WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors early identification

  1. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 244,610 children (ages 6-8) investigated birth risk factors for learning disabilities. Very low birth weight, low 5- minute Apgar score, and low maternal education were associated with highest individual-level risk. Low maternal education, late or no prenatal care, and tobacco use were associated with highest population-level…

  2. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Bainbridge, Nicolette L.; Scott, Keith G.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated birth risk factors for school-identified specific language impairment among 244,619 students. Very low birth weight, low 5-min Apgar scores, late or no prenatal care, high birth order and low maternal education were associated with high individual-level risk, and low maternal education and unmarried mothers were associated…

  3. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, G.; Bellinger, D.; McCormick, Marie C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature

  4. Early Identification of Psychosis: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Early Psychosis Initiative of British Columbia

    2000-01-01

    This document is an educational resource concerning the early identification of psychosis. Primary topics addressed include: an outline of the importance of early intervention; signs and symptoms of psychosis; and strategies for recognizing psychosis.  

  5. Identification of Patients at Risk for Early Onset and/or Severe Preeclampsia With the Use of Uterine Artery Doppler Velocimetry and Placental Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Jimmy; Romero, Roberto; Nien, Jyh Kae; Gomez, Ricardo; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gonçalves, Luis F.; Medina, Luis; Edwin, Sam; Hassan, Sonia; Carstens, Mario; Gonzalez, Rogelio

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia has been proposed to be an anti-angiogenic state that may be detected by the determination of the concentrations of the soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) in maternal blood even before the clinical development of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the combined use of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry (UADV) and maternal plasma PlGF and sVEGFR-1 concentrations in the second trimester for the identification of patients at risk for severe and/or early onset preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was designed to examine the relationship between abnormal UADV and plasma concentrations of PlGF and sVEGFR-1 in 3348 pregnant women. Plasma samples were obtained between 22 and 26 weeks of gestation at the time of ultrasound examination. Abnormal UADV was defined as the presence of bilateral uterine artery notches and/or a mean pulsatility index above the 95th percentile for the gestational age. Maternal plasma PlGF and sVEGFR-1 concentrations were determined with the use of sensitive and specific immunoassays. The primary outcome was the development of early onset preeclampsia (≤34 weeks of gestation) and/or severe preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes included preeclampsia, the delivery of a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate without preeclampsia, spontaneous preterm birth at ≤32 and ≤35 weeks of gestation, and a composite of severe neonatal morbidity. Contingency tables, chi-square test, receiver operating characteristic curve, and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. A probability value of <.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: (1) The prevalence of preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and early onset preeclampsia were 3.4% (113/3296), 1.0% (33/3296), and 0.8% (25/3208), respectively. UADV was performed in 95.4% (3146/3296) and maternal plasma PlGF concentrations were determined in 93.5% (3081

  6. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...

  7. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within the first 6 months after term age. We cover basic neuroscience, arguing for a beneficial effect of early intervention, and discuss why clinical research to support this convincingly is lacking. We argue that infants offered early intervention in future clinical studies must be identified carefully, and that the intervention should be focused on infants showing early signs of CP to determine an effect of treatment. Such signs may be efficiently detected by a combination of neuroimaging and the General Movements Assessment. We propose a research agenda directed at large-scale identification of infants showing early signs of CP and testing of high-intensity, early interventions. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  8. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  9. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  10. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification......PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  11. Identification of factors for physicians to facilitate early differential diagnosis of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever from dengue fever in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ko; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Dengue fever, rickettsial diseases, and Q fever are acute febrile illnesses with similar manifestations in tropical areas. Early differential diagnosis of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever from dengue fever may be made by understanding the distinguishing clinical characteristics and the significance of demographic and weather factors. We conducted a retrospective study to identify clinical, demographic, and meteorological characteristics of 454 dengue fever, 178 scrub typhus, 143 Q fever, and 81 murine typhus cases in three Taiwan hospitals. Case numbers of murine typhus and Q fever correlated significantly with temperature and rainfall; the scrub typhus case number was only significantly related with temperature. Neither temperature nor rainfall correlated with the case number of dengue fever. The rarity of dengue fever cases from January to June in Taiwan may be a helpful clue for diagnosis in the area. A male predominance was observed, as the male-to-female rate was 2.1 for murine typhus and 7.4 for Q fever. Multivariate analysis revealed the following six important factors for differentiating the rickettsial diseases and Q fever group from the dengue fever group: fever ≥8 days, alanine aminotransferase > aspartate aminotransferase, platelets >63,000/mL, C-reactive protein >31.9 mg/L, absence of bone pain, and absence of a bleeding syndrome. Understanding the rarity of dengue in the first half of a year in Taiwan and the six differentiating factors may help facilitate the early differential diagnosis of rickettsial diseases and Q fever from dengue fever, permitting early antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Patients Hospitalized in General Wards via the Emergency Department: Early Identification of Predisposing Factors for Death or Unexpected Intensive Care Unit Admission—A Historical Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Boulain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To identify, upon emergency department (ED admission, predictors of unexpected death or unplanned intensive care/high dependency units (ICU/HDU admission during the first 15 days of hospitalization on regular wards. Methods. Prospective cohort study in a medical-surgical adult ED in a teaching hospital, including consecutive patients hospitalized on regular wards after ED visit, and identification of predictors by logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards model. Results. Among 4,619 included patients, 77 (1.67% target events were observed: 32 unexpected deaths and 45 unplanned transfers to an ICU/HDU. We identified 9 predictors of the target event including the oxygen administration on the ED, unknown current medications, and use of psychoactive drug(s. All predictors put the patients at risk during the first 15 days of hospitalization. A logistic model for hospital mortality prediction (death of all causes still comprised oxygen administration on the ED, unknown current medications, and the use of psychoactive drug(s as risk factors. Conclusion. The “use of oxygen therapy on the ED,” the “current use of psychoactive drug(s”, and the “lack of knowledge of current medications taken by the patients” were important predisposing factors to severe adverse events during the 15 days of hospitalization on regular wards following the ED visit.

  13. Identification of Special Educational Needs for Early Childhood Inclusive Education in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Florence Akua; Badu-Shayar, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Early Childhood Education is a key element for the growth and development of every country. This paper, provides a summary of reviewing the impact of early childhood special educational assessment on children to be "at risk" of developing special educational needs. It was identified mainly that early identification of at-risk factors for…

  14. The early identification of risk factors on the pathway to school dropout in the SIODO study: a sequential mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theunissen Marie-José

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School dropout is a persisting problem with major socioeconomic consequences. Although poor health probably contributes to pathways leading to school dropout and health is likely negatively affected by dropout, these issues are relatively absent on the public health agenda. This emphasises the importance of integrative research aimed at identifying children at risk for school dropout at an early stage, discovering how socioeconomic status and gender affect health-related pathways that lead to dropout and developing a prevention tool that can be used in public health services for youth. Methods/design The SIODO study is a sequential mixed-methods study. A case–control study will be conducted among 18 to 24 year olds in the south of the Netherlands (n = 580. Data are currently being collected from compulsory education departments at municipalities (dropout data, regional public health services (developmental data from birth onwards and an additional questionnaire has been sent to participants (e.g. personality data. Advanced analyses, including cluster and factor analyses, will be used to identify children at risk at an early stage. Using the quantitative data, we have planned individual interviews with participants and focus groups with important stakeholders such as parents, teachers and public health professionals. A thematic content analysis will be used to analyse the qualitative data. Discussion The SIODO study will use a life-course perspective, the ICF-CY model to group the determinants and a mixed-methods design. In this respect, the SIODO study is innovative because it both broadens and deepens the study of health-related determinants of school dropout. It examines how these determinants contribute to socioeconomic and gender differences in health and contributes to the development of a tool that can be used in public health practice to tackle the problem of school dropout at its roots.

  15. Early identification of posttraumatic stress following military deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Statnikov, Alexander; Andersen, Søren B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-deployment identification of soldiers at risk for long-term posttraumatic stress psychopathology after home coming is important to guide decisions about deployment. Early post-deployment identification can direct early interventions to those in need and thereby prevents the develo...

  16. Identification and Definition of Early Aspects - A Prototype of Method

    OpenAIRE

    Resende, Antônio Maria Pereira de; Federal University of Lavras; da Cunha, Adilson Marques; Technological Institute of Aeronautics; Costa, Heitor Augustus Xavier; Federal University of Lavras

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly presents the conceptual model of the Method for Early Aspect (EA) Identification and Definition (MEAID). It also details activities named Early Aspects Candidates Identification with a set of heuristics and Early Aspects Definition with decision equation. The MEAID has being developed to support software engineering professionals reduce empirical and subjective decisions, aiming to increase efficacy and efficiency on such activity. Results from a scientific experimentation,...

  17. Identification of fibroblast growth factor-8b target genes associated with early and late cell cycle events in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, E M; Brokken, L J S; Narvi, E; Kallio, M J; Härkönen, P L

    2012-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-8 (FGF-8) is implicated in the development and progression of breast cancer and its levels are frequently elevated in breast tumors. The mechanisms driving FGF-8-mediated tumorigenesis are not well understood. Herein we aimed to identify target genes associated with FGF-8b-mediated breast cancer cell proliferation by carrying out a cDNA microarray analysis of genes expressed in estrogen receptor negative S115 breast cancer cells treated with FGF-8b for various time periods in comparison with those expressed in non-treated cells. Gene and protein expression was validated for selected genes by qPCR and western blotting respectively. Furthermore, using TRANSBIG data, the expression of human orthologs of FGF-8-regulated genes was correlated to the Nottingham prognostic index and estrogen receptor status. The analysis revealed a number of significantly up- and down-regulated genes in response to FGF-8b at all treatment times. The most differentially expressed genes were genes related to cell cycle regulation, mitosis, cancer, and cell death. Several key regulators of early cell cycle progression such as Btg2 and cyclin D1, as well as regulators of mitosis, including cyclin B, Plk1, survivin, and aurora kinase A, were identified as novel targets for FGF-8b, some of which were additionally shown to correlate with prognosis and ER status in human breast cancer. The results suggest that in stimulation of proliferation FGF-8b not only promotes cell cycle progression through the G1 restriction point but also regulates key proteins involved in chromosomal segregation during mitosis and cytokinesis of breast cancer cells.

  18. Issues in early identification of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, P W; Hyde, M L; Riko, K; Corbin, H; Fitzhardinge, P M

    1985-04-01

    In a general hospital, an early detection research program based on a high risk register and brain stem electric response audiometry (BERA) using click and frequency-specific stimuli identified 631 at-risk neonates from the well baby nursery and the neonatal intensive care nursery (ICN). BERA tests were done before discharge and four months later; comparison of outcomes revealed substantial discrepancies. From the follow-up test, 51 cases of mild to severe hearing loss were identified. Experience from the research program has raised some issues relevant for establishment of service programs. Evaluation of all babies (general nursery and ICN) is justified on the basis of yield but is resource consuming; strategies for minimizing work load are discussed. Risk factor criterion levels affect case loading and yield. Frequency-specific BERA identifies cases which would not be detected by click stimuli and which raise management questions. Deferral of testing to four months is feasible and desirable.

  19. Early life factors and adult mammographic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Berg, van den S.W.; Peeters, P.H.; Gils, van C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Early life factors have shown to be related to breast cancer risk. The pathophysiological link could be mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Mammary gland development already starts in utero and early life factors might affect the number of mammary cells at risk. In

  20. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within the fi...

  1. Early Identification and Interventions for Students With Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten,Russell; Jordan,Nancy C.; Flojo,Jonathan R.

    2005-01-01

    This article highlights key findings from the small body of research on mathematics difficulties (MD) relevant to early identification and early intervention. The research demonstrates that (a) for many children, mathematics difficulties are not stable over time; (b) the presence of reading difficulties seems related to slower progress in many…

  2. Developmental and behavioral problems in pediatric primary care : Early identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Mathilda

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the early identification of developmental and behavioral problems in pediatric primary care. The social environment is considered a fundamental determinant of early child development. In our study countries with generous redistributive policies had a better organization of ear

  3. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  4. Early Identification of Educationally High Potential and High Risk Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Barbara K.; Smith, Carol E.

    Early identification of educationally high potential and high risk children was investigated by following the same 49 children from kindergarten entrance through grade five of a regular school program. Kindergarten predictive measures were the Bender Gestalt Test and teachers' evaluations; follow-up measures were yearly standard achievement test…

  5. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  6. Indicators for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Dekkers, S.; Kandhai, M.C.; Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Booij, C.J.H.; Heer, de C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select the most important indicators for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins in wheat, maize, peanuts and tree nuts. The study was based on a holistic approach and, consequently, potential indicators were evaluated not only from the food production chain but a

  7. Early Identification and Interventions for Dyslexia: A Contemporary View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews current proposals concerning the definition of dyslexia and contrasts it with reading comprehension impairment. We then discuss methods for early identification and review evidence that teacher assessments and ratings may be valid screening tools. Finally, we argue that interventions should be theoretically motivated and…

  8. Early Identification and Interventions for Dyslexia: A Contemporary View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews current proposals concerning the definition of dyslexia and contrasts it with reading comprehension impairment. We then discuss methods for early identification and review evidence that teacher assessments and ratings may be valid screening tools. Finally, we argue that interventions should be theoretically motivated and…

  9. Early Identification of Asperger Syndrome in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Wiebke; Konig, Udo; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Mattejat, Fritz; Becker, Katja; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify items of the ADI-R that allow an early and sensitive identification of children with possible Asperger syndrome (AS). The aim was to obtain an economic short interview suitable for screening purposes. The study was based on data from a clinical sample of 5-18-year-old children and adolescents (mean age 10.9…

  10. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  11. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  12. The Role of Early Childhood Professionals in the Early Identification of Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Franklyn-Banton, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder defined by impaired social skills, impaired language development and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. The increasing prevalence of autism worldwide has made this an important condition among professionals working with young children, including those in Jamaica. Early identification and intervention…

  13. [Prognostic factors of early breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Elena; González, Cynthia S; Espinosa, Enrique

    2016-02-19

    Decision about the administration of adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer depends on the evaluation of prognostic factors. Lymph node status, tumor size and grade of differentiation are classical variables in this regard, and can be complemented by hormonal receptor status and HER2 expression. These factors can be combined into prognostic indexes to better estimate the risk of relapse or death. Other factors are less important. Gene profiles have emerged in recent years to identify low-risk patients who can forgo adjuvant chemotherapy. A number of profiles are available and can be used in selected cases. In the future, gene profiling will be used to select patients for treatment with new targeted therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valéria Campana Dos Anjos Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current response to intervention models (RTI favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Nonresponders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Nonresponders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 seven years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words (Alternative Tools for Educators-ATE and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile showed good sensitivity (true positives and specificity (true negatives to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤ 1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a

  15. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Olga V. C. A.; Andrade, Paulo E.; Capellini, Simone A.

    2015-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting

  16. Drought Risk Identification: Early Warning System of Seasonal Agrometeorological Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecios, Nicolas; Spyropoulos, Nicos V.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    By considering drought as a hazard, drought types are classified into three categories, namely meteorological or climatological, agrometeorological or agricultural and hydrological drought and as a fourth class the socioeconomic impacts can be considered. This paper addresses agrometeorological drought affecting agriculture within the risk management framework. Risk management consists of risk assessment, as well as a feedback on the adopted risk reduction measures. And risk assessment comprises three distinct steps, namely risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation. This paper deals with the quantification and monitoring of agrometeorological drought, which constitute part of risk identification. For the quantitative assessment of agrometeorological or agricultural drought, as well as the computation of spatiotemporal features, one of the most reliable and widely used indices is applied, namely the Vegetation Health Index (VHI). The computation of VHI is based on satellite data of temperature and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The spatiotemporal features of drought, which are extracted from VHI are: areal extent, onset and end time, duration and severity. In this paper, a 20-year (1981-2001) time series of NOAA/AVHRR satellite data is used, where monthly images of VHI are extracted. Application is implemented in Thessaly, which is the major agricultural region of Greece characterized by vulnerable and drought-prone agriculture. The results show that every year there is a seasonal agrometeorological drought with a gradual increase in the areal extent and severity with peaks appearing usually during the summer. Drought monitoring is conducted by monthly remotely sensed VHI images. Drought early warning is developed using empirical relationships of severity and areal extent. In particular, two second-order polynomials are fitted, one for low and the other for high severity drought, respectively. The two fitted curves offer a seasonal

  17. Analysis of Factors Influencing Farmers’ Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Fang; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey data of entrepreneurship concerning farmers in China,this article uses the multivariate adjustment regression analysis method,to analyze the factors influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity and the mechanism. The results show that demographic characteristics are still an important factor influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity,but the extent of its influence is weaker than entrepreneurs’ trait. The new trait theory is verified in farmers’ entrepreneurship opportunity behavior; entrepreneurship environment is becoming an important factor influencing entrepreneurial opportunity identification,whose regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ social network and previous experience is stronger than the regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ psychological trait.

  18. Factors associated with dental care utilization in early childhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darmawikarta, Denise; Chen, Yang; Carsley, Sarah; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Schroth, Robert J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2014-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic, dietary, and biological factors associated with families who do not receive dental care in early childhood and to identify risk factors associated with having cavities...

  19. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EARLY PREGNANCY FACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左祥生; 苏宝田; 魏道严

    1994-01-01

    Early pregnancy factor(EPF)was purified from the pooled sera of 210 pregnant women at 3-8weeks of gestation.Sera from healthy nonpegnant women used as control.The samples (G-Ⅱ,G-Ⅲ and G-Ⅳ) ob-tained from pregnant women had EPF activity but no HCG activity.Polyacrylamide gel electrophopesis showed that the amjor bands in pregnant G-Ⅲ and G-Ⅳ were at similar positions in tube gels.The results of SDS-PAGE showed 3 bands in pregnant G-Ⅳ:57.0 kD,38.0 kD and 19.0 kD.The basic active form of EPF may be a small peptide of 19.0 kD. The isoelectric points of pregnant G-Ⅳ were 6.45 and 8.20.

  20. Improving early clinical trial phase identification of promising therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Thomas A; Shah, Shreyansh D; Mandava, Pitchaiah

    2015-07-21

    This review addresses decision-making underlying the frequent failure to confirm early-phase positive trial results and how to prioritize which early agents to transition to late phase. While unexpected toxicity is sometimes responsible for late-phase failures, lack of efficacy is also frequently found. In stroke as in other conditions, early trials often demonstrate imbalances in factors influencing outcome. Other issues complicate early trial analysis, including unequally distributed noise inherent in outcome measures and variations in natural history among studies. We contend that statistical approaches to correct for imbalances and noise, while likely valid for homogeneous conditions, appear unable to accommodate disease complexity and have failed to correctly identify effective agents. While blinding and randomization are important to reduce selection bias, these methods appear insufficient to insure valid conclusions. We found potential sources of analytical errors in nearly 90% of a sample of early stroke trials. To address these issues, we recommend changes in early-phase analysis and reporting: (1) restrict use of statistical correction to studies where the underlying assumptions are validated, (2) select dichotomous over continuous outcomes for small samples, (3) consider pooled samples to model natural history to detect early therapeutic signals and increase the likelihood of replication in larger samples, (4) report subgroup baseline conditions, (5) consider post hoc methods to restrict analysis to subjects with an appropriate match, and (6) increase the strength of effect threshold given these cumulative sources of noise and potential errors. More attention to these issues should lead to better decision-making regarding selection of agents to proceed to pivotal trials.

  1. Identification of Behavioral Risk Factors During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Ruţa Florina; Tarcea Monica; Stere Victoria; Abram Zoltan; Avram Călin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to smoking during pregnancy is known to be one of the main modifiable risk factors, which threatens maternal and child health. Along with this factor, are not to be neglected also other risk factors belonging to lifestyle sphere, such as alcohol, sedentary, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge.

  2. Letter and Numeral Identification: Their Relationship with Early Literacy and Numeracy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Hood, Michelle; Ford, Ruth M.; Neumann, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between letter and numeral identification is reviewed to determine whether early identification of these symbols impact upon both literacy and numeracy development. Numerals and letters share similar perceptual properties such as geometric features and arbitrary labels. Through early socio-cultural experiences with surrounding…

  3. Epidemiology and early identification of autism: research challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders may be as high as 60 per 10000, considerably greater than the long-accepted figure of 5 per 10 000 for classic autism. Increased recognition, the broadening of the diagnostic concept and methodological differences across studies may account for most or all of the apparent increase in prevalence, although this cannot be quantified. In addition to the implications for families and services, these conceptual changes will affect the scientific study of autism. At present, case definition is reliant on the behavioural and developmental picture alone. Because the behavioural phenotype of autism and the broader autism spectrum disorders includes individuals with different ultimate aetiologies, even when biological or genetic markers are found they will not be present in all individuals with the phenotype. The fact that autism is not a unitary 'disorder' presents a significant challenge to genetic, biological, neurological and psychological research. Progress has recently been made in the earlier identification of autism both through screening programmes and by increased understanding and enhanced surveillance. This offers an opportunity to better understand the early developmental course of autism and may provide additional clues to the underlying pathology.

  4. Early identification of Asperger syndrome in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Wiebke; König, Udo; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Mattejat, Fritz; Becker, Katja; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify items of the ADI-R that allow an early and sensitive identification of children with possible Asperger syndrome (AS). The aim was to obtain an economic short interview suitable for screening purposes. The study was based on data from a clinical sample of 5-18-year-old children and adolescents (mean age 10.9 years) with either Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 43) or AS (n = 62). The introductory questions and 36 items, which contribute to the diagnostic algorithm of the ADI-R, were subjected to content analysis and stepwise discriminant function analysis. Eight meaningful items were found, which were shown to be good predictors of AS and to discriminate between the children with AS and those with ADHD. The short interview was especially useful for the assessment and screening of children up to 11 years in our sample, because in this subgroup, sensitivity was even higher (.92) and specificity was also excellent (.90). Eight items with high discriminatory power allowed sensitive and economic screening for young children with suspected AS.

  5. Influence of the definition of acute renal failure post-cardiac surgery on incidence, patient identification, and identification of risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noyez, L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute renal failure post-cardiac surgery (RF) is a major complication and is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Early recognition and identification of risk factors for RF is therefore important. However, several definitions of RF are used. The intention of

  6. Identification of Macroeconomic Factors in Large Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Dewachter, Hans; Houssa, Romain

    standard practices in the SVAR literature. Estimators based on the EM algorithm are developped. We apply this framework to a large panel of US monthly macroeconomic series. In particular, we identify nine macroeconomic factors and discuss the economic impact of monetary policy stocks. The results...

  7. System Identification by Dynamic Factor Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); W. Scherrer; M. Destler

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper concerns the modelling of stochastic processes by means of dynamic factor models. In such models the observed process is decomposed into a structured part called the latent process, and a remainder that is called noise. The observed variables are treated in a symmetric way, so

  8. Risk Factors of Early Complications of Tracheostomy at Kenyatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk Factors of Early Complications of Tracheostomy at Kenyatta National Hospital. ... Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or ... The aim of this study was to identify risk factors that contribute to complications following tracheostomies.

  9. Early Identification of Determinate Growth Habit in Lablab Bean (Lablab purpureus (L..) Sweet)

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Nasreen; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    Rapid and reliable information for early identification of determinate growth habit is highly desired in the high yielding determinate variety development program. This experiment was conducted to find out some effective morphological markers for the early identification of determinate growth habit of lablab bean. Both determinate and indeterminate plants were grown in 20℃ and 25℃ of phytotron in the summer and winter seasons of two consecutive years. The results of this experiment suggest th...

  10. Impact Factor: Early Career Research & Digital Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Laura A.; Wakefield, Jenny S.; Roman, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly vital to publish and share research as well as get citations for the purpose of researcher visibility. The publishing options available for research distribution seem endless. It really is an academic jungle out there! This article reviews why early career researchers and graduate scholars should consider their research…

  11. A Bayesian semiparametric factor analysis model for subtype identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiehuan; Warren, Joshua L; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-04-25

    Disease subtype identification (clustering) is an important problem in biomedical research. Gene expression profiles are commonly utilized to infer disease subtypes, which often lead to biologically meaningful insights into disease. Despite many successes, existing clustering methods may not perform well when genes are highly correlated and many uninformative genes are included for clustering due to the high dimensionality. In this article, we introduce a novel subtype identification method in the Bayesian setting based on gene expression profiles. This method, called BCSub, adopts an innovative semiparametric Bayesian factor analysis model to reduce the dimension of the data to a few factor scores for clustering. Specifically, the factor scores are assumed to follow the Dirichlet process mixture model in order to induce clustering. Through extensive simulation studies, we show that BCSub has improved performance over commonly used clustering methods. When applied to two gene expression datasets, our model is able to identify subtypes that are clinically more relevant than those identified from the existing methods.

  12. Repeatability of Maternal Report on Prenatal, Perinatal and Early Postnatal Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Diana; Suling, Marc; Reisch, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    and length, Caesarean (C)-section, week of delivery) and early postnatal factors (exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding, introduction of solid food). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to compare maternal reports on prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors between the first......To investigate the repeatability of maternal self-reported prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors within the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study. Design: Data are from the baseline survey of the longitudinal...... reports showed moderate correlation for the introduction of several types of food (cereals ICC=0.64, Pless than or equal to0.05; fruits ICC=0.70, Pless than or equal to0.05; meat ICC=0.83, Pless than or equal to0.05; vegetables ICC=0.75, Pless than or equal to0.05), and high correlation (ICC=0.88, Pless...

  13. A general psychopathology factor in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Praveetha; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos; Wolpert, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13.5 years (N = 23 477), and resulting dimensions were assessed in terms of associations with external correlates and future functioning. Both a traditional two-factor model and a bi-factor model with a general psychopathology bi-factor fitted the data well. The general psychopathology bi-factor best predicted future psychopathology and academic attainment. Associations with correlates and factor loadings are discussed. A general psychopathology factor, which is equal across genders, can be identified in young people. Its associations with correlates and future functioning indicate that investigating this factor can increase our understanding of the aetiology, risk and correlates of psychopathology. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  14. Identification of Early Predictors of Adult Learners’ Academic Performance in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Chong Nguik Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Universities are inundated with detailed applicant and enrolment data from a variety of sources. However, for these data to be useful there is a need to convert them into strategic knowledge and information for decision-making processes. This study uses predictive modelling to identify at-risk adult learners in their first semester at SIM University, a Singapore University that caters mainly to adult learners. Fourteen variables from the enrolment database were considered as possible factors for the predictive model. To classify the at-risk students, various algorithms were used such as a neural network and classification tree. The performances of the different models were compared for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy indices. The model chosen is a classification tree model that may be used to inform policy. The implications of these results for identification of individuals in need of early intervention are discussed.

  15. Early signals for emerging food safety risks: From past cases to future identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, F,J, van de; Luijckx, N.B.L.; Cnossen, H.J.; Houben, G.F.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades multiple unexpected and wide spread food safety incidents have occurred. The aim of this study is to learn from the past by studying the early emergence of historic food safety risks and apply these lessons for future early identification of emerging food safety risks. Inform

  16. Early signals for emerging food safety risks: From past cases to future identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, F,J, van de; Luijckx, N.B.L.; Cnossen, H.J.; Houben, G.F.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades multiple unexpected and wide spread food safety incidents have occurred. The aim of this study is to learn from the past by studying the early emergence of historic food safety risks and apply these lessons for future early identification of emerging food safety risks.

  17. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...... and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...

  18. Identification of noise in linear data sets by factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscoe, B.A.; Hopke, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    The approach to classical factor analysis described in this paper, i.e. doing the analysis for varying numbers of factors without prior assumptions to the number of factors, prevents one from getting eroneous results by inherent computer code assumptions. Identification of a factor containing most of the variance of one variable with little variance of other variables, pinpoints a possible difficulty in the data, if the singularity has no obvious physical significance. Examination of the factor scores will determine whether the problem is isolated to a few samples or over all the samples. Having this information, one may then go back to the raw data and take the appropriate corrective action. Classical factor analysis has the ability to identify several types of errors in data after it has been generated. It is then ideally suited for scanning large data sets. The ease of the identification technique makes it a beneficial tool to use before reduction and analysis of large data sets and should, in the long run, save time and effort.

  19. Factors associated with early childhood caries in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Hoffmeister

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The high prevalence of caries in this young group is concerning. The factors associated with caries identified in this study could help in the design of preventive interventions at early ages.

  20. Identification of complexity cost factors in manufacturing companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    . This research focuses on the relation between product and process complexity. Complexity cost factors are identified and categorized under the industrial standard APQC for process classification. Then, this categorization is used as a tool for identification of complexity cost factors in seven companies......Complexity tends to be arguably the biggest challenge of manufacturing companies. As the demand from the customers increases in volume and diversity, the number of finished products and components increases as well. This increasing product complexity has a direct effect on the production processes...

  1. Factors influencing early survival after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, P G; Estrin, J A; Fryd, D S; Payne, W D; Belani, K G; Elick, B A; Najarian, J S; Ascher, N L

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from all adult and pediatric liver transplants performed between January 1, 1983 and January 15, 1986 at the University of Minnesota Hospital and identify perioperative variables that predict patient survival and could aid in patient selection. Charts, intraoperative anesthesia records, blood bank records, flow sheets, outpatient records, and autopsy reports were examined in 45 pediatric and 15 adult patients who underwent primary orthotopic liver transplantation. Analysis of the data can be summarized as follows: (1) Pediatric patients whose coagulation parameters could not be corrected prior to operation and who consequently required preoperative exchange transfusion had poorer outcomes than those not requiring an exchange to correct coagulation parameters. (2) The rapid infusion technique for massive blood transfusion resulted in significantly decreased blood loss and intraoperative blood product replacement. (3) Twenty-four hour postoperative factor V levels were good predictors of survival. Patients with poor factor V levels required rigorous replacement of coagulation factors. (4) Pediatric patients with uncorrectable coagulopathies requiring immediate postoperative exchange transfusion had extremely high mortality.

  2. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Pryor

    Full Text Available Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence.To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories.Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010. Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child's caregiver (mother in 98% of cases. Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child's perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years associated with each trajectory.Three trajectories of overweight were identified: "early-onset overweight" (11.0 %, "late-onset overweight" (16.6% and "never overweight" (72.5%. Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25, short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57, and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84 were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28 was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group.The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions.

  3. Scale Factor in Very Early Universe with the Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Mohsenzadeh, M

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is presentation an expanding scenario of 5-dimensional space-time in the very early universe. We introduce the 5-dimensional generalized FRW metric and obtain the evolution of the bulk scale factor with space-like and time-like extra dimensions. It is shown that, additional space-like dimensions can produce an exponentially expansion for the bulk scale factor under repulsive strong gravitational force in the empty very early universe with the extra dimension.

  4. Factors associated with dental care utilization in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawikarta, Denise; Chen, Yang; Carsley, Sarah; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Schroth, Robert J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2014-06-01

    To identify sociodemographic, dietary, and biological factors associated with families who do not receive dental care in early childhood and to identify risk factors associated with having cavities among children who receive early dental care. A cross-sectional study of healthy Canadian children seen for primary health care between September 2011 and January 2013 was conducted through the TARGet Kids! practice-based research network in Toronto, Canada. Adjusted logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with children who were not seen by a dentist in early childhood and to determine risk factors associated with having dental cavities among children who received early dental care. Of the 2505 children included in the analysis, cavities. Among healthy urban children seen by a primary care provider, those most susceptible to cavities were least likely to receive early dental care. These findings support the need for publicly funded universal early preventive dental care and underscore the importance for primary care physicians to promote dental care in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Early childhood risk factors for rhinoconjunctivitis in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben

    2017-01-01

    the risk factors for non-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children finding family history of atopic diseases and gender to be of importance. The aim of this study was to investigate possible risk factors in early life for rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic as well as non-allergic, in adolescence. Methods...... between early-life risk factors and the development of rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic as well as non-allergic, in adolescence. Results: Follow-up rate at 14-years was 66.2%. The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was 32.8%. Family history of atopic diseases (aOR 2.25), atopic dermatitis (aOR 3.24), food...

  6. Identification and Gene Mapping of Completely Dominant Earliness in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiao-jian; ZHOU Kai-da; LI Ren-duan; CHUN Ze; LI Ping; WANG Wen-ming; ZHAI Wen-xue; ZHU Li-huang

    2002-01-01

    The completely dominant earliness was identified in a genic male-sterile and early maturing indica line 6442S-7. F1 progenies from 6442S-7 crossed with thirteen various types of medium- or latematuring varieties, shared the same heading date as 6442S-7. The segregation of heading date in the F2 and B1F1 populations showed that the earliness of 6442S-7 is mainly controlled by two dominant major genes. The local linkage map of one dominant earliness gene harbored in 6442S-7 was constructed with F2 population and four kinds of molecular marker techniques. The results showed that the gene was located between a RFLPmarker C515 and a RAPD marker OPI 11. 557 on the terminal region of short arm of rice chromosome 3,10.9cM and 1.5 cM from C515 and OPI11. 557, respectively. The genetic distances from the target gene to twoSSR markers, RM22 and RM231, and one AFLP marker, PT671, were 3.0, 6.7 and 12.4 cM, respectively. This gene, being identified and mapped first, is designated tentatively as Ef-cd (t). As a new genetic resource of completely dominant earliness, 6442S-7 has splendid future in rice improvement.

  7. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Noha Samir Kabil; Sherif Eltawil

    2017-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contri...

  8. Risk Factors for Early Revision after Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Christopher J.; Bozic, Kevin J.; Pan, Ting Jung; Wright, Timothy M.; Padgett, Douglas E.; Lyman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with increased cost, morbidity, and technical challenge compared to primary THA. A better understanding of the risk factors for early revision is needed to inform strategies to optimize patient outcomes. Methods 207,256 patients who underwent primary THA between 1997–2005 in California and New York were identified from statewide databases. Unique patient identifiers were used to identify early revision THA (400 THA annually (p<0.001). Conclusion A number of identifiable factors, including younger age, Medicaid, and low hospital volume increase the risk of undergoing early revision THA. Patient-level characteristics distinctly affect the risk of revision within 10 years, particularly if due to infection. Our findings reinforce the need for continued investigation of the predictors of early failure following THA. PMID:24285406

  9. BOYS, EARLY RISK FACTORS FOR ALCOHOL PROBLEMS, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF: AN INTERCONNECTED MATRIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttler, Leon I; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Heitzeg, Mary M; Zucker, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol-use disorders are a major public health issue worldwide. Although drinking and problematic alcohol use usually begins during adolescence, developmental origins of the disorder can be traced back to infancy and early childhood. Identification of early risk factors is essential to understanding developmental origins. Using data from the Michigan Longitudinal Study, an ongoing, prospective, high-risk family study, this article summarizes findings of family context and functioning of both children and parents. We draw attention to the development of the self, an understudied aspect of very young children being reared in alcoholic families that exacerbates exposure to high childhood adverse experiences. We also provide evidence demonstrating that young boys are embedded in a dynamic system of genes, epigenetic processes, brain organization, family dynamics, peers, community, and culture that strengthens risky developmental pathways if nothing is done to intervene during infancy and early childhood. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. An efficient method for identification of risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to identify risk factors during bridge construction.The method integrates the concepts of analytical hierarchy process and fuzzy consistent matrix method.The advantage of the method is that instead of using 9-point scale of relative importance of the conventional analytical hierarchy process,it uses a 3-point scale to describe the scale of importance,thus greatly simplifying the identification problem of risk factors.Moreover,the difficulties of making judgment and comparison caused by uncertainty that jeopardizes the accuracy of the results in the conventional analytical hierarchy process can also be overcome.Another advantage of the method is that it does not involve consistency checking,thus saving a large amount of CPU time.It has been demonstrated with a numerical example that the proposed fuzzy analytical hierarchy process based on 3-point scale can offer significant computational savings over the conventional analytical hierarchy process.

  11. The Role of Educators of the Deaf in the Early Identification of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arehart, Kathryn Hoberg; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that, as identification of hearing loss in infancy becomes increasingly common due to universal newborn screening, early interventionists will need to forge links to health-care providers, to have specialized training in deafness and hearing loss, and to have expertise in providing services to very young children and to children with mild…

  12. Organizational and Occupational Identification: Relations to Teacher Satisfaction and Intention to Early Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Murat; Hamarat, Bahattin; Colak, Ertugrul; Duran, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the effects of two work related identification (occupational and organizational) of school teachers on intention to early retirement (withdrawal) and satisfaction with the occupation and satisfaction with the school. It also seeks the influence of perceived external prestige on withdrawal and satisfaction.…

  13. Early Lexical Expression in Typically Developing Maltese Children: Implications for the Identification of Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Limited word production may be the first indicator of impaired language development. The unavailability of normative data and standardized assessments for young Maltese children hinders the identification of early language delays. This study aimed to document Maltese children's expressive vocabulary growth and accompanying range of variation, to…

  14. Organizational and Occupational Identification: Relations to Teacher Satisfaction and Intention to Early Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Murat; Hamarat, Bahattin; Colak, Ertugrul; Duran, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the effects of two work related identification (occupational and organizational) of school teachers on intention to early retirement (withdrawal) and satisfaction with the occupation and satisfaction with the school. It also seeks the influence of perceived external prestige on withdrawal and satisfaction.…

  15. [Research on Early Identification of Bipolar Disorder Based on Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haowei; Gao, Yanni; Yuan, Chengmei; Liu, Ying; Ding, Yuqing

    2015-06-01

    Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network belongs to multi-layer feedforward neural network, and has the ability and characteristics of high intelligence. It can realize the complex nonlinear mapping by its own learning through the network. Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness with high recurrence rate, high self-harm rate and high suicide rate. Most of the onset of the bipolar disorder starts with depressive episode, which can be easily misdiagnosed as unipolar depression and lead to a delayed treatment so as to influence the prognosis. The early identifica- tion of bipolar disorder is of great importance for patients with bipolar disorder. Due to the fact that the process of early identification of bipolar disorder is nonlinear, we in this paper discuss the MLP neural network application in early identification of bipolar disorder. This study covered 250 cases, including 143 cases with recurrent depression and 107 cases with bipolar disorder, and clinical features were statistically analyzed between the two groups. A total of 42 variables with significant differences were screened as the input variables of the neural network. Part of the samples were randomly selected as the learning sample, and the other as the test sample. By choosing different neu- ral network structures, all results of the identification of bipolar disorder were relatively good, which showed that MLP neural network could be used in the early identification of bipolar disorder.

  16. Early Identification Using Self-Assessment in Measuring Management Potential in Young Scientists and Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, Thomas M.; Jawetz, Karen A.

    The demand for managers with strong technical skills has led to increased interest in the selection and development of persons who have the potential to be successful managers. To learn more about early identification of persons possessing aptitude to manage, 82 engineering and science students completed a questionnaire describing behaviors they…

  17. Early Lexical Expression in Typically Developing Maltese Children: Implications for the Identification of Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Limited word production may be the first indicator of impaired language development. The unavailability of normative data and standardized assessments for young Maltese children hinders the identification of early language delays. This study aimed to document Maltese children's expressive vocabulary growth and accompanying range of variation, to…

  18. Early modifiable risk factors for childhood and adolescent mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Cherry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health is a major public health concern. Childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem can predispose children to future depression. Mental health issues often emerge in adolescence making examination of potential early modifiable risk factors for these three mental health indicators crucial. Potential risk factors for mental health issues often reflect findings from Western settings where confounding by low socioeconomic position may occur, making it diffi...

  19. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, Laura E.; Mara Brendgen; Richard E Tremblay; Jean-Baptiste Pingault; Xuecheng Liu; Lise Dubois; Evelyne Touchette; Bruno Falissard; Michel Boivin; Sylvana M Côté

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol ...

  20. Early identification of 'acute-onset' chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy could be clearly separated into two non-overlapping groups. Studies of nerve excitability may be able to

  1. Early risk factors for miscarriage: a prospective cohort study in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arck, Petra C; Rücke, Mirjam; Rose, Matthias; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Douglas, Alison J; Pritsch, Maria; Blois, Sandra M; Pincus, Maike K; Bärenstrauch, Nina; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Nakamura, Katrina; Sheps, Sam; Klapp, Burghard F

    2008-07-01

    Many pregnancies are lost during early gestation, but clinicians still lack tools to recognize risk factors for miscarriage. Thus, the identification of risk factors for miscarriage during the first trimester in women with no obvious risk for a pregnancy loss was the aim of this prospective cohort trial. A total of 1098 women between gestation weeks 4 and 12 in whom no apparent signs of a threatened pregnancy could be diagnosed were recruited. Demographic, anamnestic, psychometric and biological data were documented at recruitment and pregnancy outcomes were registered subsequently. Among the cases with sufficiently available data, 809 successfully progressing pregnancies and 55 subsequent miscarriages were reported. In this cohort, risk of miscarriage was significantly increased in women at higher age (>33 years), lower body mass index (< or =20 kg/ m(2)) and lower serum progesterone concentrations (< or =12 ng/ml) prior to the onset of the miscarriage. Women with subsequent miscarriage also perceived higher levels of stress/demands (supported by higher concentrations of corticotrophin-releasing hormone) and revealed reduced concentrations of progesterone-induced blocking factor. These risk factors were even more pronounced in the subcohort of women (n = 335) recruited between gestation weeks 4 and 7. The identification of these risk factors and development of an interaction model of these factors, as introduced in this article, will help clinicians to recognize pregnant women who require extra monitoring and who might benefit from therapeutic interventions such as progestogen supplementation, especially during the first weeks of pregnancy, to prevent a miscarriage.

  2. Risk factors for early childhood caries in disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Schwarz, Eli; Blinkhorn, Anthony Stevenson

    2011-11-01

    Early childhood caries is a significant international public health problem. The aim of this paper was to review the current evidence of the risk factors for dental caries in disadvantaged children under 6 years of age. Medline, Cochrane, and PubMed database searches were conducted. Systematic reviews were used where available, or meta-analyses; randomized, controlled trials; and cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (in that order). Studies were restricted to those published in English from 1990 to October 2010. Early childhood caries has a complex etiology with biological, behavioral, and sociodemographic influences. Evidence suggests that young children are most likely to develop caries if Streptococcus mutans is acquired at an early age, although this is influenced by other factors, such as oral hygiene, fluoride, diet, dental visit patterns, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and health literacy. Etiological pathways should be taken into consideration when designing interventions to prevent dental caries in disadvantaged preschool children.

  3. Selective Prevention Approaches to Build Protective Factors in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Cheri J.

    2014-01-01

    Young children with disabilities may be at elevated risk for behavior problems as well as maltreatment. preventive approaches that can be infused into early intervention services are needed to support parents, build competencies among young children, and enhance protective factors that may temper risk. Two interventions--Stepping Stones Triple P,…

  4. Subjective cognitive impairment: Towards early identification of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ptacek, S; Eriksdotter, M; Jelic, V; Porta-Etessam, J; Kåreholt, I; Manzano Palomo, S

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD) begins decades before dementia and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) already demonstrate significant lesion loads. Lack of information about the early pathophysiology in AD complicates the search for therapeutic strategies.Subjective cognitive impairment is the description given to subjects who have memory-related complaints without pathological results on neuropsychological tests. There is no consensus regarding this heterogeneous syndrome, but at least some of these patients may represent the earliest stage in AD. We reviewed available literature in order to summarise current knowledge on subjective cognitive impairment. Although they may not present detectable signs of disease, SCI patients as a group score lower on neuropsychological tests than the general population does, and they also have a higher incidence of future cognitive decline. Depression and psychiatric co-morbidity play a role but cannot account for all cognitive complaints. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in these patients reveal a pattern of hippocampal atrophy similar to that of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and functional MRI shows increased activation during cognitive tasks which might indicate compensation for loss of function. Prevalence of an AD-like pattern of beta-amyloid (Aβ42) and tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid is higher in SCI patients than in the general population. Memory complaints are relevant symptoms and may predict AD. Interpatient variability and methodological differences between clinical studies make it difficult to assign a definition to this syndrome. In the future, having a standard definition and longitudinal studies with sufficient follow-up times and an emphasis on quantifiable variables may clarify aspects of early AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved early identification of arthritis : evaluating the efficacy of Early Arthritis Recognition Clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nies, Jessica A. B.; Brouwer, Elisabeth; van Gaalen, Floris A.; Allaart, Cornelia F.; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Posthumus, Marcel D.; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H. M.

    Objective Only 31% of Dutch rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-patients visit a rheumatologist within 12weeks after symptom onset; this is mainly due to delay at the level of the general practitioner (GP). In order to reduce delay of GPs in identifying early arthritis, we initiated an Early Arthritis

  6. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  7. Early identification of atopy in the prediction of persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sly, Peter D; Boner, Attilio L; Björksten, Bengt;

    2008-01-01

    understood, and hence primary prevention remains an elusive goal. We argue that primary-care physicians, paediatricians, and specialists lack knowledge of the role of atopy in early life in the development of persistent asthma in children. In this review, we discuss how early identification of children......The long-term solution to the asthma epidemic is thought to be prevention, and not treatment of established disease. Atopic asthma arises from gene-environment interactions, which mainly take place during a short period in prenatal and postnatal development. These interactions are not completely...... at high risk is feasible on the basis of available technology and important for potential benefits to the children. Identification of an asthmatic child's atopic status in early life has practical clinical and prognostic implications, and sets the basis for future preventative strategies....

  8. [Factors associated with early weaning in a Spanish region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, J M; Ortuño, J; Rivas, C; Maravall, M; Calzado, M A; López, A; Aguar, M; Vento, M

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding has undoubtedly great benefits. Previous studies have foundan early dropout. Only a few studies have investigated related factors. Our aim was to find out on-going breastfeeding rates along the first 12 months after birth and analyse factors associated with early weaning. This is a prospective study including consecutive pairs (mother and newborn) till completion of the required sample. Variables were collected performing a structured program of surveys to the mothers. Bivariate and multivariate analysis of the data was performed. A total of 452 pairs were recruited. It was found that 81% of them started breastfeeding, with a prevalence of breastfeeding of 39% and 21% at 3 and 6 months after birth, respectively. Factors associated with early discontinuation of breastfeeding were: pregnancy induced by assisted reproduction methods (OR=5.58; 95% CI: 2.62-11.91), maternal smoking (OR=1.56; 95% CI: 1.10-2.22), poor maternal expectations about the duration of breastfeeding (OR=2.19; 95% CI: 1.49-3.23), use of nipple shields for breastfeeding (OR=2.57; 95% CI: 1.69-3.90), pacifier use on a regular basis during the first month after delivery (OR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.91), maternal university educational level (OR=0,59; 95% CI: 0,40-0,88), attending birth preparation programs during pregnancy (OR=0,68; 95% CI: 0,49-0,94), and believing having enough milk output at the time of discharge (OR=0,66; 95% CI: 0,47-0,92). International recommendations about duration of breastfeeding are not achieved in our country because of high rates of early weaning. We describe the known factors involved and other novel factors. The implementation of interventions to increase breastfeeding rates and to prevent early weaning are strongly recommended. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  10. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Samir Kabil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to three or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother’s caries experience, two siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, one sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency, and no night brushing.

  11. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    predictive value of elevated cord blood IgE found in recent studies. Future studies should control for materno-fetal transfer of IgE or preferably use other markers of atopy. Variation in the gene coding for the skin barrier protein filaggrin (FLG) is the strongest known genetic risk factor for eczema. FLG......The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...

  12. Early identification of Type I supernova light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Arnett, W David; Matheson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We compare analytic light curves for SNIabc supernovae with recent high quality data from (1)) SN2011fe \\citep{sn2011fe}, (2) KSN2011b \\citep{keplersn}, (3) the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and the La Silla-QUEST variability survey (LSQ) \\citep{firth}, and (4) a type Ib, SN2008D \\citep{modjaz,soderberg}. We establish a reasonable bolometric conversion between Kepler supernovae and SN2011fe, a crude but instructive one for SN2008D, and discuss the implications of the smoothness of the light-curve for KSN2011b, as well as the meaning of the deviation of early luminosity from $t^2$ behavior. The good agreement of the analytic light curves (which necessarily assume mixing and which can reproduce the Phillips relation) and the observations of highest cadence and stability, are consistent with the occurrence of significant large-scale mixing during the explosion, possibly due to 3D effects (e.g., Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmeyer-Meshkov instabilities) and consistent with spectrapolarimetry \\citep{amber}. We illust...

  13. Identification of genetic risk factors for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Ferreira, M; Pinho, T; Sousa, A; Sequeiros, J; Lemos, C; Alonso, I

    2014-05-01

    Tooth agenesis affects 20% of the world population, and maxillary lateral incisors agenesis (MLIA) is one of the most frequent subtypes, characterized by the absence of formation of deciduous or permanent lateral incisors. Odontogenesis is a complex mechanism regulated by sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, controlled by activators and inhibitors involved in several pathways. Disturbances in these signaling cascades can lead to abnormalities in odontogenesis, resulting in alterations in the formation of the normal teeth number. Our aim was to study a large number of genes encoding either transcription factors or key components in signaling pathways shown to be involved in tooth odontogenesis. We selected 8 genes-MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA, SPRY2, TGFA, SPRY4, and WNT10A-and performed one of the largest case-control studies taking into account the number of genes and variants assessed, aiming at the identification of MLIA susceptibility factors. We show the involvement of PAX9, EDA, SPRY2, SPRY4, and WNT10A as risk factors for MLIA. Additionally, we uncovered 3 strong synergistic interactions between MLIA liability and MSX1-TGFA, AXIN2-TGFA, and SPRY2-SPRY4 gene pairs. We report the first evidence of the involvement of sprouty genes in MLIA susceptibility. This large study results in a better understanding of the genetic components and mechanisms underlying this trait.

  14. Molecular architecture of transcription factor hotspots in early adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Baek, Songjoon; Rabiee, Atefeh;

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors have recently been shown to colocalize in hotspot regions of the genome, which are further clustered into super-enhancers. However, the detailed molecular organization of transcription factors at hotspot regions is poorly defined. Here, we have used digital genomic...... footprinting to precisely define factor localization at a genome-wide level during the early phase of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, which allows us to obtain detailed molecular insight into how transcription factors target hotspots. We demonstrate the formation of ATF-C/EBP heterodimers at a composite...... motif on chromatin, and we suggest that this may be a general mechanism for integrating external signals on chromatin. Furthermore, we find evidence of extensive recruitment of transcription factors to hotspots through alternative mechanisms not involving their known motifs and demonstrate...

  15. Molecular architecture of transcription factor hotspots in early adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Baek, Songjoon; Rabiee, Atefeh

    2014-01-01

    motif on chromatin, and we suggest that this may be a general mechanism for integrating external signals on chromatin. Furthermore, we find evidence of extensive recruitment of transcription factors to hotspots through alternative mechanisms not involving their known motifs and demonstrate......Transcription factors have recently been shown to colocalize in hotspot regions of the genome, which are further clustered into super-enhancers. However, the detailed molecular organization of transcription factors at hotspot regions is poorly defined. Here, we have used digital genomic...... footprinting to precisely define factor localization at a genome-wide level during the early phase of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, which allows us to obtain detailed molecular insight into how transcription factors target hotspots. We demonstrate the formation of ATF-C/EBP heterodimers at a composite...

  16. Perinatal and early childhood environmental factors influencing allergic asthma immunopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffin, Jonathan M; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Early life exposure to allergens (house dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold), air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), ozone (O(3)), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) has been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation, Identification and Earliness Effect Analysis of Rice Dominant Earliness Gene Ef-cd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiao-jian; WANG Ping-rong; LI Xiu-lan; DONG Chun-lin; YANG Zhi-rong

    2005-01-01

    Ef-cd gene is a dominant earliness gene located on the short arm of rice chromosome 3. In this paper, through continuous backcross, self-pollination and molecular marker assisted selection, individual Ef-cd gene was isolated and its nearly isogenic lines were constructed by using early-maturing indica line 6442S-7 as the donor parent, and by using latematuring indica line Minghui 63 (MH63), Shuhui 881 (SH881) and Shuhui 527 (SH527) as the recurrent parents (genetic background), respectively. Further, it was found out that Ef-cd gene could generally advance rice to head 11-14 d earlier.So, it was considered that Ef-cd gene played an important role in rapid developing early-maturing and super high-yielding rice varieties.

