysis of MIAMI cells during expansion in varied oxygen tensions, endothelial differentiation, neural precursor enrichment, and during the comparison with RS-1 cells and commercially available MSC. RPL13a and YWHAZ were validated as normalization genes for the cross-species analysis of MIAMI cells in an animal model of focal ischemia. GAPDH, which is one of the most common housekeeping genes used for the normalization of RT-qPCR data in the field of MSC research, was found to have the highest variability and deemed not suitable for normalization of RT-qPCR data. Conclusions In order to make comparisons between heterogeneous MSC populations, as well as adult stem cell like MSC which are used in different laboratories throughout the world, it is important to have a standardized, reproducible set of housekeeping genes for RT-qPCR analysis. In this study we demonstrate that EF1α, RPL13a and YWHAZ are suitable genes for the RT-qPCR analysis and comparison of several sources of human MSC during in vitro characterization and differentiation as well as in an ex vivo animal model of global cerebral ischemia. This will allow for the comparative RT-qPCR analysis of multiple MSC populations with the goal of

  3. Inheritance of 18 quantitative dermatoglyphic traits based on factors in MZ and DZ twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Bibha; Malkin, Ida; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    18 quantitative finger and palmar dermatoglyphic traits were analyzed with the aim of determining genetic effects and common familial environmental influences on a large (358 nuclear pedigrees) number of twins (MZ and DZ). Genetic analysis based on principal factors includes variance and bivariate variance decomposition analysis. Especially, Factor 1 (digital pattern size) is remarkable, due to its degree of universality. The results of genetic analysis revealed all three extracted factors have significant proportion of additive genetic variance (93.5% to 72.9%). The main results of bivariate variance decomposition analysis appears significant correlation in residual variance between digital pattern size factor (Factor 1) versus finger pattern intensity factor (Factor 4), and palmar main lines factor (Factor 2) verses a-b ridge count (Factor 3), but there was no significant correlation in the genetic variance of factors.

  4. Factors Impeding Implementation of Web-Based Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falowo, Rasheed Olaniyi

    2007-01-01

    Economic and technological changes are occurring at an accelerating rate in our information and communication-based society, making life-long learning for everyone a necessity. This is particularly the case in the transition period from industrial production to a knowledge and communication-based society. The confluence of technology,…

  5. Functional studies of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli : Site-directed mutagenesis and antibiotic action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krab, Ivo Maarten

    2001-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes several studies into the structure and function of Escherichia coli Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu). EF-Tu plays a central role in the bacterial protein synthesis machinery as the carrier of "coded building blocks" for protein synthesis, aminoacylated tRNA (aa-tRNA). Without E

  6. A Survey Based Study on Factors Effecting Communication in GSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali Khan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently, most of software development companies are trying to globalize their work throughout the world in order to get the various benefits. The phenomenon of this software globalization is called Global Software Development (GSD. However, GSD is not a simple job and the software companies face various challenges. In GSD Communication is a main issue and it became more complicated during Requirements Change Management (RCM. This research will result to explore different factors that can negatively affect communication during the RCM process by conducting a survey in GSD industry. A framework is proposed for the factors effecting communication and total nine hypotheses are developed. A quantitative research method has been used to collect and analyse the data. The results show that total seven out of nine hypotheses are supported and two hypotheses are rejected.

  7. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-12-31

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  8. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  9. Patient-based radiographic exposure factor selection: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, William; Robinson, John; McEntee, Mark, E-mail: mark.mcentee@sydney.edu.au [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Digital technology has wider exposure latitude and post-processing algorithms which can mask the evidence of underexposure and overexposure. Underexposure produces noisy, grainy images which can impede diagnosis and overexposure results in a greater radiation dose to the patient. These exposure errors can result from inaccurate adjustment of exposure factors in response to changes in patient thickness. This study aims to identify all published radiographic exposure adaptation systems which have been, or are being, used in general radiography and discuss their applicability to digital systems. Studies in EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were systematically reviewed. Some of the search terms used were exposure adaptation, exposure selection, exposure technique, 25% rule, 15% rule, DuPont™ Bit System and radiography. A manual journal-specific search was also conducted in The Radiographer and Radiologic Technology. Studies were included if they demonstrated a system of altering exposure factors to compensate for variations in patients for general radiography. Studies were excluded if they focused on finding optimal exposures for an ‘average’ patient or focused on the relationship between exposure factors and dose. The database search uncovered 11 articles and the journal-specific search uncovered 13 articles discussing systems of exposure adaptation. They can be categorised as simple one-step guidelines, comprehensive charts and computer programs. Only two papers assessed the efficacy of exposure adjustment systems. No literature compares the efficacy of exposure adaptations system for film/screen radiography with digital radiography technology nor is there literature on a digital specific exposure adaptation system.

  10. Penta-EF-Hand Protein Peflin Is a Negative Regulator of ER-To-Golgi Transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariah Rayl

    Full Text Available Luminal calcium regulates vesicle transport early in the secretory pathway. In ER-to-Golgi transport, depletion of luminal calcium leads to significantly reduced transport and a buildup of budding and newly budded COPII vesicles and vesicle proteins. Effects of luminal calcium on transport may be mediated by cytoplasmic calcium sensors near ER exits sites (ERES. The penta-EF-hand (PEF protein apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2 stabilizes sec31A at ER exit sites (ERES and promotes the assembly of inner and outer shell COPII components. However, in vitro and intact cell approaches have not determined whether ALG-2 is a negative or positive regulator, or a regulator at all, under basal physiological conditions. ALG-2 interacts with another PEF protein, peflin, to form cytosolic heterodimers that dissociate in response to calcium. However, a biological function for peflin has not been demonstrated and whether peflin and the ALG-2/peflin interaction modulates transport has not been investigated. Using an intact, single cell, morphological assay for ER-to-Golgi transport in normal rat kidney (NRK cells, we found that depletion of peflin using siRNA resulted in significantly faster transport of the membrane cargo VSV-G. Double depletion of peflin and ALG-2 blocked the increased transport resulting from peflin depletion, demonstrating a role for ALG-2 in the increased transport. Furthermore, peflin depletion caused increased targeting of ALG-2 to ERES and increased ALG-2/sec31A interactions, suggesting that peflin may normally inhibit transport by preventing ALG-2/sec31A interactions. This work identifies for the first time a clear steady state role for a PEF protein in ER-to-Golgi transport-peflin is a negative regulator of transport.

  11. Particulate emission factors for mobile fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John G; Chow, Judith C; Chen, L-W Antony; Lowenthal, Douglas H; Fujita, Eric M; Kuhns, Hampden D; Sodeman, David A; Campbell, David E; Moosmüller, Hans; Zhu, Dongzi; Motallebi, Nehzat

    2011-05-15

    PM emission factors (EFs) for gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles and biomass combustion were measured in several recent studies. In the Gas/Diesel Split Study (GD-Split), PM(2.5) EFs for heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) ranged from 0.2 to ~2 g/mile and increased with vehicle age. EFs for HDDV estimated with the U.S. EPA MOBILE 6.2 and California Air Resources Board (ARB) EMFAC2007 models correlated well with measured values. PM(2.5) EFs measured for gasoline vehicles were ~two orders of magnitude lower than those for HDDV and did not correlate with model estimates. In the Kansas City Study, PM(2.5) EFs for gasoline-powered vehicles (e.g., passenger cars and light trucks) were generally fuel, corresponding to 0.3 and 2 g/mile, respectively. These values are comparable to those of on-road HDDV. EFs for biomass burning measured during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment (FLAME) were compared with EFs from the ARB Emission Estimation System (EES) model. The highest PM(2.5) EFs (76.8±37.5 g/kg) were measured for wet (>50% moisture content) Ponderosa Pine needles. EFs were generally fuels with low moisture content but underestimated measured EFs for fuel with moisture content >40%. Average EFs for dry chamise, rice straw, and dry grass were within a factor of three of values adopted by ARB in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Discrepancies between measured and modeled emission factors suggest that there may be important uncertainties in current PM(2.5) emission inventories.

  12. Reliability-Based Load and Resistance Factors Design for Offshore Jacket Platforms in the Bohai Bay: Calibration on Design Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Wei-liang; HU Qi-zhong; SHEN Zhao-wei; SHI Zhong-min

    2009-01-01

    For the fulfillment of the probability-based structural design for the offshore jacket platforms in the Bohai Bay, the design factors of loads, resistance and load combinations are much necessary to be calibrated according to the proposed target reliability index. Firstly, the limit states function for the offshore jacket platforms is introduced. Then, four ap-proaches to calibrate the factors of load and resistance are presented and compared. Afterwards, the methods to calibrate the load combination factors are developed. Finally, the factors of load, resistance and load combination for the offshore jacket platforms in the Bohai Bay are calibrated and the corresponding design formulae are recommended. The results are proved to be rational in practice, and also illustrate that the proposed target reliability index for offshore jacket platforms in the Bohai Bay is also appropriate.

  13. Conductor and joint test results of JT-60SA CS and EF coils using the NIFS test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kobuchi, Takashi; Moriuchi, Sadatomo; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Kim, Tae-hyun

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, JAEA and NIFS launched the test project to evaluate the performance of cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors and conductor joints for the JT-60SA CS and EF coils. In this project, conductor tests for four types of coil conductor and joint tests for seven types of conductor joint have been conducted for the past eight years using the NIFS test facility. As a result, the test project indicated that the CIC conductors and conductor joints fulfill the design requirement for the CS and EF coils. In addition, the NIFS test facility is expected to be utilized as the test facility for the development of a conductor and conductor joint for the purpose of the DEMO nuclear fusion power plant, provided that the required magnetic field strength is within 9 T.

  14. Turner sendromu ve tamponada yol açan perikardiyal efüzyon birlikteliği: olgu sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    Türker, Yasin; Özaydın, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Turner sendromu, tipik fenotipik özellikler ve X kromozomunun sayısal veya yapısal anormallikleri ile karakterize genetik bir hastalıktır. Turner sendromlu hastalarda konjenital kalp hastalığı sıktır. En sık aortanın konjenital malformasyonları, biküspit aorta, aort koarktasyonu ve aort dilatasyonu görülür. Bilgimize göre, Turner sendromunda perikardiyal efüzyon yalnızca bir kez bildirilmiştir. Perikardiyal efüzyon saptanan 50 yaşında Turner sendromlu bir hasta sunuldu. Anahtar kelimeler: Tur...

  15. The Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Short Orbital Period Polar EF Eridani from the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, D W; Brinkworth, Carolyn S; Ciardi, David R; Wachter, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    We present the first mid-infrared (5.5-14.5 micron) spectrum of a highly magnetic cataclysmic variable, EF Eridani, obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectrum displays a relatively flat, featureless continuum. A spectral energy distribution model consisting of a 9500 K white dwarf, L5 secondary star, cyclotron emission corresponding to a B~13 MG white dwarf magnetic field, and an optically thin circumbinary dust disk is in reasonable agreement with the extant 2MASS, IRAC, and IRS observations of EF Eri. Cyclotron emission is ruled out as a dominant contributor to the infrared flux density at wavelengths >3 microns. The spectral energy distribution longward of ~5 microns is dominated by dust emission. Even longer wavelength observations would test the model's prediction of a continuing gradual decline in the circumbinary disk-dominated region of the spectral energy distribution.

  16. Prediction of nucleosome positioning based on transcription factor binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfu Yi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The DNA of all eukaryotic organisms is packaged into nucleosomes, the basic repeating units of chromatin. The nucleosome consists of a histone octamer around which a DNA core is wrapped and the linker histone H1, which is associated with linker DNA. By altering the accessibility of DNA sequences, the nucleosome has profound effects on all DNA-dependent processes. Understanding the factors that influence nucleosome positioning is of great importance for the study of genomic control mechanisms. Transcription factors (TFs have been suggested to play a role in nucleosome positioning in vivo. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR feature selection algorithm, the nearest neighbor algorithm (NNA, and the incremental feature selection (IFS method were used to identify the most important TFs that either favor or inhibit nucleosome positioning by analyzing the numbers of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in 53,021 nucleosomal DNA sequences and 50,299 linker DNA sequences. A total of nine important families of TFs were extracted from 35 families, and the overall prediction accuracy was 87.4% as evaluated by the jackknife cross-validation test. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with the notion that TFs are more likely to bind linker DNA sequences than the sequences in the nucleosomes. In addition, our results imply that there may be some TFs that are important for nucleosome positioning but that play an insignificant role in discriminating nucleosome-forming DNA sequences from nucleosome-inhibiting DNA sequences. The hypothesis that TFs play a role in nucleosome positioning is, thus, confirmed by the results of this study.

  17. Dimensionality of the Chinese Dyadic Adjustment Scale Based on Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Cheung, C. K.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the responses of 1,501 Chinese married adults to the Chinese version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (C-DAS), confirmatory factor analyses showed that four factors were abstracted from the C-DAS (Dyadic Consensus, Dyadic Cohesion, Dyadic Satisfaction and Affectional Expression) and these four primary factors were subsumed under a…

  18. The eukaryotic elongation factor 1A is critical for genome replication of the paramyxovirus respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wei

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic translation factor eEF1A assists replication of many RNA viruses by various mechanisms. Here we show that down-regulation of eEF1A restricts the expression of viral genomic RNA and the release of infectious virus, demonstrating a biological requirement for eEF1A in the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV life cycle. The key proteins in the replicase/transcriptase complex of RSV; the nucleocapsid (N protein, phosphoprotein (P and matrix (M protein, all associate with eEF1A in RSV infected cells, although N is the strongest binding partner. Using individually expressed proteins, N, but not P or M bound to eEF1A. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between eEF1A and the RSV replication complex, through binding to N protein, to facilitate genomic RNA synthesis and virus production.

  19. Factorization-based Lossless Compression of Inverted Indices

    CERN Document Server

    Beskales, George; Gurevich, Maxim; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Josifovski, Vanja

    2011-01-01

    Many large-scale Web applications that require ranked top-k retrieval such as Web search and online advertising are implemented using inverted indices. An inverted index represents a sparse term-document matrix, where non-zero elements indicate the strength of term-document association. In this work, we present an approach for lossless compression of inverted indices. Our approach maps terms in a document corpus to a new term space in order to reduce the number of non-zero elements in the term-document matrix, resulting in a more compact inverted index. We formulate the problem of selecting a new term space that minimizes the resulting index size as a matrix factorization problem, and prove that finding the optimal factorization is an NP-hard problem. We develop a greedy algorithm for finding an approximate solution. A side effect of our approach is increasing the number of terms in the index, which may negatively affect query evaluation performance. To eliminate such effect, we develop a methodology for modi...

  20. Rule-based design of synthetic transcription factors in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Oliver; Peccoud, Jean; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-10-17

    To design and build living systems, synthetic biologists have at their disposal an increasingly large library of naturally derived and synthetic parts. These parts must be combined together in particular orders, orientations, and spacings to achieve desired functionalities. These structural constraints can be viewed as grammatical rules describing how to assemble parts together into larger functional units. Here, we develop a grammar for the design of synthetic transcription factors (sTFs) in eukaryotic cells and implement it within GenoCAD, a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software for synthetic biology. Knowledge derived from experimental evidence was captured in this grammar to guide the user to create designer transcription factors that should operate as intended. The grammar can be easily updated and refined as our experience with using sTFs in different contexts increases. In combination with grammars that define other synthetic systems, we anticipate that this work will enable the more reliable, efficient, and automated design of synthetic cells with rich functionalities.

  1. Success factors for the adoption of bio based packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Shahzad

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written as a contribution towards a sustainable society in the context of bio-based packaging. A few decades back, the world was looking for processes that were efficient in terms of output and quality, but now the situation has changed. The world is looking for solutions which are not only effective and efficient but also are sustainable and positive for not just economics but also for the society. This paper is also an effort to elaborate the potential of bio-based packaging. ...

  2. Synergistic antitumor activity of rapamycin and EF24 via increasing ROS for the treatment of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqian Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has emerged as a new potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer. Rapamycin and rapamycin analogs are undergoing clinical trials and have produced clinical responses in a subgroup of cancer patients. However, monotherapy with rapamycin at safe dosage fails to induce cell apoptosis and tumor regression which has hampered its clinical application. This has led to the exploration of more effective combinatorial regimens to enhance the effectiveness of rapamycin. In our present study, we have investigated the combination of rapamycin and a reactive oxygen species (ROS inducer EF24 in gastric cancer. We show that rapamycin increases intracellular ROS levels and displays selective synergistic antitumor activity with EF24 in gastric cancer cells. This activity was mediated through the activation of c-Jun N terminal kinase and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER pathways in cancer cells. We also show that inhibiting ROS accumulation reverses ER stress and prevents apoptosis induced by the combination of rapamycin and EF24. These mechanisms were confirmed using human gastric cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Taken together, our work provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. The work reveals that ROS generation could be an important target for the development of new combination therapies for cancer treatment.

  3. Effect of Orally Administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on Intestinal Cytokines and Chemokines Production of Suckling Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang§, Ya-li Li, Qin Huang, Zhi-wen Cui, Dong-you Yu, Imran Rashid Rajput, Cai-hong Hu and Wei-fen Li*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of orally administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on intestinal cytokines and chemokines production in piglets. Twenty-four newborn piglets were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (T1, orally administered sterilized (110 ºC for 30 min skim milk 10% (2 ml/piglet/day with addition of viable E. faecium EF1 (5~6×108 cfu/ml on 1st, 3rd and 5th day after birth. The control group (T0, were fed the same volume of sterilized skim milk without addition of probiotics. Feeding trial was conducted for 25 days of suckling age. At the end of trail six piglets were randomly selected from each group to collect the samples of jejunum and ileum mucosa to observe the cytokines and chemokines production. The results showed that concentrations of IL-10 and TGF-β1 significantly increased in T1 group. Whereas, production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-8 decreased in T1 compared to T0. Levels of TNF-α were increased in jejunal mucosa, while decreased in ileal mucosa comparatively in T1 group. Our findings revealed that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 induced a strong anti-inflammatory response in the small intestine. These immunomodulatory effects of this bacterium might contribute to maintenance of immune homeostasis in the intestine of piglets.

  4. LA FISCALIZACIÓN SUPERIOR A NIVEL SUBNACIONAL EN MÉXICO. UNA EVALUACIÓN DEL DESEMPEÑO DE LAS ENTIDADES DE FISCALIZACIÓN SUPERIOR (EFS LOCALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahí Gutiérrez Luna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, las Entidades de Fiscalización Superior (EFS locales en México presentan diferencias importantes no sólo en su diseño institucional y en su evolución estructural, sino en el desempeño de sus capacidades, cobertura y efectividad. Por ello, el objetivo principal de este texto es explicar los factores que determinan las diferencias en el desempeño de las EFS a nivel subnacional. Se parte de la hipótesis de que esas diferencias se explican a partir de factores externos e internos a la propia organización de la EFS. El factor externo se refiere a un fenómeno político: la distribución del poder político en los congresos locales. Por otro lado, los factores internos implican las reglas formales reflejadas en la calidad del marco normativo de las entidades de fiscalización y la suficiencia de su presupuesto anual. Para contrastar la hipótesis se llevó a cabo un estudio de tres indicadores de desempeño que se refieren a la capacidad de las EFS en el desarrollo de las auditorías, a la cobertura de la fiscalización que llevan a cabo y a la efectividad de su proceso auditor en 17 órganos fiscalizadores durante el año 2013. Finalmente, se realiza una evaluación general que permite la construcción de un índice de desempeño. Este ensayo incluye una reflexión que parte del marco teórico de la fiscalización superior como uno de los principales instrumentos de control político en los regímenes democráticos y finaliza con una aportación a la discusión teórica sobre las implicaciones de un control y fiscalización efectivos en las entidades federativas para la calidad de una democracia como la mexicana.

  5. Factor-based forecasting in the presence of outliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    2014-01-01

    Macroeconomic forecasting using factor models estimated by principal components has become a popular research topic with many both theoretical and applied contributions in the literature. In this paper we attempt to address an often neglected issue in these models: The problem of outliers...... in the data. Most papers take an ad-hoc approach to this problem and simply screen datasets prior to estimation and remove anomalous observations. We investigate whether forecasting performance can be improved by using the original unscreened dataset and replacing principal components with a robust...... apply the estimator in a simulated real-time forecasting exercise to test its merits. We use a newly compiled dataset of US macroeconomic series spanning the period 1971:2–2012:10. Our findings suggest that the chosen treatment of outliers does affect forecasting performance and that in many cases...