  18. Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim

    2017-08-01

    Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

  19. Factors associated with Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Khanal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth has numerous nutritional and immunological benefits and has been found to reduce neonatal mortality. This community-based prospective cohort study aimed to report the rate of, and factors associated with, early initiation of breastfeeding in Western Nepal. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was reported, and associations between early initiation and independent variables were tested by Chi-square test, followed by multiple logistic regression. Of the 735 mother-infant pairs, a total of 310 (42.2% reported early initiation. Mothers who were assisted by traditional attendants during childbirth, delivered by caesarean section, from ethnically disadvantaged families and had delivered low birth weight infants, were less likely to initiate breastfeeding early whereas the mothers who were from the poorest families and did not introduce prelacteal feeds to their infants were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour. Skills-training to support breastfeeding as part of the training of skilled birth attendants and other health workers is likely to promote recommended infant feeding practices.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor signaling during early vertebrate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Ralph T; Niehrs, Christof

    2005-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been implicated in diverse cellular processes including apoptosis, cell survival, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and proliferation. This review presents our current understanding on the roles of FGF signaling, the pathways employed, and its regulation. We focus on FGF signaling during early embryonic processes in vertebrates, such as induction and patterning of the three germ layers as well as its function in the control of morphogenetic movements.

  1. Cellular restriction factors affecting the early stages of HIV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Omar; Hope, Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Several innate immune mechanisms exist in mammalian cells that prevent the replication of viruses. These cellular factors influence the tropism of retroviruses in mammalian cells by inducing a dominant restriction that acts after viral entry but before integration into the host genome. The identification of several cellular factors involved with the post entry block of HIV has recently been revealed. These recent advances identified the tripartite motif protein 5alpha (Trim5alpha) and the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), which work to inactivate several retroviruses including HIV-1. The mechanism of restriction by these cellular proteins is unknown. Therefore, this review highlights recent advances in understanding the function of Trim5alpha and APOBEC3G.

  2. An early history of the Gestalt factors of organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, Stefano; Marino, Barbara F M; Giora, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Wertheimer's (1923, Psychologische Forschung 4 301 - 350) idea that the perceptual world is articulated according to factors of organisation is widely acknowledged as one of the most original contributions of Gestalt psychology and stands as a milestone in the history of vision research. An inquiry focused on the forerunners of some of Wertheimer's factors of perceptual organisation is documented here. In fact, in 1900 Schumann described grouping by proximity and by vertical symmetry, and in 1903 G E Müller identified the factors of sameness/similarity and contour. Other authors contributed to the early description of these factors, such as Rubin, who in 1922 originally illustrated grouping by similarity. Even though Wertheimer himself granted these authors due recognition, later psychologists have paid little attention to their contributions. Some possible reasons for this negligence are briefly discussed.

  3. Identification of Transcription Factors for Lineage-Specific ESC Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamizu, Kohei; Piao, Yulan; Sharov, Alexei A.; Zsiros, Veronika; Yu, Hong; Nakazawa, Kazu; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A network of transcription factors (TFs) determines cell identity, but identity can be altered by overexpressing a combination of TFs. However, choosing and verifying combinations of TFs for specific cell differentiation have been daunting due to the large number of possible combinations of ∼2,000 TFs. Here, we report the identification of individual TFs for lineage-specific cell differentiation based on the correlation matrix of global gene expression profiles. The overexpression of identified TFs—Myod1, Mef2c, Esx1, Foxa1, Hnf4a, Gata2, Gata3, Myc, Elf5, Irf2, Elf1, Sfpi1, Ets1, Smad7, Nr2f1, Sox11, Dmrt1, Sox9, Foxg1, Sox2, or Ascl1—can direct efficient, specific, and rapid differentiation into myocytes, hepatocytes, blood cells, and neurons. Furthermore, transfection of synthetic mRNAs of TFs generates their appropriate target cells. These results demonstrate both the utility of this approach to identify potent TFs for cell differentiation, and the unanticipated capacity of single TFs directly guides differentiation to specific lineage fates. PMID:24371809

  4. Outcome and risk factors of early onset severe preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yun-hui; JIA Jin; L(U) Dong-hao; DAI Li; BAI Yi; ZHOU Rong

    2012-01-01

    Background Early onset severe preeclampsia is a specific type of severe preeclampsia,which causes high morbidity and mortality of both mothers and fetus.This study aimed to investigate the clinical definition,features,treatment,outcome and risk factors of early onset severe preaclampsia in Chinese women.üMethods Four hundred and thirteen women with severe preeclampsia from June 2006 to June 2009 were divided into three groups according to the gestational age at the onset of preeclampsia as follows:group A (less than 32 weeks,73 cases),group B (between 32 and 34 weeks,71 cases),and group C (greater than 34 weeks,269 cases).The demographic characteristics of the subjects,complications,delivery modes and outcome of pregnancy were analyzed retrospectively.üResults The systolic blood pressure at admission and the incidence of severe complications were significantly lower in group C than those in groups A and B,prolonged gestational weeks and days of hospitalization were significantly shorter in group C than those in groups A and B.Liver and kidney dysfunction,pleural and peritoneal effusion,placental abruption and postpartum hemorrhage were more likely to occur in group A compared with the other two groups.Twenty-four-hour urine protein levels at admission,intrauterine fetal death and days of hospitalization were risk factors that affected complications of severe preeclampsia.Gestational week at admission and delivery week were also risk factors that affected perinatal outcome.Conclusions Early onset severe preeclampsia should be defined as occurring before 34 weeks,and it is featured by more maternal complications and a worse perinatal prognosis compared with that defined as occurring after 34 weeks.Independent risk factors should be used to tailor the optimized individual treatment plan,to balance both maternal and neonatal safety.

  5. REDUCTION IN INCIDENCE OF HOSPITALIZATIONS FOR PSYCHOTIC EPISODES THROUGH EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND INTERVENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, William R.; SUSSER, EZRA; McCleary, Richard; Verdi, Mary; Lynch, Sarah; Williams, Deanna; McKeague, Ian W

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study tested whether the incidence of hospitalization for psychosis was reduced by a community-wide system of early identification and intervention to prevent onset of psychosis. Method The Portland Identification and Early Referral (PIER) program was initiated in 2001. Youth and young adults ages 12-35 were identified by professionals in a wide variety of educational, health and mental health settings. PIER staff assessed, confirmed risk for psychosis and provided treatment for 24 months to eligible and consenting young people (N=148). The monthly rate of hospital admissions for first episode psychosis was the outcome measure for efficacy of identification and intervention. Admission rates before and after the program began accepting referrals were compared, both in the experimental area and in aggregated urban areas of Maine. ARIMA models were used to assess the effect. Results Based on ARIMA models, the rate of hospitalized psychosis decreased significantly by 26% (95% C.I., -64% to -11%) in the Greater Portland area. Conversely, it increased by 8% (95% C.I. -5% to +36%) in the Urban Control area. Including increases in the control area, the actual vs. expected difference (-26% -8%) was -34%. The change was largest for non-affective-non-schizophrenic Disorders. Conclusions PIER demonstrated that population-wide early identification is feasible. Preventive intervention can reduce rates of initial hospitalizations for psychosis in a mid-sized city. Clinical trial registration The study was reviewed and approved by the Maine Medical Center Institutional Review Board and registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01597141). All research subjects gave informed consent prior to participating. PMID:24632857

  6. Anxiety in early pregnancy: prevalence and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubertsson, C; Hellström, J; Cross, M; Sydsjö, G

    2014-06-01

    Antenatal anxiety symptoms are not only a health problem for the expectant mother. Research has found that maternal anxiety may also have an impact on the developing baby. Therefore, it is important to estimate the prevalence of maternal anxiety and associated factors. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy and to identify associated risk factors. Secondly, to investigate other factors associated with anxiety during early pregnancy including fear of childbirth and a preference for cesarean section. In a population-based community sample of 1,175 pregnant women, 916 women (78%) were investigated in the first trimester (gestation week 8-12). The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-A) was used to measure anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A scores≥8 during pregnancy) was 15.6% in early pregnancy. Women under 25 years of age were at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy (OR 2.6, CI 1.7-4.0). Women who reported a language other than Swedish as their native language (OR 4.2, CI 2.7-7.0), reported high school as their highest level of education (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3), were unemployed (OR 3.5, CI 2.1-5.8), used nicotine before pregnancy (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.5), and had a self-reported psychiatric history of either depression (OR 3.8, CI 2.6-5.6) or anxiety (OR 5.2, CI 3.5-7.9) before their current pregnancy were all at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy increased the rate of fear of birth (OR 3.0, CI 1.9-4.7) and a preference for cesarean section (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8). Caregivers should pay careful attention to history of mental illness to be able to identify women with symptoms of anxiety during early pregnancy. When presenting with symptoms of anxiety, the women might need counseling and or treatment in order to decrease her anxiety.

  7. Sex, temperament, and family context: how the interaction of early factors differentially predict adolescent alcohol use and are mediated by proximal adolescent factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Linnea R; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Goldsmith, H Hill; Klein, Marjorie H; Strauman, Timothy J; Costanzo, Phillip; Essex, Marilyn J

    2011-03-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interaction with child sex, are less clear. Using a prospective community sample of 362 (190 girls), this study investigated sex differences in the joint influence of distal childhood and proximal adolescent factors on Grade 10 alcohol use. All risk factors and two-way early individual-by-context interactions, and interactions of each of these with child sex, were entered into the initial regression. Significant sex interactions prompted the use of separate models for girls and boys. In addition to the identification of early (family socioeconomic status, authoritative parenting style) and proximal adolescent (mental health symptoms, deviant friends) risk factors for both girls and boys, results highlighted important sex differences. In particular, girls with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished by the interaction of early temperamental disinhibition and exposure to parental stress; boys with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished primarily by early temperamental negative affect. Results have implications for the timing and type of interventions offered to adolescents.

  8. Clinical factors adversely affecting early outcome after brain infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles André

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE AND METHODS: One-hundred-and-nine consecutive patients admitted during the acute phase of a CT-confirmed brain infarction (BI were studied. Putative adverse influence of demographic and stroke risk factors, previous medical history, clinical presentation, initial and follow-up neurological examination, initial general evaluation, laboratory findings, chest X-ray and electrocardiographic findings, treatment, and topography and etiology of the ischemic insult was analysed. The end-point for assessment was early death (within 30 days. Statistical analysis was performed with univariate analysis and multiple regression. RESULTS: The main adverse factors related to an increased death risk during the first 30 days were, in decreasing order of importance: coma 48-72 hours after admission; stroke occuring in already hospitalized patients; Babinski sign on admission; minor degrees of impairment of consciousness 48-72 hours after admission; stroke related to large artery atherothrombosis and to embolism; a history of early impairment of consciousness; cardiac failure on admission. In 53 lucid patients on admission, only a history of congestive heart failure (CHF was associated with a reduced survival rate. In 56 patients with impaired consciousness, the presence of a Babinski sign increased death risk, but the main factor predicting a high case-fatality rate was the persistence of consciousness disturbances after48-72 hours. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of impairment of consciousness, especially coma, 2-3 days after disease onset, and a history of CHF greatly increase the early case fatality rate in patients with acute BI presenting with or without consciousness disturbances at admission, respectively. The use of a prognostic algorythm considering these few variables seems to predict the approximate 30-day fatality rates.

  9. Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Goldani

    Full Text Available The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3% of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95%CI = 22.5-23.0. After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g, 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P < 0.05. The association between social class at birth and BMI remained statistically significant (P < 0.05 even after adjustment for adult schooling. These findings suggest that early life social influences on BMI were more important and were not reversed by late socioeconomic position. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should focus not only on changes in adult life styles but also on factors such as high birth weight.

  10. Factors predicting persistence of early wheezing through childhood and adolescence: a systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Sossa-Briceño, Monica P; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Background For the early identification of persistent asthma symptoms among young children with recurrent wheezing, it would be helpful to identify all available studies that have identified at least one factor for predicting the persistence of early wheezing. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of all studies that have identified factors that predict the persistence of symptoms among young patients with recurring wheezing. Methods A systematic review of relevant studies was conducted through searching in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and SCOPUS databases up to June 2016. Studies that identified predictors of persistence of wheezing illness among young children with recurrent wheezing were retrieved. Two independent reviewers screened the literature and extracted relevant data. Results The literature search returned 649 references, 619 of which were excluded due to their irrelevance. Five additional studies were identified from reference lists, and 35 studies were finally included in the review. Among all the identified predictors, the most frequently identified ones were the following: family asthma or atopy; personal history of atopic diseases; allergic sensitization early in life; and frequency, clinical pattern, or severity of wheezing/symptoms. Conclusion Parental asthma (especially maternal), parental allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, persistent wheezing, wheeze without colds, exercise-induced wheeze, severe wheezing episodes, allergic sensitization (especially polysensitization), eosinophils (blood or eosinophil cationic protein in nasal sample), and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide were risk factors predicting persistence of early wheezing through school age. All of them are included in conventional algorithms, for example, Asthma Predictive Index and its modifications, for predicting future asthma. PMID:28392707

  11. [Early postpartum discharge: outcomes and risk factors of readmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehila, Mehdi; Magdoud, Khaoula; Touhami, Omar; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Jeridi, Sara; Marzouk, Sofiène Ben; Mahjoub, Sami; Hmid, Rim Ben; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the practice of early postpartum discharge by analyzing maternal readmission rates and identifying readmission risk factors. This is a prospective and analytical study of 1206 patients discharged from hospital on postpartum day 1. For each patient we collected the epidemiological data, the course of pregnancy and childbirth. We identified the causes of readmission and their evolution. Cesarean delivery rate was 42%. Maternal readmission rate was 0.99%. The average length of stay in hospital after readmission was 26 hours. Intestinal transit disorders were the most frequent reason for consultation (50% of cases) followed by fever (25% of cases). The readmission risk factors identified in our study were: cesarean section (p = 0.004), emergency cesarean section (p = 0.016) anemia (P discharge seems a safe option for the mother and their newborn children subject to the ability to clearly communicate health information to the patient and to the compliance with selection criteria.

  12. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity, behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet, hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  13. Early Childhood Caries: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumaran Anil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries (ECC is major oral health problem, mainly in socially disadvantaged populations. ECC affects infants and preschool children worldwide. The prevalence of ECC differs according to the group examined, and a prevalence of up to 85% has been reported for disadvantaged groups. ECC is the presence of one or more decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth in children aged 71 months (5 years or younger. It begins with white-spot lesions in the upper primary incisors along the margin of the gingiva. If the disease continues, caries can progress, leading to complete destruction of the crown. The main risk factors in the development of ECC can be categorized as microbiological, dietary, and environmental risk factors. Even though it is largely a preventable condition, ECC remains one of the most common childhood diseases. The major contributing factors for the for the high prevalence of ECC are improper feeding practices, familial socioeconomic background, lack of parental education, and lack of access to dental care. Oral health plays an important role in children to maintain the oral functions and is required for eating, speech development, and a positive self-image. The review will focus on the prevalence, risk factors, and preventive strategies and the management of ECC.

  14. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

  15. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Bammann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. OBJECTIVES: The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. METHODS: A case-control study with 1,024 1:1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007-05/2008 of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. RESULTS: For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.04, smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.01, Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10-1.74, and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62-0.96. Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. CONCLUSIONS: Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity.

  16. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  17. Identification of the optimal donor quality scoring system and measure of early renal function in kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2009-02-27

    The early identification of kidney allografts at risk of later dysfunction has implications for clinical practice. Donor quality scoring systems (preoperative) and measures of early allograft function (first week postoperative) have previously shown practical utility. This study aimed to determine the optimal parameter(s) (preoperative and postoperative) with greatest predictive power for the development of subsequent allograft dysfunction.

  18. Resilience Factors in Women with Severe Early-Life Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Karen; Neukel, Corinne; Hagemann, Dirk; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja

    Early-life maltreatment (ELM) has long-lasting negative consequences and is the most important general risk factor for mental disorders. Nevertheless, a number of maltreated children grow up to become healthy adults and have therefore been called 'resilient'. The aim of the current study is to investigate 'resilience factors' in the context of severe ELM. The study was part of the large multicenter project Understanding and Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Abuse (UBICA). A total of 89 women were examined, 33 with ELM and at least one lifetime mental disorder (nonresilient), 19 with ELM but without lifetime mental disorders (resilient), and 37 without ELM and without lifetime mental disorders (controls). ELM and other circumstances before the age of 18 years were assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) Interview. Additional relevant person and situation factors were measured with the Structured Clinical Interview for Mental Disorders (SCID-I), International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Multiple-Choice Vocabulary Intelligence Test (MWT-B). Factor analyses and paired t tests were performed to identify those variables which differentiate best between the three groups. In addition, a discriminant analysis was conducted to detect the accuracy of assigning women to their specific group. The factor analyses revealed 10 resilience factors based on which we could correctly assign 80% of the women to their group in the discriminant analysis. t tests of factor scores showed that resilient and nonresilient maltreated women mainly differed in current individual attributes (e.g. impulsivity, attachment style), while resilient and nonresilient maltreated women differed from controls in both their current individual attributes and their view of their situation as a

  19. Risk factors for early termination of breast feeding in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliani, E R; Issler, R M; Justo, E B; Seffrin, C F; Hartmann, R M; Carvalho, N M

    1992-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to identify possible factors related to the duration of breast feeding. Two hundred and thirty-eight mothers who had delivered normal single babies with birth weights greater than 2.5 kg and had initiated breast feeding were randomly selected at the maternity hospital, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, and followed by mail questionnaires until termination of breast feeding, or until the end of the first year. If no reply was received, telephone contact or home visits were made. The group of mothers who stopped breast feeding prior to the end of the third month was compared with those who extended breast feeding beyond three months with respect to socioeconomic, biological, environmental, medical and psychological factors. The variables with a significant coefficient of association with early termination of breast feeding were maternal education, past experience with breast feeding, help of a maid, help with housework provided by a relative, breast feeding orientation during prenatal care and encouragement from the husband. These factors act simultaneously, with interactions among them.

  20. Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

    2003-01-20

    To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

  1. Predictive factors for early aspiration in liver abscess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rustam Khan; Saeed Hamid; Shahab Abid; Wasim Jafri; Zaigham Abbas; Mohammed Islam; Hasnain Shah; Shaalan Beg

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the predictive factors for early aspiration in liver abscess.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients with liver abscess from 1995 to 2004 was performed. Abscess was diagnosed as amebic in 661 (68%) patients, pyogenic in 200 (21%), indeterminate in 73 (8%) and mixed in 32 (3%). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictive factors for aspiration of liver abscess.RESULTS: A total of 966 patients, 738 (76%) male, mean age 43 ± 17 years, were evaluated: 540 patients responded to medical therapy while adjunctive percutaneous aspiration was performed in 426 patients. Predictive factors for aspiration of liver abscess were: age ≥ 55 years, size of abscess ≥ 5 cm, involvement of both lobes of the liver and duration of symptoms ≥ 7 d. Hospital stay in the aspiration group was relatively longer than in the non aspiration group. Twelve patients died in the aspiration group and this mortality was not statistically significant when compared to the non aspiration group.CONCLUSION: Patients with advanced age, abscess size > 5 cm, both lobes of the liver involvement and duration of symptoms > 7 d were likely to undergo aspiration of the liver abscess, regardless of etiology.

  2. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  3. Opportunity Identification and Creation as Factors of Firm Internationalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Żur

    2015-06-01

    and accuracy in opportunity identification. The article presents an integrated process-based view of opportunity antecedents and concludes with a dynamic cyclical path-dependent model of opportunity-based view of firm internationalisation. Hopefully, the proposed model can serve as a useful lens for hypotheses formulation and testing within the research on firm internationalisation determinants.

  4. Factors Associated with Early Platelet Activation in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Anel Gómez; Núñez, Guillermina García; Sandoval, Martha Eva Viveros; Castellanos, Sergio Gutierrez; Aguilar, Cleto Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors associated with platelet activation in obese children. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Department of Pediatrics of Regional Hospital N∘ 1 of Mexican Institute of Social Security in Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico. Participants 79 obese and 64 non-obese children between the ages of 5 and 10 years. Main Outcomes Measures Obese children (body mass index [BMI] >85 in growth curves for Centers for Disease Control/National Center for Health Statistics), and the control group of 64 non-obese children (percentile <85), % body fat, platelet activation was assessed by sP-selectin. Other measures were leptin, uric acid (UA), von Willebrand Factor (vWF), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), lipid profile, and glucose. Results Obese children displayed higher plasma sP-selectin, leptin, PAI-1, and vWF than non-obese children. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, leptin, vWF, UA, and high density lipoprotein (HDL), but not with PAI-1, were factors associated with platelet activation. By stepwise linear regression analysis adjusted by sex and age, the best predictor variables for platelet activation were leptin (β:0.381; t:4.665; P=0.0001), vWF (β:0.211; t:2.926; P=0.004), UA (β:0.166; t:2.146; P=0.034), and HDL (β:−0.215; t:−2.819; P=0.006). Conclusions Obese children have a higher risk of developing early platelet activation. Factors associated with platelet activation were Leptin, vWF, UA, and HDL. Further studies involving larger numbers of patients over a longer duration are needed to understand the possible molecular mechanism underlying the association between leptin, vWF, and UA and endothelial activation and/or endothelial damage/dysfunction in obese children and its influence in cardiovascular disease in adults. PMID:24415745

  5. Identification of serum proteomic biomarkers for early porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genini Sem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is one of the most significant swine diseases worldwide. Despite its relevance, serum biomarkers associated with early-onset viral infection, when clinical signs are not detectable and the disease is characterized by a weak anti-viral response and persistent infection, have not yet been identified. Surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS is a reproducible, accurate, and simple method for the identification of biomarker proteins related to disease in serum. This work describes the SELDI-TOF MS analyses of sera of 60 PRRSV-positive and 60 PRRSV-negative, as measured by PCR, asymptomatic Large White piglets at weaning. Sera with comparable and low content of hemoglobin ( Results A total of 200 significant peaks (p  Conclusions SELDI-TOF MS profiling of sera from PRRSV-positive and PRRSV-negative asymptomatic piglets provided a proteomic signature with large scale diagnostic potential for early identification of PRRSV infection in weaning piglets. Furthermore, SELDI-TOF protein markers represent a refined phenotype of PRRSV infection that might be useful for whole genome association studies.

  6. Early evolution of the T-box transcription factor family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Ariza-Cosano, Ana; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Leininger, Sven; Yang, Ally; Torruella, Guifré; Adamski, Marcin; Adamska, Maja; Hughes, Timothy R.; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2013-01-01

    Developmental transcription factors are key players in animal multicellularity, being members of the T-box family that are among the most important. Until recently, T-box transcription factors were thought to be exclusively present in metazoans. Here, we report the presence of T-box genes in several nonmetazoan lineages, including ichthyosporeans, filastereans, and fungi. Our data confirm that Brachyury is the most ancient member of the T-box family and establish that the T-box family diversified at the onset of Metazoa. Moreover, we demonstrate functional conservation of a homolog of Brachyury of the protist Capsaspora owczarzaki in Xenopus laevis. By comparing the molecular phenotype of C. owczarzaki Brachyury with that of homologs of early branching metazoans, we define a clear difference between unicellular holozoan and metazoan Brachyury homologs, suggesting that the specificity of Brachyury emerged at the origin of Metazoa. Experimental determination of the binding preferences of the C. owczarzaki Brachyury results in a similar motif to that of metazoan Brachyury and other T-box classes. This finding suggests that functional specificity between different T-box classes is likely achieved by interaction with alternative cofactors, as opposed to differences in binding specificity. PMID:24043797

  7. Identification of early breast cancer patient cohorts who may benefit from lapatinib therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Horick, Nora; Smith, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    In resource-constrained environments many patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ early breast cancer are currently not offered adjuvant anti-HER2 therapy. For patients who might be able to receive the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) lapatinib (e.g. after patent expiration)...

  8. Identification and predicting short-term prognosis of early cardiorenal syndrome type 1: KDIGO is superior to RIFLE or AKIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhilian; Cai, Lu; Liang, Xinling; Du, Zhiming; Chen, Yuanhan; An, Shengli; Tan, Ning; Xu, Lixia; Li, Ruizhao; Li, Liwen; Shi, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) is usually type 1 of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of AKI is critical. This study was to determine if the new KDIGO criteria (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) for identification and short-term prognosis of early CRS type 1 was superior to the previous RIFLE and AKIN criteria. The association between AKI diagnosed by KDIGO but not by RIFLE or AKIN and in-hospital mortality was retrospectively evaluated in 1005 Chinese adult patients with AHF between July 2008 and May 2012. AKI was defined as RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria, respectively. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis of in-hospital mortality. Within 7 days on admission, the incidence of CRS type 1 was 38.9% by KDIGO criteria, 34.7% by AKIN, and 32.1% by RIFLE. A total of 110 (10.9%) cases were additional diagnosed by KDIGO criteria but not by RIFLE or AKIN. 89.1% of them were in Stage 1 (AKIN) or Stage Risk (RIFLE). They accounted for 18.4% (25 cases) of the overall death. After adjustment, this proportion remained an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality [odds ratios (OR)3.24, 95% confidence interval(95%CI) 1.97-5.35]. Kaplan-Meier curve showed AKI patients by RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO and [K(+)R(-)+K(+)A(-)] had lower hospital survival than non-AKI patients (Log Rank PRIFLE or AKIN. AKI missed diagnosed by RIFLE or AKIN criteria was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality, indicating the new KDIGO criteria was superior to RIFLE and AKIN in predicting short-term outcomes in early CRS type 1.

  9. Identification and predicting short-term prognosis of early cardiorenal syndrome type 1: KDIGO is superior to RIFLE or AKIN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilian Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF is usually type 1 of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of AKI is critical. This study was to determine if the new KDIGO criteria (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes for identification and short-term prognosis of early CRS type 1 was superior to the previous RIFLE and AKIN criteria. METHODS: The association between AKI diagnosed by KDIGO but not by RIFLE or AKIN and in-hospital mortality was retrospectively evaluated in 1005 Chinese adult patients with AHF between July 2008 and May 2012. AKI was defined as RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria, respectively. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis of in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Within 7 days on admission, the incidence of CRS type 1 was 38.9% by KDIGO criteria, 34.7% by AKIN, and 32.1% by RIFLE. A total of 110 (10.9% cases were additional diagnosed by KDIGO criteria but not by RIFLE or AKIN. 89.1% of them were in Stage 1 (AKIN or Stage Risk (RIFLE. They accounted for 18.4% (25 cases of the overall death. After adjustment, this proportion remained an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality [odds ratios (OR3.24, 95% confidence interval(95%CI 1.97-5.35]. Kaplan-Meier curve showed AKI patients by RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO and [K(+R(-+K(+A(-] had lower hospital survival than non-AKI patients (Log Rank P<0.001. CONCLUSION: KDIGO criteria identified significantly more CRS type 1 episodes than RIFLE or AKIN. AKI missed diagnosed by RIFLE or AKIN criteria was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality, indicating the new KDIGO criteria was superior to RIFLE and AKIN in predicting short-term outcomes in early CRS type 1.

  10. Aneuploidy in Early Miscarriage and its Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Wei Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetic factors are the main cause of early miscarriage. This study aimed to investigate aneuploidy in spontaneous abortion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using probes for 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X and Y chromosomes. Methods: A total of 840 chorionic samples from spontaneous abortion were collected and examined by FISH. We analyzed the incidence and type of abnormal cases and sex ratio in the samples. We also analyzed the relationship between the rate of aneuploidy and parental age, the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion, the difference in incidence of aneuploidy between samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous induced abortion. Results: A total of 832 samples were finally analyzed. 368 (44.23% were abnormal, in which 84.24% (310/368 were aneuploidies and 15.76% (58/368 were polyploidies. The first was trisomy16 (121/310, followed by trisomy 22, and X monosomy. There was no significant difference in the rate of aneuploidy in the advanced maternal age group (≥35 years old and young maternal age group (<35 years old. However, the rate of trisomy 22 and the total rate of trisomies 21, 13, and 18 (the number of trisomy 21 plus trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 together showed significantly different in two groups. We found no skewed sex ratio. There was no significant difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent miscarriage and sporadic abortion or between the samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous artificial abortion. Conclusions: Aneuploidy is a principal factor of miscarriage and total parental age is a risk factor. There is no skewed sex ratio in spontaneous abortion. There is also no difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion or between previous artificial abortion and no previous induced abortion.

  11. Aneuploidy in Early Miscarriage and its Related Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan-Wei Jia; Li Wang; Yong-Lian Lan; Rui Song; Li-Yin Zhou; Lan Yu; Yang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Genetic factors are the main cause of early miscarriage.This study aimed to investigate aneuploidy in spontaneous abortion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes for 13,16,18,21,22,X and Y chromosomes.Methods:A total of 840 chorionic samples from spontaneous abortion were collected and examined by FISH.We analyzed the incidence and type of abnormal cases and sex ratio in the samples.We also analyzed the relationship between the rate of aneuploidy and parental age,the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion,the difference in incidence of aneuploidy between samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous induced abortion.Results:A total of 832 samples were finally analyzed.368 (44.23%) were abnormal,in which 84.24% (310/368) were aneuploidies and 15.76% (58/368) were polyploidies.The first was trisomy16 (121/310),followed by trisomy 22,and X monosomy.There was no significant difference in the rate ofaneuploidy in the advanced maternal age group (≥35 years old) and young maternal age group (<35 years old).However,the rate oftrisomy 22 and the total rate oftrisomies 21,13,and 18 (the number oftrisomy 21 plus trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 together) showed significantly different in two groups.We found no skewed sex ratio.There was no significant difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent miscarriage and sporadic abortion or between the samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous artificial abortion.Conclusions:Aneuploidy is a principal factor of miscarriage and total parental age is a risk factor.There is no skewed sex ratio in spontaneous abortion.There is also no difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion or between previous artificial abortion and no previous induced abortion.

  12. Asthma trajectories in early childhood: identifying modifiable factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Panico

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are conflicting views as to whether childhood wheezing represents several discreet entities or a single but variable disease. Classification has centered on phenotypes often derived using subjective criteria, small samples, and/or with little data for young children. This is particularly problematic as asthmatic features appear to be entrenched by age 6/7. In this paper we aim to: identify longitudinal trajectories of wheeze and other atopic symptoms in early childhood; characterize the resulting trajectories by the socio-economic background of children; and identify potentially modifiable processes in infancy correlated with these trajectories. DATA AND METHODS: The Millennium Cohort Study is a large, representative birth cohort of British children born in 2000-2002. Our analytical sample includes 11,632 children with data on key variables (wheeze in the last year; ever hay-fever and/or eczema reported by the main carers at age 3, 5 and 7 using a validated tool, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood module. We employ longitudinal Latent Class Analysis, a clustering methodology which identifies classes underlying the observed population heterogeneity. RESULTS: Our model distinguished four latent trajectories: a trajectory with both low levels of wheeze and other atopic symptoms (54% of the sample; a trajectory with low levels of wheeze but high prevalence of other atopic symptoms (29%; a trajectory with high prevalence of both wheeze and other atopic symptoms (9%; and a trajectory with high levels of wheeze but low levels of other atopic symptoms (8%. These groups differed in terms of socio-economic markers and potential intervenable factors, including household damp and breastfeeding initiation. CONCLUSION: Using data-driven techniques, we derived four trajectories of asthmatic symptoms in early childhood in a large, population based sample. These groups differ in terms of their socio-economic profiles

  13. Prognostic risk factors for early diagnosing of Preeclampsia in Nulliparas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is of major complications of pregnancy that is associated with maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia would be helpful for better controlling of related complications. Our study aimed to investigate risk factors helping to predict and early diagnose of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: A total of 739 nulliparous women at their 24-28 th weeks of the first pregnancy were enrolled in this multi-center cohort study. Incidence or absence of preeclampsia in this population was evaluated up to the end of pregnancy period. For each case, a record sheet was assigned that contained information about haematocrit level in weeks 24-28 th of pregnancy, blood pressure, result of roll-over test in weeks 24-28 th of pregnancy and the presence of disease up to end of the study. Diagnosis of preeclampsia was made based on gold standard. Results : Overall, 3.9 % of all cases developed preeclampsia. The mean maternal age, body mass index (BMI, years of education and positive roll-over test were significantly higher in preeclampsia group (P < 0.001. However, the mean gestational age and changes in the levels of haematocrit were significantly higher in normotensive cases (P < 0.001. Our combined model could predict preeclampsia with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 80%. Conclusion: Simple combined model of demographic characteristics including maternal age, BMI, years of education and positive roll-over tests can predict preeclampsia without any cost for the patients.

  14. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  15. [Early identification of children with developmental language disorders - when and how?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2011-11-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have a high risk for their cognitive, social, and emotional development. Therefore, they should be identified and treated as early as possible. This paper reviews the possibilities and limits of methods for such early identification. Language screenings during the first 3 years of life are described and appraised with respect to their diagnostic accuracy. The overview indicates that the current stage of language development can be estimated with high reliability by means of parent questionnaires. The possibility of identifying children with developmental language disorders early on is limited. Precursors and first steps of language acquisition correlate with later language abilities, although the relationship is weak and predicting further language development in a individual child is not possible. At the end of the second year of life, however, late talkers can be identified; these children are at risk of language impairment. But not until the end of the third year can sufficient detection of language-impaired children succeed. Parent questionnaires are the most reliable screening instruments for evaluating language abilities during the first 3 years.

  16. Evaluation of possible associated factors for early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries: a multicenter cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,

  17. Evaluation of possible associated factors for early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries: a multicenter cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,

  18. Development and implementation of a system for the early identification of emerging risks in food and feed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2010-01-01

    ...). Through the identification of drivers of emerging risks, EFSA also intends to anticipate future risks derived from changes in current food/feed production practices or factors impinging on food/feed...

  19. Factors affecting daughter cells' arrangement during the early bacterial divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Tzu Su

    Full Text Available On agar plates, daughter cells of Escherichia coli mutually slide and align side-by-side in parallel during the first round of binary fission. This phenomenon has been previously attributed to an elastic material that restricts apparently separated bacteria from being in string. We hypothesize that the interaction between bacteria and the underneath substratum may affect the arrangement of the daughter bacteria. To test this hypothesis, bacterial division on hyaluronic acid (HA gel, as an alternative substratum, was examined. Consistent with our proposition, the HA gel differs from agar by suppressing the typical side-by-side alignments to a rare population. Examination of bacterial surface molecules that may contribute to the daughter cells' arrangement yielded an observation that, with disrupted lpp, the E. coli daughter cells increasingly formed non-typical patterns, i.e. neither sliding side-by-side in parallel nor forming elongated strings. Therefore, our results suggest strongly that the early cell patterning is affected by multiple interaction factors. With oscillatory optical tweezers, we further demonstrated that the interaction force decreased in bacteria without Lpp, a result substantiating our notion that the side-by-side sliding phenomenon directly reflects the strength of in-situ interaction between bacteria and substratum.

  20. Identification of noise in linear data sets by factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscoe, B.A.; Hopke, Ph.K. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA))

    1982-01-01

    A technique which has the ability to identify bad data points, after the data has been generated, is classical factor analysis. The ability of classical factor analysis to identify two different types of data errors make it ideally suited for scanning large data sets. Since the results yielded by factor analysis indicate correlations between parameters, one must know something about the nature of the data set and the analytical techniques used to obtain it to confidentially isolate errors.

  1. Boosted hadronic top identification at ATLAS for early 13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This note presents an algorithm to be used for the identification of boosted hadronically-decaying top quarks by the ATLAS collaboration for early 13 TeV data. The algorithm relies on the jet invariant mass and N-subjettiness and can be used to identify such top quarks with transverse momentum above 200 GeV. The choice of these two variables is justified by a study of the performances of the combination of several substructure variables. The calibration of these variables and their associated uncertainties are presented. The performance of two efficiency working points is evaluated using simulated top-pair and QCD multijet samples. This performance is further tested in the top-pair-associated Higgs boson production environment.

  2. Gene Expression Analysis for the Identification of Genes Involved in Early Tumour Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Stefano; Scarpulla, Salvatore; Lagana, Alessandro; Memeo, Lorenzo; Gulisano, Massimo

    Prostatic tissues can undergo to cancer insurgence and prostate cancer is one of the most common types of malignancies affecting adult men in the United States. Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesi-cles (SVCA) is a very rare neoplasm with only 48 histologically confirmed cases reported in the European and United States literature. Prostatic tissues, seminal vesicles and epididymis belongs all to the same microenvironment, shows a very close morphology and share the same embryological origin. Despite these common features the rate of cancer occurrence is very different. The understanding of molecular differences between non neoplastic prostatic tissues and non neoplastic epididymis or seminal vesicles may suggest potential mechanisms of resistance to tumour occurrence. The comparison of expression patterns of non neoplastic prostatic and seminal vesicles tissues to identify differentially expressed genes can help researchers in the identification of biological actors involved in the early stages of the tumour development.

  3. TF Target Mapper: a BLAST search tool for the identification of Transcription Factor target genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsman, S.; Moorhouse, M.J.; Jager, V.C.L. de; Spek, P. van der; Grosveld, F.; Strouboulis, J.; Katsantoni, E.Z.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the current era of high throughput genomics a major challenge is the genome-wide identification of target genes for specific transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) allows the isolation of in vivo binding sites of transcription factors and provides a powerful tool

  4. CLARITY – ChiLdhood Arthritis Risk factor Identification sTudY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Justine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aetiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is largely unknown. We have established a JIA biobank in Melbourne, Australia called CLARITY – ChiLdhood Arthritis Risk factor Identification sTudY, with the broad aim of identifying genomic and environmental disease risk factors. We present here study protocols, and a comparison of socio-demographic, pregnancy, birth and early life characteristics of cases and controls collected over the first 3 years of the study. Methods Cases are children aged ≤18 years with a diagnosis of JIA by 16 years. Controls are healthy children aged ≤18 years, born in the state of Victoria, undergoing a minor elective surgical procedure. Participant families provide clinical, epidemiological and environmental data via questionnaire, and a blood sample is collected. Results Clinical characteristics of cases (n = 262 are similar to those previously reported. Demographically, cases were from families of higher socio-economic status. After taking this into account, the residual pregnancy and perinatal profiles of cases were similar to control children. No case-control differences in breastfeeding commencement or duration were detected, nor was there evidence of increased case exposure to tobacco smoke in utero. At interview, cases were less likely to be exposed to active parental smoking, but disease-related changes to parent behaviour may partly underlie this. Conclusions We show that, after taking into account socio-economic status, CLARITY cases and controls are well matched on basic epidemiological characteristics. CLARITY represents a new study platform with which to generate new knowledge as to the environmental and biological risk factors for JIA.

  5. Early identification: Language skills and social functioning in deaf and hard of hearing preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Anouk P; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Korver, Anna M H; Konings, Saskia; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Dekker, Friedo W; Frijns, Johan H M

    2015-12-01

    Permanent childhood hearing impairment often results in speech and language problems that are already apparent in early childhood. Past studies show a clear link between language skills and the child's social-emotional functioning. The aim of this study was to examine the level of language and communication skills after the introduction of early identification services and their relation with social functioning and behavioral problems in deaf and hard of hearing children. Nationwide cross-sectional observation of a cohort of 85 early identified deaf and hard of hearing preschool children (aged 30-66 months). Parents reported on their child's communicative abilities (MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory III), social functioning and appearance of behavioral problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Receptive and expressive language skills were measured using the Reynell Developmental Language Scale and the Schlichting Expressive Language Test, derived from the child's medical records. Language and communicative abilities of early identified deaf and hard of hearing children are not on a par with hearing peers. Compared to normative scores from hearing children, parents of deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower social functioning and more behavioral problems. Higher communicative abilities were related to better social functioning and less behavioral problems. No relation was found between the degree of hearing loss, age at amplification, uni- or bilateral amplification, mode of communication and social functioning and behavioral problems. These results suggest that improving the communicative abilities of deaf and hard of hearing children could improve their social-emotional functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early identification and intervention services for children with autism in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong, Tran; Weiss, Bahr; Toan, Khuc Nang; Le Thu, Tran Thi; Trang, Nguyen Thi Nha; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thuy, Dao Thi Thu

    In high income countries in Europe and North America, early identification and intervention for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been linked to improved long-term outcomes. However, in most low and middle income countries (LMIC) little is known about use or availability of such services, which limits the ability of policy and development planning. The purpose of the present study was assess the use of ASD services in Vietnam, an Asian LMIC, in order to identify areas within the field that should be specifically targeted to improve ASD services in Vietnam. Surveys were conducted in six different cities across Vietnam with 90 parents/caregivers of children with ASD, 115 professionals working with children with ASD, and 10 directors of agencies providing ASD services. Parents/caregivers' survey assessed demographics and information regarding their child's symptoms and services the child received. Professionals' survey assessed their demographic and professional background, the ASD services they provide, and their perspective on the quality of ASD services at their agency. Directors' survey included these same questions as well as additional questions regarding the operation of the agency. Early identification and intervention ASD services are available in Vietnam, at least in major cities. However, there is a lack of well-trained professionals, the tools used for evaluation and diagnosis are limited, outdated and unstandardized, and the quality of services is questionable. Most importantly, a scientific evidence base for services is absent, and the country lacks an official governmental policy for supporting children with ASD. Research directly assessing the quality of ASD services in Vietnam is needed. Most centrally, efforts at facilitating governmental policy and support advocacy are needed to increase the likelihood that families and children with ASD will receive appropriate and effective services.

  7. Early identification and intervention services for children with autism in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Van Tran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In high income countries in Europe and North America, early identification and intervention for autism spectrum disorders (ASD have been linked to improved long-term outcomes. However, in most low and middle income countries (LMIC little is known about the use or availability of such services, which limits the ability of policy and development planning. The purpose of the present study was to assess the use of ASD services in a number of cities in Vietnam, an Asian LMIC, in order to identify areas within the field that should be specifically targeted to improve ASD services in Vietnam. Participants and procedure Surveys were conducted in six different cities across Vietnam with 90 parents/caregivers of children with ASD, 115 professionals working with children with ASD, and 10 directors of agencies providing ASD services. The parents/caregivers’ survey assessed demographics and information regarding their child’s symptoms and services the child received. The professionals’ survey assessed their demographic and professional background, the ASD services they provide, and their perspective on the quality of ASD services at their agency. The directors’ survey included these same questions as well as additional questions regarding the operation of the agency. Results Early identification and intervention ASD services are available in Vietnam, at least in major cities. However, there is a lack of well-trained professionals, the tools used for evaluation and diagnosis are limited, outdated and unstandardized, and the quality of services is questionable. Most importantly, a scientific evidence base for services is absent, and the country lacks an official governmental policy for supporting children with ASD. Conclusions Research directly assessing the quality of ASD services in Vietnam is needed. Most importantly, efforts at facilitating governmental policy and support advocacy are needed to increase the likelihood that families and

  8. Identification of a potent endothelium-derived angiogenic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowski, Vera; Tölle, Markus; Tran, Thi Nguyet Anh

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of angiogenic factors by vascular endothelial cells is one of the key mechanisms of angiogenesis. Here we report on the isolation of a new potent angiogenic factor, diuridine tetraphosphate (Up4U) from the secretome of human endothelial cells. The angiogenic effect of the endothelia...

  9. Progress in the identification of genetic factors in periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Jepsen, S.; Loos, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to periodontitis is determined by a complex interplay between bacteria, the immune system, and life-style factors, and is mainly regulated by genes. The genetic factors contributing to the pathogenesis of periodontitis are still not fully defined. The aim of the present review is

  10. Progress in the identification of genetic factors in periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Jepsen, S.; Loos, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to periodontitis is determined by a complex interplay between bacteria, the immune system, and life-style factors, and is mainly regulated by genes. The genetic factors contributing to the pathogenesis of periodontitis are still not fully defined. The aim of the present review is

  11. Identification of Apolipoprotein C-I as a Potential Wilms’ Tumor Marker after Excluding Inflammatory Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wilms’ tumor is one of the most common malignant tumors observed in children, and its early diagnosis is important for late-stage treatment and prognosis. We previously screened and identified protein markers for Wilms’ tumor; however, these markers lacked specificity, and some were associated with inflammation. In the current study, serum samples from children with Wilms’ tumors were compared with those of healthy controls and patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. After exclusion of factors associated with inflammation, specific protein markers for Wilms’ tumors were identified. After comparing the protein peak values obtained from all three groups, a protein with a m/z of 6438 Da was specified. Purification and identification of the target protein using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-linearion trap mass spectrometry(2D-LC-LTQ-MS mass spectrometry, respectively, revealed that it was apolipoprotein C-I (APO C-I. Thus, APO C-I is a specific protein marker for Wilms’ tumor.

  12. Personalized Predictive Modeling and Risk Factor Identification using Patient Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kenney; Sun, Jimeng; Hu, Jianying; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Personalized predictive models are customized for an individual patient and trained using information from similar patients. Compared to global models trained on all patients, they have the potential to produce more accurate risk scores and capture more relevant risk factors for individual patients. This paper presents an approach for building personalized predictive models and generating personalized risk factor profiles. A locally supervised metric learning (LSML) similarity measure is trained for diabetes onset and used to find clinically similar patients. Personalized risk profiles are created by analyzing the parameters of the trained personalized logistic regression models. A 15,000 patient data set, derived from electronic health records, is used to evaluate the approach. The predictive results show that the personalized models can outperform the global model. Cluster analysis of the risk profiles show groups of patients with similar risk factors, differences in the top risk factors for different groups of patients and differences between the individual and global risk factors.

  13. Factors Influencing the Identification of Sustainable Opportunities by SMEs: Empirical Evidence from Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Progress Choongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 to examine the factors influencing the identification of sustainable opportunities among SMEs in a developing country, Zambia. The factors under investigation include knowledge of the natural/social environment, perception of threats to the natural/social environment, altruism towards others and entrepreneurial knowledge. We interviewed 220 owner-managers in the trading and service sector who supply goods and services to the mining industry in Zambia. We found that altruism towards others was partially supported by our empirical results while the positive effects of knowledge of the natural/social environment and perception of threats to the natural/social environment on the identification of sustainable opportunities were not supported. Contrary to our expectations, entrepreneurial knowledge does not positively moderate the relationship between explanatory variables and the identification of sustainable opportunities. In sum, we found only limited empirical support for the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 concerning the identification of sustainable opportunities. Our findings contribute to literature on entrepreneurship and sustainable opportunity identification by showing what factors influence the identification of sustainable opportunities. This can help us to create awareness among entrepreneurs regarding the effects of entrepreneurial activities on the environment and society; consequently, stimulating entrepreneurs to identify sustainable opportunities.

  14. Slow identification of facial happiness in early adolescence predicts onset of depression during 8 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijen, Charlotte; Hartman, Catharina A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent onset depression places a high burden on those who suffer from it, and is difficult to treat. An improved understanding of mechanisms underlying susceptibility to adolescent depression may be useful in early detection and as target in treatment. Facial emotion identification bias has been suggested as trait marker for depression, but results have been inconclusive. To explore whether facial emotion identification biases may be trait markers for depression, we tested whether the speed with which young adolescents identified happy, sad, angry and fearful facial emotions predicted the onset of depression during an eight-year follow-up period. We hypothesized that facial emotion identification speed predicts depression in a symptom-congruent way and differentially predicts symptoms of anhedonia and sadness. Data were collected as part of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), and involved 1840 adolescents who participated in a facial emotion identification test at age 11 and were subjected to the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at age 19. In a multi-emotion model, slow identification of happy facial emotions tentatively predicted onset of depressive disorder within the follow-up period. Slow identification of happy emotions and fast identification of sad emotions predicted symptoms of anhedonia, but not symptoms of sadness. Our results suggest that the relative speed of identification of happiness in relation to the identification of sadness is a better predictor of depression than the identification of either facial emotion alone. A possible mechanism underlying the predictive role of facial emotion identification may be a less reactive reward system.

  15. New approaches for identification factors of cost management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholkin Anatolii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with determination and classification factors, that affect the costs and whose changes are result of management decisions. The modern condition of scientific researches in this field of economic science is analyzed. The classification of impact factors is made for machine building industry. Also is given new costs classification according to impact factors. New cost classification includes three classes and eighteen groups of cost. Every class and group is described. The need of this classification for purposes of cost management is defined. Also the practical significance from the use of new costs classification in management decisions and control is described

  16. Factors involved in early polarization of the anterior-posterior axis in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Neta; Cohen, Mira; Chipman, Ariel D

    2017-05-01

    The axes of insect embryos are defined early in the blastoderm stage. Genes involved in this polarization are well known in Drosophila, but less so in other insects, such as the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Using quantitative PCR, we looked at differential expression of several candidate genes for early anterior-posterior patterning and found that none of them are expressed asymmetrically in the early blastoderm. We then used an RNA-Seq approach to identify novel candidate genes that might be involved in early polarization in Oncopeltus. We focused on transcription factors (TFs) as these are likely to be central players in developmental processes. Using both homology and domain based identification approaches, we were unable to find any TF encoding transcripts that are expressed asymmetrically along the anterior-posterior axis at early stages. Using a GO-term analysis of all asymmetrically expressed mRNAs, we found an enrichment of genes relating to mitochondrial function in the posterior at the earliest studied time-point. We also found a gradual enrichment of transcription related activities, giving us a putative time frame for the maternal to zygotic transition. Our dataset provides us with a list of new candidate genes in early development, which can be followed up experimentally. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Identification of major factors in Australian primary care pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John K; Hussainy, Safeera Y; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J

    2016-09-16

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe an environmental framework for pharmacists in primary care in Australia and determine the major factors within that environment that have the greatest bearing on their capacity to implement patient-focused models of professional practice.Methods A draft framework for pharmacists' practice was developed by allocating structures, systems and related factors known to the researchers or identified from the literature as existing within pharmacists' internal, operational and external environments to one of five domains: Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental or Political [STEEP]. Focus groups of pharmacists used an adapted nominal group technique to assess the draft and add factors where necessary. Where applicable, factors were consolidated into groups to establish a revised framework. The three major factors or groups in each domain were identified. The results were compared with the enabling factors described in the profession's vision statement.Results Seventy-eight individual factors were ultimately identified, with 86% able to be grouped. The three dominant groups in each of the five domains that had a bearing on the implementation of professional models of practice were as follows: (1) Social: the education of pharmacists, their beliefs and the capacity of the pharmacist workforce; (2) Technological: current and future practice models, technology and workplace structures; (3) Economic: funding of services, the viability of practice and operation of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme; (4) Environmental: attitudes and expectations of stakeholders, including consumers, health system reform and external competition; and (5) Political: regulation of practice, representation of the profession and policies affecting practice.Conclusions The three dominant groups of factors in each of the five STEEP environmental domains, which have a bearing on pharmacists' capacity to implement patient-focused models of

  18. Identification of coordination factors affecting building projects performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Salah Alaloul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects performance requires improvement to fulfil the complexity of the stakeholders’ needs and expectations. Coordination process is proposed as an efficient solution for weak performance of construction projects. Therefore, coordination factors are vital in ensuring a successful implementation of all project phases. This study aimed to identify and prioritise coordination factors that influence the performance of building projects in Malaysian context. A vast body of literature on coordination process was reviewed and resulted in 53 coordination factor. Three rounds of Delphi technique were conducted. The most effective coordination factors were ranked based on the Relative Importance Index (RII such as Scheduling (RII = 0.97, Quality assurance plan (RII = 0.93, and all parties’ participation in plans (RII = 0.89. These coordination factors have fulfilled the research gap and provided better management and higher performance for project parties. The results offer insightful perspectives to define the most effective coordination factors, for addressing the dependency between project tasks and the parties to enhance project performance.

  19. Proteomic identification of early salicylate- and flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Pei

    2015-02-27

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the early defense responses against pathogen infection in plants. The mechanism about the initial and direct regulation of the defense signaling pathway by ROS remains elusive. Perturbation of cellular redox homeostasis by ROS is believed to alter functions of redox-sensitive proteins through their oxidative modifications. Here we report an OxiTRAQ-based proteomic study in identifying proteins whose cysteines underwent oxidative modifications in Arabidopsis cells during the early response to salicylate or flg22, two defense pathway elicitors that are known to disturb cellular redox homeostasis. Among the salicylate- and/or flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins are those involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, RNA processing, post-translational modifications, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. The identification of the salicylate-/flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins provides a foundation from which further study can be conducted toward understanding biological significance of their oxidative modifications during the plant defense response.

  20. Factor selection and structural identification in the interaction ANOVA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Justin B; Bondell, Howard D

    2013-03-01

    When faced with categorical predictors and a continuous response, the objective of an analysis often consists of two tasks: finding which factors are important and determining which levels of the factors differ significantly from one another. Often times, these tasks are done separately using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by a post hoc hypothesis testing procedure such as Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test. When interactions between factors are included in the model the collapsing of levels of a factor becomes a more difficult problem. When testing for differences between two levels of a factor, claiming no difference would refer not only to equality of main effects, but also to equality of each interaction involving those levels. This structure between the main effects and interactions in a model is similar to the idea of heredity used in regression models. This article introduces a new method for accomplishing both of the common analysis tasks simultaneously in an interaction model while also adhering to the heredity-type constraint on the model. An appropriate penalization is constructed that encourages levels of factors to collapse and entire factors to be set to zero. It is shown that the procedure has the oracle property implying that asymptotically it performs as well as if the exact structure were known beforehand. We also discuss the application to estimating interactions in the unreplicated case. Simulation studies show the procedure outperforms post hoc hypothesis testing procedures as well as similar methods that do not include a structural constraint. The method is also illustrated using a real data example.

  1. Factor Selection and Structural Identification in the Interaction ANOVA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Justin B.; Bondell, Howard D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary When faced with categorical predictors and a continuous response, the objective of analysis often consists of two tasks: finding which factors are important and determining which levels of the factors differ significantly from one another. Often times these tasks are done separately using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by a post-hoc hypothesis testing procedure such as Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference test. When interactions between factors are included in the model the collapsing of levels of a factor becomes a more difficult problem. When testing for differences between two levels of a factor, claiming no difference would refer not only to equality of main effects, but also equality of each interaction involving those levels. This structure between the main effects and interactions in a model is similar to the idea of heredity used in regression models. This paper introduces a new method for accomplishing both of the common analysis tasks simultaneously in an interaction model while also adhering to the heredity-type constraint on the model. An appropriate penalization is constructed that encourages levels of factors to collapse and entire factors to be set to zero. It is shown that the procedure has the oracle property implying that asymptotically it performs as well as if the exact structure were known beforehand. We also discuss the application to estimating interactions in the unreplicated case. Simulation studies show the procedure outperforms post hoc hypothesis testing procedures as well as similar methods that do not include a structural constraint. The method is also illustrated using a real data example. PMID:23323643

  2. Slow identification of facial happiness in early adolescence predicts onset of depression during 8 years of follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijen, Charlotte; Hartman, Catharina A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent onset depression places a high burden on those who suffer from it, and is difficult to treat. An improved understanding of mechanisms underlying susceptibility to adolescent depression may be useful in early detection and as target in treatment. Facial emotion identification bias has been

  3. From Screening to Early Identification and Intervention: Discovering Predictors to Successful Outcomes for Children with Significant Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Research findings from a series of longitudinal studies of the language, speech, and social-emotional development of children with hearing impairments and hearing parents found language development is positively and significantly affected by the age of identification of the hearing loss and age of initiation into Colorado early intervention…

  4. Early Identification of Delinquency Prone Youth. The Eau Claire County Youth Study, Phase IV, 1969-1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhusen, John F.; And Others

    Procedures for early identification of delinquency-prone youth in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin, are described in this report of a 1961-1972 study designed to delineate the problems of aggressive and disruptive classroom behavior as related to delinquency. Data collection began in 1961, when each 3rd-, 6th-, and 9th-grade teacher in Eau Claire…

  5. Identification of contributing factors to pedestrian overpass selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of overpass and the safety level of pedestrian, this paper aims to investigate the contributing factors for selective preference of overpass. Eight overpasses were investigated in Xi’an, and a questionnaire was conducted by the pedestrians near the overpass. Totally, 1131 valid samples (873 used of overpasses and 258 non-used of overpasses were collected. Based on the data, a binary logit (BL model was developed to identify what and how the factors affect the selective preference of overpass. The BL model was calibrated by the maximum likelihood method. Likelihood ratio test and McFadden-R2 were used to analyze the goodness-of-fit of the model. The results show that the BL model has a reasonable goodness-of-fit, and the prediction accuracy of the BL model can reach 81.9%. The BL model showed that the selective preference of overpass was significantly influenced by eight factors, including gender, age, career, education level, license, detour wishes, detour distance, and crossing time. Besides, the odds ratios of significant factors were also analyzed to explain the impacts of the factors on selective preference of overpass.

  6. Identification of inherited genetic variations influencing prognosis in early-onset breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Sajjad; Tapper, William; Collins, Andrew; Khan, Sofia; Politopoulos, Ioannis; Gerty, Sue; Blomqvist, Carl; Couch, Fergus J; Nevanlinna, Heli; Liu, Jianjun; Eccles, Diana

    2013-03-15

    Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have begun to investigate associations between inherited genetic variations and breast cancer prognosis. Here, we report our findings from a GWAS conducted in 536 patients with early-onset breast cancer aged 40 or less at diagnosis and with a mean follow-up period of 4.1 years (SD = 1.96). Patients were selected from the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer. A Bonferroni correction for multiple testing determined that a P value of 1.0 × 10(-7) was a statistically significant association signal. Following quality control, we identified 487,496 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for association tests in stage 1. In stage 2, 35 SNPs with the most significant associations were genotyped in 1,516 independent cases from the same early-onset cohort. In stage 2, 11 SNPs remained associated in the same direction (P ≤ 0.05). Fixed effects meta-analysis models identified one SNP associated at close to genome wide level of significance 556 kb upstream of the ARRDC3 locus [HR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.33-1.96; P = 9.5 × 10(-7)]. Four further associations at or close to the PBX1, RORα, NTN1, and SYT6 loci also came close to genome-wide significance levels (P = 10(-6)). In the first ever GWAS for the identification of SNPs associated with prognosis in patients with early-onset breast cancer, we report a SNP upstream of the ARRDC3 locus as potentially associated with prognosis (median follow-up time for genotypes: CC = 4 years, CT = 3 years, and TT = 2.7 years; Wilcoxon rank-sum test CC vs. CT, P = 4 × 10(-4) and CT vs. TT, P = 0.76). Four further loci may also be associated with prognosis.

  7. Quantitative attenuation analysis for identification of early Barrett's neoplasia in volumetric laser endomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Anne-Fre; Faber, Dirk J; de Bruin, Daniel M; Weusten, Bas L; Meijer, Sybren L; Bergman, Jacques J; Curvers, Wouter L; van Leeuwen, Ton G

    2017-08-01

    Early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is difficult to detect. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) incorporates optical coherence tomography, providing a circumferential scan of the esophageal wall layers. The attenuation coefficient (μVLE) quantifies decay of detected backscattered light versus depth, and could potentially improve BE neoplasia detection. The aim is to investigate feasibility of μVLE for identification of early BE neoplasia. In vivo and ex vivo VLE scans with histological correlation from BE patients ± neoplasia were used. Quantification by μVLE was performed manually on areas of interest (AoIs) to differentiate neoplasia from nondysplastic (ND)BE. From ex vivo VLE scans from 16 patients (13 with neoplasia), 68 AoIs were analyzed. Median μVLE values (mm−1) were 3.7 [2.1 to 4.4 interquartile range (IQR)] for NDBE and 4.0 (2.5 to 4.9 IQR) for neoplasia, not statistically different (p=0.82). Fourteen in vivo scans were used: nine from neoplastic and five from NDBE patients. Median μVLE values were 1.8 (1.5 to 2.6 IQR) for NDBE and 2.1 (1.9 to 2.6 IQR) for neoplasia, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.37). In conclusion, there was no significant difference in μVLE values in VLE scans from early neoplasia versus NDBE. Future studies with a larger sample size should explore other quantitative methods for detection of neoplasia during BE surveillance.

  8. Identification of noise in linear data sets by factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscoe, B.A.; Hopke, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    With the use of atomic and nuclear methods to analyze samples for a multitude of elements, very large data sets have been generated. Due to the ease of obtaining these results with computerized systems, the elemental data acquired are not always as thoroughly checked as they should be leading to some, if not many, bad data points. It is advantageous to have some feeling for the trouble spots in a data set before it is used for further studies. A technique which has the ability to identify bad data points, after the data has been generated, is classical factor analysis. The ability of classical factor analysis to identify two different types of data errors make it ideally suited for scanning large data sets. Since the results yielded by factor analysis indicate correlations between parameters, one must know something about the nature of the data set and the analytical techniques used to obtain it to confidentially isolate errors.

  9. Early identification in primary health care of people at risk for sick leave due to work-related stress - study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Sandheimer, Christine; Mardby, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Maria E. H.; Bultmann, Ute; Hange, Dominique; Hensing, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early identification of persons at risk of sickness absence due to work-related stress is a crucial problem for society in general, and primary health care in particular. Tho date, no established method to do this exists. This project's aim is to evaluate whether systematic early identif

  10. SEPARATON AND IDENTIFICATION OF IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE FACTORS IN HUMAN SEMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOHui-Bao; WANGyi-Fei; JIANGYu

    1989-01-01

    The main function of immunosuppressive factors ( IFs ) in seminal plasma ( SP ) is the inhibition of immune response in genital tracts, thus the iso- and/ or autoimmune response to the spermatozoa and embryo are evaded. Studies on IFs in SP is thus important

  11. Work-related factors and early retirement intention: a study of the Danish eldercare sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbæk, Camilla Sandal; Nexo, Mette A.; Borg, Vilhelm

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Western countries are experiencing an ageing and shrinking workforce in the eldercare sector. This study investigated whether 12 different work-related factors are associated with early retirement intentions of employees in the Danish eldercare sector. We tested whether three hypotheses...... explained the increase of early retirement intention: (i) high job demands (four factors) and low resources (four factors); (ii) low job attitude (three factors); and (iii) high physical strain (one factor). METHODS: We included 2444 employees (aged 45-57 years) from two waves (T1 and T2) from a prospective...... study. Multinomial logistic regression models showed whether 12 work-related factors (T1) were associated with early retirement intention (T2); very early retirement intention and early retirement intention vs. normal retirement intention. RESULTS: Only 14% of the participants wished to retire...

  12. Identification of risk factors of computer information technologies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrebniak M.P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic direction of development of secondary school and vocational training is computer training of schoolchildren and students, including distance forms of education and widespread usage of world information systems. The purpose of the work is to determine risk factors for schoolchildren and students, when using modern information and computer technologies. Results of researches allowed to establish dynamics of formation of skills using computer information technologies in education and characteristics of mental ability among schoolchildren and students during training in high school. Common risk factors, while operating CIT, are: intensification and formalization of intellectual activity, adverse ergonomic parameters, unfavorable working posture, excess of hygiene standards by chemical and physical characteristics. The priority preventive directions in applying computer information technology in education are: improvement of optimal visual parameters of activity, rationalization of ergonomic parameters, minimizing of adverse effects of chemical and physical conditions, rationalization of work and rest activity.

  13. Identification of risk factors of computer information technologies in education.

    OpenAIRE

    Hrebniak M.P.; Shchudro S.A.; Yakimova K.O.

    2014-01-01

    The basic direction of development of secondary school and vocational training is computer training of schoolchildren and students, including distance forms of education and widespread usage of world information systems. The purpose of the work is to determine risk factors for schoolchildren and students, when using modern information and computer technologies. Results of researches allowed to establish dynamics of formation of skills using computer information technologies in education and c...

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL SSCM ACTIVITIES THROUGH CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Narasimham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country, economic and environmental performance has to be balanced in India. Green supply chain management (GSCM is emerging as an important proactive approach for Indian enterprises for improving environmental performance of processes and products in accordance with the requirements of environmental regulations. This study examines the consistency approaches by confirmatory factor analysis that determines the construct validity, convergent validity,construct reliability and internal consistency of the items of Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM requirements. This study examines the consistency approaches by Confirmatory factor analysis that determines the adoption and implementation of Sustainable supply chain management activities in small & medium scale industries. The requirements include Management commitment, customer coordination, sustainable design & production, green procurement and eco logistics for sustainable supply chains. This study suggested that the five factor model with eighteen items of the sustainable supply chain design had a good fit. Further, the study showed a valid and reliable measurement to identify critical items among the requirements of sustainable supply chains.

  15. Identification of factors influencing matriculation decisions by dental school applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Albert W; Novak, Karen F; Close, John M

    2002-01-01

    Recent dental school surveys have indicated a slight decrease in the overall number of dental school applicants. As a result, competition for the most highly qualified students is increasing among dental schools. A number of factors may contribute to an applicant's decision on where to matriculate, such as tuition costs, cost of living in an area, location of the dental school, reputation, availability of financial aid, and the school's facilities. Identifying the reasons why students choose to attend a specific school may be an important first step in formulating a strategic plan for recruitment. As a result, a survey was sent to all students (250) interviewed at the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine for the 2000-01 admissions cycle. The results of this survey were compared to a similar survey sent following the 1994-95 admissions cycle. In addition, the results of the University of Pittsburgh surveys were compared to a similar survey conducted by a different northeastern dental school. The factors rated most important in 1994-95 were reputation, facilities, and location, in order. In 2000-01, location, curriculum, tuition, and reputation were rated the most important factors, in order. This information may assist admissions officers in formulating an effective recruitment strategy for the most highly qualified applicants.

  16. Identification of a potent endothelium-derived angiogenic factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Jankowski

    Full Text Available The secretion of angiogenic factors by vascular endothelial cells is one of the key mechanisms of angiogenesis. Here we report on the isolation of a new potent angiogenic factor, diuridine tetraphosphate (Up4U from the secretome of human endothelial cells. The angiogenic effect of the endothelial secretome was partially reduced after incubation with alkaline phosphatase and abolished in the presence of suramin. In one fraction, purified to homogeneity by reversed phase and affinity chromatography, Up4U was identified by MALDI-LIFT-fragment-mass-spectrometry, enzymatic cleavage analysis and retention-time comparison. Beside a strong angiogenic effect on the yolk sac membrane and the developing rat embryo itself, Up4U increased the proliferation rate of endothelial cells and, in the presence of PDGF, of vascular smooth muscle cells. Up4U stimulated the migration rate of endothelial cells via P2Y2-receptors, increased the ability of endothelial cells to form capillary-like tubes and acts as a potent inducer of sprouting angiogenesis originating from gel-embedded EC spheroids. Endothelial cells released Up4U after stimulation with shear stress. Mean total plasma Up4U concentrations of healthy subjects (N=6 were sufficient to induce angiogenic and proliferative effects (1.34 ± 0.26 nmol L(-1. In conclusion, Up4U is a novel strong human endothelium-derived angiogenic factor.

  17. Dietary factors during early life program bone formation in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases; however, evidence for an association between early life dietary factors and bone health in adults is limited. Soy protein isolate (SPI) may be one such dietary factor that promotes bone accretion du...

  18. Identification of an early-stage gene of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichlan, D G; Hatch, T P

    1993-05-01

    Chlamydiae are parasitic bacteria characterized by a temporally regulated developmental cycle. In the early stage of the cycle, metabolically inert elementary bodies reorganize to dividing reticulate bodies, a process about which little is known. The purpose of this investigation was to identify and clone chlamydial genes that are expressed preferentially during the early stage of the developmental cycle of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC. Several potential early genes were cloned with highly radioactive, host-free-generated RNA probes to screen a genomic library. One clone appeared to encode a gene that was particularly well expressed at 1 h postinfection. In further characterization, we found that it encodes two complete open reading frames and one partial open reading frame of 370 codons. The partial open reading frame, designated gltX, is very similar to bacterial glutamyl-tRNA synthetases and was demonstrated to be transcribed in vivo at 24 h postinfection by primer extension analysis. A lysine-rich open reading frame (LRO) of 117 codons was found upstream and divergent from gltX. The LRO lacks homology to known proteins, and we were unable to demonstrate that it is transcribed in vivo. The third open reading frame, of 182 codons, was found to be convergent with and partially overlap the LRO. It was confirmed to be preferentially expressed within the first 1.5 h of infection by Northern (RNA) blot analysis and was designated the early upstream open reading frame (EUO). Like the LRO, the EUO is not homologous to known proteins. A major potential transcription start site of the EUO was identified by primer extension analysis. However, the sequence upstream of the site does not closely resemble the consensus recognition sequences of bacterial sigma factors even though it is AT rich. The EUO is the first chlamydial gene specific to the early stage to be cloned and sequenced.

  19. Identification of Factors Influencing Third Birth Transition in Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Singh N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The third birth transition has a negative impact on the national goal of fertility replacement level (2.1 which is to be achieved by 2010. To identify the factors influencing the demographic phenomenon, a cross sectional as well as community based study consisting of 1397 eligible women was conducted in the four valley districts of Manipur under cluster sampling scheme. Analysing the empirical information through SPSS, 42% of the study subjects transit their 3rd birth and its major determinants could be detected to be sex preference, age at marriage, and educational level each at 0.01 probability level of significance.

  20. Identification of effective factors on customer loyalty with mobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Sardar Donighi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Customers or clients are counted to be reasons for existence and continuation of life of every organization and, therefore, it is essential to review various aspects of customer satisfaction. Many customers may seem to be satisfied but they may switch to competitor companies for various reasons. Loyal customers constitute a major factor for organizational successes and there are many attempts to create loyal customers. The customer loyalty was defined as commitment of customers to deal with a particular organization or buy given goods repeatedly. During the present research, the researcher engages in the evaluation of factors effective on satisfaction and loyalty of customers and in the study of their interactions, using the famous American Model of Customer Satisfaction. Major variables of such pattern are as follows: customer expectations, perceived quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, Repurchase Likelihood, Price Tolerance changes and customer complaint. In this study, 384 cell-phone users were randomly selected from different departments of North Tehran Branch of Islamic Azad University. Valuable data were gathered by closed response questionnaire. Afterward we derived eleven correlations between different parameters by using structural equation modeling. Finally, all of suppositions were confirmed by confidence level up to 95%. In addition, the SPSS and XLSTAT PLS software packages are utilized in the process and analysis of data and investigation of study's hypotheses and necessary analyses have been done.

  1. Early sexual experience as a factor in prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J; Meyerding, J

    1978-01-01

    Using the literature of the early sexual histories of "normal" women and two recent studies on the sexual histories of prostitutes, this article examines the pattern of early sexual experience among prostitutes and how it differs from that common to nonprostitute women. Some significant differences found between the samples of prostitutes and the samples of "normal" women were that the prostitute samples, on the whole, learned less about sex from parents and more from personal experiences, as children experienced more sexual advances by elders, were more victimized by incest, generally initiated sexual activity at a younger age, more often had no further relationship with their first coital partner, and experienced a higher incidence of rape. The analysis of these data on early sexual history concentrates on abusive sexual experiences such as incest and rape. The authors believe that an abusive sexual self-identity relates to the development of an adult female pattern of occupational deviance such as prostitution.

  2. Optical elastic scattering for early label-free identification of clinical pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuer, Valentin; Gal, Olivier; Méteau, Jérémy; Marcoux, Pierre; Schultz, Emmanuelle; Lacot, Éric; Maurin, Max; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2016-03-01

    We report here on the ability of elastic light scattering in discriminating Gram+, Gram- and yeasts at an early stage of growth (6h). Our technique is non-invasive, low cost and does require neither skilled operators nor reagents. Therefore it is compatible with automation. It is based on the analysis of the scattering pattern (scatterogram) generated by a bacterial microcolony growing on agar, when placed in the path of a laser beam. Measurements are directly performed on closed Petri dishes. The characteristic features of a given scatterogram are first computed by projecting the pattern onto the Zernike orthogonal basis. Then the obtained data are compared to a database so that machine learning can yield identification result. A 10-fold cross-validation was performed on a database over 8 species (15 strains, 1906 scatterograms), at 6h of incubation. It yielded a 94% correct classification rate between Gram+, Gram- and yeasts. Results can be improved by using a more relevant function basis for projections, such as Fourier-Bessel functions. A fully integrated instrument has been installed at the Grenoble hospital's laboratory of bacteriology and a validation campaign has been started for the early screening of MSSA and MRSA (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus) carriers. Up to now, all the published studies about elastic scattering were performed in a forward mode, which is restricted to transparent media. However, in clinical diagnostics, most of media are opaque, such as blood-supplemented agar. That is why we propose a novel scheme capable of collecting back-scattered light which provides comparable results.

  3. Factors Affecting the Identification of Research Problems in Educational Administration Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Mikail; Bektas, Fatih; Öztekin, Özge; Karadag, Engin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the factors that affect the identification of research problems in educational administration studies. The study was designed using the case study method. Criterion sampling was used to determine the work group; the criterion used to select the participants was that of having a study in the field of…

  4. Factors influencing sentinel lymph node identification failure in breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straalman, Kristina; Kristoffersen, Ulrik S; Galatius, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for failed sentinel lymph node identification in breast cancer surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics, surgeon experience and detection success/failure were registered at 748 sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures...

  5. Factors That Affect Age of Identification of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Chana R.; Kubiszyn, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This study explored factors associated with age of identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results of a one-way ANOVA indicated differences in age of diagnosis among the four regions in the United States, F(3, 650) = 7.618, p = 0.01. Tukey's post hoc comparisons of the groups indicated that the mean age of diagnosis in the Midwest (M =…

  6. Recursive parameter identification for infinite-dimensional factor model by using particle filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, Arunabha; Kamajima, K; Aihara, ShinIchi

    2007-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of forward rate process which is modeled by the parabolic type infinite-dimensional factor model. The parameters included in this parabolic model are estimated by using the yield curve as the observation data. In this paper, we propose the filtering and identification method

  7. Trefoil Factor 1 Excretion Is Increased in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lebherz-Eichinger

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In many patients CKD is diagnosed late during disease progression. Therefore, the implementation of potential biomarkers may facilitate the early identification of individuals at risk. Trefoil factor family (TFF peptides promote restitution processes of mucous epithelia and are abundant in the urinary tract. We therefore sought to investigate the TFF peptide levels in patients suffering from CKD and their potential as biomarkers for CKD. We analysed TFF1 and TFF3 in serum and urine of 115 patients with CKD stages 1-5 without dialysis by ELISA. 20 healthy volunteers served as controls. Our results showed, that urinary TFF1 levels were significantly increased with the onset of CKD in stages 1-4 as compared to controls and declined during disease progression (p = 0.003, 0.8. In conclusion our results show increased levels of TFF1 and TFF3 in CKD patients with a pronounced elevation of urinary TFF1 in lower CKD stages. Furthermore, TFF1 and TFF3 seems to be differently regulated and show potential to predict various CKD stages, as shown by ROC curve analysis.

  8. Identification of probable early-onset biomarkers for tuberculosis disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne S Sutherland

    Full Text Available Determining what constitutes protective immunity to TB is critical for the development of improved diagnostics and vaccines. The comparison of the immune system between contacts of TB patients, who later develop TB disease (progressors, versus contacts who remain healthy (non-progressors, allows for identification of predictive markers of TB disease. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the immune system of progressors and non-progressors using a well-characterised TB case-contact (TBCC platform in The Gambia, West Africa. 22 progressors and 31 non-progressors were analysed at recruitment, 3 months and 18 months (time to progression: median[IQR] of 507[187-714] days. Immunophenotyping of PBMC, plasma cytokine levels and RT-MLPA analysis of whole blood-derived RNA was performed to capture key immune system parameters. At recruitment, progressors had lower PBMC proportions of CD4+ T cells, NKT cells and B cells relative to non-progressors. Analysis of the plasma showed higher levels of IL-18 in progressors compared to non-progressors and analysis of the RNA showed significantly lower gene expression of Bcl2 but higher CCR7 in progressors compared to non-progressors. This study shows several markers that may predict the onset of active TB at a very early stage after infection. Once these markers have been validated in larger studies, they provide avenues to prospectively identify people at risk of developing TB, a key issue in the testing of new TB vaccines.

  9. Fetal programming and early identification of newborns at high risk of free radical-mediated diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Serafina; Santacroce, Antonino; Picardi, Anna; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays metabolic syndrome represents a real outbreak affecting society. Paradoxically, pediatricians must feel involved in fighting this condition because of the latest evidences of developmental origins of adult diseases. Fetal programming occurs when the normal fetal development is disrupted by an abnormal insult applied to a critical point in intrauterine life. Placenta assumes a pivotal role in programming the fetal experience in utero due to the adaptive changes in structure and function. Pregnancy complications such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, and hypoxia are associated with placental dysfunction and programming. Many experimental studies have been conducted to explain the phenotypic consequences of fetal-placental perturbations that predispose to the genesis of metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In recent years, elucidating the mechanisms involved in such kind of process has become the challenge of scientific research. Oxidative stress may be the general underlying mechanism that links altered placental function to fetal programming. Maternal diabetes, prenatal hypoxic/ischaemic events, inflammatory/infective insults are specific triggers for an acute increase in free radicals generation. Early identification of fetuses and newborns at high risk of oxidative damage may be crucial to decrease infant and adult morbidity. PMID:27170927

  10. Optical elastic scattering for early label-free identification of clinical pathogens

    CERN Document Server

    Genuer, Valentin; Méteau, Jérémy; Marcoux, Pierre; Schultz, Emmanuelle; Lacot, Éric; Maurin, Max; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    We report here on the ability of elastic light scattering in discriminating Gram+, Gram-and yeasts at an early stage of growth (6h). Our technique is non-invasive, low cost and does require neither skilled operators nor reagents. Therefore it is compatible with automation. It is based on the analysis of the scattering pattern (scatterogram) generated by a bacterial microcolony growing on agar, when placed in the path of a laser beam. Measurements are directly performed on closed Petri dishes. The characteristic features of a given scatterogram are first computed by projecting the pattern onto the Zernike orthogonal basis. Then the obtained data are compared to a database so that machine learning can yield identification result. A 10-fold cross-validation was performed on a database over 8 species (15 strains, 1906 scatterograms), at 6h of incubation. It yielded a 94% correct classification rate between Gram+, Gram-and yeasts. Results can be improved by using a more relevant function basis for projections, suc...

  11. SCOREBOARD AND THE POSSIBILITY OF EARLY STAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IMBALANCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius, Gust

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In late 2011, the European Union (EU Council and European Parliament adopted a series of new rules on economic governance, perfecting the process begun in 2010 to strengthen the monitoring and prevention of macroeconomic imbalances, fiscal and competitiveness disparities among EU countries. In the same direction, of strengthening fiscal surveillance under the Stability and Growth Pact, also goes the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union, through the fiscal Compact. Thus, the macroeconomic imbalances procedure provided in the new legislation requires as a first step the realization of a scoreboard consisting of 10 indicators, which, according to promoters, allow an early identification of imbalances, of both short-term, as well as structural, of longer-term. European Commission reports and statistics for EU Member States in 2010 and 2011, indicate that in the post-crisis period there has been a pronounced adjustment of external imbalances, but a number of countries continue to record higher values than indicative levels in the dashboard .

  12. Fetal programming and early identification of newborns at high risk of free radical-mediated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Serafina; Santacroce, Antonino; Picardi, Anna; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2016-05-08

    Nowadays metabolic syndrome represents a real outbreak affecting society. Paradoxically, pediatricians must feel involved in fighting this condition because of the latest evidences of developmental origins of adult diseases. Fetal programming occurs when the normal fetal development is disrupted by an abnormal insult applied to a critical point in intrauterine life. Placenta assumes a pivotal role in programming the fetal experience in utero due to the adaptive changes in structure and function. Pregnancy complications such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, and hypoxia are associated with placental dysfunction and programming. Many experimental studies have been conducted to explain the phenotypic consequences of fetal-placental perturbations that predispose to the genesis of metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In recent years, elucidating the mechanisms involved in such kind of process has become the challenge of scientific research. Oxidative stress may be the general underlying mechanism that links altered placental function to fetal programming. Maternal diabetes, prenatal hypoxic/ischaemic events, inflammatory/infective insults are specific triggers for an acute increase in free radicals generation. Early identification of fetuses and newborns at high risk of oxidative damage may be crucial to decrease infant and adult morbidity.

  13. Identification and comparison of the 3 early stages of resynthesis for the lichen Cladonia rangiferina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, Sarangi N P; Huebner, Erwin; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2014-01-01

    A lichen is an association between a biotrophic fungal partner and a green algal and (or) cyanobacterial partner, which may be considered a "controlled" parasitic interaction. While controlled parasitism implies benefit to both interacting partners, a parasitism that is not controlled implies that one partner benefits to the detriment of the other partner. The objective of this study was to compare morphological development of the interaction between Cladonia rangiferina with its compatible algal partner (Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis) and incompatible algae (Coccomyxa peltigerae and Chloroidium ellipsoideum) at 3 early resynthesis stages. The fungus was co-inoculated with each alga separately and the stages of development were compared using quantitative measures. The first 3 stages of development of the lichen thallus were identified in the compatible interaction as the "pre-contact" stage (1 day post co-inoculation (PCI)), "contact" stage (8 days PCI), and "growth together" stage (21 days PCI). Compatible interactions showed significantly shorter internode length, significantly more new lateral hyphal branches, significantly greater appressorial frequency, and no reduction in cell diameter of the algal cells, compared with incompatible interactions. At 21 days PCI, a parasitic interaction was observed between Cladonia rangiferina and Chloroidium ellipsoideum. These findings support the importance of recognition between compatible partners for successful lichenization. This study also revealed a strategy that may explain the success of this species in northern habitats. Identification of the resynthesis stages of Cladonia rangiferina is required before expression of the proteins involved in recognition and defense can be understood.

  14. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  15. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: Involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eKitada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus and posterior superior temporal sulcus in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early-blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early-blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control. The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  16. Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitulli Federico

    2008-04-01

    - and ethylene-associated genes. Conclusion Our Global Match File strategy proved critical for accurately interpretating heterologous datasets, and suggests that similar approaches may be fruitful for other species. Transcript profiling of early events associated with CIS revealed a complex network of events involving sugars, redox and hormone signalling which may be either linked serially or act in parallel. The identification, at a sequence level, of various enzymes long known as having a role in CIS provides molecular tools for further understanding the phenomenon.

  17. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING ANXIETY IN ELITE SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal GÜNDOĞDU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the anxiety the triathlon sportsmen of national teams experience before competitions and the factors that affect this kind of anxiety. This descriptive study was carried out with the voluntary participation of 104 sportsmen who participated in the Istanbul European Cup, Elazıg Balkan Grand Prix and Alanya World Cup in 2014. The data collection instrument was an interview questionnaire developed by the researchers, and the Cronbach alpha of the questions was 0.77. T he data were analyzed with a statistical program, and independent samples t - test and ANOVA were used. According to the data, the following findings were identified: the sportsmen of the Turkish national team felt pre - competition anxiety more than the sport smen of foreign national teams. The female sportsmen experienced the physical symptoms of anxiety more. The younger sportsmen felt more anxious about the fact that they were not going to perform well in the competition. The anxiety of making mistakes decre ased with age. Those whose sporting age was lower felt more anxious for not performing well and for making mistakes.

  19. Risk factors and early detection of atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Lodewijk; Posthumus, Marcel D.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Bijl, Marc

    2010-01-01

    P>Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cannot be explained alone by the increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors like smoking and hypertension. Other factors therefore seem to be

  20. Factors influencing sentinel lymph node identification failure in breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straalman, K.; Kristoffersen, U.S.; Galatius, H.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for failed sentinel lymph node identification in breast cancer surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics, surgeon experience and detection success/failure were registered at 748 sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures...... at our inpatient clinic. Data were analysed with backward stepwise multiple logistic regression with a cut-off point of psentinel lymph node detection rate....... Tumour size, palpability and biopsy method were not significantly associated with the sentinel lymph node detection rate. In conclusion, it is possible to identify patients with a higher risk of sentinel lymph node identification failure and we recommend that these patients are operated by experienced...

  1. Rice identification at the early stage of the rice growth season with single fine quad Radarsat-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Pengbin; Shen, Kejian; Pei, Zhiyuan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether rice identification and acreage estimation accuracy at the early stage of the rice growth season using single fine quad Radarsat-2 images could meet the demand of rice monitoring. The Leizhou site (20°52'N, 110°05'E) is located in Guangdong Province in southern China and is dominated by rice paddies. There was a lack of optical data acquisitions during certain years. There are two rice growth seasons per year. Multitemporal Radarsat-2 products were acquired in the early rice growth season of 2014. First, multi-temporal backscattering coefficients and polarimetric parameters based on H/A/Alpha and Yamaguchi polarimetric decomposition theories were extracted and analyzed to distinguish between rice paddies and other typical land cover types, which could help select the optimal rice growth stage and image characteristics for early season classification. Second, an object-oriented technique was applied to time series backscattering coefficient images (HH, HV, VH, VV), H/A/Alpha images (Entropy, Anistropy and Alpha) and Yamaguchi images (volume, double-bounce, surface and helix). Based on the segmentation images, the supervised Bayes, KNN, SVM and Decision tree classifier were used to identify rice. The results indicated that in flat area, 1) Backscatter images and Yamaguchi images were better than H/A/Alpha images in the rice identification application, and 2) At the early rice growth season, the 0430-Yamaguchi image combined with the objectoriented decision tree algorithm were capable of delivering highly accurate maps of rice (0.9236), while the 0524- backscatter image combined with the object-oriented decision tree algorithm could acquire the highest classification accuracy (0.9278) at the end of the rice growth season. Jointing stage is considered to be appropriate for rice identification at the early season. The study demonstrated that it was possible to identify rice at the early season with single quad C

  2. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: due to the high prevalence of white spots, is necessary to create prevention programs that educate mothers or caregivers about the caries risk factors and its control, promoting self-care as a preven- tion strategy.

  3. Prevalence Of Early Childhood Malnutrition And Influencing Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore, to asses the prevalence of malnutrition and the factors influencing the ... childhood malnutrition in Kabarole District and other areas in Uganda, and ..... Jitta JJ, Migadde M and J Mudusu Determinants of Malnutrition in under-fives.

  4. DNA barcoding for identification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasmas' using a fragment of the elongation factor Tu gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Makarova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phytoplasmas are bacterial phytopathogens responsible for significant losses in agricultural production worldwide. Several molecular markers are available for identification of groups or strains of phytoplasmas. However, they often cannot be used for identification of phytoplasmas from different groups simultaneously or are too long for routine diagnostics. DNA barcoding recently emerged as a convenient tool for species identification. Here, the development of a universal DNA barcode based on the elongation factor Tu (tuf gene for phytoplasma identification is reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a new set of primers and amplified a 420-444 bp fragment of tuf from all 91 phytoplasmas strains tested (16S rRNA groups -I through -VII, -IX through -XII, -XV, and -XX. Comparison of NJ trees constructed from the tuf barcode and a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S ribosomal gene revealed that the tuf tree is highly congruent with the 16S rRNA tree and had higher inter- and intra- group sequence divergence. Mean K2P inter-/intra- group divergences of the tuf barcode did not overlap and had approximately one order of magnitude difference for most groups, suggesting the presence of a DNA barcoding gap. The use of the tuf barcode allowed separation of main ribosomal groups and most of their subgroups. Phytoplasma tuf barcodes were deposited in the NCBI GenBank and Q-bank databases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that DNA barcoding principles can be applied for identification of phytoplasmas. Our findings suggest that the tuf barcode performs as well or better than a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene and thus provides an easy procedure for phytoplasma identification. The obtained sequences were used to create a publicly available reference database that can be used by plant health services and researchers for online phytoplasma identification.

  5. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for the early identification of hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Diana E; Hermida, Ramón C

    2013-03-01

    diagnosis of hypertension in pregnancy. Several studies reported that use of the 24-h BP mean is not a proper test for an individualized early diagnosis of hypertension in pregnancy defined on the basis of cuff BP measurements, thus concluding that from such an awkward approach ABPM is not useful in pregnancy. The 24-h BP pattern that characterizes healthy pregnant women at all gestational ages suggests the use for diagnosis of a time-specified reference limit reflecting that mostly predictable BP variability. Once the time-varying threshold, given, for instance, by the upper limit of a tolerance interval, is available, the hyperbaric index (HBI), as a determinant of BP excess, can be calculated as the total area of any given subject's BP above the threshold. This tolerance-hyperbaric test, where diagnosis of gestational hypertension is based on the HBI calculated with reference to a time-specified tolerance limit, has been shown to provide high sensitivity and specificity for the early identification of subsequent hypertension in pregnancy, as well as a valuable approach for prediction of pregnancy outcome. ABPM during gestation, starting preferably at the time of the first obstetric check-up following positive confirmation of pregnancy, provides sensitive endpoints for use in early risk assessment and guide for establishing prophylactic or therapeutic intervention, and should thus be regarded as the required standard for the diagnosis of hypertension in pregnancy.

  6. Identification of viable myocardium early after acute myocardial infarction under beta-blockade by enoximone echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, E; Minardi, G; Wang, F; Tubaro, M; Giovannini, E; Vajola, S F; Milazzotto, F

    1997-04-01

    The influence of the beta-blocker metoprolol on the capacity either of low-dose dobutamine echocardiography or the recently introduced enoximone echocardiography to detect viable dysfunctioning myocardium after myocardial infarction was investigated. Initial clinical experience would suggest that the phosphodiesterase III inhibitor enoximona could be an alternative pharmacological stimulation, inducing an increase in contractility in the presence or absence of beta-receptor stimulation. Ten patients with a baseline low-dose dobutamine-echocardiographic test (up to 10 micrograms/kg/min) positive for myocardial viability in > or = 1 segment(s), performed 4-5 days after a first acute myocardial infarction treated with rtPA, were randomized after the administration of intravenous metoprolol (15 mg in three 5-mg boluses) either to dobutamine (up to 15 micrograms/kg/min) or to an enoximone intravenous bolus (1 mg/kg over 5 min) under echocardiographic monitoring, in a crossover sequence, with a 24-h interval. The infarct related artery was patent (TIMI grade 2 o 3) in all the patients. Follow-up echocardiograms were performed 5-7 weeks later. Resting asynergy was found in 40 segments; of these, 17 were viable. All the viable segments remained unresponsive during the post-metoprolol dobutamine infusion, while improved their contractility during enoximone echocardiography. Two patients suffering from early post-infarction angina underwent coronary angioplasty successfully. Eight out of ten patients (2 revascularized and 6 not) showed contractile recovery in a total of 14 segments at the follow-up echocardiogram. Sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy in predicting reversible dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction for enoximone echocardiography were 93, 85, and 88%, respectively. Our results support the value of enoximone echocardiography in the identification of myocardial viability after myocardial infarction, in patients treated with beta-blockers, which

  7. Suboptimal identification of patient-specific risk factors for poor wound healing can be improved by simple interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren S; Luck, Joshua E; Atherton, Rachel R

    2017-02-01

    Poor wound healing is an important surgical complication. At-risk wounds must be identified early and monitored appropriately. Wound surveillance is frequently inadequate, leading to increased rates of surgical site infections (SSIs). Although the literature demonstrates that risk factor identification reduces SSI rates, no studies have focused on wound management at a junior level. Our study assesses documentation rates of patient-specific risk factors for poor wound healing at a large district general hospital in the UK. It critically evaluates the efficacy of interventions designed to promote surveillance of high-risk wounds. We conducted a full-cycle clinical audit examining medical records of patients undergoing elective surgery over 5 days. Interventions included education of the multidisciplinary team and addition of a Wound Healing Risk Assessment (WHRA) checklist to surgical admissions booklets. This checklist provided a simple stratification tool for at-risk wounds and recommendations for escalation. Prior to interventions, the documentation of patient-specific risk factors ranged from 0·0% to 91·7% (mean 42·6%). Following interventions, this increased to 86·4-95·5% (mean 92·5%), a statistically significant increase of 117·1% (P wound healing is inadequate. We have shown the benefit of introducing interventions to increase risk factor awareness. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Predisposing factors for early retirement in patients with schizophrenia in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Reinhard; Friedel, Heiko; Erfurth, Andreas; Angermayer, Matthias; Clouth, Johannes; Eichmann, Florian

    2008-08-01

    Although early retirement causes major changes in the life of schizophrenic patients and is among the major cost factors to be covered by payers, the causes leading to early retirement of schizophrenic patients have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the objective of this retrospective non-interventional case-control study was to generate hypotheses on predisposing factors for early retirement in schizophrenia. Logistic regression was used to explore potential predisposing parameters with regard to their effect on the outcome early retirement. As the study results indicate, schizophrenia severity, assistance or care in the patient's everyday life, age and antipsychotic treatment with typical antipsychotics are linked to the occurrence of early retirement. Further research should be planned to confirm or refute the hypotheses determined in this retrospective analysis and to determine whether atypical antipsychotics could help to avoid early retirement and to improve the situation of schizophrenic patients.

  9. Using the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale With Early Adolescents: Factor Structure, Reliability, Stability, and External Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygiel, Paweł; Humenny, Grzegorz; Rębisz, Sławomir

    2016-12-08

    The present investigation is the first examination of the factor structures, reliability, external validity, longitudinal invariance, and stability of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS), as used with early adolescents. It is based on a two-wave, large, representative sample of Polish primary school pupils. The results demonstrate that the model most reflective of the factor structure of the DJGLS is the bifactor model, which assumes the occurrence of one, highly reliable, general factor (overall sense of loneliness) and two, relatively irrelevant, subfactors. Essential unidimensionality (the general factor accounting for three fourth of the common variance) suggest that the interpretation of the subfactors over and above the general factor is inappropriate. The longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the bifactor structure of the DJGLS is invariant over time. Correlations with self-rated loneliness, sociometric acceptance/rejection, social self-efficacy, identification with class group, family structure, and gender provide support for the validity of the DJGLS. This implies that it could be used as a measure of loneliness in adolescence, which does not involve references to the school context, making it possible to conduct studies that go beyond school period and compare the intensity of the feeling of loneliness in that group with other age groups.

  10. Validity of hematologic parameters in identification of early and late onset neonatal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsha; Rusia, Usha; Sikka, Meera; Faridi, M M A; Madan, Nishi

    2003-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the utility of hematological parameters and C-reactive protein (CRP) to formulate a sepsis screen to detect sepsis in early and late onset infection. Hundred and fifty neonates clinically suspected of bacterial infection, based on risk factors and/or clinical features were selected for the study. Blood was collected by venipuncture at the time of admission in all neonates. A total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count (DLC), its derivatives [Total neutrophil count (TNC or T), ratio of immature to total neutrophil count (I/T), ratio of immature to mature neutrophil count (I/M)] and CRP were obtained. TLC = 10x10(9)/L, TNC = 8x10(9)/L, I/T = 0.16, I/M = 0.25 and CRP = 0.6 mg/dl were found to be good parameters in detection of sepsis. During the first three days of life leukopenia, neutropenia, elevated I/T ratio, elevated I/M ratio and CRP were good diagnostic aids while after 3 days of life CRP was the best single test. This emphasizes use of multiple indicators for detection of sepsis. Using these parameters a sepsis screen was formulated which detected >90% of proven early and late onset sepsis suggesting that other neonates with positive sepsis screen but blood culture negativity may have been truly infected.

  11. Automatic identification of corrosive factors categories according to the environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Time of wetness, and pollutants are three key factors for the selection of metal materials in engineering applications and the determination of atmospheric corrosivity categories. In the past, when one or more corrosive factors data is missing, corrosive factors categories were often subjectively determined according to expert experience. In order to overcome such difficulty, this paper presents a method to automatically determine corrosive factors categories using detected environmental factors data instead of expert scoring. In this method, Bayesian network was used to build the mathematical model. And the inference was obtained by clique tree algorithm. The validity of the model and algorithm was verified by the simulation results.

  12. Factors Related to Teachers' Intention to Leave the Classroom Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, Abby; Ricketts, John C.; Morgan, A. Christian; Navarro, Marie; Flanders, Frank B.

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of retaining teachers in the profession of agricultural education is a prevalent and growing problem in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary factors contributing to intention to leave the profession among Georgia agriculture teachers. Teacher-participants responded to a web-based survey which…

  13. Risk Factors Associated with Children Lost to Care in a State Early Childhood Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Peggy P.; Kass, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with children lost to care, and their families, compared to those not lost to care within the California Early Start Program. The cohort included data on 8987 children enrolled in the Early Start Program in 1998. This cohort consisted of 2443 children lost to care, 6363…

  14. Early-onset preeclampsia : Constitutional factors and consequences for future pregnancy outcome and cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, maternal constitutional factors related to long-term cardiovascular health and subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with early-onset preeclampsia is addressed. Aims of the thesis: To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a first pregnancy complicated by early-onset

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Appraisal of the Decision to Take Early Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowan, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines why individuals elect to take the early retirement package offered by their employer, as well as factors affecting their appraisal of that decision. Results suggest that all early retirement decisions are not voluntary. Individuals who do not wish to retire and who had lower self-esteem, fewer financial resources, and plans to continue…

  16. Early-onset preeclampsia : Constitutional factors and consequences for future pregnancy outcome and cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, maternal constitutional factors related to long-term cardiovascular health and subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with early-onset preeclampsia is addressed. Aims of the thesis: To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a first pregnancy complicated by early-onset pre

  17. Risk Factors Associated with Children Lost to Care in a State Early Childhood Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Peggy P.; Kass, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with children lost to care, and their families, compared to those not lost to care within the California Early Start Program. The cohort included data on 8987 children enrolled in the Early Start Program in 1998. This cohort consisted of 2443 children lost to care, 6363…

  18. Risk factor modification in diabetic patients following angiographic identification of multi-vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, Leia; Thomas, Liza; Ang, Xinhui; Yang, Lihua; Lo, Sidney; Juergens, Craig P; Mussap, Christian J; Dignan, Rebecca; French, John K

    2013-08-20

    There is little information on whether identification of multi-vessel disease (MVD) in patients with diabetic mellitus (DM) affects risk factor management. From 1125 consecutively screened patients between June 2006 and March 2010, we examined 227 diabetic patients with MVD on coronary angiography. Diabetic control and cholesterol levels were assessed by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and total cholesterol (TC) respectively which were evaluated at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Patients were grouped by age into 75(n=44). Target levels were defined as HbA1cdiabetic patients, risk factor modification at 1-year was poor despite identification of MVD. Developing an effective education and monitoring programme to improve glycaemic control in this high risk group should be a priority.

  19. Perinatal and early life risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen E Roberts; Clare J Wotton; John G Williams; Myfanwy Griffith; Michael J Goldacre

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate associations between perinatal risk factors and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children and young adults.METHODS: Record linked abstracts of birth registrations,maternity, day case and inpatient admissions in a defined population of southern England. Investigation of 20 perinatal factors relating to the maternity or the birth: maternal age, Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) in the mother, maternal social class, marital status, smoking in pregnancy, ABO blood group and rhesus status, pre-eclampsia, parity, the infant's presentation at birth, caesarean delivery, forceps delivery, sex, number of babies delivered, gestational age, birthweight, head circumference, breastfeeding and Apgar scores at one and five minutes.RESULTS: Maternity records were present for 180 children who subsequently developed IBD. Univariate analysis showed increased risks of CD among children of mothers with CD (P = 0.011, based on two cases of CD in both mother and child) and children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Multivariate analysis confirmed increased risks of CD among children of mothers who smoked (odds ratio = 2.04, 95% CI =1.06-3.92) and for older mothers aged 35+ years (4.81,2.32-9.98). Multivariate analysis showed that there were no significant associations between CD and 17 other perinatal risk factors investigated. It also showed that, for UC, there were no significant associations with the perinatal factors studied.CONCLUSION: This study shows an association between CD in mother and child; and elevated risks of CD in children of older mothers and of mothers who smoked.

  20. Using our current understanding of dyslexia to support early identification and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Christopher; Torgesen, Joseph K

    2004-10-01

    One of the major risk factors for reading disability is difficulty learning to read words in text in an accurate and fluent manner. This is apparent when a child at risk of dyslexia first starts to attempt to read. Dyslexic children struggle to grasp and automate the alphabetic principle (ie, they cannot "sound out" words or use phonemic decoding strategies) and therefore have difficulty deciphering unfamiliar words that they have not encountered before. Even though many of these words are part of the child's oral vocabulary, the child cannot recognize them in printed form. As a result, reading can be extremely laborious and time-consuming, fraught with errors, and altogether an unrewarding, aversive experience. To be an efficient reader, one must be able to rapidly and effortlessly recognize many words by sight, and for a child to acquire this facility requires multiple exposures to these words. The difficulty that dyslexic children have in developing reliable and efficient phonemic decoding ability makes the acquisition of a lexicon of sight words a much slower process than it is for the average reader. Several other factors can affect a child's ability to read, which are reviewed herein. However, early recognition and treatment of deficient phonologic awareness are an extremely important step in the prevention of a reading problem in the child who is at risk of dyslexia.

  1. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    . However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity......, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity.......There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed...

  2. Factors Associated with Early Hospital Arrival in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongbeom; Tanaka, Eijirou; Lee, Kijeong; Sato, Shoichiro; Koga, Masatoshi; Kim, Young Dae; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Toyoda, Kazunori; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2015-05-01

    Factors associated with early arrival may vary according to the characteristics of the hospital. We investigated the factors associated with early hospital arrival in two different stroke centers located in Korea and Japan. Consecutive patients with ischemic stroke arrived hospital within 48 hours of onset between January 2011 and December 2012 were identified and the clinical and time variables were retrieved from the prospective stroke registries of Severance Hospital of Yonsei University Health System (YUHS; Seoul, Korea) and National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center (NCVC; Osaka, Japan). Subjects were dichotomized into early (time from onset to arrival ≤4.5 hours) and late (>4.5 hours) arrival groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with early hospital arrival. A total of 1,966 subjects (992 from YUHS; 974 from NCVC) were included in this study. The median time from onset to arrival was 6.1 hours [interquartile range, 1.7-17.8 hours]. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with early arrival were atrial fibrillation (Odds ratio [OR], 1.505; 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.168-1.939]), higher initial National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores (OR, 1.037; 95% CI [1.023-1.051]), onset during daytime (OR, 2.799; 95% CI [2.173-3.605]), and transport by an emergency medical service (OR, 2.127; 95% CI [1.700-2.661]). These factors were consistently associated with early arrival in both hospitals. Despite differences between the hospitals, there were common factors related to early arrival. Efforts to identify and modify these factors may promote early hospital arrival and improve stroke outcome.

  3. Facial emotion identification in early-onset and first-episode psychosis: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkl, Sophie J; Lah, Suncica; Harris, Anthony W F; Williams, Leanne M

    2014-10-01

    Patients with chronic schizophrenia are characterized by deficits in identifying facial expressions of emotion, and these deficits relate to impaired social and occupational function. It is not yet known if these deficits are trait-like and present at the onset of psychosis, preceding a subsequent diagnosis of schizophrenia. Our objective was to systematically review and analyze the extant literature to assess if there is a consistent profile of emotion identification problems in early-onset and first-episode psychosis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 peer-reviewed studies of facial emotion identification in early-onset and first-episode psychosis, published between 1980 and March 2013. We examined the average mean difference between patients and controls on measures of facial emotion identification. Findings suggest that patients with early-onset and first-episode psychosis have impairment in identifying facial expressions of biologically salient emotion. Across the 12 studies, the onset of psychosis was distinguished by a generalized effect of significantly poorer accuracy for identifying facial expressions of emotion than healthy controls, and this difference had a substantial effect size (d=-0.88, N=378, 95% CI=-1.42 to -0.32). Within this general effect some emotions were also harder for patients to identify than others, with the magnitude of impairment found to be (i) large for disgust, fear and surprise, and (ii) medium for sadness, and happiness. No between groups mean differences were found for anger or neutral facial expressions. Deficits in facial emotion identification are evident at first onset of a psychotic episode. The findings suggest that, over and above a generalized deficit in identifying facial emotion, patients may find some emotions harder to identifying than others. This reflects findings with chronic schizophrenia populations and suggests that emotion identification impairment represents a trait susceptibility

  4. Positive matrix factorization and trajectory modelling for source identification: A new look at Indian Ocean Experiment ship observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprasad, S. G.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Bhushan, Mani

    The sources of aerosols on a regional scale over India have only recently received attention in studies using back trajectory analysis and chemical transport modelling. Receptor modelling approaches such as positive matrix factorization (PMF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) are effective tools in source identification of urban and regional-scale pollution. In this work, PMF and PSCF analysis is applied to identify categories and locations of sources that influenced surface concentrations of aerosols in the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) domain measured on-board the research vessel Ron Brown [Quinn, P.K., Coffman, D.J., Bates, T.S., Miller, T.L., Johnson, J.E., Welton, E.J., et al., 2002. Aerosol optical properties during INDOEX 1999: means, variability, and controlling factors. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 8020, doi:10.1029/2000JD000037]. Emissions inventory information is used to identify sources co-located with probable source regions from PSCF. PMF analysis identified six factors influencing PM concentrations during the INDOEX cruise of the Ron Brown including a biomass combustion factor (35-40%), three industrial emissions factors (35-40%), primarily secondary sulphate-nitrate, balance trace elements and Zn, and two dust factors (20-30%) of Si- and Ca-dust. The identified factors effectively predict the measured submicron PM concentrations (slope of regression line=0.90±0.20; R2=0.76). Probable source regions shifted based on changes in surface and elevated flows during different times in the ship cruise. They were in India in the early part of the cruise, but in west Asia, south-east Asia and Africa, during later parts of the cruise. Co-located sources include coal-fired electric utilities, cement, metals and petroleum production in India and west Asia, biofuel combustion for energy and crop residue burning in India, woodland/forest burning in north sub-Saharan Africa and forest burning in south-east Asia. Significant findings

  5. Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

    2004-08-01

    Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P body condition and service sire.