  6. Based on Multi-Factors Grey Prediction Control for Elevator Velocity Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the double-factors grey prediction and the fuzzy controller for the elevator car speed control. We introduce double-factors grey control to predict car vibration for elevator speed during the operation. Simulation results show that based on multi-factors gray prediction fuzzy PI control for elevator velocity modulation system closer than simple gray fuzzy PI control elevator speed control system to the actual operation. The control effect of double factors grey fuzzy PI contro...

  7. Important factors in HMM-based phonetic segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, DR

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available of phones, which rep- resent the acoustic realisations of the smallest meaningful units of speech, namely phonemes. Data in this form can be used to construct language based systems (including speech recognition and synthesis systems) through... the training of statistical models or the definition of acoustic databases, as well as aid language research in general. The accuracy and consistency of phonetic labels are crucial to the eventual quality of systems dependent on speech data. La- bels...

  8. Diminished but Not Abolished Effect of Two His351 Mutants of Anthrax Edema Factor in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Taoran; Zhao, Xinghui; Liu, Ju; Meng, Yingying; Feng, Yingying; Fang, Ting; Zhang, Jinlong; Yang, Xiuxu; Li, Jianmin; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Edema toxin (ET), which is composed of a potent adenylate cyclase (AC), edema factor (EF), and protective antigen (PA), is one of the major toxicity factors of Bacillus anthracis. In this study, we introduced mutations in full-length EF to generate alanine EF(H351A) and arginine EF(H351R) variants. In vitro activity analysis displayed that the adenylyl cyclase activity of both the mutants was significantly diminished compared with the wild-type EF. When the native and mutant toxins were administered subcutaneously in a mouse footpad edema model, severe acute swelling was evoked by wild-type ET, while the symptoms induced by mutant toxins were very minor. Systemic administration of these EF variants caused non-lethal hepatotoxicity. In addition, EF(H351R) exhibited slightly higher activity in causing more severe edema than EF(H351A). Our findings demonstrate that the toxicity of ET is not abolished by substitution of EF residue His351 by alanine or arginine. These results also indicate the potential of the mouse footpad edema model as a sensitive method for evaluating both ET toxicity and the efficacy of candidate therapeutic agents. PMID:26848687

  9. Elucidating the Role of Injury-Induced Electric Fields (EFs) in Regulating the Astrocytic Response to Injury in the Mammalian Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Matthew L.; Henderson, Scott C.; Colello, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Injury to the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) induces astrocytes to change their morphology, to increase their rate of proliferation, and to display directional migration to the injury site, all to facilitate repair. These astrocytic responses to injury occur in a clear temporal sequence and, by their intensity and duration, can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the repair of damaged CNS tissue. Studies on highly regenerative tissues in non-mammalian vertebrates have demonstrated that the intensity of direct-current extracellular electric fields (EFs) at the injury site, which are 50–100 fold greater than in uninjured tissue, represent a potent signal to drive tissue repair. In contrast, a 10-fold EF increase has been measured in many injured mammalian tissues where limited regeneration occurs. As the astrocytic response to CNS injury is crucial to the reparative outcome, we exposed purified rat cortical astrocytes to EF intensities associated with intact and injured mammalian tissues, as well as to those EF intensities measured in regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, to determine whether EFs may contribute to the astrocytic injury response. Astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with uninjured tissue showed little change in their cellular behavior. However, astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with injured tissue showed a dramatic increase in migration and proliferation. At EF intensities associated with regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, these cellular responses were even more robust and included morphological changes consistent with a regenerative phenotype. These findings suggest that endogenous EFs may be a crucial signal for regulating the astrocytic response to injury and that their manipulation may be a novel target for facilitating CNS repair. PMID:26562295

  10. Characterization of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands of NADPH oxidase 5 by fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chin-Chuan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Superoxide generated by non-phagocytic NADPH oxidases (NOXs is of growing importance for physiology and pathobiology. The calcium binding domain (CaBD of NOX5 contains four EF-hands, each binding one calcium ion. To better understand the metal binding properties of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands, we characterized the N-terminal half of CaBD (NCaBD and its calcium-binding knockout mutants. Results The isothermal titration calorimetry measurement for NCaBD reveals that the calcium binding of two EF-hands are loosely associated with each other and can be treated as independent binding events. However, the Ca2+ binding studies on NCaBD(E31Q and NCaBD(E63Q showed their binding constants to be 6.5 × 105 and 5.0 × 102 M-1 with ΔHs of -14 and -4 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that intrinsic calcium binding for the 1st non-canonical EF-hand is largely enhanced by the binding of Ca2+ to the 2nd canonical EF-hand. The fluorescence quenching and CD spectra support a conformational change upon Ca2+ binding, which changes Trp residues toward a more non-polar and exposed environment and also increases its α-helix secondary structure content. All measurements exclude Mg2+-binding in NCaBD. Conclusions We demonstrated that the 1st non-canonical EF-hand of NOX5 has very weak Ca2+ binding affinity compared with the 2nd canonical EF-hand. Both EF-hands interact with each other in a cooperative manner to enhance their Ca2+ binding affinity. Our characterization reveals that the two EF-hands in the N-terminal NOX5 are Ca2+ specific. Graphical abstract

  11. Elucidating the Role of Injury-Induced Electric Fields (EFs in Regulating the Astrocytic Response to Injury in the Mammalian Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Baer

    Full Text Available Injury to the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS induces astrocytes to change their morphology, to increase their rate of proliferation, and to display directional migration to the injury site, all to facilitate repair. These astrocytic responses to injury occur in a clear temporal sequence and, by their intensity and duration, can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the repair of damaged CNS tissue. Studies on highly regenerative tissues in non-mammalian vertebrates have demonstrated that the intensity of direct-current extracellular electric fields (EFs at the injury site, which are 50-100 fold greater than in uninjured tissue, represent a potent signal to drive tissue repair. In contrast, a 10-fold EF increase has been measured in many injured mammalian tissues where limited regeneration occurs. As the astrocytic response to CNS injury is crucial to the reparative outcome, we exposed purified rat cortical astrocytes to EF intensities associated with intact and injured mammalian tissues, as well as to those EF intensities measured in regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, to determine whether EFs may contribute to the astrocytic injury response. Astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with uninjured tissue showed little change in their cellular behavior. However, astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with injured tissue showed a dramatic increase in migration and proliferation. At EF intensities associated with regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, these cellular responses were even more robust and included morphological changes consistent with a regenerative phenotype. These findings suggest that endogenous EFs may be a crucial signal for regulating the astrocytic response to injury and that their manipulation may be a novel target for facilitating CNS repair.

  12. Elucidating the Role of Injury-Induced Electric Fields (EFs) in Regulating the Astrocytic Response to Injury in the Mammalian Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Matthew L; Henderson, Scott C; Colello, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Injury to the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) induces astrocytes to change their morphology, to increase their rate of proliferation, and to display directional migration to the injury site, all to facilitate repair. These astrocytic responses to injury occur in a clear temporal sequence and, by their intensity and duration, can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the repair of damaged CNS tissue. Studies on highly regenerative tissues in non-mammalian vertebrates have demonstrated that the intensity of direct-current extracellular electric fields (EFs) at the injury site, which are 50-100 fold greater than in uninjured tissue, represent a potent signal to drive tissue repair. In contrast, a 10-fold EF increase has been measured in many injured mammalian tissues where limited regeneration occurs. As the astrocytic response to CNS injury is crucial to the reparative outcome, we exposed purified rat cortical astrocytes to EF intensities associated with intact and injured mammalian tissues, as well as to those EF intensities measured in regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, to determine whether EFs may contribute to the astrocytic injury response. Astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with uninjured tissue showed little change in their cellular behavior. However, astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with injured tissue showed a dramatic increase in migration and proliferation. At EF intensities associated with regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, these cellular responses were even more robust and included morphological changes consistent with a regenerative phenotype. These findings suggest that endogenous EFs may be a crucial signal for regulating the astrocytic response to injury and that their manipulation may be a novel target for facilitating CNS repair.

  13. Investigating the Electro-Fenton (EF Process Performance in Treating Highly Formaldehyde-Polluted Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bagheri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Formaldehyde is a toxic substance and harmful to human beings and the environmental health. Therefore, the effluents containing formaldehyde have to be efficiently treated before discharging into the environment. This study was aimed at investigating the efficiency of Electro-Fenton (EF Process in pre-treating industrial wastewater containing high concentrations of formaldehyde.Materials and Methods: The effect of the important operational variables including pH, current density, H2O2 dosage, and reaction time were evaluated on the degradation of 7500 mg/L formaldehyde using batch tests. The EFP batch reactor was consisted of a cylindrical glass column with 5.20 cm in internal diameter and 34.50 cm in height. Working volume of the reactor was 500 mL.Results: The maximum formaldehyde removal was obtained at alkaline pH of 10, H2O2 concentration of 10 mM/min, current intensity 8.5 mA/cm2, and the reaction time of 6 minute. Furthermore, aerating the EFP cell could enhance the formaldehyde removal. Complete removal of formaldehyde was obtained under the abovementioned operational conditions. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the EFP is capable of reducing high concentration of formaldehyde (7500 mg/l to the level suitable for biological post-treatment. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso

  14. Reducing ppGpp level rescues an extreme growth defect caused by mutant EF-Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Jessica M; Hammarlöf, Disa L; Hughes, Diarmaid

    2014-01-01

    Transcription and translation of mRNA's are coordinated processes in bacteria. We have previously shown that a mutant form of EF-Tu (Gln125Arg) in Salmonella Typhimurium with a reduced affinity for aa-tRNA, causes ribosome pausing, resulting in an increased rate of RNase E-mediated mRNA cleavage, causing extremely slow growth, even on rich medium. The slow growth phenotype is reversed by mutations that reduce RNase E activity. Here we asked whether the slow growth phenotype could be reversed by overexpression of a wild-type gene. We identified spoT (encoding ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase) as a gene that partially reversed the slow growth rate when overexpressed. We found that the slow-growing mutant had an abnormally high basal level of ppGpp that was reduced when spoT was overexpressed. Inactivating relA (encoding the ribosome-associated ppGpp synthetase) also reduced ppGpp levels and significantly increased growth rate. Because RelA responds specifically to deacylated tRNA in the ribosomal A-site this suggested that the tuf mutant had an increased level of deacylated tRNA relative to the wild-type. To test this hypothesis we measured the relative acylation levels of 4 families of tRNAs and found that proline isoacceptors were acylated at a lower level in the mutant strain relative to the wild-type. In addition, the level of the proS tRNA synthetase mRNA was significantly lower in the mutant strain. We suggest that an increased level of deacylated tRNA in the mutant strain stimulates RelA-mediated ppGpp production, causing changes in transcription pattern that are inappropriate for rich media conditions, and contributing to slow growth rate. Reducing ppGpp levels, by altering the activity of either SpoT or RelA, removes one cause of the slow growth and reveals the interconnectedness of intracellular regulatory mechanisms.

  15. Reducing ppGpp level rescues an extreme growth defect caused by mutant EF-Tu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Bergman

    Full Text Available Transcription and translation of mRNA's are coordinated processes in bacteria. We have previously shown that a mutant form of EF-Tu (Gln125Arg in Salmonella Typhimurium with a reduced affinity for aa-tRNA, causes ribosome pausing, resulting in an increased rate of RNase E-mediated mRNA cleavage, causing extremely slow growth, even on rich medium. The slow growth phenotype is reversed by mutations that reduce RNase E activity. Here we asked whether the slow growth phenotype could be reversed by overexpression of a wild-type gene. We identified spoT (encoding ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase as a gene that partially reversed the slow growth rate when overexpressed. We found that the slow-growing mutant had an abnormally high basal level of ppGpp that was reduced when spoT was overexpressed. Inactivating relA (encoding the ribosome-associated ppGpp synthetase also reduced ppGpp levels and significantly increased growth rate. Because RelA responds specifically to deacylated tRNA in the ribosomal A-site this suggested that the tuf mutant had an increased level of deacylated tRNA relative to the wild-type. To test this hypothesis we measured the relative acylation levels of 4 families of tRNAs and found that proline isoacceptors were acylated at a lower level in the mutant strain relative to the wild-type. In addition, the level of the proS tRNA synthetase mRNA was significantly lower in the mutant strain. We suggest that an increased level of deacylated tRNA in the mutant strain stimulates RelA-mediated ppGpp production, causing changes in transcription pattern that are inappropriate for rich media conditions, and contributing to slow growth rate. Reducing ppGpp levels, by altering the activity of either SpoT or RelA, removes one cause of the slow growth and reveals the interconnectedness of intracellular regulatory mechanisms.

  16. Network based transcription factor analysis of regenerating axolotl limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Jo Ann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on amphibian limb regeneration began in the early 1700's but we still do not completely understand the cellular and molecular events of this unique process. Understanding a complex biological process such as limb regeneration is more complicated than the knowledge of the individual genes or proteins involved. Here we followed a systems biology approach in an effort to construct the networks and pathways of protein interactions involved in formation of the accumulation blastema in regenerating axolotl limbs. Results We used the human orthologs of proteins previously identified by our research team as bait to identify the transcription factor (TF pathways and networks that regulate blastema formation in amputated axolotl limbs. The five most connected factors, c-Myc, SP1, HNF4A, ESR1 and p53 regulate ~50% of the proteins in our data. Among these, c-Myc and SP1 regulate 36.2% of the proteins. c-Myc was the most highly connected TF (71 targets. Network analysis showed that TGF-β1 and fibronectin (FN lead to the activation of these TFs. We found that other TFs known to be involved in epigenetic reprogramming, such as Klf4, Oct4, and Lin28 are also connected to c-Myc and SP1. Conclusions Our study provides a systems biology approach to how different molecular entities inter-connect with each other during the formation of an accumulation blastema in regenerating axolotl limbs. This approach provides an in silico methodology to identify proteins that are not detected by experimental methods such as proteomics but are potentially important to blastema formation. We found that the TFs, c-Myc and SP1 and their target genes could potentially play a central role in limb regeneration. Systems biology has the potential to map out numerous other pathways that are crucial to blastema formation in regeneration-competent limbs, to compare these to the pathways that characterize regeneration-deficient limbs and finally, to identify stem

  17. Transcription factor-based biosensors enlightened by the analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul eFernandez-Lopez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Whole cell biosensors (WCBs have multiple applications for environmental monitoring, detecting a wide range of pollutants. WCBs depend critically on the sensitivity and specificity of the transcription factor (TF used to detect the analyte. We describe the mechanism of regulation and the structural and biochemical properties of TF families that are used, or could be used, for the development of environmental WCBs. Focusing on the chemical nature of the analyte, we review TFs that respond to aromatic compounds (XylS-AraC, XylR-NtrC and LysR, metal ions (MerR, ArsR, DtxR, Fur and NikR or antibiotics (TetR and MarR. Analyzing the structural domains involved in DNA recognition, we highlight the similitudes in the DNA binding domains (DBDs of these TF families. Opposite to DBDs, the wide range of analytes detected by TFs results in a diversity of structures at the effector binding domain (EBD. The modular architecture of TFs opens the possibility of engineering TFs with hybrid DNA and effector specificities. Yet, the lack of a crisp correlation between structural domains and specific functions makes this a challenging task.

  18. Validity of Basing Authors' Publication Strategy on Journal Impact Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Milojević, Staša; Bar-Ilan, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Choosing the best scientific venue for the submission of a manuscript, with the aim of maximizing the impact of the future publication, is a frequent task faced by scholars. In this paper, we show that the Impact Factor (IF) of a journal allows to rationally achieve this goal. We take advantage of a comprehensive bibliographic and citation dataset of about 2.5 million articles from 16,000 journals, and demonstrate that the probability of receiving more citations in one journal compared to another is a universal function of the IF values of the two journals. The relation is well described by a modified logistic function, and provides an easy-to-use rule to guide a publication strategy. The benefit of publishing in a journal with a higher IF value, instead of another with a lower one grows slowly as a function of the ratio of their IF values. For example, receiving more citations is granted in 90\\% of the cases only if the IF ratio is greater than $\\sim$6, while targeting a journal with an IF 2$\\times$ higher t...

  19. Precursor for elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The tufA gene, one of two genes in Escherichia coli encoding elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), was cloned into a ColE1-derived plasmid downstream of the lac promoter-operator. In cells carrying this plasmid, the synthesis of EF-Tu was increased four- to fivefold upon the addition of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (an inducer of the lac promoter). This condition led to the synthesis of a novel protein, called pTu, which comigrated with EF-Tu on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel b...

  20. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim Chor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N = 25, PAD (N = 31, VTD (N = 35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2 years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

  1. Inflammation-based factors and prognosis in patients withcolorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Several parameters for predicting survival in patientswith colorectal cancer have been identified, includingthe performance status, age, gender and tumor-nodemetastasis(TNM) stage. Although the TNM stage isimportant and useful for predicting the prognosis anddetermining the appropriate treatment, it is well knownthat the survival time varies widely, even in patients withthe same stage of disease. Therefore, the identificationof new parameters capable of more precisely predictingpatient survival is needed to help select the optimaltreatment, especially in patients in the advanced stageof disease. Although the TNM stage reflects the tumorcharacteristics, cancer progression and survival are notdetermined solely based on the local characteristics ofthe tumor, but also the host systemic immune/inflammatoryresponse. Therefore, using a combination ofparameters that reflect both tumor characteristics andthe host systemic inflammatory status is thought to beimportant for accurately predicting patient survival.

  2. History of myxozoan character evolution on the basis of rDNA and EF-2 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartošová Pavla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic relationships among myxosporeans based on ribosomal DNA data disagree with traditional taxonomic classification: a number of myxosporeans with very similar spore morphology are assigned to the same genera even though they are phylogenetically distantly related. The credibility of rDNA as a suitable marker for Myxozoa is uncertain and needs to be proved. Furthermore, we need to know the history of myxospore evolution to understand the great diversity of modern species. Results Phylogenetic analysis of elongation factor 2 supports the ribosomal DNA-based reconstruction of myxozoan evolution. We propose that SSU rDNA is a reliable marker for inferring myxozoan relationships, even though SSU rDNA analysis markedly disagrees with the current taxonomy. The analyses of character evolution of 15 morphological and 5 bionomical characters show the evolution of individual characters and uncover the main evolutionary changes in the myxosporean spore morphology and bionomy. Most bionomical and several morphological characters were found to be congruent with the phylogeny. The summary of character analyses leads to the simulation of myxozoan ancestral morphotypes and their evolution to the current species. As such, the ancestor of all myxozoans appears to have infected the renal tubules of freshwater fish, was sphaerosporid in shape, and had a spore with polar capsules that discharged slightly sideways. After the separation of Malacosporea, the spore of the common myxosporean ancestor then changed to the typical sphaerosporid morphotype. This species inhabited the marine environment as a parasite of the gall bladder of marine fish and ultimately separated into the three main myxosporean lineages evident today. Two of these lineages re-entered the freshwater environment, one as a myxosporean with Chloromyxum and another with a primitive sphaerosporid morphotype. The common ancestor of all marine myxosporeans had a ceratomyxid

  3. History of myxozoan character evolution on the basis of rDNA and EF-2 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Ivan; Bartosová, Pavla

    2010-07-28

    Phylogenetic relationships among myxosporeans based on ribosomal DNA data disagree with traditional taxonomic classification: a number of myxosporeans with very similar spore morphology are assigned to the same genera even though they are phylogenetically distantly related. The credibility of rDNA as a suitable marker for Myxozoa is uncertain and needs to be proved. Furthermore, we need to know the history of myxospore evolution to understand the great diversity of modern species. Phylogenetic analysis of elongation factor 2 supports the ribosomal DNA-based reconstruction of myxozoan evolution. We propose that SSU rDNA is a reliable marker for inferring myxozoan relationships, even though SSU rDNA analysis markedly disagrees with the current taxonomy. The analyses of character evolution of 15 morphological and 5 bionomical characters show the evolution of individual characters and uncover the main evolutionary changes in the myxosporean spore morphology and bionomy. Most bionomical and several morphological characters were found to be congruent with the phylogeny. The summary of character analyses leads to the simulation of myxozoan ancestral morphotypes and their evolution to the current species. As such, the ancestor of all myxozoans appears to have infected the renal tubules of freshwater fish, was sphaerosporid in shape, and had a spore with polar capsules that discharged slightly sideways. After the separation of Malacosporea, the spore of the common myxosporean ancestor then changed to the typical sphaerosporid morphotype. This species inhabited the marine environment as a parasite of the gall bladder of marine fish and ultimately separated into the three main myxosporean lineages evident today. Two of these lineages re-entered the freshwater environment, one as a myxosporean with Chloromyxum and another with a primitive sphaerosporid morphotype. The common ancestor of all marine myxosporeans had a ceratomyxid shape of spore. We support rDNA based myxozoan

  4. PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS FOR HEPATITIS C AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS: a population-based study in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Timm KVITKO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The hepatitis C is a severe public health problem worldwide because its consequences. Studies which aim at determining the prevalence of risk factors are really important to understand the problem. Objective To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with some risk factors for the disease in a community, called Restinga, located in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Method This paper is based on a population-based cross-sectional study, with systematic sampling and proportional to the size of census tracts in which 3,391 adults answered a standardized questionnaire. Results The prevalence of blood transfusion among the people who were interviewed was 14.98%, 60.83% of those had it before 1993. A total of 16.16% of the people had a tattoo, 7.23% wore a piercing, 1.09% said they had already injected illicit drugs and 12.39% reported previous hospitalization. Prevalence ratios showed that tattoos were more common among young people, piercings among women and illicit drugs among men. Conclusions To summarize, the recognition of risk factors for hepatitis C enables proper screening of possible carriers of the hepatitis C virus, thus enabling a reduction in virus shedding. However, being only possible if health services are prepared to deal with hepatitis C virus, through education and public awareness.