  6. Overweight in preschool children behavioral problems and early risk factors /

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Bonaventura, Iris

    2016-01-01

    El sobrepès en la infància s'ha convertit en un problema de salut pública ja que està relacionat amb importants comorbiditats mèdiques i cada cop nens més petits tenen sobrepès. Objectius: Examinar de manera transversal i longitudinal les associacions entre problemes de conducta i el sobrepès, i identificar els factors de risc pel sobrepès. Mètode: Una mostra comunitària de n=622 nens de 3 anys va ser seguida fins als 5 anys, registrant anualment l'altura, el pes i la psicopatologia. Els segü...

  7. Maternal and fetal risk factors affecting perinatal mortality in early and late fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Oya; Selçuk, Selçuk; Kumru, Pınar; Asoğlu, Mehmet Reşit; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Boza, Barış; Türkyılmaz, Gürcan; Bütün, Zafer; Arısoy, Resul; Tandoğan, Bülent

    2015-12-01

    To determine the factors which affect the perinatal deaths in early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) fetuses using threshold of estimated fetal weight (EFW) fetuses, defined as an EFW fetuses considered as growth restrictions were confirmed by birth weight. Fetuses with multiple pregnancy, congenital malformation, chromosomal abnormality, and premature rupture of membrane were excluded. Samples were grouped in early and late FGR. Early FGR fetuses was classified as gestational age at birth ≤ 34 weeks and late FGR was classified as gestational age at birth > 34 weeks. Factors which affect the perinatal deaths were analyzed descriptively in early and late FGR. The perinatal mortality was calculated by adding the number of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. The study included 86 early and 185 late FGR fetuses, 31 resulted in perinatal deaths, 28 perinatal deaths were in early FGR, and three perinatal deaths were in late FGR. Perinatal deaths occurred more commonly in early FGR fetuses with an EFW death in early FGR. All three perinatal deaths in late FGR occurred in fetuses with EFW death was found significantly higher in increased vascular impedance of UtAs whatever the umbilical artery Doppler. Only EFW death in late FGR in comparison with early FGR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Identification of early zygotic genes in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and discovery of a motif involved in early zygotic genome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K Biedler

    Full Text Available During early embryogenesis the zygotic genome is transcriptionally silent and all mRNAs present are of maternal origin. The maternal-zygotic transition marks the time over which embryogenesis changes its dependence from maternal RNAs to zygotically transcribed RNAs. Here we present the first systematic investigation of early zygotic genes (EZGs in a mosquito species and focus on genes involved in the onset of transcription during 2-4 hr. We used transcriptome sequencing to identify the "pure" (without maternal expression EZGs by analyzing transcripts from four embryonic time ranges of 0-2, 2-4, 4-8, and 8-12 hr, which includes the time of cellular blastoderm formation and up to the start of gastrulation. Blast of 16,789 annotated transcripts vs. the transcriptome reads revealed evidence for 63 (P<0.001 and 143 (P<0.05 nonmaternally derived transcripts having a significant increase in expression at 2-4 hr. One third of the 63 EZG transcripts do not have predicted introns compared to 10% of all Ae. aegypti genes. We have confirmed by RT-PCR that zygotic transcription starts as early as 2-3 hours. A degenerate motif VBRGGTA was found to be overrepresented in the upstream sequences of the identified EZGs using a motif identification software called SCOPE. We find evidence for homology between this motif and the TAGteam motif found in Drosophila that has been implicated in EZG activation. A 38 bp sequence in the proximal upstream sequence of a kinesin light chain EZG (KLC2.1 contains two copies of the mosquito motif. This sequence was shown to support EZG transcription by luciferase reporter assays performed on injected early embryos, and confers early zygotic activity to a heterologous promoter from a divergent mosquito species. The results of these studies are consistent with the model of early zygotic genome activation via transcriptional activators, similar to what has been found recently in Drosophila.

  9. The Identification of Risk Factors: the Control of the Significance Level in Multiple Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Naddeo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in statistical medical analyses is the identification of risk factors associated with a certain disease. The collected sampled data are used to assess simultaneously more hypotheses, each of which assesses the influence of one factor. It is well known that the simultaneous assessment of two or more hypotheses entails a rise in the probability of rejecting at least one of the true null partial hypotheses. In this paper the rise in this probability is approximately evaluated for different levels of dependance between factors by means of a permutation-based procedure. The paper also proposes a procedure which computes an adjusted p-value for each test of the partial hypotheses in such a way that the global hypothesis that none of the factors have influence is assessed at a prefixed significance level. A simulation study is performed to check the power of the proposed procedure.

  10. Identification and comparison of structural factors of innovation capability in ESCO with desirable status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jalali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the identification and comparison of structural factors of innovation capability in Esfahan Steel Company (ESCO. Innovation is a crucial factor in growth, success, and survival of organizations. Since the innovation for organizations is not possible without the level of innovation capabilities and the need for steel products and imports of goods from developed countries has greatly increased, this study intends to investigate the factors affecting the subject that may be able to increase the production and reduce the need to import it. Evaluation of the innovation capability factors of ESCO compared with its desired status in industry can help companies develop innovative strategies and also achieve organizational goals. Statistical analysis methods and mean comparison test by examining the structure of the innovation capability in the form of a standard questionnaire was employed. The findings suggest that the innovation capability in the existing situation of ESCO in comparison with the desired situation is significantly different.

  11. The Influence of Family and Teacher Factors on Early Disruptive School Behaviors: A Latent Profile Transition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Sarah J.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The kindergarten year plays an important role in establishing children's academic, social, and behavioral adjustment. Early identification of children who experience difficulties with the kindergarten transition is crucial to prevent continued behavioral and emotional problems. Family and school predictors of these early behavioral patterns can…

  12. Risk factors for diarrheal disease incidence in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Jensen, H; Ingholt, L

    1997-01-01

    To determine risk factors for diarrhea, the authors followed an open cohort of 1,314 children from Guinea-Bissau by weekly diarrhea recall interviews between April 1987 and March 1990. Data on feeding practices and measles infection were available for all children and, for 531 children, comprehen...... of breastfeeding, important interventions against diarrhea include improvements in water supply, hygiene, and food handling. However, because of effect modification by breastfeeding, the largest effects of these interventions will probably be among weaned children....... of the household being water from an unprotected public water supply. In breastfed children, only three variables were associated with diarrhea, including prior diarrhea, male sex, and not being looked after by the mother. Among weaned children, six variables...... delineated increased rates of diarrhea, including unprotected public water supply, eating of cold leftovers, and lack of maternal education. Major determinants of persistent diarrhea included weaning, lack of maternal education, and having pigs in the home. It is concluded that, in addition to the promotion...

  13. Are financial factors more important than health in early retirement? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, A. de; Geuskens, G.A.; Ybema, J.F.; Blatter, B.M.; Burdorf, A.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of health, job characteristics, skills and knowledge, social factors, and financial factors to the transition from work to early retirement. Methods Employees aged 59–63 years (N=2317) were selected from the Study on Trans

  14. Portland Identification and Early Referral: A Community-Based System for Identifying and Treating Youths at High Risk of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, William R.; Cook, William L.; Downing, Donna; Verdi, Mary B.; Woodberry, Kristen A.; Ruff, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Objective The Portland [Maine] Identification and Early Referral (PIER) Program was established in 2001 as a prevention system for identifying and treating youths at high risk of an initial psychotic episode. Methods During six years, 7,270 professionals from the educational, general medical, and mental health sectors were provided information on prodromal symptoms and means for rapid referral of at-risk youth, which resulted in referral of 780 youths who met eligibility criteria. Results After screening, 37% of the community referrals were found to be at high risk of psychosis, and another 20% had untreated psychosis, yielding an efficiency ratio of 57%. Prodromal cases identified were 46% of the expected incidence of psychosis in the catchment area. Community educational presentations were significantly associated with referrals six months later; half of referrals were from outside the mental health system. Conclusions Community-based identification is an efficient public health strategy, offering the opportunity for preventive intervention. PMID:20439374

  15. 突发食品安全风险的早期识别%Early identification of emerging food safety risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗季阳; 张晓娟; 王欣; 杨倩; 孟兆祥; 李经津; 罗祎

    2012-01-01

    综述了突发食品安全风险的定义、分类、早期识别的机理和一般程序。突发食品安全风险是未预料到的偶发或自然产生的食品安全风险,同时也包括了食品生产者的欺诈和恶意行为所导致的风险。突发食品安全风险的早期识别是控制该类风险的关键,一般的早期识别是通过监测、收集和分析不同来源的数据、信息,根据相关专家对风险因素发展和变化趋势的评估来探寻食品供应链中新的潜在危害,其中风险信息的选择和设置对于突发食品安全风险的识别非常重要。%The research progress of emerging food safety risk was reviewed,including its definition,category, early identification mechanism and procedure. Emerging food safety risk can be defined as unanticipated risks that occur accidently or naturally,as well as those arising from deliberate fraud or acts of malevolence. In order to prevent emerging risks,it is key to identify emerging risks in early stage. The early identification is procedure that explore novel issue and potential new threats in food supply chain by the monitoring,collection and analysis of data and information from different types of sources,with a view to identifying trends and developments of risk factors. The selection and settings of risk informations is very important in this procedure.

  16. [The NETWASS prevention model for early identification and assessment of adolescents in psychosocial crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Friederike; Fiedler, Nora; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research-based NETWASS prevention model aims to enable school staff to identify students experiencing a psychosocial crisis that could lead to severe targeted school violence and to initiate appropriate support measures. A detailed analysis of the adolescent psychosocial crisis is conducted at an early stage by evaluating possible warning behaviors, crisis symptoms, a student’s individual and social background, and resources. The model was implemented in 98 schools. During the project duration of seven months staff from 59 schools reported 99 cases of a student’s psychosocial crisis. Three experts conducted a content analysis of the reported qualitative data focusing on crisis symptoms of the students as well as the initiated measures. Results show a broad spectrum of risk factors, whereas aggressive behavior of students was reported most frequently. On the basis of theoretical assumptions, the reported cases were divided into three distinct risk groups. A total of eight high-risk cases were observed and reported by the school staff. The school staff mostly reacted to the student crisis by initiating resource-orientated measures, the expertise of child and youth therapists was mostly requested for the high risk cases. By describing the impact of cases and choice of measures undertaken, the study aims to give an overview of incidents schools as well as clinical psychologists and therapists are confronted with.

  17. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Identification of problems and alternative approaches. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multi-disciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The final phase of the project focused on identification of the most significant human factors problems with respect to safe and effective operation of the teletherapy system and an identification and assessment of alternative approaches for resolving the problems. This report presents the findings of this final phase.

  18. Transcription factor cooperativity in early adipogenic hotspots and super-enhancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Rabiee, Atefeh; Nielsen, Ronni;

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that transcription factors operate in complex networks through thousands of genomic binding sites, many of which bind several transcription factors. However, the extent and mechanisms of crosstalk between transcription factors at these hotspots remain unclear....... Using a combination of advanced proteomics and genomics approaches, we identify ∼12,000 transcription factor hotspots (∼400 bp) in the early phase of adipogenesis, and we find evidence of both simultaneous and sequential binding of transcription factors at these regions. We demonstrate that hotspots...... are highly enriched in large super-enhancer regions (several kilobases), which drive the early adipogenic reprogramming of gene expression. Our results indicate that cooperativity between transcription factors at the level of hotspots as well as super-enhancers is very important for enhancer activity...

  19. The factors affecting early death after the initial therapy of acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Gunes, Gursel; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Yayar, Okan; Aydin, Seda; Demiroglu, Haluk; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Goker, Hakan; Aksu, Salih; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    There are some improvements in management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, induction-induced deaths still remain as a major problem. The aim of this study is to assess clinical parameters affecting early death in patients with AML. 199 AML patients, who were treated with intensive, non-intensive or supportive treatment between 2002 and 2014 in Hacettepe Hematology Department, were analyzed retrospectively. In our study early death rate for elderly was found to be lower than previous reports whereas it was similar for those who were under age of 60. Better ECOG performance (ECOG performance score 0 and 1) and non-intensive treatment associated with lower early death rates, however APL-type disease associated with higher early death rates. ECOG performance score at diagnosis was found to be the most related independent factor with higher rate of early death in 15 days after treatment (P<0.001). Therefore we decided to understand the factors which were related with ECOG. WBC count at diagnosis was found to be the only related parameter with ECOG performance score. Leucocyte count at diagnosis appears like to have an indirect effect on early death in AML patients. It maybe suggested that in recent years there is an improvement in early death rates of elderly AML patients. The currently reported findings require prospective validation and would encourage the incorporation of other next generation genomics for the prediction of early death and overall risk status of AML. PMID:26885243

  20. Reversing Early Retirement in Advanced Welfare Economies A Paradigm Shift to Overcome Push and Pull Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Bernhard Ebbinghaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent reform efforts of advanced welfare states have attempted to reverse trends in early retirement and increase the statutory retirement age. This paradigm shift often occurred against the protest of unions, fi rms and their employees. As a consequence of expanding welfare states and as response to economic challenges since the 1970s early exit from work has become a widespread practice. Early retirement has been part of Continental Europe’s welfare without work problem, while the Scandinavian welfare states, the Anglophone liberal economies and the Japanese welfare society were able to maintain higher levels of employment for older workers. Since the 1990s, an international consensus to reverse early exit from work emerged among international organisations and national policy experts. Based on a comparative historical analysis of selected OECD countries, this study analyses the cross-national variations in the institutionalisation of early exit regimes and its recent reversal using macro-indictors on early exit trends and stylised information on institutional arrangements. Comparing the interaction of social policy and economic institutions, it reviews the cross-national differences in welfare state “pull” and economic “push” factors that have contributed to early exit from work and discusses the likely impact of welfare retrenchment and assesses the importance of “retention” factors such as activation policies for decreasing early exit from work.

  1. Perinatal inflammation: a common factor in the early origins of cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Maria U; Wallace, Megan J; Pepe, Salvatore; Menheniott, Trevelyan R; Moss, Timothy J; Burgner, David

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Traditional risk factors account for only part of the attributable risk. The origins of atherosclerosis are in early life, a potential albeit largely unrecognized window of opportunity for early detection and treatment of subclinical cardiovascular disease. There are robust epidemiological data indicating that poor intrauterine growth and/or prematurity, and perinatal factors such as maternal hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, diabetes and obesity, are associated with adverse cardiovascular intermediate phenotypes in childhood and adulthood. Many of these early-life risk factors result in a heightened inflammatory state. Inflammation is a central mechanism in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated the role of overt perinatal infection and inflammation (chorioamnionitis) as a potential contributor to cardiovascular risk. Limited evidence from human and experimental models suggests an association between chorioamnionitis and cardiac and vascular dysfunction. Early life inflammatory events may be an important mechanism in the early development of cardiovascular risk and may provide insights into the associations between perinatal factors and adult cardiovascular disease. This review aims to summarise current data on the early life origins of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, with particular focus on perinatal inflammation.

  2. Identification of a glutamic acid repeat polymorphism of ALMS1 as a novel genetic risk marker for early-onset myocardial infarction by genome-wide linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Yamamoto, Ken; Asano, Hiroyuki; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Sukegawa, Mayo; Ichihara, Gaku; Izawa, Hideo; Hirashiki, Akihiro; Takatsu, Fumimaro; Umeda, Hisashi; Iwase, Mitsunori; Inagaki, Haruo; Hirayama, Haruo; Sone, Takahito; Nishigaki, Kazuhiko; Minatoguchi, Shinya; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Jang, Yangsoo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Park, Jeong E; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Sunagawa, Kenji; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Kimura, Akinori; Lee, Jong-Young; Murohara, Toyoaki; Inoue, Ituro; Yokota, Mitsuhiro

    2013-12-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Given that a family history is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease, genetic variants are thought to contribute directly to the development of this condition. The identification of susceptibility genes for coronary artery disease or MI may thus help to identify high-risk individuals and offer the opportunity for disease prevention. We designed a 5-step protocol, consisting of a genome-wide linkage study followed by association analysis, to identify novel genetic variants that confer susceptibility to coronary artery disease or MI. A genome-wide affected sib-pair linkage study with 221 Japanese families with coronary artery disease yielded a statistically significant logarithm of the odds score of 3.44 for chromosome 2p13 and MI. Further association analysis implicated Alström syndrome 1 gene (ALMS1) as a candidate gene within the linkage region. Validation association analysis revealed that representative single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the ALMS1 promoter region were significantly associated with early-onset MI in both Japanese and Korean populations. Moreover, direct sequencing of the ALMS1 coding region identified a glutamic acid repeat polymorphism in exon 1, which was subsequently found to be associated with early-onset MI. The glutamic acid repeat polymorphism of ALMS1 identified in the present study may provide insight into the pathogenesis of early-onset MI.

  3. The added value of SPECT-CT for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes in early stage oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toom, Inne J. den; Bree, Remco de [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UMC Utrecht Cancer Center, University Medical Center, Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schie, Annelies van; Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Weert, Stijn van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Karagozoglu, K.H. [VU University Medical Center/Academic Centre for Dentistry (ACTA) Amsterdam, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bloemena, Elisabeth [VU University Medical Center/Academic Centre for Dentistry (ACTA) Amsterdam, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    To assess the role of single-photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography (SPECT-CT) for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with early stage (T1-T2) oral cancer and a clinically negative neck (cN0). In addition to planar lymphoscintigraphy, SPECT-CT was performed in 66 consecutive patients with early stage oral cancer and a clinically negative neck. The addition of SPECT-CT to planar images was retrospectively analyzed for the number of additional SLNs, more precise localization of SLNs, and importance of anatomical information by a team consisting of a nuclear physician, surgeon, and investigator. Identification rate for both imaging modalities combined was 98% (65/66). SPECT-CT identified 15 additional SLNs in 14 patients (22%). In 2/15 (13%) of these additional SLNs, the only metastasis was found, resulting in an upstaging rate of 3% (2/65). In 20% of the patients with at least one positive SLN, the only positive SLN was detected due to the addition of SPECT-CT. SPECT-CT was considered to add important anatomical information in two patients (3%). In 5/65 (8%) of the patients initially scored SLNs on planar lymphoscintigrams were scored as non-SLNs when SPECT-CT was added. There were four false-negative SLN biopsy procedures in this cohort. The addition of SPECT-CT to planar lymphoscintigraphy is recommended for the identification of more (positive) SLNs and better topographical orientation for surgery in sentinel lymph node biopsy for early stage oral cancer. (orig.)

  4. The prevalence and nature of sexual harassment in the workplace: A model for early identification and effective management thereof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ramsaroop

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the prevalence and nature of sexual harassment and, assesses the impact of supervisory relations, levels of interaction, appearance and personality and types of behaviour. The study was undertaken at a tertiary institution using a sample of 74 employees, drawn by means of simple random sampling. Data was collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which was statistically tested and, analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicate that the sub-dimensions of the study impact significantly on sexual harassment. Based on the findings, a model for early identification and effective management of sexual harassment in the workplace was generated.

  5. In Silico Identification of Co-transcribed Core Cell Cycle Regulators and Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory networks involving transcription factors and core cell cycle regulators are expected to play crucial roles in plant growth and development. In this report, we describe the identification of two groups of co-transcribed core cell cycle regulators and transcription factors via a two-step in silico screening. The core cell cycle regulators include TARDY ASYNCHRONOUS MEIOSIS (CYCA1;2), CYCB1;1, CYCB2;1, CDKB1;2, and CDKB2;2 while the transcription factors include CURLY LEAF, AINTEGUMENTA, a MYB protein, two Forkhead-associated domain proteins, and a SCARECROW family protein. Promoter analysis revealed a potential web of cross- and self-regulations among the identified proteins. Because one criterion for screening for these genes is that they are predominantly transcribed in young organs but not in mature organs, these genes are likely to be particularly involved in Arabidopsis organ growth.

  6. Unbiased identification of signal-activated transcription factors by barcoded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pauline; Rando, Gianpaolo; Fleury-Olela, Fabienne; Schibler, Ueli

    2016-08-15

    The discovery of transcription factors (TFs) controlling pathways in health and disease is of paramount interest. We designed a widely applicable method, dubbed barcorded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM), to identify signal-activated TFs without any a priori knowledge about their properties. The BC-STAR-PROM library consists of ∼3000 luciferase expression vectors, each harboring a promoter (composed of six tandem repeats of synthetic random DNA) and an associated barcode of 20 base pairs (bp) within the 3' untranslated mRNA region. Together, the promoter sequences encompass >400,000 bp of random DNA, a sequence complexity sufficient to capture most TFs. Cells transfected with the library are exposed to a signal, and the mRNAs that it encodes are counted by next-generation sequencing of the barcodes. This allows the simultaneous activity tracking of each of the ∼3000 synthetic promoters in a single experiment. Here we establish proof of concept for BC-STAR-PROM by applying it to the identification of TFs induced by drugs affecting actin and tubulin cytoskeleton dynamics. BC-STAR-PROM revealed that serum response factor (SRF) is the only immediate early TF induced by both actin polymerization and microtubule depolymerization. Such changes in cytoskeleton dynamics are known to occur during the cell division cycle, and real-time bioluminescence microscopy indeed revealed cell-autonomous SRF-myocardin-related TF (MRTF) activity bouts in proliferating cells.

  7. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Building a famous brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. A good brand name plays an important role on increasing word of mouth advertisement, the number of loyal customers and repurchase habits. However, in order to build a good brand, we need to create sustainable brand identification and to do this we need to determine influential factors. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing brand identification. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 23 questions, distributes it among 400 people who purchase regularly from hyperstar and collects 400 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.735. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.784 and 2300.022, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived five factors including sense of brand, brand community, trust to brand, value of brand and personality of brand.

  8. Parental exposure at periconception to environmental adverse factors and early embryo loss in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Hai-yan; Wang Dan; Yang Zhen-hua; Zou Xiao-ping; Chen Ya-qiong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of environmental adverse factors with early embryo loss, and explore the possible risk factors in daily life. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 93 new cases of embryo loss (case group) collected in four general hospitals in Tianjin from April 2007 to April 2008 and 93 matched cases of induced abortion (control group) in normal pregnant women who sought the abortion by other reasons. The questionnaire covered information on parental exposure to various environmental factors during and before pregnancy, and the information on daily life. Data were analyzed by single-factor analysis, multiple linear regression and logistic regression analysis. Possible risk factors were identified and odds ratio calculated.Results: Cooking frequently during pregnancy, more daily traffic hours, and decoration history in early pregnancy and paternal exposure to toxic matters three months before pregnancy were associated with early embryo loss, while maternal education was a protective factor. Conclusion: Women exposed to the harmful substances from traffic emissions, cooking and decoration could be at an increased risk of early embryo loss.

  9. Identification of hypothalamic neuron-derived neurotrophic factor as a novel factor modulating appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Mardi S; Swanson, Roy D; Semsarzadeh, Nina N; McCulloh, Patrick S; Kwon, Kiwook; Aja, Susan; Moran, Timothy H; Wong, G William; Blackshaw, Seth

    2013-06-15

    Disruption of finely coordinated neuropeptide signals in the hypothalamus can result in altered food intake and body weight. We identified neuron-derived neurotrophic factor (NENF) as a novel secreted protein through a large-scale screen aimed at identifying novel secreted hypothalamic proteins that regulate food intake. We observed robust Nenf expression in hypothalamic nuclei known to regulate food intake, and its expression was altered under the diet-induced obese (DIO) condition relative to the fed state. Hypothalamic Nenf mRNA was regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, itself an important regulator of appetite. Delivery of purified recombinant BDNF into the lateral cerebral ventricle decreased hypothalamic Nenf expression, while pharmacological inhibition of trkB signaling increased Nenf mRNA expression. Furthermore, recombinant NENF administered via an intracerebroventricular cannula decreased food intake and body weight and increased hypothalamic Pomc and Mc4r mRNA expression. Importantly, the appetite-suppressing effect of NENF was abrogated in obese mice fed a high-fat diet, demonstrating a diet-dependent modulation of NENF function. We propose the existence of a regulatory circuit involving BDNF, NENF, and melanocortin signaling. Our study validates the power of using an integrated experimental and bioinformatic approach to identify novel CNS-derived proteins with appetite-modulating function and reveals NENF as an important central modulator of food intake.

  10. PCR-based identification of cacao black pod causal agents and identification of biological factors possibly contributing to Phytophthora megakarya's field dominance in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the Phytophthora species that cause black pod of cacao, P. megakarya is the most virulent, posing a serious threat to cacao production in Africa. Correct identification of the species causing the black pod and understanding the virulence factors involved are important for developing sustainabl...

  11. The Early Identification and Education of Brilliant Students: The Duke Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    The Duke University Talent Identification Program was initiated to identify verbally and mathematically precocious youngsters. This program is a 16-state effort not only to identify brillant students, but to follow and nuture their talent and assist in their educational development. (MLW)

  12. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer: a case-cohort study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer; Baker, Jennifer L; Cederkvist, Luise; Andersen, Ingelise

    2017-02-01

    One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth weight and birth order and stratified on birth cohort (HR = 3.46, 95% CI 2.67-4.48). This study confirmed the robustness of the association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer even after adjustment for birth weight and birth order. Furthermore, the study showed an inverse association between birth weight and testicular cancer.

  13. Extensive chromatin remodelling and establishment of transcription factor 'hotspots' during early adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Ronni; John, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Adipogenesis is tightly controlled by a complex network of transcription factors acting at different stages of differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family members are key regulators of this process. We have employed DNase I...... and chromatin remodelling and is required for their establishment. Furthermore, a subset of early remodelled C/EBP-binding sites persists throughout differentiation and is later occupied by PPARγ, indicating that early C/EBP family members, in addition to their well-established role in activation of PPARγ...... transcription, may act as pioneering factors for PPARγ binding....

  14. Improved Early Crop Type Identification By Joint Use of High Temporal Resolution SAR And Optical Image Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Inglada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High temporal and spatial resolution optical image time series have been proven efficient for crop type mapping at the end of the agricultural season. However, due to cloud cover and image availability, crop identification earlier in the season is difficult. The recent availability of high temporal and spatial resolution SAR image time series, opens the possibility of improving early crop type mapping. This paper studies the impact of such SAR image time series when used in complement of optical imagery. The pertinent SAR image features, the optimal working resolution, the effect of speckle filtering and the use of temporal gap-filling of the optical image time series are assessed. SAR image time series as those provided by the Sentinel-1 satellites allow significant improvements in terms of land cover classification, both in terms of accuracy at the end of the season and for early crop identification. Haralik textures (Entropy, Inertia, the polarization ratio and the local mean together with the VV imagery were found to be the most pertinent features. Working at at 10 m resolution and using speckle filtering yield better results than other configurations. Finally it was shown that the use of SAR imagery allows to use optical data without gap-filling yielding results which are equivalent to the use of gap-filling in the case of perfect cloud screening, and better results in the case of cloud screening errors.

  15. Increase of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chun-fang; YU Xue-wen; JIN Hui; LI Xu

    2004-01-01

    To investigate membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 protein expression level in decidua andconcentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in serum in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion,threatened abortion, and compare the levels with healthy pregnant women. Methods: Thirty-seven women with unexplainedearly spontaneous abortion, 27 women with threatened abortion, and 34 healthy pregnant women undergoing artificial abortionof pregnancy at 6 - 10 weeks of gestation were selected. Decidual samples were collected when women were undergoing arti-ficial abortion, and blood samples were collected at the same time. The level of membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 indecidua was detected by flow cytometer, and the concentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in sera was mea-sured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The ercentages of membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1positive decidual cells were 16.42 ± 7.10 Mean ± SD for women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion and 13.14 ±6.30 for healthy pregnant women ( P < 0.05). Serum oncentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 was signifi-cantly higher in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion than in healthy pregnant women and in women withthreatened abortion, and no difference was found between healthy pregnant women and women with threatened abortion.Conclusion: Women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion present significantly higher expression of tumor necrosisfactor receptor 1 than healthy pregnant women, suggesting that over-expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 may cont-ribute to the development of early spontaneous abortion.

  16. 1:4 matched case-control study on influential factor of early onset neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Ye, G-Y

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria, funghi, viruses and protozoa can lead to neonatal sepsis. Neonatal sepsis is the leading cause of infectious disease onset and death in many neonates. To explore the major risk factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis and provide a scientific basis for strategies of early-onset neonatal sepsis prevention. A 1:4 matched case-control study was adopted and 147 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the univariate and multivariate data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Univariate analysis shows that the impact factors on the occurrence of early-onset neonatal sepsis include the following: Maternal age > 35, mother having fixed occupation, mother of urban residence, abnormal fetal position, fetal times, parity, caesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, amniotic fluid volume abnormalities, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abnormalities, fetal distress, newborn gender, low birth weight infants, neonatal Apgar scoring at one and five minutes, neonatal jaundice, wet lung, anemia, IVH, and premature infant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age > 35 (OR = 4.835, OR 95% CI = 1.170-19.981), cesarean section (OR = 0.103, OR 95% CI = 0.041-0.258), premature rupture of membranes (OR = 0.207, OR 95% CI = 0.078-0.547), premature infants (OR = 0.059, OR 95% CI = 0.010-0.329) and newborn jaundice (OR = 0.092, OR 95% CI = 0.021-0.404) were the factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Early-onset neonatal sepsis could be affected by multi-factors, and targeted prevention may reduce the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis rates.

  17. THE ANALYSIS OF CHANGES AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF EARLY POSTTHORACOTOMY PULMONARY FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉尚; 张志庸; 徐协群

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the changes and influencing factors of early postoperative pulmonary functionof thoracotomy.Methods. Pre-and early postoperative pulmonary function was studied in 64 consecutive cases withoptimal thoracotomy. Pain assessment was done before pulmonary function test, and the chief complaintsof patients were recorded after the procedure. The changing curves of pulmonary function were done andthe differences associated with groups, surgical styles, pain assessment, epidural analgesia, chief com-plaint and preoperative conditions were analyzed.Results. Pulmonary function was severely lowered to about 40% of the base line on the first day,and it was rehabilitated to about 60% of the base line on the eighth day. There was a greater gradienton the recovery curve on the 3rd and 4th days. Epidural analgesia was able to improve pain relaxationand pulmonary function in some degree. Single-factor analysis showed that postoperative pain, postopera-tive day and surgical style were the significant influencing factors for early postoperative pulmonary func-tion. By multiple-factor analysis, preoperative pulmonary function, age and postoperative pain were themain factors, while surgical style had only weak effect on it.Conclusions. Early postoperative pulmonary function is severely impaired by thoracotomy. It rehabili-tate gradually with time. Improvement of preoperative pulmonary function, reducing surgical procedure in-juries, especially injury to respiratory muscle system, and enough postoperative pain relief are the mostimportant means that would reduce pulmonary function impairment and consequently reduce postoperativepulmonary complications.

  18. Factors of early trauma in the development of sexual anomalies in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoselova M.L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the activities of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, in 2013 reports have been published on investigations of sexual offenses (Article 131 and 132 of the Criminal Code at 10,228 cases. [12] In 2002, 8117 cases were investigated on these articles. [3] During the decade, the number of such offenses increased by more than 20 percent. Increasing the number of sexual offenses, their frequency and risk of relapse necessitated studying the problems of people with sexual disorders. But, in spite of numerous studies, currently not all subjects in this sphere have received the same attention. The problem of sexual assault has been relatively recently considered with the use of modern achievements of psychiatry and sexuality. In this regard, the influence of factors such as early trauma is currently still poorly understood. Our paper is devoted to the study of early trauma factors and their role in the development of sexual anomalies in men. The article contains a review of contemporary Russian and foreign literature on this topic. We also carried out an analytical and theoretical study of cases of subjects who have committed crimes of a sexual nature. This review helped to assess the role of factors of early trauma and showed how these factors can influence the development of various sexual abnormalities. In addition, we revealed the main biologically conditioned factors of early trauma and traced their influence on the development of sexual paraphilias.

  19. Identification of appropriate outcome indices in head and neck cancer and factors influencing them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, D; Kwok, A; Putcha, V; McGurk, M

    2014-09-01

    Audit of early postoperative outcomes adjusted for patient case mix is still in its infancy in head and neck surgery. Nevertheless the role for audit of early postoperative outcomes is obvious. The primary outcome measure of this study was to identify factors that are associated with early mortality or morbidity after surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The secondary outcome measure was to develop a pilot score that allows for risk-adjustment of outcome data to facilitate departmental audit. In this series the mortality rate was low (2.8%), in keeping with other published series. Complications, including those causing death, occurred after 38.1% of operations. Independent risk factors for mortality on logistic regression were shown to be previous HNSCC (P=0.03), estimated blood loss (l) (P=0.03), and extracapsular spread (P=0.05). Age (P=0.01), tracheostomy (Prisk demonstrated good discrimination (area under the curve statistics) for mortality (0.86) and morbidity (0.81). These pilot scores need external validation and may herald a means of facilitating risk-adjustment in the audit of early outcomes, allowing meaningful comparison of surgeons and their units over time.

  20. Early life factors and dental caries in 5-year-old children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  2. Signaling Proteins and Transcription Factors in Normal and Malignant Early B Cell Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pérez-Vera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available B cell development starts in bone marrow with the commitment of hematopoietic progenitors to the B cell lineage. In murine models, the IL-7 and preBCR receptors, and the signaling pathways and transcription factors that they regulate, control commitment and maintenance along the B cell pathway. E2A, EBF1, PAX5, and Ikaros are among the most important transcription factors controlling early development and thereby conditioning mice homeostatic B cell lymphopoiesis. Importantly, their gain or loss of function often results in malignant development in humans, supporting conserved roles for these transcription factors. B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common cause of pediatric cancer, and it is characterized by unpaired early B cell development resulting from genetic lesions in these critical signaling pathways and transcription factors. Fine mapping of these genetic abnormalities is allowing more specific treatments, more accurately predicting risk profiles for this disease, and improving survival rates.

  3. Using of Ratio Analysis for Identification of Opportunities within the Early Notification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ordys

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of ratio analysis as a part of early warning and notification systems to identify potential opportunities. The basic issues related to ratio analysis and early notification systems are introduced. In order to exemplify the problem the article presents the analysis of 19 food sector companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange basing on the Altmans classic Z-score model.

  4. Risk factors for predicting early variceal rebleeding after endoscopic variceal ligation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Xu; Feng Ji; Qin-Wei Xu; Mie-Qing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical risk factors for early variceal rebleeding after endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). METHODS: 342 cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices who received elective EVL to prevent bleeding or rebleeding at our endoscopy center between January 2005 and July 2010. were included in this study. The early rebleeding cases after EVL were confirmed by clinical signs or endoscopy. A case-control study was performed comparing the patients presenting with early rebleeding with those without this complication. RESULTS: The incidence of early rebleeding after EVL was 7.60%, and the morbidity of rebleeding was 26.9%. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that four variables were independent risk factors for early rebleeding: moderate to excessive ascites [odds ratio (OR) 62.83, 95% CI: 9.39-420.56, P 18 s (OR 11.35, 95% CI: 1.93-66.70, P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The early rebleeding rate after EVL is mainly affected by the volume of ascites, number of rubber bands used to ligate, severity of varices and prolonged PT. Effective measures for prevention and treatment should be adopted before and after EVL.

  5. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh A. Alzaheb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study’s infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  6. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2016-07-12

    Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  7. [Early identification of impaired renal function in obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hu; Fu, Junfen; Chen, Xuefeng; Huang, Ke; Wu, Wei; Liang, Li

    2013-07-01

    To early assess the impaired renal function in the obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to identify the relationship between NAFLD and impairment of renal function. Three hundred and eighty-six obese children were enrolled and divided into NAFLD group and simple obesity group (control) according to the diagnostic criteria. Clinical biochemical parameters and early impaired renal functions were evaluated and compared. Among all patients 234 obese children aged over 10 y were subdivided into 3 groups: NAFLD combined with metabolic syndrome (NAFLD+MS) group, NAFLD group and simple obesity group (control), and the above indexes were compared among 3 groups. The urinary microalbumin levels in NAFLD, NAFLD+MS (>10y) and NAFLD groups (>10y) were significantly higher than those in controls. Additionally, the positive correlations of urinary microalbumin with systolic pressure, triglyceride and 2h-postprandial blood glucose were found. There is early renal dysfunction in children with NAFLD and those accompanied with MS, which may be associated with hypertension and glucose-lipid metabolic disorder. The results indicate that NAFLD is not only an early sign of early impaired renal function but also an early stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in obese children.

  8. Identification of urine protein biomarkers with the potential for early detection of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjuan Zhang; Jing Cao; Lin Li; Yanbin Liu; Hong Zhao; Nan Li; Bo Li; Aiqun Zhang; Huanwei Huang; She Chen; Mengqiu Dong; Lei Yu; Jian Zhang; Liang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and has an overall 5-year survival rate lower than 15%. Large-scale clinical trials have demonstrated a significant relative reduction in mortality in high-risk individuals with low-dose computed tomography screening. However, biomarkers capable of identifying the most at-risk population and detecting lung cancer before it becomes clinically apparent are urgently needed in the clinic. Here, we report the identification of urine biomark...

  9. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjaer, Anni; Molgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity. However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Chagas cardiomyopathy: the potential of diastolic dysfunction and brain natriuretic peptide in the early identification of cardiac damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Garcia-Alvarez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease remains a major cause of mortality in several countries of Latin America and has become a potential public health problem in non-endemic countries as a result of migration flows. Cardiac involvement represents the main cause of mortality, but its diagnosis is still based on nonspecific criteria with poor sensitivity. Early identification of patients with cardiac involvement is desirable, since early treatment may improve prognosis. This study aimed to assess the role of diastolic dysfunction, abnormal myocardial strain and elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in the early identification of cardiac involvement in Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty-four patients divided into 3 groups--group 1 (undetermined form: positive serology without ECG or 2D-echocardiographic abnormalities; N = 32, group 2 (typical ECG abnormalities of Chagas disease but normal 2D-echocardiography; N = 14, and group 3 (regional wall motion abnormalities, left ventricular [LV] end-diastolic diameter >55 mm or LV ejection fraction 37 pg/ml were noted in 0%, 13%, 29% and 63% in controls and groups 1 to 3, respectively. Half of patients in the undetermined form had impaired relaxation patterns, whereas half of patients with ECG abnormalities suggestive of Chagas cardiomyopathy had normal diastolic function. In group 1, BNP levels were statistically higher in patients with diastolic dysfunction as compared to those with normal diastolic function (27 ± 26 vs. 11 ± 8 pg/ml, p = 0.03. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the combination of diastolic function and BNP measurement adds important information that could help to better stratify patients with Chagas disease.

  11. The Analysis of Theoretical Approaches to Identification of Factors of Regional Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosyrieva Olena V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the investigation of current approaches to identification of factors of economic growth in the regions. The theory of new economic geography based on works and studies of P. Krugman has been considered. There highlighted the key issues of regional economic growth requiring an in-depth studying and consideration in the elaboration of strategies for sustainable development of the regions. The views of leading domestic and foreign scholars as well as the OECD experts, the World Bank, the National Statistics Service of the United Kingdom and others on the main drivers of economic growth have been analyzed. On the basis of the study the factors of regional economic growth most commonly encountered in theory and practice have been generalized. It is proved that scientists and analysts most often classify as the factors of regional economic growth the following ones: those characterizing human potential, scientific-technical and innovative activity, management and institutional capacity. The factors less frequently correlated by specialists and scientists with the regional economic growth include: those characterizing the environment, business and sociopolitical factors, which is associated with difficulty of their quantification, but in any case does not diminish their importance.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and

  13. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and

  14. Early sensitisation and development of allergic airway disease - risk factors and predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    development of allergic disease at birth. Early sensitisation, cow's milk allergy and atopic eczema are predictors for later development of allergic airway disease. Exposure to indoor allergens, especially house dust mite allergens, is a risk factor for sensitisation and development of asthma later...

  15. Improvement of best practice in early breast cancer : Actionable surgeon and hospital factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gort, Marjan; Broekhuis, Manda; Otter, Rene; Klazinga, Niek S.

    To identify actionable elements for improving best practice, this study examined the relative effects of patient, surgeon and hospital factors on surgical treatment variation of 2,929 early breast cancer patients, diagnosed from January 1998 to January 2002 in the region of the Comprehensive Cancer

  16. Mentors' Perceptions of Factors Associated with Change in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Jacobs, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Mentors' perceptions of factors associated with educational change were identified following an individualized mentoring program about constructivist curriculum for early childhood educators. A qualitative case study analysis of the mentors' journals of six classrooms was conducted to review their perceptions of change. Classroom…

  17. Social and Relational Factors in Early Education and Prosocial Actions of Children of Diverse Ethnocultural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Asha L.; Howes, Carollee

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether social exchanges and relationships among young children and with teachers in early care and education are associated with prosocial behavior of children from diverse ethnocultural backgrounds. Social and relational factors including closeness of the teacher-child relationship, emotional tone of teacher-child…

  18. Dimensionality of an Early Childhood Scale Using Rasch Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Madhabi; Smith, Richard M.; Dedrick, Robert F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Rasch analysis and linear confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the dimensionality of an early childhood test, the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (F. Ilg and others, 1978). Discusses empirical analyses of results from 523 kindergarten students using both methods. (SLD)

  19. Family Factors in the Early Development of Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooste, Ann Van; Maes, Bea

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview of important family and environmental factors that affect early development of infants and children with Down syndrome. It concludes that a moderately directive parenting style combined with sensitive, responsive, and reciprocal interactions, embedded in a general stimulating environment, are favorable to the…

  20. Starting school: The effect of early childhood factors on child well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette; Rosenstjerne Andersen, Angelo

    Children’s well-being around the age when they start school is crucial for their future success in the educational system. Factors in the first 3 years of a child’s life matter for the child’s well-being when he or she starts school. This article analyzes the relationship between early childhood...

  1. [Suicidal behaviors among young adults: risk factors during development from early childhood to adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Laucht, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behaviors are prevalent among young people. Numerous risk factors have been implicated in their development. In the framework of the longitudinal Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, 311 young adults (143 males, 168 females) aged 19-23 years were investigated in order 1) to determine the significance of different risk factors during development in predicting suicidal behaviors in young adulthood, 2) to identify potential risk factors discriminating between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and 3) to examine whether the effect of early risk factors was mediated by later occurring predictors. Young adults with suicidal behaviors displayed a number of abnormalities during development, including high load of early family adversity, suicidal ideation and psychiatric problems in childhood and adolescence, as well as low self esteem, poor school functioning, higher levels of novelty seeking, and enhanced affiliations with deviant peers in adolescence. Independent contributions to predicting suicidal behaviors in young adults were provided by early family adversity, suicidal ideation during childhood and adolescence, and low self esteem (with regard to suicidal ideation) and novelty seeking (with regard to suicide attempt), respectively. The impact of early adversity was mediated by child and adolescent externalizing disorders and low self esteem in adolescence. Possible implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of suicidal behaviors are discussed.

  2. Non-genetic factors influencing early growth traits in the Elsenburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investigate non-genetic factors contributing to early growth traits. The fixed effects ... as age, sex, birth status (type of birth) and age of dam have been well ..... Mutton Sheep Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme for kind permission to use ...

  3. Factors Affecting Early Services for Children Who Are Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Melody; Page, Thomas A.; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Berry, Lauren Unflat; Peterson, Barbara; Welhaven, Anne; Arenas, Richard M.; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe factors affecting early intervention (EI) for children who are hard of hearing, we analyzed (a) service setting(s) and the relationship of setting to families' frequency of participation, and (b) provider preparation, caseload composition, and experience in relation to comfort with skills that support spoken language for…

  4. Social and Relational Factors in Early Education and Prosocial Actions of Children of Diverse Ethnocultural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Asha L.; Howes, Carollee

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether social exchanges and relationships among young children and with teachers in early care and education are associated with prosocial behavior of children from diverse ethnocultural backgrounds. Social and relational factors including closeness of the teacher-child relationship, emotional tone of teacher-child…

  5. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  6. Genetic Identification Is Critical for the Diagnosis of Parkinsonism: A Chinese Pedigree with Early Onset of Parkinsonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available A number of hereditary neurological diseases display indistinguishable features at the early disease stage. Parkinsonian symptoms can be found in numerous diseases, making it difficult to get a definitive early diagnosis of primary causes for patients with onset of parkinsonism. The accurate and early diagnosis of the causes of parkinsonian patients is important for effective treatments of these patients.We have identified a Chinese family (82 family members over four generations with 21 affected individuals that manifested the characterized symptoms of parkinsonism and was initially diagnosed as Parkinson's disease. We followed up with the family for two years, during which we carried out clinical observations, Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography neuroimaging analysis, and exome sequencing to correctly diagnose the case.During the two-year follow-up period, we performed comprehensive medical history collection, physical examination, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies of this Chinese family. We found that the patient exhibited progressive deteriorated parkinsonism with Parkinson disease-like neuropathology and also had a good response to the initial levodopa treatment. However, exome sequencing identified a missense mutation, N279K, in exon 10 of MAPT gene, verifying that the early parkinsonian symptoms in this family are caused by the genetic mutation for hereditary frontotemporal lobar dementia.For the inherited parkinsonian patients who even show the neuropathology similar to that in Parkinson's disease and have initial response to levodopa treatment, genetic identification of the molecular basis for the disease is still required for defining the early diagnosis and correct treatment.

  7. Identification and effect decomposition of risk factors for Brucella contamination of raw whole milk in china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbo Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of clear risk factor identification is the main reason for the persistence of brucellosis infection in the Chinese population, and there has been little assessment of the factors contributing to Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors affecting Brucella contamination of raw milk, and to evaluate effective measures for disease reduction in order to determine preventive strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A nationwide survey was conducted and samples were obtained from 5211 cows corresponding to 25 sampling locations throughout 15 provinces in China. The prevalence of Brucella in the raw milk samples averaged 1.07% over the 15 Chinese provinces, while the prevalence of positive areas within these regions ranged from 0.23-3.84% among the nine provinces with positive samples. The survey examined factors that supposedly influence Brucella contamination of raw whole milk, such as management style, herd size, abortion rate, hygiene and disease control practices. A binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the association between risk factors for Brucella and contamination of milk samples. Furthermore, a relative effect decomposition study was conducted to determine effective strategies for reducing the risk of Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. Our data indicate that disease prevention and control measures, abortion rate, and animal polyculture are the most important risk factors. Meanwhile, culling after quarantine was identified as an effective protective measure in the current Chinese dairy situation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that, although there is a low risk of contamination of milk with Brucella nationwide in China, there are individual regions where contamination is a significant problem. Controlling three factors-culling after quarantine, maintaining a low abortion rate, and avoiding mixing groups of cattle and small ruminants

  8. Thin layer microcolony culture associated with PCR for early identification of Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Reis do Rosário

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial growth of mycobacteria from 49 samples of cattle and buffalo organs collected in commercial slaughterhouses was compared between modified Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer microcolony culture and Stonebrink medium used in the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Aliquots were decontaminated by Petroff's method, processed and cultured in both media. The identity of the acid-fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was confirmed by PCR. Optical microscopy showed that results of the early observation of Mycobacterium bovis colonies in thin layer culture were similar to those obtained in macroscopic observation of the colonies in Stonebrink medium. However, early observation of the colonies enabled early confirmation by PCR, given the shorter time to the visualization of colonies when thin layer culture was used (between the 12nd and 25th day of culture.

  9. Identification of trans-acting factors regulating SamDC expression in Oryza sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Supratim, E-mail: supratim_genetics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Crop Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Roychoudhury, Aryadeep [Post Graduate Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier' s College (Autonomous), 30, Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata - 700016, West Bengal (India); Sengupta, Dibyendu N. [Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Identification of cis elements responsible for SamDC expression by in silico analysis. • qPCR analysis of SamDC expression to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. • Detection of SamDC regulators using identified cis-elements as probe by EMSA. • Southwestern Blot analysis to predict the size of the trans-acting factors. - Abstract: Abiotic stress affects the growth and productivity of crop plants; to cope with the adverse environmental conditions, plants have developed efficient defense machinery comprising of antioxidants like phenolics and flavonoids, and osmolytes like polyamines. SamDC is a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway in plants. In our present communication we have done in silico analysis of the promoter region of SamDC to look for the presence of different cis-regulatory elements contributing to its expression. Based on the presence of different cis-regulatory elements we completed comparative analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice lamina of IR-29 and Nonabokra by qPCR in response to the abiotic stress treatments of salinity, drought, cold and the biotic stress treatments of ABA and light. Additionally, to explore the role of the cis-regulatory elements in regulating the expression of SamDC gene in plants we comparatively analyzed the binding of rice nuclear proteins prepared from IR-29 and Nonabokra undergoing various stress treatments. The intensity of the complex formed was low and inducible in IR-29 in contrast to Nonabokra. Southwestern blot analysis helped in predicting the size of the trans-acting factors binding to these cis-elements. To our knowledge this is the first report on the comprehensive analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice and identification of the trans-acting factors regulating its expression.

  10. Identification of Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Using Sulcal Morphology and Other Common Neuroimaging Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kunpeng; Xu, Hong; Guan, Hao; Zhu, Wanlin; Jiang, Jiyang; Cui, Yue; Zhang, Jicong; Liu, Tao; Wen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Identifying Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at its early stage is of major interest in AD research. Previous studies have suggested that abnormalities in regional sulcal width and global sulcal index (g-SI) are characteristics of patients with early-stage AD. In this study, we investigated sulcal width and three other common neuroimaging morphological measures (cortical thickness, cortical volume, and subcortical volume) to identify early-stage AD. These measures were evaluated in 150 participants, including 75 normal controls (NC) and 75 patients with early-stage AD. The global sulcal index (g-SI) and the width of five individual sulci (the superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure) were extracted from 3D T1-weighted images. The discriminative performances of the other three traditional neuroimaging morphological measures were also examined. Information Gain (IG) was used to select a subset of features to provide significant information for separating NC and early-stage AD subjects. Based on the four modalities of the individual measures, i.e., sulcal measures, cortical thickness, cortical volume, subcortical volume, and combinations of these individual measures, three types of classifiers (Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machine) were applied to compare the classification performances. We observed that sulcal measures were either superior than or equal to the other measures used for classification. Specifically, the g-SI and the width of the Sylvian fissure were two of the most sensitive sulcal measures and could be useful neuroanatomical markers for detecting early-stage AD. There were no significant differences between the three classifiers that we tested when using the same neuroanatomical features. PMID:28129351

  11. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk Factors of Early Otitis Media in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Niclasen, Janni;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors of otitis media (OM) in six-months-old children. METHOD: The sample consisted of 69,105 mothers and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women were interviewed twice during pregnancy and again 6 months after birth. The outcome "one or more...... associated with a risk of OM. When a Bonferroni correction was introduced, gender, prematurity, parity, maternal age, maternal self-estimated health, taking penicillin during pregnancy, and terminating breastfeeding before age six months, was associated with a risk of early OM. The adjusted ORs of OM...... less than 6 months, had an increased OR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.28-1.58) compared to children being breastfeed beyond 6 months. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that prenatal factors are of less importance regarding early OM before the age of six months. Postnatal risk factors seem to pose the main risk...

  13. A hybrid model for automatic identification of risk factors for heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Garibaldi, Jonathan M

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in both the UK and worldwide. The detection of related risk factors and tracking their progress over time is of great importance for early prevention and treatment of CAD. This paper describes an information extraction system that was developed to automatically identify risk factors for heart disease in medical records while the authors participated in the 2014 i2b2/UTHealth NLP Challenge. Our approaches rely on several nature language processing (NLP) techniques such as machine learning, rule-based methods, and dictionary-based keyword spotting to cope with complicated clinical contexts inherent in a wide variety of risk factors. Our system achieved encouraging performance on the challenge test data with an overall micro-averaged F-measure of 0.915, which was competitive to the best system (F-measure of 0.927) of this challenge task.

  14. Identification of Hearing Loss after Age 18 Months Is Not Early Enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Apuzzo, Mah-rya L.

    1998-01-01

    This study compared the development (at 40 months) of 40 deaf and hard-of-hearing infants whose hearing loss was identified either before 6 months or after 18 months. Infants whose hearing loss was identified earlier scored significantly on tests of expressive language and comprehension/concepts. Results support early hearing screening for…

  15. The Early Identification of Dyslexia: Children with English as an Additional Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jane M.; Whiteley, Helen E.; Smith, Chris D.; Connors, Liz

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that dyslexia should be identified early for interventions to have maximum effect. However, when children speak English as an additional language (EAL), diagnosis is more complex and there is concern that these children tend to be under-identified. This paper reports a longitudinal study following the development of…

  16. QTL identification for early blight resistance (Alternaria solani) in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. arcanum cross.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaerani, R.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Linden, van der C.G.; Vosman, B.; Stam, P.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Sorauer, the causal agent of early blight (EB) disease, infects aerial parts of tomato at both seedling and adult plant stages. Resistant cultivars would facilitate a sustainable EB management. EB resistance is a quantitatively expressed character, a fact that ha

  17. Transcriptional response of bronchial epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: identification of early mediators of host defense.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.B.; Sterkenburg, M.A. van; Rabe, K.F.; Schalkwijk, J.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Datson, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    The airway epithelium responds to microbial exposure by altering expression of a variety of genes to increase innate host defense. We aimed to delineate the early transcriptional response in human primary bronchial epithelial cells exposed for 6 h to a mixture of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha or heat-inact

  18. [Clinical Practice Guide for Early Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Acute Intoxication Phase in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence: Part I: Screening, Early Detection and Risk Factors in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Espriella Guerrero, Ricardo; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Zárate, Alina Uribe-Holguín; Menéndez, Miguel Cote; Barré, Michelle Cortés; Rentería, Ana María Cano; Hernández, Delia Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, alcohol is the second most-used psychotropic substance and the third risk factor for early death and disability. Its noxious use is a world public health problem given its personal, labor, family, economic and social impact. 70 % of people under risk of having alcohol problems go undetected in medical practice, a fact that underlines the need for specific screening measures allowing early detection leading to timely treatment. This article presents evidence gathered by alcohol abuse and dependence screening as well as by risk factor identification and screening. It also presents evidence concerning withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy in order to promote early detection and timely treatment. Systematic revision of the evidence available together with an evaluation of pertinent guidelines found in literature so as to decide whether to adopt or adapt the existing recommendation for each question or to develop de novo recommendations. For de novo recommendations as well as those adapted, it was carried out an evidence synthesis, together with evidence tables and formulation of recommendations based on the evidence. Evidence was found and recommendations were made for the pertinent screening and search of risk factors, in order to perform a diagnosis and carry out a timely management of alcohol abuse, dependence and ensuing complications: withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Do early life factors affect the development of knee osteoarthritis in later life: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Jin, Xingzhong; Ding, Changhai

    2016-09-13

    Osteoarthritis (OA) mainly affects older populations; however, it is possible that early life factors contribute to the development of OA in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the association between childhood or early adulthood risk factors and knee pain, structural imaging markers and development of knee OA in later life. A narrative overview of the literature synthesising the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerised databases and manual searches was conducted. We found that only a few studies have explored the long-term effect of childhood or early adulthood risk factors on the markers of joint health that predispose people to OA or joint symptoms. High body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status from childhood to adulthood were independently related to knee pain and OA in later life. The findings regarding the association between strenuous physical activity and knee structures in young adults are still conflicting. However, a favourable effect of moderate physical activity and fitness on knee structures is reported. Childhood physical activity and performance measures had independent beneficial effects on knee structures including knee cartilage in children and young adults. Anterior knee pain syndrome in adolescence could lead to the development of patellofemoral knee OA in the late 40s. Furthermore, weak evidence suggests that childhood malalignment, socioeconomic status and physical abuse are associated with OA in later life. The available evidence suggests that early life intervention may prevent OA in later life.

  20. Risk factors associated with trajectories of mothers' depressive symptoms across the early parenting period: an Australian population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M

    2014-04-01

    Approximately 14 % of women experience depressive symptoms in the first postnatal year. Few studies have examined the persistence of symptoms beyond this time. This study aims to (a) assess the course of women's depressive symptoms from the first postnatal year to when their children were aged 6-7 years, (b) identify distinct groups of women defined by their symptom trajectories over time, and (c) identify antenatal and early postnatal risk factors associated with persistent symptoms. Data from 4,879 women participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed using latent growth modelling and logistic regression to identify risk factors associated with class membership. For the overall sample, depressive symptoms were highest during the first postnatal year and then gradually decreased over 6-7 years. Two distinct classes were identified with the majority of women (84 %) reporting minimal symptoms over time, and 16 % experiencing persistently high symptoms. Risk factors were younger maternal age, being from a non-English speaking background, not completing high school, having a past history of depression, antidepressant use during pregnancy, child development problems, lower parenting self-efficacy, poor relationship quality, and stressful life events. This research identifies risk factors that may predispose mothers to enduring depressive symptoms, offering opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention.

  1. EARLY ALLOGRAFT DYSFUNCTION AND ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION: DEFINITIONS, RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Moysyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses issues related to intensive care in recipients of transplanted liver in the early postoperative period, with an emphasis on contemporary conditions and attitudes that are specific for this group of patients. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD requires immediate diagnosis and appropriate treatment in case. The causes of the EAD and therapeutic tactics are discussed. Acute kidney injury (AKI and renal failure are common in patients after transplantation. We consider etiology, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment guidelines for AKI. The negative impact of EAD and AKI on the grafts survival and recipients is demonstrated. 

  2. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Factors Associated With Early Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A.; Mora, Pablo A.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Leventhal, Howard

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore racial differences in reporting of early postpartum depressive symptoms. To explore whether racial differences in early postpartum experience (such as mother’s health status and social context) might account for racial differences in reported postpartum depressive symptoms. METHODS This was a telephone survey of 655 white, African-American, and Hispanic mothers between 2 and 6 weeks postpartum. Mothers reported on demographic factors, physical symptoms, daily function, infant behaviors, social support, skills in managing infant and household, access, and trust in the medical system. We explored racial differences in report of early postpartum depressive symptoms using bivariate and multivariate statistics. RESULTS African-American and Hispanic women more commonly reported postpartum depressive symptoms (43.9% and 46.8%, respectively) than white women (31.3%, P < .001). Similar factors (physical symptom burden, lack of social support, and lack of self-efficacy) were associated with early postpartum depressive symptoms in white, African-American, and Hispanic mothers. In a comprehensive model including other demographic factors, history of depression, physical symptoms, daily function, infant behavior, social support, skills in managing infant and household, access, and trust, the adjusted odds ratio for reported postpartum depressive symptoms remained elevated for African-American women at 2.16 (95% confidence interval 1.26–3.70) and Hispanic women at 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.19–3.01) as compared with white women. CONCLUSION African-American and Hispanic mothers are at higher risk for reporting early postpartum depressive symptoms as compared with white mothers. Factors associated with these symptoms are similar among African-American, Hispanic, and white mothers. PMID:15932842

  3. Risk factors for early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: estimation of odds ratios by critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitz, W E; Gould, J B; Druzin, M L

    1999-06-01

    To identify and to establish the prevalence of ORs factors associated with increased risk for early-onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) infection in neonates. streptococcal (EOGBS) infection in neonates. Literature review and reanalysis of published data. Risk factors for EOGBS infection include group B streptococcal (GBS)-positive vaginal culture at delivery (OR: 204), GBS-positive rectovaginal culture at 28 (OR: 9.64) or 36 weeks gestation (OR: 26. 7), vaginal Strep B OIA test positive at delivery (OR: 15.4), birth weight 18 hours (OR: 7.28), intrapartum fever >37.5 degrees C (OR: 4.05), intrapartum fever, PROM, or prematurity (OR: 9.74), intrapartum fever or PROM at term (OR: 11.5), chorioamnionitis (OR: 6.43). Chorioamnionitis is reported in most (88%) cases in which neonatal infection occurred despite intrapartum maternal antibiotic therapy. ORs could not be estimated for maternal GBS bacteriuria during pregnancy, with preterm premature rupture of membranes, or with a sibling or twin with invasive GBS disease, but these findings seem to be associated with a very high risk. Multiple gestation is not an independent risk factor for GBS infection. h Mothers with GBS bacteriuria during pregnancy, with another child with GBS disease, or with chorioamnionitis should receive empirical intrapartum antibiotic treatment. Their infants should have complete diagnostic evaluations and receive empirical treatment until infection is excluded by observation and negative cultures because of their particularly high risk for EOGBS infection. Either screening with cultures at 28 weeks gestation or identification of clinical risk factors, ie, PROM, intrapartum fever, or prematurity, may identify parturients whose infants include 65% of those with EOGBS infection. Intrapartum screening using the Strep B OIA rapid test identifies more at-risk infants (75%) than any other method. These risk identifiers may permit judicious selection of patients for prophylactic interventions.

  4. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables.

  5. Identification and Structural Basis of Binding to Host Lung Glycogen by Streptococcal Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammerts van Bueren,A.; Higgins, M.; Wang, D.; Burke, R.; Boraston, A.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of pathogenic bacteria to recognize host glycans is often essential to their virulence. Here we report structure-function studies of previously uncharacterized glycogen-binding modules in the surface-anchored pullulanases from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpuA) and Streptococcus pyogenes (PulA). Multivalent binding to glycogen leads to a strong interaction with alveolar type II cells in mouse lung tissue. X-ray crystal structures of the binding modules reveal a novel fusion of tandem modules into single, bivalent functional domains. In addition to indicating a structural basis for multivalent attachment, the structure of the SpuA modules in complex with carbohydrate provides insight into the molecular basis for glycogen specificity. This report provides the first evidence that intracellular lung glycogen may be a novel target of pathogenic streptococci and thus provides a rationale for the identification of the streptococcal {alpha}-glucan-metabolizing machinery as virulence factors.

  6. Systematic identification of core transcription factors mediating dysregulated links bridging inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xiao

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows a tight link between inflammation and cancer. However, comprehensive identification of pivotal transcription factors (i.e., core TFs mediating the dysregulated links remains challenging, mainly due to a lack of samples that can effectively reflect the connections between inflammation and tumorigenesis. Here, we constructed a series of TF-mediated regulatory networks from a large compendium of expression profiling of normal colonic tissues, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs and colorectal cancer (CRC, which contains 1201 samples in total, and then proposed a network-based approach to characterize potential links bridging inflammation and cancer. For this purpose, we computed significantly dysregulated relationships between inflammation and their linked cancer networks, and then 24 core TFs with their dysregulated genes were identified. Collectively, our approach provides us with quite important insight into inflammation-associated tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, which could also be applied to identify functionally dysregulated relationships mediating the links between other different disease phenotypes.

  7. Preventing the threat of credit-card fraud: Factors influencing cashiers' identification-checking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Christopher; Howard, E Henry; Goodwin, Christina; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined factors influencing cashiers' identification (ID)-checking behavior in order to inform the development of interventions to prevent credit-card fraud. In both studies, research assistants made credit purchases in various stores and noted the cashiers' ID-checking behavior. In the first study, the store type, whether the cashier swiped the credit/debit card, the amount of the purchase, and whether the credit/debit card was signed significantly influenced ID-checking behavior. In the second study, an A-B-A design was used to evaluate the impact of a "Check my ID" prompt placed on the credit/debit card. The prompt increased cashiers' ID-checking behavior from 5.9% at Baseline to 10.3% during the Intervention. When the prompt was removed, the cashiers' ID-checking behavior decreased to 7.2%. Implications for further intervention research to prevent credit-card fraud are discussed.

  8. Redução do tempo de hospitalização após cirurgia torácica de grande porte: identificação de fatores determinantes Early discharge following major thoracic surgery: identification of related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Fevereiro Ferreira de Lima

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os custos da internação hospitalar têm relação direta com o tempo de permanência do paciente operado. Por outro lado, um menor tempo de internação permite aumentar a produtividade nos hospitais públicos com demanda reprimida. O objetivo deste estudo é identificar fatores determinantes da redução do tempo de internação pós-cirurgia torácica de grande porte. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo por análise de prontuários, realizado em duas fases. Na fase I levantou-se uma série consecutiva de 169 pacientes divididos em grupo I (n=81-operados no período de junho de 1990 a dezembro de 1995, e grupo II (n=88 _operados de janeiro de 1996 a maio de 2000, para verificação do tempo de internação e fatores relacionados. Na fase II levantou-se uma série consecutiva de 20 pacientes (grupo III retroagindo a partir de março de 2002, para análise e comparação com uma pequena enquête enviada pela internet para 21 cirurgiões torácicos. RESULTADOS: A quase totalidade dos pacientes prescindiu de UTI no pós-operatório imediato. O tempo de internação médio caiu de 7,6 dias (mediana 7 no grupo I para 5,1 dias (mediana 4 no grupo II (pBACKGROUND: There is a direct relation between hospital costs and hospital length of stay after the operation. On the other hand, reduced stay increases productivity of public hospitals with high service demanding. Our objective is to identify factors determining the decrease in hospital stay after major thoracic surgery. METHODS: A two-phase retrospective study was conducted on analysis of medical records. In the first phase, data on length of hospital stay and related factors were collected from a consecutive series of 169 patients divided into group I (n=81-patients operated on between June 1990 and December 1995, and group II (n=88 _patients operated on from January 1996 through May 2000. In the second phase, data were collected from a consecutive series of 20 patients (group III starting

  9. Early Hospital Readmission After Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation: Patient and Center-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E A; Kucirka, L M; McAdams-DeMarco, M A; Massie, A B; Al Ammary, F; Ahmed, R; Grams, M E; Segev, D L

    2016-02-01

    Early hospital readmission is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Following simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation, rates of readmission and risk factors for readmission are unknown. We used United States Renal Data System data to study 3643 adult primary first-time simultaneous pancreas-kidney recipients from December 1, 1999 to October 31, 2011. Early hospital readmission was any hospitalization within 30 days of discharge. Modified Poisson regression was used to determine the association between readmission and patient-level factors. Empirical Bayes statistics were used to determine the variation attributable to center-level factors. The incidence of readmission was 55.5%. Each decade increase in age was associated with an 11% lower risk of readmission to age 40, beyond which there was no association. Donor African-American race was associated with a 13% higher risk of readmission. Each day increase in length of stay was associated with a 2% higher risk of readmission until 14 days, beyond which each day increase was associated with a 1% reduction in the risk of readmission. Center-level factors were not associated with readmission. The high incidence of early hospital readmission following simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant may reflect clinical complexity rather than poor quality of care.

  10. Risk factors for early invasive fungal disease in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Pitoyo, Ceva Wicaksono; Aditianingsih, Dita; Rumende, Cleopas Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of invasive fungal disease (IFD) is increasing worldwide in the past two to three decades. Critically ill patients in Intensive Care Units are more vulnerable to fungal infection. Early detection and treatment are important to decrease morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Objective: Our study aimed to assess factors associated with early IFD in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in critically ill patients, from March to September 2015. Total number of patients (74) in this study was drawn based on one of the risk factors (human immunodeficiency virus). Specimens were collected on day 5–7 of hospitalization. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression was performed for factors, with P < 0.25 in bivariate analysis. Results: Two hundred and six patients were enrolled in this study. Seventy-four patients were with IFD, majority were males (52.7%), mean age was 58 years (range 18–79), mean Leon's score was 3 (score range 2–5), majority group was nonsurgical/nontrauma (72.9%), and mean fungal isolation was positive on day 5. Candida sp. (92.2%) is the most frquently isolated fungal infection. Urine culture yielded the highest number of fungal isolates (70.1%). Mortality rate in this study was 50%. In multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (DM) (P = 0.018, odds ratio 2.078, 95% confidence interval 1.135–3.803) was found as an independent factor associated with early IFD critically ill patients. Conclusion: DM is a significant factor for the incidence of early IFD in critically ill patients. PMID:27994377

  11. Risk factors for early invasive fungal disease in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of invasive fungal disease (IFD is increasing worldwide in the past two to three decades. Critically ill patients in Intensive Care Units are more vulnerable to fungal infection. Early detection and treatment are important to decrease morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Objective: Our study aimed to assess factors associated with early IFD in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in critically ill patients, from March to September 2015. Total number of patients (74 in this study was drawn based on one of the risk factors (human immunodeficiency virus. Specimens were collected on day 5–7 of hospitalization. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression was performed for factors, with P< 0.25 in bivariate analysis. Results: Two hundred and six patients were enrolled in this study. Seventy-four patients were with IFD, majority were males (52.7%, mean age was 58 years (range 18–79, mean Leon's score was 3 (score range 2–5, majority group was nonsurgical/nontrauma (72.9%, and mean fungal isolation was positive on day 5. Candida sp. (92.2% is the most frquently isolated fungal infection. Urine culture yielded the highest number of fungal isolates (70.1%. Mortality rate in this study was 50%. In multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (DM (P = 0.018, odds ratio 2.078, 95% confidence interval 1.135–3.803 was found as an independent factor associated with early IFD critically ill patients. Conclusion: DM is a significant factor for the incidence of early IFD in critically ill patients.

  12. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of TCP transcription factors in Gossypium raimondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Qinglian; Sun, Runrun; Xie, Fuliang; Jones, Don C; Zhang, Baohong

    2014-10-16

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE-BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors play versatile functions in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. However, no systematical study has been performed in cotton. In this study, we performed for the first time the genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the TCP transcription factor family in Gossypium raimondii. A total of 38 non-redundant cotton TCP encoding genes were identified. The TCP transcription factors were divided into eleven subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. Most TCP genes within the same subfamily demonstrated similar exon and intron organization and the motif structures were highly conserved among the subfamilies. Additionally, the chromosomal distribution pattern revealed that TCP genes were unevenly distributed across 11 out of the 13 chromosomes; segmental duplication is a predominant duplication event for TCP genes and the major contributor to the expansion of TCP gene family in G. raimondii. Moreover, the expression profiles of TCP genes shed light on their functional divergence.

  13. Identification of Toxocara spp. eggs in dog hair and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania O. Rojas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to identify the presence of eggs of Toxocara spp. in dog hair and to identify any risk factors associated with this. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 dogs were sampled collecting hair from the head, perianal and hindquarters. Epidemiologic data from each animal were recorded to identify risk factors. The samples of hair were washed with solutions of distilled water, phosphate-buffered saline and Tween 20 detergent. Microscopic analysis was subsequently performed for the identification of eggs. Results: Out of the total dogs, 41.7% were positive for the presence of parasite egg in their hair. Toxocara eggs were found in hair from the head (14.5%, tail (20.8%, and limbs (10.4%. Dogs, younger than 12 months old, showed higher values (4.7% of egg presence in the perianal area (p<0.05. The principal risk factors for the presence of eggs in hair were not deworming (odds ratio [OR]=3.60, p<0.004 and not brushing (OR=2.26, p<0.12. Conclusion: These results show that in the state of Mexico there is a high percentage of dogs contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs in their hair. This should be seriously considered due to the potential problems of toxocariasis and the risk to public health.

  14. Towards the identification of dyestuffs in Early Iron Age Scandinavian peat bog textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla; Gleba, Margarita; Vanden Berghe, Ina

    2009-01-01

    A large systematic dye investigation of prehistoric Danish and Norwegian bog textiles was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array detection. After the selection of the most suitable protocol for dye extraction and HPLC analysis for this specific group...... of archaeological samples, the second part included the characterisation of the dyes detected in the whole series of the Early Iron Age textiles and the interpretation of the dyeing technology. Natural organic dyes were found from the three main categories of natural dyes, hence throwing new light on the use...... of biological dye sources in Early Iron Age Scandinavia. The results clearly indicate that most Scandinavian peat bog textiles originally were dyed and that already during the 1st millennium BC, the populations in Scandinavia were familiar with the dyeing technology....

  15. Early energy deficit in Huntington disease: identification of a plasma biomarker traceable during disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Mochel

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, with no effective treatment. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying HD has not been elucidated, but weight loss, associated with chorea and cognitive decline, is a characteristic feature of the disease that is accessible to investigation. We, therefore, performed a multiparametric study exploring body weight and the mechanisms of its loss in 32 presymptomatic carriers and HD patients in the early stages of the disease, compared to 21 controls. We combined this study with a multivariate statistical analysis of plasma components quantified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR spectroscopy. We report evidence of an early hypermetabolic state in HD. Weight loss was observed in the HD group even in presymptomatic carriers, although their caloric intake was higher than that of controls. Inflammatory processes and primary hormonal dysfunction were excluded. (1H NMR spectroscopy on plasma did, however, distinguish HD patients at different stages of the disease and presymptomatic carriers from controls. This distinction was attributable to low levels of the branched chain amino acids (BCAA, valine, leucine and isoleucine. BCAA levels were correlated with weight loss and, importantly, with disease progression and abnormal triplet repeat expansion size in the HD1 gene. Levels of IGF1, which is regulated by BCAA, were also significantly lower in the HD group. Therefore, early weight loss in HD is associated with a systemic metabolic defect, and BCAA levels may be used as a biomarker, indicative of disease onset and early progression. The decreased plasma levels of BCAA may correspond to a critical need for Krebs cycle energy substrates in the brain that increased metabolism in the periphery is trying to provide.

  16. Perspective: Identification of genetic variants associated with dopaminergic compensatory mechanisms in early Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is slowly progressive, and heterogeneity of its severity among individuals may be due to endogenous mechanisms that counterbalance the striatal dopamine loss. In this perspective paper, we introduce a neuroimaging-genetic approach to identify genetic variants, which may contribute to this compensation. First, we briefly review current known potential compensatory mechanisms for premotor and early disease PD, located in the striatum and other brain regions. Then, we c...

  17. Computed tomography imaging of early coronary artery lesions in stable individuals with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence, extent, severity, and features of coronary artery lesions in stable patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with more than 3 cardiovascular risk factors were suspected of having coronary artery disease. Patients with high-risk factors and 39 controls with no risk factors were enrolled in the study. The related risk factors included hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, smoking history, and overweight. The characteristics of coronary lesions were identified and evaluated by 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography. RESULTS: The incidence of coronary atherosclerosis was higher in the high-risk group than in the no-risk group. The involved branches of the coronary artery, the diffusivity of the lesion, the degree of stenosis, and the nature of the plaques were significantly more severe in the high-risk group compared with the no-risk group (all p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Among stable individuals with high-risk factors, early coronary artery lesions are common and severe. Computed tomography has promising value for the early screening of coronary lesions.

  18. Pathophysiology of early trauma-induced coagulopathy: emerging evidence for hemodilution and coagulation factor depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaz, Beth H; Winkler, Anne M; James, Adelbert B; Hillyer, Christopher D; MacLeod, Jana B

    2011-06-01

    Trauma patients present with a coagulopathy, termed early trauma-induced coagulopathy (ETIC), that is associated with increased mortality. This study investigated hemostatic changes responsible for ETIC. Case-control study of trauma patients with and without ETIC, defined as prolonged prothrombin time (PT), was performed from prospective cohort of consecutive trauma patients who presented to Level I trauma center. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The case-control study group (n = 91) was 80% male, with mean age of 37 years, 17% penetrating trauma and 7% mortality rate. Patients with ETIC demonstrated decreased common and extrinsic pathway factor activities (factors V and VII) and decreased inhibition of the coagulation cascade (antithrombin and protein C activities) when compared with the matched control patients without ETIC. Both cohorts had evidence of increased thrombin and fibrin generation (prothrombin fragment 1.2 levels, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and soluble fibrin monomer), increased fibrinolysis (d-dimer levels), and increased inhibition of fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity) above normal reference values. Patients with versus without ETIC had increased mortality and received increased amount of blood products. ETIC following injury is associated with decreased factor activities without significant differences in thrombin and fibrin generation, suggesting that despite these perturbations in the coagulation cascade, patients displayed a balanced hemostatic response to injury. The lower factor activities are likely secondary to increased hemodilution and coagulation factor depletion. Thus, decreasing the amount of crystalloid infused in the early phases following trauma and administration of coagulation factors may prevent the development.

  19. Role of Physical Evaluation in the Early Identification of Axial Spondyloarthritis: A Research Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcelo P; Stebbings, Simon M; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bussey, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a rationale to explore the use of clinical tests for the sacroiliac joints to detect early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and to suggest a protocol to validate these clinical tests. Based on the European Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatments of Pelvic Girdle Pain, we propose a set of six clinical tests to identify the likely presence of inflammation in the sacroiliac joints associated with early axial SpA. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current gold standard used to identify inflammation in the sacroiliac joints, the results of the proposed set of clinical tests are compared with those from the MRI examinations. We hypothesize that specific clinical tests, which combine pain provocation and functional tests, for assessing the sacroiliac joints will help to identify early active inflammation at the sacroiliac joints in axial SpA. If such tests prove to be sensitive and specific, they could add further value to the diagnostic classification criteria for axial SpA. PMID:26448694

  20. Identification of occupational risk factors by interviewing injured workers in an out-patient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lund

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To prevent injuries, identification of the involved risk factors is necessary. Two recent in-depth investigations were carried out in the health service of Oslo on workers seeking treatment of severe occupational injuries. The interviews were rather time-consuming, and hence rather costly. The aim of thepresent study was to find a less time-consuming method which nevertheless would identify preventable risk actors.

    Methods: In-depth investigations of 15 injuries with nail guns and 28 injuries related to scaffolding were onducted in an out-patient clinic in Trondheim, Norway. Patients were interviewed by health personnel just efore or after the treatment based on specifically designed questionnaires. A group of specialists analysed the information collected.

    Results: Some risk factors were identified: design weaknesses inherent in nail guns, presence of snow and ice at the injury location, foreign body in the eye and lack of control/inspection of scaffolding when erected. On average, about two man hours were used for each injury. The most relevant questions were those directly related to the narrative, in particular how the injury occurred, and if any special conditions were involved. Quite a few data elements require epidemiological representative studies in order to assess them as potential risk factors.

    Conclusions: This relatively low time-consuming method revealed some risk factors. However, it could be more effective if the interviews were conducted by telephone a few days after the treatment by a specialist in that particular injury type; such as an experienced labour inspector, in order to probe more deeply into the technical risk factors.

  1. Use of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to assess factors influencing the identification of students at clinical high-risk for psychosis in 16+ Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Debra A; Stochl, Jan; Painter, Michelle; Shelley, Gillian F; Jones, Peter B; Perez, Jesus

    2015-09-23

    The longer psychotic disorders are untreated the worse their prognosis. Increasing the awareness of early psychosis by professionals who come into regular contact with young people is one strategy that could reduce treatment delay. As teachers engage with students on a daily basis, their role could be exploited to increase awareness of the early signs of psychosis. This study employed the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify and measure factors that influence identification of students at high-risk (HR) of developing psychosis in 16+ educational institutions. An elicitation phase revealed beliefs underlying teachers' motivations to detect HR students and informed the construction of a preliminary 114-item questionnaire incorporating all constructs outlined in the TPB. To define the determinants of teachers' intention to identify HR students, 75 teachers from secondary and further education institutions in 12 counties surrounding Cambridgeshire completed the questionnaire. A psychometric model of item response theory was used to identify redundant items and produce a reduced questionnaire that would be acceptable to teachers. The final instrument comprised 73 items and showed acceptable reliability (α  = 0.69-0.81) for all direct measures. Teacher's confidence and control over identification of HR students was low. Although identification of HR students was considered worthwhile, teachers believed that their peers, students and particularly their managers might not approve. Path analysis revealed that direct measures of attitude and PBC significantly predicted intention, but subjective norm did not. PBC was the strongest predictor of intention. Collectively, the direct measures explained 37 % of the variance of intention to identify HR for psychosis. This research demonstrated how the TPB can be used to identify and measure factors that influence identification of students at HR of developing psychosis in 16+ educational institutions and confirmed the

  2. Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie A. Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM, which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses.

  3. Reprint of: Perinatal and early childhood environmental factors influencing allergic asthma immunopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffin, Jonathan M; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Early life exposure to allergens (house dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold), air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) has been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptional Factor PU.1 Regulates Decidual C1q Expression in Early Pregnancy in Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Kishore, Uday; Jamil, Kaiser; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Choolani, Mahesh; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    C1q is the first recognition subcomponent of the complement classical pathway, which in addition to being synthesized in the liver, is also expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Trophoblast invasion during early placentation results in accumulation of debris that triggers the complement system. Hence, both early and late components of the classical pathway are widely distributed in the placenta and decidua. In addition, C1q has recently been shown to significantly contribute to feto-maternal tolerance, trophoblast migration, and spiral artery remodeling, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Pregnancy in mice, genetically deficient in C1q, mirrors symptoms similar to that of human preeclampsia. Thus, regulated complement activation has been proposed as an essential requirement for normal successful pregnancy. Little is known about the molecular pathways that regulate C1q expression in pregnancy. PU.1, an Ets-family transcription factor, is required for the development of hematopoietic myeloid lineage immune cells, and its expression is tissue-specific. Recently, PU.1 has been shown to regulate C1q gene expression in DCs and macrophages. Here, we have examined if PU.1 transcription factor regulates decidual C1q expression. We used immune-histochemical analysis, PCR, and immunostaining to localize and study the gene expression of PU.1 transcription factor in early human decidua. PU.1 was highly expressed at gene and protein level in early human decidual cells including trophoblast and stromal cells. Surprisingly, nuclear as well as cytoplasmic PU.1 expression was observed. Decidual cells with predominantly nuclear PU.1 expression had higher C1q expression. It is likely that nuclear and cytoplasmic PU.1 localization has a role to play in early pregnancy via regulating C1q expression in the decidua during implantation.

  5. Early Sexual Debut and Associated Factors among In-school Adolescents in Six Caribbean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Pengpid, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This report examines early sexual debut (< age 15 years) among 15-year old in-school adolescents in six Caribbean countries. Subjects and Methods: The total sample included 9948 school children aged primarily 13–16 years from nationally representative samples from six Caribbean countries. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between early sexual debut and substance use, unintentional injuries and violence, mental distress, physical activity, protective factors and socio-economic status variables. Results: Approximately one-fourth of the sample (26.9%) had experienced sexual debut before age 15 years, 37.2% among boys and 16.9% among girls. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that male gender, substance use (smoking and alcohol use), having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, sedentary behaviour, truancy and lack of parental or guardian attachment were associated with early sexual debut. Conclusion: This study found a high prevalence of early sexual debut. The risk factors identified were consistent with the Problem Behaviour Theory, which can be incorporated into broader sexual health promotion programmes. PMID:26624586

  6. Developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking from adolescence to the early thirties: personality and behavioral risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Whiteman, Martin; Cohen, Patricia; Finch, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from ages 14 to 32, and to examine adolescent personality factors that distinguish trajectories of smoking behavior. Participants (N = 975) were randomly selected and followed prospectively since 1975. Follow-up data on cigarette use and personality and behavioral attributes were collected at five points in time, using structured interviews given in private by trained interviewers. Of these subjects, 746 comprised the cohort used in this study. Growth mixture modeling identified five smoking trajectory groups: nonsmokers, occasional smokers, late starters, quitters, and heavy/continuous smokers. Adolescent personality and behavioral risk factors such as lower ego integration, more externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations distinguished the trajectory groups. No gender differences were noted. The findings supported the hypotheses indicating multiple distinct trajectory groups of smoking behavior. Smoking behavior appeared in early adolescence and most often continued into adulthood. Emotional difficulties (i.e., lower ego integration), externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations in early adolescence were associated both with smoking at an early age and with continuing to smoke into the thirties. To be more effective, smoking prevention programs should target personality and behavioral variations before smoking becomes habitual, particularly focused on characteristics reflecting behavioral problems as manifested in emotional difficulties, externalizing behavior, and low educational aspirations in early adolescence. The implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed.

  7. Roles for transforming growth factor beta superfamily proteins in early folliculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombly, Daniel J; Woodruff, Teresa K; Mayo, Kelly E

    2009-01-01

    Primordial follicle formation and the subsequent transition of follicles to the primary and secondary stages encompass the early events during folliculogenesis in mammals. These processes establish the ovarian follicle pool and prime follicles for entry into subsequent growth phases during the reproductive cycle. Perturbations during follicle formation can affect the size of the primordial follicle pool significantly, and alterations in follicle transition can cause follicles to arrest at immature stages or result in premature depletion of the follicle reserve. Determining the molecular events that regulate primordial follicle formation and early follicle growth may lead to the development of new fertility treatments. Over the last decade, many of the growth factors and signaling proteins that mediate the early stages of folliculogenesis have been identified using mouse genetic models, in vivo injection studies, and ex vivo organ culture approaches. These studies reveal important roles for the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of proteins in the ovary. This article reviews these roles for TGF-beta family proteins and focuses in particular on work from our laboratories on the functions of activin in early folliculogenesis.

  8. [Homocysteinemia as a risk factor for early myocardial infarct--a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R P; Azinheira, J; Reis, H P; Vilaverde, M M; Bordalo e Sá, A; Santos, L; Adão, M; Pina, J E; Ferreira, N C; Luís, A S

    1994-02-01

    To investigate if hyper-homocysteinemia represents an independent risk factor of early coronary disease. We studied a group of patients under 45 years old, that suffered a myocardial infarction from 3 months and 1 year before the study. The patients were matched with a group of normal controls of a check-up program, in terms of age, sex, smoking habits, presence of hypertension, obesity, (Quetelet Index), presence of diabetes, basal glycemia, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol. Later we measured to patients (Pts) and controls (Cts) the plasmatic basal homocysteinemia (B HC) and 6 hours after a methionine overload of 0.1 g/kg body weight (L HC). [table: see text] In this study hyper-homocysteinemia appears as an independent risk factor of early coronary disease. The measurement of homocysteinemia after the methionine loading test was more discriminative than the basal measurement.

  9. Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis after Preterm Birth: The Role of Early Life Factors and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Wood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  10. Sentinel lymph node identification in patients with early stage cervical cancer undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 章文华; 刘琳; 吴令英; 张蓉; 李宁

    2004-01-01

    Background In general, sentinel lymph node (SLN) can reflect the whole state of the entire drainage area. The present study evaluated the clinical significance of sentinel lymph node identification in the treatment of early stage cervical cancer.Methods Twenty-eight patients with early stage (Ia-Iia) cervical cancer undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were included in this study. At two locations 8 hours before operation, 0.4 ml 37 Mbq technicium-99 labeled dextran was injected intracervically. After that, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed to detect SLNs. During the operation, lymph nodes were detected ex vivo by a γ-counter to identify SLNs. The samples of SLNs and non-SLNs were used for pathological examination separately and compared with the final results. Results SLNs were identified in 27 of 28 (96.4%) patients. A total of 123 SLNs were identified from 814 nodes. Six patients had altogether 11 positive lymph nodes, which were all SLNs. No patient had false-negative sentinel node. Conclusion SLNs can successfully predict the lymphatic metastasis in patients with cervical cancer. The clinical validity of this technique should be evaluated prospectively.

  11. Testing putative causal associations of risk factors for early intercourse in the study of twin adults: genes and environment (STAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Kelly L; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences and substance use have been identified as potential causal risk factors for early-onset sexual intercourse. While it is possible that exposure to these risk factors directly increases the likelihood of engaging in early intercourse, an alternative explanation is that observed associations between these variables are due to shared familial confounds. These unmeasured confounds may increase the likelihood of being exposed to these risk factors and of engaging in early intercourse. Participants drawn from a population-based study of Swedish adult twins (ages 19-47 years; N = 12,126) reported on their history of exposure to early physical and sexual trauma, cigarette use, and cannabis use. We investigated the nature of the association between these risk factors and young age at first intercourse, using a comparison of twins differentially exposed to each risk factor. When compared to non-exposed, unrelated individuals, participants who reported adverse childhood experiences or who engaged in early cigarette use or cannabis use were more likely to engage in early intercourse. However, co-twin comparisons indicated that observed associations between these risk factors and early intercourse may be due to familial factors shared within twin pairs, and risk factor exposure may not lead directly to early intercourse. Our results suggest that preventing trauma exposure or preventing or delaying adolescents' cigarette smoking or cannabis use may not effectively delay intercourse onset; instead, other aspects of the adolescent's environment should be addressed.

  12. Identification of Zika Virus and Dengue Virus Dependency Factors using Functional Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidis, George; McDougall, William M; Meraner, Paul; Perreira, Jill M; Portmann, Jocelyn M; Trincucci, Gaia; John, Sinu P; Aker, Aaron M; Renzette, Nicholas; Robbins, Douglas R; Guo, Zhiru; Green, Sharone; Kowalik, Timothy F; Brass, Abraham L

    2016-06-28

    The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF), heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1), and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC). We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of human-flavivirus interactions and provide insights into the role of the EMC in flavivirus replication.

  13. Identification of Zika Virus and Dengue Virus Dependency Factors using Functional Genomics

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    George Savidis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV and Zika virus (ZIKV are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF, heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1, and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC. We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of human-flavivirus interactions and provide insights into the role of the EMC in flavivirus replication.

  14. Early identification and delay to treatment in myocardial infarction and stroke: differences and similarities

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    Herlitz Johan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two major complications of atherosclerosis are acute myocardial infarction (AMI and acute ischemic stroke. Both are life-threatening conditions characterised by the abrupt cessation of blood flow to respective organs, resulting in an infarction. Depending on the extent of the infarction, loss of organ function varies considerably. In both conditions, it is possible to limit the extent of infarction with early intervention. In both conditions, minutes count. This article aims to describe differences and similarities with regard to the way patients, bystanders and health care providers act in the acute phase of the two diseases with the emphasis on the pre-hospital phase. Method A literature search was performed on the PubMed, Embase (Ovid SP and Cochrane Library databases. Results In both conditions, symptoms vary considerably. Patients appear to suspect AMI more frequently than stroke and, in the former, there is a gender gap (men suspect AMI more frequently than women. With regard to detection of AMI and stroke at dispatch centre and in Emergency Medical Service (EMS there is room for improvement in both conditions. The use of EMS appears to be higher in stroke but the overall delay to hospital admission is shorter in AMI. In both conditions, the fast track concept has been shown to influence the delay to treatment considerably. In terms of diagnostic evaluation by the EMS, more supported instruments are available in AMI than in stroke. Knowledge of the importance of early treatment has been reported to influence delays in both AMI and stroke. Conclusion Both in AMI and stroke minutes count and therefore the fast track concept has been introduced. Time to treatment still appears to be longer in stroke than in AMI. In the future improvement in the early detection as well as further shortening to start of treatment will be in focus in both conditions. A collaboration between cardiologists and neurologists and also between

  15. Identification of Predictive Early Biomarkers for Sterile-SIRS after Cardiovascular Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Stoppelkamp

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS is a common complication after cardiovascular surgery that in severe cases can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death. We therefore set out to identify reliable early biomarkers for SIRS in a prospective small patient study for timely intervention. 21 Patients scheduled for planned cardiovascular surgery were recruited in the study, monitored for signs of SIRS and blood samples were taken to investigate biomarkers at pre-assigned time points: day of admission, start of surgery, end of surgery, days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 post surgery. Stored plasma and cryopreserved blood samples were analyzed for cytokine expression (IL1β, IL2, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ, other pro-inflammatory markers (sCD163, sTREM-1, ESM-1 and response to endotoxin. Acute phase proteins CRP, PCT and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL8 were significantly increased (p<0.001 at the end of surgery in all patients but could not distinguish between groups. Normalization of samples revealed significant increases in IL1β changes (p<0.05 and decreased responses to endotoxin (p<0.01 in the SIRS group at the end of surgery. Soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations were significantly increased in patients with SIRS (p<0.01. This small scale patient study could show that common sepsis markers PCT, CRP, IL6 and TNFα had low predictive value for early diagnosis of SIRS after cardiovascular surgery. A combination of normalized IL1β plasma levels, responses to endotoxin and soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations at the end of surgery are predictive markers of SIRS development in this small scale study and could act as an indicator for starting early therapeutic interventions.

  16. Early Detection Based on Angiogenic Growth Factors in Nipple Aspirate Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    system, where it accumulates secreted factors and exfoliated mammary epithelial cells. Thus, examination ofNAF provides a "snapshot" of the micro...biological components from being captured in NAF samples. To date, classical cytologic assessment has been used to identify abnormalities in NAF-derived cells...as an indicator of early progression toward breast cancer. However, this approach has low specificity. Although the presence of cytologic atypia in

  17. Meta-Analysis of Early Nonmotor Features and Risk Factors for Parkinson Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Noyce, Alastair J.; Jonathan P Bestwick; Silveira-Moriyama, Laura; Hawkes, Christopher H; Giovannoni, Gavin; Andrew J. Lees; Schrag, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) and risk factors or early symptoms amenable to population-based screening. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for PD. Results The strongest associations with later diagnosis of PD were found for having a first-degree or any relative with PD (odds ratio [OR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.65–3.93 and OR, 4.45; 95% CI, 3.39–5.83) or any relative with tremor (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 2.1...

  18. Trajectories and Risk Factors of Criminal Behavior among Females from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

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    Julie M. Krupa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that social environmental and individual-level factors influence adolescent development and behavior over time. However, little attention has been devoted to examining how risk factors (i.e., parental support, peer delinquency, self-control affect trajectories of criminal behavior among female adolescents. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 5138 females and latent class analysis, three offending trajectories among females from late adolescence to early adulthood were identified: late escalators, late de-escalators, and stable low/abstainers. Next, the influence of social environmental and individual-level factors during adolescence (Wave 1 on these trajectories was assessed. Results identified key differences in the risk factors related to group placement. The implications of the findings for prevention and treatment services targeting adolescent females, and directions for future research, are discussed.

  19. Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity: the role of early life risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Kleinman, Ken P; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L

    2013-08-01

    IMPORTANCE Many early life risk factors for childhood obesity are more prevalent among blacks and Hispanics than among whites and may explain the higher prevalence of obesity among racial/ethnic minority children. OBJECTIVE To examine the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in adiposity and overweight are explained by differences in risk factors during pregnancy (gestational diabetes and depression), infancy (rapid infant weight gain, feeding other than exclusive breastfeeding, and early introduction of solid foods), and early childhood (sleeping <12 h/d, presence of a television set in the room where the child sleeps, and any intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or fast food). DESIGN Prospective prebirth cohort study. SETTING Multisite group practice in Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS Participants included 1116 mother-child pairs (63% white, 17% black, and 4% Hispanic) EXPOSURE Mother's report of child's race/ethnicity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z score, total fat mass index from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and overweight or obesity, defined as a BMI in the 85th percentile or higher at age 7 years. RESULTS Black (0.48 U [95% CI, 0.31 to 0.64]) and Hispanic (0.43 [0.12 to 0.74]) children had higher BMI z scores, as well as higher total fat mass index and overweight/obesity prevalence, than white children. After adjustment for socioeconomic confounders and parental BMI, differences in BMI z score were attenuated for black and Hispanic children (0.22 U [0.05 to 0.40] and 0.22 U [-0.08 to 0.52], respectively). Adjustment for pregnancy risk factors did not substantially change these estimates. However, after further adjustment for infancy and childhood risk factors, we observed only minimal differences in BMI z scores between whites, blacks (0.07 U [-0.11 to 0.26]), and Hispanics (0.04 U [-0.27 to 0.35]). We observed similar attenuation of racial/ethnic differences in adiposity and prevalence of overweight or obesity

  20. Effectiveness of a family-centered method for the early identification of social-emotional and behavioral problems in children : a quasi experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hielkema, Margriet; de Winter, Andrea F.; de Meer, Gea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Social-emotional and behavioral problems are common in childhood. Early identification of these is important as it can lead to interventions which may improve the child's prognosis. In Dutch Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH), a new family-centered method has been implemented to identify

  1. Recommendations of the NIDCD Working Group on Early Identification of Hearing Impairment on Acceptable Protocols for Use in State-Wide Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This document presents the consensus statement of a 2-day conference which addressed issues concerned with the early identification of hearing impairment. The conference resulted in the following consensus conclusions: (1) all infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit should be screened for hearing loss prior to discharge; (2) universal…

  2. Identification of direct regulatory targets of the transcription factor Sox10 based on function and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sanghyuk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox10, a member of the Sry-related HMG-Box gene family, is a critical transcription factor for several important cell lineages, most notably the neural crest stem cells and the derivative peripheral glial cells and melanocytes. Thus far, only a handful of direct target genes are known for this transcription factor limiting our understanding of the biological network it governs. Results We describe identification of multiple direct regulatory target genes of Sox10 through a procedure based on function and conservation. By combining RNA interference technique and DNA microarray technology, we have identified a set of genes that show significant down-regulation upon introduction of Sox10 specific siRNA into Schwannoma cells. Subsequent comparative genomics analyses led to potential binding sites for Sox10 protein conserved across several mammalian species within the genomic region proximal to these genes. Multiple sites belonging to 4 different genes (proteolipid protein, Sox10, extracellular superoxide dismutase, and pleiotrophin were shown to directly interact with Sox10 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We further confirmed the direct regulation through the identified cis-element for one of the genes, extracellular superoxide dismutase, using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and reporter assay. Conclusion In sum, the process of combining differential expression profiling and comparative genomics successfully led to further defining the role of Sox10, a critical transcription factor for the development of peripheral glia. Our strategy utilizing relatively accessible techniques and tools should be applicable to studying the function of other transcription factors.

  3. Identification of Organizational Factors Associated with IOC Employees Performance Based on Wise Board Model

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    Mohammad Hassan Keshavarz Tork

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations for surviving and thriving in a competitive world are forced to focus a major part of their efforts on processes and functions that play a major role in improving their performance. Therefore , this study purpose was the Identification of organizational factors that are related to National Olympic Committee staff organizational performance .The present study was correlation and applied as well as field research . The statistical population were the National Olympic Committee staff (N = 107 .The method of sampling was all consideration and from 107 questionnaires distributed, 93 questionnaires were usable. The data collection tool for understanding organizational factors and organizational performance were ODQ C.Preziosi (1980, and Young (2004 questionnaires, respectively. The organization recognizing questionnaire consisted of 7 dimensions: goals, structure, communication, rewards, leadership, mechanisms and trends for changing. Its validity was confirmed by a group of professors. The reliability of measuring instrument was obtained using Cronbach's alpha for the organization recognizing questionnaire (0.90 = α and for the performance questionnaire (0.78 = α . For the data analysis ,the Kolmogorov Smirnov , Pearson and multiple linear regression tests was used. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between organizational factors mentioned in the wise board model and organizational performance (0.736 = R, 26.054 = F, P <0.01. Also, the logistic regression analysis showed that useful mechanisms (0.232 = β, the tendency to change (0.231 = β, reward (0.215 = β, and the mechanisms of leading (0.214 = βwere significant predictors for the organizational performance (P <0.05.The results suggest that organizational factors noted in Wise board model play a decisive role in NOC employees organizational performance.

  4. Using published data in Mendelian randomization: a blueprint for efficient identification of causal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Stephen; Scott, Robert A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Davey Smith, George; Thompson, Simon G

    2015-07-01

    Finding individual-level data for adequately-powered Mendelian randomization analyses may be problematic. As publicly-available summarized data on genetic associations with disease outcomes from large consortia are becoming more abundant, use of published data is an attractive analysis strategy for obtaining precise estimates of the causal effects of risk factors on outcomes. We detail the necessary steps for conducting Mendelian randomization investigations using published data, and present novel statistical methods for combining data on the associations of multiple (correlated or uncorrelated) genetic variants with the risk factor and outcome into a single causal effect estimate. A two-sample analysis strategy may be employed, in which evidence on the gene-risk factor and gene-outcome associations are taken from different data sources. These approaches allow the efficient identification of risk factors that are suitable targets for clinical intervention from published data, although the ability to assess the assumptions necessary for causal inference is diminished. Methods and guidance are illustrated using the example of the causal effect of serum calcium levels on fasting glucose concentrations. The estimated causal effect of a 1 standard deviation (0.13 mmol/L) increase in calcium levels on fasting glucose (mM) using a single lead variant from the CASR gene region is 0.044 (95 % credible interval -0.002, 0.100). In contrast, using our method to account for the correlation between variants, the corresponding estimate using 17 genetic variants is 0.022 (95 % credible interval 0.009, 0.035), a more clearly positive causal effect.

  5. Pre-operative and early post-operative factors associated with surgical site infection after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Oller, Inmaculada; Llavero, Carolina; Arroyo, Antonio; Muñoz, Jose Luis; Calero, Alicia; Diez, María; Zubiaga, Lorea; Calpena, Rafael

    2013-08-01

    Surgical procedures on obese patients are expected to have a high incidence of surgical site infection (SSI). The identification of pre-operative or early post-operative risk factors for SSI may help the surgeon to identify subjects in risk and adequately optimize their status. We conducted a study of the association of comorbidities and pre- and post-operative analytical variables with SSI following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for the treatment of morbid obesity. We performed a prospective study of all morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as a bariatric procedure between 2007 and 2011. An association of clinical and analytical variables with SSI was investigated. The study included 40 patients with a mean pre-operative body mass index (BMI) of 51.2±7.9 kg/m(2). Surgical site infections appeared in three patients (7.5%), of whom two had an intra-abdominal abscess located in the left hypochondrium and the third had a superficial incisional SSI. Pre-operatively, a BMI >45 kg/m(2) (OR 8.7; p=0.008), restrictive disorders identified by pulmonary function tests (OR 10.0; p=0.012), a serum total protein concentration 30 mcg/dL (OR 13.0; p=0.003), and a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 128 mg/dL (OR 4.7; p=0.012) and hemoglobin <11g/dL (OR 7.5; p=0.002) were associated with SSI. The study supports the role of restrictive lung disorders and the values specified above for preoperative BMI, serum total protein and cortisol concentrations, and MCV, and of post-operative anemia and hyperglycemia as risk factors for SSI. In these situations, the surgeon must be aware of and seek to control these risk factors.

  6. Hospital-wide physiological surveillance-a new approach to the early identification and management of the sick patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary B; Prytherch, David R; Schmidt, Paul; Featherstone, Peter I; Knight, Debbie; Clements, Gill; Mohammed, Mohammed A

    2006-10-01

    Hospitalised patients, who suffer cardiac arrest and require unanticipated intensive care unit (ICU) admission or die, often exhibit premonitory abnormalities in vital signs. Sometimes, the deterioration is well documented, though there is little discernable evidence of intervention. In other cases, monitoring and recording of vital signs is infrequent or incomplete. Healthcare providers have introduced "track and trigger" systems to allow early identification of patients with physiological abnormalities, and rapid response teams to facilitate rapid and appropriate management. However, even when "track and trigger" systems are used, the recording of vital signs, patient chart completion and team activation remain sub-optimal. We have developed a system for collecting routine vital signs data at the bedside using standard personal digital assistants (PDA). The PDAs act as "thin clients" linked by a wireless local area network (W-LAN) to the hospital's intranet system, where raw and derived data are integrated with other patient information, e.g., name, hospital number, laboratory results. It is possible for raw physiology data, early warning scores (EWS), vital signs charts and oxygen therapy records to be made instantaneously available to any member of the hospital healthcare team via the W-LAN or hospital intranet. Early and direct contact with members of the patient's primary clinical team or rapid response team can be made through an automated alerting system, triggered by the EWS data. The ability to capture physiological data at the bedside, and to make these available to anyone with appropriate access rights at any time and in any place, should provide previously unattainable, clinical and administrative benefits. Analysis of the raw physiological data and patient outcomes will also make it possible to validate existing and future "track and trigger" systems.

  7. Identification of cellular infiltrates during early stages of brain inflammation with magnetic resonance microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmar Waiczies

    Full Text Available A comprehensive view of brain inflammation during the pathogenesis of autoimmune encephalomyelitis can be achieved with the aid of high resolution non-invasive imaging techniques such as microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI. In this study we demonstrate the benefits of cryogenically-cooled RF coils to produce μMRI in vivo, with sufficient detail to reveal brain pathology in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model. We could visualize inflammatory infiltrates in detail within various regions of the brain, already at an early phase of EAE. Importantly, this pathology could be seen clearly even without the use of contrast agents, and showed excellent correspondence with conventional histology. The cryogenically-cooled coil enabled the acquisition of high resolution images within short scan times: an important practical consideration in conducting animal experiments. The detail of the cellular infiltrates visualized by in vivo μMRI allows the opportunity to follow neuroinflammatory processes even during the early stages of disease progression. Thus μMRI will not only complement conventional histological examination but will also enable longitudinal studies on the kinetics and dynamics of immune cell infiltration.

  8. The early identification of psychosis: can lessons be learnt from cardiac stress testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swapnil; Ranganathan, Mohini; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Psychotic disorders including schizophrenia are amongst the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. There is an urgent need to develop methods to identify individuals at risk with greater precision and as early as possible. At present, a prerequisite for a diagnosis of schizophrenia is the occurrence of a psychotic episode. Therefore, attempting to detect schizophrenia on the basis of psychosis is analogous to diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) after the occurrence of a myocardial infarction (MI). The introduction of cardiac stress testing (CST) has revolutionized the detection of CAD and the prevention and management of angina and MI. In this paper, we attempt to apply lessons learnt from CST to the early detection of psychosis by proposing the development of an analogous psychosis stress test. We discuss in detail the various parameters of a proposed psychosis stress test including the choice of a suitable psychological or psychopharmacological "stressor," target population, outcome measures, safety of the approach, and the necessary evolution of test to become clinically informative. The history of evolution of CST may guide the development of a similar approach for the detection and management of psychotic disorders. The initial development of a test to unmask latent risk for schizophrenia will require the selection of a suitable and safe stimulus and the development of outcome measures as a prelude to testing in populations with a range of risk to determine predictive value. The use of CST in CAD offers the intriguing possibility that a similar approach may be applied to the detection and management of schizophrenia.