  5. Identification of elongation factor G as the conserved cellular target of argyrin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyfeler, Beat; Hoepfner, Dominic; Palestrant, Deborah; Kirby, Christina A; Whitehead, Lewis; Yu, Robert; Deng, Gejing; Caughlan, Ruth E; Woods, Angela L; Jones, Adriana K; Barnes, S Whitney; Walker, John R; Gaulis, Swann; Hauy, Ervan; Brachmann, Saskia M; Krastel, Philipp; Studer, Christian; Riedl, Ralph; Estoppey, David; Aust, Thomas; Movva, N Rao; Wang, Zuncai; Salcius, Michael; Michaud, Gregory A; McAllister, Gregory; Murphy, Leon O; Tallarico, John A; Wilson, Christopher J; Dean, Charles R

    2012-01-01

    Argyrins, produced by myxobacteria and actinomycetes, are cyclic octapeptides with antibacterial and antitumor activity. Here, we identify elongation factor G (EF-G) as the cellular target of argyrin B in bacteria, via resistant mutant selection and whole genome sequencing, biophysical binding studies and crystallography. Argyrin B binds a novel allosteric pocket in EF-G, distinct from the known EF-G inhibitor antibiotic fusidic acid, revealing a new mode of protein synthesis inhibition. In eukaryotic cells, argyrin B was found to target mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1), the closest homologue of bacterial EF-G. By blocking mitochondrial translation, argyrin B depletes electron transport components and inhibits the growth of yeast and tumor cells. Further supporting direct inhibition of EF-G1, expression of an argyrin B-binding deficient EF-G1 L693Q variant partially rescued argyrin B-sensitivity in tumor cells. In summary, we show that argyrin B is an antibacterial and cytotoxic agent that inhibits the evolutionarily conserved target EF-G, blocking protein synthesis in bacteria and mitochondrial translation in yeast and mammalian cells.

  6. Identification of elongation factor G as the conserved cellular target of argyrin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Nyfeler

    Full Text Available Argyrins, produced by myxobacteria and actinomycetes, are cyclic octapeptides with antibacterial and antitumor activity. Here, we identify elongation factor G (EF-G as the cellular target of argyrin B in bacteria, via resistant mutant selection and whole genome sequencing, biophysical binding studies and crystallography. Argyrin B binds a novel allosteric pocket in EF-G, distinct from the known EF-G inhibitor antibiotic fusidic acid, revealing a new mode of protein synthesis inhibition. In eukaryotic cells, argyrin B was found to target mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1, the closest homologue of bacterial EF-G. By blocking mitochondrial translation, argyrin B depletes electron transport components and inhibits the growth of yeast and tumor cells. Further supporting direct inhibition of EF-G1, expression of an argyrin B-binding deficient EF-G1 L693Q variant partially rescued argyrin B-sensitivity in tumor cells. In summary, we show that argyrin B is an antibacterial and cytotoxic agent that inhibits the evolutionarily conserved target EF-G, blocking protein synthesis in bacteria and mitochondrial translation in yeast and mammalian cells.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and validity of the "Edmonton Frail Scale - EFS" in a Brazilian elderly sample Adaptación cultural y validez de la Edmonton Frail Scale - EFS en una muestra de ancianos brasileños Adaptação cultural e validade da Edmonton Frail Scale - EFS em uma amostra de idosos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzele Cristina Coelho Fabrício-Wehbe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the cross-cultural adaptation of the Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS and its validity in a Brazilian elderly sample. Translation and back-translation were performed, as well as discussion with professionals and elderly for conceptual equivalence, semantic validation and pre-test of the scale. The scale was applied to 137 elderly aged 65 years or older who lived in the community. In the know-groups validation of the frailty diagnosis between gender, age and cognitive deficit, elder elderly, female and with a cognitive deficit scored higher on the frailty diagnosis. A negative convergent correlation was found between the EFS and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM (-0.53, pEl objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la adaptación cultural de la Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS y su validez en una muestra de ancianos brasileños. Fueron realizadas las etapas de traducción y retrotraducción, discusión con profesionales y ancianos para equivalencia conceptual, validación semántica y prueba piloto de la escala. El instrumento fue aplicado en 137 ancianos, con 65 años o más de edad, que vivían en la comunidad. En la validación de grupos conocidos, del diagnóstico de fragilidad entre sexo, edad y déficit cognitivo, los ancianos con edad más avanzada, sexo femenino y con déficit cognitivo tuvieron mayor puntuación en el diagnóstico de fragilidad. Hubo una correlación convergente negativa de la EFS con la Medida de Independencia Funcional (MIF (-0,53, pO objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adaptação cultural da Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS e sua validade em uma amostra de idosos brasileiros. Foram realizadas as etapas de tradução e retrotradução, discussão com profissionais e idosos para equivalência conceitual, validação semântica e pré-teste da escala. O instrumento foi aplicado em 137 idosos, com 65 anos ou mais de idade, que viviam na comunidade. Na validação de grupos conhecidos, do diagnóstico de

  8. Bone forming capacity of cell- and growth factor-based constructs at different ectopic implantation sites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, K.; Yang, F.; Both, Sanne Karijn; Prins, H.J.; Helder, M.N.; Pan, J.; Cui, F.Z.; Jansen, J.A.; van den Beucken, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of implantation site (i.e., subcutaneous, SQ vs. intramuscular, IM) on bone forming capacity of cell-based and growth factor-based scaffolds in athymic nude rats after an implantation period of 8 weeks. Cell-based scaffolds consisted of porous

  9. Interaction of plant chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase with a homolog of eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    A chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was previously cloned and characterized in this laboratory. To investigate the biological functions of CCaMK, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to isolate genes encoding proteins that interact with CCaMK. One of the cDNA clones obtained from the screening (LlEF-1alpha1) has high similarity with the eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha). CCaMK phosphorylated LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner. The phosphorylation site for CCaMK (Thr-257) was identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, Thr-257 is located in the putative tRNA-binding region of LlEF-1alpha1. An isoform of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) phosphorylated multiple sites of LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-dependent but calmodulin-independent manner. Unlike CDPK, CCaMK phosphorylated only one site, and this site is different from CDPK phosphorylation sites. This suggests that the phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by these two kinases may have different functional significance. Although the phosphorylation of LlEF-1alpha1 by CCaMK is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent, in vitro binding assays revealed that CCaMK binds to LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-independent manner. This was further substantiated by coimmunoprecipitation of CCaMK and EF-1alpha using the protein extract from lily anthers. Dissociation of CCaMK from EF-1alpha by Ca2+ and phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by CCaMK in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner suggests that these interactions may play a role in regulating the biological functions of EF-1alpha.

  10. Interaction of plant chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase with a homolog of eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    A chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was previously cloned and characterized in this laboratory. To investigate the biological functions of CCaMK, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to isolate genes encoding proteins that interact with CCaMK. One of the cDNA clones obtained from the screening (LlEF-1alpha1) has high similarity with the eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha). CCaMK phosphorylated LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner. The phosphorylation site for CCaMK (Thr-257) was identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, Thr-257 is located in the putative tRNA-binding region of LlEF-1alpha1. An isoform of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) phosphorylated multiple sites of LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-dependent but calmodulin-independent manner. Unlike CDPK, CCaMK phosphorylated only one site, and this site is different from CDPK phosphorylation sites. This suggests that the phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by these two kinases may have different functional significance. Although the phosphorylation of LlEF-1alpha1 by CCaMK is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent, in vitro binding assays revealed that CCaMK binds to LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-independent manner. This was further substantiated by coimmunoprecipitation of CCaMK and EF-1alpha using the protein extract from lily anthers. Dissociation of CCaMK from EF-1alpha by Ca2+ and phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by CCaMK in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner suggests that these interactions may play a role in regulating the biological functions of EF-1alpha.

  11. EF5 PET of Tumor Hypoxia: A Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0236 TITLE: : EF5 PET of Tumor Hypoxia: A Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative...2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15Aug2015 - 14Aug2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EF5 PET of Tumor Hypoxia: A Predictive Imaging Biomarker of 5a...comorbidities that increase surgical risk. Tumor hypoxia is a major known mechanism of radiation resistance and is especially expected to affect very short

  12. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  13. Cloning of a gene localized and expressed at the ecdysteroid regulated puff 74EF in salivary glands of Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möritz, T; Edström, J E; Pongs, O

    1984-02-01

    The puffing cycle of salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophila larvae, which initiates the developmental path to pupariation, is induced by ecdysteroid hormone. Its action leads to prominent puffs at loci 2B5, 74EF and 75B. Fragments of the 74EF puff of the D. melanogaster 3L chromosome were microdissected from salivary gland squashes. EcoRI-digested DNA of these fragments was cloned into lambda phage. Clones were screened with puff stage-specific cDNA probes. Thirteen out of 650 clones hybridized preferentially with puff stage 4-specific cDNA. The prominent early puffs at 74EF and 75B are most active between puff stage 4 and 6. Therefore, one of the 13 lambda phages was chosen for further analysis. It was used to isolate 24 kb of Drosophila DNA from genomic libraries. The DNA hybridized in situ to locus 74F. The 74F DNA coded for a transcript, which was made in salivary glands, but not in fat body of third instar larvae. It accumulated in K(C) cells in response to ecdysteroid treatment. The polyadenylated transcript size was 2.7 kb as judged by Nothern blot analysis. The transcription start site of the 74F gene has been mapped. Sequences upstream of the transcription site contain several sequence elements common to other eucaryotic genes, including potential Z-DNA forming sequences. Also, there is sequence homology to upstream sequences, which have been involved in the regulation of transcription of the salivary gland glue protein 4 gene.

  14. Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes for Enterococcus spp. Blood Stream Infections: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Billington

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This is the second population-based study to assess the risk factors for enterococcal BSI and compare the characteristics of infection with E. faecalis and E. faecium. Results suggest that BSI with E. faecalis and E. faecium should be regarded as two clinically different entities with unique sets of risk factors and microbiologic characteristics.

  15. Reliability-based Calibration of Fatigue Safety Factors for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes reliability-based investigations on the required safety factors / Fatigue Design Factors (FDF) values to be used for fatigue design of steel substructures for offshore wind turbines. Design and limit state equations are formulated and stochastic models for the uncertain...

  16. Psychological Factors and Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis : A Web Based Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erfani, Tahereh; Keefe, Francis; Bennell, Kim; Chen, J; Makovey, J; Metcalf, B; Williams, A.D.; Zhang, Y; Hunter, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients is neither constant nor unchanging and patients experience episodes of pain exacerbations. Using an innovative web based case-crossover design, we evaluated whether psychological factors are risk factors for pain exacerbations in patie

  17. Listening Strategy Use and Influential Factors in Web-Based Computer Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Zhang, R.; Liu, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates second and foreign language (L2) learners' listening strategy use and factors that influence their strategy use in a Web-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) system. A strategy inventory, a factor questionnaire and a standardized listening test were used to collect data from a group of 82 Chinese students…

  18. Development of management quality system for metallurgical enterprise based on Balanced Scorecard with limiting factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Ledneva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers inefficiency of the existing quality management systems (QMS based on standards ISO series 9000. The authors offer integrated QMS with limiting factors on Balanced Scorecard. The Balanced Scorecard with limiting factors helps to efficiently direct process of continuous improvement and achieve top-priority criteria in quality management domain.

  19. Psychological Factors and Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis : A Web Based Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erfani, Tahereh; Keefe, Francis; Bennell, Kim; Chen, J; Makovey, J; Metcalf, B; Williams, A.D.; Zhang, Y; Hunter, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients is neither constant nor unchanging and patients experience episodes of pain exacerbations. Using an innovative web based case-crossover design, we evaluated whether psychological factors are risk factors for pain exacerbations in

  20. TU-EF-204-02: Hiigh Quality and Sub-MSv Cerebral CT Perfusion Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ke; Niu, Kai; Wu, Yijing; Chen, Guang-Hong [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: CT Perfusion (CTP) imaging is of great importance in acute ischemic stroke management due to its potential to detect hypoperfused yet salvageable tissue and distinguish it from definitely unsalvageable tissue. However, current CTP imaging suffers from poor image quality and high radiation dose (up to 5 mSv). The purpose of this work was to demonstrate that technical innovations such as Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) have the potential to address these challenges and achieve high quality and sub-mSv CTP imaging. Methods: (1) A spatial-temporal 4D cascaded system model was developed to indentify the bottlenecks in the current CTP technology; (2) A task-based framework was developed to optimize the CTP system parameters; (3) Guided by (1) and (2), PICCS was customized for the reconstruction of CTP source images. Digital anthropomorphic perfusion phantoms, animal studies, and preliminary human subject studies were used to validate and evaluate the potentials of using these innovations to advance the CTP technology. Results: The 4D cascaded model was validated in both phantom and canine stroke models. Based upon this cascaded model, it has been discovered that, as long as the spatial resolution and noise properties of the 4D source CT images are given, the 3D MTF and NPS of the final CTP maps can be analytically derived for a given set of processing methods and parameters. The cascaded model analysis also identified that the most critical technical factor in CTP is how to acquire and reconstruct high quality source images; it has very little to do with the denoising techniques often used after parametric perfusion calculations. This explained why PICCS resulted in a five-fold dose reduction or substantial improvement in image quality. Conclusion: Technical innovations generated promising results towards achieving high quality and sub-mSv CTP imaging for reliable and safe assessment of acute ischemic strokes. K. Li, K. Niu, Y. Wu: Nothing to

  1. Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    These model-based estimates use two surveys, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The two surveys are combined using novel statistical methodology.

  2. Hypothyroidism decreases proinsulin gene expression and the attachment of its mRNA and eEF1A protein to the actin cytoskeleton of INS-1E cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Goulart-Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The actions of thyroid hormone (TH on pancreatic beta cells have not been thoroughly explored, with current knowledge being limited to the modulation of insulin secretion in response to glucose, and beta cell viability by regulation of pro-mitotic and pro-apoptotic factors. Therefore, the effects of TH on proinsulin gene expression are not known. This led us to measure: a proinsulin mRNA expression, b proinsulin transcripts and eEF1A protein binding to the actin cytoskeleton, c actin cytoskeleton arrangement, and d proinsulin mRNA poly(A tail length modulation in INS-1E cells cultured in different media containing: i normal fetal bovine serum - FBS (control; ii normal FBS plus 1 µM or 10 nM T3, for 12 h, and iii FBS depleted of TH for 24 h (Tx. A decrease in proinsulin mRNA content and attachment to the cytoskeleton were observed in hypothyroid (Tx beta cells. The amount of eEF1A protein anchored to the cytoskeleton was also reduced in hypothyroidism, and it is worth mentioning that eEF1A is essential to attach transcripts to the cytoskeleton, which might modulate their stability and rate of translation. Proinsulin poly(A tail length and cytoskeleton arrangement remained unchanged in hypothyroidism. T3 treatment of control cells for 12 h did not induce any changes in the parameters studied. The data indicate that TH is important for proinsulin mRNA expression and translation, since its total amount and attachment to the cytoskeleton are decreased in hypothyroid beta cells, providing evidence that effects of TH on carbohydrate metabolism also include the control of proinsulin gene expression.

  3. Avaliação da terapia fotodinâmica (TFD) como coadjuvante intracanalar de enterococcus faecalis (EF)

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, João Vítor Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária Introdução:A presença de Enterococcus Faecalis (EF) no sistema tridimensional de canais radiculares está actualmente associada ao insucesso de tratamento convencional com recurso à desinfecção por Hipoclorito de Sódio (NaOCl). Os seus mecanismos de virulência e adaptação permitem à bactéria sobreviver a ambientes considerados desfavoráveis para a maioria dos ag...

  4. A new alpha chain hemoglobin variant: Hb Al-Hammadi Riyadh [alpha75(EF4)Asp-->Val (alpha2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnichon, Nelly; Lacan, Philippe; Becchi, Michel; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Aubry, Martine; Mowafy, Mohammed; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2006-01-01

    A new hemoglobin (Hb) variant in the heterozygous state, Hb Al-Hammadi Riyadh [codon 75 (GAC-->GTC); alpha75(EF4)Asp-->Val (alpha2)] corresponding to an A-->T transversion on the second exon of the alpha2-globin gene, is described. The variant was characterized by DNA sequencing and mass spectrometry (MS). The variant was found during a routine Hb analysis for anemia in a 16-month-old boy who lived in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  5. Contribución de la arquitectura efímera para un equipamiento costero en Playa de Patos

    OpenAIRE

    Visier Navarro, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    La disertación de proyecto de este trabajo pesquisa una solución adaptativa de la “arquitectura efímera” para ser aplicada en el proyecto de un Equipamiento Deportivo Costero, cuya función se determina como escuela de surf en la Playa de Patos, Ayuntamiento de Nigrán, al sur de Galicia, España. El ámbito de actuación está clasificado como suelo rústico especialmente protegido (S.R.E.P.) de protección de costas, lo cual restringe la construcción en esta zona de cualquier estr...

  6. Scaling properties of the radius of gyration and surface area for EF-hand calcium binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitulice, L. [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania); Isvoran, A. [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)], E-mail: aisvoran@cbg.uvt.ro; Craescu, C.T. [INSERM U759/Institute Curie-Recherche, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Batiment 112, 91405 Orsay (France); Chiriac, A. [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)

    2009-04-30

    In this paper, we analyze the scaling properties of both the radius of gyration and the surface area for EF-hand calcium binding proteins. These properties are different for two conformational subfamilies: proteins with extended and compact structures, respectively. The radius of gyration is a measure of the shape of protein, whereas its surface fractal dimension is a measure of its interatomic packing. Different scaling properties for the radius of gyration underline that these two subfamilies present different shapes whilst different scaling properties for the surface area reveal different strengths of their intermolecular forces. All these data suggest different mechanisms responsible for the global folding of proteins belonging to these two subfamilies.

  7. The life and death of translation elongation factor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene; Merrill, A.R.; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2006-01-01

    The eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) occupies an essential role in protein synthesis where it catalyses the translocation of the two tRNAs and the mRNA after peptidyl transfer on the 80S ribosome. Recent crystal structures of eEF2 and the cryo-EM reconstruction of its 80S complex now provide...... diphthamide residue, which is ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa....

  8. Enhancement Factors in Ozone Absorption Based on the Surface Renewal Model and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程江; 杨卓如; 陈焕钦; C.H.Kuo; M.E.Zappi

    2000-01-01

    Based on the Danckwerts surface renewal model, a simple explicit expression of the enhancement factor in ozone absorption with a first order ozone self-decomposition and parallel second order ozonation reactions has been derived. The results are compared with our previous work based on the film theory. The 2,4-dichlorophenol destruction rate by ozonation is predicted using the enhancement factor model in this paper.

  9. Macroeconomic Factors and the German Real Estate Market: A Stock-Market-Based Forecasting Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Pierdzioch

    2012-01-01

    Based on a recursive forecasting approach, this research studies whether macro- economic factors help to forecast excess returns on a real-estate-based German stock market index. Key findings are that macroeconomic factors are often included in the optimal forecasting model, that their relative importance often differs from their importance for forecasting a broad stock-market index, and that their informational content for forecasting excess returns seems to undergo temporal shifts. This res...