  9. Elman neural network for the early identification of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertè, Francesco; Lamponi, Giuseppe; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bramanti, Placido

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of dementia can be useful to delay progression of the disease and to raise awareness of the condition. Alterations in temporal and spatial EEG markers have been found in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Herein, we propose an automatic recognition method of cognitive impairment evaluation based on EEG analysis using an artificial neural network (ANN) combined with a genetic algorithm (GA). The EEGs of 43 AD and MCI patients (aged between 62 and 88 years) were recorded, analyzed and correlated with their MMSE scores. Quantitative EEGs were calculated using discrete wavelet transform. The data obtained were analyzed by the means of the combined use of ANN and GA to determine the degree of cognitive impairment. The good recognition rate of ANN fed with these inputs suggests that the combined GA/ANN approach may be useful for early detection of AD and could be a valuable tool to support physicians in clinical practice. PMID:25014050

  10. Identification of Predictive Early Biomarkers for Sterile-SIRS after Cardiovascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Veseli, Kujtim; Stang, Katharina; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Walker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common complication after cardiovascular surgery that in severe cases can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death. We therefore set out to identify reliable early biomarkers for SIRS in a prospective small patient study for timely intervention. 21 Patients scheduled for planned cardiovascular surgery were recruited in the study, monitored for signs of SIRS and blood samples were taken to investigate biomarkers at pre-assigned time points: day of admission, start of surgery, end of surgery, days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 post surgery. Stored plasma and cryopreserved blood samples were analyzed for cytokine expression (IL1β, IL2, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ), other pro-inflammatory markers (sCD163, sTREM-1, ESM-1) and response to endotoxin. Acute phase proteins CRP, PCT and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL8 were significantly increased (pSIRS group at the end of surgery. Soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations were significantly increased in patients with SIRS (pSIRS after cardiovascular surgery. A combination of normalized IL1β plasma levels, responses to endotoxin and soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations at the end of surgery are predictive markers of SIRS development in this small scale study and could act as an indicator for starting early therapeutic interventions.

  11. Identification of ICF categories relevant for nursing in the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strobl Ralf

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recovery of patients after an acute episode of illness or injury depends both on adequate medical treatment and on the early identification of needs for rehabilitation care. The process of early beginning rehabilitation requires efficient communication both between health professionals and the patient in order to effectively address all rehabilitation goals. The currently used nursing taxonomies, however, are not intended for interdisciplinary use and thus may not contribute to efficient rehabilitation management and an optimal patient outcome. The ICF might be the missing link in this communication process. The objective of this study was to identify the categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF categories relevant for nursing care in the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation. Methods First, in a consensus process, "Leistungserfassung in der Pflege" (LEP nursing interventions relevant for the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation were selected. Second, in an integrated two-step linking process, two nursing experts derived goals of LEP nursing interventions from their practical knowledge and selected corresponding ICF categories most relevant for patients in acute and post-acute rehabilitation (ICF Core Sets. Results Eighty-seven percent of ICF Core Set categories could be linked to goals of at least one nursing intervention variable of LEP. The ICF categories most frequently linked with LEP nursing interventions were respiration functions, experience of self and time functions and focusing attention. Thirteen percent of ICF Core Set categories could not be linked with LEP nursing interventions. The LEP nursing interventions which were linked with the highest number of different ICF-categories of all were "therapeutic intervention", "patient-nurse communication/information giving" and "mobilising". Conclusion The ICF Core Sets for the acute

  12. Identification of ICF categories relevant for nursing in the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Martin; Boldt, Christine; Grill, Eva; Strobl, Ralf; Stucki, Gerold

    2008-01-01

    Background The recovery of patients after an acute episode of illness or injury depends both on adequate medical treatment and on the early identification of needs for rehabilitation care. The process of early beginning rehabilitation requires efficient communication both between health professionals and the patient in order to effectively address all rehabilitation goals. The currently used nursing taxonomies, however, are not intended for interdisciplinary use and thus may not contribute to efficient rehabilitation management and an optimal patient outcome. The ICF might be the missing link in this communication process. The objective of this study was to identify the categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories relevant for nursing care in the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation. Methods First, in a consensus process, "Leistungserfassung in der Pflege" (LEP) nursing interventions relevant for the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation were selected. Second, in an integrated two-step linking process, two nursing experts derived goals of LEP nursing interventions from their practical knowledge and selected corresponding ICF categories most relevant for patients in acute and post-acute rehabilitation (ICF Core Sets). Results Eighty-seven percent of ICF Core Set categories could be linked to goals of at least one nursing intervention variable of LEP. The ICF categories most frequently linked with LEP nursing interventions were respiration functions, experience of self and time functions and focusing attention. Thirteen percent of ICF Core Set categories could not be linked with LEP nursing interventions. The LEP nursing interventions which were linked with the highest number of different ICF-categories of all were "therapeutic intervention", "patient-nurse communication/information giving" and "mobilising". Conclusion The ICF Core Sets for the acute hospital and early post

  13. Noninvasive presymptomatic detection of Cercospora beticola infection and identification of early metabolic responses in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Mock

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora beticola is an economically significant fungal pathogen of sugar beet, and is the causative pathogen of Cercospora leaf spot. Selected host genotypes with contrasting degree of susceptibility to the disease have been exploited to characterize the patterns of metabolite responses to fungal infection, and to devise a pre-symptomatic, non-invasive method of detecting the presence of the pathogen. Sugar beet genotypes were analyzed for metabolite profiles and hyperspectral signatures. Correlation of data matrices from both approaches facilitated identification of candidates for metabolic markers. Hyperspectral imaging was highly predictive with a classification accuracy of 98.5-99.9 % in detecting C. beticola. Metabolite analysis revealed metabolites altered by the host as part of a successful defence response: these were L-DOPA, 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid 12-O-β-D-glucoside, pantothenic acid and 5-O-feruloylquinic acid. The accumulation of glucosylvitexin in the resistant cultivar suggests it acts as a constitutively-produced protectant. The study establishes a proof-of-concept for an unbiased, presymptomatic and non-invasive detection system for the presence of C. beticola. The test needs to be validated with a larger set of genotypes, to be scalable to the level of a crop improvement program, aiming to speed up the selection for resistant cultivars of sugar beet. Untargeted metabolic profiling is a valuable tool to identify metabolites which correlate with hyperspectral data.

  14. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  15. Postoperative abdominal wound infection – epidemiology, risk factors, identification, and management

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    Azoury SC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Saïd C Azoury,1 Norma Elizabeth Farrow,2 Qing L Hu,2 Kevin C Soares,1 Caitlin W Hicks,1 Faris Azar,1 Nelson Rodriguez-Unda,3 Katherine E Poruk,1 Peter Cornell,1 Karen K Burce,1 Carisa M Cooney,3 Hien T Nguyen,1 Frederic E Eckhauser1 1Department of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Surgical site infections (SSIs complicate the postoperative course of a significant proportion of general abdominal surgical patients and are associated with excessive health care costs. SSIs increase postoperative morbidity and mortality, and may require hospital admission, intravenous antibiotics, and even surgical reintervention. Risks associated with SSIs are related to both host and perioperative factors. However, a vast majority of these infections are preventable. More recently, quality initiative programs such as American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program are expanding their roles to help better monitor adherence to improvement measures. Indeed, standardizing preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis timing is perhaps the most persuasive example and this has been integral to reducing postoperative SSI rates. Herein, the authors provide an update on the epidemiology, risk factors, identification, and management of wound infections following abdominal surgery. Keywords: surgical site infection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention

  16. Identification of the minimal connected network of transcription factors by transcriptomic and genomic data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaghir, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to high-throughput experiments, biological conditions can be investigated at both the entire genomic and transcriptomic levels. In addition, protein-protein interaction (PPI) data are widely available for well-studied organisms, such as human. In this chapter, we will present an integrative approach that makes use of these data to find the PPI module involving the key regulated transcription factors shared by a number of given conditions. These conditions could be for instance different cancer types. Briefly, for the studied conditions, we need to identify commonly affected chromosomal regions subjected to copy number alterations together with the identification of differentially expressed list of genes in each condition. Transcription factor activity will be inferred from these regulated gene lists. Then, we will define TFs, for which the activity could be explained by an associative effect of both loci copy number alteration and gene expression levels of their coding genes. PPI networks could be mined, afterwards, using appropriate algorithms to find the significant module that connect those TFs together. This module could be viewed as the minimal connected network of TFs, the regulation of which is shared between the investigated conditions.

  17. In silico identification of transcription factors in Medicago sativa using available transcriptomic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikova, Olga A; Shao, Jonathan; Nemchinov, Lev G

    2014-06-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that govern organismal development and response to the environment by regulating gene expression. Information on the amount and diversity of TFs within individual plant species is critical for understanding of their biological roles and evolutionary history across the plant kingdom. Currently, only scattered information on separate TFs is available for alfalfa, the most extensively cultivated forage legume in the world. In the meantime, several large transcriptomic resources that can be used to identify and characterize alfalfa TF genes are freely accessible online. In this study, we have performed an in silico analysis of transcriptome data generated in our laboratory and publicly acquirable from other sources to reveal and systematize alfalfa transcription factors. Transcriptome-wide mining enabled prediction of 983 TFs along with their sequence features and putative phylogenies of the largest families. All data were assembled into a simple open-access database named AlfalfaTFDB ( http://plantpathology.ba.ars.usda.gov/alfalfatfdb.html ). Transcriptomic analysis used in this work represents an effective approach for the identification of TF genes in plants with incomplete genomes, such as alfalfa. Integrated TF repertoires of Medicago sativa will provide an important tool for studying regulation of gene expression in other complex non-model species of agricultural significance.

  18. Identification of the fifth subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication factor C.

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    Gary, S L; Burgers, M J

    1995-01-01

    Yeast replication factor C (RF-C) is a multipolypeptide complex required for chromosomal DNA replication. Previously this complex was known to consist of at least four subunits. We here report the identification of a fifth RF-C subunit from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoded by the RFC5 (YBR0810) gene. This subunit exhibits highest homology to the 38 kDa subunit (38%) of human RF-C (activator 1). Like the other four RFC genes, the RFC5 gene is essential for yeast viability, indicating an essential function for each subunit. RFC5 mRNA is expressed at steady-state levels throughout the mitotic cell cycle. Upon overexpression in Escherichia coli Rfc5p has an apparent molecular mass of 41 kDa. Overproduction of RF-C activity in yeast is dependent on overexpression of the RFC5 gene together with overexpression of the RFC1-4 genes, indicating that the RFC5 gene product forms an integral subunit of this replication factor. Images PMID:8559655

  19. Application of factorial design to accelerate identification of CHO growth factor requirements.

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    Chun, Chung; Heineken, Katy; Szeto, Dongmei; Ryll, Thomas; Chamow, Steve; Chung, John D

    2003-01-01

    To accelerate recombinant CHO media and process development, we describe a simple approach to integrating multiple tasks associated with these processes including initial media design, serum-free adaptation, stability analysis and first generation scale-up. Factorial design techniques and normal probability chart representation of the results were first applied to identify potent parental CHO cell growth factors in a lean basal medium. These results were then applied to identify a suitable manufacturing medium from a panel of commercial and proprietary media formulations. When this approach was applied to recombinant CHO cell line, rapid adaptation of the cell line to an appropriate production medium occurred during culture expansion in the presence of the identified growth factor(s). This approach allows media component screening to be naturally integrated into the adaptation and scale-up processes since components that have little or no relative effect on cell proliferation are selected against as the "best" cultures are moved forward. The rapidity of the adaptation process allowed cell line stability studies to be initiated relatively early in the development process, thus providing preliminary stability information by the time the "outgrowing" culture could be scaled to 100-L reactors some 30 days after adaptation commenced. The application of full factorial design techniques allowed us to calculate the maximum number of interaction effects, the interpretation of which we believe can provide insights into growth factor biology.

  20. Identification and evaluation of plasma microRNAs for early detection of colorectal cancer.

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    Xiaoya Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs have been suggested as potentially promising markers for early detection of CRC. We aimed to identify and evaluate a panel of miRNAs that might be suitable for CRC early detection. METHODS: MiRNAs were profiled by TaqMan MicroRNA Array and screened for differential expression in 5 pools of plasma samples of CRC patients (N = 50 and 5 pools of neoplasm-free controls (N = 50. Additional miRNAs were selected from a literature review. Identified candidates were evaluated in independent validation samples with respect to discrimination of CRC patients (N = 80 or advanced adenoma patients (N = 50 and neoplasm-free controls (N = 194. Diagnostic performance of the panel of miRNAs was assessed by multiple logistic regression, using bootstrap analysis to correct for over-optimism. RESULTS: Five miRNAs identified to be differentially expressed from TaqMan MicroRNA Array (miR-29a, -106b, -133a, -342-3p, -532-3p, and seven miRNAs reported to be differentially expressed in the literature (miR-18a, -20a, -21, -92a, -143, -145, -181b were selected for validation. Nine of the twelve miRNAs (miR-18a, -20a, -21, -29a, -92a, -106b, -133a, -143, -145 were found to be differentially expressed in CRC patients and controls in the validation samples. The optimism-corrected area under the curve was 0.745 (95% confidence interval: 0.708-0.846. None of the selected miRNAs showed significant differential expression between advanced adenoma patients and neoplasm-free controls. CONCLUSION: The identified panel of miRNAs could be of potential use in the development of a multi-marker blood based test for early detection of CRC. IMPACT: The study underscores the high potential of plasma miRNAs for the improvement of current offers of non-invasive CRC screening.

  1. Identification of transcription-factor genes expressed in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte

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    Kang Il-Ho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In flowering plants, the female gametophyte is typically a seven-celled structure with four cell types: the egg cell, the central cell, the synergid cells, and the antipodal cells. These cells perform essential functions required for double fertilization and early seed development. Differentiation of these distinct cell types likely involves coordinated changes in gene expression regulated by transcription factors. Therefore, understanding female gametophyte cell differentiation and function will require dissection of the gene regulatory networks operating in each of the cell types. These efforts have been hampered because few transcription factor genes expressed in the female gametophyte have been identified. To identify such genes, we undertook a large-scale differential expression screen followed by promoter-fusion analysis to detect transcription-factor genes transcribed in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte. Results Using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, we analyzed 1,482 Arabidopsis transcription-factor genes and identified 26 genes exhibiting reduced mRNA levels in determinate infertile 1 mutant ovaries, which lack female gametophytes, relative to ovaries containing female gametophytes. Spatial patterns of gene transcription within the mature female gametophyte were identified for 17 transcription-factor genes using promoter-fusion analysis. Of these, ten genes were predominantly expressed in a single cell type of the female gametophyte including the egg cell, central cell and the antipodal cells whereas the remaining seven genes were expressed in two or more cell types. After fertilization, 12 genes were transcriptionally active in the developing embryo and/or endosperm. Conclusions We have shown that our quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR differential-expression screen is sufficiently sensitive to detect transcription-factor genes transcribed in the female gametophyte. Most of the genes identified in this

  2. Genome-wide identification of the regulatory targets of a transcription factor using biochemical characterization and computational genomic analysis

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    Jolly Emmitt R

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in computational genomics is the development of methodologies that allow accurate genome-wide prediction of the regulatory targets of a transcription factor. We present a method for target identification that combines experimental characterization of binding requirements with computational genomic analysis. Results Our method identified potential target genes of the transcription factor Ndt80, a key transcriptional regulator involved in yeast sporulation, using the combined information of binding affinity, positional distribution, and conservation of the binding sites across multiple species. We have also developed a mathematical approach to compute the false positive rate and the total number of targets in the genome based on the multiple selection criteria. Conclusion We have shown that combining biochemical characterization and computational genomic analysis leads to accurate identification of the genome-wide targets of a transcription factor. The method can be extended to other transcription factors and can complement other genomic approaches to transcriptional regulation.

  3. Identification of the immediate-early genes of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Li, Mingyuan; Ke, Wei; Ji, Yongchang; Bian, Xiaofang; Yan, Xiumin

    2009-03-01

    During viral infection, viral immediate-early (IE) genes encode regulatory proteins critical for the viral life cycle. Here we screened white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) IE genes with cycloheximide (CHX)-treated primary culture of crayfish hemocyte and a WSSV genome tiling microarray. Sixteen ORFs, including a known WSSV IE gene (ie1/wsv069), were identified and confirmed by RT-PCR and time course studies. The 16 identified IE proteins contain four proteins (wsv051, wsv069, wsv100, wsv079) with transcription activity, one (wsv083) with Ser/Thr kinase domain and one (wsv249) previously described to function as an ubiquitin E3 ligase. Furthermore, most of the identified WSSV IE genes cluster in a 14 kb genomic region (WSSV China isolate: 36,052 to 50,300 bp). This type of arrangement may facilitate the coordinate control and rapid expression of IE genes.

  4. Genetic mapping and identification of QTL for earliness in the globe artichoke/cultivated cardoon complex

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    Portis Ezio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asteraceae species Cynara cardunculus (2n = 2x = 34 includes the two fully cross-compatible domesticated taxa globe artichoke (var. scolymus L. and cultivated cardoon (var. altilis DC. As both are out-pollinators and suffer from marked inbreeding depression, linkage analysis has focussed on the use of a two way pseudo-test cross approach. Results A set of 172 microsatellite (SSR loci derived from expressed sequence tag DNA sequence were integrated into the reference C. cardunculus genetic maps, based on segregation among the F1 progeny of a cross between a globe artichoke and a cultivated cardoon. The resulting maps each detected 17 major linkage groups, corresponding to the species’ haploid chromosome number. A consensus map based on 66 co-dominant shared loci (64 SSRs and two SNPs assembled 694 loci, with a mean inter-marker spacing of 2.5 cM. When the maps were used to elucidate the pattern of inheritance of head production earliness, a key commercial trait, seven regions were shown to harbour relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL. Together, these QTL accounted for up to 74% of the overall phenotypic variance. Conclusion The newly developed consensus as well as the parental genetic maps can accelerate the process of tagging and eventually isolating the genes underlying earliness in both the domesticated C. cardunculus forms. The largest single effect mapped to the same linkage group in each parental maps, and explained about one half of the phenotypic variance, thus representing a good candidate for marker assisted selection.

  5. Early evolution of the human synapse: Identification of conserved elements of the protosynapse in prokaryotes.

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    Richard David Emes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The animal nervous system processes information from the environment and mediates learning and memory using molecular signaling pathways in the postsynaptic terminal of synapses. Postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors assemble to form multiprotein complexes that drive signal transduction pathways to downstream cell biological processes. Studies of mouse and Drosophila postsynaptic proteins have identified key roles in synaptic physiology and behaviour for a wide range of proteins including receptors, scaffolds, enzymes, structural, translational and transcriptional regulators. Comparative proteomic and genomic studies identified components of the postsynaptic proteome conserved in eukaryotes and early metazoans. We extend these studies, and examine the conservation of genes and domains found in the human postsynaptic density with those across the three superkingdoms, archaeal, bacteria and eukaryota. A conserved set of proteins essential for basic cellular functions were conserved across the three superkingdoms, whereas synaptic structural and many signaling molecules were specific to the eukaryote lineage. Genes involved with metabolism and environmental signaling in E. coli including the chemotactic and ArcAB Two-Component signal transduction systems shared homologous genes in the mammalian post-synaptic proteome. These data suggest conservation between prokaryotes and mammalian synapses of signaling mechanisms from receptors to transcriptional responses, a process essential to learning and memory in vertebrates. A number of human postsynaptic proteins with homologues in prokaryotes are mutated in human genetic diseases with nervous system pathology. These data also indicate that structural and signaling proteins characteristic of postsynaptic complexes arose in the eukaryotic lineage and rapidly expanded following the emergence of the metazoa, and provide an insight into the early evolution of synaptic mechanisms and conserved mechanisms of

  6. Up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor superfamily genes in early phases of photoreceptor degeneration.

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    Sem Genini

    Full Text Available We used quantitative real-time PCR to examine the expression of 112 genes related to retinal function and/or belonging to known pro-apoptotic, cell survival, and autophagy pathways during photoreceptor degeneration in three early-onset canine models of human photoreceptor degeneration, rod cone dysplasia 1 (rcd1, X-linked progressive retinal atrophy 2 (xlpra2, and early retinal degeneration (erd, caused respectively, by mutations in PDE6B, RPGRORF15, and STK38L. Notably, we found that expression and timing of differentially expressed (DE genes correlated with the cell death kinetics. Gene expression profiles of rcd1 and xlpra2 were similar; however rcd1 was more severe as demonstrated by the results of the TUNEL and ONL thickness analyses, a greater number of genes that were DE, and the identification of altered expression that occurred at earlier time points. Both diseases differed from erd, where a smaller number of genes were DE. Our studies did not highlight the potential involvement of mitochondrial or autophagy pathways, but all three diseases were accompanied by the down-regulation of photoreceptor genes, and up-regulation of several genes that belong to the TNF superfamily, the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and pro-survival pathways. These proteins were expressed by different retinal cells, including horizontal, amacrine, ON bipolar, and Müller cells, and suggest an interplay between the dying photoreceptors and inner retinal cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry results supported the transcriptional regulation for selected proteins. This study highlights a potential role for signaling through the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in early cell death events and suggests that retinal cells other than photoreceptors might play a primary or bystander role in the degenerative process.

  7. Factors associated with early recurrence at the first evaluation of patients with transient ischemic attack.

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    Daubail, Benoit; Durier, Jérôme; Jacquin, Agnès; Hervieu-Bègue, Marie; Khoumri, Catia; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Rouaud, Olivier; Giroud, Maurice; Béjot, Yannick

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to identify factors easily collected at admission in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) that were associated with early recurrence, so as to guide clinicians' decision-making about hospitalization in routine practice. From September 2011 to January 2013, all TIA patients who were referred to the University Hospital of Dijon, France, were identified. Vascular risk factors and clinical information were collected. The etiology of the TIA was defined according to the results of complementary examinations performed at admission as follows: large artery atherosclerosis (LAA-TIA) TIA, TIA due to atrial fibrillation (AF-TIA), other causes, and undetermined TIA. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with any recurrence at 48 hours (stroke or TIA). Among the 312 TIA patients, the etiology was LAA-TIA in 33 patients (10.6%), AF-TIA in 57 (18.3%), other causes in 23 (7.3%), and undetermined in 199 (63.8%). Early recurrence rates were 12.1% in patients with LAA-TIA, 5.3% in patients with AF-TIA, 4.3% in patients with another cause of TIA, and 1.0% in patients with undetermined TIA. In multivariable analysis, the LAA etiology was independently associated with early recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 12.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-78.48, p=0.009). A non-significant trend was also observed for AF-TIA (OR: 3.82; 95% CI: 0.40-36.62, p=0.25) and other causes (OR: 3.73; 95% CI: 0.30-46.26, p=0.31). A simple initial assessment of TIA patients in the emergency room would be helpful in targeting those with a high risk of early recurrence and who therefore need to be hospitalized.

  8. The major Nod factor of Bradyrhizobium japonicum promotes early growth of soybean and corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleimanov, A; Prithiviraj, B; Smith, D L

    2002-09-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Nod factor Nod Bj-V (C18:1, MeFuc) of Badyrhizobium japonicum on the growth of soybean and corn. Three-day-old seedlings of soybean and corn were grown in hydroponic solutions containing four concentrations (0, 10(-7), 10(-9) or 10(-11) M) of Nod factor. After 7 d of treatment, Nod factor enhanced soybean and corn biomass. Nod factor elicited profound effects on root growth resulting in 34-44% longer roots in soybean. More detailed analyses of the roots, using a scanner based image analysis system, revealed that Nod factor increased the total length, projected area and surface area of the roots and decreased the diameter of soybean roots, while it increased the total length of corn roots. Stem injection of soybean plants with 10(-7) M Nod factor resulted in increased dry matter accumulation. These results suggest that Nod factor, besides mediating early stages of nodulation, has more general plant growth-promoting effects.

  9. Identification of key contributory factors responsible for vascular dysfunction in idiopathic recurrent spontaneous miscarriage.

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    Priyanka Banerjee

    -regulation of these factors is also associated with impaired endometrial perfusion which possibly makes the endometrium unreceptive that may eventually cause early pregnancy loss.

  10. Thin mother, obese child? A review of early risk factors for obesity in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibzadeh, Pantea; Mewes, Ricarda

    2016-09-01

    The huge percentages of persons with obesity in many countries constitute a public health crisis. The severe consequences of obesity for physical health and emotional wellbeing already emerge in childhood. Therefore, the acknowledgment of early risk factors is essential to provide recommendations for prevention strategies. This review outlines the current state of research concerning early risk factors for obesity, that is, factors that even contribute to later obesity of the offspring during gestation. In this regard, this review specifically addresses the link between restricted eating behavior of the mother and obesity in her offspring. We systematically searched for articles in PsychINFO, PsychINDEX, MEDLINE, PubMed, MEDPILOT, and Web of Science, and we identified additional studies in bibliographies. Although some risk factors (e.g., short period of breastfeeding, gestational diabetes, and high maternal BMI) have a vast evidence base, others (e.g., restricted eating behavior and second-hand smoking) are insufficiently studied. Physical activity and diet programs in pregnancy can reduce not only the occurrence of gestational diabetes, but also the risk of inappropriate weight gain. As smoking during pregnancy and inappropriate eating behavior are associated with lower education, psychoeducation, for instance in sex education classes, could be easily conceivable.

  11. Identification of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) in a black market product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpurgis, Katja; Thomas, Andreas; Laussmann, Tim; Horta, Luis; Metzger, Sabine; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The use of growth factors for accelerated healing of sports injuries is restricted under the terms of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) anti-doping code. Cheating athletes have used the black market as a source of performance-enhancing substances. Drugs that currently undergo clinical trials are frequently offered--despite the unknown health risks associated with the administration of unapproved pharmaceuticals. Recently, a new growth factor (referred to as fibroblast growth factor 1/FGF-1) with known effects on the repair and regeneration of damaged tissue was detected in an unlabelled black market product confiscated by the German customs. The identification of the protein was achieved by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and 2D-PAGE), different proteolytic digestions, immunological methods and nano-liquid chromatography high-resolution/high-accuracy Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed slight differences concerning the molecular weight of recombinant human and black market FGF-1. Using in-gel proteolysis, a truncation or modification located at the N-terminus of the protein was suggested. These findings demonstrate that drug candidates without clinical approval can be readily obtained from the black market, regardless of potential dangerous consequences for the consumer, which corroborates the necessity of proactive and preventive doping control approaches. In that regard, physiological concentrations of blood and urine specimens collected from healthy individuals were analyzed and were found to range below 28 pg/ml in urine, while there was no detectable FGF-1 in plasma.

  12. Identification of Ohnolog Genes Originating from Whole Genome Duplication in Early Vertebrates, Based on Synteny Comparison across Multiple Genomes.

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    Singh, Param Priya; Arora, Jatin; Isambert, Hervé

    2015-07-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have now been firmly established in all major eukaryotic kingdoms. In particular, all vertebrates descend from two rounds of WGDs, that occurred in their jawless ancestor some 500 MY ago. Paralogs retained from WGD, also coined 'ohnologs' after Susumu Ohno, have been shown to be typically associated with development, signaling and gene regulation. Ohnologs, which amount to about 20 to 35% of genes in the human genome, have also been shown to be prone to dominant deleterious mutations and frequently implicated in cancer and genetic diseases. Hence, identifying ohnologs is central to better understand the evolution of vertebrates and their susceptibility to genetic diseases. Early computational analyses to identify vertebrate ohnologs relied on content-based synteny comparisons between the human genome and a single invertebrate outgroup genome or within the human genome itself. These approaches are thus limited by lineage specific rearrangements in individual genomes. We report, in this study, the identification of vertebrate ohnologs based on the quantitative assessment and integration of synteny conservation between six amniote vertebrates and six invertebrate outgroups. Such a synteny comparison across multiple genomes is shown to enhance the statistical power of ohnolog identification in vertebrates compared to earlier approaches, by overcoming lineage specific genome rearrangements. Ohnolog gene families can be browsed and downloaded for three statistical confidence levels or recompiled for specific, user-defined, significance criteria at http://ohnologs.curie.fr/. In the light of the importance of WGD on the genetic makeup of vertebrates, our analysis provides a useful resource for researchers interested in gaining further insights on vertebrate evolution and genetic diseases.

  13. Identification of Ohnolog Genes Originating from Whole Genome Duplication in Early Vertebrates, Based on Synteny Comparison across Multiple Genomes.

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    Param Priya Singh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome duplications (WGD have now been firmly established in all major eukaryotic kingdoms. In particular, all vertebrates descend from two rounds of WGDs, that occurred in their jawless ancestor some 500 MY ago. Paralogs retained from WGD, also coined 'ohnologs' after Susumu Ohno, have been shown to be typically associated with development, signaling and gene regulation. Ohnologs, which amount to about 20 to 35% of genes in the human genome, have also been shown to be prone to dominant deleterious mutations and frequently implicated in cancer and genetic diseases. Hence, identifying ohnologs is central to better understand the evolution of vertebrates and their susceptibility to genetic diseases. Early computational analyses to identify vertebrate ohnologs relied on content-based synteny comparisons between the human genome and a single invertebrate outgroup genome or within the human genome itself. These approaches are thus limited by lineage specific rearrangements in individual genomes. We report, in this study, the identification of vertebrate ohnologs based on the quantitative assessment and integration of synteny conservation between six amniote vertebrates and six invertebrate outgroups. Such a synteny comparison across multiple genomes is shown to enhance the statistical power of ohnolog identification in vertebrates compared to earlier approaches, by overcoming lineage specific genome rearrangements. Ohnolog gene families can be browsed and downloaded for three statistical confidence levels or recompiled for specific, user-defined, significance criteria at http://ohnologs.curie.fr/. In the light of the importance of WGD on the genetic makeup of vertebrates, our analysis provides a useful resource for researchers interested in gaining further insights on vertebrate evolution and genetic diseases.

  14. Factors Influencing the Food Purchases of Early Care and Education Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Hirsch, Tad; Lim, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    With the majority of US children enrolled in some form of early care and education, the settings for early care and education represent a valuable opportunity to positively impact young children's diets and their interactions with food. Little evidence exists on how early care and education providers make food purchasing and service decisions for this population of young children. Our aim was to explore the factors that influence early care and education providers' food purchasing and service decisions. A qualitative design consisting of individual, in-person, and semi-structured interviews with providers and on-site observations was used. Sixteen early care and education providers-selected across a variety of characteristics that might affect food selection (eg, size of site, participation in reimbursement programs, presence of staff assigned to foodservice) using maximum variation purposive sampling-based in the Puget Sound region, Washington, were interviewed from June to September 2014. Provider perspectives on food purchasing and service decisions. Inductive analysis of transcribed interviews using TAMS Analyzer software (GPL version 2, 2012) to identify themes. Ten main influencers emerged from the data. These were grouped into four categories based on an ecological framework: macro-level environments (ie, regulations; suppliers and vendors, including stores); physical environment and settings (ie, organizational mission, budget, and structure; the facility itself); social environments (ie, professional networks; peers; the site-specific parent and child community); and individual factors at both a provider and child-level (ie, providers' skills, behaviors, motivations, attitudes, knowledge, and values; child food preferences; and, child allergies). A model was then developed to identify potential pathways of intervention and underscore the need for a comprehensive approach to improve early care and education nutrition. This study suggests that a more

  15. The Clinical Utility and Diagnostic Performance of MRI for Identification of Early and Advanced Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

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    Quatman, Carmen E.; Hettrich, Carolyn M.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2013-01-01

    conclusions regarding its global clinical utility for guiding diagnosis and treatment strategies. Clinical Relevance Traumatic sports injuries to the knee may be significant precursor events to early onset of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. MRI may aid in early identification of structural injuries to articular cartilage as evidenced by articular cartilage degeneration grading. PMID:21730207

  16. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinyai Masukume

    Full Text Available Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609, to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation.The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL. Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work was the main method of analysis.The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%, that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78, and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without.In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  17. Tobacco Smoke Exposure as Risk Factor in Early Neonatal Death in Mataram, Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musrifa .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate tobacco smoke exposure as risk factor of early neonatal death in Mataram, NTB.Method: The study design was case control with a total sample of 87 consisting of 29 cases and 58 controls (1:2.Dependent variable was early neonatal death, independent variable was tobacco smoke exposure. Frequency ofantenatal visit, family income, delivery complications, anemia and low birth weight were confounding variables. Datawere collected through interview and registered cohort data from nine health centres during the period of 1 January-31December 2013. Data were analyzed by using bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression to calculate crude OR andadjusted OR.Result: Results of bivariate analysis indicated that tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy, extent of exposure ?3cigarettes/days during pregnancy, and amount of exposure ?6 cigarettes/days last 24 hours were 2.75 (95%CI: 0.72-10.50; 2.34 (95%CI: 0.77-7.08; and 2.18 (95%CI: 0.65-7.29 respectively, increasing neonatal death but was notstatistically significant. Multivariate analysis indicated that tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy was 1.32 (95%CI:0.03-69.90. OR of other variables: low birth weight, family income under Rp. 1,100,000,- and delivery complicationswere 204.39 (95%CI: 20.37-2050.07; 7.86 (95%CI: 1.45-42.83 and 7.55 (95%CI: 1.01-56.38 respectively.Conclusion: Tobacco smoke exposure was not statistically significant risk factor, specifically the smoking habits of thehusband. Study discovered that low birth weight, family income under Rp. 1,100,000,- and delivery complication duringbirth were statistically significant factors. Further study is needed to confirm these findings.Key words: tobacco smoke exposure, early neonatal death, risk factors, Nusa Tenggara Barat

  18. Risk factors of early proximal gastric carcinoma in Chinese diagnosed using WHO criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Huang, Qin; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jiong; Sun, Qi; Xu, Gui Fang; Gold, Jason; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Zou, Xiao Ping

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of proximal gastric carcinoma (PGC) is rising worldwide for unknown reasons. Herein we compare the risk factors of early PGC with distal gastric carcinoma (DGC) in patients treated at a single tertiary hospital in China. Risk factors of 379 consecutive surgically resected early gastric carcinoma (EGC) diagnosed according to the 2010 World Health Organization criteria were studied by reviewing their medical records and esophagogastroduodenoscopy/biopsy findings and interviewing patients and family members for the patients' history of environmental toxin exposure (ETE), dietary habits, family (FCH) and personal cancer history (PCH) and survival. Differences between PGC (n = 115), DGC (n = 264) and age-matched and gender-matched controls (n = 225) were compared. Proportion of early PGC in all EGC patients was increased significantly (P gastric mucosal intestinal metaplasia and atrophy (all P 24 kg/m(2) ) (OR 2.79, P gastric carcinoma entity in the Chinese populations. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Metabolomics profiling for identification of novel potential markers in early prediction of preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kuc

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to investigate specific signature patterns of metabolites that are significantly altered in first-trimester serum of women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (PE compared to healthy pregnancies. The second aim of this study was to examine the predictive performance of the selected metabolites for both early onset [EO-PE] and late onset PE [LO-PE]. METHODS: This was a case-control study of maternal serum samples collected between 8+0 and 13+6 weeks of gestation from 167 women who subsequently developed EO-PE n = 68; LO-PE n = 99 and 500 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Metabolomics profiling analysis was performed using two methods. One has been optimized to target eicosanoids/oxylipins, which are known inflammation markers and the other targets compounds containing a primary or secondary biogenic amine group. Logistic regression analyses were performed to predict the development of PE using metabolites alone and in combination with first trimester mean arterial pressure (MAP measurements. RESULTS: Two metabolites were significantly different between EO-PE and controls (taurine and asparagine and one in case of LO-PE (glycylglycine. Taurine appeared the most discriminative biomarker and in combination with MAP predicted EO-PE with a detection rate (DR of 55%, at a false-positive rate (FPR of 10%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest a potential role of taurine in both PE pathophysiology and first trimester screening for EO-PE.

  20. Role of text mining in early identification of potential drug safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Hu, Yong; Tang, Buzhou

    2014-01-01

    Drugs are an important part of today's medicine, designed to treat, control, and prevent diseases; however, besides their therapeutic effects, drugs may also cause adverse effects that range from cosmetic to severe morbidity and mortality. To identify these potential drug safety issues early, surveillance must be conducted for each drug throughout its life cycle, from drug development to different phases of clinical trials, and continued after market approval. A major aim of pharmacovigilance is to identify the potential drug-event associations that may be novel in nature, severity, and/or frequency. Currently, the state-of-the-art approach for signal detection is through automated procedures by analyzing vast quantities of data for clinical knowledge. There exists a variety of resources for the task, and many of them are textual data that require text analytics and natural language processing to derive high-quality information. This chapter focuses on the utilization of text mining techniques in identifying potential safety issues of drugs from textual sources such as biomedical literature, consumer posts in social media, and narrative electronic medical records.

  1. Identification of old tidal dwarfs near early-type galaxies from deep imaging and HI observations

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; McDermid, Richard M; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Serra, Paolo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that the dwarf spheroidal galaxies located in the Local Group disks of satellites (DoSs) may be tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) born in a major merger at least 5 Gyr ago. Whether TDGs can live that long is still poorly constrained by observations. As part of deep optical and HI surveys with the CFHT MegaCam camera and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope made within the ATLAS3D project, and follow-up spectroscopic observations with the Gemini-North telescope, we have discovered old TDG candidates around several early-type galaxies. At least one of them has an oxygen abundance close to solar, as expected for a tidal origin. This confirmed pre-enriched object is located within the gigantic, but very low surface brightness, tidal tail that emanates from the elliptical galaxy, NGC 5557. An age of 4 Gyr estimated from its SED fitting makes it the oldest securely identified TDG ever found so far. We investigated the structural and gaseous properties of the TDG and of a companion located in...

  2. Identification and characterization of a FYVE domain from the early diverging eukaryote Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Abhishek; Mandal, Sananda; Banerjee, Sumana; Ghosh, Arjun; Ganguly, Sandipan; Sil, Alok Kumar; Sarkar, Srimonti

    2011-04-01

    The morphology of the endomembrane system of Giardia lamblia appears to be significantly different from higher eukaryotes. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms controlling vesicular trafficking are also likely to be altered. Since FYVE domain is a known regulator of endosomal trafficking, the authors used BLAST search to identify FYVE domain(s) in G. lamblia. A 990 amino acid long putative FYVE domain-containing ORF was identified, which contains all the conserved sequence elements in the ligand binding pocket. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that this domain is significantly diverged. The authors have shown that the corresponding gene is expressed in G. lamblia trophozoites and cysts. In spite of this phylogenetic divergence, in vitro biochemical assay indicates that this domain preferentially binds to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate {PtdIns(3)P}and in vivo expression of the GFP-tagged G. lamblia FYVE domain in S. cerevisiae, displays its selective localization to PtdIns(3)P-enriched endosomes. This is the first study to characterize a PtdIns(3)P effector protein in this early-diverged eukaryote.

  3. Perspective: Identification of genetic variants associated with dopaminergic compensatory mechanisms in early Parkinson's disease

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    Lior eGreenbaum

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is slowly progressive, and heterogeneity of its severity among individuals may be due to endogenous mechanisms that counterbalance the striatal dopamine loss. In this perspective paper, we introduce a neuroimaging-genetic approach to identify genetic variants, which may contribute to this compensation. First, we briefly review current known potential compensatory mechanisms for premotor and early disease PD, located in the striatum and other brain regions. Then, we claim that a mismatch between mild symptomatic disease, manifested by low motor score on the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS and extensive Nigro-Striatal degeneration, manifested by reduced uptake of [123I]FP-CIT is indicative of compensatory processes. If genetic variants are associated with the severity of motor symptoms, while the level of striatal terminals degeneration measured by ligand uptake is taken into account and controlled in the analysis, then these variants may be involved in functional compensatory mechanisms for striatal dopamine deficit. To demonstrate feasibility of this approach, we performed a small "proof of concept" study (candidate gene design in a sample of 28 Jewish PD patients, and preliminary results are presented.

  4. Metabolomics Profiling for Identification of Novel Potential Markers in Early Prediction of Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuc, Sylwia; Koster, Maria P. H.; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Berger, Ruud; Harms, Amy C.; Dane, Adrie D.; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Vreeken, Rob J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The first aim was to investigate specific signature patterns of metabolites that are significantly altered in first-trimester serum of women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (PE) compared to healthy pregnancies. The second aim of this study was to examine the predictive performance of the selected metabolites for both early onset [EO-PE] and late onset PE [LO-PE]. Methods This was a case-control study of maternal serum samples collected between 8+0 and 13+6 weeks of gestation from 167 women who subsequently developed EO-PE n = 68; LO-PE n = 99 and 500 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Metabolomics profiling analysis was performed using two methods. One has been optimized to target eicosanoids/oxylipins, which are known inflammation markers and the other targets compounds containing a primary or secondary biogenic amine group. Logistic regression analyses were performed to predict the development of PE using metabolites alone and in combination with first trimester mean arterial pressure (MAP) measurements. Results Two metabolites were significantly different between EO-PE and controls (taurine and asparagine) and one in case of LO-PE (glycylglycine). Taurine appeared the most discriminative biomarker and in combination with MAP predicted EO-PE with a detection rate (DR) of 55%, at a false-positive rate (FPR) of 10%. Conclusion Our findings suggest a potential role of taurine in both PE pathophysiology and first trimester screening for EO-PE. PMID:24873829

  5. QTL identification for early blight resistance (Alternaria solani) in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. arcanum cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerani, R; Smulders, M J M; van der Linden, C G; Vosman, B; Stam, P; Voorrips, R E

    2007-02-01

    Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Sorauer, the causal agent of early blight (EB) disease, infects aerial parts of tomato at both seedling and adult plant stages. Resistant cultivars would facilitate a sustainable EB management. EB resistance is a quantitatively expressed character, a fact that has hampered effective breeding. In order to identify and estimate the effect of genes conditioning resistance to EB, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping study was performed in F2 and F3 populations derived from the cross between the susceptible Solanum lycopersicum (syn. Lycopersicon esculentum) cv. 'Solentos' and the resistant Solanum arcanum (syn. Lycopersicon peruvianum) LA2157 and genotyped with AFLP, microsatellite and SNP markers. Two evaluation criteria of resistance were used: measurements of EB lesion growth on the F2 plants in glasshouse tests and visual ratings of EB severity on foliage of the F3 lines in a field test. A total of six QTL regions were mapped on chromosomes 1, 2, 5-7, and 9 with LOD scores ranging from 3.4 to 17.5. Three EB QTL also confer resistance to stem lesions in the field, which has not been reported before. All QTL displayed significant additive gene action; in some cases a dominance effect was found. Additive x additive epistatic interactions were detected between one pair of QTL. For two QTL, the susceptible parent contributed resistance alleles to both EB and stem lesion resistance. Three of the QTL showed an effect in all tests despite methodological and environmental differences.

  6. Identification of Socio-demographic and Psychological Factors Affecting Women's Propensity to Breastfeed: An Italian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother's breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.

  7. Identification of a BMP inhibitor-responsive promoter module required for expression of the early neural gene zic1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropepe, Vincent; Li, Shuhong; Dickinson, Amanda; Gamse, Joshua T; Sive, Hazel L

    2006-01-15

    Expression of the transcription factor zic1 at the onset of gastrulation is one of the earliest molecular indicators of neural fate determination in Xenopus. Inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is critical for activation of zic1 expression and fundamental for establishing neural identity in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The mechanism by which interruption of BMP signaling activates neural-specific gene expression is not understood. Here, we report identification of a 215 bp genomic module that is both necessary and sufficient to activate Xenopus zic1 transcription upon interruption of BMP signaling. Transgenic analyses demonstrate that this BMP inhibitory response module (BIRM) is required for expression in the whole embryo. Multiple consensus binding sites for specific transcription factor families within the BIRM are required for its activity and some of these regions are phylogenetically conserved between orthologous vertebrate zic1 genes. These data suggest that interruption of BMP signaling facilitates neural determination via a complex mechanism, involving multiple regulatory factors that cooperate to control zic1 expression.

  8. Device diagnostics and early identification of acute decompensated heart failure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Tara Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods of heart failure (HF) management are based on reactive strategies to treat late indicators of decompensated HF. Advances in monitoring methods have become available with the evolution of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac-resynchronization therapy devices. These devices provide new diagnostic data and remote monitoring capabilities that allow clinicians to proactively monitor patients for earlier signs of worsening HF. The integration of data obtained from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac-resynchronization therapy technology could improve outpatient HF care, potentially leading to decreased readmission rates and improved patient outcomes. This review will synthesize the literature regarding the efficacy of device diagnostic data and the usability of the data in the clinical setting. Articles for review were obtained using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Device diagnostics showed strong correlation with established HF biomarkers and hemodynamic measures. The findings from this review indicate that device diagnostic parameters predict impending HF much earlier than traditional methods of monitoring do. Device diagnostics are also more accurate in the early prediction of HF when compared with noninvasive objective measures, particularly when multiple parameters are combined and monitored for trends. Device diagnostics possess a distinct advantage over traditional methods of monitoring for HF because they allow clinicians to remotely monitor the status of their HF patients without relying on patient compliance for data entry and reporting. Studies regarding the efficacy of device diagnostic parameters suggest that their integration into clinical practice will provide a more accurate and reliable mechanism for assisting clinicians in risk stratifying and predicting potential episodes of decompensated HF.

  9. Validation of the new Sepsis-3 definitions: proposal for improvement in early risk identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E J; Tsaganos, T; Tsangaris, I; Lada, M; Routsi, C; Sinapidis, D; Koupetori, M; Bristianou, M; Adamis, G; Mandragos, K; Dalekos, G N; Kritselis, I; Giannikopoulos, G; Koutelidakis, I; Pavlaki, M; Antoniadou, E; Vlachogiannis, G; Koulouras, V; Prekates, A; Dimopoulos, G; Koutsoukou, A; Pnevmatikos, I; Ioakeimidou, A; Kotanidou, A; Orfanos, S E; Armaganidis, A; Gogos, C

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis-3 definitions generated controversies regarding their general applicability. The Sepsis-3 Task Force outlined the need for validation with emphasis on the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score. This was done in a prospective cohort from a different healthcare setting. Patients with infections and at least two signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) were analysed. Sepsis was defined as total SOFA ≥2 outside the intensive care unit (ICU) or as an increase of ICU admission SOFA ≥2. The primary endpoints were the sensitivity of qSOFA outside the ICU and sepsis definition both outside and within the ICU to predict mortality. In all, 3346 infections outside the ICU and 1058 infections in the ICU were analysed. Outside the ICU, respective mortality with ≥2 SIRS and qSOFA ≥2 was 25.3% and 41.2% (p sepsis definition to predict death were 60.8% and 87.2%, respectively. This was 95.9% for sepsis definition in the ICU. The sensitivity of qSOFA and of ≥3 SIRS criteria for organ dysfunction outside the ICU was 48.7% and 72.5%, respectively (p Sepsis-3 definitions into stages of lower severity was 21.4% and 3.7%, respectively (p <0.0001) and 14.9% and 3.7%, respectively, in the ICU (p <0.0001). Adding arterial pH ≤7.30 to qSOFA increased sensitivity for prediction of death to 67.5% (p 0.004). Our analysis positively validated the use of SOFA score to predict unfavourable outcome and to limit misclassification into lower severity. However, qSOFA score had inadequate sensitivity for early risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents : Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship.

  11. Factors involved in the identification of stuttering severity in a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyns, Marjan; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna T; Van Borsel, John

    2015-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists nowadays are more and more confronted with clients who speak a language different from their own mother tongue. The assessment of persons who speak a foreign language poses particular challenges. The present study investigated the possible role and interplay of factors involved in the identification of stuttering severity in a foreign language. Nineteen speech-language pathologists from five different countries (i.e. Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Belgium) rated stuttering severity of speech samples featuring persons who stutter speaking Icelandic, Swedish, Norwegian, or Dutch. Additionally, they were asked to score how easy they found it to rate the samples. Accuracy of rating stuttering severity in another language appeared to be foremost determined by the client's stuttering severity, while experienced ease of rating stuttering severity was essentially related to closeness of the language of the clinician to that of the client and familiarity of the clinician with the client's language. Stuttering measurement training programmes in different languages are needed.

  12. [Evaluation of the reasons underlying drop-out and identification of predictive factors in psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro; Saavedra, Isabel; Rodrigues, Tiago; Brenha, María Miguel; Moreira, Susana; Catarino, Isabel; Mendes, Patrícia

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of psychiatric interventions results should be multidimensional, including clinical and social variables, such as individual experience of the mentally ill. The patient satisfaction with care has been recognized as an important variable, despite not being the main objective of the service or of the psychiatrist. However, if the user's perspective is not included, there's a risk of bias by the perception of the heath care providers. In this study, our aim was to understand if the abandonment of treatment (drop-out) represents an improvement or worsening of subjective well-being of patients and / or dissatisfaction with the services received, as well as to find predictors of drop-out. Identification of drop-outs in a 2-year cohort of patients who had initial psychiatric consultations in the Psychiatric Unit at Centro Hospitalar do Médio Ave - Unidade de Famalicão (Local Mental Health Service). We identified 512 patients who had a first psychiatric consultation, 57 of which unilaterally abandoned the treatment for at least six months, without making any contacts in order to reschedule the appointment during this period. Of these only 38 completed the assessment (telephone response to a semi-structured questionnaire). Three predictive factors for the drop-out were found: age, education and diagnosis. The reasons for treatment abandonment focused mainly in forgetfulness and dissatisfaction, the last one involving doctor-patient relationship issues. These results should be a starting point for assessing and improving care.

  13. Affinity Density: a novel genomic approach to the identification of transcription factor regulatory targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelett, Dennis J; Lakeland, Daniel L; Weiss, Joseph B

    2009-07-01

    A new method was developed for identifying novel transcription factor regulatory targets based on calculating Local Affinity Density. Techniques from the signal-processing field were used, in particular the Hann digital filter, to calculate the relative binding affinity of different regions based on previously published in vitro binding data. To illustrate this approach, the complete genomes of Drosophila melanogaster and D.pseudoobscura were analyzed for binding sites of the homeodomain proteinc Tinman, an essential heart development gene in both Drosophila and Mouse. The significant binding regions were identified relative to genomic background and assigned to putative target genes. Valid candidates common to both species of Drosophila were selected as a test of conservation. The new method was more sensitive than cluster searches for conserved binding motifs with respect to positive identification of known Tinman targets. Our Local Affinity Density method also identified a significantly greater proportion of Tinman-coexpressed genes than equivalent, optimized cluster searching. In addition, this new method predicted a significantly greater than expected number of genes with previously published RNAi phenotypes in the heart. Algorithms were implemented in Python, LISP, R and maxima, using MySQL to access locally mirrored sequence data from Ensembl (D.melanogaster release 4.3) and flybase (D.pseudoobscura). All code is licensed under GPL and freely available at http://www.ohsu.edu/cellbio/dev_biol_prog/affinitydensity/.

  14. Source Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Diagnostic Ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorska, A.; Jarkovsky, J.; Lammel, G.; Klanova, J.

    2009-04-01

    Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are also of natural origin, in many regions their environmental concentrations have strongly increased due to human activities. These semivolatile organic compounds are generally formed during incomplete combustion. Other sources include volatilization from unburned petroleum or tire abrasion in road traffic. Among all pollutants PAHs pose the highest human health hazard in Europe (WHO, 2003). A multivariate statistical method, positive matrix factorization (PMF; Paatero, 1997), and diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs (e.g. Yunker et al., 2002) are used for PAH source identification in central Europe. To minimise confounding factors such as differences in volatility, water solubility, adsorption etc., diagnostic ratios should be restricted to PAHs of similar molecular mass (Readman et al., 1987). Furthermore, different reactivities are limiting. Nevertheless, the application of PAH diagnostic ratios is often inconclusive, because substance patterns (profiles) have not been reported for all sources and ranges for various sources overlap. The complete profiles are made use of by statistical methods such as factor analysis, UNMIX and PMF (Tauler et al., 2006). However, these methods can be unreliable, because of incomplete knowledge of source profiles and the analysis' sensitivity to the data distribution. A unique 12-year data set of concentrations of PAHs (16 individual substances, 2 phases, weekly) in air, measured at the regional observatory Košetice, Czech Republic, is examined, together with shorter time series from Leipzig (urban background) and Schwartenberg (subalpine mountain background), Germany. Also, retene and coronene as specific source markers measured in Košetice from 2006 on are included into the analysis. An extensive literature search on PAH emission profiles was conducted. This data set was accomplished by measurements at sites in the Zlínsko region, Czech Republic, which are strongly dominated

  15. Importance of the pluripotency factor LIN28 in the mammalian nucleolus during early embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Edgar J; Meglicki, Maciej; Hartung, Kristina Ilka; Borsuk, Ewa; Behr, Rüdiger

    2012-12-01

    The maternal nucleolus is required for proper activation of the embryonic genome (EGA) and early embryonic development. Nucleologenesis is characterized by the transformation of a nucleolar precursor body (NPB) to a mature nucleolus during preimplantation development. However, the function of NPBs and the involved molecular factors are unknown. We uncover a novel role for the pluripotency factor LIN28, the biological significance of which was previously demonstrated in the reprogramming of human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we show that LIN28 accumulates at the NPB and the mature nucleolus in mouse preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), where it colocalizes with the nucleolar marker B23 (nucleophosmin 1). LIN28 has nucleolar localization in non-human primate (NHP) preimplantation embryos, but is cytoplasmic in NHP ESCs. Lin28 transcripts show a striking decline before mouse EGA, whereas LIN28 protein localizes to NPBs at the time of EGA. Following knockdown with a Lin28 morpholino, the majority of embryos arrest between the 2- and 4-cell stages and never develop to morula or blastocyst. Lin28 morpholino-injected embryos arrested at the 2-cell stage were not enriched with nucleophosmin at presumptive NPB sites, indicating that functional NPBs were not assembled. Based on these results, we propose that LIN28 is an essential factor of nucleologenesis during early embryonic development.