  10. The Potyviral P3 Protein Targets Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A to Promote the Unfolded Protein Response and Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hexiang; Shine, M B; Cui, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xin; Ma, Na; Kachroo, Pradeep; Zhi, Haijan; Kachroo, Aardra

    2016-09-01

    The biochemical function of the potyviral P3 protein is not known, although it is known to regulate virus replication, movement, and pathogenesis. We show that P3, the putative virulence determinant of soybean mosaic virus (SMV), targets a component of the translation elongation complex in soybean. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), a well-known host factor in viral pathogenesis, is essential for SMV virulence and the associated unfolded protein response (UPR). Silencing GmEF1A inhibits accumulation of SMV and another ER-associated virus in soybean. Conversely, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing chemicals promote SMV accumulation in wild-type, but not GmEF1A-knockdown, plants. Knockdown of genes encoding the eEF1B isoform, which is important for eEF1A function in translation elongation, has similar effects on UPR and SMV resistance, suggesting a link to translation elongation. P3 and GmEF1A promote each other's nuclear localization, similar to the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport of eEF1A by the Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Nef protein. Our results suggest that P3 targets host elongation factors resulting in UPR, which in turn facilitates SMV replication and place eEF1A upstream of BiP in the ER stress response during pathogen infection.

  11. Denitrification in upland of China: Magnitude and influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyang; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-12-01

    A better understanding of influencing factors and accurate estimate of soil denitrification is a global concern. Here we present a synthesis of 300 observations of denitrification in Chinese upland soils from 39 field and laboratory studies using the acetylene inhibition technique. The results of a linear mixed model analysis showed that the rates of soil denitrification were significantly affected by crop type, soil organic carbon, soil pH, the measurement period, and the rate of N application. The emission factor (EF) and N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio for soil denitrification were on average 2.11 ± 0.17% and 0.508 ± 0.020, respectively. Our meta-analysis indicated that N fertilization increased soil denitrification by 311% (95% CI: 279-346%) and 112% (95% CI: 66-171%) in the field and laboratory studies, respectively. Substantial interactive effects between soil properties and N fertilization on soil denitrification were found. Although the highest values of both the rate of denitrification and the EF were found in vegetable fields, the size of the stimulating effect of N fertilization on soil denitrification was lower in vegetable fields than in maize and wheat fields. These results suggest that the crop-specific effect is important and that vegetable fields are potential hot spots of denitrification in Chinese uplands. Based on either the EF or the N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio obtained, the estimated amount of total denitrification from the upland soils was an order of magnitude lower than that from budget calculations, suggesting that the acetylene inhibition technique may significantly underestimate denitrification in Chinese upland soils.

  12. A Two-Factor Autoregressive Moving Average Model Based on Fuzzy Fluctuation Logical Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Guan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the existing autoregressive moving average (ARMA forecast models are based on one main factor. In this paper, we proposed a new two-factor first-order ARMA forecast model based on fuzzy fluctuation logical relationships of both a main factor and a secondary factor of a historical training time series. Firstly, we generated a fluctuation time series (FTS for two factors by calculating the difference of each data point with its previous day, then finding the absolute means of the two FTSs. We then constructed a fuzzy fluctuation time series (FFTS according to the defined linguistic sets. The next step was establishing fuzzy fluctuation logical relation groups (FFLRGs for a two-factor first-order autoregressive (AR(1 model and forecasting the training data with the AR(1 model. Then we built FFLRGs for a two-factor first-order autoregressive moving average (ARMA(1,m model. Lastly, we forecasted test data with the ARMA(1,m model. To illustrate the performance of our model, we used real Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX and Dow Jones datasets as a secondary factor to forecast TAIEX. The experiment results indicate that the proposed two-factor fluctuation ARMA method outperformed the one-factor method based on real historic data. The secondary factor may have some effects on the main factor and thereby impact the forecasting results. Using fuzzified fluctuations rather than fuzzified real data could avoid the influence of extreme values in historic data, which performs negatively while forecasting. To verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the model, we also employed our method to forecast the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SHSECI from 2001 to 2015 and the international gold price from 2000 to 2010.

  13. The relationships within the Chaitophorinae and Drepanosiphinae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) inferred from molecular-based phylogeny and comprehensive morphological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Karina; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota; Kajtoch, Łukasz; Kanturski, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The Chaitophorinae is a bionomically diverse Holarctic subfamily of Aphididae. The current classification includes two tribes: the Chaitophorini associated with deciduous trees and shrubs, and Siphini that feed on monocotyledonous plants. We present the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily, based on molecular and morphological datasets. Molecular analyses were based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and the nuclear gene elongation factor-1α (EF-1α). Phylogenetic inferences were obtained individually on each of genes and joined alignments using Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum likelihood (ML). In phylogenetic trees reconstructed on the basis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes as well as a morphological dataset, the monophyly of Siphini and the genus Chaitophorus was supported. Periphyllus forms independent lineages from Chaitophorus and Siphini. Within this genus two clades comprising European and Asiatic species, respectively, were indicated. Concerning relationships within the subfamily, EF-1α and joined COI and EF-1α genes analysis strongly supports the hypothesis that Chaitophorini do not form a monophyletic clade. Periphyllus is a sister group to a clade containing Chaitophorus and Siphini. The Asiatic unit of Periphyllus also includes Trichaitophorus koyaensis. The analysis of morphological dataset under equally weighted parsimony also supports the view that Chaitophorini is an artificial taxon, as Lambersaphis pruinosae and Pseudopterocomma hughi, both traditionally included in the Chaitophorini, formed independent lineages. COI analyses support consistent groups within the subfamily, but relationships between groups are poorly resolved. These analyses were extended to include the species of closely related and phylogenetically unstudied subfamily Drepanosiphinae, which produced congruent results. Genera Drepanosiphum and Depanaphis are monophyletic and sister. The position of Yamatocallis tokyoensis differs in the

  14. The two-factor model of evaluating mining rights of coal resources based on options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-suo; ZOU Shao-hui; SHI Xin-min

    2008-01-01

    MRCR could be regarded as a multi-stage compounding real option, based on option theory, assuming the convenience yield of coal reserves to be constant, built a one-factor model of valuating MRCR with the stochastic value of coal reserves. On the basis of our one-factor model, set up a two-factor model of evaluating MRCR assuming the convenience yield follows the mean-reverting process. When applied to valuate the MRCR of a coalmine, this model gives higher values than the one-factor model and the NPV. This is because the increase of convenience yield can improve the executive opportunity of MRCR.

  15. Factor Analysis of the Aggregated Electric Vehicle Load Based on Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs and the related infrastructure are being developed rapidly. In order to evaluate the impact of factors on the aggregated EV load and to coordinate charging, a model is established to capture the relationship between the charging load and important factors based on data mining. The factors can be categorized as internal and external. The internal factors include the EV battery size, charging rate at different places, penetration of the charging infrastructure, and charging habits. The external factor is the time-of-use pricing (TOU policy. As a massive input data is necessary for data mining, an algorithm is implemented to generate a massive sample as input data which considers real-world travel patterns based on a historical travel dataset. With the input data, linear regression was used to build a linear model whose inputs were the internal factors. The impact of the internal factors on the EV load can be quantified by analyzing the sign, value, and temporal distribution of the model coefficients. The results showed that when no TOU policy is implemented, the rate of charging at home and range anxiety exerts the greatest influence on EV load. For the external factor, a support vector regression technique was used to build a relationship between the TOU policy and EV load. Then, an optimization model based on the relationship was proposed to devise a TOU policy that levels the load. The results suggest that implementing a TOU policy reduces the difference between the peak and valley loads remarkably.

  16. Residual fatigue strength of 48MnV crankshaft based on safety factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang; CHEN Ming; PU Geng-qiang; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    Residual fatigue strength of 48MnV crankshaft was studied and analyzed based on safety factor. Three different status crankshafts were used to the hop-up tests, which maintain new after 500 h hop-up tests and after 1 000 h hop-up tests. Then, crankshafts were cut into unit cranks. The unit cranks were used to do endurance bending tests to get the residual fatigue strength. Finally, the results were analyzed based on safety factor. The results show that safety factor of crankshaft descends a little with the increase of the running time, and the residual safety factor is still much bigger than the endurable safety factor. Furthermore, after the crankshaft accomplishes a full life cycle, the residual fatigue strength of the crankshaft is enough to remanufacture and fulfill the next life cycle.

  17. Isolation of Flavonoids from Deguelia duckeana and Their Effect on Cellular Viability, AMPK, eEF2, eIF2 and eIF4E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M. C. Cursino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Preparations of Deguelia duckeana, known in Brazil as timbó, are used by indigenous people to kill fish. Reinvestigation of its extracts resulted in the isolation and identification of 11 known flavonoids identified as 3,5,4’-trimethoxy-4-prenylstilbene (1, 4-methoxyderricidine (2, lonchocarpine (3, 4-hydroxylonchocarpine (4, 4-methoxylonchocarpine (5, 5-hydroxy-4’,7-dimethoxy-6-prenylflavanone (6, 4’-hydroxyisolonchocarpine (7, 4’-methoxyisolonchocarpine (8, 3’,4’,7-trimethoxyflavone (9, 3’,4’-methylenedioxy-7-methoxyflavone (10, and 2,2-dimethyl-chromone-5,4’-hydroxy-5’-methoxyflavone (11. Except for 1, 3, and 4 all of these flavonoids have been described for the first time in D. duckeana and the flavanone 6 for the first time in nature. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 were studied for their potential to induce cell death in neuronal SK-N-SH cells. Only the chalcone 4 and the flavanone 7 significantly induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, which was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and impairment of energy homeostasis in the MTT assay and may explain the killing effect on fish. Interestingly, the flavone 10 reduced cell metabolism in the MTT assay without inducing cytotoxicity in the LDH assay. Furthermore, the flavonoids 2, 3, 4, 7, and 10 induced phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2. The initiation factor eIF4E was dephosphorylated in the presence of these compounds. The initiation factor eIF2alpha was not affected. Further studies are needed to elucidate the importance of the observed effects on protein synthesis and potential therapeutic perspectives.

  18. Decolorization of distillery spent wash effluent by electro oxidation (EC and EF) and Fenton processes: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Charles; Arivazhagan, M; Tuvakara, Fazaludeen

    2015-11-01

    In this study, laboratory scale experiments were performed to degrade highly concentrated organic matter in the form of color in the distillery spent wash through batch oxidative methods such as electrocoagulation (EC), electrofenton (EF) and Fenton process. The effect of corresponding operating parameters, namely initial pH: 2-10; current intensity: 1-5A; electrolysis time: 0.5-4h; agitation speed: 100-500rpm; inter-electrode distance: 0.5-4cm and Fenton's reagent dosage: 5-40mg/L was employed for optimizing the process of spent wash color removal. The performance of all the three processes was compared and assessed in terms of percentage color removal. For EC, 79% color removal was achieved using iron electrodes arranged with 0.5cm of inter-electrode space and at optimum conditions of pH 7, 5A current intensity, 300rpm agitation speed and in 2h of electrolysis time. In EF, 44% spent wash decolorization was observed using carbon (graphite) electrodes with an optimum conditions of 0.5cm inter-electrode distance, pH 3, 4A current intensity, 20mg/L FeSO4 and agitation speed of 400rpm for 3h of electrolysis time. By Fenton process, 66% decolorization was attained by Fenton process at optimized conditions of pH 3, 40mg/L of Fenton's reagent and at 500rpm of agitation speed for 4h of treatment time.

  19. Absolute dimensions of solar-type eclipsing binaries. EF Aquarii: a G0 test for stellar evolution models

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, J; Jørgensen, U G; Østensen, R H; Claret, A; Hillen, M; Exter, K

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that stellar chromospheric activity, and its effect on convective energy transport in the envelope, is most likely the cause of significant radius and temperature discrepancies between theoretical evolution models and observations. We aim to determine absolute dimensions and abundances for the solar-type detached eclipsing binary EF Aqr, and to perform a detailed comparison with results from recent stellar evolutionary models. uvby-beta standard photometry was obtained with the Stromgren Automatic Telescope. The broadening function formalism was applied on spectra observed with HERMES at the Mercator telescope in La Palma, to obtain radial velocity curves. Masses and radii with a precision of 0.6% and 1.0% respectively have been established for both components of EF Aqr. The active 0.956 M_sol secondary shows star spots and strong Ca II H and K emission lines. The 1.224 M_sol primary shows signs of activity as well, but at a lower level. An [Fe/H] abundance of 0.00+-0.10 is derived w...

  20. A unique EF-hand motif in mnemiopsin photoprotein from Mnemiopsis leidyi: implication for its low calcium sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian, Vahab; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Aghamaali, Mahmoud-Reza; Sajedi, Reza Hassan; Taghdir, Majid; Hassannia, Sadegh

    2011-09-23

    Up to now, all reported Ca(2+)-regulated photoproteins, except for mnemiopsin, have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. In this study, the cDNA for an isotype of mnemiopsin, from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, has been cloned, sequenced, and functionally expressed. The full length cDNA encoding mnemiopsin of M. leidyi was 624 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 207 amino acid residues with calculated molecular mass of ∼24 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 90% and 84% identity to berovine (from ctenophore Beroe abyssicola) and bolinopsin 2 (from the ctenophore Bolinopsis infundibulum) respectively. In contrast to all known EF-hand in photoproteins, a unique EF-hand motif was found in mnemiopsin, in which a conserved glycine is substituted with glutamic acid. According to the results, the optimum pH was 9.0, time course of regeneration was 15 h and its Ca(2+) sensitivity was lower than aequorin. Results of pK(a) calculation for ionizable residues, motif scan and hydrophobic interactions of cavity aromatic residues of mnemiopsin in comparison with aequorin showed different patterns in these two photoproteins. In addition, experimental results are confirmed with the theoretical studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Dong

    Full Text Available China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1 During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2 According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3 Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity.

  2. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity.

  3. Socio-cultural factors influencing male involvement in home-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-cultural factors influencing male involvement in home-based care for people living with HIV and ... East African Medical Journal ... of close relatives and 59.7% of the respondents had not received formal training on home-based care.

  4. Enhancement Factors in Ozone Absorption Based on the Surface Renewal Model and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the Danckwerts surface renewal model, a simple explicit expression of theenhancement factor in ozone absorption with a first order ozone self-decomposition and parallel secondorder ozonation reactions has been derived. The results are compared with our previous work based onthe film theory. The 2,4-dichlorophenol destruction rate by ozonation is predicted using the enhancementfactor model in this paper.

  5. Recurrent bacteraemia: A 10-year regional population-based study of clinical and microbiological risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, U.S.; Knudsen, J.D.; Andersen, Christian Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    Background: A population-based nested case-control study was conducted in order to characterize patient factors and microbial species associated with recurrent bacteraemia. Methods: All patients with bacteraemia in a Danish region during 1996-2006 were investigated. Recurrence was defined based o...

  6. Factor analysis on symptoms and signs of stroke based on traditional Korean Medicine theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byoung-Kab; Park, Tae-Yong; Lee, Ju Ah; Moon, Tae-Woong; Lee, Myeong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to classify factors of symptoms and signs, which is the same implication with items of factor, from patients with stroke based on the Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM) theory by using factor analysis, and to find out the inter-relations between factors and patterns. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2905 patients with stroke in 11 Oriental Medicine hospitals of Korea. Outcome measures comprised patterns decided by TKM doctors considering 44 items and 44 items that were based on inspection, listening and smelling, inquiry, and palpation. Factor analysis was used as statistical method for classifying 44 items, and dominant pattern of the four patterns [Qi deficiency (QD), Fire-heat (FH), Yin deficiency (YD), Dampness-phlegm (DP)] for each factor was determined by Chi-square test. Thirty-three items belonged to some factors, but 11 items did not. 14 factors were extracted. Six factors which had a negative loading were separated, and distinguished using hyphen. The fourteen factors accounted for 9.42%, 6.97%, 5.75%, 4.22%, 4.15%, 3.82%, 3.32%, 3.14%, 2.95%, 2.65%, 2.62%, 2.47%, 2.37% and 2.29% of total variance respectively, and totally 56.14%. In conclusion, there are 10 factors which belong to exclusive pattern, and 9 factors which belong to inter-related pattern. It was statistically found out that there are inter-relation between DP and QD, between DP and FH, between FH and YD, and between YD and QD for stroke patients.

  7. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors.

  8. FhCaBP2: a Fasciola hepatica calcium-binding protein with EF-hand and dynein light chain domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Charlotte M; Timson, David J

    2015-09-01

    FhCaBP2 is a Fasciola hepatica protein which belongs to a family of helminth calcium-binding proteins which combine an N-terminal domain containing two EF-hand motifs and a C-terminal dynein light chain-like (DLC-like) domain. Its predicted structure showed two globular domains joined by a flexible linker. Recombinant FhCaBP2 interacted reversibly with calcium and manganese ions, but not with magnesium, barium, strontium, copper (II), colbalt (II), iron (II), nickel, lead or potassium ions. Cadmium (II) ions appeared to bind non-site-specifically and destabilize the protein. Interaction with either calcium or magnesium ions results in a conformational change in which the protein's surface becomes more hydrophobic. The EF-hand domain alone was able to interact with calcium and manganese ions; the DLC-like domain was not. Alteration of a residue (Asp-58 to Ala) in the second EF-hand motif in this domain abolished ion-binding activity. This suggests that the second EF-hand is the one responsible for ion-binding. FhCaBP2 homodimerizes and the extent of dimerization was not affected by calcium ions or by the aspartate to alanine substitution in the second EF-hand. The isolated EF-hand and DLC-like domains are both capable of homodimerization. FhCaBP2 interacted with the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine, thiamylal and W7. Interestingly, while chlorpromazine and thiamylal interacted with the EF-hand domain (as expected), trifluoperazine and W7 bound to the DLC-like domain. Overall, FhCaBP2 has distinct biochemical properties compared with other members of this protein family from Fasciola hepatica, a fact which supports the hypothesis that these proteins have different physiological roles.

  9. Comparison of Skin Moisturizer: Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE Factors in Clusters Based on Consumer Ethnocentrism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossy Hanna Garlina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze relevant factors contributing to the four dimensions of consumer-based brand equity in skin moisturizer industry. It is then followed by the clustering of female consumers of skin moisturizer based on ethnocentrism and differentiating each cluster’s consumer-based brand equity dimensions towards a domestic skin moisturizer brand Mustika Ratu, skin moisturizer. Research used descriptive survey method analysis. Primary data was obtained through questionnaire distribution to 70 female respondents for factor analysis and 120 female respondents for cluster analysis and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. This research employed factor analysis to obtain relevant factors contributing to the five dimensions of consumer-based brand equity in skin moisturizer industry. Cluster analysis and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA were to see the difference of consumer-based brand equity between highly ethnocentric consumer and low ethnocentric consumer towards the same skin moisturizer domestic brand, Mustika Ratu skin moisturizer. Research found in all individual dimension analysis, all variable means and individual means show distinct difference between the high ethnocentric consumer and the low ethnocentric consumer. The low ethnocentric consumer cluster tends to be lower in mean score of Brand Loyalty, Perceived Quality, Brand Awareness, Brand Association, and Overall Brand Equity than the high ethnocentric consumer cluster. Research concludes consumer ethnocentrism is positively correlated with preferences towards domestic products and negatively correlated with foreign-made product preference. It is, then, highly ethnocentric consumers have positive perception towards domestic product.

  10. Surprisingly low compliance to local guidelines for risk factor based screening for gestational diabetes mellitus - A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkvist Anna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is routine during pregnancy in many countries in the world. The screening programs are either based on general screening offered to all pregnant women or risk factor based screening stipulated in local clinical guidelines. The aims of this study were to investigate: 1 the compliance with local guidelines of screening for GDM and 2 the outcomes of pregnancy and birth in relation to risk factors of GDM and whether or not exposed to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Methods This study design was a population-based retrospective cross-sectional study of 822 women. A combination of questionnaire data and data collected from medical records was applied. Compliance to the local guidelines of risk factor based screening for GDM was examined and a comparison of outcomes of pregnancy and delivery in relation to risk factor groups for GDM was performed. Results Of the 822 participants, 257 (31.3% women fulfilled at least one criterion for being exposed to screening for GDM according to the local clinical guidelines. However, only 79 (30.7% of these women were actually exposed to OGTT and of those correctly exposed for screening, seven women were diagnosed with GDM. Women developing risk factors for GDM during pregnancy had a substantially increased risk of giving birth to an infant with macrosomia. Conclusion Surprisingly low compliance with the local clinical guidelines for screening for GDM during pregnancy was found. Furthermore, the prevalence of the risk factors of GDM in our study was almost doubled compared to previous Swedish studies. Pregnant women developing risk factors of GDM during pregnancy were found to be at substantially increased risk of giving birth to an infant with macrosomia. There is a need of actions improving compliance to the local guidelines.

  11. Factors influencing a problem-based learning implementation: A case study of IT courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darus, Norida Muhd; Mohd, Haslina; Baharom, Fauziah; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Puteh, Nurnasran; Marzuki @ Matt, Zaharin; Husain, Mohd Zabidin; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    IT students must be trained to work efficiently as teamwork. One of the techniques that can be used to train them is through Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach. The PBL implementation can be influenced by various factors depending on the ultimate goal of the study. This study is focusing on the IT students' perception of the PBL implementation. The student's perception is important to ensure the successfulness of the PBL implementation. Therefore, it is important to identify the factors that might influence the implementation of PBL of IT courses. This study aims to identify some catalyst factors that may influence the PBL implementation of IT courses. The study involved three (3) main phases: identifying PBL implementation factors, constructing a PBL model, and PBL model validation using statistical analysis. Four main factors are identified: PBL Characteristics, PBL Course Assessment, PBL Practices, and PBL Perception. Based on these four factors, a PBL model is constructed. Then, based on the proposed PBL model, four hypotheses are formulated and analyzed to validate the model. All hypotheses are significantly acceptable. The result shows that the PBL Characteristics and PBL Course Assessment factors are significantly influenced the PBL Practices and indirectly influenced the Students' Perception of the PBL Implementation for IT courses. This PBL model can assist decision makers in enhancing the PBL teaching and learning strategy for IT courses. It is also can be tested to other courses in the future.

  12. Efficiency of different annuloplasty in treating functional tricuspid regurgitation and risk factors for recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyun Lin

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Rigid ring annuloplasty efficaciously improved post-operative tricuspid valve function in patients with FTR. Atrial fibrillation, a large left atrium, low EF and postoperative permanent pacemaker installation were independent risk factors for severe recurrent TR.

  13. Research on Assessment Model of Information System Security Based on Various Security Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid development of network technology, the meaning of layers and attributes in respect of information system security must be extended based on the understanding of the concept of information system security. The layering model (LM) of information system security and the five-attribute model (FAM) based on security factors were put forward to perfect the description and modeling of the information system security framework. An effective framework system of risk calculation and assessment was proposed, which is based on FAM.

  14. A receptor model for urban aerosols based on oblique factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Kristian; Sørensen, Morten S.; Pind, Niels

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for the construction of receptor models of urban aerosols, based on factor analysis. The advantage of the procedure is that the covariation of source impacts is included in the construction of the models. The results are compared with results obtained by other receptor-modelling...... procedures. It was found that procedures based on correlating sources were physically sound as well as in mutual agreement. Procedures based on non-correlating sources were found to generate physically obscure models....

  15. Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1-alpha 1 inhibits p53 and p73 dependent apoptosis and chemotherapy sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Blanch

    Full Text Available The p53 family of transcription factors is a key regulator of cell proliferation and death. In this report we identify the eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1-alpha 1 (eEF1A1 to be a novel p53 and p73 interacting protein. Previous studies have demonstrated that eEF1A1 has translation-independent roles in cancer. We report that overexpression of eEF1A1 specifically inhibits p53-, p73- and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis resulting in chemoresistance. Short-interfering RNA-mediated silencing of eEF1A1 increases chemosensitivity in cell lines bearing wild type p53, but not in p53 null cells. Furthermore, silencing of eEF1A1 partially rescues the chemoresistance observed in response to p53 or p73 knockdown, suggesting that eEF1A1 is a negative regulator of the pro-apoptotic function of p53 and p73. Thus, in the context of p53-family signaling, eEF1A1 has anti-apoptotic properties. These findings identify a novel mechanism of regulation of the p53 family of proteins by eEF1A1 providing additional insight into potential targets to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy.

  16. Analysis of the Diurnal Pattern of Evaporative Fraction and Its Controlling Factors over Croplands in the Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Da-wen; CHEN He; LEI Hui-min

    2013-01-01

    A key issue of applying remotely sensed data to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) for water management is extrapolating instantaneous latent heat flux (LE) at satellite over-passing time to daily ET total. At present, the most commonly used extrapolation methods have the same assumption that evaporative fraction (EF) can be treated as constant during daytime (so-called EF self-preservation). However, large errors are reported by many documents over various ecosystems with the same approach, which indicates that further analysis of the diurnal pattern of EF is still necessary. The aim of this study is to examine the diurnal pattern of EF under fair weather conditions, then to analyze the dependencies of EF to meteorological and plant factors. Long-term flux observations at four sites over semi-arid and semi-humid climate regions in the northern China are used to analyze the EF diurnal pattern. Results show that the EF self-preservation assumption no longer holds over growing seasons of crops. However, the ratio of reference ET to available energy is almost constant during the daytime, which implies the climate factors do not have much effect on the variability of EF. The analysis of diurnal pattern of air temperature, vapor pressure deficiency (VPD), and relative humidity (RH) confirms the assumption that ET diurnal pattern is mainly influenced by stomatal regulation.

  17. Protection of pigs against challenge with virulent Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains by a muramidase-released protein and extracellular factor vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Vecht, U.; Stockhofe Zurwieden, N.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of a muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) vaccine in preventing infection and disease in pigs challenged either with a homologous or a heterologous Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain (MRP EF ) was compared with the efficacy of a vaccine containing formalin-k

  18. A feasibility study of the implementation of total quality management based on soft factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Shahin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  The aim of this paper is to examine the feasibility of implementing TQM based on soft factors, which can influence the successful implementation of TQM.Design/methodology/approach: A framework has been developed for the TQM soft factors based on literature review and respectively, questionnaires which are directly related to the addressed factors have been designed and distributed to the employees of an engineering service company as the main enablers of improving the effectiveness of TQM.Findings: The findings imply that committed leadership, closer customer relationship, benchmarking and process improvement have the most correlations amongst the TQM soft factors. Training is the only factor which is not correlated to other soft factors. Leadership has also the highest value among the soft factors.Research limitations/implications: The proposed framework is costly and time consuming due to the large number of questions it holds. In this study, it is assumed that sub factors have the same importance. But there is a possibility in which these subdivisions do not have the same relative importance weight. The study is also limited to one company and therefore, the findings should not be generalized.Practical implications: The proposed TQM soft factors framework can be useful for those organizations which consider TQM as an integrated quality management system as the major foundation for achievement of competitive advantage.Originality/value: A comprehensive framework for TQM soft factors has been presented since it involves almost all of the soft factors addressed in the literature.

  19. Exploratory factor analysis of self-reported symptoms in a large, population-based military cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliese Paul D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US military engagements have consistently raised concern over the array of health outcomes experienced by service members postdeployment. Exploratory factor analysis has been used in studies of 1991 Gulf War-related illnesses, and may increase understanding of symptoms and health outcomes associated with current military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The objective of this study was to use exploratory factor analysis to describe the correlations among numerous physical and psychological symptoms in terms of a smaller number of unobserved variables or factors. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study collects extensive self-reported health data from a large, population-based military cohort, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the interrelationships of numerous physical and psychological symptoms among US military personnel. This study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a large, population-based military cohort. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the covariance structure of symptoms reported by approximately 50,000 cohort members during 2004-2006. Analyses incorporated 89 symptoms, including responses to several validated instruments embedded in the questionnaire. Techniques accommodated the categorical and sometimes incomplete nature of the survey data. Results A 14-factor model accounted for 60 percent of the total variance in symptoms data and included factors related to several physical, psychological, and behavioral constructs. A notable finding was that many factors appeared to load in accordance with symptom co-location within the survey instrument, highlighting the difficulty in disassociating the effects of question content, location, and response format on factor structure. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential strengths and weaknesses of exploratory factor analysis to heighten understanding of the complex associations among symptoms. Further research is needed to

  20. The hypusine-containing translation factor eIF5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Thomas E; Gutierrez, Erik; Shin, Byung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the small and large ribosomal subunits, aminoacyl-tRNAs, and an mRNA, cellular protein synthesis is dependent on translation factors. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) and its bacterial ortholog elongation factor P (EF-P) were initially characterized based on their ability to stimulate methionyl-puromycin (Met-Pmn) synthesis, a model assay for protein synthesis; however, the function of these factors in cellular protein synthesis has been difficult to resolve. Interestingly, a conserved lysine residue in eIF5A is post-translationally modified to hypusine and the corresponding lysine residue in EF-P from at least some bacteria is modified by the addition of a β-lysine moiety. In this review, we provide a summary of recent data that have identified a novel role for the translation factor eIF5A and its hypusine modification in the elongation phase of protein synthesis and more specifically in stimulating the production of proteins containing runs of consecutive proline residues.

  1. Physics-based features for identifying contextual factors affecting landmine detection with ground-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2011-06-01

    It has been established throughout the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) literature that environmental factors can severely impact the performance of GPR sensors in landmine detection applications. Over the years, electromagnetic inversion techniques have been proposed for determining these factors with the goal of mitigating performance losses. However, these techniques are often computationally expensive and require models and responses from canonical targets, and therefore may not be appropriate for real-time route-clearance applications. An alternative technique for mitigating performance changes due to environmental factors is context-dependent classification, in which decision rules are adjusted based on contextual shifts identified from the GPR data. However, analysis of the performance of context-dependent learning has been limited to qualitative comparisons of contextually-similar GPR signatures and quantitative improvement to the ROC curve, while the actual information extracted regarding soils has not been investigated thoroughly. In this work, physics-based features of GPR data used in previous context-dependent approaches were extracted from simulated GPR data generated through Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) modeling. Statistical techniques where then used to predict several potential contextual factors, including soil dielectric constant, surface roughness, amount of subsurface clutter, and the existence of subsurface layering, based on the features. Results suggest that physics-based features of the GPR background may contain informatin regarding physical properties of the environment, and contextdependent classification based on these features can exploit information regarding these potentially-important environmental factors.

  2. Isolation of EF1gamma from calli regenerating SSH library in Maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Y L; Ding, J; Zhang, Z M; Rong, T Z; Shi, L Y; Pan, G T

    2007-12-01

    18599Hong, a good Maize (Zea mays) inbred line as well as good transformation acceptor with high regeneration capacity, was used for isolating embryonic callus regeneration genes. Subtractive library was constructed by Suppression subtractive hybridization and screened by Reverse Northern Hybridization. The clones of No. 27 was randomly picked to sequence. NCBI blastx results showed the similarity to elongation factor 1gamma in rice.

  3. Fostering EF/SL Learners' Meta-Pragmatic Awareness of Complaints and Their Interactive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Manuel Padilla

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a series of steps for teaching complaint behaviour in English. The production of complaints requires a meta-pragmatic awareness of their interactive value and functions, their different types and realisations, pragmalinguistic formulae frequently employed or the socio-pragmatic factors affecting them, among others, which many…

  4. Three versus four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates for "factor-based" resuscitation in a porcine hemorrhagic shock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Donald Michael; Lallemand, Michael Scott; McClellan, John Mason; Smith, Joshua Porter; Marko, Shannon T; Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-07-12

    Bleeding is a leading cause of preventable death following severe injury. Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) treat inborn coagulation disorders and reverse oral anticoagulants, but are proposed for use in "factor-based" resuscitation strategies. Few studies exist for this indication in acidosis, or that compare 3-factor (3PCC) versus 4-factor (4PCC) products. We aimed to assess and compare their safety and efficacy in a porcine model of severe hemorrhagic shock and coagulopathy. Twenty-five adult Yorkshire swine underwent 35% volume hemorrhage, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and protocolized crystalloid resuscitation. Seventeen animals were randomized at 4 hours following model creation to receive a 45-IU/kg dose of either 3PCC or 4PCC. An additional 8 animals received autologous plasma transfusion prior to 4PCC to better characterize response to PCC. Individual factor levels were drawn at 4 and 6 hours. The model created significant acidosis with mean pH 7.21 and lactate of 9.6 mmol/L. Following PCC, 66.7% of 3PCC animals and 25% of 4PCC animals (regardless of plasma administration) developed consumptive coagulopathy. The animals that developed consumptive coagulopathy had manifested the "lethal triad" with lower temperatures (36.3 vs. 37.8°C), increased acidosis (pH 7.14 vs. 7.27, base excess -12.1 vs. -6.5 mEq/L), and worse coagulopathy (prothrombin time 17.1 vs. 14.6 seconds, fibrinogen 87.9 vs. 124.1 mg/dL) (all pfactors with transient improvement of prothrombin time, but there was significant depletion of fibrinogen and platelets with no lasting improvement of coagulopathy. PCC failed to correct coagulopathy and was associated with fibrinogen and platelet depletion. Of greater concern, PCC administration resulted in consumptive coagulopathy in the more severely ill animals. The incidence of consumptive coagulopathy was markedly increased with 3PCC versus 4PCC, and these products should be used with caution in this setting. II, therapeutic.

  5. [Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential coal combustion and its influence factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ying-Jun; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Lin, Tian

    2013-07-01

    As the emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), domestic coal combustion has attracted increasing attention in China. According to the coal maturity, combustion form and stove type associated with domestic coal combustion, a large-size, full-flow dilution tunnel and fractional sampling system was employed to collect the emissions from five coals with various maturities, which were burned in the form of raw-coal-chunk (RCC)/honeycomb-coal-briquettes (HCB) in different residential stoves, and then the emission factors of PAHs (EF(PAHs)) were achieved. The results indicate that the EF(PAHs) of bituminous coal ranged from 1.1 mg x kg(-1) to 3.9 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 2.5 mg x kg(-1) to 21. 1 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, and the anthracite EF(PAH8) were 0.2 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 0.6 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, respectively. Among all the influence factors of emission factors of PAHs from domestic coal combustion, the maturity of coal played a major role, the range of variance reaching 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in coals with different maturity. Followed by the form of combustion (RCC/HCB), the EF(PAHs) of HCB was 2-6 times higher than that of RCC for the same geological maturity of the coal. The type of stove had little influence on EF(PAHs).

  6. The concept of lifestyle factors, based on the teaching of avicenna (ibn sina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choopani, Rasool; Emtiazy, Majid

    2015-01-01

    According to the definition stated in the beginning of the "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb" (the Qanun of Medicine); medicine is a science, from which one learns the states of the human body; health and disease and what causes them, in order to preserve good health when it exists, and restore it when it is lacking. Based on this issue, Avicenna believes that medical science belongs to all human without any limitation, and maintenance of health is one of its prime objectives. He states that many disorders are related to errors in the 6 factors, which are essential for maintaining health and preventing diseases. Avicenna described these six essential factors (lifestyle factors) in his masterpiece, Qanun of Medicine, as "Asbab-e-Settah-e-Zaruriah." Based on the teaching of Avicenna, the first step for maintaining health and approaches to treatment is modification of lifestyle factors, including of nutrition, physical activity, etc.

  7. Risk factors for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: a population-based study on Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Vogel, Ida; Molsted, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    Background. No larger population-based study of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy has previously been available. The objective of this study was to examine risk factors for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Design. From a prospective population-based cohort of 3,596 eligible pregnant women, 2......, and sociodemographic factors) were computed. Results. At enrolment, bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 13.7% of Danish pregnant women. Significant risk factors for bacterial vaginosis were: daily coitus (adjusted relative risk 2.09 [1.43-3.04]), being single (1.76 [1.21-2.56]), smoking more than 10 cigarettes daily...... at conception (1.59 [1.29-1.93]), previous genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1.39 [1.07-1.79]), and consuming 2 or more drinks per week (1.33 [1.02-1.74]) after control for confounding factors. Conclusion. In pregnancy, women who have daily coitus, are single, smokers...

  8. Analysis and design of permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing based on hybrid factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinji Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, hybrid factor is proposed for hybrid magnetic bearing. The hybrid factor is defined as the ratio of the force produced by the permanent magnet and the forces produced by the permanent magnet and current in hybrid magnetic bearing. It is deduced from a certain radial hybrid magnetic bearing using its important parameters such as the current stiffness and displacement stiffness at first and then the dynamic model of magnetically suspended rotor system is established. The relationship between structural parameters and control system parameters is analyzed based on the hybrid factor. Some influencing factors of hybrid factor in hybrid magnetic bearing, such as the size of the permanent magnet, length of air gap, and area of the stator poles, are analyzed in this article. It can be concluded that larger hybrid factor can be caused by the smaller power loss according to the definition of hybrid factor mentioned above. Meanwhile, the hybrid factor has a maximum value, which is related to control system parameters such as proportional factor expect for structural parameters. Finally, the design steps of parameters of hybrid magnetic bearing can be concluded.

  9. Immobilization and Application of Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffold-based Growth Factor in Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guobao; Lv, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers have been extensively used in growth factor delivery and regenerative medicine due to many advantages including large surface area to volume ratio, high porosity, excellent loading capacity, ease of access and cost effectiveness. Their relatively large surface area is helpful for cell adhesion and growth factor loading, while storage and release of growth factor are essential to guide cellular behaviors and tissue formation and organization. In bone tissue engineering, growth factors are expected to transmit signals that stimulate cellular proliferation, migration, differentiation, metabolism, apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Bolus administration is not always an effective method for the delivery of growth factors because of their rapid diffusion from the target site and quick deactivation. Therefore, the integration of controlled release strategy within electrospun nanofibers can provide protection for growth factors against in vivo degradation, and can manipulate desired signal at an effective level with extended duration in local microenvironment to support tissue regeneration and repair which normally takes a much longer time. In this review, we provide an overview of growth factor delivery using biomimetic electrospun nanofiber scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. It begins with a brief introduction of different kinds of polymers that were used in electrospinning and their applications in bone tissue engineering. The review further focuses on the nanofiber-based growth factor delivery and summarizes the strategies of growth factors loading on the nanofiber scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. The perspectives on future challenges in this area are also pointed out.

  10. Evaluation of {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF for mitochondrial complex 1 imaging in the brain of conscious monkeys using PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Hideo; Ohba, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Masakatsu; Kakiuchi, Takeharu; Harada, Norihiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We have reported on the development of a novel PET probe, {sup 18}F-2-tert-butyl-4-chloro-5-{6-[2-(2-fluoroethoxy)-ethoxy] -pyridin-3-ylmethoxy}-2H-pyridazin-3-one ({sup 18}F-BCPP-EF), for quantitative imaging of mitochondrial complex 1 (MC-1) activity in the brain of the living rat. For clinical application in humans, translational research in the monkey was conducted. PET measurements with {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF were performed in young and old monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a conscious state with arterial blood sampling. The binding specificity of {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF was evaluated with rotenone, a specific MC-1 inhibitor, in young animals. The binding (total distribution volume, V{sub T}) of {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF was calculated using Logan graphical analysis, and one-tissue compartment model (1-TC) and two-tissue compartment model (2-TC) analyses using a metabolite-corrected plasma input function. F-BCPP-EF was rapidly taken up into the brain just after intravenous injection, peaked between 10 and 20 min after injection, and was then gradually eliminated. The 2-TC analysis provided a better fit than the 1-TC analysis, and the V{sub T} values from the 2-TC analysis correlated well with those from the Logan plot. With predosing with rotenone, {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF showed a higher uptake peak in the brain, followed by more rapid elimination thereafter than in the vehicle condition, resulting in significant reductions in 2-TC V{sub T} values in all regions. In old animals, the kinetics of {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF were slightly slower with lower peak levels than in young animals, resulting age-related reductions in {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF binding in all brain regions. The present study demonstrated that {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF may be a potential PET probe for quantitative imaging MC-1 activity in the living brain using PET. (orig.)