  16. Factors associated with preterm, early preterm and late preterm birth in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke R van den Broek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assessment of risk factors for preterm birth in a population with high incidence of preterm birth and HIV infection. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data for 2,149 women included in a community based randomized placebo controlled trial for the prevention of preterm birth (APPLe trial (ISRCTN84023116 with gestational age at birth determined through ultrasound measurement in early pregnancy. Multivariate Logistic Regression analyses to obtain models for three outcome variables: all preterm, early preterm, and late preterm birth. FINDINGS: No statistical differences were noted for the prevalence of HIV infection (p = 0.30 or syphilis (p = 0.12 between women who delivered preterm versus term. BMI (Adjusted OR 0.91 (0.85-0.97; p = 0.005 and weight gain (Adjusted OR 0.89 (0.82-0.97; p = 0.006 had an independent, protective effect. Previous preterm birth doubled the odds of preterm birth (Adjusted OR 2.13 (1.198-3.80; p = 0.01. Persistent malaria (despite malaria prophylaxis increased the risk of late preterm birth (Adjusted OR 1.99 (1.05-3.79; p = 0.04. Age <20 (Adjusted OR 1.73 (1.03-2.90; p = 0.04 and anemia (Adjusted OR 1.95 (1.08-3.52; p = 0.03 were associated with early preterm birth (<34 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Despite claims that HIV infection is an important cause of preterm birth in Africa, we found no evidence of an association in this population (unexposed to anti-retroviral treatment. Persistent malaria was associated with late preterm birth. Maternal undernourishment and anemia were independently associated with early preterm birth. The study did not assess whether the link was direct or whether a common precursor such as chronic infection was responsible for both maternal effects and early labour.

  17. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate, were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  18. Identification and validation of novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for staging early Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Perrin

    Full Text Available Ideally, disease modifying therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD will be applied during the 'preclinical' stage (pathology present with cognition intact before severe neuronal damage occurs, or upon recognizing very mild cognitive impairment. Developing and judiciously administering such therapies will require biomarker panels to identify early AD pathology, classify disease stage, monitor pathological progression, and predict cognitive decline. To discover such biomarkers, we measured AD-associated changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF proteome.CSF samples from individuals with mild AD (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 1 (n = 24 and cognitively normal controls (CDR 0 (n = 24 were subjected to two-dimensional difference-in-gel electrophoresis. Within 119 differentially-abundant gel features, mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS identified 47 proteins. For validation, eleven proteins were re-evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Six of these assays (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I, transthyretin, cystatin C distinguished CDR 1 and CDR 0 groups and were subsequently applied (with tau, p-tau181 and Aβ42 ELISAs to a larger independent cohort (n = 292 that included individuals with very mild dementia (CDR 0.5. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses using stepwise logistic regression yielded optimal biomarker combinations to distinguish CDR 0 from CDR>0 (tau, YKL-40, NrCAM and CDR 1 from CDR<1 (tau, chromogranin A, carnosinase I with areas under the curve of 0.90 (0.85-0.94 95% confidence interval [CI] and 0.88 (0.81-0.94 CI, respectively.Four novel CSF biomarkers for AD (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I can improve the diagnostic accuracy of Aβ42 and tau. Together, these six markers describe six clinicopathological stages from cognitive normalcy to mild dementia, including stages defined by increased risk of cognitive decline. Such a panel might improve clinical trial efficiency by guiding

  19. Identification of a New Hesperornithiform from the Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk and Implications for Ecologic Diversity among Early Diving Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Bell

    Full Text Available The Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Chalk in Kansas (USA has yielded the remains of numerous members of the Hesperornithiformes, toothed diving birds from the late Early to Late Cretaceous. This study presents a new taxon of hesperornithiform from the Smoky Hill Member, Fumicollis hoffmani, the holotype of which is among the more complete hesperornithiform skeletons. Fumicollis has a unique combination of primitive (e.g. proximal and distal ends of femur not expanded, elongate pre-acetabular ilium, small and pyramidal patella and derived (e.g. dorsal ridge on metatarsal IV, plantarly-projected curve in the distal shaft of phalanx III:1 hesperornithiform characters, suggesting it was more specialized than small hesperornithiforms like Baptornis advenus but not as highly derived as the larger Hesperornis regalis. The identification of Fumicollis highlights once again the significant diversity of hesperornithiforms that existed in the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. This diversity points to the existence of a complex ecosystem, perhaps with a high degree of niche partitioning, as indicated by the varying degrees of diving specializations among these birds.

  20. Identification of a New Hesperornithiform from the Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk and Implications for Ecologic Diversity among Early Diving Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alyssa; Chiappe, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    The Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Chalk in Kansas (USA) has yielded the remains of numerous members of the Hesperornithiformes, toothed diving birds from the late Early to Late Cretaceous. This study presents a new taxon of hesperornithiform from the Smoky Hill Member, Fumicollis hoffmani, the holotype of which is among the more complete hesperornithiform skeletons. Fumicollis has a unique combination of primitive (e.g. proximal and distal ends of femur not expanded, elongate pre-acetabular ilium, small and pyramidal patella) and derived (e.g. dorsal ridge on metatarsal IV, plantarly-projected curve in the distal shaft of phalanx III:1) hesperornithiform characters, suggesting it was more specialized than small hesperornithiforms like Baptornis advenus but not as highly derived as the larger Hesperornis regalis. The identification of Fumicollis highlights once again the significant diversity of hesperornithiforms that existed in the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. This diversity points to the existence of a complex ecosystem, perhaps with a high degree of niche partitioning, as indicated by the varying degrees of diving specializations among these birds.

  1. Identification and Characterization of Early Solar system Organic Matter Preserved in Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, George; Wirick, Sue; Keller, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    The chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs), collected by NASA from the Earth's stratosphere, have experienced minimal aqueous or thermal alteration since their formation. These CP IDPs are the best preserved samples of the minerals and organic matter that was present in the primitive Solar Nebula that are currently available for laboratory analysis [1]. The ~10 μm CP IDPs are aggregates of tens-of-thousands of mostly sub-micron grains of diverse compositions and mineralogies. Many of the individual mineral grains are coated by a 50 to 200 nm thick rims of carbonaceous material, and other carbonaceous material occurs as larger, discrete subunits within the particles [2]. We characterize this carbonaceous material using two high-resolution, synchrotron-based instruments: a Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) to locate and map the carbon and to identify its major functional groups by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and a micro-Fourier Transform Infrared (μ-FTIR) spectrometer to further characterize the functional groups by mid-infrared spectroscopy. Carbon-XANES spectroscopy identifies the rims coating the individual grains in CP IDPs as organic matter, dominated by the C=C, likely C-rings, and the C=O functional groups [3]. This structure, with the organic rims being the contact surfaces between the grains, implies a 3-step formation sequence: grain condensation, organic rim emplacement, and, finally, aggregation of the grains to form the dust particles. This suggests these organic rims formed very early in the evolution of the Solar Nebula, after grain condensation but before grain aggregation [3]. These organic rims coat grains of diverse compositions, including silicates, sulfides, and carbonates, which is inconsistent with formation by Fischer-Tropsch-like, mineral-specific catalysis, one of the mechanisms suggested for the formation of primitive organic matter. Our observations are consistent with an

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and early-life stress: Multifaceted interplay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NATALYA P BONDAR; TATIANA I MERKULOVA

    2016-12-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neural development and plasticity. Longtermchanges in the BDNF pathway are associated with childhood adversity and adult depression symptoms.Initially, stress-induced decreases in the BDNF pathway were found in some studies, but subsequent reportsindicated the relationship between stress and BDNF to be much more complex, and the concept wassignificantly revised. In the present mini-review, we focus on the structure and regulation of the Bbnf geneas well as on the stress–BDNF interactions under early-life adverse conditions.

  3. Factors associated with early mycological clearance in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Velasco, Fátima; González-Lagos, Elsa; Seas, Carlos; Bustamante, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The first-line combination therapy for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a condition of high mortality particularly in the first two weeks of treatment, consists of amphotericin B plus flucytosine (5-FC). Given that 5-FC remains unavailable in many countries, the knowledge of factors influencing mycological clearance in patients treated with second-line therapy could contribute to effective management. Objectives To determine the factors associated with the clearance of Cryptococcus sp. from the cerebrospinal fluid by the second week of effective antifungal therapy (early mycological clearance) in HIV-associated CM. Methods Retrospective cohort study based on secondary data corresponding to HIV-associated CM cases hospitalized at a tertiary health care center in Lima, Peru where 5-FC remains unavailable. Risk factors associated with early mycological clearance were analyzed by generalized linear regression models. Results From January 2000 to December 2013, 234 individuals were discharged with a diagnosis of HIV-associated CM; in 215 we retrieved the required data. The inpatient mortality was 20% (43/215), 15 of them in the first two weeks of treatment. In the final model (157 cases), adjusted for age, previous episode of CM, ART use, type of antifungal treatment, raised intracranial pressure, frequency of therapeutic lumbar punctures, baseline fungal burden and treatment period, the factors associated with early mycological clearance were: Amphotericin B deoxycholate plus fluconazole as combination therapy (RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.14–2.14); severe baseline intracranial pressure (≥35 cm H2O) (RR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.33–0.99); and baseline fungal burden over 4.5 log10 CFU/mL (RR, 0.61 95% CI: 0.39–0.95). Conclusions In a setting without access to first-line therapy for CM, the combination therapy with amphotericin B deoxycholate plus fluconazole was positively associated with early mycological clearance, while high fungal burden and severe

  4. Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider.

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    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation, which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the hand-over documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change.

  5. Identification of Risk Factors for Intravenous Infiltration among Hospitalized Children: A Retrospective Study.

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    Soon Mi Park

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was aimed to identify risk factors of intravenous (IV infiltration for hospitalized children. The participants were 1,174 children admitted to a general hospital, who received peripheral intravenous injection therapy at least once, and had complete records. Data were analyzed with frequency and percentage or mean and standard deviation were calculated, and odds ratio (OR from univariate and multiple logistic regressions. The number and % of infiltrations were 92 and 7.8%, respectively. IV infiltration risk factors were lower limb (OR = 1.72, phenytoin (OR = 11.03, 10% dextrose (OR = 6.55, steroids (OR = 6.21, vancomycin (OR = 4.10, high-concentration electrolytes (OR = 3.49, and ampicillin/sulbactam combination (OR = 3.37. Nurses working at children's hospitals should consider the risk of IV infiltration for children receiving IV infusion therapy and make a preventive effort to identify IV infiltration in high-risk children at an early stage.

  6. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of auxin response factor gene family in Medicago truncatula

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    Chenjia eShen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs bind specifically to auxin response elements (AuxREs in the promoters of down-stream target genes and play roles in plant responses to diverse environmental factors. Using the latest updated Medicago truncatula reference genome sequence, a comprehensive characterization and analysis of 24 MtARF genes were performed. To uncover the basic information and functions of MtARF genes during symbiosis, we analyze the expression patterns of MtARF genes during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection. The systematic analysis indicated that MtARF gene expressions were involved in the symbiosis processes. Furthermore, the roles of MtARF-mediated auxin signaling in symbiosis were tested in the infection resistant mutant (dmi3. The expression responses of MtARFs to S. meliloti infection were attenuated in the mutant compared to wild-type A17. In summary, our results shed that the MtARF gene expressions was involved in responses to S. meliloti infection, which may play an essential role in the regulation of nodule formation.

  7. Early Exercise Affects Mitochondrial Transcription Factors Expression after Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

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    Yongshan Hu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that exercise training is neuroprotective after stroke, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To clarify this critical issue, the current study investigated the effects of early treadmill exercise on the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors. Adult rats were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Expression of two genes critical for transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 (PGC-1 and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1, were examined by RT-PCR after five days of exercise starting at 24 h after ischemia. Mitochondrial protein cytochrome C oxidase subunit IV (COX IV was detected by Western blot. Neurological status and cerebral infarct volume were evaluated as indices of brain damage. Treadmill training increased levels of PGC-1 and NRF-1 mRNA, indicating that exercise promotes rehabilitation after ischemia via regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

  8. Early readmission among patients with diabetes: a qualitative assessment of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel J; Donnell-Jackson, Kelly; Jhingan, Ram; Golden, Sherita Hill; Paranjape, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    To explore causes of early readmission, i.e., hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge, among patients with diabetes. We performed thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews among 20 adults with diabetes hospitalized with an early readmission at an urban academic medical center. Five themes emerged as contributors to readmission risk: (1) poor health literacy (lack of knowledge about diabetes and discharge instructions), (2) health system failure (of the discharge process and post-discharge support), (3) failure of expected protective factors, (e.g., following the discharge instructions, being aware of medication changes upon discharge, and having help and social support), (4) social determinants of health impeding care, and (5) loss of control over illness. A majority of patients reported needing assistance with transportation, obtaining and taking medications, and preparing food. Most patients denied an active role in exacerbating their condition prior to readmission, and many believed that being readmitted was out of their control. Our findings suggest several interventions that may reduce the risk of early readmission for patients with diabetes, including inpatient diabetes education, improving communication of discharge instructions, and involving patients more in medication reconciliation and post-discharge planning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Etiologic factors of early-onset periodontal disease in Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuo Amano

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with Down syndrome often develop extensive gingivitis, and exhibit rapid and generalized periodontal breakdown in early adulthood. Earlier studies reported a significant prevalence of periodontal disease in patients with Down syndrome younger than 30 years old, whereas recent studies have indicated that periodontal disease associated with the syndrome is less severe than formerly thought, likely due to improved dental care at home and the dental office. Although the etiology of the condition is not yet fully elucidated, a number of studies have shown that Down syndrome related periodontitis is caused by such factors as immunological deficiency, poor oral hygiene, fragile periodontal tissue, early senescence, salivary deficiency, and poor masticatory function. In addition, those individuals experience very early colonization by various periodontal pathogens, and exhibit an exaggerated innate immune response to produce inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 and matrix metalloproteinases. Recent studies regarding Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam provide further evidence for increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral diseases in Down syndrome. In this review, an overview of contemporary findings on the etiology of periodontal disease associated with Down syndrome is presented.

  10. Perinatal Factors Associated with Poor Neurocognitive Outcome in Early School Age Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jennifer R.; Gustafson, Kathryn E.; Smith, P. Brian; Ellingsen, Kirsten M.; Tompkins, K. Brooke; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Cotten, C. Michael; Goldstein, Ricki F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine predictors of neurocognitive outcome in early school age congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors. Study design Prospective study of infants with CDH at Duke University Medical Center. Neurocognitive delay (NCD) at school age (4 to 7 years) was defined as a score < 80 in any of the following areas: Verbal Scale IQ, Performance Scale IQ, Expressive Language, or Receptive Language. Logistic regression, Fisher’s exact, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine the relationship between NCD at early school age and 6 demographic and 18 medical variables. Results Of 43 infants with CDH, twenty seven (63%) survived to hospital discharge, and 16 (59%) returned for school age testing at a median age of 4.9 years. Seven (44%) of the children evaluated had NCD. Patch repair (p=0.01), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; p=0.02), days on ECMO (p=0.01), days of mechanical ventilation (p=0.049), and post-operative use of inhaled nitric oxide (p=0.02) were found to be associated with NCD at early school age. Conclusions CDH survivors are at risk for neurocognitive delay persisting into school age. Perinatal factors such as patch repair and ECMO treatment may aid in identifying CDH survivors at high risk for continued learning difficulties throughout childhood. PMID:23583126

  11. Assessment of Risk Factors for the Early Detection of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velusamy Sivakumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose; Gestational diabetes mellitus affects 1-14% of all pregnancy with results of many maternal and fetal problems. Early detection and treatment may reduce the complications in pregnancy outcome. The main aim of the study is to assess the risk factors causing gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods; Study was carried out in the multispecialty hospital in Tamilnadu, south India, for the period of 10 years from January 2003 to December 2012. Pregnant women diagnosed with GDM were included in the study. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, renal disorder and autoimmune disease woman were not included in the study. Antenatal, perinatal and neonatal data were collected from patient, family members, patient medical records and hospital database. SPSS statistical package version 20.0 was used for the statistical analysis. Paired‘t’ test, ANOVA, were used for various data analysis. Results; Age, BMI, gravidity, primiparity and irregular menstrual cycle shows significant influence on the development of gestational diabetes mellitus(P<0.05. The mean age of GDM women was 27.75 ± 3.90 years. The mean BMI of GDM women was 27.71 ± 3.61 kg/m2. The average gravidity of GDM alone women was 1.91± 1.10, Conclusion; From our study we observed, Advancing age, increasing BMI, Multigravida, primiparity, family history of diabetes and irregular menstrual cycle shows an influence on the development of GDM. These risk factors are comparable with internationally documented risk factors. Assessing the risk factors and identifying those women as high risk group for GDM is important for the early diagnosis of GDM.

  12. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  13. Early life factors associated with adult onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in women

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    Christine Gibson Parks

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure early in life can influence adult disease and immunity, but the role of early life exposures in risk of SLE is not established.Methods: Women in a national cohort (ages 35-74 provided data on perinatal, maternal and sociodemographic factors, longest residence to age 14 and residential farm history of at least 12 months to age 18. Cases (N=124 reported SLE diagnosed age 16 years or older with use of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Non-cases (N=50,465 did not report lupus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by logistic regression adjusting for age and race/ethnicity. Results: SLE was associated with low birthweight (data on 84 cases and 36,477 non-cases; 4 weeks early vs. full-term; OR=3.4; 95%CI 1.6, 7.4. Considering longest childhood residence to age 14, SLE was associated with more frequent pesticide use (e.g., at least monthly OR=2.3; 95%CI 1.3, 4.1. SLE was associated with having an early and extended childhood farm residence (i.e., prenatal/maternal farm exposure and longest childhood farm residence; OR=1.8; 95%CI 1.1, 3.0 versus neither. In those with a childhood-only farm residence of 12+ months, agricultural pesticide use was associated with SLE, with the strongest associations for direct personal exposures. Conclusions: The association of SLE with premature birth is consistent with studies in other populations, and with an observed association with low birthweight. The associations of SLE with childhood exposure to residential and agricultural pesticides warrant further study.INTRODUCTIONSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by immune reactivity to multiple nuclear components and inflammation, resulting in diverse clinical features and multiple organ involvement. The causes of SLE are generally not known. Racial disparities and increased familial risk suggest a genetic predisposition. It is believed that environmental factors may contribute to

  14. Predictive factors of early graft loss in living donor liver transplantation

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    Rogério Camargo Pinheiro Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Living donor liver transplantation has become an alternative to reduce the lack of organ donation. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors predictive of early graft loss in the first 3 months after living donor liver transplantation. METHODS: Seventy-eight adults submitted to living donor liver transplantation were divided into group I with 62 (79.5% patients with graft survival longer than 3 months, and group II with 16 (20.5% patients who died and/or showed graft failure within 3 months after liver transplantation. The variables analyzed were gender, age, etiology of liver disease, Child-Pugh classification, model of end-stage liver disease (MELD score, pretransplantation serum sodium level, and graft weight-to-recipient body weight (GRBW ratio. The GRBW ratio was categorized into 18. The chi-square test, Student t-test and uni- and multivariate analysis were used for the evaluation of risk factors for early graft loss. RESULTS: MELD score 135 mEq/L (P = 0.03 were higher in group II than in group I. In the multivariate analysis MELD scores > 18 (P18 and GRBW < 0.8 ratios are associated with higher probability of graft failure after living donor liver transplantation.

  15. Factors predicting early outcome in patients admitted at emergency department with severe head trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rejeb Belfekih Imen; Chakroun Olfa; Chtara Kamilia; Boujelbene Meriam; Ksibi Hichem; Chaari Adel; Bahloul Mabrouk; Rekik Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine predictive factors of early mortality among severe traumatic brain injury in emergency department. Methods: This study is based on a retrospective analysis of 198 admitted in emergency depatment with severe head injury (Glasgow coma scale score≤8) of an university hospital (Sfax, Tunisia). Basic demographic, clinical, biological and radiological data were recorded on admission and during emergency department stay. Results: Forty two patients were died. Univariate analysis showed that the presence of shock, cardiac arrest, bilateral mydriasis, high value of injury severity score and low value of Glasgow coma scale were associated with mortality. Moreover, meningeal hemorrhage, cerebral and subdural haematoma were associated with poorer outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with a poor prognosis were cardiac arrest cerebral and the presence of cerebral haematoma. Conclusions: Improving pre-hospital care and ovoid futile resuscitation to given priority in resource allocation and urgent CT scan of the head to look for operable mass lesions as early detection should improve the prognosis of severe head injury at emergency department.

  16. A pilot study on factors involved with work participation in the early stages of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Van der Hiele

    Full Text Available Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation.To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job.Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years.Patients with a paid job (57% reported better physical functioning (p<0.001, better memory functioning (p = 0.01 and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p = 0.018 than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r = 0.54, p = 0.005 and a lower social impact of fatigue (r =  -0.46, p = 0.029 correlated with an increased number of working hours.Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor receptors support murine hematopoietic progenitor function in the early stages of engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl-Yafe, Michal; Mizrahi, Keren; Stein, Jerry; Yolcu, Esma S; Kaplan, Ofer; Shirwan, Haval; Yaniv, Isaac; Askenasy, Nadir

    2010-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family receptors/ligands are important participants in hematopoietic homeostasis, in particular as essential negative expansion regulators of differentiated clones. As a prominent injury cytokine, TNF-alpha has been traditionally considered to suppress donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function after transplantation. We monitored the involvement of TNF receptors (TNF-R) 1 and 2 in murine hematopoietic cell engraftment and their inter-relationship with Fas. Transplantation of lineage-negative (lin(-)) bone marrow cells (BMC) from TNF receptor-deficient mice into wild-type recipients showed defective early engraftment and loss of durable hematopoietic contribution upon recovery of host hematopoiesis. Consistently, cells deficient in TNF receptors had reduced competitive capacity as compared to wild-type progenitors. The TNF receptors were acutely upregulated in bone marrow (BM)-homed donor cells (wild-type) early after transplantation, being expressed in 60%-75% of the donor cells after 6 days. Both TNF receptors were detected in fast cycling, early differentiating progenitors, and were ubiquitously expressed in the most primitive progenitors with long-term reconstituting potential (lin(-)c-kit(+) stem cell antigen (SCA)-1(+)). BM-homed donor cells were insensitive to apoptosis induced by TNF-alpha and Fas-ligand and their combination, despite reciprocal inductive cross talk between the TNF and Fas receptors. The engraftment supporting effect of TNF-alpha is attributed to stimulation of progenitors through TNF-R1, which involves activation of the caspase cascade. This stimulatory effect was not observed for TNF-R2, and this receptor did not assume redundant stimulatory function in TNFR1-deficient cells. It is concluded that TNF-alpha plays a tropic role early after transplantation, which is essential to successful progenitor engraftment.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in early-onset neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prambudi Rukmono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal sepsis remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in newborns. Early-onset neonatal sepsis occurs in infants under the age of 72 hours, while late-onset neonatal sepsis occurs in infants over the age of 72 hours and may be due to nosocomial infection. Diagnosing neonatal sepsis is a challenge, as its clinical symptoms are not clear. Corroborating tests include routine blood, C-reactive protein (CRP, serology, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 examinations.Objective To compare the TNF-α and IL-6 levels in patients with proven and unproven early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONSMethods This case-control study was done in the Perinatology Unit, Abdul Moeloek Hospital, Lampung. Subjects were under the age of 72 hours with risk factors and clinical symptoms of sepsis. They underwent routine blood tests and blood cultures. Infants with positive cultures were considered to have proven sepsis (26 subjects and infants with negative blood cultures were considered to have unproven sepsis (26 subjects. All subjects underwent serological examinations of TNF-α and IL-6.Results There were no differences in the basic characteristics of subjects between the two groups. Levels of TNF-α in the sepsis group were significantly higher than in the unproven group [(28.30 vs. 10.96 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.001]. Furthermore, Il-6 was significantly higher in the proven sepsis group than in the unproven sepsis group [(28.3 vs. 9.69 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.006].Conclusion Levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 are significantly higher in infants with proven than unproven early-onset neonatal sepsis.

  19. Selective regulation of nerve growth factor expression in developing cutaneous tissue by early sensory innervation

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    Vizard Tom N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing vertebrate peripheral nervous system, the survival of sympathetic neurons and the majority of sensory neurons depends on a supply of nerve growth factor (NGF from tissues they innervate. Although neurotrophic theory presupposes, and the available evidence suggests, that the level of NGF expression is completely independent of innervation, the possibility that innervation may regulate the timing or level of NGF expression has not been rigorously investigated in a sufficiently well-characterized developing system. Results To address this important question, we studied the influence of innervation on the regulation of NGF mRNA expression in the embryonic mouse maxillary process in vitro and in vivo. The maxillary process receives its innervation from predominantly NGF-dependent sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglion and is the most densely innervated cutaneous territory with the highest levels of NGF in the embryo. When early, uninnervated maxillary processes were cultured alone, the level of NGF mRNA rose more slowly than in maxillary processes cultured with attached trigeminal ganglia. In contrast to the positive influence of early innervation on NGF mRNA expression, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mRNA and neurotrophin-3 (NT3 mRNA rose to the same extent in early maxillary processes grown with and without trigeminal ganglia. The level of NGF mRNA, but not BDNF mRNA or NT3 mRNA, was also significantly lower in the maxillary processes of erbB3-/- mice, which have substantially fewer trigeminal neurons than wild-type mice. Conclusions This selective effect of initial innervation on target field NGF mRNA expression provokes a re-evaluation of a key assertion of neurotrophic theory that the level of NGF expression is independent of innervation.

  20. 基于OKID的损耗因子辨识方法研究%Research of loss factor identification based on observer Kalman filter identification (OKID)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔宪仁; 张红亮; 杨正贤

    2011-01-01

    Reliability of statistical energy analysis (SEA) models depends on good estimates of SEA parameters, such as coupling loss factor, damping loss factor and modal density. The power flow realization method (PRM) combined with SEA model improvement (SMI) is an approach for identifying SEA parameters from experimental data, which need not to excite every subsystem sequentially. However, the pulse response or Markov parameters of power flow system and reasonable initial model are necessary for successful updating. An improved approach based on observer/kalman filter identification (OKID) for power flow model identification is presented. The Markov parameters can be computed from general experimental data of the input power and output energy, which is then used for minimal realization of the state space representation of power flow model based on eigensystem realization algorithm(ERA). Also a refined SMI method is studied, which considers the coupling information among subsystems of initial SEA model as an additional constraint. In addition, the percentage change to each loss factors which constitute the coefficients of coupling matrix is minimized during the improvement process. The improved approach presented in the paper is validated using the test simulation of an actual structure composed of five subsystems, and performs very well with the noise perturbation. Comparing with traditional SMI, the refined technology is more flexible about the initial SEA model and the updated parameters maintain more physical sense. The identification methodology presented can efficiently improve the experimental identification precision of damping loss factor and coupling loss factor, extend the engineering application of experimental SEA parameters identification.%提出了利用观测器/卡尔曼滤波辨识(OKID)方法辨识系统的最小阶功率流模型.首先直接由测量的输入功率和能量的时域数据辨识功率流系统的Markov参数,然后利用特

  1. Early transcription factor subunits are encoded by vaccinia virus late genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, P D; Moss, B

    1990-06-01

    The vaccinia virus early transcription factor (VETF) was shown to be a virus-encoded heterodimer. The gene for the 82-kDa subunit was identified as open reading frame (ORF) A8L, based on the N-terminal sequence of factor purified by using DNA-affinity magnetic beads. The 70-kDa subunit of VETF was refractory to N-terminal analysis, and so N-terminal sequences were obtained for three internal tryptic peptides. All three peptides matched sequences within ORF D6R. ORFs A8L and D6R are located within the central region of the vaccinia virus genome and are separated by about 13,600 base pairs. Proteins corresponding to the 3' ends of ORFs A8L and D6R were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and used to prepare antisera that bound to the larger and smaller subunits, respectively, of affinity-purified VETF. Immunoblot analysis of proteins from infected cells indicated that both subunits are expressed exclusively in the late phase of infection, just prior to their packaging in virus particles. The two subunits of VETF have no significant local or overall amino acid sequence homology to one another, to other entries in biological sequence data bases including bacterial sigma factors, or to recently determined sequences of some eukaryotic transcription factors. The 70-kDa subunit, however, has motifs in common with a super-family of established and putative DNA and RNA helicases.

  2. Identification of a novel human islet amyloid polypeptide beta-sheet domain and factors influencing fibrillogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikaran, E T; Higham, C E; Serpell, L C; Zurdo, J; Gross, M; Clark, A; Fraser, P E

    2001-05-04

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) accumulates as pancreatic amyloid in type 2 diabetes and readily forms fibrils in vitro. Investigations into the mechanism of hIAPP fibril formation have focused largely on residues 20 to 29, which are considered to comprise a primary amyloidogenic domain. In rodents, proline substitutions within this region and the subsequent beta-sheet disruption, prevents fibril formation. An additional amyloidogenic fragment within the C-terminal sequence, residues 30 to 37, has been identified recently. We have extended these observations by examining a series of overlapping peptide fragments from the human and rodent sequences. Using protein spectroscopy (CD/FTIR), electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, a previously unrecognised amyloidogenic domain was localised within residues 8 to 20. Synthetic peptides corresponding to this region exhibited a transition from random coil to beta-sheet conformation and assembled into fibrils having a typical amyloid-like morphology. The comparable rat 8-20 sequence, which contains a single His18Arg substitution, was also capable of assembling into amyloid-like fibrils. Examination of peptide fragments corresponding to residues 1 to 13 revealed that the immediate N-terminal region is likely to have only a modulating influence on fibril formation or conformational conversion. The contributions of charged residues as they relate to the amyloid-forming 8-20 sequence were also investigated using IAPP fragments and by assessing the effects of pH and counterions. The identification of these principal amyloidogenic sequences and the effects of associated factors provide details on the IAPP aggregation pathway and structure of the peptide in its fibrillar state. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  3. Connective tissue growth factor in tear film of the horse: detection, identification and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, F J; Brooks, D E; Schultz, G S; Blalock, T D; Andrew, S E; Komaromy, A M; Cutler, T J; Lassaline, M E; Kallberg, M E; Van Setten, G B

    2004-02-01

    Healing of corneal ulcers in horses is often associated with profound corneal stromal fibrosis and scar formation resulting in visual impairment. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a fibrogenic cytokine involved in wound healing and scarring. The purpose of this study was to determine whether CTGF was present in the tear fluid of normal horse eyes and the eyes of horses with corneal ulcers in order to evaluate the role of CTGF in corneal wound healing and corneal scar formation. Tear fluid samples were collected from 65 eyes of 44 horses; 32 samples from normal eyes, 21 samples from eyes with corneal ulceration, and 12 samples from the unaffected contralateral eyes of horses with ulcers. CTGF levels in the tears were determined by enzyme immunoassay using goat IgG against human CTGF. Antigenetic similarity of human and horse CTGF was established in a bio-equivalence assay. The identity of horse CTGF was confirmed by western blot. Lacrimal and nictitating membrane glands were investigated by immunohistochemistry in the attempt to clarify the origin of tear fluid CTGF. CTGF was detected in tear film of 23 normal unaffected eyes (72%) and 8 normal contralateral eyes (67%), with the mean CTGF levels (+/- SEM) being 51.5+/-19.2 and 13.4+/-3.9 ng/ml respectively. CTGF was found in 8 eyes with corneal ulcers (38%) with the mean CTGF concentration of 26.3+/-14.8 ng/ml. Western blot identified the protein detected as CTGF. The identification of CTGF in lacrimal glands suggests a major role of these glands in the presence of CTGF in tears. CTGF is present in horse tear fluid and derives, at least partly, from the lacrimal gland. Equine CTGF has strong antigenic similarity with human CTGF. Corneal disease leads to a decrease of CTGF concentrations in tears. The possible role of CTGF in the healing process of ocular surface requires further investigation.

  4. Early onset otitis media: risk factors and effects on the outcome of chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Akeem O; Olayemi, Oladapo; Irabor, Achiaka E

    2008-07-01

    The onset of early otitis media (EOM), in the first few months of life has been reported to predict later chronic otitis media (CSOM), although the prevalence rates are increasing little is known about specific risk factors. In this survey we examined the hypothesis that higher risk factors is associated with the development of OM within 1 year compared to later onset and early onset otitis media (OM) has potential for negative outcome of CSOM. This is a survey of the age at onset of otorrhoea and associated risk factors in children with CSOM, in five sites spread in two sub-urban cities in two states in Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered on the informants followed by examination of the children. EOM was seen in 136/189 (70%) with CSOM, the age range was 1-150 months, mean of 59.25 (SD = 44.55). Of the 85 CSOM subjects with hearing loss, EOM accounted for 49 (57.7%) while 36 (42.4%) was later onset, On multivariate analysis (OR = 0.276, CI = 0.133-0.572, P = 0.001) revealing EOM was significant in the development of hearing loss however there was no correlation with the frequency of attack of otorrhoea (OR = 1.025, CI = 0.88-1.19, P = 0.75). Low socioeconomic status seen in 110/136 EOM (P = 0.000), allergy (P = 0.030) and number of people >10 in household (OR = 4.13, CI = 1.81-9.39, P = 0.001) constituted the significant risk for EOM compared to later onset. Bottlefeeding, adenoiditis/adenoid hypertrophy, indoor cooking and upper respiratory infection were not found to have statistical significance in early onset OM compared to later onset OM. This study found correlation between EOM and hearing loss and identified allergy, low social status and chronic exposure to overcrowding through increased number of children in the household significant risk factors for future research focus. This may help in controlling the prevalence of hearing loss accompanying CSOM.

  5. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Early adolescence (ages 10-14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes. To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural

  6. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    Full Text Available Early adolescence (ages 10-14 is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes.To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally.A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes.Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age. Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents.The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different

  7. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Early adolescence (ages 10–14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents’ personal gender attitudes. Objectives To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. Methods A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984–2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Results Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents’ construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. Conclusions The findings from this

  8. State of oral hygiene and identification of the main risk factors for inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in young people

    OpenAIRE

    Makarenko M.V.

    2014-01-01

    A high percentage of prevalence of inflammatory periodontal diseases in young age causes urgency of treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissue in young age. Therefore, the research purpose was to investigate the hygienic condition and identification of the main risk factors for gingivitis in patients aged 18-30 years. 286 people aged from 18 to 30 years were observed in the study. To assess hygienic condition of the oral cavity and to determine the thickness of pl...

  9. Factors influencing identification of and response to intimate partner violence: a survey of physicians and nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathen C Nadine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women (IPV has been identified as a serious public health problem. Although the health care system is an important site for identification and intervention, there have been challenges in determining how health care professionals can best address this issue in practice. We surveyed nurses and physicians in 2004 regarding their attitudes and behaviours with respect to IPV, including whether they routinely inquire about IPV, as well as potentially relevant barriers, facilitators, experiential, and practice-related factors. Methods A modified Dillman Tailored Design approach was used to survey 1000 nurses and 1000 physicians by mail in Ontario, Canada. Respondents were randomly selected from professional directories and represented practice areas pre-identified from the literature as those most likely to care for women at the point of initial IPV disclosure: family practice, obstetrics and gynecology, emergency care, maternal/newborn care, and public health. The survey instrument had a case-based scenario followed by 43 questions asking about behaviours and resources specific to woman abuse. Results In total, 931 questionnaires were returned; 597 by nurses (59.7% response rate and 328 by physicians (32.8% response rate. Overall, 32% of nurses and 42% of physicians reported routinely initiating the topic of IPV in practice. Principal components analysis identified eight constructs related to whether routine inquiry was conducted: preparedness, self-confidence, professional supports, abuse inquiry, practitioner consequences of asking, comfort following disclosure, practitioner lack of control, and practice pressures. Each construct was analyzed according to a number of related issues, including clinician training and experience with woman abuse, area of practice, and type of health care provider. Preparedness emerged as a key construct related to whether respondents routinely initiated the topic of

  10. Predicting Retrograde Autobiographical Memory Changes Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: Relationships between Individual, Treatment, and Early Clinical Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Donel M; Gálvez, Verònica; Loo, Colleen K

    2015-06-19

    Loss of personal memories experienced prior to receiving electroconvulsive therapy is common and distressing and in some patients can persist for many months following treatment. Improved understanding of the relationships between individual patient factors, electroconvulsive therapy treatment factors, and clinical indicators measured early in the electroconvulsive therapy course may help clinicians minimize these side effects through better management of the electroconvulsive therapy treatment approach. In this study we examined the associations between the above factors for predicting retrograde autobiographical memory changes following electroconvulsive therapy. Seventy-four depressed participants with major depressive disorder were administered electroconvulsive therapy 3 times per week using either a right unilateral or bitemporal electrode placement and brief or ultrabrief pulse width. Verbal fluency and retrograde autobiographical memory (assessed using the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form) were tested at baseline and after the last electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Time to reorientation was measured immediately following the third and sixth electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Results confirmed the utility of measuring time to reorientation early during the electroconvulsive therapy treatment course as a predictor of greater retrograde amnesia and the importance of assessing baseline cognitive status for identifying patients at greater risk for developing later side effects. With increased number of electroconvulsive therapy treatments, older age was associated with increased time to reorientation. Consistency of verbal fluency performance was moderately correlated with change in Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form scores following right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy treatment techniques associated with lesser cognitive side effects should be particularly considered for

  11. Factors Associated With Disability and Sick Leave in Early Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Debbie J; Johnson, Malcolm H; Heiss-Dunlop, Wolfgang; Kydd, Robert R

    2016-02-01

    Factors influencing disability and work absence in complex regional pain syndrome type-1 (CRPS)-1 have not been thoroughly described in the literature. We sought to determine whether demographic variables, work-related factors, CRPS clinical severity ratings, pain scores, or psychological variables were associated with disability and sick leave in early CRPS-1. A total of 66 CRPS-1 patients were recruited within 12 weeks of CRPS onset. Patients completed measures of pain, depression, anxiety, stress, pain catastrophizing, and pain-related fear. A physical examination was conducted to assess signs and symptoms of CRPS and to calculate a CRPS severity score. Demographic details, clinical details, treatments, work type, and work status were recorded. In multivariate analyses, the following factors were associated with greater disability: higher pain scores, more restricted ankle or wrist extension, and higher levels of depression. Among the 49 who were either working or studying before developing CRPS, 28 had stopped work or study at the time of assessment. Multivariate analyses showed that sick leave was more likely among those whose CRPS was triggered by more severe injuries, whose work was more physically demanding, among those with higher disability scores, and there was also a significant effect of depression on sick leave, which was mediated by disability. Although the study was cross-sectional and so cannot differentiate cause from effect, results suggest that even in the early stages of CRPS, a cycle of pain, disability, depression, and work absence can emerge. Treatments aimed to prevent this cycle may help prevent adverse long-term outcomes.

  12. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Moylan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05, after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status. Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns, but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette

  13. Early risk factors for being a bully, victim, or bully/victim in late elementary and early secondary education : The longitudinal TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Veenstra, R.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Data regarding the impact of early risk factors on later involvement in bullying are scarce. We investigated the impact of preschool behaviors, family characteristics (socio-economic status, family breakup) and parental mental health on bullying and victimization at age 11 (T1) and age

  14. Early risk factors for being a bully, victim, or bully/victim in late elementary and early secondary education. the longitudinal TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E.M.C. Jansen (Daniëlle); R. Veenstra (René); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); S.A. Reijneveld (Sijmen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Data regarding the impact of early risk factors on later involvement in bullying are scarce. We investigated the impact of preschool behaviors, family characteristics (socio-economic status, family breakup) and parental mental health on bullying and victimization at age 11

  15. Early risk factors for being a bully, victim, or bully/victim in late elementary and early secondary education : The longitudinal TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Veenstra, R.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Data regarding the impact of early risk factors on later involvement in bullying are scarce. We investigated the impact of preschool behaviors, family characteristics (socio-economic status, family breakup) and parental mental health on bullying and victimization at age 11 (T1) and age 1

  16. Early Identification and Intervention of Head Position Dystocia%头位难产早期识别和干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王稳玉

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨头位难产早期识别和干预方法。方法:本研究选取笔者所在医院产科2013年4月-2015年4月进行分娩的165例头位难产产妇作为研究对象,对其采用头位难产干预处理,观察干预处理后的临床效果。结果:165例头位难产产妇中,剖宫产116例(70.3%),阴道分娩49例(29.7%)。产后出血5例(3.0%),阴道撕裂伤1例(0.6%),新生儿轻度窒息6例(3.6%),重度窒息2例(1.2%),无产妇及新生儿死亡。结论:早期准确识别头位难产,并进行及时干预处理对提高安全分娩具有重要意义。%Objective:To investigate the early identification and intervention of head position dystocia.Method:165 puerpera with head position dystocia were selected from April 2013 to April 2015 in our hospital,which were treated with intervention against head position dystocia.Observed the clinical efficacy of the intervention.Result:In the 165 cases of puerpera,116 cases(70.3%) were treated with cesarean section,49 cases(29.7%) were treated with vaginal delivery.5 cases(3.0%) occured postpartum hemorrhage,1 case(0.6%) occured vaginal laceration,6 cases(3.6%) occured mild neonatal asphyxia,2 cases(1.2%) occured severe neonatal asphyxia.No puerpera and neonatal dead.Conclusion:Identify the head position dystocia early and accurately,and intervening the puerpera timely is important to improve the safety of childbirth.

  17. Pediatrician identification of child behavior problems: the roles of parenting factors and cross-practice differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C

    2012-06-01

    While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care.

  18. Factors Associated with Preterm, Early Preterm and Late Preterm Birth in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Nynke R.; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Neilson, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of risk factors for preterm birth in a population with high incidence of preterm birth and HIV infection. Methods Secondary analysis of data for 2,149 women included in a community based randomized placebo controlled trial for the prevention of preterm birth (APPLe trial (ISRCTN84023116) with gestational age at birth determined through ultrasound measurement in early pregnancy. Multivariate Logistic Regression analyses to obtain models for three outcome variables: all preterm, early preterm, and late preterm birth. Findings No statistical differences were noted for the prevalence of HIV infection (p = 0.30) or syphilis (p = 0.12) between women who delivered preterm versus term. BMI (Adjusted OR 0.91 (0.85–0.97); p = 0.005) and weight gain (Adjusted OR 0.89 (0.82–0.97); p = 0.006) had an independent, protective effect. Previous preterm birth doubled the odds of preterm birth (Adjusted OR 2.13 (1.198–3.80); p = 0.01). Persistent malaria (despite malaria prophylaxis) increased the risk of late preterm birth (Adjusted OR 1.99 (1.05–3.79); p = 0.04). Age <20 (Adjusted OR 1.73 (1.03–2.90); p = 0.04) and anemia (Adjusted OR 1.95 (1.08–3.52); p = 0.03) were associated with early preterm birth (<34 weeks). Conclusions Despite claims that HIV infection is an important cause of preterm birth in Africa, we found no evidence of an association in this population (unexposed to anti-retroviral treatment). Persistent malaria was associated with late preterm birth. Maternal undernourishment and anemia were independently associated with early preterm birth. The study did not assess whether the link was direct or whether a common precursor such as chronic infection was responsible for both maternal effects and early labour. PMID:24595186

  19. Discrepancy between clinicoradiological and surgicopathological staging in stage 1 carcinoma endometrium: Identification of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chitrathara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma endometrium carries an excellent prognosis when diagnosed early. But controversies exist in the management of Ca endometrium confined to the uterus as to whether a complete surgical staging including lymph node dissection is needed always. This may increase unnecessary surgical morbidity for some. On the other hand, if not done it fails to recognize a subset of patients who require adjuvant treatment, thus affecting the outcome. Hence it is very important to categorize the patients to assess the need of complete surgical staging. AIM: The aim of the following study is to identify the risk factors influencing the upstaging of disease in clinicoradiologically stage 1 carcinoma endometrium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective database evaluation of all cases of clinicoradiologically stage 1 carcinoma endometrium from January 2009 to September 2012. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Done using the statistical software SPSS − version 16 for windows (SPSS Inc. 233 South Wacker Drive, 11th Floor Chicago, IL 60606-6412 Independent samples test (t-test for equality of means were done and (two-tailed P < 0.05 − were significant. RESULTS: Carcinoma endometrium patients with grade 1, no or < 50% myometrial involvement, <2 cm size and no isthmus involvement had low risk of upstaging. CONCLUSION: Significant upstaging is seen in the present study with per-operative staging procedures. Until the standardization of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques and reporting, or until a more sensitive non-invasive technique is devised, staging lymphadenectomy appears to be invaluable in risk assessment and prognosis.

  20. [Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the descendants of patients after early myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateřánková, Markéta; Karnosová, Petra; Mlíková Seidlerová, Jitka; Filipovský, Jan; Mayer, Otto

    2017-01-01

    The cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) developing as the result of atherosclerosis are among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality within the Czech Republic and elsewhere. Genetic predisposition for cardiovascular diseases is amplified in the presence of routine risk factors which can be influenced. Our aim was to establish whether the level of the risk factors for ICHS already differs in the population of healthy descendants of the patients after early myocardial infarction, as opposed to the control group of examined individuals. We approached adult children (n = 127; age 28.7 ± 6.5 years) of the patients with early manifestation of ICHS, who were examined within the study EUROASPIRE IV. The examination of both the descendants and the control group (n = 199; age 28.9 ± 5.3 years) focused on identifying the risk factors for ICHS. Descendants presented arterial hypertension more often (18.9 vs 8.0 %, p = 0.003) and there were more smokers among them compared to the control group (37 vs 24.1 %, p = 0.01). The levels of triglycerides (1.13 vs 0.99 mmol/l, p = 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (2.7 vs 2.45 mmol/l, p = 0.01) were higher in the descendant group, HDL-cholesterol was similar in both groups (1.6 vs 1.67 mmol/l, p = 0.17). Increased fasting glycemia occurred more frequent in the descendant group (5.5 vs 1.5 %, p = 0.05). None of the examined participants met the criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Aortic stiffness was higher in the descendant group as opposed to the control group (6.2 vs 5.8 m/s, p = 0.001). The total calculated cardiovascular risk based on the SCORE system was also higher in the descendant group as compared to the control group - the current risk related to the age of 40 years: 0.35 (0.19-0.64) vs 0.20 (0.13-0.47), p triglycerides and impaired fasting glycemia more frequently. Unfavourable genetic predisposition along with unfitting lifestyle contributes to a higher likelihood of accumulation of risk factors, and therefore

  1. Factors related to lymph node metastasis and surgical strategy used to treat early gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yi Kim; Jae Kyoon Joo; Seong Yeob Ryu; Young Jin Kim; Shin Kon Kim

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The prognosis of early gastric carcinoma (EGC) is generally excellent after surgery. The presence or absence of lymph node metastasis in EGC is an important prognostic factor. The survival and recurrence rates of node-negative EGC are much better than those of node-positive EGC. This study examined the factors related to lymph node metastasis in EGC to determine the appropriate treatment for EGC.METHODS: We investigated 748 patients with EGC who underwent surgery between January 1985 and December 1999 at the Division of Gastroenterologic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Chonnam National University Hospital. Several clinicopathologic factors were investigated to analyze their relationship to lymph node metastasis: age, sex, tumor location, tumor size, gross type, histologic type, depth of invasion, extent of lymph node dissection, type of operation,and DNA ploidy.RESULTS: Lymph node metastases were found in 75 patients (10.0%). Univariate analysis showed that male sex, tumor size larger than 2.0 cm, submucosal invasion of tumor, histologic differentiation, and DNA ploidy pattern were risk factors for regional lymph node metastasis in EGC patients. However, a multivariate analysis showed that three risk factors were associated with lymph node metastasis:large tumor size, undifferentiated histologic type and submucosal invasion. No statistical relationship was found for age, sex, tumor location, gross type, or DNA ploidy in multivariate analysis. The 5-year survival rate was 94.2% for those without lymph node metastasis and 87.3% for those with lymph node metastasis, and the difference was significant (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: In patients with EGC, the survival rate of patients with positive lymph nodes is significantly worse than that of patients with no lymph node metastasis. Therefore,a standard D2 lymphadenectomy should be performed in patients at high risk of lymph node metastasis: large tumor size, undifferentiated histologic type and submucosal invasion.

  2. Factor V leiden and ischemic stroke risk: the Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Ali G; Cole, John W; Cheng, Yuching; Sparks, Mary J; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stine, Oscar C; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    Factor V Leiden (FVL) has been associated with ischemic stroke in children but not in adults. Although the FVL mutation is associated with increased risk for venous thrombosis, its association with ischemic stroke in young adults remains uncertain. Therefore, we examined the association between FVL and ischemic stroke in participants of the Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study. A population-based case control study identified 354 women and 476 men 15 to 49 years of age with first-ever ischemic stroke and 907 controls. Participant-specific data included vascular risk factors, FVL genotype and, for cases, the ischemic stroke subtype by modified Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the entire population and for subgroups stratified by risk factors and ischemic stroke subtype. The frequency of the FVL mutation was similar between ischemic stroke patients (3.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5%-5.1%) and nonstroke controls (3.8%; 95% CI 2.7%-5.2%). This frequency did not change significantly when cases were restricted to patients with stroke of undetermined etiology (4.1%; 95% CI 2.6%-6.4%). Among young adults, we found no evidence for an association between FVL and either all ischemic stroke or the subgroup with stroke of undetermined etiology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Prognostic factors of second primary contralateral breast cancer in early-stage breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, ZHENG; SERGENT, FABRICE; BOLLA, MICHEL; ZHOU, YUNFENG; GABELLE-FLANDIN, ISABELLE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic outcome of early-stage breast cancer (pT1aN0M0) and to identify prognostic factors for secondary primary contralateral breast cancer (CBC). A total of 85 patients with mammary carcinomas were included. All patients had undergone breast surgery and adjuvant treatment between January 2001 and December 2008 at the Central Hospital of Grenoble University (Grenoble, France). The primary end-points were disease-free survival and secondary CBC, and the potential prognostic factors were investigated. During a median follow-up of 60 months, 10 of the 85 patients presented with secondary primary cancer, of which six suffered with CBC. No patient mortalities were reported. The rates of CBC were 2.35, 3.53 and 7.06% at one, two and five years, respectively. The cumulative univariate analysis showed that microinvasion and family history are potential risk factors for newly CBC. The current study also demonstrated that secondary CBC was more likely to occur in patients with microinvasion or a family history of hte dise. In addition, the systematic treatment of secondary CBC should include hormone therapy. PMID:25435968

  4. Risk factors for executive function difficulties in preschool and early school-age preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meagher, Sari; Kemp, Nenagh; Norris, Kimberley; Anderson, Peter; Skilbeck, Clive

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between executive functioning and social and perinatal risk factors in four- to five-year-old preterm children. Using standardised measures of general intelligence and performance-based executive function (EF) tests prior to starting kindergarten, 141 children born preterm (preterm and the term comparison groups were compared on measures of intelligence and EFs using independent-groups t-tests, and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of intelligence and executive functioning in the preterm group. The preterm group performed significantly more poorly than the comparison group on all intelligence and EF tests. The parental reports of the preterm and term comparison children's EF did not differ significantly, but the teachers reported elevated EF difficulties for the preterm group. Higher social risk, in particular lower educational level of the main caregiver, was the strongest predictor for the preterm children's intelligence and EF results. Social risk factors are strongly associated with impaired early EF outcomes in preterm children. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Human Factors of an Early Space Accident: Flight 3-65 of the X-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Statler, Irving C.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2016-01-01

    The X-15 was a critical research vehicle in the early days of space flight. On November 15, 1967, the X-15-3 suffered an in-flight breakup. This 191st flight of the X-15 and the 65th flight of this third configuration was the only fatal accident of the X-15 program. This paper presents an analysis, from a human factors perspective, of the events that led up to the accident. The analysis is based on the information contained in the report of the Air Force-NASA Accident Investigation Board (AIB) dated January, 1968. The AIBs analysis addressed, primarily, the events that occurred subsequent to the pilot's taking direct control of the reaction control system. The analysis described here suggests that, rather than events following the pilot's switch to direct control, it was the events preceding the switch that led to the accident. Consequently, the analyses and conclusions regarding the causal factors of, and the contributing factors to, the loss of Flight 3-65 presented here differ from those of the AIB based on the same evidence. Although the accident occurred in 1967, the results of the presented analysis are still relevant today. We present our analysis and discuss its implications for the safety of space operations.