  11. Matching/Mismatching in Web-Based Learning: A Perspective Based on Cognitive Styles and Physiological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Hwang, Jan-Pan; Chen, Sherry Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive styles have been regarded as a crucial factor that affects the effectiveness of web-based learning (WBL). Previous research indicated that educational settings that match with students' cognitive styles can enhance students' learning performance, which is, however, linked to their emotion. Various physiological signals can be applied to…

  12. Elongation Factor 1β' Gene from Spodoptera exigua: Characterization and Function Identification through RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Zhao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elongation factor (EF is a key regulation factor for translation in many organisms, including plants, bacteria, fungi, animals and insects. To investigate the nature and function of elongation factor 1β' from Spodoptera exigua (SeEF-1β', its cDNA was cloned. This contained an open reading frame of 672 nucleotides encoding a protein of 223 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24.04 kDa and pI of 4.53. Northern blotting revealed that SeEF-1β' mRNA is expressed in brain, epidermis, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, ovary and tracheae. RT-PCR revealed that SeEF-1β' mRNA is expressed at different levels in fat body and whole body during different developmental stages. In RNAi experiments, the survival rate of insects injected with SeEF-1β' dsRNA was 58.7% at 36 h after injection, which was significantly lower than three control groups. Other elongation factors and transcription factors were also influenced when EF-1β' was suppressed. The results demonstrate that SeEF-1β' is a key gene in transcription in S. exigua.

  13. Analysis of risk factors of stillbirth: a hospital based study in a tertiary care centre

    OpenAIRE

    Paresh Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stillbirth is an indicator of maternal health and maternal health care services. Developing countries have high stillbirth rate. Documentation and evaluation of the risk factors for stillbirth is required for management of the risk factors and to devise plan in maternal health sector. Methods: It was a hospital based retrospective study carried out in a tertiary care hospital. Inclusion criteria were a case of fetal death with gestational age and #8805;20 weeks or fetal weight...

  14. Study of Influencing Factors of Dynamic Measurements Based on SnO2 Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhuai Liu

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The gas-sensing behaviour based on a dynamic measurement method of a single SnO2 gas sensor was investigated by comparison with the static measurement. The influencing factors of nonlinear response such as modulation temperature, duty ratio, heating waveform (rectangular, sinusoidal, saw-tooth, pulse, etc. were also studied. Experimental data showed that temperature was the most essential factor because the changes of frequency and heating waveform could result in the changes of temperature essentially.

  15. Analysis of Risks in Hainan Island Typhoon Hazard Factor Based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this paper was to analyze the risks in the typhoon hazard factors in Hainan Island. [Method] Taking the theory and method of natural disasters evaluation as starting point and supporting point, and selecting Hainan province as the research target, where the typhoon disaster occurred relatively serious, based on the typhoon data during 1958-2008, with happening frequency of typhoon hazard-formative factors, maximum rainfall, potentially devastating effects of typhoon winds as evaluatio...

  16. High Quality Factor Silicon Cantilever Driven by PZT Actuator for Resonant Based Mass Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jian; Zhang, Yi; Mihara, Takashi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2008-01-01

    A high quality factor (Q-factor) piezoelectric lead zirconat titanate (PZT) actuated single crystal silicon cantilever was proposed in this paper for resonant based ultra-sensitive mass detection. Energy dissipation from intrinsic mechanical loss of the PZT film was successfully compressed by separating the PZT actuator from resonant structure. Excellent Q-factor, which is several times larger than conventional PZT cantilever, was achieved under both atmospheric pressure and reduced pressures. For a 30 micrometer-wide 100 micrometer-long cantilever, Q-factor was measured as high as 1113 and 7279 under the pressure of 101.2 KPa and 35 Pa, respectively. Moreover, it was found that high-mode vibration can be realized by the cantilever for the pursuit of great Q-factor, while support loss became significant because of the increased vibration amplitude at the actuation point. An optimized structure using node-point actuation was suggested then to suppress corresponding energy dissipation.

  17. Assessment of awareness of connectedness as a culturally-based protective factor for Alaska native youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Nathaniel V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Burket, Rebekah; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2011-10-01

    Research with Native Americans has identified connectedness as a culturally based protective factor against substance abuse and suicide. Connectedness refers to the interrelated welfare of the individual, one's family, one's community, and the natural environment. We developed an 18-item quantitative assessment of awareness of connectedness and tested it with 284 Alaska Native youth. Evaluation with confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory identified a 12-item subset that functions satisfactorily in a second-order four-factor model. The proposed Awareness of Connectedness Scale (ACS) displays good convergent and discriminant validity, and correlates positively with hypothesized protective factors such as reasons for living and communal mastery. The measure has utility in the study of culture-specific protective factors and as an outcomes measure for behavioral health programs with Native American youth.

  18. A Novel Multivariate Model Based on Dominant Factor for Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Lizhi; Ni, Weidou; Li, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach of applying partial least squares method combined with a physical principle based dominant factor. The characteristic line intensity of the specific element was taken to build up the dominant factor to reflect the major elemental concentration and partial least squares (PLS) approach was then applied to further improve the model accuracy. The deviation evolution of characteristic line intensity from the ideal condition was depicted and according to the deviation understanding, efforts were taken to model the non-linear self-absorption and inter-element interference effects to improve the accuracy of dominant factor model. With a dominant factor to carry the main quantitative information, the novel multivariate model combines advantages of both the conventional univariate and PLS models and partially avoids the overuse of the unrelated noise in the spectrum for PLS application. The dominant factor makes the combination model more robust over a wide concentration range and PLS...

  19. [Risk factor calculator for medical underwriting of life insurers based on the PROCAM study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geritse, A; Müller, G; Trompetter, T; Schulte, H; Assmann, G

    2008-06-01

    For its electronic manual GEM, used to perform medical risk assessment in life insurance, SCOR Global Life Germany has developed an innovative and evidence-based calculator of the mortality risk depending on cardiovascular risk factors. The calculator contains several new findings regarding medical underwriting, which were gained from the analysis of the PROCAM (Prospective Cardiovascular Münster) study. For instance, in the overall consideration of all risk factors of a medically examined applicant, BMI is not an independent risk factor. Further, given sufficient information, the total extra mortality of a person no longer results from adding up the ratings for the single risk factors. In fact, this new approach of risk assessment considers the interdependencies between the different risk factors. The new calculator is expected to improve risk selection and standard acceptances will probably increase.

  20. Assessment of Awareness of Connectedness as a Culturally-based Protective Factor for Alaska Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Nathaniel V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Burket, Rebekah; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2011-01-01

    Research with Native Americans has identified connectedness as a culturally-based protective factor against substance abuse and suicide. Connectedness refers to the interrelated welfare of the individual, one’s family, one’s community, and the natural environment. We developed an 18-item quantitative assessment of awareness of connectedness and tested it with 284 Alaska Native youth. Evaluation with confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory identified a 12-item subset that functions satisfactorily in a second-order, four-factor model. The proposed Awareness of Connectedness Scale displays good convergent and discriminant validity and correlates positively with hypothesized protective factors such as reasons for living and communal mastery. The measure has utility in the study of culture-specific protective factors and as an outcomes measure for behavioral health programs with Native American youth. PMID:21988583

  1. Analysis of the Main Factors Influencing Food Production in China Based on Time Series Trend Chart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangjin; WANG; Jianying; LI

    2014-01-01

    Based on the annual sample data on food production in China since the reform and opening up,we select 8 main factors influencing the total food production( growing area,application rate of chemical fertilizer,effective irrigation area,the affected area,total machinery power,food production cost index,food production price index,financial funds for supporting agriculture,farmers and countryside),and put them into categories of material input,resources and environment,and policy factors. Using the factor analysis,we carry out the multi-angle analysis of these typical influencing factors one by one through the time series trend chart. It is found that application rate of chemical fertilizer,the growing area of food crops and drought-affected area become the key factors affecting food production. On this basis,we set forth the corresponding recommendations for improving the comprehensive food production capacity.

  2. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) as a natural and sustainable wastewater reclamation/reuse technology: fate of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) and trace organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy, Gary; Drewes, Jörg

    2007-06-01

    Through the use of innovative analytical tools, the removal/transformation of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) have been tracked through soil aquifer treatment (SAT). While the total amount of EfOM is significantly reduced by SAT, there are trends of shorter term versus longer term removals of specific EfOM fractions. The preferential removal of non-humic components (e.g., proteins, polysaccharides) of EfOM occurs over shorter travel times/distances while humic components (i.e., humic substances) are removed over longer travel times/distances, with the removal of both by sustainable biodegradation. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), a surrogate for protein-like EfOM, is also effectively removed over shorter term SAT. There is some background humic-like natural organic matter (NOM), associated with the drinking water source within the watershed, that persists through SAT. While most effluent-derived trace organic compounds are removed to varying degrees as a function of travel time and redox conditions, a few persist even through longer term SAT.

  3. Effective removal of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from bio-treated coking wastewater by a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenlan; Li, Xuchun; Pan, Bingcai; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

    2013-09-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) is a complex matrix of organic substance mainly from bio-treated sewage effluent and is considered as the main constraint to further advanced treatment. Here a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymeric adsorbent (NDA-802) featured with aminated functional groups, large specific surface area, and sufficient micropore region was synthesized for effective removal of EfOM from the bio-treated coking wastewater (BTCW), and its removal characteristics was investigated. It was found that hydrophobic fraction was the main constituent (64.8% of DOC) in EfOM of BTCW, and the hydrophobic-neutral fraction had the highest SUVA level (7.06 L mg(-1) m(-1)), which were significantly different from that in the domestic wastewater. Column adsorption experiments showed that NDA-802 exhibited much higher removal efficiency of EfOM than other polymeric adsorbents D-301, XAD-4, and XAD-7, and the efficiency could be readily sustained according to continuous 28-cycle batch adsorption-regeneration experiments. Moreover, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractionation and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy study indicated that NDA-802 showed attractive adsorption preference as well as high removal efficiency of hydrophobic and aromatic compounds. Possibly ascribed to the presence of functional aminated groups, relatively large specific surface area and micropore region of the unique polymer, NDA-802 possesses high and sustained efficiency for the removal of EfOM, and provides a potential alternative for the advanced treatment.

  4. Spin-orbit and electron correlation effects on the structure of EF3 (E = I, At, and element 117).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoseok; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Yoon Sup

    2008-12-18

    Structures and vibrational frequencies of group 17 fluorides EF3 (E = I, At, and element 117) are calculated at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory using relativistic effective core potentials (RECPs) with and without spin-orbit terms in order to investigate the effects of spin-orbit interactions and electron correlations on the structures and vibrational frequencies of EF3. Various tests imply that spin-orbit and electron correlation effects estimated presently from Hartree-Fock (HF) and DFT calculations with RECPs with and without spin-orbit terms are quite reasonable. Spin-orbit and electron correlation effects generally increase bond lengths and/or angles in both C2v and D3h structures. For IF3, the C2v structure is a global minimum, and the D3h structure is a second-order saddle point in both HF and DFT calculations with and without spin-orbit interactions. Spin-orbit effects for IF3 are negligible in comparison to electron correlation effects. The D3h global minimum is the only minimum structure for (117)F3 in all RECP calculations, and the C2v structure is neither a local minimum nor a saddle point. In the case of AtF3, the C2v structure is found to be a local minimum in all RECP calculations without spin-orbit terms, and the D3h structure becomes a local minimum at the DFT level of theory with and without spin-orbit interactions. In the HF calculation with spin-orbit terms, the D3h structure of AtF3 is a second-order saddle point. AtF3 is a borderline case between the valence-shell-electron-pair-repulsion (VSEPR) structure of IF3 and the non-VSEPR structure of (117)F3. Relativistic effects, including scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects, and electron correlation effects together or separately stabilize the D3h structures more than the C2v structures. As a result, one may suggest that the VSEPR predictions agree very well with the structures optimized by the nonrelativistic HF level of theory even for heavy-atom molecules but not so

  5. Conjugacy Systems Based on Nonabelian Factorization Problems and Their Applications in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lize Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To resist known quantum algorithm attacks, several nonabelian algebraic structures mounted upon the stage of modern cryptography. Recently, Baba et al. proposed an important analogy from the integer factorization problem to the factorization problem over nonabelian groups. In this paper, we propose several conjugated problems related to the factorization problem over nonabelian groups and then present three constructions of cryptographic primitives based on these newly introduced conjugacy systems: encryption, signature, and signcryption. Sample implementations of our proposal as well as the related performance analysis are also presented.

  6. Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doidge, James C; Higgins, Daryl J; Delfabbro, Paul; Segal, Leonie

    2017-02-01

    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood. Potential risk factors were collected prospectively during childhood or reported retrospectively. Associations were estimated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions and combined into cumulative risk scores. Higher levels of economic disadvantage, poor parental mental health and substance use, and social instability were strongly associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. Indicators of child health displayed mixed associations and infant temperament was uncorrelated to maltreatment. Some differences were observed across types of maltreatment but risk profiles were generally similar. In multivariate analyses, nine independent risk factors were identified, including some that are potentially modifiable: economic disadvantage and parental substance use problems. Risk of maltreatment increased exponentially with the number of risk factors experienced, with prevalence of maltreatment in the highest risk groups exceeding 80%. A cumulative risk score based on the independent risk factors allowed identification of individuals at very high risk of maltreatment, while a score that incorporated all significant risk and protective factors provided better identification of low-risk individuals.

  7. Study on affecting factors of collaborative product development based on collaboration hierarchy model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaodong; LI Yingzi; ZHANG Zhiqiang

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the levels of collaborative degree in web-based product development,a collaboration hierarchy model of this product development is developed in this paper.Based on the model,the affecting factors on collaboration levels are analyzed systematically from many aspects,such as technology,organization and business.A gap analysis method is studied in detail,and is applied in a real project.The application shows that it can solve the diverse problems of collaborative product development effectively,and help enterprises find out the critical factors that affect the collaboration.

  8. Un ejemplo de arte efímero gallego: “El Templo de Jano cerrado” de Miguel Ferro Caaveiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Vázquez, José Manuel B.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Las evidencias documentales de la existencia en Santiago de obras de arte efímero son cada vez más frecuentes. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha la única de la que poseemos una descripción pormenorizada e incluso un dibujo de su alzado es la Máquina de fuego de artificio con que celebró la Ciudad de Santiago la aclamación del monarca Carlos IV, la que se colocó en medio de la Plaza Mayor, con el Frente a las Casas Consistoriales. La realizó D. Miguel Ferro Caaveiro bajo el nombre "El templo de Jano Cerrado" la cual fue dada a conocer por Fernández Gómez.

  9. Microscopic Examination of Chitosan Polyphosphate Beads with Entrapped Spores of the Biocontrol Agent, Streptomyces melanosporofaciens EF-76

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, Guy; Grondin, Gilles; Couture, Geneviève; Beaulieu, Carole

    2005-04-01

    Spores of the biocontrol agent, Streptomyces melanosporofaciens EF-76, were entrapped by complex coacervation in beads composed of a macromolecular complex (MC) of chitosan and polyphosphate. A proportion of spores entrapped in beads survived the entrapment procedure as shown by treating spores from chitosan beads with a dye allowing the differentiation of live and dead cells. The spore-loaded chitosan beads could be digested by a chitosanase, suggesting that, once introduced in soil, the beads would be degraded to release the biocontrol agent. Spore-loaded beads were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy because the release of the biological agent depends on the spore distribution in the chitosan beads. The microscopic examination revealed that the beads had a porous surface and contained a network of inner microfibrils. Spores were entrapped in both the chitosan microfibrils and the bead lacuna.

  10. Seismic dynamic monitoring in CO2 flooding based on characterization of frequency-dependent velocity factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Hua; Li, Jun; Xiao, Wen; Tan, Ming-You; Zhang, Yun-Ying; Cui, Shi-Ling; Qu, Zhi-Peng

    2016-06-01

    The phase velocity of seismic waves varies with the propagation frequency, and thus frequency-dependent phenomena appear when CO2 gas is injected into a reservoir. By dynamically considering these phenomena with reservoir conditions it is thus feasible to extract the frequency-dependent velocity factor with the aim of monitoring changes in the reservoir both before and after CO2 injection. In the paper, we derive a quantitative expression for the frequency-dependent factor based on the Robinson seismic convolution model. In addition, an inversion equation with a frequency-dependent velocity factor is constructed, and a procedure is implemented using the following four processing steps: decomposition of the spectrum by generalized S transform, wavelet extraction of cross-well seismic traces, spectrum equalization processing, and an extraction method for frequency-dependent velocity factor based on the damped least-square algorithm. An attenuation layered model is then established based on changes in the Q value of the viscoelastic medium, and spectra of migration profiles from forward modeling are obtained and analyzed. Frequency-dependent factors are extracted and compared, and the effectiveness of the method is then verified using a synthetic data. The frequency-dependent velocity factor is finally applied to target processing and oil displacement monitoring based on real seismic data obtained before and after CO2 injection in the G89 well block within Shengli oilfield. Profiles and slices of the frequency-dependent factor determine its ability to indicate differences in CO2 flooding, and the predicting results are highly consistent with those of practical investigations within the well block.

  11. Crystal structure of elongation factor 4 bound to a clockwise ratcheted ribosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, M. G.; Lin, J.; Bulkley, D.; Steitz, T. A.

    2014-08-08

    Elongation factor 4 (EF4/LepA) is a highly conserved guanosine triphosphatase translation factor. It was shown to promote back-translocation of tRNAs on posttranslocational ribosome complexes and to compete with elongation factor G for interaction with pretranslocational ribosomes, inhibiting the elongation phase of protein synthesis. Here, we report a crystal structure of EF4–guanosine diphosphate bound to the Thermus thermophilus ribosome with a P-site tRNA at 2.9 angstroms resolution. The C-terminal domain of EF4 reaches into the peptidyl transferase center and interacts with the acceptor stem of the peptidyl-tRNA in the P site. The ribosome is in an unusual state of ratcheting with the 30S subunit rotated clockwise relative to the 50S subunit, resulting in a remodeled decoding center. The structure is consistent with EF4 functioning either as a back-translocase or a ribosome sequester.

  12. Vurdering af effekten af en vindmøllepark ved Overgaard på forekomsten af fugle i EF-fuglebeskyttelsesområde nr. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P.; Larsen, J. K.

    I forbindelse med planerne om at etablere en vindmøllepark ved Overgaard Gods ønskes en redegørelse for de mulige konsekvenser for forekomsten af vandfugle, særligt påvirkningen af forekomsten af fugle inden for EF-fuglebeskyttelsesområde nr. 15/Ramsar-område nr. 11/EF-habitatområde nr. 14 som......-fuglebeskyttelsesområde nr. 15/Ramsar-område nr. 11/EF-habitatbeskyttelsesområde nr. 14. En forudsætning for denne konklusion er at de behandlede arter ikke ændrer føde- og habitatvalg i området. For hjejlens vedkommende nås den samme konklusion for så vidt angår hjejlernes udnyttelse af det internationale naturbeskyttelses...

  13. Understanding the fouling of UF/MF hollow fibres of biologically treated wastewaters using advanced EfOM characterization and statistical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filloux, E; Labanowski, J; Croue, J P

    2012-08-01

    Five secondary effluents and a river water source were characterized using size exclusion chromatography (LC-OCD-UVD-OND) and emission-excitation matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in order to identify the major effluent organic matter (EfOM) fractions responsible for membrane fouling. This study showed the feasibility of coupling fluorescence EEM and LC-OCD-UVD-OND to investigate the fouling potential as well as a means to differentiate natural organic matter (NOM) from EfOM. The secondary effluents and river water showed a significant difference in organic matter characteristics and fouling potential, highlighting the importance of biological processes and the feed water source on EfOM characteristics and fouling potential. On the basis of statistical analysis, protein-like substances were found to be highly correlated to the fouling potential of secondary effluents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding the fouling of UF/MF hollow fibres of biologically treated wastewaters using advanced EfOM characterization and statistical tools

    KAUST Repository

    Filloux, Emmanuelle

    2012-08-01

    Five secondary effluents and a river water source were characterized using size exclusion chromatography (LC-OCD-UVD-OND) and emission-excitation matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in order to identify the major effluent organic matter (EfOM) fractions responsible for membrane fouling. This study showed the feasibility of coupling fluorescence EEM and LC-OCD-UVD-OND to investigate the fouling potential as well as a means to differentiate natural organic matter (NOM) from EfOM. The secondary effluents and river water showed a significant difference in organic matter characteristics and fouling potential, highlighting the importance of biological processes and the feed water source on EfOM characteristics and fouling potential. On the basis of statistical analysis, protein-like substances were found to be highly correlated to the fouling potential of secondary effluents. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Factors influencing base flow in the Swiss Midlands - Can results from different base flow separation methods help to identify these factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Raphael; Schädler, Bruno; Viviroli, Daniel; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    Base flow is a desirable entity to know, for water management in general and particularly for climate change impact studies. Base flow is most often defined as that part of total discharge which origins from delayed storages in a river catchment. During a prolonged period without rain, base flow is the sole contributor to discharge. Base flow therefore makes a river perennial. A high base flow contribution to total annual discharge makes a river more stable in respect of meteorological droughts. Annual base flow from a catchment cannot be determined exactly. Only total discharge can be measured with high accuracy. Therefore, base flow has to be estimated with appropriate methods. Calculating an entity which cannot be verified by measurements is easy. By defining the entity with a calculation procedure, the result is numerically always right. It is actually much more difficult to understand the results, i.e. how these outcomes should be interpreted. The present study investigates the application of three different base flow separation procedures for numerous (up to 40) meso-scale catchments in Switzerland. The methods Demuth (1993), Wittenberg (1999) and Institute of Hydrology (1980) are different approaches to determine base flow, based on daily runoff data. The method Demuth, and the separation of base flow according to Institute of Hydrology, are statistical methods. Demuth is based on the graphical approach of Kille (1970), and the procedure of the Institute of Hydrology is an empirical smoothing method. In contrast to this, the method by Wittenberg does not presume linearity between storage and outflow. Analyzing the results, among each other and in comparison with physiographic characteristics of the catchments under consideration, leads to a more detailed picture of the ongoing processes. At least the dominant control factors for base flow in the Swiss Midlands should be detectable. These are expected to be found first of all among geology and climate, which

  16. Effective Factors in Job Motivation of Faculty Members of Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Based on Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation in 1394

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaie Ziar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The most important factor for success in every organization, s its human resources. Human resources with the power of creativity, imagination, faith and commitment, have a great impact on the performance of the organization. University faculty members are the main pillars of human resources and affect the development of universities to promote academic standing in their communities. In this regard, the role of job motivation of faculty members to further efficiency helps universities. Materials and Methods: To determine the effective factors in job motivation of Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences’ faculty members, we conducted the study based on Herzberg's two factor motivation theory. In this across-sectional study, a sample of 137, (10% of the population in 12 faculties were selected by random and proportional sampling based on size and gender of faculty members. The instrument used was a questionnaire containing 40 of the 11 areas of external factors and an effective two-factor theory of Herzberg's motivation-based job. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha (%86. After collecting data gamma and correlation multipliers Ki-test and logistic regression analysis was carried was with software SPSS16. Results: The internal factors were more important than external factors. Internal factors were more important in younger people. External factors, however, were more important in older people. Three areas, nature of work, professional development and career is also the most importance among the areas of internal factors, respectively. Two areas of occupational safety and connection are the most importance among the external factors. Conclusion: Providing the perfect environment, according to members of academic faculty, job security, moral values, decreasing problems of employment due to age and work experience, training individuals and providing a salary based on ability

  17. Toxic Electrophiles Induce Expression of the Multidrug Efflux Pump MexEF-OprN in Pseudomonas aeruginosa through a Novel Transcriptional Regulator, CmrA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Paulo; Jeannot, Katy; Plésiat, Patrick; Llanes, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    The multidrug efflux system MexEF-OprN is produced at low levels in wild-type strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa However, in so-called nfxC mutants, mutational alteration of the gene mexS results in constitutive overexpression of the pump, along with increased resistance of the bacterium to chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim. In this study, analysis of in vitro-selected chloramphenicol-resistant clones of strain PA14 led to the identification of a new class of MexEF-OprN-overproducing mutants (called nfxC2) exhibiting alterations in an as-yet-uncharacterized gene, PA14_38040 (homolog of PA2047 in strain PAO1). This gene is predicted to encode an AraC-like transcriptional regulator and was called cmrA (for chloramphenicol resistance activator). In nfxC2 mutants, the mutated CmrA increases its proper gene expression and upregulates the operon mexEF-oprN through MexS and MexT, resulting in a multidrug resistance phenotype without significant loss in bacterial virulence. Transcriptomic experiments demonstrated that CmrA positively regulates a small set of 11 genes, including PA14_38020 (homolog of PA2048), which is required for the MexS/T-dependent activation of mexEF-oprN PA2048 codes for a protein sharing conserved domains with the quinol monooxygenase YgiN from Escherichia coli Interestingly, exposure of strain PA14 to toxic electrophilic molecules (glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and cinnamaldehyde) strongly activates the CmrA pathway and upregulates MexEF-OprN and, thus, increases the resistance of P. aeruginosa to the pump substrates. A picture emerges in which MexEF-OprN is central in the response of the pathogen to stresses affecting intracellular redox homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Identification of mazEF Toxin – Antitoxin system and biofilm formation in clinical isolates of MRSA isolated from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Interest on Toxin-Antitoxin (TA systems has increased dramatically over recent years. It is ubiquitously present in many bacterial genomes including pathogens like MRSA. Several cellular functions of TA systems are proposed like programmed cell death, persister cell formation, biofilm formation etc. However, their exact role in cell physiology remains unclear. Due to the biofilm development the rate of morbidity and mortality of chronic MRSA infections are increasing day by day. Objectives: The aim of the study is to find any association between biofilm formation and mazEF toxin-antitoxin systems in clinical isolates of MRSA, isolated from tertiary care hospital, Kolkata. Materials and Methods: MRSA isolates were detected for biofilm formation by tube method and simultaneously the presence of mazEF TA gene in these biofilm forming isolates were evaluated. Results: It was found that 52.47 % MRSA isolates were potent biofilm producers by Tube method. The results indicated that 55.26 % of the biofilm forming isolates possessed mazEF gene. And 44% of the biofilm forming isolates did not possessed mazEF gene. Conclusions: The analysis recommended that TA genes are prevalent in clinical isolates of MRSA strains but no significant difference is found in the presence of mazEF TA system in the biofilm producer and non-biofilm producer isolates. Further to come into any conclusion reverse transcription studies are needed to be done in order to find out the exact amount of mazEF expression in all MRSA isolates.

  19. Characterization factors for water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions based on freshwater fish species extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Pfister, Stephan; Leuven, Rob S E W; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2011-06-15

    Human-induced changes in water consumption and global warming are likely to reduce the species richness of freshwater ecosystems. So far, these impacts have not been addressed in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA). Here, we derived characterization factors for water consumption and global warming based on freshwater fish species loss. Calculation of characterization factors for potential freshwater fish losses from water consumption were estimated using a generic species-river discharge curve for 214 global river basins. We also derived characterization factors for potential freshwater fish species losses per unit of greenhouse gas emission. Based on five global climate scenarios, characterization factors for 63 greenhouse gas emissions were calculated. Depending on the river considered, characterization factors for water consumption can differ up to 3 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors for greenhouse gas emissions can vary up to 5 orders of magnitude, depending on the atmospheric residence time and radiative forcing efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions. An emission of 1 ton of CO₂ is expected to cause the same impact on potential fish species disappearance as the water consumption of 10-1000 m³, depending on the river basin considered. Our results make it possible to compare the impact of water consumption with greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. The Research for the Greenhouse Water Evaporation Based on the Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To guide the greenhouse precision irrigation, influenced by the environmental factors, based on the definite plant, the greenhouse water evaporation characteristics are studied. The qualitative and the quantitative relationships between the environmental factors and the greenhouse water evaporation are probed into which will provide the theoretical basis for the water management of the facilities horticulture. Establishing the quantitative relations between the environmental factors and the water evaporation, between the environmental factors and the evaporation of soil water, between the environmental factors and the crop transpiration not only can reveal the environment factors to have the impact on the water evaporation changes, the soil water evaporation changes and physiological changes of the plant water, but also can use meteorological parameter to predict in the greenhouse crop transpiration for the water consumption. Then based on the predicted value timely the plant is supplied with the moderate water. Using genetic algorithm to optimize the models in different season in the different ranges value, the minimum of the evaporation of water is predicted, in order to achieve the purpose of right amount water needed for the plant, saving water, high yield and good quality.

  1. Combustion efficiency and emission factors for wildfire-season fires in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains, US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Urbanski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the US, wildfires and prescribed burning present significant challenges to air regulatory agencies attempting to achieve and maintain compliance with air quality regulations. Fire emission factors (EF are essential input for the emission models used to develop wildland fire emission inventories. Most previous studies quantifying wildland fire EF of temperate ecosystems have focused on emissions from prescribed burning conducted outside of the wildfire season. Little information is available on EF for wildfires in temperate forests of the conterminous US. The goal of this work is to provide information on emissions from wildfire-season forest fires in the northern Rocky Mountains, US. In August 2011, we deployed airborne chemistry instruments and sampled emissions over eight days from three wildfires and a prescribed fire that occurred in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. We measured the combustion efficiency, quantified as the modified combustion efficiency (MCE, and EF for CO2, CO, and CH4. Our study average values for MCE, EFCO2, EFCO, and EFCH4 were 0.883, 1596 g kg−1, 135 g kg−1, 7.30 g kg−1, respectively. Compared with previous field studies of prescribed fires in temperate forests, the fires sampled in our study had significantly lower MCE and EFCO2 and significantly higher EFCO and EFCH4. The fires sampled in this study burned in areas reported to have moderate to heavy components of standing dead trees and down dead wood due to insect activity and previous fire, but fuel consumption data was not available. However, an analysis of MCE and fuel consumption data from 18 prescribed fires reported in the literature indicates that the availability of coarse fuels and conditions favorable for the combustion of these fuels favors low MCE fires. This analysis suggests that fuel composition was an important factor contributing to the low MCE of the fires measured in this study. This study only measured EF for CO2, CO

  2. A New Partially Blind Signature Based on Factoring and Discrete Logarithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M.F. Tahat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Partially blind signatures played an important role in many electronic commerce applications. Many existing partially blind signature scheme based on a single hard problem but not secure. In this study, we propose a secure partially blind signature scheme based on factoring and discrete logarithms and show that the proposed scheme satisfies the partial blindness, randomization, unlinkability and unforgeability properties. We also analyse the computation cost of the proposed scheme.

  3. Calculation of k factor function for the carbonation process of lime-based plasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, Milena; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    The carbonation process of prepared lime plaster and lime based plaster with pozzolana active metakaolin is performed in an accelerated test arrangement. The depth of carbonation head is determined using colorimetric method and FTIR spectroscopy. Based on experimental data of carbonation head, time dependent k factor function is calculated that points to the decelerated and retarded propagation of the carbonation process due to metakaolin used in plaster composition.

  4. Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Numerical Method for Integrated Photonic Cavity Based Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonnegative matrix factorization numerical method has been used to improve the spectral resolution of integrated photonic cavity based spectroscopy. Based on the experimental results for integrated photonic cavity device on Optics Letters 32, 632 (2007, the theoretical results show that the spectral resolution can be improved more than 3 times from 5.5 nm to 1.8 nm. It is a promising way to release the difficulty of fabricating high-resolution devices.

  5. Research on Multirobot Pursuit Task Allocation Algorithm Based on Emotional Cooperation Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Baofu Fang; Lu Chen; Hao Wang; Shuanglu Dai; Qiubo Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots’ individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on em...

  6. Task-based factors influencing the successful functioning of copreneurial businesses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Farrington

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, evidence exists to suggest that the number of copreneurial businesses or spousal partnerships are on the increase. The primary objectives of this study are to identify the task-based factors influencing the effectiveness of a copreneurial business, to propose a conceptual model based on these factors and to subject the model to empirical testing. The model is empirically tested among copreneurial businesses to assess potential relationships between selected independent variables (shared dream, leadership, personal needs alignment, division of labour, complementary skills, supportive employees, competencies and adequate resources and measures of copreneurial success (perceived success and financial performance. In order to address the primary objective of this study, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1548 respondents (spouses in business together of which 380 questionnaires were useable for statistical analysis. The empirical results revealed that apart from division of labour all the other factors investigated exert a significant influence on the successful functioning of copreneurial businesses.

  7. Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor (CAFFE)

    CERN Document Server

    Placidi, Luca; Seddik, Hakime; Faria, Sergio H

    2009-01-01

    A complete theoretical presentation of the CAFFE model (Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor) is given. The CAFFE model is an application of the theory of mixtures with continuous diversity for the case of large ice masses in which the induced anisotropy can not be neglected. The anisotropic response of the material is considered via a simple anisotropic generalization of Glen's flow law based on a scalar anisotropic enhancement factor. Such an enhancement factor depends upon the orientation mass density, that corresponds to the distribution of lattice orientations or simply to the orientation distribution function. The evolution of anisotropy is assumed to be modeled by the evolution of the orientation mass density, that is governed by the balance of mass of the present mixture with continuous diversity and explicitly depends upon four distinct effects interpreted, respectively, with grain rotation, local rigid body rotation, grain boundary migration (...

  8. E-Learning Personalization Using Triple-Factor Approach in Standard-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksitowening, K. A.; Santoso, H. B.; Hasibuan, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    E-Learning can be a tool in monitoring learning process and progress towards the targeted competency. Process and progress on every learner can be different one to another, since every learner may have different learning type. Learning type itself can be identified by taking into account learning style, motivation, and knowledge ability. This study explores personalization for learning type based on Triple-Factor Approach. Considering that factors in Triple-Factor Approach are dynamic, the personalization system needs to accommodate the changes that may occurs. Originated from the issue, this study proposed personalization that guides learner progression dynamically towards stages of their learning process. The personalization is implemented in the form of interventions that trigger learner to access learning contents and discussion forums more often as well as improve their level of knowledge ability based on their state of learning type.

  9. Novel ultrasound detector based on small slot micro-ring resonator with ultrahigh Q factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Senlin; Chen, Jian; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    An ultrasound detector based on a novel slot micro-ring resonator (SMRR) with ultrahigh Q factor and small size is proposed in this study. The theoretical Q factor of SMRR can be approximately 8.34×108 with bending radius of merely 12 μm. The ultrahigh Q factor leads to an enhanced sensitivity that is approximately two orders of that of state-of-the-art ultrasound detector based on polymer micro-ring resonator. Moreover, the 3 dB bandwidth of the ultrasound detector is approximately 540 MHz, thereby leading to an ultrahigh axial resolution of 1.2 μm. The proposed detector is also CMOS compatible and can be easily and extensively integrated to be maximized in photoacoustic microscopy.

  10. Young onset dementia: the impact of emergent age-based factors upon personhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Edward; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Kingston, Paul

    2014-03-01

    This paper evaluates how emergent age-based factors may impact upon the experience of dementia. A review of selected literature is undertaken to explore how personhood has been conceptualised in relation to dementia. It is then highlighted that very little literature explicitly addresses personhood with reference to young onset dementia. Young onset dementia is defined, and evaluation is then undertaken of the distinctive age-based factors that might shape the experience of the condition. It is noted that whilst there are separate literatures on both personhood and young onset dementia, there appears to be little endeavour to draw these two strands of thought together. The distinctive factors that shape young onset dementia suggest that a more heterogeneous perspective should be developed that accounts more appropriately for how personal characteristics shape the lived experience of dementia. The paper concludes that further research should be undertaken that has an explicit focus on personhood and young onset dementia.

  11. Factoring-based method for the design of a nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman-Arriaga, Rafael; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, Mexico 09340, D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-05-15

    In this work a simple method for a fuel lattice design is presented. The method is focused on finding the radial distribution of the fuel rods having different fissile contents to obtain a prescribed neutron multiplication factor k{sub {infinity}} to a certain discharge burnup and to minimize the rod power peaking. This method is based on the factorization of the fissile content of each fuel bar and the performance of this novel method was demonstrated with a fuel design composed of enriched uranium for a typical boiling water reactor (BWR). The results show that the factoring-based method for the design of a nuclear fuel converges to a minimum rod power peaking and a prescribed k{sub {infinity}} in few iterations. A comparative analysis shows that the proposed method is more efficient than existing methods. (author)

  12. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sicknes......: Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  13. A fuzzy ANP application for prioritizing the productivity factors based on university employees' counterproductive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alipour Darvishi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of employee plays essential role on the success of any organization including universities. In this paper, we present a survey to detect and to prioritize important factors influencing on the productivity of employees who work for one of Iranian universities located in city of Tehran, Iran. The study also uses analytical network process to prioritize the factors. Based on the results of our survey, we have categorized effective productivity factors into three groups of research, educational and administration groups. In our survey, coherence and unity with no dispersion of the employee's duties, systematic job rotation and correct design communication job are among the most important factors influencing on employees’ productivity.

  14. The three-factor model of evaluating mining rights of coal resources based on options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-suo; ZOU Shao-hui

    2008-01-01

    Since mining rights of coal resources(for short MRCR) could be regarded as amulti-stage compound real option, the evaluation for MRCR can be better solved using op-tion theory than the NPV. In the former research, we developed a two-factor model ofevaluating MRCR when the coal spot price and convenience yield are stochastic based onoption theory. On the basis of this two-factor model, we set up a three-factor model ofevaluating MRCR when the interest rate followed a stochastic process. Through a realexample application, we found the model can get higher values than the two-factor modeland the NPV. This is because considering the volatility of interest rate can improve theexecutive opportunity of MRCR.

  15. Iterative Multiuser Receiver Based on Factor Graph for Asynchronous Coded CDMA Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Factor graph, so named because it graphically represents function factorization, with which and its sum-product algorithm the iterative algorithm can be derived clearly. An iterative multiuser receiver based on factor graph for asynchronous coded CDMA system is proposed. In this paper, the a posteriori probability of users information bits conditioned on the noise-whitening filters output is represented by factor graphs, after numbers of iterations with the sum-product algorithm the information bits are estimated. The authors also propose a reduced complexity algorithm. Simulation results show that with this proposed receiver, near-single-user performance can be achieved, and small performance degradation for the reduced complexity algorithm with significant complexity reduction.

  16. Effects of transverse mode coupling and optical confinement factor on gallium-nitride based laser diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xiao-Ming; Zhang Bei; Dai Tao; Zhang Guo-Yi

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the transverse mode pattern and the optical field confinement factor of gallium nitride (GaN) laser diodes (LDs) theoretically. For the particular LD structure, composed of approximate 4μm thick n-GaN substrate layer, the maximum optical confinement factor was found to be corresponding to the 5th order transverse mode, the so-called lasing mode. Moreover, the value of the maximum confinement factor varies periodically when increasing the n-side GaN layer thickness, which simultaneously changes and increases the oscillation mode order of the GaN LD caused by the effects of mode coupling. The effects of the thickness and the average composition of Al in the AlGaN/GaN superlattice on the optical confinement factor are also presented. Finally, the mode coupling and optimization of the layers in the GaN-based LD are discussed.

  17. Critical Success Factors for Adoption of Web-Based Learning Management Systems in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines factors that predict students' continual usage intention of web-based learning content management systems in Tanzania, with a specific focus at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Science (MUHAS). This study sent a questionnaire surveys to 408 first year undergraduate students, with a rate of return of 66.7. This study…

  18. socio-cultural factors influencing male involvement in home-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. 8 August ... Objective: To investigate socio-cultural factors that influence male involvement in ... 59.7% of the respondents had not received formal training on home-based care. Those.

  19. Design of optimal input–output scaling factors based fuzzy PSS using bat algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Sambariya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a fuzzy logic based power system stabilizer (FPSS is designed by tuning its input–output scaling factors. Two input signals to FPSS are considered as change of speed and change in power, and the output signal is considered as a correcting voltage signal. The normalizing factors of these signals are considered as the optimization problem with minimization of integral of square error in single-machine and multi-machine power systems. These factors are optimally determined with bat algorithm (BA and considered as scaling factors of FPSS. The performance of power system with such a designed BA based FPSS (BA-FPSS is compared to that of response with FPSS, Harmony Search Algorithm based FPSS (HSA-FPSS and Particle Swarm Optimization based FPSS (PSO-FPSS. The systems considered are single-machine connected to infinite-bus, two-area 4-machine 10-bus and IEEE New England 10-machine 39-bus power systems for evaluating the performance of BA-FPSS. The comparison is carried out in terms of the integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE, integral of absolute error (IAE and integral of square error (ISE of speed response for systems with FPSS, HSA-FPSS and BA-FPSS. The superior performance of systems with BA-FPSS is established considering eight plant conditions of each system, which represents the wide range of operating conditions.

  20. Exploring the Factors Influencing Learning Effectiveness in Digital Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing; Yu, Kuang-Chao; Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    This study developed an educational online game, Super Delivery, targeting knowledge about saving electricity, and conducted case studies of eight sixth-grade students using this game to explore the factors influencing the effectiveness of students' knowledge acquisition in digital game-based learning (DGBL). This study followed Miles and…

  1. Predicting efficiency of post-induction mask ventilation based on demographic and anatomical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Saghaei

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Using EMV is an easy and reliable tool for measuring efficiency of mask ventilation. Based on the result of this study, EMV can be estimated from patient′s demographic and physical factors. In edentolous patients, using the lip-over-mask method results in adequate ventilation of lungs.