  6. Early variability in the conceptualisation of "sustainable development and human factors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The sub-discipline of "sustainable development and human factors" is relatively new, first being used in 2006 with a Technical Committee of the IEA being established only in 2009 and a similar special interest group on "green ergonomics" at the Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors being established in 2010. In general though, the definitions and practice of "sustainable development" is highly contentious and ambiguous across a range of disciplines. This paper examines the diversity of definitions and approaches to sustainable development and human factors in the early papers in this sub-discipline. An examination of 45 chapters and papers (from 2008 to 2011) reveals a surprising consistency in the definitions used for sustainable development but also a large proportion of the papers where no definitions are given at all. The majority of papers were, however, biased towards an economic capital and social capital emphasis, which is to be expected of work traditionally in the ergonomics paradigm. Further, most papers were theoretical in nature demonstrating a great opportunity for empirical work. The variability in definitions is discussed in relation to the future challenges facing the growth of this emergent sub-discipline and opportunities for further theoretical and empirical work.

  7. TALE transcription factors during early development of the vertebrate brain and eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Dorothea; Frank, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Our brain's cognitive performance arises from the coordinated activities of billions of nerve cells. Despite a high degree of morphological and functional differences, all neurons of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) arise from a common field of multipotent progenitors. Cell fate specification and differentiation are directed by multistep processes that include inductive/external cues, such as the extracellular matrix or growth factors, and cell-intrinsic determinants, such as transcription factors and epigenetic modulators of proteins and DNA. Here we review recent findings implicating TALE-homeodomain proteins in these processes. Although originally identified as HOX-cofactors, TALE proteins also contribute to many physiological processes that do not require HOX-activity. Particular focus is, therefore, given to HOX-dependent and -independent functions of TALE proteins during early vertebrate brain development. Additionally, we provide an overview about known upstream and downstream factors of TALE proteins in the developing vertebrate brain and discuss general concepts of how TALE proteins function to modulate neuronal cell fate specification.

  8. Microfluidic Chip-Based Online Screening Coupled to Mass Spectrometry: Identification of Inhibitors of Thrombin and Factor Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Janaki Krishnamoorthy; Otvos, Reka A; Kool, Jeroen; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2016-02-01

    Thrombin and factor Xa (FXa) are critical enzymes of the blood coagulation cascade and are excellent targets of anticoagulant agents. Natural sources present an array of anticoagulants that can be developed as antithrombotic drugs. High-resolution, online screening techniques have been developed for the identification of drug leads from complex mixtures. In this study, we have developed and optimized a microfluidic online screening technique coupled to nano-liquid chromatography (LC) and in parallel with a mass spectrometer for the identification of thrombin and FXa inhibitors in mixtures. Inhibitors eluting from the nano-LC were split postcolumn in a 1:1 ratio; half was fed into a mass spectrometer (where its mass is detected), and the other half was fed into a microfluidic chip (which acts as a microreactor for the online assays). With our platform, thrombin and FXa inhibitors were detected in the assay in parallel with their mass identification. These methods are suitable for the identification of inhibitors from sample amounts as low as sub-microliter volumes.

  9. [IDENTIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL RISK FOR ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION. REPORT II: ELIMINATION OF THE MODIFYNG INFLUENCE OF FACTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, S A; Skripchenko, A E; Mikhailuts, A P; Artamonova, G V

    2016-01-01

    This study is a continuation of (Report I) identification of the occupational risk of arterial hypertension (AH) in 13 occupational groups (3842 workers, men). In previous work there was eliminated the influence of traditional factors of the cardiovascular risk, in this study there was implemented the identification of the components of a healthy worker effect (HWE) and the elimination of their influence on the occupational risks of hypertension. Identification and removal of components HWE--the effect of a healthy recruitment (EHR) and the effect of the healthy worker persisting to work (EHWPW--was carried out by the analytic rearranging of the standardized for age and obesity prevalence rate of arterial hypertension with the use of own methodological approaches. For the determination of the presence and severity of EHR there was performed an analysis of the initial prevalence rate of arterial hypertension in the youngest age groups (under 31 years). To overcome HER standardized for age and obesity indices of the arterial hypertension prevalence rate were adjusted by the ratio of the frequency of arterial hypertension in the most young occupational and reference comparable groups. Identification of HWPW was executed by comparing the frequency of AH among workers retiring within 3 years from the occupational groups when compared to the whole sample. Then on the additional risk value there was adjusted the overall prevalence rate of AH in the occupation profession to overcome EHWPW. As a result of the consistent correction and elimination of the influence of HWE components on the prevalence rate of AH, there were obtained risks values, primarily reflecting the impact of occupational factors which can be considered as true occupational risks. Factors of the cardiovascular risk and HWE significantly modified true occupational risks for AH in a number of occupational groups up to inversion. At the same time, the pronouncement of EHR has a paramount importance in the

  10. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Stultiens, Catharina L. M.; de Groot, Peter F. M.; Powers, Stephen J.; Tikunov, Yury M.; Bovy, Arnoud G.; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development. PMID:25883382

  11. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Stultiens, Catharina L M; de Groot, Peter F M; Powers, Stephen J; Tikunov, Yury M; Bovy, Arnoud G; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-06-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Unique and interactive effects of empathy, family, and school factors on early adolescents' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanova, Milena; Loukas, Alexandra

    2014-11-01

    Although research indicates that empathy inhibits youth aggression, little is known about the prospective associations between different components of empathy and aggression, as well as whether family and school factors moderate the aforementioned associations in early adolescents. Based on prior research, the current study examined whether empathic concern and perspective taking would contribute to subsequent overt and relational aggression over a 1-year period in middle school. Guided by the social development model, we also examined if positive family relations and school connectedness would differentially moderate the associations between both components of empathy and aggression. Participants were 481 10- to 14-year old students (54 % female; 78 % European American) who completed the first wave of a survey in 6th and 7th grades. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that only for girls did lower levels of empathic concern, not perspective taking, contribute to increases in subsequent overt, not relational, aggression. Although neither positive family relations nor school connectedness played protective roles for girls, results indicated that boys' reports of positive family relations buffered the negative impact of low empathic concern on both forms of aggression 1 year later. Over and above the two components of empathy, school connectedness also contributed to a decline in boys' subsequent overt aggression. Recommendations are made to foster family and school relationships among boys, as well as to more heavily consider the role of emotion processes in the study and prevention of early adolescents' aggression.

  13. Personality and early maladaptive schemas: a five-factor model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimm, Jens C

    2010-12-01

    According to Young's schema model (Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press), innate personality tendencies are important for the understanding of early maladaptive schemas (EMS). The current study examined the relations between EMS and the dimensions of the five-factor model of personality (FFM). One hundred and forty-seven adult outpatients completed the NEO PI-R, the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Correlational analyses showed a substantial overlap between EMS and the FFM, neuroticism in particular. EMS predicted depressive symptoms above and beyond the FFM personality dimensions. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Are plant endogenous factors like ethylene modulators of the early oxidative stress induced by mercury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Belén eMontero-Palmero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The induction of oxidative stress is one of the quickest symptoms appearing in plants subjected to metal stress. A transcriptional analysis of the early responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa seedlings to mercury (Hg; 3 µM for 3, 6 and 24 h showed that up-regulation of genes responding to ethylene were up-regulated, a phytohormone known to mediate in the cellular redox homeostasis. In this mini-review we have compared these quick responses with two other concurrent transcriptomic analysis in Barrel medic (Medicago truncatula and barley (Hordeum vulgare under Hg stress. Besides ethylene, ABA and jasmonate related genes were up-regulated, all of them are endogenous factors known to intervene in oxidative stress responses. The information obtained may target future work to understand the cellular mechanisms triggered by Hg, enabling biotechnological approaches to diminish Hg-induced phytotoxicity.

  15. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as early signals in root hair cells responding to rhizobial nodulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2008-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in supporting polar growth in pollen tubes, fucoid cells and root hair cells. However, there is limited evidence showing ROS changes during the earliest stages of the interaction between legume roots and rhizobia. We recently reported using Phaseolus vulgaris as a model system, the occurrence of a transient increase of ROS, within seconds, at the tip of actively growing root hair cells after treatment with Nod factors (NFs).1 This transient response is NFs-specific, and clearly distinct from the ROS changes induced by a fungal elicitor, with which sustained increases in ROS signal, is observed. Since ROS levels are transiently elevated after NFs perception, we propose that this ROS response is specific of the symbiotic interaction. Furthermore, the observed ROS changes correlate spatially and temporarily with the reported transient increases in calcium levels suggesting key roles for calcium and ROS during the early NF perception.

  16. Grandmother Involvement as a Protective Factor for Early Childhood Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna L.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite high rates of grandmother involvement with young grandchildren, very little research has examined the associations between non-residential grandmother involvement and grandchild social adjustment. The present study draws 127 families enrolled in the Family Transitions Project to consider the degree to which mother-reported maternal grandmother involvement buffers 3- and 4-year old grandchildren from economic, parenting, and child temperamental risks for reduced social competence and elevated externalizing behaviors. Findings indicate that higher levels of mother-reported grandmother involvement reduced the negative association between observed grandchild negative emotional reactivity and social competence. Further, high levels of mother-reported grandmother involvement protected grandchildren from the positive association between observed harsh mother parenting and grandchild externalizing behaviors. These findings underscore the relevance of moving beyond the nuclear family to understand factors linked to social adjustment during early childhood. PMID:20954774

  17. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, pAdolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, psmoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence.

  18. Self-esteem in Early Adolescence as Predictor of Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Mediating Role of Motivational and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, M; Van Roekel, E; Oldehinkel, A J

    2017-08-07

    Ample research has shown that low self-esteem increases the risk to develop depressive symptoms during adolescence. However, the mechanism underlying this association remains largely unknown, as well as how long adolescents with low self-esteem remain vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms. Insight into this mechanism may not only result in a better theoretical understanding but also provide directions for possible interventions. To address these gaps in knowledge, we investigated whether self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood. Moreover, we investigated a cascading mediational model, in which we focused on factors that are inherently related to self-esteem and the adolescent developmental period: approach and avoidance motivation and the social factors social contact, social problems, and social support. We used data from four waves of the TRAILS study (N = 2228, 51% girls): early adolescence (mean age 11 years), middle adolescence (mean age 14 years), late adolescence (mean age 16 years), and early adulthood (mean age 22 years). Path-analyses showed that low self-esteem is an enduring vulnerability for developing depressive symptoms. Self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence as well as early adulthood. This association was independently mediated by avoidance motivation and social problems, but not by approach motivation. The effect sizes were relatively small, indicating that having low self-esteem is a vulnerability factor, but does not necessarily predispose adolescents to developing depressive symptoms on their way to adulthood. Our study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms, and has identified avoidance motivation and social problems as possible targets for intervention.

  19. Chinese primiparous women's experiences of early motherhood: factors affecting maternal role competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally W C; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Chinese women's perceptions of maternal role competence and factors contributing to maternal role competence during early motherhood. Developing a sense of competence and satisfaction in the maternal role are considered critical components in maternal adaptation, which have a significant impact on parenting behaviours and the psychosocial development of the child. However, qualitative studies that address maternal role competence are limited in the Chinese population. This was an exploratory descriptive study. A purposive sample of 26 Chinese primiparous mothers participated in a childbirth psychoeducation programme and was interviewed at six weeks postpartum. Data were analysed using content analysis. Women perceived a competent mother as being able to make a commitment to caring for the physical and emotional well-being of child, while cultivating appropriate values for childhood. Personal knowledge and experience of infant care, success in breastfeeding, infant's well-being, availability of social support and contradictory information from various sources were major factors affecting maternal role competency. The findings highlight the importance of understanding Chinese cultural attitudes to childrearing and maternal role competence. New Chinese mothers need information on child care, positive experiences of infant care, social support and consistent information to enhance their maternal role competency. Recommendations are made for Chinese culturally specific guidelines and healthcare delivery interventions to enhance maternal role competence in early motherhood. Nursing and midwifery care should always take into account the cultural beliefs and enable adaptation of traditional postpartum practices. Providing consistent information and positive experience on parenting skills and infant behaviour as well as enhancing effective coping strategies could strengthen Chinese women's maternal role competency. © 2011 Blackwell

  20. Nuclear Translocation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B in First Trimester Deciduas and Chorionic Villi in Early Spontaneous Miscarriage Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-fang Yan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear factor kappa B is widely expressed in the distinct subpopulations of chorionic villi and deciduas of first-trimester pregnancies. We examined the cellular distribution and expression of nuclear factor kappa B in the human first-trimester chorionic villi and deciduas of women with early spontaneous miscarriage and viable pregnancy by confocal laser scanning microscope and immunohistochemistry. There is a greater nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B is restricted to villous stromal cells, decidual stromal cells, glandular epithelial cells and vessel endothelial cells in early spontaneous miscarriage than in viable pregnancies. Collectively these observations suggest that over-activation of nuclear factor kappa B has a relationship with early spontaneous miscarriages.

  1. Clinical outcomes of adjuvant radiation therapy and prognostic factors in early stage uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Rhee, Woo Joong; Choi, Seo Hee; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Gwi Eon; Kim, Yong Bae

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and to analyze prognostic factors of survival in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 148 patients with FIGO IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant RT at the Yonsei Cancer Center between June 1997 and December 2011. Adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis or an extended field with or without brachytherapy. Among all patients, 57 (38.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy either concurrently or sequentially. To analyze prognostic factors, we assessed clinicopathologic variables and metabolic parameters measured on preoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). To evaluate the predictive performance of metabolic parameters, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The median follow-up period was 63.2 months (range, 2.7 to 206.8 months). Locoregional recurrence alone occurred in 6 patients, while distant metastasis was present in 16 patients, including 2 patients with simultaneous regional failure. The 5-year and 10-year OSs were 87.0% and 85.4%, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year DFSs were 83.8% and 82.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, pathologic type and tumor size were shown to be significant prognostic factors associated with both DFS and OS. In subset analysis of 40 patients who underwent preoperative PET/CT, total lesion glycolysis was shown to be the most significant prognostic factor among the clinicopathologic variables and metabolic parameters for DFS. Our results demonstrated that adjuvant RT following hysterectomy effectively improves local control. From the subset analysis of preoperative PET/CT, we can consider that metabolic parameters may hold prognostic significance

  2. Psychosocial risk factors for hospital readmission in COPD patients on early discharge services: a cohort study

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    Todd Christopher J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital readmission for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD occurs in up to 30% of patients, leading to excess morbidity and poor survival. Physiological risk factors predict readmission, but the impact of modifiable psychosocial risk factors remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate whether psychosocial risk factors independently predict readmission for AECOPD in patients referred to early discharge services (EDS. Methods This prospective cohort study included 79 patients with AECOPD cared for by nurse led EDS in the UK, and followed up for 12 months. Data on lung function, medical comorbidities, previous hospital admissions, medications, and sociodemographics were collected at baseline; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and social support were measured at baseline, 3 and 12-months. Exploratory multivariate models were fitted to identify psychosocial factors associated with readmission adjusted for known confounders. Results 26 patients were readmitted within 90 days and 60 patients were readmitted at least once during follow-up. Depression at baseline predicted readmission adjusted for sociodemographics and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (odds ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.60, p = 0.013. Perceived social support was not significantly associated with risk of readmission. Home ownership was associated with the total number of readmissions (B = 0.46, 95% CI -0.86 to -0.06, p = 0.024. Compared with those not readmitted, readmitted patients had worse SGRQ and HADS scores at 12 months. Conclusion Depressive symptoms and socioeconomic status, but not perceived social support, predict risk of readmission and readmission frequency for AECOPD in patients cared for by nurse-led EDS. Future work on reducing demand for unscheduled hospital admissions could include the design and evaluation of interventions aimed at optimising the psychosocial care of AECOPD patients managed at

  3. Early outgrowth cells release soluble endocrine antifibrotic factors that reduce progressive organ fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Darren A; Connelly, Kim A; Zhang, Yanling; Advani, Suzanne L; Thai, Kerri; Kabir, Golam; Kepecs, David; Spring, Christopher; Smith, Christopher; Batruch, Ihor; Kosanam, Hari; Advani, Andrew; Diamandis, Eleftherios; Marsden, Philip A; Gilbert, Richard E

    2013-11-01

    Adult bone marrow-derived cells can improve organ function in chronic disease models, ostensibly by the release of paracrine factors. It has, however, been difficult to reconcile this prevailing paradigm with the lack of cell retention within injured organs and their rapid migration to the reticuloendothelial system. Here, we provide evidence that the salutary antifibrotic effects of bone marrow-derived early outgrowth cells (EOCs) are more consistent with an endocrine mode of action, demonstrating not only the presence of antifibrotic factors in the plasma of EOC-treated rats but also that EOC conditioned medium (EOC-CM) potently attenuates both TGF-β- and angiotensin II-induced fibroblast collagen production in vitro. To examine the therapeutic relevance of these findings in vivo, 5/6 subtotally nephrectomized rats, a model of chronic kidney and heart failure characterized by progressive fibrosis of both organs, were randomized to receive i.v. injections of EOC-CM, unconditioned medium, or 10(6) EOCs. Rats that received unconditioned medium developed severe kidney injury with cardiac diastolic dysfunction. In comparison, EOC-CM-treated rats demonstrated substantially improved renal and cardiac function and structure, mimicking the changes found in EOC-treated animals. Mass spectrometric analysis of EOC-CM identified proteins that regulate cellular functions implicated in fibrosis. These results indicate that EOCs secrete soluble factor(s) with highly potent antifibrotic activity, that when injected intravenously replicate the salutary effects of the cells themselves. Together, these findings suggest that an endocrine mode of action may underlie the effectiveness of cell therapy in certain settings and portend the possibility for systemic delivery of cell-free therapy.

  4. Reversing Early Retirement in Advanced Welfare EconomiesA Paradigm Shift to Overcome Push and Pull Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Ebbinghaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent reform efforts of advanced welfare states have attempted to reverse trends in early retirement and increase the statutory retirement age. This paradigm shift often occurred against the protest of unions, firms and their employees. As a consequence of expanding welfare states and as response to economic challenges since the 1970s early exit from work has become a widespread practice. Early retirement has been part of Continental Europe’s welfare without work problem, while the Scandinavian welfare states, the Anglophone liberal economies and the Japanese welfare society were able to maintain higher levels of employment for older workers. Since the 1990s, an international consensus to reverse early exit from work emerged among international organisations and national policy experts. Based on a comparative historical analysis of selected OECD countries, this study analyses the cross-national variations in the institutionalisation of early exit regimes and its recent reversal using macro-indictors on early exit trends and stylised information on institutional arrangements. Comparing the interaction of social policy and economic institutions, it reviews the cross-national differences in welfare state “pull” and economic “push” factors that have contributed to early exit from work and discusses the likely impact of welfare retrenchment and assesses the importance of “retention” factors such as activation policies for decreasing early exit from work.

  5. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Yuan; Shu, Yimin; Cheng, Yuan; Qiao, Jie; Behr, Barry; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2012-01-01

    Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin) in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for infertility

  6. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Kawamura

    Full Text Available Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for

  7. Early identification in primary health care of people at risk for sick leave due to work-related stress - study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Sandheimer, Christine; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Maria E H; Bültmann, Ute; Hange, Dominique; Hensing, Gunnel

    2016-11-25

    Early identification of persons at risk of sickness absence due to work-related stress is a crucial problem for society in general, and primary health care in particular. Tho date, no established method to do this exists. This project's aim is to evaluate whether systematic early identification of work-related stress can prevent sickness absence. This paper presents the study design, procedure and outcome measurements, as well as allocation and baseline characteristics of the study population. The study is a two-armed randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months. Non-sick-listed employed women and men, aged 18 to 64 years, who had mental and physical health complaints and sought care at primary health care centers (PHCC) were eligible to participate. At baseline work-related stress was measured by the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ), combined with feedback at consultation, at PHCC. The preventive intervention included early identification of work-related stress by the WSQ, GP training in the use of WSQ, GP feedback at consultation and finding suitable preventive measures. A process evaluation was used to explore how to facilitate future implementation and structural use of the WSQ at the PHCC. The primary outcome to compare the preventive sick leave intervention by the general practitioner (GP) versus treatment as usual is sick leave data obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency register. Early screening for sick leave due to work-related stress makes it possible not only to identify those at risk for sick leave, but also to put focus on the patient's specific work-related stress problems, which can be helpful in finding suitable preventive measures. This study investigates if use of the WSQ by GPs at PHCCs, combined with feedback at consultation, prevents future sickness absence. ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02480855 . Registered 20 May 2015.

  8. Impact of axillary nodal metastases on lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node identification rate in patients with early stage breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelosi, Ettore [Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, S.C.D.U. Medicina Nucleare 2, Turin (Italy); Universita Torino, Dottorato di Ricerca Radioimmunolocalizzazione dei Tumori Umani, Turin (Italy); Ala, Ada; Bussone, Riccardo [Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, Reparto di Chirurgia Oncologica 10, Turin (Italy); Bello, Marilena; Douroukas, Anastasios; Varetto, Teresio [Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, S.C.D.U. Medicina Nucleare 2, Turin (Italy); Migliaretti, Giuseppe [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Microbiologia, Turin (Italy); Berardengo, Ester [Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, Servizio di Anatomia Patologica 4, Turin (Italy); Bisi, Gianni [Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, S.C.D.U. Medicina Nucleare 2, Turin (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, SCDU Medicina Nucleare 2, Turin (Italy)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to define the impact of the presence of axillary nodal metastases on lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification rate in patients with early breast cancer. Two hundred and forty-six lymphatic mapping procedures were performed with both labelled nanocolloid and blue dye, followed by SLN biopsy and/or complete axillary dissection. The following parameters were recorded: patient's age, tumour laterality and location, tumour size, tumour histology, tumour stage, tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion, radiotracer injection site (subdermal-peritumoural/peri-areolar), SLN visualisation at lymphoscintigraphy, SLN metastases (presence/absence, size) and other axillary metastases (presence/absence, number). Discriminant analysis was used to analyse the data. SLNs were identified by labelled nanocolloid alone in 94.7% of tumours, by blue dye alone in 93.5% and by the combined technique in 99.2%. Discriminant analysis showed the gamma probe SLN identification rate to be significantly limited by the presence of axillary nodal metastases. In particular, the size of SLN metastases and the number of other axillary metastases were the most important variables in reducing the gamma probe SLN identification rate (p=0.004 and p=0.002, respectively). On the other hand, high tumour grade was the only parameter limiting the blue dye SLN identification rate. The accuracy of lymphatic mapping with labelled nanocolloid is limited by the presence of axillary nodal metastases, and particularly by the degree of SLN tumoural invasion and the presence and number of other axillary nodal metastases. Neither of these elements seems to interfere with the blue dye identification rate. The combination of the two tracers maximises the SLN identification rate. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of Traffic Crashes Involving Pedestrians Using Big Data: Investigation of Contributing Factors and Identification of Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kun; Ozbay, Kaan; Kurkcu, Abdullah; Yang, Hong

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to explore the potential of using big data in advancing the pedestrian risk analysis including the investigation of contributing factors and the hotspot identification. Massive amounts of data of Manhattan from a variety of sources were collected, integrated, and processed, including taxi trips, subway turnstile counts, traffic volumes, road network, land use, sociodemographic, and social media data. The whole study area was uniformly split into grid cells as the basic geographical units of analysis. The cell-structured framework makes it easy to incorporate rich and diversified data into risk analysis. The cost of each crash, weighted by injury severity, was assigned to the cells based on the relative distance to the crash site using a kernel density function. A tobit model was developed to relate grid-cell-specific contributing factors to crash costs that are left-censored at zero. The potential for safety improvement (PSI) that could be obtained by using the actual crash cost minus the cost of "similar" sites estimated by the tobit model was used as a measure to identify and rank pedestrian crash hotspots. The proposed hotspot identification method takes into account two important factors that are generally ignored, i.e., injury severity and effects of exposure indicators. Big data, on the one hand, enable more precise estimation of the effects of risk factors by providing richer data for modeling, and on the other hand, enable large-scale hotspot identification with higher resolution than conventional methods based on census tracts or traffic analysis zones. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Potentially modifiable psychosocial factors associated with alcohol use during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, Peter W; Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K

    2004-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors associated with alcohol use among early adolescents. A survey was administered to all Grade 7 and 8 students in 16 Vermont school districts. The questionnaire covered demographics, alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, and measures of psychosocial mediators of alcohol use drawn from social cognitive theory. These included positive and negative expectancies about alcohol effects, perceived peer and parent alcohol norms, perceived prevalence of adolescent alcohol use, and confidence in ability to refuse alcohol. Of the 2919 respondents, 29% reported having at least one drink of beer in the preceding 30 days. In logistic regression, factors independently related to risk of drinking beer in the past 30 days were smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-3.0), marijuana use (OR 3.9, 95% CI 3.0-5.2), negative expectancies (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.6), parent norms (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), and estimated percentage of high school students who drink (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5). Gender, positive alcohol expectancies, and lack of confidence in ability to refuse alcohol all significantly interacted with peer norm, with these items more strongly associated with alcohol use when peer norm is toward "shouldn't drink." Modifiable perceptions of alcohol use were strongly associated with actual use in this adolescent sample, providing a basis for intervention program design.

  11. Increased Nerve Growth Factor Signaling in Sensory Neurons of Early Diabetic Rats Is Corrected by Electroacupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Lucia Nori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN, characterized by early hyperalgesia and increased nerve growth factor (NGF, evolves in late irreversible neuropathic symptoms with reduced NGF support to sensory neurons. Electroacupuncture (EA modulates NGF in the peripheral nervous system, being effective for the treatment of DPN symptoms. We hypothesize that NGF plays an important pathogenic role in DPN development, while EA could be useful in the therapy of DPN by modulating NGF expression/activity. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ injection. One week after STZ, EA was started and continued for three weeks. NGF system and hyperalgesia-related mediators were analyzed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG and in their spinal cord and skin innervation territories. Our results show that four weeks long diabetes increased NGF and NGF receptors and deregulated intracellular signaling mediators of DRG neurons hypersensitization; EA in diabetic rats decreased NGF and NGF receptors, normalized c-Jun N-terminal and p38 kinases activation, decreased transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel, and possibly activated the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (Nf-κB. In conclusion, NGF signaling deregulation might play an important role in the development of DPN. EA represents a supportive tool to control DPN development by modulating NGF signaling in diabetes-targeted neurons.

  12. Understanding Early Contextual and Parental Risk Factors for the Development of Limited Prosocial Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on 'limited prosocial emotions' (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10-12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N = 310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10-12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10-12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10-12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment.

  13. Understanding early contextual and parental risk factors for the development of limited prosocial emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on ‘limited prosocial emotions’ (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10–12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N = 310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10–12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10–12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10–12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment. PMID:25510355

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and early life adversity affect hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballedo, Angela; Morris, Derek; Zill, Peter; Fahey, Ciara; Reinhold, Elena; Meisenzahl, Eva; Bondy, Brigitta; Gill, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Frodl, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The interaction between adverse life events during childhood and genetic factors is associated with a higher risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). One of the polymorphisms found to be associated with MDD is the Val66MET polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The aim of our two-center study was to determine how the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and childhood adversity affect the volumetric measures of the hippocampus in healthy individuals and people with MDD. In this two-center study, 62 adult patients with MDD and 71 healthy matched controls underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We used manual tracing of the bilateral hippocampal structure with help of the software BRAINS2, assessed childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and genotyped Val66Met BDNF SNP (rs6265). MDD patients had smaller hippocampal volumes, both in the left and right hemispheres (F = 5.4, P = 0.022). We also found a significant interaction between BDNF allele and history of childhood adversity (F = 6.1, P = 0.015): Met allele carriers in our samples showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes when they did have a history of childhood adversity, both in patients and controls. Our results highlight how relevant stress-gene interactions are for hippocampal volume reductions. Subjects exposed to early life adversity developed smaller hippocampal volumes when they carry the Met-allele of the BDNF polymorphism.

  15. Allergic sensitisation in early childhood: Patterns and related factors in PARIS birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabet, Stephan; Just, Jocelyne; Couderc, Rémy; Seta, Nathalie; Momas, Isabelle

    2016-11-01

    Allergic sensitisation is poorly documented in infants. This study aims to provide new insights into allergic sensitisation patterns and related factors in infancy. This study concerns 1860 infants involved in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) population-based birth cohort who had a standardised health examination when 18 months old, from 2004 to 2008. Sensitisation was assessed by measurements of serum specific IgE to 12 food and 4 inhalant allergens and defined by IgE≥0.35kUA/L. Information regarding lifestyle and environment were obtained from questionnaires prospectively administered. Prevalence of allergic sensitisation to any allergen, to food allergens, and to aeroallergens was 13.8%, 12.3%, and 2.3%, respectively. Multiple sensitisation (to at least two allergens) concerned 6.2% of toddlers. Intrinsic factors such as male gender, family history of allergy, and high birth weight increased the risk of food allergen sensitisation and multiple sensitisation. Caesarean section was also positively associated with multiple sensitisation. Day-care attendance was negatively related to food allergen, aeroallergen, and multiple sensitisation. A cat entering the baby's room in early life was strongly associated with aeroallergen sensitisation (ORa 3.21, 95%CI: 1.29-8.01). An introduction of meat in infant's diet after 6 months of age was negatively related to food allergen sensitisation (ORa 0.46, 95%CI: 0.24-0.91). Our results suggest that intrinsic factors and indicators of exposure to microorganisms such as caesarean section and day-care attendance may be associated with inhalant as well as food allergen sensitisation in infancy. For example, male gender, family history of allergy, high birth weight, and caesarean section could be positively related whereas day-care attendance could be negatively related to both aeroallergen and food allergen sensitisation. Conversely, early life exposure to inhalant allergens or food allergens may be

  16. The Carbon_h-factor: predicting individuals' research impact at early stages of their career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005) introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term "research impact" to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific "impact" of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well). As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor) into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology) and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal) with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx. 0.4, 0.8, and

  17. Computational Identification of Mechanistic Factors That Determine the Timing and Intensity of the Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-09

    Nagaraja, Jaques Reifman*, Alexander Y. Mitrophanov Department of Defense Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute...demonstrated the utility of mathematical models in the study of inflammation in specific disease scenarios and in the identification of crucial...of our simulations reflected a 20-day period after inflammation initiation. We performed all computations in the software suite MATLAB R2012a

  18. Gender Role and Social Identifications: The Two Major Factors to Shape Turkish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden-Imamoglu, Seval

    2013-01-01

    The process of being a woman starts with biological gender but it is shaped by learning the social gender roles. Besides social gender role; age, education, marriage, and motherhood supply social roles and attributions and they have an impact on women identification and their interpersonal relationships. The aim of the study is to investigate…

  19. Gender Role and Social Identifications: The Two Major Factors to Shape Turkish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden-Imamoglu, Seval

    2013-01-01

    The process of being a woman starts with biological gender but it is shaped by learning the social gender roles. Besides social gender role; age, education, marriage, and motherhood supply social roles and attributions and they have an impact on women identification and their interpersonal relationships. The aim of the study is to investigate…

  20. Early menopause, association with tobacco smoking, coffee consumption and other lifestyle factors: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundby Johanne

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset of menopause is a risk factor for several health problems. The objective was primarily to investigate the association between early menopause and current, past active and passive smoking. A second aim was to investigate the association between coffee and alcohol consumption and early menopause. Methods The present population-based cross-sectional study included a sub-sample of 2123 postmenopausal women born in 1940–41 who participated in the Oslo Health Study. Early menopause was defined as menopause occurring at an age of less than 45 years. We applied logistic regression analyses (crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR to examine the association between early menopause and selected lifestyle factors. Results Current smoking was significantly associated with early menopause (adj. OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.11–2.28. Stopping smoking more than 10 years before menopause considerably reduced the risk of early menopause (adj. OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05–0.33. Total exposure to smoking (the product of number of cigarettes per day and time as a smoker was positively related to early menopause and, at the highest doses, nearly doubled the odds (adj. OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.12–3.30. These data suggest a possible dose-response relationship between total exposure to smoking and early menopause, but no dose-response relationship was detected for the other variables examined. We found no significant association of coffee or alcohol consumption with early menopause. Of the lifestyle factors tested, high educational level (adj. OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34–0.72 and high social participation (adj. OR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.39–0.98 were negatively associated with early menopause. Conclusion This cross-sectional study shows an association between current smoking and early menopause. The data also suggest that the earlier a woman stops smoking the more protected she is from early menopause. Early menopause was not significantly associated with passive

  1. Identification and expression analysis of early cold-induced genes from cold-hardy Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin-Çevik, Mehtap

    2013-01-10

    Citrus is one of the most economically important fruit crops growing in subtropical and tropical regions. Most commercially important Citrus varieties are susceptible to cold; therefore, low and freezing temperatures are the main limiting factors for citrus production in subtropical areas. Since Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. is a cold-hardy, interfertile Citrus relative, it serves as a genetic resource for improving cold tolerance in cold sensitive commercial Citrus species. While gene induced in response to long-term cold acclimation was previously identified in Poncirus, early response of Poncirus to cold has not been explored in detail. To identify early cold-responsive genes, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed using 4-h cold-treated and untreated control Poncirus seedlings in this study. A total of 210 randomly picked clones from the subtracted library with cold-induced genes were sequenced. The sequences obtained from the majority of these clones shared homology with previously identified cold-induced and/or environmental stress-regulated genes in other plants. Reverse northern blot analysis of the expression of these cDNAs with cold-treated and untreated control probes revealed that expression of 64 cDNAs was increased two to 11 fold in response to 4-h cold treatment. While the majority of these genes were related with cell rescue, defense, cell death and aging, transcription, metabolism, protein fate, energy, cellular communication and signal transduction, transport facilitation and development, some of them did not show homology with genes with known functions. Individual expression analysis of nine selected genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR using mRNA from cold-treated and untreated control plants confirmed that the expression of selected cDNAs was all induced in response to cold. The results demonstrated that although a few genes were commonly induced in response to both short and long-term cold acclimation in Poncirus, majority of early cold

  2. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors Associated With Early Readmission Among Patients Discharged to Post-Acute Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Carolyn; Capp, Roberta; Boxer, Rebecca; Burke, Robert E

    2017-06-01

    Over a quarter of Medicare patients admitted to the hospital are discharged to post-acute care (PAC) facilities, but face high rates of readmission. Timing of readmission may be an important factor in identifying both risk for and preventability of future readmissions. This study aims to define factors associated with readmission within the first week of discharge to PAC facilities following hospitalization. This was a secondary analysis of the 2011 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) for California, Massachusetts, and Florida. The primary outcome was all-cause readmission within 7 days after hospital discharge, compared to readmission on days 8-30, for patients aged 65 and older who were discharged from the hospital to a PAC facility. Predictor variables included patient, index hospitalization, and hospital characteristics; multivariable logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors of readmission within 7 days. There were 81,173 hospital readmissions from PAC facilities in the first 30 days after hospital discharge. Patients readmitted within the first week were older, white, urban, had fewer comorbid illnesses, had a higher number of previous hospital admissions, and less commonly had Medicare as a payer. Longer index hospital length of stay (LOS) was associated with decreased risk of early readmission (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.70-0.74 for LOS 4-7 days and 0.60; 95% CI 0.56-0.64 for LOS ≥8 days). Shorter length of index hospital stay is associated with earlier readmission and suggests that for this comorbid, older population, a shorter hospital stay may be detrimental. Readmission after 1 week is associated with increased chronic disease burden, suggesting they may be associated with factors that are less modifiable. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Risk factors for early mortality on antiretroviral therapy in advanced HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Gregory P; Ramchandani, Ritesh; Miyahara, Sachiko; Mngqibisa, Rosie; Matoga, Mitch; Ngongondo, McNeil; Samaneka, Wadzanai; Koech, Lucy; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Rassool, Mohammed; Kirui, Fredrick; Banda, Peter; Mave, Vidya; Kadam, Dileep; Leger, Paul; Henostroza, German; Manabe, Yukari C; Bao, Jing; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Gupta, Amita; Hosseinipour, Mina C

    2017-07-24

    Many HIV-infected individuals present with advanced HIV disease. These patients are at high risk of death after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, but risk factors for death in these patients are unclear. We used data from a multi-site randomized trial comparing empiric versus preventive TB therapy in HIV-infected adults initiating ART with CD4 counts <50 cells/mm to evaluate risk factors for death within 48 weeks after ART initiation. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to evaluate characteristics present at baseline and at 4 weeks after ART initiation, including the week 4 CD4 cell response and new opportunistic infections (OIs). Of 850 enrolled, the median pre-ART CD4 count was 18 cells/mm and 67 (7.9%) died. Baseline risk factors for death included lymphadenopathy, lower CD4 count, lower serum albumin, high white blood cell (WBC) count, elevated neutrophil percent, and lower hemoglobin. Among 746 participants with data at week 4, the median changes in CD4 count and viral load for those who died (n = 43) vs. survived were 26 vs. 56 cells/mm and -2.7 vs. -2.7 log10 copies/mL, respectively. Each 20 cell/mm lower change in week 4 CD4 count was associated with a 20% increased risk of post week-4 mortality (adj. HR 1.20, 1.01-1.42, p = .038). Evidence of active infection and sub-optimal immunologic response during the first month of ART are associated with death in the first year after ART initiation in those with advanced HIV disease taking TB preventative therapy. Strategies to reduce early mortality in this population warrant further investigation.

  5. Molecular Analysis of Factor VIII and Factor IX Genes in Hemophilia Patients: Identification of Novel Mutations and Molecular Dynamics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Allaf, Faisal A.; Taher, Mohiuddin M.; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Bouazzaoui, Abdellatif; Athar, Mohammed; Bogari, Neda M.; Abalkhail, Halah A.; Owaidah, Tarek MA.

    2017-01-01

    Background Hemophilias A and B are X-linked bleeding disorders caused by mutations in the factor VIII and factor IX genes, respectively. Our objective was to identify the spectrum of mutations of the factor VIII and factor IX genes in Saudi Arabian population and determine the genotype and phenotype correlations by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Methods For genotyping, blood samples from Saudi Arabian patients were collected, and the genomic DNA was amplified, and then sequenced by Sanger method. For molecular simulations, we have used softwares such as CHARMM (Chemistry at Harvard Macromolecular Mechanics; http://www.charmm-gui.org) and GROMACS. In addition, the secondary structure was determined based on the solvent accessibility for the confirmation of the protein stability at the site of mutation. Results Six mutations (three novel and three known) were identified in factor VIII gene, and six mutations (one novel and five known) were identified in factor IX gene. The factor VIII novel mutations identified were c.99G>T, p. (W33C) in exon 1, c.2138 DelA, p. (N713Tfs*9) in eon14, also a novel mutation at splicing acceptor site of exon 23 c.6430 - 1G>A. In factor IX, we found a novel mutation c.855G>C, p. (E285D) in exon 8. These novel mutations were not reported in any factor VIII or factor IX databases previously. The deleterious effects of these novel mutations were confirmed by PolyPhen2 and SIFT programs. Conclusion The protein functional and structural studies and the models built in this work would be appropriate for predicting the effects of deleterious amino acid substitutions causing these genetic disorders. These findings are useful for genetic counseling in the case of consanguineous marriages which is more common in the Saudi Arabia. PMID:28270892

  6. Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmö, Sweden

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    Lindström Martin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children. Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76 for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17 for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions.

  7. Fatores que contribuem para o desmame precoce Factores que contribuyen para el destete precoz Factors that contribute to early weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Teixeira Joca

    2005-12-01

    condiciones para que todos tengan acceso a la educación, mejoria de salario y conciencia de la planificación familiar.The premature interruption of breast-feeding can cause danger, as the food that is used is inadequate as to the nutritional point of view, besides exposing the child to infectious organisms. It becomes relevant to investigate the factors related to weaning. Exploratory and quantitative research, carried out in the Family Development Center (CEDEFAM in the period from May to June/2003, with twenty mothers who answered a questionnaire containing twelve questions about the reasons that led them to wean early. The results were grouped into three categories, presented in the form of charts. We concluded that professionals and society may not be prepared to favor the woman in the exercise of breast-feeding. Meanwhile, health policies do not create the conditions so that everyone can have access to education, income rise and understanding of family planning.

  8. Transforming growth factor- 1 C-509T polymorphism, oxidant stress, and early-onset childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Muhammad T; Gauderman, W James; McConnell, Rob; Lin, Pi-Chu; Gilliland, Frank D

    2007-12-15

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is involved in airway inflammation and remodeling, two key processes in asthma pathogenesis. Tobacco smoke and traffic emissions induce airway inflammation and modulate TGF-beta1 gene expression. We hypothesized that the effects of functional TGF-beta1 variants on asthma occurrence vary by these exposures. We tested these hypotheses among 3,023 children who participated in the Children's Health Study. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs4803457 C>T and C-509T (a functional promoter polymorphism) accounted for 94% of the haplotype diversity of the upstream region. Exposure to maternal smoking in utero was based on smoking by biological mother during pregnancy. Residential distance from nearest freeway was calculated based on residential address at study entry. Children with the -509TT genotype had a 1.8-fold increased risk of early persistent asthma (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-2.95). This association varied marginally significantly by in utero exposure to maternal smoking. Compared with children with the -509CC/CT genotype with no in utero exposure to maternal smoking, those with the -509TT genotype with such exposure had a 3.4-fold increased risk of early persistent asthma (95% CI, 1.46-7.80; interaction, P = 0.11). The association between TGF-beta1 C-509T and lifetime asthma varied by residential proximity to freeways (interaction P = 0.02). Children with the -509TT genotype living within 500 m of a freeway had over three-fold increased lifetime asthma risk (95% CI, 1.29-7.44) compared with children with CC/CT genotype living > 1500 m from a freeway. Children with the TGF-beta1 -509TT genotype are at increased risk of asthma when they are exposed to maternal smoking in utero or to traffic-related emissions.

  9. Surgical factors in pediatric cochlear implantation and their early effects on electrode activation and functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Howard W; Buchman, Craig A; Visaya, Jiovani M; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Zwolan, Teresa A; Fink, Nancy E; Niparko, John K

    2008-06-01

    To assess the impact of surgical factors on electrode status and early communication outcomes in young children in the first 2 years of cochlear implantation. Prospective multicenter cohort study. Six tertiary referral centers. Children 5 years or younger before implantation with normal nonverbal intelligence. Cochlear implant operations in 209 ears of 188 children. Percent active channels, auditory behavior as measured by the Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale and Reynell receptive language scores. Stable insertion of the full electrode array was accomplished in 96.2% of ears. At least 75% of electrode channels were active in 88% of ears. Electrode deactivation had a significant negative effect on Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale scores at 24 months but no effect on receptive language scores. Significantly fewer active electrodes were associated with a history of meningitis. Surgical complications requiring additional hospitalization and/or revision surgery occurred in 6.7% of patients but had no measurable effect on the development of auditory behavior within the first 2 years. Negative, although insignificant, associations were observed between the need for perioperative revision of the device and 1) the percent of active electrodes and 2) the receptive language level at 2-year follow-up. Activation of the entire electrode array is associated with better early auditory outcomes. Decrements in the number of active electrodes and lower gains of receptive language after manipulation of the newly implanted device were not statistically significant but may be clinically relevant, underscoring the importance of surgical technique and the effective placement of the electrode array.

  10. Early fault feature extraction of rolling bearing based on ICD and tunable Q-factor wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbo; Liang, Xihui; Xu, Minqiang; Huang, Wenhu

    2017-03-01

    When a fault occurs on bearings, the measured bearing fault signals contain both high Q-factor oscillation component and low Q-factor periodic impact component. TQWT is the improvement of the traditional single Q-factor wavelet transform, which is very suitable for separating the low Q-factor component from the high Q-factor component. However, the accuracy of its decomposition heavily depended on the selection of Q-factors. There is no reported simple but effective method to select the Q-factors with enough accuracy. This study aims to develop a strategy to diagnostic the early fault of rolling bearings. In this paper, a characteristic frequency ratio (CFR) is used to optimize Q-factors of TQWT (OTQWT). However, directly application of OTQWT is difficult to extract fault signatures at early stage due to the weak fault symptoms and strong noise. A strategy of combination of intrinsic characteristic-scale decomposition (ICD) and TQWT is proposed. ICD owns significant advantages on computation efficiency and alleviation of mode mixing. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is tested with both simulated and experimental vibration signals. Meanwhile, comparisons are conducted between the proposed method and other methods like: envelope demodulation and EEMD-TQWT. Results show that the proposed method has superior performance in extracting fault features of defective bearings at an early stage.

  11. Early Initiation of Antenatal Care and Factors Associated with Early Antenatal Care Initiation at Health Facilities in Southern Ethiopia

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    Mengesha Boko Geta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal care (ANC is care given to pregnant mothers to timely identify and mitigate pregnancy related problems that can harm mother or fetus. Most of Ethiopian mothers present late for ANC. The aim of this paper was to assess determinants of early antenatal care initiation among pregnant women. Mothers attending Shebedino District Health Centers for ANC between January 12 and February 18, 2015, were invited to the study. Multistage sampling technique and structured questionnaire were used to collect data by trained data collectors. Univariate and bivariate analysis were conducted to study the association between explanatory and outcome variable. Out of 608 women, 132 [21.71%] had their first ANC within the recommended time [before or at 3 months]. Media access [AOR = 2.11 95% CI 1.00, 3.22], knowledge about the correct time of ANC booking [AOR = 4.49 95% CI 2.47, 6.16], and having been advised to book within 12 weeks [AOR = 4.14 95% CI 3.80, 5.21] were determinants of first-trimester booking. Health professionals and care providers should provide full information, advice, and appropriate care about early ANC for every eligible mother.

  12. An inquiry into socio-historical factors contributing to poverty within the Early Church in Palestine

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    Frederick Kakwata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate the root causes of poverty in the early Christian community.The view that is put forward and argued in this article is that poverty was widespread in early Christianity with particular reference to the converted Jews in Palestine. This was the result of socio-historical factors, namely the Israelites’ contact with Canaanites during the conquest,and the implementation of the secular leadership paradigm derived from those paga n nations around Israel, which led to their subjugation under the oppressive and exploitative and economic structures of the Roman Empire. For that reason many believers, newly converted Jews, at that time were destitute and impoverished as they belonged to the lower classes in society. In spite of this state of affairs, the early Christians in Jerusalem seemed to have faced the challenges of poverty with a measure of success as can be attested by the statement ‘for there was no needy person amongst them …’ (Ac 4:34.’n Ondersoek na sosio-historiese faktore wat tot armoede binne die vroeë Christelikekerk in Palestina bygedra het. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die grondoorsake van armoede in die vroeë Christelike gemeenskap te ondersoek met spesifieke verwysing na die bekeerde Jode in Palestina. Die standpunt wat in hierdie artikel gestel en beredeneer word, is dat armoede algemeen in die vroeë Christendom voorgekom het. Dit was as gevolg van verskeie sosio-historiese faktore, waaronder die Israeliete se kontak met die Kanaäniete ná die inname, asook die instelling van die sekulêre paradigma oor leierskap wat Israel aan die naburige heidennasies ontleen het en wat op hulle verknegting onder die Romeinse Ryk se onderdrukkende en uitbuitende strukture uitgeloop het. ’n Groot aantal gelowiges, bekeerde Jode, was in daardie tyd behoeftig en armoedig omdat hulle deel van die laer klasse in die samelewing was. Tog, ten spyte van hierdie omstandighede, het die vroeë Christene

  13. Parent-Reported Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptomatology in Preschool-Aged Children: Factor Structure, Developmental Change, and Early Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Pek, Jolynn; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increasingly been studied in preschool-aged children, relatively few studies have provided a comprehensive evaluation of the factor structure and patterns of developmental changes in parent-reported ADHD symptomatology across the early childhood period. This study used confirmatory factor analyses to test for longitudinal measurement invariance of ADHD symptoms and semi-parametric finite mixture models to identify prototypic pattern...

  14. Analysis of mRNA associated factors during bovine oocyte maturation and early embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemer, Corinna; Smiljakovic, Tatjana; Bhojwani, Monika; Leiding, Claus; Kanitz, Wilhelm; Kubelka, Michal; Tomek, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Regulation of gene expression at the translational level is particularly essential during developmental periods, when transcription is impaired. According to the closed-loop model of translational initiation, we have analyzed components of the 5 -mRNA cap-binding complex eIF4F (eIF4E, eIF4G, eIF4A), the eIF4E repressor 4E-BP1, and 3 -mRNA poly-(A) tail-associated proteins (PABP1 and 3, PAIP1 and 2, CPEB1, Maskin) during in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes and early embryonic development up to the 16-cell stage. Furthermore, we have elucidated the activity of distinct kinases which are potentially involved in their phosphorylation. Major phosphorylation of specific target sequences of PKA, PKB, PKC, CDKs, ATM/ATR, and MAPK were observed in M II stage oocytes. Furthermore, main changes in the abundance and/or phosphorylation of distinct mRNA-binding factors occur at the transition from M II stage oocytes to 2-cell embryos. In conclusion, the results indicate that, at the transition from oocyte to embryonic development, translational initiation is regulated by striking differences in the abundance and/or phosphorylation of 5 -end and 3 -end mRNA associated factors, mainly the poly-(A) bindings proteins PABP1 and 3, their repressor PAIP2 and a Maskin-like protein with distinct eIF4E-binding properties which prevents eIF4E/cap binding and eIF4F formation in vitro. Nevertheless, from the M II stage to 16-cell embryos a substantial amount of eIF4E and, to a lesser extent, of eIF4G was precipitated by (7)m-GTP-Separose indicating eIF4F complex formation. Therefore, it is likely that in general the reduction in PABP1 and 3 abundance represses overall translation during early embryonic development.

  15. Risk factors for lymph node metastasis and evaluation of reasonable surgery for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To give the evidence for rationalizing surgical therapy for early gastric cancer with different lymph node status.METHODS: A series of 322 early gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy with more than 15 lymph nodes retrieved were reviewed in this study. The rate of lymph node metastasis was calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the independent factors for predicting lymph node metastasis.RESULTS: No metastasis was detected in No.5, 6 lymph nodes (LN) during proximal gastric cancer total gastrectomy, and in No.10, 11p, 11d during for combined resection of spleen and splenic artery and in No.15 LN during combined resection of transverse colon mesentery. No.11p, 12a, 14v LN were proved negative for metastasis. The global metastastic rate was 14.6% for LN, 5.9% for mucosa, and 22.4% for submucosa carcinoma, respectively. The metastasis in group Ⅱ was almost limited in No.7, 8a LN. Multivariate analysis identified that the depth of invasion, histological type and lymphatic invasion were independent risk factors for LN metastasis. No metastasis from distal cancer (≤ 1.0 cm in diameter) was detected in group Ⅱ LN. The metastasis rate increased significantly when the diameter exceeded 3.0 cm. All tumors (≤ 1.0 cm in diameter) with LN metastasis and mucosa invasion showed a depressed macroscopic type, and all protruded carcinomas were >3.0 cm in diameter.CONCLUSION: Segmental/subtotal gastrectomy plus D1/D1 + No.7 should be performed for carcinoma (≤ 1.0 cm in diameter, protruded type and mucosa invasion).Subtotal gastrectomy plus D2 or D1 + No.7, 8a, 9 is the most rational operation, whereas No.11p, 12a,14v lymphadenectomy should not be recommended routinely for poorly differentiated and depressed type of submucosa carcinoma (> 3.0 cm in diameter). Total gastrectomy should not be performed in proximal, so does combined resection or D2+/D3 lymphadenectomy.

  16. Early Engagement of Safety and Mission Assurance Expertise Using Systems Engineering Tools: A Risk-Based Approach to Early Identification of Safety and Assurance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darpel, Scott; Beckman, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Decades of systems engineering practice have demonstrated that the earlier the identification of requirements occurs, the lower the chance that costly redesigns will needed later in the project life cycle. A better understanding of all requirements can also improve the likelihood of a design's success. Significant effort has been put into developing tools and practices that facilitate requirements determination, including those that are part of the model-based systems engineering (MBSE) paradigm. These efforts have yielded improvements in requirements definition, but have thus far focused on a design's performance needs. The