  2. Prognostic factors for the effect of a myofeedback-based teletreatment service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsman, Pernilla; Hasenbring, Monika; Sandsjö, Leif; Huis in 't Veld, Rianne M.H.A.; Witvrouw, Erik; Kosterink, Stephanie M.; Kadefors, Roland; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M.R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the potential prognostic factors for clinically relevant improvements in pain intensity and pain-related disability after myofeedback-based teletreatment. Sixty-five female computer users, 56 female patients with whiplash-associated disorders and 18 female patients with non-specific

  3. Connecting Vulnerable Children and Families to Community-Based Programs Strengthens Parents' Perceptions of Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Marcia; Joslyn, Allison; Wojton, Morella; O'Reilly, Mairead; Dworkin, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    We employed principles from a nationally recognized prevention model on family support to investigate whether connecting vulnerable children to community-based programs and services through a statewide intervention system, the "Help Me Grow" program, strengthens parents' perceptions of protective factors. We used a parent survey modeled…

  4. Cigarette Smoking as a Risk Factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Bengt; Cnattingius, Sven

    1990-01-01

    Examines risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome based on Swedish births between 1983 and 1985. Results indicate that maternal smoking doubles the risk of infant death, and infants of smokers also died sooner. The more the mother smoked the more likely her infant was to die. (JS)

  5. Adolescent Substance Use and Family-based Risk and Protective Factors: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalahi, Halaevalu F.

    2001-01-01

    Family influence has been established as one of the strongest sources of risk and protection when considering adolescent substance abuse. Theories used to view the family influence include family systems theory; social cognitive theory; social control theory; and strain theory. Specific family-based risk and protective factors include family…

  6. Physical and psychosocial factors associated with wrist or hand pain among Australian hospital-based nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawera, Inoka K; Hoe, Victor C W; Kelsall, Helen L; Urquhart, Donna M; Sim, Malcolm R

    2013-02-01

    To assess the personal, physical and psychosocial factors associated with wrist or hand pain in Australian hospital-based nurses. Wrist or hand pain, associated disability and sickness absence, demographic, occupational, physical, psychosocial and personal factors among nurses working for three hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, were assessed in a cross-sectional study. Factors associated with wrist or hand pain in the past month were assessed using logistic regression. This analysis was based on 1111 participants. The prevalence of wrist or hand pain in the past month was 15.3%. Repeated movements of the wrist or finger >4 h (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.80 to 3.84), high job strain (1.54, 1.04 to 2.28), job insecurity (1.55, 1.04 to 2.28), somatisation tendency (2.73, 1.75 to 4.26), pain catastrophising (1.56, 1.03 to 2.37), better mental (0.97, 0.95 to 0.99) and physical (0.96, 0.94-0.98) health and well-being were associated with wrist or hand pain in the past month, after adjusting for possible confounding factors. When all significant factors were examined in the same model, repeated movements of the wrist or finger >4 h (2.50, 1.71 to 3.67), somatisation (2.61, 1.65 to 4.13) and better physical health and well-being (0.96, 0.94 to 0.99) remained independently associated with wrist or hand pain in the past month. This study highlights that wrist or hand pain is prevalent in hospital nurses. Workplace physical factors and personal factors were associated with wrist or hand pain. Further longitudinal investigation is needed to examine the predictive nature of these factors.

  7. Family-based factors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Shahid, Ubeera; Shafique, Mahar Muhammad; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Siddiqui, Arif Mahmood

    2011-12-16

    Childhood obesity epidemic is now penetrating the developing countries including Pakistan, especially in the affluent urban population. There is no data on association of family-based factors with overweight and obesity among school-aged children in Pakistan. The study aimed to explore the family-based factors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> +1SD BMI-for-age z-score) and obesity (> +2SD BMI-for-age z-score) were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to BMI. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of overweight and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. All regression analyses were controlled for age and gender and statistical significance was considered at P family-based correlates of overweight and obesity included higher parental education (P obesity. Higher parental education (P Family-based factors were significantly associated with overweight and obesity among school-aged children in Pakistan. Higher parental education, living in high-income neighborhoods and fewer siblings were independent predictors of overweight. These findings support the need to design evidence-based child health policy and implement targeted interventions, considering the impact of family-based factors and involving communities.

  8. Factors affecting the bond strength of denture base and reline acrylic resins to base metal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tanoue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The shear bond strengths of two hard chairside reline resin materials and an auto-polymerizing denture base resin material to cast Ti and a Co-Cr alloy treated using four conditioning methods were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disk specimens (diameter 10 mm and thickness 2.5 mm were cast from pure Ti and Co-Cr alloy. The specimens were wet-ground to a final surface finish of 600 grit, air-dried, and treated with the following bonding systems: 1 air-abraded with 50-70-µm grain alumina (CON; 2 1 + conditioned with a primer, including an acidic phosphonoacetate monomer (MHPA; 3 1 + conditioned with a primer including a diphosphate monomer (MDP; 4 treated with a tribochemical system. Three resin materials were applied to each metal specimen. Shear bond strengths were determined before and after 10,000 thermocycles. RESULTS: The strengths decreased after thermocycling for all combinations. Among the resin materials assessed, the denture base material showed significantly (p<0.05 greater shear bond strengths than the two reline materials, except for the CON condition. After 10,000 thermocycles, the bond strengths of two reline materials decreased to less than 10 MPa for both metals. The bond strengths of the denture base material with MDP were sufficient: 34.56 MPa for cast Ti and 38.30 for Co-Cr alloy. CONCLUSION: Bonding of reline resin materials to metals assessed was clinically insufficient, regardless of metal type, surface treatment, and resin composition. For the relining of metal denture frameworks, a denture base material should be used.

  9. Guanine-nucleotide exchange on ribosome-bound elongation factor G initiates the translocation of tRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenberg Måns

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the translation of mRNA into polypeptide, elongation factor G (EF-G catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of the ribosome. According to the 'classical' model, EF-G in the GTP-bound form promotes translocation, while hydrolysis of the bound GTP promotes dissociation of the factor from the post-translocation ribosome. According to a more recent model, EF-G operates like a 'motor protein' and drives translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA after GTP hydrolysis. In both the classical and motor protein models, GDP-to-GTP exchange is assumed to occur spontaneously on 'free' EF-G even in the absence of a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF. Results We have made a number of findings that challenge both models. First, free EF-G in the cell is likely to be in the GDP-bound form. Second, the ribosome acts as the GEF for EF-G. Third, after guanine-nucleotide exchange, EF-G in the GTP-bound form moves the tRNA2-mRNA complex to an intermediate translocation state in which the mRNA is partially translocated. Fourth, subsequent accommodation of the tRNA2-mRNA complex in the post-translocation state requires GTP hydrolysis. Conclusion These results, in conjunction with previously published cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the ribosome in various functional states, suggest a novel mechanism for translocation of tRNAs on the ribosome by EF-G. Our observations suggest that the ribosome is a universal guanosine-nucleotide exchange factor for EF-G as previously shown for the class-II peptide-release factor 3.

  10. Guanine-nucleotide exchange on ribosome-bound elongation factor G initiates the translocation of tRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, Andrey V; Hauryliuk, Vasili V; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2005-01-01

    Background During the translation of mRNA into polypeptide, elongation factor G (EF-G) catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of the ribosome. According to the 'classical' model, EF-G in the GTP-bound form promotes translocation, while hydrolysis of the bound GTP promotes dissociation of the factor from the post-translocation ribosome. According to a more recent model, EF-G operates like a 'motor protein' and drives translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA after GTP hydrolysis. In both the classical and motor protein models, GDP-to-GTP exchange is assumed to occur spontaneously on 'free' EF-G even in the absence of a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Results We have made a number of findings that challenge both models. First, free EF-G in the cell is likely to be in the GDP-bound form. Second, the ribosome acts as the GEF for EF-G. Third, after guanine-nucleotide exchange, EF-G in the GTP-bound form moves the tRNA2-mRNA complex to an intermediate translocation state in which the mRNA is partially translocated. Fourth, subsequent accommodation of the tRNA2-mRNA complex in the post-translocation state requires GTP hydrolysis. Conclusion These results, in conjunction with previously published cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the ribosome in various functional states, suggest a novel mechanism for translocation of tRNAs on the ribosome by EF-G. Our observations suggest that the ribosome is a universal guanosine-nucleotide exchange factor for EF-G as previously shown for the class-II peptide-release factor 3. PMID:15985150

  11. Standardized Procedure Content And Data Structure Based On Human Factors Requirements For Computer-Based Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L

    2015-02-01

    Most activities that involve human interaction with systems in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. Traditionally, the use of procedures has been a paper-based process that supports safe operation of the nuclear power industry. However, the nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. Advances in digital technology make computer-based procedures (CBPs) a valid option that provides further enhancement of safety by improving human performance related to procedure use. The transition from paper-based procedures (PBPs) to CBPs creates a need for a computer-based procedure system (CBPS). A CBPS needs to have the ability to perform logical operations in order to adjust to the inputs received from either users or real time data from plant status databases. Without the ability for logical operations the procedure is just an electronic copy of the paper-based procedure. In order to provide the CBPS with the information it needs to display the procedure steps to the user, special care is needed in the format used to deliver all data and instructions to create the steps. The procedure should be broken down into basic elements and formatted in a standard method for the CBPS. One way to build the underlying data architecture is to use an Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema, which utilizes basic elements to build each step in the smart procedure. The attributes of each step will determine the type of functionality that the system will generate for that step. The CBPS will provide the context for the step to deliver referential information, request a decision, or accept input from the user. The XML schema needs to provide all data necessary for the system to accurately perform each step without the need for the procedure writer to reprogram the CBPS. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBPS for field workers as well as the

  12. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of five different elongation factor 1 alpha genes in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup: Differential gene expression and thyroid hormones dependence during metamorphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchado Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A is one of the four subunits composing eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1. It catalyzes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of the ribosome in a GTP-dependent manner during protein synthesis, although it also seems to play a role in other non-translational processes. Currently, little information is still available about its expression profile and regulation during flatfish metamorphosis. With regard to this, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis is a commercially important flatfish in which eEF1A gene remains to be characterized. Results The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole has facilitated the identification of five different eEF1A genes, referred to as SseEF1A1, SseEF1A2, SseEF1A3, SseEF1A4, and Sse42Sp50. Main characteristics and sequence identities with other fish and mammalian eEF1As are described. Phylogenetic and tissue expression analyses allowed for the identification of SseEF1A1 and SseEF1A2 as the Senegalese sole counterparts of mammalian eEF1A1 and eEF1A2, respectively, and of Sse42Sp50 as the ortholog of Xenopus laevis and teleost 42Sp50 gene. The other two elongation factors, SseEF1A3 and SseEF1A4, represent novel genes that are mainly expressed in gills and skin. The expression profile of the five genes was also studied during larval development, revealing different behaviours. To study the possible regulation of SseEF1A gene expressions by thyroid hormones (THs, larvae were exposed to the goitrogen thiourea (TU. TU-treated larvae exhibited lower SseEF1A4 mRNA levels than untreated controls at both 11 and 15 days after treatment, whereas transcripts of the other four genes remained relatively unchanged. Moreover, addition of exogenous T4 hormone to TU-treated larvae increased significantly the steady-state levels of SseEF1A4 with respect to untreated controls, demonstrating that its expression is up-regulated by THs. Conclusion We

  13. A New Microsphere-Based Immunoassay for Measuring the Activity of Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chueh-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are several traditional and well-developed methods for analyzing the activity of transcription factors, such as EMSA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reporter gene activity assays. All of these methods have their own distinct disadvantages, but none can analyze the changes in transcription factors in the few cells that are cultured in the wells of 96-well titer plates. Thus, a new microsphere-based immunoassay to measure the activity of transcription factors (MIA-TF was developed. In MIA-TF, NeutrAvidin-labeled microspheres were used as the solid phase to capture biotin-labeled double-strand DNA fragments which contain certain transcription factor binding elements. The activity of transcription factors was detected by immunoassay using a transcription factor-specific antibody to monitor the binding with the DNA probe. Next, analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The targets hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB were applied and detected in this MIA-TF method; the results that we obtained demonstrated that this method could be used to monitor the changes of NF-κB or HIF within 50 or 100 ng of nuclear extract. Furthermore, MIA-TF could detect the changes in NF-κB or HIF in cells that were cultured in wells of a 96-well plate without purification of the nuclear protein, an important consideration for applying this method to high-throughput assays in the future. The development of MIA-TF would support further progress in clinical analysis and drug screening systems. Overall, MIA-TF is a method with high potential to detect the activity of transcription factors.

  14. An analytically based numerical method for computing view factors in real urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo-Il; Woo, Ju-Wan; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2016-11-01

    A view factor is an important morphological parameter used in parameterizing in-canyon radiative energy exchange process as well as in characterizing local climate over urban environments. For realistic representation of the in-canyon radiative processes, a complete set of view factors at the horizontal and vertical surfaces of urban facets is required. Various analytical and numerical methods have been suggested to determine the view factors for urban environments, but most of the methods provide only sky-view factor at the ground level of a specific location or assume simplified morphology of complex urban environments. In this study, a numerical method that can determine the sky-view factors (ψ ga and ψ wa ) and wall-view factors (ψ gw and ψ ww ) at the horizontal and vertical surfaces is presented for application to real urban morphology, which are derived from an analytical formulation of the view factor between two blackbody surfaces of arbitrary geometry. The established numerical method is validated against the analytical sky-view factor estimation for ideal street canyon geometries, showing a consolidate confidence in accuracy with errors of less than 0.2 %. Using a three-dimensional building database, the numerical method is also demonstrated to be applicable in determining the sky-view factors at the horizontal (roofs and roads) and vertical (walls) surfaces in real urban environments. The results suggest that the analytically based numerical method can be used for the radiative process parameterization of urban numerical models as well as for the characterization of local urban climate.

  15. Predictive Factors for Developing Venous Thrombosis during Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy in Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Porres, Daniel; Veek, Nica; Heidenreich, Axel; Pfister, David

    2017-01-01

    Malignancies and cisplatin-based chemotherapy are both known to correlate with a high risk of venous thrombotic events (VTT). In testicular cancer, the information regarding the incidence and reason of VTT in patients undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy is still discussed controversially. Moreover, no risk factors for developing a VTT during cisplatin-based chemotherapy have been elucidated so far. We retrospectively analyzed 153 patients with testicular cancer undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy at our institution for the development of a VTT during or after chemotherapy. Clinical and pathological parameters for identifying possible risk factors for VTT were analyzed. The Khorana risk score was used to calculate the risk of VTT. Student t test was applied for calculating the statistical significance of differences between the treatment groups. Twenty-six out of 153 patients (17%) developed a VTT during chemotherapy. When we analyzed the risk factors for developing a VTT, we found that Lugano stage ≥IIc was significantly (p = 0.0006) correlated with the risk of developing a VTT during chemotherapy. On calculating the VTT risk using the Khorana risk score model, we found that only 2 out of 26 patients (7.7%) were in the high-risk Khorana group (≥3). Patients with testicular cancer with a high tumor volume have a significant risk of developing a VTT with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The Khorana risk score is not an accurate tool for predicting VTT in testicular cancer. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Regulation of Cop9 signalosome activity by the EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein tescalcin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Konstantin; Slepak, Vladlen Z

    2014-06-01

    The Ca(2+)-binding protein tescalcin is known to be involved in hematopoietic cell differentiation; however, this mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we identify CSN4 (subunit 4 of the COP9 signalosome) as a novel binding partner of tescalcin. The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a multiprotein complex that is essential for development in all eukaryotes. This interaction is selective, Ca(2+)-dependent and involves the PCI domain of CSN4 subunit. We then investigated tescalcin and CSN activity in human erythroleukemia HEL and promyelocytic leukemia K562 cells and find that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced differentiation, resulting in the upregulation of tescalcin, coincides with reduced deneddylation of cullin-1 (Cul1) and stabilization of p27(Kip1) - molecular events that are associated with CSN activity. The knockdown of tescalcin led to an increase in Cul1 deneddylation, expression of F-box protein Skp2 and the transcription factor c-Jun, whereas the levels of cell cycle regulators p27(Kip1) and p53 decreased. These effects are consistent with the hypothesis that tescalcin might play a role as a negative regulator of CSN activity towards Cul1 in the process of induced cell differentiation.

  17. Quantification of confounding factors in MRI-based dose calculations as applied to prostate IMRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, Matteo; Seevinck, Peter R.; Schubert, Gerald; Hoesl, Michaela A. U.; van Asselen, Bram; Viergever, Max A.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Meijer, Gert J.; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR)-only radiotherapy treatment planning requires pseudo-CT (pCT) images to enable MR-based dose calculations. To verify the accuracy of MR-based dose calculations, institutions interested in introducing MR-only planning will have to compare pCT-based and computer tomography (CT)-based dose calculations. However, interpreting such comparison studies may be challenging, since potential differences arise from a range of confounding factors which are not necessarily specific to MR-only planning. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify and quantify the contribution of factors confounding dosimetric accuracy estimation in comparison studies between CT and pCT. The following factors were distinguished: set-up and positioning differences between imaging sessions, MR-related geometric inaccuracy, pCT generation, use of specific calibration curves to convert pCT into electron density information, and registration errors. The study comprised fourteen prostate cancer patients who underwent CT/MRI-based treatment planning. To enable pCT generation, a commercial solution (MRCAT, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland) was adopted. IMRT plans were calculated on CT (gold standard) and pCTs. Dose difference maps in a high dose region (CTV) and in the body volume were evaluated, and the contribution to dose errors of possible confounding factors was individually quantified. We found that the largest confounding factor leading to dose difference was the use of different calibration curves to convert pCT and CT into electron density (0.7%). The second largest factor was the pCT generation which resulted in pCT stratified into a fixed number of tissue classes (0.16%). Inter-scan differences due to patient repositioning, MR-related geometric inaccuracy, and registration errors did not significantly contribute to dose differences (0.01%). The proposed approach successfully identified and quantified the factors confounding accurate MRI-based dose calculation in

  18. Study on landslide hazard zonation based on factor weighting-rating theory in Slanic Prahova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftei, R.-M.; Vina, G.; Filipciuc, C.

    2012-04-01

    Studying the risks caused by landslides is important in the context of its forecast triggering. This study mainly integrates the background data that are related to historical and environmental factors and also current triggering factors. The theory on zoning hazard caused by landslides, Landslide Hazard Zonation, (LHZ) appeared in the 1960s. In this period the U.S. and many European countries began to use other triggers factors, besides the slope factor, in achieving hazard zoning. This theory has progressed due to the development of remote sensing and GIS technology, which were used to develop and analys methods and techniques consisting in combining data from different sources. The study of an area involves analysing the geographical position data, estimating the surface, the type of terrain, altitude, identifing the landslides in the area and some geological summary data. Data sources. The data used in this study are: · Landsat 7 satellite images; · 30 m spatial resolution, from which is derived the vegetation index; · topographic maps 1:25 000 from which we can obtain the numerical altitude model (DEM) (used to calculate the slope and relative altitude to land) · geological maps 1:50 000. Studied factors. The main factors used and studied in achieving land slides hazard zoning are: - the rate of displacement, the angle of slope, lithology - the index of vegetation or ground coverage of vegetation (NDVI) - river network, structural factor 1. The calculation of normalized vegetation index is made based on Landsat ETM satellite images. This vegetation factor can be both a principal and a secondary trigger factor in landslides. In areas devoid of vegetation, landslides are triggered more often compared with those in which coverage is greater. 2. Factors derived from the numerical model are the slope and elevation relative altitude. This operation was made using the topographic map 1:25 000 from were the level curvs contour was extracted by digitization, and

  19. Developing a useful Vocabulary in English is more Complicated and Ef-fective than Simply Learning Words Based on Lists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao; XIAO Jun

    2014-01-01

    Traditional ways of English learning such as memorizing a certain couple of words and reciting from the word list seem much easier than developing a useful vocabulary for L2 learners. However, learners complain that they have suffered from couples of difficulties as the words are easy to be forgotten. Compare with the ways of mechanical memorizing, it argues that pro⁃viding L2 learners with the development of useful lexical knowledge such as semantic information and morphological structure is more effective in the process of language acquisition. Moreover, developing a useful lexical knowledge is far more complicated for English learners.

  20. Fan Based Brand Equity (FBBE Factor Analysis of Football in Iranian Premier League